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Sample records for foundry sand

  1. Foundry sand reclamation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A dry method of conditioning spent foundry sand is disclosed. After having sized the sand and removal of tramp metallic elements, the sand is subjected to a sequence of squeezing under a high-stress low kinetic energy system for a period of 5-30 minutes, and then propelled against a target with high-kinetic energy in the presence of a suction for several minutes. This sequence can be preferably repeated to increase the quality of the resulting product which should have 0.1% or less of fine particles, a pH of 6-9, a clay content and organic combustible content of substantially zero. The reclaimed sand will exhibit a density of at least 100 grams/biscuit when compacted for core making or molding

  2. Steel Foundry Sand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. R. Malik

    1950-04-01

    Full Text Available The importance of suitable moulding sand to a Foundry cannot be over-emphasized, the gradations and composition of sand contribute to a large extent to the success of the-castings, in particular when the item cast is to be of a high standard having excellent finish at both outer and inner surfaces. To ordinance Factory management (OFM which is essentially Steel Casting Factory, the-problem had been two-fold, Firstly the location of a suitable nearer source of silica sand to avoid transportation difficulties which often cause breakdown in supplies, and secondly the establishing of a source of sufficient quantity having a suitable and consistent grading so as to adopt it on a permanent basis. This article does not claim to present any extensive research work or any original finding, but simply tries to put forth this problem with all its implications and the effects made to overcome it.  

  3. Dilatometric Characterization of Foundry Sands

    OpenAIRE

    M. B?uska; J. Be?o; M. Cagala; V Jasinkova

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this contribution is summary of physical – chemistry properties of usually used foundry silica and no – silica sands in Czech foundries. With the help of dilatometry analysis theoretical assumptions of influence of grain shape and size on dilatation value of sands were confirmed. Determined was the possibility of dilatometry analysis employment for preparing special (hybrid) sands with lower and/or more linear character of dilatation.

  4. Dilatometric Characterization of Foundry Sands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Břuska

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this contribution is summary of physical – chemistry properties of usually used foundry silica and no – silica sands in Czech foundries. With the help of dilatometry analysis theoretical assumptions of influence of grain shape and size on dilatation value of sands were confirmed. Determined was the possibility of dilatometry analysis employment for preparing special (hybrid sands with lower and/or more linear character of dilatation.

  5. Alternate utilization of foundry sand waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Illinois Geological Survey data indicate that Illinois foundries purchase nearly 800,000 tons of silica sand each year for the production of molds and cores. This paper reports that once utilized, this sand becomes an expensive and difficult commodity to dispose. The volume and regulatory status requirements make it unattractive to landfill operators. Most foundries use an industrial grade of silica of very high purity for the production of molds and cores. Recent data from the Illinois Geological Survey record silica usage in excess of 30 million tons per year in the state. Construction usage of silica includes applications such as: cement, concrete products, asphalt, fill and others. Industrial usage includes: glass products, foundry molds and cores, oil well propant, inert carriers for fertilizers and others

  6. Properties of Self-Compacting Concrete Incorporating Waste Foundry Sand

    OpenAIRE

    Rafat SIDDIQUE; Ravinder Kaur SANDHU

    2013-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the possibilities of using waste foundry sand as partial replacement of sand in self-compacting concrete. Self-compacting concrete, as the name indicates, is a type of concrete that does not require external or internal compaction, because it becomes levelled and consolidated under its self-weight. Foundry sand is high quality silica sand used as a moulding material by ferrous and non-ferrous metal casting industries. It can be reused several times in foundries but, af...

  7. Waste foundry sand: Environmental implication and characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Penkaitis

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of analyses using Scanning Electron Microscopy in field samples of waste foundry sand, as well as the results of granulometric, chemical and groundwater analyses. Field data allowed to characterize waste foundry sand and showed that there are elevated concentrations of metals in the groundwater (iron, manganese, boron and selenium, in addition to other potentially toxic elements (chromium, copper, cobalt, nickel, zinc, aluminum, iron, manganese, which are present in the waste and are considered not hazardous by current standards. Even if these elements are not considered hazardous, their concentrations above the permissible limit compromise the environmental quality of the site, posing risks to the local population, since they work in agriculture and use groundwater. Two different types of waste foundry sands were identified using granulometric analyses. Electron microscopy showed features related to morphological, chemical and mineralogical characteristics of grains that make up the waste. Quartz was the dominant mineral. Waste foundry sand is composed of two types of grains: a rounded grain with almost no incrustations formed during alloy production, and a second type of grain, which is not rounded, has incrustations, and always has several metals derived from alloys and associated with these incrustations. Chemical elements detected in groundwater with concentrations above the limits established by the regulatory bodies were found in wells located in the landfill area. Most of these elements show higher concentrations downstream, some of them with concentrations above the regulatory limit, and others show an increase in concentration upstream, indicating that the landfill may be impacting the local environment.

  8. Use Possibilities for River Sand in Foundry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica R?dulea

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the following characteristics are studied: the chemical and mineralogical composition, the granulation and content of leachate component of different types of sands, collected from various fords of running waters in comparison to those coming from known mines and used as such in foundries for the preparation of casting mixtures. The purpose of the study starts from the premises of finding reduction possibilities of costs in part casting, keeping in mind that known deposits from our country contain increasingly reduced quantities of casting sands.

  9. Plant Availability of Metals in Waste Foundry Sands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foundries in the United States generate several million tons of waste sand each year. These sands are no longer suitable for metalcasting processes, and about 90% are discarded in landfills. However, the majority of these waste foundry sands (WFSs) qualify as non-hazardous industrial waste and the...

  10. Characterization of Beach/River Sand for Foundry Application

    OpenAIRE

    Katsina Christopher BALA; Reyazul Haque KHAN

    2013-01-01

    A detailed experimental investigation is been reported on the characterization of beach/river sand for foundry use. Bulk properties of the sand samples collected were evaluated. The experimental results were analyzed as per the American Foundry Society (AFS) standard. The analyses show that samples from Ughelli River, Warri River and Ethiope River could be used effectively in the foundry. The sample from Lagos bar beach requires to be sieved properly to remove the coarse fractions in order to...

  11. EMBEDDED BASED SYSTEM FOR TESTING TENSILE STRENGTH OF FOUNDRY SAND

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, P.; Nagarajan, K.; S.Daison Stallon

    2015-01-01

    Sand is the principal moulding material in the foundry as it is using for all types of castings. This paper an idea of testing tensile strength of sand which is using for castings in foundries with the help of load cell. This system defines the sand whether it is good or bad for castings. We cannot check tensile strength of each grain of sand so; we form brick of that sand and then check tensile strength of that sand brick. Sand brick is placed in between load cell and DC motor. D...

  12. Characterization of Beach/River Sand for Foundry Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsina Christopher BALA

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A detailed experimental investigation is been reported on the characterization of beach/river sand for foundry use. Bulk properties of the sand samples collected were evaluated. The experimental results were analyzed as per the American Foundry Society (AFS standard. The analyses show that samples from Ughelli River, Warri River and Ethiope River could be used effectively in the foundry. The sample from Lagos bar beach requires to be sieved properly to remove the coarse fractions in order to make it suitable for foundry use.

  13. Properties of Self-Compacting Concrete Incorporating Waste Foundry Sand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafat SIDDIQUE

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper demonstrates the possibilities of using waste foundry sand as partial replacement of sand in self-compacting concrete. Self-compacting concrete, as the name indicates, is a type of concrete that does not require external or internal compaction, because it becomes levelled and consolidated under its self-weight. Foundry sand is high quality silica sand used as a moulding material by ferrous and non-ferrous metal casting industries. It can be reused several times in foundries but, after a certain period, cannot be used further and becomes waste material, referred to as waste, used or spent foundry sand (WFS,UFS or SFS. This experimental investigation was performed to evaluate the strength and durability properties of SCC, in which natural sand was partial replaced with waste foundry sand (WFS. Natural sand was replaced with four percentage (0%, 10%, 15%, 20% of WFS by weight. Fresh properties of self-compacting concrete were studied. Compression test and splitting tensile strength test were carried out to evaluate the strength properties of concrete at the age of 7, 28, and 56 days. In case of durability properties, sulphate resistance was evaluated at the age of 7, 28 and 56 days and Rapid Chloride Permeability test was conducted at age of 28 days. Test results showed that there is increase in compressive strength, splitting tensile strength of self-compacting concrete by incorporating waste foundry sand (WFS as partial replacement by sand up to 15%. Resistance of concrete against sulphate attack and rapid chloride permeability were also improved for concrete mixes.

  14. Pyrolysis of Carbonaceous Foundry Sand Additives: Seacoal and Gilsonite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seacoal and gilsonite are used by the foundry industry as carbonaceous additives in green molding sands. In this study, pyrolysis was used to simulate the heating conditions that the carbonaceous additives would experience during metal casting. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to tent...

  15. METALS IN WASTE FOUNDRY SANDS: ASSESSMENT WITH EARTHWORMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    A total of 43 sets of waste sand were collected from ferrous and non-ferrous foundries in the eastern United States. The concentrations of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and 17 phenolics were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry after accelerated solvent extraction. Since t...

  16. SATURATED HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY OF SOILS BLENDED WITH WASTE FOUNDRY SANDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beneficial uses are being sought after for the large quantities of waste foundry sand (WFS) that are landfilled. Potential applications include their use in synthetic soils and incorporation into agricultural soils. In this laboratory study we investigated the saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks)...

  17. Glass matrix composite material prepared with waste foundry sand

    OpenAIRE

    ZHANG Zhao-shu; XIA Ju-pei; ZHU Xiao-qin

    2006-01-01

    The technology of glass matrix of the composite material manufactured through a sintering process and using waste foundry sand and waste glass as the main raw materials was studied. The effects of technological factors on the performance of this material were studied. The results showed that this composite material is formed with glass as matrix, core particulate as strengthening material, it has the performance of glass and ceramics, and could be used to substitute for stone.

  18. Use of standardized procedures to evaluate metal leaching from waste foundry sands

    Science.gov (United States)

    As part of the casting process, foundries create sand molds and cores to produce ferrous and non-ferrous metal castings. After the process, a portion of the sand is discarded and becomes waste foundry sand (WFS). The aim of this study was to quantify metals (i.e. Ag, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn)...

  19. Pond Ash and Foundry Sand: Opportunities for Development of Eco-Friendly High Strength Concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Gaurav Kantibhai Patel; Prof. Jayeshkumar Pitroda2

    2014-01-01

    To produce low cost concrete by replacement of fine aggregate with pond ash and used foundry sand & also reduce disposal and pollution problems due to pond ash and used foundry sand. The innovative use of pond ash and used foundry sand in concrete formulations as a fine aggregate replacement material was tested as an alternative to traditional concrete. The fine aggregate has been replaced by used foundry sand accordingly in the range of 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% & 50% by weight and pond ash 20%...

  20. Extraction of toxic and valuable metals from foundry sands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There were extracted valuable metals from foundry sands such as: gold, platinum, silver, cobalt, germanium, nickel and zinc among others, as well as highly toxic metals such as chromium, lead, vanadium and arsenic. The extraction efficiency was up to 100% in some cases. For this reason there were obtained two patents at the United States, patent number 5,356,601, in October 1994, given for the developed process and patent number 5,376,000, in December 1994, obtained for the equipment employed. Therefore, the preliminary parameters for the installation of a pilot plant have also been developed. (Author)

  1. COMPOSTING WASTE FOUNDRY SAND WITH LEAVES TO AMEND ADVERSE PHYSICAL PROPERTIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indiana ranks second in the nation in waste foundry sand production with one million tons annually disposed in landfills. As available landfill space and profit margins steadily decrease, it becomes more important to find ways of diverting waste foundry sand away from landfills and identify benefici...

  2. MID-INFRARED ANALYSIS OF FOUNDRY GREEN SANDS AND CHEMICALLY BONDED CORES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Each year the U.S. foundry industry landfills several million tons of molding sand known as green sand. Currently, there is great interest in using these waste green sands in general construction and agricultural applications. However, there is concern of organic contamination from the green sands...

  3. Excess Foundry Sand Characterization and Experimental Investigation in Controlled Low-Strength Material and Hot-Mixing Asphalt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tikalsky, Paul J. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Bahia, Hussain U. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Deng, An [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Snyder, Thomas [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2004-10-15

    This report provides technical data regarding the reuse of excess foundry sand. The report addresses three topics: a statistically sound evaluation of the characterization of foundry sand, a laboratory investigation to qualify excess foundry sand as a major component in controlled low-strength material (CLSM), and the identification of the best methods for using foundry sand as a replacement for natural aggregates for construction purposes, specifically in asphalt paving materials. The survival analysis statistical technique was used to characterize foundry sand over a full spectrum of general chemical parameters, metallic elements, and organic compounds regarding bulk analysis and leachate characterization. Not limited to characterization and environmental impact, foundry sand was evaluated by factor analyses, which contributes to proper selection of factor and maximization of the reuse marketplace for foundry sand. Regarding the integration of foundry sand into CLSM, excavatable CLSM and structural CLSM containing different types of excess foundry sands were investigated through laboratory experiments. Foundry sand was approved to constitute a major component in CLSM. Regarding the integration of foundry sand into asphalt paving materials, the optimum asphalt content was determined for each mixture, as well as the bulk density, maximum density, asphalt absorption, and air voids at Nini, Ndes, and Nmax. It was found that foundry sands can be used as an aggregate in hot-mix asphalt production, but each sand should be evaluated individually. Foundry sands tend to lower the strength of mixtures and also may make them more susceptible to moisture damage. Finally, traditional anti-stripping additives may decrease the moisture sensitivity of a mixture containing foundry sand, but not to the level allowed by most highway agencies.

  4. Excess Foundry Sand Characterization and Experimental Investigation in Controlled Low-Strength Material and Hot-Mixing Asphalt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pauul J. Tikalsky

    2004-10-31

    This report provides technical data regarding the reuse of excess foundry sand. The report addresses three topics: (1) a statistically sound evaluation of the characterization of foundry sand, (2) a laboratory investigation to qualify excess foundry sand as a major component in controlled low-strength material (CLSM), and (3) the identification of the best methods for using foundry sand as a replacement for natural aggregates for construction purposes, specifically in asphalt paving materials. The survival analysis statistical technique was used to characterize foundry sand over a full spectrum of general chemical parameters, metallic elements, and organic compounds regarding bulk analysis and leachate characterization. Not limited to characterization and environmental impact, foundry sand was evaluated by factor analyses, which contributes to proper selection of factor and maximization of the reuse marketplace for foundry sand. Regarding the integration of foundry sand into CLSM, excavatable CLSM and structural CLSM containing different types of excess foundry sands were investigated through laboratory experiments. Foundry sand was approved to constitute a major component in CLSM. Regarding the integration of foundry sand into asphalt paving materials, the optimum asphalt content was determined for each mixture, as well as the bulk density, maximum density, asphalt absorption, and air voids at N{sub ini}, N{sub des}, and N{sub max}. It was found that foundry sands can be used as an aggregate in hot-mix asphalt production, but each sand should be evaluated individually. Foundry sands tend to lower the strength of mixtures and also may make them more susceptible to moisture damage. Finally, traditional anti-stripping additives may decrease the moisture sensitivity of a mixture containing foundry sand, but not to the level allowed by most highway agencies.

  5. Amelioration of physical strength in waste foundry green sands for reuse as a soil amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    As available landfill space and profit margins steadily decrease, it becomes more important for U.S. foundries to find ways of diverting 8-12 million tons of waste foundry sand (WFS) away from landfills each year. A major drawback to the reuse of some WFSs as a soil amendment is their high soil str...

  6. Application of Waste Foundry Sand for Evolution of Low-Cost Concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Pathariya Saraswati C1 , Rana Jaykrushna K2 , Shah Palas A3 , Mehta Jay G4 ,Assistant Prof. Patel Ankit N

    2013-01-01

    Generation of waste foundry sand as by product of metal casting industries causes environmental problems because of its improper disposal. Thus, its usage in building material, construction and in other fields is essential for reduction of environmental problems. This research is carried out to produce a low-cost and eco-friendly concrete. This paper demonstrates the use of waste foundry sand as a partial replacement by fine aggregate in concrete. An experimental investigation is carried out ...

  7. Application of a power quality analyser to the monitoring of sand preparation processes in foundry plants

    OpenAIRE

    Smyksy, K.; R. Wrona; E. Zió?kowski

    2011-01-01

    Process control plays a major role in supervision and identification of states, for example in monitoring of electric circuits power- supplying the foundry machines and devices, such as sand preparation processes, moulding technologies, melting, cleaning and finishing of castings. The monitoring and control equipment includes the power quality analysers. Testing is done using a Japanese analyser KEW 6319 (Kyoritsu) applied to monitoring of the sand preparation process in a foundry plant with ...

  8. Use of an integrated approach to characterize the physicochemical properties of foundry green sands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? Physicochemical properties of fresh, spent, and landfilled foundry green sands were determined. ? A phase composition model was postulated for each material based on thermogravimetric results. ? Sand from the landfill was determined to be composed of almost pure silica sand. ? Weathering is likely responsible for removing the coating materials from the green sands. ? Landfilled sands may be suitable for reuse within the foundry or beneficial use applications. - Abstract: A fresh green sand, spent green sand, and a weathered spent green sand (wSGS) from a foundry landfill were analyzed using diffractometry, electron microscopy, fluorometry, granulometry, spectrometry, and thermogravimetry (TG). Our objective was to understand how the physicochemical properties of the foundry green sands change from their original form after being subjected to the casting process, then after weathering at the landfill. A quantitative phase composition model was also postulated for each material based on the TG results and it was found to be the most reliable and informative quantitative data for this type of residue. The weathered sample, that remained in a landfill for two years, was found to be composed of almost pure sand. Because of the weathering process, it may be possible to use the wSGS as a virgin sand replacement in the regeneration system or in geotechnical applications where bentonite would affect the properties of the final product.

  9. Use of an integrated approach to characterize the physicochemical properties of foundry green sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carnin, Raquel L.P. [Tupy S.A., Rua Albano Schmidt 3.400, Joinville, Santa Catarina (Brazil); Folgueras, Marilena Valadares; Luvizao, Rubia Raquel; Correia, Sivaldo Leite [Universidade do Estado de Santa Catarina, Rua Paulo Malschitzki, s/numero - Campus Universitario Prof. Avelino Marcante, Bairro Zona Industrial Norte, Joinville, Santa Catarina (Brazil); Cunha, Carlos Jorge da [Universidade Federal do Parana, Centro Politecnico, Jardim das Americas, Curitiba, Parana (Brazil); Dungan, Robert S., E-mail: robert.dungan@ars.usda.gov [USDA-ARS, Northwest Irrigation and Soils Research Laboratory, 3793 North 3600 East, Kimberly, ID 83341 (United States)

    2012-09-10

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Physicochemical properties of fresh, spent, and landfilled foundry green sands were determined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A phase composition model was postulated for each material based on thermogravimetric results. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sand from the landfill was determined to be composed of almost pure silica sand. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Weathering is likely responsible for removing the coating materials from the green sands. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Landfilled sands may be suitable for reuse within the foundry or beneficial use applications. - Abstract: A fresh green sand, spent green sand, and a weathered spent green sand (wSGS) from a foundry landfill were analyzed using diffractometry, electron microscopy, fluorometry, granulometry, spectrometry, and thermogravimetry (TG). Our objective was to understand how the physicochemical properties of the foundry green sands change from their original form after being subjected to the casting process, then after weathering at the landfill. A quantitative phase composition model was also postulated for each material based on the TG results and it was found to be the most reliable and informative quantitative data for this type of residue. The weathered sample, that remained in a landfill for two years, was found to be composed of almost pure sand. Because of the weathering process, it may be possible to use the wSGS as a virgin sand replacement in the regeneration system or in geotechnical applications where bentonite would affect the properties of the final product.

  10. The characterization of trace metals and organics in spent foundry sands over a one-year period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millions of tons of spent sand, used to create metalcasting molds, are generated by the foundry industry each year in the United States. Not surprisingly, spent foundry sands (SFSs) are an excellent substitute for virgin sands that are currently used in manufactured soils and geotechnical applicati...

  11. Reuse of waste foundry sand through interaction with sodium silicate binder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green sand molds are used in metal casting process. However, after heating, activated bentonite present in green sand lose the binding properties, and part of the foundry sand has to be discarded from the process. The ABNT NBR 15.984/2011 establishes the management of waste foundry sand (WFS) avoiding disposal in landfills. The objective of this work was to investigate the possibility of reusing the WFS from the study of their interaction with sodium silicate binder. Studies with silica sand and new green sand was performed to compare the results obtained with the WFS. The characterizations of the samples were performed by measures the compressive strength, X-ray diffraction, optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that there is interaction of the sodium silicate with the WFS as well as with the silica sand and green sand. (author)

  12. Application of a power quality analyser to the monitoring of sand preparation processes in foundry plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Smyksy

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Process control plays a major role in supervision and identification of states, for example in monitoring of electric circuits power- supplying the foundry machines and devices, such as sand preparation processes, moulding technologies, melting, cleaning and finishing of castings. The monitoring and control equipment includes the power quality analysers. Testing is done using a Japanese analyser KEW 6319 (Kyoritsu applied to monitoring of the sand preparation process in a foundry plant with low level of mechanization, equipped with the sand preparation unit based on a roller mixer.

  13. Concentrations of PCDD/PCDFs and PCBs in spent foundry sands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Approximately 10 million tons of spent foundry sand (SFS) are generated in the U.S. each year, and their beneficial use in agricultural and horticultural applications is being considered. Other studies have demonstrated that trace elements are low enough in sands from iron, steel, and aluminum foun...

  14. A new low-cost method of reclaiming mixed foundry waste sand based on wet-thermal composite reclamation

    OpenAIRE

    Fan Zitian; Liu Fuchu; Long Wei

    2014-01-01

    A lot of mixed clay-resin waste sand from large-scale iron foundries is discharged every day; so mixed waste sand reclamation in low cost and high quality has a great realistic significance. In the study to investigate the possibility of reusing two types of waste foundry sands, resin bonded sand and clay bonded sand which came from a Chinese casting factory, a new low-cost reclamation method of the mixed foundry waste sand based on the wet-thermal composite reclamation was proposed. The wast...

  15. Identification of Significant Impact of Silicon Foundry Sands Mining on LCIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozef Mitterpach

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a case study based on a LCA (Life Cycle Assessment research program of the silicon foundry sand (SFS due to the large quantity of produced waste foundry sand (WFS. The foundry waste is a high priority sector within the growing European foundry industry. It is necessary to understand the full life cycle of the foundry waste in order to correctly identify magnitude and types of impacts it has on the environment. System boundary includes the processes: mining, modification, packing, storage and transport to foundry. Inventory analysis data were analyzed and finally converted to the functional unit, which has been defined as one ton of SFS. The resulting environmental impact of SFS production in endpoint is: consumption of natural resources 70.9%, ecosystem quality 18.2% and human health 10.9%. The following portions, with respective percentages, have the greatest overall effect on these results: diesel fuel consumption 32.4% and natural gas consumption 28.7%, electricity usage 17.2%, transport 12.2%, devastation caused by the SFS 5.35% and oil (engine, gear and hydraulic consumption 4.14%. The highest contributor to the diesel fuel consumption is the SFS exploitation. The overall effect of desiccation was 35.8% and was caused by high consumption of resources and electricity.

  16. An innovative tester system for measuring mechanical property of foundry molding sand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuxi XIE

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available A new intelligent tester system for measuring multiple mechanical properties of foundry molding sand is introduced and has been patented for the invention in China. The testing process can be simutaneosly controlled wth a build-in chip microcomputer communicating with a PC through a serial port. The testing system pplies dynamic testing technology. During the measurement for compression, relaxation, shearing and tensile processes of sand specimens, the corresponding characteristic curves and eight mechanical property parameters can be obtained in a short time, simply by consecutively testing on four sand specimens. The properties and parameters to be measurable by the tester include compressive strength, elastic modulus, plastic deformation threshold, springback potential, shear strength, shear deformation limit, toughness and tensile strength. These properties and parameters for sand specimens can be defined as the corresponding characteristic curves with precise physical meanings, carried out by the tester. Two of them, namely plastic deformation threshold and springback potential, as well as their testing methods, have been invented for the first time. The testing system applying advanced data measurement technology as well as performing excellent functions is an important breakthrough and creativity in foundry molding sand property testing field. The parameters acquired by the testing system are stable, accurate and reliable. The test data can be instantly diaplayed or printed out or stored in the PC. As evidence, many experimental data obtained by the tester practically from bth laboratory and foundry floor tests indicate that the testr system can be widely applied in foundry industry.

  17. Effect of compost-, sand-, or gypsum-amended waste foundry sands on turfgrass yield and nutrient content

    Science.gov (United States)

    To prevent the 7-11 million metric tons of waste foundry sand (WFS) produced annually in the U.S. from entering landfills, current research is focused on the reuse of WFSs as soil amendments. The effects of different WFS-containing amendments on turfgrass growth and nutrient content were tested by ...

  18. Metals in waste foundry sands and an evaluation of their leaching and transport to groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    While most waste molding foundry sands (WFSs) are not hazardous in nature, regulatory agencies are often reluctant to permit their beneficial use in agricultural and geotechnical applications due to concerns over metal leaching. The objective of this study was to quantify total and Toxicity Characte...

  19. The Characterization of Total and Leachable Metals in Foundry Molding Sands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waste molding sands from the foundry industry have been successfully used as a component in manufactured soils, but concern over metal contamination must be addressed before many states will consider this beneficial use. Since there is little data available on this topic, the purpose of this study ...

  20. Waste Foundry Sand Soil Amendment to Reduce Atrazine Loading to Surface Runoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    A series of experiments was conducted to evaluate the potential for surface applied foundry sand (FS) waste material to reduce atrazine in runoff water from fields having atrazine-based weed management. In the first experiment, the ability of several FSs to remove atrazine from the water column was ...

  1. The characterization and composition of bacterial communities in soils blended with spent foundry sand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spent foundry sands (SFSs) are a likely replacement for virgin aggregate used in manufactured soils, such as topsoils, potting soils, and landscaping mixes. While SFSs generally contain low concentrations of trace elements and xenobiotics, concerns about their impact upon environmental receptors ha...

  2. POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS AND PHENOLICS IN FERROUS AND NON-FERROUS WASTE FOUNDRY SANDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    A total of 43 sets of waste sand were collected from ferrous and non-ferrous foundries in the eastern United States. The concentration of organic compounds known as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and phenolics were determined. These compounds are known to be toxic to humans. Since there ...

  3. An innovative tester system for measuring mechanical property of foundry molding sand

    OpenAIRE

    Zuxi XIE; Qingchun XIANG; Wang, Xu

    2004-01-01

    A new intelligent tester system for measuring multiple mechanical properties of foundry molding sand is introduced and has been patented for the invention in China. The testing process can be simutaneosly controlled wth a build-in chip microcomputer communicating with a PC through a serial port. The testing system pplies dynamic testing technology. During the measurement for compression, relaxation, shearing and tensile processes of sand specimens, the corresponding characteristic curves and ...

  4. Characterization of physical and chemical properties of spent foundry sands pertinent to beneficial use in manufactured soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Of 2,000 United States foundries, 93% produce ferrous or aluminum castings, generating 9.4 million tons of non-hazardous spent foundry sand (SFS) annually, of which only 28% is beneficially used. The U.S. EPA Resource Conservation Challenge identifies SFS as a priority material for beneficial use a...

  5. Applications of the systems theory to the designing of the sand preparation sub-system in foundry plants

    OpenAIRE

    R. Wrona; A. Stawowy; A. Macio?

    2009-01-01

    This study provides the basic principles for designing the functional structure of manufacturing systems and their components. The analysis of functional values is applied to create the technological and manufacturing model underlying the design of the foundry equipment with machine units and materials handling systems. Quoted examples illustrate the approved procedure to be applied to control the sand preparation process in a foundry.

  6. EVALUATION OF THE BENTONITE CONTENT IN SPENT FOUNDRY SANDS AS A FUNCTION OF HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY COEFFICIENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schirlene Chegatti

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the relationship of the bentonite content and hydraulic conductivity coefficient (k of waste foundry sands in tests of hydraulic conductivity in a flexible wall permeameter. The test samples had concentrations of activated sodium bentonite and natural sodium bentonite between 4% and 15%. It was also analyzed chemically the liquid leachate (aluminum, barium, chromium, cadmium, lead, phenols, iron, fluoride, and manganese, following de standard tests of Standard Methods 3111 B e D for the determination of this components in liquid samples. The experiments were supplemented with cation exchange capacity analysis. The results indicate that the values of are is related to the content of bentonite in waste foundry sand and the percolation from this waste disposal.

  7. Foundry performance in relation to the radiographic quality of aluminium alloy sand castings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article examines radiographic soundness and acceptance standards for aluminium alloy sand castings for aerospace and general engineering applications. A method is suggested by which foundries can evaluate their performance to provide evidence of capability with respect to radiographic quality; purchasers could use the same system to assess suppliers. The shortcomings of standards are briefly discussed in the light of an approach to radiographic acceptance on the horizon

  8. Analysis of modern methods of assessing the quality of sand foundry moulds

    OpenAIRE

    K. Smyksy; Zych, J; T. Snopkiewicz

    2015-01-01

    Currently offered devices for the hardness measuring or indices of the mould strength, are presented in the hereby paper. The presented results allow to compare approximately the indications of individual devices of different types.The description of the author’s own microprocessor tester for the quality assessment of the sand foundry moulds, is shown. On the bases of the measurements results it is possible, to evaluate indirectly, the mould apparent density in the selected points, as well as...

  9. Techno- Economical Study of Rigid Pavement by Using the Used Foundry Sand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vipul D. Prajapati1 , Nilay Joshi2 , Prof. Jayeshkumar Pitroda

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Indian road network of almost 3.5 million km comprising both paved and unpaved surfaces is the world’s second largest. Indian roads are presently constructed with not the right choice of material. The two major types of materials, bitumen and concrete are used in road construction in the country. A very small share of roads in the country is made of concrete. Though, it is superior on many counts as a medium for road buildings. The use of large amount of by-product materials as powder or fines not only avoids the requirement of landfills but also reduce the environmental problems. It is most essential to develop profitable building materials from used foundry sand. The innovative use of used foundry sand in concrete formulations as a fine aggregate replacement material was tested as an alternative to traditional concrete. The fine aggregate has been replaced by used foundry sand accordingly in the range of 0%, 10%, 30% & 50% by weight for M-20 grade concrete. Concrete mixtures were produced, tested and compared in terms of compressive and flexural strength with the conventional concrete. These tests were carried out to evaluate the mechanical properties for 7, 14 and 28 days. This research work is to investigate the behaviour of concrete while replacing used foundry sand in different proportion in concrete. This low cost concrete with good strength is used in rigid pavement for 3000 commercial vehicles per day (cvpd and Dry Lean Concrete (DLC 100mm thick for national highway to make it eco-friendly.

  10. Evaluation of the Effective Baking Conditions for Grade 3 Nigerian Acacia Species Bonded Foundry Sand Cores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuhu A. ademoh

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The most effective economical baking conditions w ere determined for foundry cores bonded with the grade 3 Nigerian acacia species exudates. Silica sand base cores bonded with the material were oven baked at temperatures ranging from 160 to 250ºC for varying periods oven cooled and then subjected to tensile strength tests to ascertain the best baking conditions for different alloy castings. The experimental core specimens were in accordance with foundry test standard, shaped like figure number eight. They were tested with standard universal strength machine equipped with attachment for gripping the cores and an instantaneous meter from which the test values were read. The result were compared with established standard foundry core property table which showed that the class V iron/steel cores are best made with 3% acacia bonded silica sand baked at 160ºC for 1 h. For magnesium cores, sand bonded with 4.5% acacia baked at 160ºC for 1-2 h was optimum. For class IV iron/steel cores 4.5% acacia bonded sand baked at 180ºC for 1 hour was optimal. Sand bonded with 4.5% grade 3 acacia baked at 200ºC for 1.0-2.0 h was optimum for copper, aluminium, classes II and III iron/steel cores. Sand bonded with 8.0-13.0% grade 3 N igerian acacia species baked at 200ºC for 1.5-2 h was found most effective for class I iron and steel cores.

  11. Use of Spinach, Radish, and Perennial Ryegrass to Assess the Availability of Metals in Waste Foundry Sands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant uptake is a major pathway by which potentially toxic metals can enter the food chain. In this laboratory study we grew spinach, radish, and perennial ryegrass in sand blends containing 50% waste foundry sand (WFS) to assess the availability of Al, B, Ba, Be, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn,...

  12. Applications of the systems theory to the designing of the sand preparation sub-system in foundry plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Wrona

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This study provides the basic principles for designing the functional structure of manufacturing systems and their components. The analysis of functional values is applied to create the technological and manufacturing model underlying the design of the foundry equipment with machine units and materials handling systems. Quoted examples illustrate the approved procedure to be applied to control the sand preparation process in a foundry.

  13. Design and production of a novel sand materials strength testing machine for foundry applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nwaogu, Ugochukwu Chibuzoh; Hansen, K. S.; Tiedje, Niels Skat

    2012-01-01

    testing machine was designed and built for both green sand and chemically-bonded sand materials. This machine measures and presents the loading response as a force-displacement profile from which the mechanical properties of the moulding materials can be deduced. The system was interfaced to a computer......In the foundry, existing strength testing machines are used to measure only the maximum fracture strength of mould and core materials. With traditionally used methods, the loading history to ascertain deformation of the material is not available. In this paper, a novel moulding material strength...... with a commercial PC based-control and data acquisition software. The testing conditions and operations are specified in the user interface and the data acquisition is made according to specifications. The force and displacements were calibrated to ensure consistency and reliability of the measurement...

  14. Evaluation of volatile hydrocarbon emission characteristics of carbonaceous additives in green sand foundries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yujue; Huang, He; Cannon, Fred S; Voigt, Robert C; Komarneni, Sridhar; Furness, James C

    2007-04-15

    This research studied a relative comparison of the hydrocarbon emissions during pyrolysis of four carbonaceous additives that can be used in green sand foundries. These included a highly volatile bituminous coal, anthracite, lignite, and cellulose. Analytic pyrolysis was conducted to simulate the heating conditions that the carbonaceous additives would experience during metal pouring. Specifically, the samples were flash pyrolyzed in a Curie-point pyrolyzer at 920 degrees C with a heating rate of about 3000 degrees C/sec. This simulated some key features of the fast heating conditions that the carbonaceous additives would experience at the metal-mold interface when molten metal is poured into green sand molds. The samples were also pyrolyzed in a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) from ambient temperature to 1000 degrees C with a heating rate of 20 degrees C/min; and this simulated key features of the slow heating conditions that the carbonaceous additives would experience within the bulk of green sand molds that is further away from the metal-mold interface. Hydrocarbon emissions from flash pyrolysis were analyzed with GC-FID, while those from TGA pyrolysis were monitored with mass spectroscopy and GC-FID. The anthracite exhibited very low volatile hydrocarbons during both flash pyrolysis and TGA pyrolysis. The cellulose released less hydrocarbons than bituminous coal or lignite in TGA pyrolysis, but more hydrocarbons than those two during flash pyrolysis. This means that cellulose can release sufficient volatile hydrocarbons at the intensely heated molten metal-mold interface where they are most desired for ensuring casting quality, but much less within the bulk of the mold where they are undesirable. This characteristic of cellulose offers an important opportunity for green sand foundries to diminish their hazardous air pollutant (HAP) emissions. PMID:17533864

  15. Laboratory Testing of Foundry Sands as Bulking Agents for Porous Media Filters Used to Treat Agricultural Drainage Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foundry sands are industrial byproducts that may have potential application as bulking agents that when mixed with small amounts of more chemically reactive materials (i.e. sulfur modified iron, fly ash, etc.) can be used to produce porous media filters capable of removing contaminants from agricult...

  16. Effect of additives promoting the formation of lustrous carbon on the knocking out properties of foundry sands with new inorganic binders

    OpenAIRE

    I. Izdebska-Szanda; Zb. Stefa?skiDepartment of Technology, Foundry Research Institute, ul. Zakopia?ska 73, 30-418 Kraków, Poland; F. Pezarski; M. Szolc

    2009-01-01

    The article presents the results of investigations, which make a fragment of the broad-scale studies carried out as a part of the statutory activity on optimising the foundry sand technology using new, modified, inorganic binders.The results of investigations regarding the effect of lustrous carbon carriers on the technological properties of foundry sands with inorganic binders were presented in a concise manner. The selected additives were introduced to moulding sands prepared with the new, ...

  17. Design and production of a novel sand materials strength testing machine for foundry applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nwaogu, Ugochukwu Chibuzoh; Hansen, K. S.

    2012-01-01

    In the foundry, existing strength testing machines are used to measure only the maximum fracture strength of mould and core materials. With traditionally used methods, the loading history to ascertain deformation of the material is not available. In this paper, a novel moulding material strength testing machine was designed and built for both green sand and chemically-bonded sand materials. This machine measures and presents the loading response as a force-displacement profile from which the mechanical properties of the moulding materials can be deduced. The system was interfaced to a computer with a commercial PC based-control and data acquisition software. The testing conditions and operations are specified in the user interface and the data acquisition is made according to specifications. The force and displacements were calibrated to ensure consistency and reliability of the measurement data. The force was calibrated using an Amsler Hydraulic Press while the displacements were calibrated with and without loading using a displacement calibrator (Heidenhain Digitaler). The calibration results showed that the data obtained are stable and reliable and the machine can be used for the measurement of the strength of chemically-bonded sand materials.

  18. Characterization of hydrocarbon emissions from green sand foundry core binders by analytical pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yujue; Cannon, Fred S; Salama, Magda; Goudzwaard, Jeff; Furness, James C

    2007-11-15

    Analytical pyrolysis was conducted to study a relative comparison of the hydrocarbon and greenhouse gas emissions of three foundry sand binders as follows: (a) conventional phenolic urethane resin, (b) biodiesel phenolic urethane resin, and (c) collagen-based binder. These binders are used in the metal casting industry for making cores that are used to create internal cavities within castings. In this study, the core samples were flash pyrolyzed in a Curie-point pyrolyzer at 920 degrees C with a heating rate of about 3000 degrees C/sec. This simulated some key features of the fast heating conditions that the core binders would experience at the metal-core interface when molten metal is poured into green sand molds. The core samples were also pyrolyzed in a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) from ambient temperature to 1000 degrees C with a heating rate of 30 degrees C/min, and this simulated key features of the slow heating conditions that the core binders would experience at distances that are further away from the metal-core interface during casting cooling. Hydrocarbon emissions from flash pyrolysis were analyzed with a gas chromatography-flame ionization detector, while hydrocarbon and greenhouse gas (CO and CO2) emissions from TGA pyrolysis were monitored with mass spectrometry. The prominent hazardous air pollutant emissions during pyrolysis of the three binders were phenol, cresols, benzene, and toluene for the conventional phenolic urethane resin and biodiesel resin, and they were benzene and toluene for the collagen-based binder. It was also found that volatile organic compound and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emissions considerably decreased in order from conventional phenolic urethane resin to biodiesel resin to collagen-based binder. These results have shown some similarity with those for stack emission testing conducted at demonstration scale and/or full-scale foundries, and the similar trends in the two sets of results offered promise that bench-scale analytical pyrolysis techniques could be a useful screening tool for the foundries to compare the relative emissions of alternative core binders and to choose proper materials in order to comply with air-emission regulations. PMID:18075109

  19. New sol–gel refractory coatings on chemically-bonded sand cores for foundry applications to improve casting surface quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nwaogu, Ugochukwu Chibuzoh; Poulsen, T.; Stage, R.K.; Bischoff, C.; Tiedje, Niels Skat

    2011-01-01

    Foundry refractory coatings protect bonded sand cores and moulds from producing defective castings during the casting process by providing a barrier between the core and the liquid metal. In this study, new sol–gel refractory coating on phenolic urethane cold box (PUCB) core was examined. The...... were produced with sol-gel coated and uncoated cores and the results were related to the coating properties. The casting results were also compared with castings made with cores coated with commercial alcohol-based and water-based foundry coatings. The analyses show that castings produced with sol–gel...... coated cores have better surface quality than those from uncoated cores and comparable surface quality with the commercial coatings. Therefore, the new sol–gel coating has a potential application in the foundry industry for improving the surface finish of castings thereby reducing the cost of fettling in...

  20. The foundry wastes. Storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work deals with the regulation relative to the management of foundry wastes, such as sands (which can be radioactive), non hazardous and hazardous wastes. Some examples of the reuse of these foundry wastes are given. (O.M.)

  1. New sol–gel refractory coatings on chemically-bonded sand cores for foundry applications to improve casting surface quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nwaogu, Ugochukwu Chibuzoh; Poulsen, T.; Stage, R.K.; Bischoff, C.; Tiedje, Niels Skat

    2011-01-01

    Foundry refractory coatings protect bonded sand cores and moulds from producing defective castings during the casting process by providing a barrier between the core and the liquid metal. In this study, new sol–gel refractory coating on phenolic urethane cold box (PUCB) core was examined. The coating density, viscosity, moisture content and wet and dry weight of the coating were evaluated on cores that had been coated at three different dip-coating times. The coating coverage, surface appearance...

  2. Review on Analysis of Foundry Defects for Quality Improvement of Sand Casting

    OpenAIRE

    Sunil Chaudhari; Hemant Thakkar

    2014-01-01

    In the present global and competitive environment foundry industries needs to perform efficiently with minimum number of rejections. Also they have to develop casting components in very short lead time. Casting process is still state of art with experienced people, but these experience needs to be transformed in engineering knowledge for the better growth of the foundry industries. Some foundries are working with trial and error method and get their work done. Factually, most ...

  3. Reuse of waste foundry sand through interaction with sodium silicate binder; Reutilizacao da areia descartada da fundicao, a partir da sua interacao com agente ligante silicato de sodio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, J.C.; Chinelatto, A.S.A.; Chinelatto, A.L., E-mail: josi3souza@gmail.com [Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa (UEPG), PR (Brazil); Oliveira, I.L. [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Ponta Grossa, PR (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Green sand molds are used in metal casting process. However, after heating, activated bentonite present in green sand lose the binding properties, and part of the foundry sand has to be discarded from the process. The ABNT NBR 15.984/2011 establishes the management of waste foundry sand (WFS) avoiding disposal in landfills. The objective of this work was to investigate the possibility of reusing the WFS from the study of their interaction with sodium silicate binder. Studies with silica sand and new green sand was performed to compare the results obtained with the WFS. The characterizations of the samples were performed by measures the compressive strength, X-ray diffraction, optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that there is interaction of the sodium silicate with the WFS as well as with the silica sand and green sand. (author)

  4. New sol–gel refractory coatings on chemically-bonded sand cores for foundry applications to improve casting surface quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nwaogu, Ugochukwu Chibuzoh; Poulsen, T.

    2011-01-01

    Foundry refractory coatings protect bonded sand cores and moulds from producing defective castings during the casting process by providing a barrier between the core and the liquid metal. In this study, new sol–gel refractory coating on phenolic urethane cold box (PUCB) core was examined. The coating density, viscosity, moisture content and wet and dry weight of the coating were evaluated on cores that had been coated at three different dip-coating times. The coating coverage, surface appearance and depth of penetration into the cores were examined with a Stereomicroscope. Gray iron castings were produced with sol-gel coated and uncoated cores and the results were related to the coating properties. The casting results were also compared with castings made with cores coated with commercial alcohol-based and water-based foundry coatings. The analyses show that castings produced with sol–gel coated cores have better surface quality than those from uncoated cores and comparable surface quality with the commercialcoatings. Therefore, the new sol–gel coating has a potential application in the foundry industry for improving the surface finish of castings thereby reducing the cost of fettling in the foundry industry since the raw materials and technology are easily affordable.

  5. Industrial-hygiene report of radon daughters in foundries using zirconium sand as a molding agent, July 31, September 30-October 2, 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey of exposures to radon daughters in foundries using zirconium sand as a molding agent was conducted. The survey was prompted by a report that significant concentrations of uranium- and thorium-decay isotopes were found in zirconium sand. Area air and bulk samples were analyzed for radon-daughter activity in selected operations of five foundries that used zirconium sand as part of the molding aggregate or as a molding agent. One foundry was located in Ohio, the other four were in California. Maximum radon-daughter activity in the area samples ranged from not detectable to 0.023 working level (WL). The OSHA standards for radon-daughter activity is 0.33 WL. No results were available for the bulk samples due to difficulties with the analytical procedures. The author concludes that the measured levels of radon daughter activity in the foundries are extremely low. The potential for a radiological health hazard due to exposure from radon daughters in zirconium sand at this time is very low. Laboratory studies of zirconium sand and a gamma-radiation survey of foundries that use zirconium sand are recommended

  6. Review on Analysis of Foundry Defects for Quality Improvement of Sand Casting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Chaudhari

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present global and competitive environment foundry industries needs to perform efficiently with minimum number of rejections. Also they have to develop casting components in very short lead time. Casting process is still state of art with experienced people, but these experience needs to be transformed in engineering knowledge for the better growth of the foundry industries. Some foundries are working with trial and error method and get their work done. Factually, most of the foundries have very less control on rejections, as they are always on the toes of production urgency; hence they ignore the rejections and salvage the castings. Majority foundries are failed to maintain a satisfactory quality control level. Defect free castings with minimum production cost have become the need of the foundries. This study is aimed to review the research work made by several researchers and an attempt to get technical solution for minimizing various casting defects and to improve the entire process of casting manufacturing.

  7. Application of design projects developed by Foundry Research Institute in Krakow in construction of integrated stand for processing and reclamation of moulding sands

    OpenAIRE

    I. Izdebska-Szanda; F. Pezarski; K. St?pniewski

    2008-01-01

    The article is devoted to the description of a new integrated system for processing and reclamation of moulding and core sands using the equipment developed by Foundry Research Institute in Krakow. The idea and operation of a complex stand, which allows for co-existence of three routes of material circulation, i.e. system sand, new sand and reclaim, with maximum utilisation of the existing equipment have been presented. Various aspects, economical and ecological, of the proposed design have b...

  8. Measurement of elastic modulus and evaluation of viscoelasticity of foundry green sand

    OpenAIRE

    Qingchun XIANG; Zuxi XIE; Fengwen ZHANG

    2004-01-01

    Elastic modulus is an important physical parameter of molding sand; it is closely connected with molding sand's properties. Based on theories of rheology and molding sand microdeformation, elastic modulus of molding sand was measured and investigated using the intelligent molding sand multi-property tester developed by ourselves. The measuring principle was introduced. Effects of bentonite percentage and compactibility of the molding sand were experimentally studied. Furthermore, the essentia...

  9. Measurement of elastic modulus and evaluation of viscoelasticity of foundry green sand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingchun XIANG

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Elastic modulus is an important physical parameter of molding sand; it is closely connected with molding sand's properties. Based on theories of rheology and molding sand microdeformation, elastic modulus of molding sand was measured and investigated using the intelligent molding sand multi-property tester developed by ourselves. The measuring principle was introduced. Effects of bentonite percentage and compactibility of the molding sand were experimentally studied. Furthermore, the essential viscoelastic nature of green sand was analyzed. It is considered that viscoelastic deformation of molding sand consists mainly of that of Kelvin Body of clay membrane, and elastic modulus of molding sand depends mainly on that of Kelvin Body which is the elastic component of clay membrane between sands. Elastic modulus can be adopted as one of the property parameters, and can be employed to evaluate viscoelastic properties of molding sand.

  10. Use of an integrated approach to characterize the physicochemical properties of foundry green sands

    Science.gov (United States)

    A fresh green sand, spent green sand, and a weathered spent green sand from a landfill were analyzed using diffractometry, electron microscopy, granulometry, spectrometry, and thermogravimetry. Our objective was to understand how the physicochemical properties of the green sands change from their o...

  11. The reclamation of used moulding and core sands as a part of research programme of the Foundry Research Institute in Cracow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Izdebska-Szanda

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a historical outline of studies carried out by the Foundry Research Institute in Cracow on technical and technological solutions regarding the development of a reclamation process of the used moulding and core sands with attention focused on the past twenty years. Various aspects that control studies of the sand reclamation, from the thermal process, through pneumatic reclamation, and with preferences focused on the application of a mechanical treatment of the used sand, were discussed. Particular emphasis was put on the vibration method.Examples of design solutions developed by the Foundry Research Institute in Cracow were described. They were implemented inindustrial practice both at home and abroad. Their versatility and effectiveness as satisfying BAT criteria was stressed.

  12. Application of design projects developed by Foundry Research Institute in Krakow in construction of integrated stand for processing and reclamation of moulding sands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Izdebska-Szanda

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the description of a new integrated system for processing and reclamation of moulding and core sands using the equipment developed by Foundry Research Institute in Krakow. The idea and operation of a complex stand, which allows for co-existence of three routes of material circulation, i.e. system sand, new sand and reclaim, with maximum utilisation of the existing equipment have been presented. Various aspects, economical and ecological, of the proposed design have been discussed.

  13. Harmless treatment of used foundry sands and dewatered municipal sludge by microwave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. F. Wang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A new method to treat four solid wastes of sodium silicate used sands, dewatered municipal sludge, clay sands sludge and waste polyethylene, was discussed. About wt/ 50 % sodium silicate used sands and wt/ 50 % dewatered sludge were mixed, and then cured by microwave with a certain thickness film of clay sands sludge and waste plastic of polyethylene in the surface. The results showed that the compression strength of granulation sample with the size of ? 50 × 50 mm was over 0,45 MPa. The waste plastic was the key factor for the durability, and curing temperature must be over melting temperature, so the thicker film could be coated in the surface of used sands and sludge.

  14. Effects of Moisture Content on the Foundry Properties of Yola Natural Sand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Aondona IHOM

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of moisture content of Yola natural sand has been studied. The moisture content was varied from 1 to 9%. The effect of the moisture content on the green compression strength, green permeability and bulk density was investigated. Particle size distribution of the natural sand, the grain fineness number, average grain size, grain shape and the clay content of the natural sand were also studied. 5% moisture gave the optimum green compression strength of 118.6KN/m2. The dry compression strength increased with moisture content, an optimum value of 4000KN/m2 was obtained at 9% moisture. The Yola natural sand had a grain fineness number of 88.05AFS, average grain size of 335.78 microns and a clay content of 26%. A sand mixture containing 5% moisture was prepared and used to produce a test casting with aluminium scraps, the test casting was sound.

  15. Effects of Moisture Content on the Foundry Properties of Yola Natural Sand

    OpenAIRE

    Joy OGBODO; Emmanuel Eric ANBUA; Johnson AGUNSOYE; Paul Aondona IHOM

    2011-01-01

    The effect of moisture content of Yola natural sand has been studied. The moisture content was varied from 1 to 9%. The effect of the moisture content on the green compression strength, green permeability and bulk density was investigated. Particle size distribution of the natural sand, the grain fineness number, average grain size, grain shape and the clay content of the natural sand were also studied. 5% moisture gave the optimum green compression strength of 118.6KN/m2. The dry compression...

  16. Recycling of iron foundry sand and glass waste as raw material for production of whiteware.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragança, Saulo R; Vicenzi, Juliane; Guerino, Kareline; Bergmann, Carlos P

    2006-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the production feasibility of triaxial whiteware using sand from cast iron moulds as a raw material instead of silica, and recycled glass in place of feldspar. Formulations were prepared using sand, glass waste, and white-firing clay such that only 50% of the composition was virgin material (clay). The ceramic bodies were formed by pressing and fired at different temperatures (between 1100 and 1300 degrees C). Specimens were characterized in terms of green density prior to firing; and their flexural strength, linear shrinkage, and water absorption were measured after firing. The microstructure was determined by scanning electron microscopy. Possible environmental impacts of this recycling process were also evaluated, through solubility and leaching tests, according to Brazilian standards. Gaseous emissions during the firing process were also analysed. The results showed that it is possible to produce triaxial ceramics by using such alternative raw materials. PMID:16496871

  17. The use of SHS-process slag for the preparation of foundry sand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safronov, N.; Kharisov, L.

    2015-06-01

    The article presents the construction of a linear approximation of the response function (strength of molding sand on tensile strength and air permeability) in a given area by changing the investigated factors for which charge makeup of SHS-cast iron obtaining process and content of the slag product of this process in the molding mixture were used. The analysis of regression coefficients significance of the objective function was done to identify the most important input parameters.

  18. Polysialates binders preparation and their influence to shear strength of foundry sand mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Fridrich

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with polysialates water-glasses preparation. There were used various procedures with the goal to create inorganic polymer on silicon and aluminum base. The one composed of SiO2 and AlO4 tetrahedron chains. For the preparation was concentrated NaOH solution used together with metakaolinite in a way low-temperature synthesis in the presence of alkaline silicate: higher pressure and temperature (autoclave to direct making of alkaline silicate made of sand, NaOH with metakaolinite addition and by melting fritted glass together with metakaolinite and dissolution in autoclave. The dissolving effectivity was evaluated by the concentration of aluminum in alkaline silicate and by the influence to reduce strengths after heat exposition with this inorganic binder.

  19. Investigation into the origin of radioactivity in ceramic waste. Zircon sand in iron foundries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2002 a truck loaded with used car scrap triggered a radiation monitoring gate detector at a scrapyard. The material under suspicion turned out to be some ceramic waste material. The ceramic waste was used for many years to raise roads or pave yards and premises in the surroundings of Almelo, Netherlands, as was the case with the used car dump where the metal scrap came from. The ceramic material contains zircon sand, which has elevated concentrations of naturally occuring radionuclides. Therefore, using this waste in a surface soil layer may cause radiological exposures to the public. From measurements at the used car dump dose rates were determined up to ten times the background. From further research it was determined that part of the ceramic waste has concentrations above exemption level. From these measurements it was also concluded that the ceramic material is retaining radon and its decay products. From some calculations a maximum effective annual dose was estimated of about 1 mSv. This dose is determined mainly by external radiation and is for long lasting exposure on some large factory grounds. On the other hand, children might be playing in smaller yards or premises. Ingestion might play some role in that case. For this exposure path an annual dose of 0.12 mSv was calculated. For adults this is not an important exposure path. Inhalation doesn't seem to play an important role neither for adults nor for children

  20. Respiratory disease in foundry workers.

    OpenAIRE

    Low, I; Mitchell, C.

    1985-01-01

    A survey was carried out in a steel foundry in Brisbane to evaluate the nature and frequency of respiratory symptoms and to assess ventilatory function. The foundry used many moulding processes including the Furane, Isocure, Shell, carbon dioxide, and oil sand systems. Nasal symptoms and wheeze were often reported, particularly by workers in the general foundry and core shop, and on a semiautomated line. By contrast, workers in the aftercast section not exposed to fumes or vapours from the va...

  1. The pneumatic conveying applications in foundry industry

    OpenAIRE

    D. Homa; K. Janerka; J. Szajnar; Jezierski, J.

    2010-01-01

    The paper presents some issues connected to pneumatic conveying usage in foundry industry. The loose materials transportation (sand and moulding sand) through consecutive production cycles were described. The powder injection into liquid metal, the bentonite into mixers and pneumatic used moulding sand reclamation applications were presented, too. The industrial setups, technological descriptions and some loose materials parameters were given, too.

  2. The pneumatic conveying applications in foundry industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Homa

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents some issues connected to pneumatic conveying usage in foundry industry. The loose materials transportation (sand and moulding sand through consecutive production cycles were described. The powder injection into liquid metal, the bentonite into mixers and pneumatic used moulding sand reclamation applications were presented, too. The industrial setups, technological descriptions and some loose materials parameters were given, too.

  3. Thermal analysis of foundry bentonites

    OpenAIRE

    S. ?ymankowska-Kumon; M. Holtzer; G. Grabowski

    2011-01-01

    The results of investigations of 3 calcium bentonites, activated by sodium carbonate, applied in the foundry industry as bindingmaterial for moulding sands are presented in the paper. Investigations were performed by the thermal analysis (TG) method. The occurrence of the dehydration and dehydroxylation process was confirmed in all tested bentonites.

  4. Thermal analysis of foundry bentonites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. ?ymankowska-Kumon

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The results of investigations of 3 calcium bentonites, activated by sodium carbonate, applied in the foundry industry as bindingmaterial for moulding sands are presented in the paper. Investigations were performed by the thermal analysis (TG method. The occurrence of the dehydration and dehydroxylation process was confirmed in all tested bentonites.

  5. Tekstil At?ksular?n?n Gideriminde At?k Döküm Kumlar?n?n Kullan?m? / Using of Waste Foundry Sands in Removal of Textile Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EL?F HAT?CE GÜRKAN

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Ülkelerin sanayile?mesi ile birlikte endüstriyel bazl? su kullan?m?n?n artmas? ve son y?llarda ortaya ç?kan küresel ?s?nma sorunu, yüzeysel ve yeralt? su kaynaklar?n?n tükenmesine sebep olmaktad?r. Endüstriyel at?ksular?n do?aya yapt??? etkiler önemli düzeyde, do?al dengeyi de?i?tirici ve baz? durumlarda geri dönülmez nitelikte olmaktad?r. Endüstrilerden kaynaklanan at?ksular, evsel at?ksulara göre kaynak, miktar ve karakter aç?s?ndan büyük farkl?l?klar gösterirler. Bu nedenle endüstri tesisinin ç?k?? sular?n?n do?al su ortamlar?n?n kirletmesini engelleyecek ?ekilde ar?t?lmas? gerekmektedir. Bu at?ksular?n ar?t?l?p geri kazan?lmas? ile hem su kaynaklar?n?n tüketimi hem de de?arj edilen ar?t?lm?? at?ksular?n miktar? azalt?lmakta ve çevresel etkileri en aza indirilebilmektedir. Ülkemizdeki en büyük endüstri dallar?ndan biri olan tekstil endüstrisi, çok su tüketilen, kullan?lan hammadde ve kimyasal maddelerin, gerçekle?tirilen i?lemlerin, her i?lem için uygulanan teknolojilerin çe?itlili?i nedeni ile farkl?l?k gösteren ve üretilen ürüne ba?l? at?k kayna?? olarak son derece de?i?ken yap?ya sahip bir endüstridir. Tekstil endüstrisi at?ksular?n?n en belirgin özelli?i, yüksek miktarda organik ve inorganik kimyasal içermesi ve yüksek toplam organik karbon (TOK, kimyasal oksijen ihtiyac? (KOI ve yo?un renk içeri?idir. Al?c? su kaynaklar?na verilen boyar maddeler organik yük olarak bu kirlili?in küçük bir k?sm?n? olu?turmaktad?r; ancak al?c? ortamda çok dü?ük konsantrasyonlarda boyar madde bulunmas? bile estetik aç?dan istenmeyen bir durumdur. Bu nedenle boyar madde içeren tekstil endüstrisi at?ksular?ndan renk giderim prosesleri ekolojik aç?dan önem kazanmaktad?r. Günümüzde boyar maddelerin giderimi büyük oranda fiziksel ve kimyasal yöntemlerle gerçekle?tirilmektedir. Bu çal??mada, at?k döküm kumlar?n?n, tekstil endüstrisi at?k sular?nda renk gideriminde adsorbent olarak kullan?lmas? amaçlanmaktad?r. Using of Waste Foundry Sands in Removal of Textile Wastewater Nowadays, the accelerating need of water due to usage of water in industralized countries and global warming is causing all water sources to be exhausted. The effects the industrial wastewater made to the nature are important level, changer of natural balance, and sometimes non returned position. By reusing the treated the wastewater, not only the consumption of natural water sources has been prevented, but also the amount of discharged treated wastewater and its effects to the environment has been decreased. The wastewater resulted from industries shows big differences according to the wastewater in houses in the conditions of resource, amount, and character. So output water of the industry establishment has to be purified to prevent not to dirty natural water places. Textile industry is one of the biggest industries of Turkey and it consumes Access amount of water. As there are several methods and technologies used in this sector due to the different raw materials and various chemicals, the wastewaters obtained vary related to the products produced. The most prominent feature of textile industry wastewater is contained high amounts of organic and inorganic chemicals, and high total organic carbon (TOC, chemical oxygen demand (COD and intense color. The discharge of dyes into the receiving waters constitutes only a small portion of water pollution. However the presence of very low concentrations of dyes in receiving waters is aesthetically undesirable. Therefore, treatment processes removing dyes from textile effluents have become important in order to conserve receiving waters. In this study is to investigate using the adsorpsion method of removal with waste foundry sands, which are used expecially dye nd textile industries and are an important polluting agent in the waste water dumped into the environment by these industries.

  6. Influence green sand system by core sand additions

    OpenAIRE

    N. Špirutová; J. Beňo; V. Bednářová; Kříž, J.; M. Kandrnál

    2012-01-01

    Today, about two thirds of iron alloys casting (especially for graphitizing alloys of iron) are produced into green sand systems with usually organically bonded cores. Separation of core sands from the green sand mixture is very difficult, after pouring. The core sand concentration increase due to circulation of green sand mixture in a closed circulation system. Furthermore in some foundries, core sands have been adding to green sand systems as a replacement for new sands. The goal of this co...

  7. Foundry Coating Technology: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    U. C Nwaogu; N. S Tiedje

    2011-01-01

    The importance of foundry coating in improving the surface quality of castings cannot be over emphasized. The appli-cation of mould and core washes creates a high thermal integrity barrier between the metal and the mould resulting in the reduction of the thermal shock experienced by the sand system. These thermal shock leads to series of surface de-fects such as veining/finning, metal penetration, burn-on/in, scab, rat tail, erosion etc. The use of coatings reduces the tendency of occurrence ...

  8. Influence of foundry dust on moulding mixtures quality

    OpenAIRE

    A. Pribulová; P. Futaš; A. Rosová; Demeter, P; Baricová, D.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to observe the effect of the addition of the dust from the moulding plant on the quality parameters of the moulding mixtures and determine tolerable content in the moulding mixture. Three types of moulding mixtures were used in experiments: mixture prepared from new quartz sand and bentonite, mixture which is recycled in the experimental foundry and mixture came from the small foundry. To these moulding mixture was added the dust from moulding plant in the rang...

  9. APPLICATION OF ADDITIVELY MANUFACTURED POLYMER COMPOSITE PROTOTYPES IN FOUNDRY

    OpenAIRE

    Wies?aw Kuczko; Rados?aw Wichniarek; Filip Górski; Pawe? Bu?; Przemys?aw Zawadzki

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents a method, developed by the authors, for manufacturing polymer composites with the matrix manufactured in a layered manner (via 3D printing – Fused Deposition Modeling) out of a thermoplastic material. As an example of practical application of this method, functional prototypes are presented, which were used as elements of foundry tooling – patterns for sand molding. In case of manufacturing prototype castings or short series of products, foundries usually cooperate with mod...

  10. Nitrogen-containing compounds in foundry mold emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emory, M B; Goodman, P A; James, R H; Scott, W D

    1978-07-01

    Nitrogen compounds have been identified in the decomposition products from several commonly used foundry sand binders. These compounds include nitrogen oxides, hydrogen cyanide, ammonia, simple aromatic amines, and isocyanates. The concentrations of these compounds in foundry mold emissions do not appear to be directly related to the nitrogen content of the organic binders. Measurable concentrations were observed in some cases, indicating the necessity for periodic, monitoring in the foundry. Adequate ventilation will permit the use of these binders. The substitution of nitrogen-free binders suggests another possible control strategy. PMID:211839

  11. Foundry Industry Training Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Industrial Training Journal, 1974

    1974-01-01

    The Foundry Industry Training Committee has encouraged the foundry industry in developing systematic manpower training and development programs at all levels. Features developed include competitions as a technique of standard setting, recommendations for technician training, and a widely used manpower information system. (MW)

  12. UPGRADING FOUNDRY WASTEWATER TREATMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper summarizes findings of a 10-week pilot plant study of gray iron foundry wastewater treatment. Treatment technologies studied included lime softening, lime/soda ash softening, polymer addition, flocculation/sedimentation, and dual media filtration. Results indicate that ...

  13. Foundry energy conservation workbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    The foundry industry is a significant user of energy, and therefore, a natural candidate for efforts to save energy and improve efficiency by both governmental agencies and technical/trade associations. These efforts are designed to both improve the national energy position and improve the industry's efficiency and profitability. Increased energy cost and the reduced availability of fossil fuels at certain times have provided the incentive to curb waste and to utilize purchased energy wisely. Energy costs now approach and sometimes exceed 10% of the sales dollar of many foundries. Although energy use by foundries has gradually decreased on a per/ton basis in recent years, the foundry industry must continue to find ways to utilize energy more efficiently. This workbook provides ways to achieve this goal.

  14. Energy conservation in foundry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In any foundry, the cost of fuel in the form of coal, oil or electrical power, is about 10 to 15% of the cost of the product. Saving of the order of 30 to 50% can be achieved in energy by reducing consumption of fuel and increasing efficiency. This has been illustrated by describing 4 examples in foundry industry. In each case, saving in terms of rupees is also indicated. (N.B.)

  15. Investigation into the origin of radioactivity in ceramic waste. Zircon sand in iron foundries; Onderzoek naar de radioactiviteit van keramisch afval. Zirkoonzand in de ijzergieterij

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaauboer, R.O

    2003-07-01

    In 2002 a truck loaded with used car scrap triggered a radiation monitoring gate detector at a scrapyard. The material under suspicion turned out to be some ceramic waste material. The ceramic waste was used for many years to raise roads or pave yards and premises in the surroundings of Almelo, Netherlands, as was the case with the used car dump where the metal scrap came from. The ceramic material contains zircon sand, which has elevated concentrations of naturally occuring radionuclides. Therefore, using this waste in a surface soil layer may cause radiological exposures to the public. From measurements at the used car dump dose rates were determined up to ten times the background. From further research it was determined that part of the ceramic waste has concentrations above exemption level. From these measurements it was also concluded that the ceramic material is retaining radon and its decay products. From some calculations a maximum effective annual dose was estimated of about 1 mSv. This dose is determined mainly by external radiation and is for long lasting exposure on some large factory grounds. On the other hand, children might be playing in smaller yards or premises. Ingestion might play some role in that case. For this exposure path an annual dose of 0.12 mSv was calculated. For adults this is not an important exposure path. Inhalation doesn't seem to play an important role neither for adults nor for children. [Dutch] In 2002 ging bij een schrootbedrijf het alarm af toen naast autoschroot enig radioactief keramisch materiaal door de detector werd gereden. Gedurende een groot aantal jaren is het keramische afval toegepast als verharding voor wegen en erven in de omgeving van Almelo, zo ook bij de autosloper. In het keramische materiaal is zirkoonzand verwerkt. Dit materiaal bevat van nature verhoogde concentraties van radionucliden. Het gebruik van het afval als verharding kan dan ook leiden tot een blootstelling van de persoon die zich daarop bevindt. Bij de autosloper zijn dosistempi gemeten tot tienmaal de natuurlijke achtergrond. Uit nader onderzoek van het keramische afval, is vastgesteld dat het zich deels boven de zogenaamde meldingsplichtige grens bevindt. Uit dit onderzoek is tevens naar voren gekomen dat radon en daaruit ontstane vervalproducten vrijwel niet uit het keramische afval vrijkomen. Uit enkele berekeningen is een maximale effectieve jaardosis geschat van ongeveer 1 mSv, voornamelijk door externe straling bij langdurige blootstelling op bijvoorbeeld een groot bedrijfsterrein. Op kleinere toegankelijke terreinen zoals erven kunnen ook kinderen worden blootgesteld. Dan speelt mogelijk ook ingestie een rol. Voor deze route is een effectieve jaardosis van 0,12 mSv berekend. Voor volwassenen speelt deze blootstellingsroute geen belangrijke rol. Inhalatie blijkt voor zowel volwassenen als kinderen een minder belangrijke rol te spelen.

  16. Influência do emprego de areia de fundição residual nas propriedades no estado fresco e endurecido de misturas cimentícias / Influence of foundry sand residues on the fresh and hardened properties of mortars produced with portland cement

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    W. R. L da, Silva; E., Tochetto; L. R., Prudêncio JR; A. L., Oliveira.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A areia de fundição residual (AFR) consiste em um resíduo arenoso proveniente dos moldes utilizados no processo de fundição de metais. O presente trabalho foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de avaliar a influência do uso da AFR nas propriedades concreto. Para tanto, utilizou-se cimento CPV-ARI RS, adit [...] ivo plastificante, AFR e areias fina, média natural e de britagem. As propriedades no estado fresco foram avaliadas através da determinação da consistência e teor de ar incorporado. No estado endurecido avaliou-se a resistência à compressão axial. Os resultados indicaram que o uso da AFR resulta no aumento do teor de ar incorporado, fissuração por reações expansivas e consequ?ente redução de resistência. Visando investigar a origem das tendências observadas, realizou-se um estudo complementar empregando AFR de diferentes composições. Todavia, independente da composição utilizada, os resultados indicaram tendência semelhante à observada anteriormente. Por fim, considerando os materiais empregados nesta pesquisa, conclui-se que a utilização da AFR em concreto é inadequada, pois prejudica não apenas a resistência mecânica, mas também a durabilidade do material. Abstract in english The foundry sand waste (FSW) derives from moulds used in the metallurgical industries. The present experimental study was developed to evaluate the influence of the use of FSW on concrete properties. The mixtures were produced with cement CPV-ARI-RS, water reducing admixture, FSW, natural and crushe [...] d aggregates. The properties on the fresh state were evaluated by means of flow table test and the determination of the incorporated air content. On the hardened state, compressive strength tests were performed. The initial results have shown that the use of FSW leads to an increase in the air content and cracking, caused by expansive reactions. As a result of that, a reduction in the compressive strength has been noticed. In order to define the origin of the presented trends, a complementary study was developed using FSW with different compositions. However, regardless the composition of the FSW, the obtained results presented trends which were similar to the ones previously observed. Finally, considering the materials herein used, the addition of FSW in concrete is considered inadequate since this leads to a decrease not only in the compressive strength, but also in the durability of the material.

  17. Determination of thermal conductivity in foundry mould mixtures

    OpenAIRE

    G. Soleni?ki; Budi?, I.; D. Ciglar

    2010-01-01

    For a thorough understanding of the behaviour of foundry mould mixtures, a good knowledge of thermal properties of mould materials is needed. Laboratory determination of thermal conductivity of mould mixtures enables a better control over scabbing defects which are a major problem in green sand mould mixtures. A special instrument has been designed for that purpose and it is described in this work.

  18. Pneumatic reclamation devices applied in the conditions of Ostrowiec Foundry

    OpenAIRE

    D. Homa; Z. Gorazda; A. Myszor

    2010-01-01

    The scope of publication includes presentation of used sand reclamation system with the use of energy of compressed stream of air, whichshift reclaimed sand in pneumatic system. The solution, by incorporating into pneumatic installation an element which act as special disordered element causing controlled flow of two-phase flow to clean the surface layer of regenerated grains in a dry environment.The described reclamation equipment was installed and operated in the foundry "Ostrowiec".

  19. Foundry energy conservation workbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1990-10-01

    This report discusses methods for promoting energy conservation in foundries. Use of electric power, natural gas, and coke are evaluated. Waste heat recovery systems are considered. Energy consumption in the specific processes of electric melting, natural gas melting, heat treatments, ladle melting, and coke fuel melting is described. An example energy analysis is included. (GHH)

  20. Foundry energy conservation workbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-31

    This report discusses methods for promoting energy conservation in foundries. Use of electric power, natural gas, and coke are evaluated. Waste heat recovery systems are considered. Energy consumption in the specific processes of electric melting, natural gas melting, heat treatments, ladle melting, and coke fuel melting is described. An example energy analysis is included. (GHH)

  1. JPL Innovation Foundry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, Brent; McCleese, Daniel

    2013-08-01

    Space science missions are increasingly challenged today: in ambition, by increasingly sophisticated hypotheses tested; in development, by the increasing complexity of advanced technologies; in budgeting, by the decline of flagship-class mission opportunities; in management, by expectations for breakthrough science despite a risk-averse programmatic climate; and in planning, by increasing competition for scarce resources. How are the space-science missions of tomorrow being formulated? The paper describes the JPL Innovation Foundry, created in 2011, to respond to this evolving context. The Foundry integrates methods, tools, and experts that span the mission concept lifecycle. Grounded in JPL's heritage of missions, flight instruments, mission proposals, and concept innovation, the Foundry seeks to provide continuity of support and cost-effective, on-call access to the right domain experts at the right time, as science definition teams and Principal Investigators mature mission ideas from "cocktail napkin" to PDR. The Foundry blends JPL capabilities in proposal development and concurrent engineering, including Team X, with new approaches for open-ended concept exploration in earlier, cost-constrained phases, and with ongoing research and technology projects. It applies complexity and cost models, project-formulation lessons learned, and strategy analyses appropriate to each level of concept maturity. The Foundry is organizationally integrated with JPL formulation program offices; staffed by JPL's line organizations for engineering, science, and costing; and overseen by senior Laboratory leaders to assure experienced coordination and review. Incubation of each concept is tailored depending on its maturity and proposal history, and its highest-leverage modeling and analysis needs.

  2. JPL Innovation Foundry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, Brent; McCleese, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Space science missions are increasingly challenged today: in ambition, by increasingly sophisticated hypotheses tested; in development, by the increasing complexity of advanced technologies; in budgeting, by the decline of flagship-class mission opportunities; in management, by expectations for breakthrough science despite a risk-averse programmatic climate; and in planning, by increasing competition for scarce resources. How are the space-science missions of tomorrow being formulated? The paper describes the JPL Innovation Foundry, created in 2011, to respond to this evolving context. The Foundry integrates methods, tools, and experts that span the mission concept lifecycle. Grounded in JPL's heritage of missions, flight instruments, mission proposals, and concept innovation, the Foundry seeks to provide continuity of support and cost-effective, on-call access to the right domain experts at the right time, as science definition teams and Principal Investigators mature mission ideas from "cocktail napkin" to PDR. The Foundry blends JPL capabilities in proposal development and concurrent engineering, including Team X, with new approaches for open-ended concept exploration in earlier, cost-constrained phases, and with ongoing research and technology projects. It applies complexity and cost models, projectformulation lessons learned, and strategy analyses appropriate to each level of concept maturity. The Foundry is organizationally integrated with JPL formulation program offices; staffed by JPL's line organizations for engineering, science, and costing; and overseen by senior Laboratory leaders to assure experienced coordination and review. Incubation of each concept is tailored depending on its maturity and proposal history, and its highest leverage modeling and analysis needs.

  3. Possibilities of utilizing 3DP technology for foundry mould making

    OpenAIRE

    G. Budzik

    2007-01-01

    Possibilities of application of three-dimensional printing (3DP) technology for making casting prototypes are discussed. Three-dimensional printing enables making of foundry moulds for elements of complex shapes. The mould presented in the paper was printed with the use of Z510 Spectrum unit in the Car Technology Sp. z o.o. (Ltd. Co.) in Kraków. The basic material for printing foundry moulds is the ZCast 501 powder. This powder is a mixture of traditional molding sand, gypsum and supplementar...

  4. Characterization and extraction of gold contained in foundry industrial wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gold was characterized and leached in foundry sands. These wastes are product among others of the automotive industry where they are used as molds material which are contaminated by diverse metals during the foundry. To fulfil the leaching process four coupled thermostat columns were used. To characterize the solid it was used the X-ray diffraction technique. For the qualitative analysis it was used the Activation analysis technique. Finally, for the study of liquors was used the Plasma diffraction spectroscopy (Icp-As) technique. The obtained results show that the process which was used the thermostat columns was more efficient, than the methods traditionally recommended. (Author)

  5. Evaluation of occupational exposure to free silica in Alberta foundries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayalp, A; Myroniuk, D

    1982-11-01

    The Occupational Hygiene Branch of Alberta Workers' Health, Safety and Compensation conducted a comprehensive study of the foundry industry in Alberta. The surveys assessed both the degree of health hazards present and the effectiveness of existing control systems for airborne contaminants. All nine of Alberta's ferrous foundries were surveyed in the course of the project. The foundries varied from those which were small with limited mechanization to those which were large and highly automated. The concentrations of free silica in the work environment are correlated to the different attempts to control silica using substitution and various ventilation systems. The particular foundry processes evaluated for airborne free silica were sand preparation, shakeout, dry sand transport and sand molding. Workers' exposure to free airborne silica was evaluated by personal and area samples. The free silica content of the samples was determined by infra-red spectrophotometry. The results indicated most control systems were inadequate. Effective control methods are described to reduce the health hazard. PMID:6301255

  6. European MEMS foundries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomon, Patric R.

    2003-01-01

    According to the latest release of the NEXUS market study, the market for MEMS or Microsystems Technology (MST) is predicted to grow to $68B by the year 2005, with systems containing these components generating even higher revenues and growth. The latest advances in MST/MEMS technology have enabled the design of a new generation of microsystems that are smaller, cheaper, more reliable, and consume less power. These integrated systems bring together numerous analog/mixed signal microelectronics blocks and MEMS functions on a single chip or on two or more chips assembled within an integrated package. In spite of all these advances in technology and manufacturing, a system manufacturer either faces a substantial up-front R&D investment to create his own infrastructure and expertise, or he can use design and foundry services to get the initial product into the marketplace fast and with an affordable investment. Once he has a viable product, he can still think about his own manufacturing efforts and investments to obtain an optimized high volume manufacturing for the specific product. One of the barriers to successful exploitation of MEMS/MST technology has been the lack of access to industrial foundries capable of producing certified microsystems devices in commercial quantities, including packaging and test. This paper discusses Multi-project wafer (MPW) runs, requirements for foundries and gives some examples of foundry business models. Furthermore, this paper will give an overview on MST/MEMS services that are available in Europe, including pure commercial activities, European project activities (e.g. Europractice), and some academic services.

  7. Innovative developments in sand reclamation technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Dañko

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Proper sand management and efficient sand reclamation system are two main factors influencing economical and ecological side of modern foundry plant. It is well known fact that the production of 1 metric ton of casting from ferrous alloys generates circa 1 metric ton of waste [1], which due to containing certain amounts of harmful and dangerous compounds should undergo a reclamation – at least of the main component, which means a silica sand grains. The paper present problems of scientific and development research concerning the innovative reclamation technologies of used foundry sands such as: mechanical-cryogenic reclamation and innovative thermal reclamation.

  8. Influence green sand system by core sand additions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Špirutová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, about two thirds of iron alloys casting (especially for graphitizing alloys of iron are produced into green sand systems with usually organically bonded cores. Separation of core sands from the green sand mixture is very difficult, after pouring. The core sand concentration increase due to circulation of green sand mixture in a closed circulation system. Furthermore in some foundries, core sands have been adding to green sand systems as a replacement for new sands. The goal of this contribution is: “How the green sand systems are influenced by core sands?”This effect is considered by determination of selected technological properties and degree of green sand system re-bonding. From the studies, which have been published yet, there is not consistent opinion on influence of core sand dilution on green sand system properties. In order to simulation of the effect of core sands on the technological properties of green sands, there were applied the most common used technologies of cores production, which are based on bonding with phenolic resin. Core sand concentration added to green sand system, was up to 50 %. Influence of core sand dilution on basic properties of green sand systems was determined by evaluation of basic industrial properties: moisture, green compression strength and splitting strength, wet tensile strength, mixture stability against staling and physical-chemistry properties (pH, conductivity, and loss of ignition. Ratio of active betonite by Methylene blue test was also determined.

  9. Using sol-gel component as additive to foundry coatings to improve casting quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nwaogu, Ugochukwu Chibuzoh; Poulsen, T.; Gravesen, B.; Tiedje, Niels Skat

    2012-01-01

    The improvement of foundry coatings to enhance performance is important. This paper investigates the effect of using sol?gel component as an additive to foundry coatings applied on chemically bonded sand cores. Three parameters at three levels each were investigated using Taguchi experimental parameter design. The effects of the sol?gel component on viscosity, density, °Baumé, core coverage and permeability are shown. Numerical simulations were used to predict defect areas. The thermal profiles ...

  10. Specificity of SPC Procedures Application in Foundry in Aspect of Data Acquisition and Data Exploration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Ignaszak

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an analysis of SPC (Statistical Process Control procedures usability in foundry engineering. The authors pay particular attention to the processes complexity and necessity of correct preparation of data acquisition procedures. Integration of SPC systems with existing IT solutions in area of aiding and assistance during the manufacturing process is important. For each particular foundry, methodology of selective SPC application needs to prepare for supervision and control of stability of manufacturing conditions, regarding specificity of data in particular “branches” of foundry production (Sands, Pouring, Metallurgy, Quality.

  11. Foundry Coating Technology: A Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nwaogu, Ugochukwu Chibuzoh; Tiedje, Niels Skat

    2011-01-01

    of action is important. In this review, a detailed description of these topics and examples are provided where necessary. A potential area of research in foundry coating development, using sol-gel process is suggested. The application of sol-gel technology in the development of foundry coatings is a...

  12. Optimizing the Moulding Properties of Recycled Ilaro Silica Sand

    OpenAIRE

    Davies Oladayo FOLORUNSO; Sunday ARIBO; Fatai Olufemi ARAMIDE

    2011-01-01

    Effect of varying binders (bentonite and dextrin) and water on the properties of recycled foundry sand made from silica sand mined from Ilaro Silica sand deposit in Ogun State Nigeria and have been used in several cycles for production of cast iron was examined. The used sand was washed in hot water, dried and the sieved for grain distribution. Varying bentonite and dextrin contents were added together with water to portions of the silica sand and thoroughly mixed. The moulding sand propertie...

  13. UK silica sand resources for fracking

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, Clive

    2013-01-01

    UK silica sand resources for fracking Clive Mitchell, Industrial Minerals Specialist, British Geological Survey, Keyworth, Nottingham, NG12 5GG Email: Silica sand is high purity quartz sand that is mainly used for glass production, as foundry sand, in horticulture, leisure and other industrial uses. One specialist use is as a ‘proppant’ to enhance oil and gas recovery. This presentation will focus on this application, particularly for shale gas recovery where it is mo...

  14. Influencing of foundry bentonite mixtures by binder activation

    OpenAIRE

    Be?o, J.; Lichý, P.; Kroupová, I.; F. Radkovský

    2016-01-01

    Although new moulding processes for manufacture of high quality castings have been developed and introduced into foundry practice in recent years, the green-sand moulding in bentonite mixture still remains the most widely used technology. Higher utility properties of bentonite binders are achieved through their activation. This contribution is aimed at finding a suitable activating agent. A number of sodium salts and MgO based agents has been chosen. In the framework of the experiment the swe...

  15. Determination of thermal conductivity in foundry mould mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Soleni?ki

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available For a thorough understanding of the behaviour of foundry mould mixtures, a good knowledge of thermal properties of mould materials is needed. Laboratory determination of thermal conductivity of mould mixtures enables a better control over scabbing defects which are a major problem in green sand mould mixtures. A special instrument has been designed for that purpose and it is described in this work.

  16. 3D-TECLMOLOGIES IN FORMING AND FOUNDRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Doroshenko

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This review describes metal castings produced using 3D technology. Methods for 3D processing of materials related to the additive method of production, characterized by resource conservation. Frame-cellular casting can inherit the structure of nature with the best combination of materials, durability and attractive appearance. 3D technologies expand the existing range of metal products. Among the new foundry processes at the Institute PTIMA of NAS of Ukraine patented 3D technology of molding sand products through the deformation of granular materials, as well as getting sand shell molds for one-time pattern.

  17. Effect of Used Foundry Sandand Pozzocrete Partial Replacement with Fine Aggregate and Cement in Concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Dushyant R. Bhimani; Prof. Jayeshkumar Pitroda2; Prof. Jaydev J. Bhavsar

    2013-01-01

    To produce low cost concrete by blending various ratios of fine aggregate and cement with used foundry sand and Pozzocrete to reduce disposal and pollution problems due to used foundry sand and Pozzocrete.Pozzocrete P60 is a processed quality assured fly ash, investigated for its use as a partial replacement for cement in concrete (1:1.48:3.21). The utilization of Pozzocrete P60 as cement replacement material in concrete or as additive in cement introduces many benefits from economical, techn...

  18. MouldingSandDB – a modern database storing moulding sands properties research results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Jakubski

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The complexity of foundry processes requires the use of modern, advanced IT tools for optimization, storage and analysis of t echnicaldata. Properties of moulding and core sands that are collected in research laboratories, manufacturers, and finally in the foundries, are not in use later on. It seems important to create a database that will allow to use the results stored, along with the possibility of searching according to set criteria, adjusted to casting practice. This paper presents part of the database named „MouldingSandDB”, which allows to collect and search data for synthetic moulding sands.

  19. The radiological aspects of zircon sand use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zircon sand containing radioactivity is being used in the zirconium extraction process, metal casting, and in the ceramic and refractory industries. The sand is being widely distributed as weight in ordinary tape dispensers. Use of the sand by foundries and the zirconium industry has resulted in the accumulation of large volumes of low-level radioactive waste. Radium-226 concentration in typical zircon sand was measured as 90 +- 3 pCi/g. Radon emanation from zircon sand was estimated as 2 pCi/m2 sec. (author)

  20. Health and safety at work in foundry companies

    OpenAIRE

    L. Wojtynek

    2011-01-01

    The article presents the identification and analysis of threats in the environment of the foundry at individual stages of the casts manufacturing process. A generalized model of the foundry was created in the system presentation including harmful and dangerous factors in the foundry technical workplace. This model can refer to an iron foundry and cast steel and small non-ferrous foundries, to modern foundries, with automatic moulding lines and to chill and pressure foundries where machines ex...

  1. Molecular Foundry, Berkeley, California (Revised)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlisle, N.

    2008-03-01

    This case study provides information on the Molecular Foundry, which incorporates Labs21 principles in its design and construction. The design includes many of the strategies researched at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory for energy efficient cleanroom and data centers. The result is an energy efficient high-performing sustainable laboratory.

  2. Thermal aspects of temperature transformations in silica sand

    OpenAIRE

    J.St. Kowalski

    2010-01-01

    Problems related with the choice of moulding sand composition considering its behaviour in contact with molten metal were discussed.The investigations of high-temperature phenomena enable moulding sand composition to be evaluated in terms of its applicability underthe specific conditions of a foundry shop. It is also possible to eliminate the casting defects related to moulding sand and its properties. The investigations were carried out on selected moulding sands from the family of the tradi...

  3. Using sol-gel component as additive to foundry coatings to improve casting quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nwaogu, Ugochukwu Chibuzoh; Poulsen, T.; Gravesen, B.; Tiedje, Niels Skat

    The improvement of foundry coatings to enhance performance is important. This paper investigates the effect of using sol‐gel component as an additive to foundry coatings applied on chemically bonded sand cores. Three parameters at three levels each were investigated using Taguchi experimental...... evaluated. The results show that the surface quality of castings obtained by adding the sol‐gel component to the coatings for cold box cores has no significant difference from castings produced with coatings without sol‐gel component. On the other hand, the addition of the sol‐gel component in coatings for...

  4. Web based foundry knowledge base

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Stawowy

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The main assumptions and functions of proposed Foundry Knowledge Base (FKB are presented in this paper. FKB is a framework forinformation exchange of casting products and manufacturing methods. We use CMS (Content Management System to develope andmaintain our web-based system. The CastML – XML dialect developed by authors for description of casting products and processes – isused as a tool for information interchange between ours and outside systems, while SQL is used to store and edit knowledge rules and alsoto solve the basic selection problems in the rule-based module. Besides the standard functions (companies data, news, events, forums and media kit, our website contains a number of nonstandard functions; the intelligent search module based on expert system is the main advantage of our solution. FKB is to be a social portal which content will be developed by foundry community.

  5. From famous foundry to 'supersurgery'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Steve

    2014-02-01

    Dr Steve Mann, a partner at the Worcester Street Medical Practice in Stourbridge, describes how he and a number of his GP colleagues have worked with architects, Abacus Architects, and main contractor, Amphion Construction, as well as with a number of local NHS and local authority bodies, to co-ordinate construction of a new GP 'supersurgery' - the realisation of a dream - on the former site of what is believed to be one of England's oldest foundries in the West Midlands town. The architects' view on the scheme, one of the key goals of which is to retain both much of the character, and the unusual original metal sub-structure, of the former foundry, is also given. PMID:24620493

  6. Web based foundry knowledge base

    OpenAIRE

    A. Stawowy; A. Macio?; R. Wrona

    2009-01-01

    The main assumptions and functions of proposed Foundry Knowledge Base (FKB) are presented in this paper. FKB is a framework forinformation exchange of casting products and manufacturing methods. We use CMS (Content Management System) to develope andmaintain our web-based system. The CastML – XML dialect developed by authors for description of casting products and processes – isused as a tool for information interchange between ours and outside systems, while SQL is used to store and edit know...

  7. Fluidity of Aluminium Foundry Alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Di Sabatino, Marisa

    2007-01-01

    The fluidity of an alloy plays a key role for the foundry and transport industries as it affects the quality and soundness of the cast products. Particularly, fluidity influences the reject rates, hence casting costs and the production of thinwalled, hence light components. Fluidity is a complex technological property and depends on many parameters. However, many aspects of this subject are still not fully understood. The motivation of the research presented in this doctoral thesis was, there...

  8. Molecular Foundry: (Adv. Mater. 38/2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    The Molecular Foundry offers expertise and research resources for the synthesis, characterization, fabrication, and theory of nanostructured materials. As part of the Bay Area's vibrant scientific ecosystem, users of the Molecular Foundry also strongly benefit from Berkeley Lab's diverse scientific community. PMID:26448597

  9. Evaluation of Reclamability of Molding Sands with New Inorganic Binders

    OpenAIRE

    I. Izdebska-Szanda; A. Bali?ski; M. Angrecki

    2012-01-01

    One of the purposes of the application of chemically modified inorganic binders is to improve knocking out properties and the related reclamability with previously used in foundry inorganic binder (water glass), which allowing the use of ecological binders for casting non- ferrous metals. Good knocking out properties of the sands is directly related to the waste sands reclamability, which is a necessary condition of effective waste management. Reclamation of moulding and core sands is a funda...

  10. Biopolimers – structure, properties and applicability in the foundry industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Grabowska

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available A review of literature data concerning physicochemical properties and possibilities of practical utilisation of the most important natural biopolymers (proteins, celluloses, starch, chitozan are presented in the paper. Biopolymers being renewable natural polymers characterised by several required physicochemical properties (adhesivity, activity, no toxicity, biodegradability constitute more and more interesting processing raw material for various industrial utilisations including environment friendly binding agents for moulding sands. Protein and starch compositions are used as binding agents for moulding and core sands in the foundry industry. Preliminary tests – performed within own research - of modification and utilisation of biopolymers as binding agents for moulding sands are promising from many aspects: technological (adequate properties of moulding sands, ecological (no toxicity, biodegradability and economic (low price. Starch from the polysaccharide group seems to be especially interesting since it is abundant, easily obtainable, biodegradable and the cheapest polymer. At its actual low price and the possibility of using agricultural wastes in the production, problem of utilising starch in many industry branches can become significant, especially in Poland.

  11. Health and safety at work in foundry companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Wojtynek

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the identification and analysis of threats in the environment of the foundry at individual stages of the casts manufacturing process. A generalized model of the foundry was created in the system presentation including harmful and dangerous factors in the foundry technical workplace. This model can refer to an iron foundry and cast steel and small non-ferrous foundries, to modern foundries, with automatic moulding lines and to chill and pressure foundries where machines execute the majority of essential operations.

  12. Determination of electrical properties of materials used in microwaveheating of foundry moulds and cores

    OpenAIRE

    B. Opyd; K.Granat; Nowak, D.

    2015-01-01

    The environment-friendly and cost efficient microwave heating of moulding and core sands opens possibilities to use plastics and wood for structures of foundry instrumentation, where transparency to microwaves is the main requirement. Presented are results of a preliminary research on determining possibilities to use selected materials in microwave field. From the viewpoint of specificity of this process, the basic parameter is ability to absorb or transmit microwave radiation. Determined wer...

  13. Optimising network flow for cost- and value- efficient operation of the supplier-to-foundry system

    OpenAIRE

    A. Smoli?ski; J. Szymszal; T. Mikuszewski

    2007-01-01

    Skillful control of a network flow, which creates a real bridge between the supplier and user, is one of the most important conditions for cost-efficient operation of an enterprise, foundry shop included. This paper describes modern principles of the network optimising for better distribution of the moulding sand, using modern methods of operational research and commonly available Excel calculation sheet equipped with an optimising tool called Solver.

  14. Influence of the Changes of the Structure of Foundry Bentonites on Their Binding Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Sylwia ?YMANKOWSKA-KUMON; Mariusz HOLTZER; Artur BOBROWSKI; Ewa OLEJNIK

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the effects of the examination of the structure of calcium bentonites, activated by sodium carbonate, applied in the foundry industry as a binding agent for moulding sands, subjected to the effects of high temperature, were presented. The examination was conducted with the use of the infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray analysis (XRD). In addition, the montmorillonite contents in the bentonite sample was determined with the use of the modern, Cu(II)-TET complex method and th...

  15. The present and future status of Japanese foundry industry

    OpenAIRE

    Kanetake NAKATANI

    2008-01-01

    An introduction is given in detail about the current situation of Japanese foundry industry in 2006 from aspects such as the delivery structure of castings, scale and numbers of foundries, current profi t of foundry industry as well as the background of lower profi tability, etc. The development trend of Japanese foundry industry was also predicted, such as the transition of foundries from family business to modern company business, the improvement of rejection ratio and yield, application of...

  16. The Properties of Moulding Sand with Halloysite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cholewa

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Until now, the mould sand in general use in the foundry industry are based on bentonite, which resulted from the fact that a good recognition properties and phenomena associated with this material. Come to know and normalized content of montmorillonite and carbonates and their important role in the construction of bentonite, and mass properties of the participation of compressive strength or scatter. Halloysite is widely used in industry and beyond them. However, little is known about its use in the foundry in Poland and abroad. This article presents preliminary research conducted at the Foundry Department of Silesian University of Technology on this material. Will raise the question of the representation of this two materials, which contains information connected with history and formation of materials, their structure and chemical composition. In the research, the results of compressive strength tests in wet masses of quartz matrix, where as a binder is used halloysite and bentonite in different proportions.

  17. APPLICATION OF ADDITIVELY MANUFACTURED POLYMER COMPOSITE PROTOTYPES IN FOUNDRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiesław Kuczko

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a method, developed by the authors, for manufacturing polymer composites with the matrix manufactured in a layered manner (via 3D printing – Fused Deposition Modeling out of a thermoplastic material. As an example of practical application of this method, functional prototypes are presented, which were used as elements of foundry tooling – patterns for sand molding. In case of manufacturing prototype castings or short series of products, foundries usually cooperate with modeling studios, which produce patterns by conventional, subtractive manufacturing technologies. If patterns have complex shapes, this results in high manufacturing costs and significantly longer time of tooling preparation. The method proposed by the authors allows manufacturing functional prototypes in a short time thanks to utilizing capabilities of additive manufacturing (3D printing technology. Thanks to using two types of materials simultaneously (ABS combined with chemically hardened resins, the produced prototypes are capable of carrying increased loads. Moreover, the method developed by the authors is characterized by manufacturing costs lower than in the basic technology of Fused Deposition Modeling. During the presented studies, the pattern was produced as a polymer composite and it was used to prepare a mold and a set of metal castings.

  18. Restoration of an Argonne National Laboratory foundry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Environmental Management Operations Waste Management Department (WMD) at Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL-E) undertook the restoration of an unused foundry with the goal of restoring the area for general use. The foundry was used in the fabrication of reactor components for ANL's research and development programs; many of the items fabricated in the facility were radioactive, thereby contaminating the foundry equipment. The major challenges associated with the safe removal of the foundry equipment included the sheer size of the equipment, a limited overhead crane capability (4.5 tonnes), the minimization of radioactive and hazardous wastes, the cost-effective completion of the project, the hazardous and radioactive wastes present, and limited process knowledge (the facility was unused for man years)

  19. Foundry industry – current state and future development

    OpenAIRE

    M. Holtzer; R. Da?ko; S. ?ymankowska-Kumon

    2012-01-01

    The casting production is considered as one of the main factors influencing the development of world economy. The state of art and foresight of world’s casting production is discussed in the paper on the basis of the latest statistical data. The progress gained during the last few years in foundry engineering is shown as a way to further development of foundry technology. The last decade brought significant changes in the world map of the greatest casting producers. Globalization and transfor...

  20. International negotiations in the foundry engineering

    OpenAIRE

    L. Wojtynek; S. Pietrowski

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to introduce the essence of negotiations in general, which could find it’s application in foundry engineering. The paper is the result of long cooperation of the authors with foundry engineering and their participation in negotiations between the domestic and foreign companies. In this paper the essence and the rules of negotiations have been introduced. It presents also the skills and abilities of the negotiators. The cycle of negotiations and the following stages of...

  1. Production scheduling model in aluminium foundry:

    OpenAIRE

    Lovri?, Tadija; Majdandži?, Niko; Mati?evi?, Gordana

    2008-01-01

    There are numerous methods and strategies for production management which are successfully implemented in the metal industry and in the automobile and machine tools industry in particular. However, little research has been published regarding scheduling foundry operations. Therefore, the main goal ofthis paper is to develop a new mathematical model for scheduling foundry operations based on the MRP II (Manufacturing Resource Planning), JIT (Just inTime) and OPT (Optimized Production Technolog...

  2. Environmental favourable foundries through maintenance activities

    OpenAIRE

    Saniuk, A.; Jasiulewicz-Kaczmarek, M.; Samolejova, A.; S. Saniuk; R. Lenort

    2015-01-01

    Maintenance today contributes to the aim of sustainable development in society, including environmental and energy saving, safety and economical aspects. The main purpose of the paper is to present the role of maintenance in the realization of sustainable developing practices in a foundry industry. Maintenance offers numerous opportunities to reduce the influence of foundry processes on the natural environment and utilize resources more efficiently. Maintenance activities can help to reduce l...

  3. Hybrid foundry patterns of bevel gears

    OpenAIRE

    Budzik G.; Markowski T.; Sobolak M.

    2007-01-01

    Possibilities of making hybrid foundry patterns of bevel gears for investment casting process are presented. Rapid prototyping of gears with complex tooth forms is possible with the use of modern methods. One of such methods is the stereo-lithography, where a pattern is obtained as a result of resin curing with laser beam. Patterns of that type are applicable in precision casting. Removing of stereo-lithographic pattern from foundry mould requires use of high temperatures. Resin burning would...

  4. Wastes Characterisation from Foundry Activities on European Level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work presents The results of the eco toxicological characterisation of 22 defined wastes from steel foundry activities. The wastes have been selected from three processes, steel mill (smelting). sand casting and cleaning and finishing of steel products,with the common characteristics of represent an important industrial activity in the area and generated the wastes considered in this study. The eco toxicological characterisation obtained applying the Spanish regulations on hazardous waste is compared to the hazardous attributions considered by the European Union in order to characterise a waste as hazardous (non hazardous). The results allow to conclude that a acceptable concordance between both methodologies is reached and remark the need to split the broad generic types of wastes given by the Spanish regulation (Eco toxic / non eco toxic) into clearly identifiable specific types of waste

  5. Radiometric measurement techniques in metallurgy and foundry technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The contributions contain informations concerning the present state and development of radiometric measurement techniques in metallurgy and foundry technology as well as their application to the solution of various problems. The development of isotope techniques is briefly described. Major applications of radiometric equipment in industrial measurement are presented together with the use of isotopes to monitor processes of industrial production. This is followed by a short description of numerous laboratory-scale applications. Another contribution deals with fundamental problems and methods of moisture measurement by neutrons. A complex moisture/density measurement device the practical applicability of which has been tested is described here. Possibilities for clay determination in used-up moulding materials are discussed in a further contribution. The clay content can be determined by real-time radiometric density measurement so that the necessary moisture or addition of fresh sand can be controlled. (orig.) With 20 figs., 9 tabs., 178 refs

  6. Evaluation of electromagnetic absorbing capacity of materials in foundry industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Nowak

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, a research on determining the standing wave ratio as a measure of electromagnetic absorbing capacity of moulding materials is presented. Preliminary tests performed using a microwave strip line showed that high-silica, chromite and magnesite moulding sands are characterised by low absorbing capacity of microwaves. It was demonstrated that microwave absorbing capacity is significantly affected by chemical compounds included in the examined substrates. It was found that use of a microwave strip line permits precise determining characteristic microwave absorbing capacities of various moulding materials and thus their suitability for microwave drying/hardening of moulds and cores or for other foundry processes. Such a microwave drier can be applied for identifying mass components and for determining e.g. base granularity by means of precisely determined reflection ratios |Γ| and positions of minimum signal values.

  7. Research and application of enterprise resource planning system for foundry enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Jianxin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available PPDB issues - four aspects of current management issues of foundry enterprises are discussed in this paper, including Production Management, Process Control, Duration Monitoring and Business Intelligence Data Analysis. Also a whole Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP solution for foundry enterprises is proposed. The solution contains many models, four of which are used to solve the PPDB issues. These are called SPDB models, which separately are the Single-piece management model (based on casting lifecycle, Process management model (based on task-driven technology, Duration monitoring model (based on surplus period, and Business intelligence data analysis model (based on data mining. An ERP system for foundry enterprises, named HZERP, was researched and developed, and applied to a sand casting company of single piece and small batch production. Qualitatively and quantitatively comparing the application effect before and after implementing the HZERP system, the result demonstrated that the foundry ERP system based on the SPDB models can help metal casting enterprises achieve the single-piece management, better regulate the production processes, improve production and delivery management, shorten the production cycle, reduce costs, and speed up the capital turnover to a large extent.

  8. Method of the Moulding Sands Binding Power Assessment in Two-Layer Moulds Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Holtzer, M.; D. Dro?y?ski; Bobrowski, A.; J. Makselon

    2014-01-01

    More and more foundry plants applying moulding sands with water-glass or its substitutes for obtaining the high-quality casting surface at the smallest costs, consider the possibility of implementing two-layer moulds, in which e.g. the facing sand is a sand with an organic binder (no-bake type) and the backing sand is a sand with inorganic binder. Both kinds of sands must have the same chemical reaction. The most often applied system is the moulding sand on the water-glass or geopolymer bases...

  9. Investigations of reclamation ability of used moulding sand with water glass binder and used sand with CO2 hardened alkaline resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Da?ko

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction of modern moulding sands with the organic and unorganic binders requires the use of reclamation carried out in order to reuseof used sands. Used sands depending on the type of binding material are characterized by different susceptibility to the recoveryprocesses. Presented research is aimed at determining reclaimability of selected used sands, which are often used in the Polish foundryindustry. This applies to the used moulding sand with water glass binder hardener by esters (ethylene glycol diacetate - technology floster S and used moulding sand with Carbophen 5692 resin, hardened by CO2 as a representative for this type of resins used in foundry.

  10. The Properties of Moulding Sand with Halloysite

    OpenAIRE

    M. Cholewa; ?. Kozakiewicz*

    2012-01-01

    Until now, the mould sand in general use in the foundry industry are based on bentonite, which resulted from the fact that a good recognition properties and phenomena associated with this material. Come to know and normalized content of montmorillonite and carbonates and their important role in the construction of bentonite, and mass properties of the participation of compressive strength or scatter. Halloysite is widely used in industry and beyond them. However, little is known about its use...

  11. Mid-infrared spectroscopic analysis of chemically bound metalcasting sands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foundries around the world discard millions of tonnes of molding and core sand each year even though they can be beneficially used in manufactured soils and geotechnical applications. Despite their usefulness as an aggregate replacement, some environmental authorities are concerned over potential ne...

  12. Strength properties of moulding sands with chosen biopolymer binders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    St.M. Dobosz

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of primary researches of the IV generation moulding sands, in which as the binders are used differentbiodegradable materials. The bending and the tensile strength of the moulding sands with polylactide, poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid,polycaprolactone, polyhydroxybutyrate and cellulose acetate as binders were measured. The researches show that the best strengthproperties have the moulding sands with polylactide as binder. It was proved that the tested moulding sands’ strength properties are goodenough for foundry practice.

  13. Gas pressure in sand mould poured with cast iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Chojecki

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of measurements of gas pressure in foundry moulds made from sands bonded with bentonite, sodium sil icate and furan resin were disclosed. It was found that the maximum pressure during pouring of mould with metal occurs in the case of bentonite sands, especially with the addition of coal dust. The effect of this pressure on the formation of surface defects in castings was examined.

  14. Moulding Sands with New InorganicBinders - Ecology Assessment in the Aspect of Work Environment

    OpenAIRE

    I. Szanda; M. ?mudzi?ska; Faber, J.; K. Perszewska

    2012-01-01

    The development of economy and industry introducing new technologies and materials often means the increased threat of occurrenceof factors harmful to humans and environment. Workers employed in foundries as mould pourers are the group of high professional risk.Foundry moulding sands when poured with liquid metal are a source of the emission of harmful, toxic and carcinogenic (benzene,PAHs) compounds.The paper presents the results of studies on the concentration of chemical compounds emitted ...

  15. Influence of dust addition from cast iron production on bentonite sand mixture properties

    OpenAIRE

    P. Genge?; A. Pribulová

    2010-01-01

    In cast iron foundry operations like melting, casting, feetling, casts cleaning and grinding of a high amount of dusts are produced. Threekinds of dusts from different parts of cast iron foundry were analysed; chemical analyses, granulometric analyses and microscopic analyseswere carried out. The bentonite sand mixtures with different portion of dusts were prepared. Technological properties of prepared sandmixtures (compression strength, shearing strength and permeability) were measured.

  16. Preliminary investigation of the organic chemical emissions from green sand pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gwin, C.H.; Scott, W.D.; James, R.H.

    1976-12-01

    Condensable effluents from the thermal decomposition of a typical green sand foundry mold were investigated for the presence of emissions that could present health hazards in a foundry atmosphere. The benzene-soluble fraction extracted from the condensate was analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Over 200 compounds were observed on the chromatograms and benzo(a)pyrene, benzo(e)pyrene and perylene were identified. The concentrations of these materials were not determined, but their presence in foundry atmospheres presents an area of potential concern for health welfare.

  17. The present and future status of Japanese foundry industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanetake NAKATANI

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available An introduction is given in detail about the current situation of Japanese foundry industry in 2006 from aspects such as the delivery structure of castings, scale and numbers of foundries, current profi t of foundry industry as well as the background of lower profi tability, etc. The development trend of Japanese foundry industry was also predicted, such as the transition of foundries from family business to modern company business, the improvement of rejection ratio and yield, application of IT to production and management, human resources and the challenge for zero emission and so on.

  18. Moisture content measurement of foundry raw materials with NZK 201 neutron moisture gage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possibility was studied of applying densimeters and moisture gages of the NZK 201 type in a foundry. The experiments were conducted in the measurement of pure quartz sands and sands with binding agents, such as sodium silicate and bentonite, within the moisture range of 0.5 to 6% water, and in the measurement of a fuel mixture consisting of ground anthracite and ground coke with a moisture content of more than 5%. The dependence was determined of the recorded pulse rates on the water content in quartz sands without binding agents. The measurements were carried out in a volume of 507 dm3 over a period of 3 mins. The accuracy of moisture determination within 0 to 1.5% water was 0.2 to 0.3%, for a higher water content 0.1 to 0.2%. The results of measurements in volumes of 38 and 25 dm3 are given in form of calibration curves. In the minimal volume of 25 dm3 an accuracy of +-0.2% could be obtained. Similar measurements were carried out in a mixture of sand with sodium silicate. The calibration curves for pure quartz sand and sand with sodium silicate are similar. A calibration curve could not be obtained in measurements of quartz sand with bentonite and of the fuel mixture of ground anthracite and ground coke owing to the unreproducibility of results. (J.B.)

  19. On the measurement of surface tension in binders used for moulding sands

    OpenAIRE

    B. Hutera; K. Smyksy; D. Dro?y?ski

    2008-01-01

    The surface tension of foundry binders is a very important parameter affecting the properties of a sand-binder system. Combined with other parameters, its value determines an outcome of the process of moulding sand preparation and the mechanical properties of the ready moulding composition. The problem of how to measure the surface tension of binders used in preparation of moulding sands is discussed only occasionally. Indirectly, the surface tension is characterised by the value of a contact...

  20. Granulation of After Reclamation Dusts from the Mixed Sands Technology: Water Glass – Resolit

    OpenAIRE

    Kami?ska, J.; J. Da?ko

    2013-01-01

    A technology of sands with water glass hardened by liquid esters is a cheap and ecologic method of producing moulding sands. Due to these advantages, this technology is still very important in several foundry plants for production of heavy iron and steel castings. Reclamation of the mixed moulding and core sands generates significant amounts of dusts, which require further treatments for their reuse. The results of investigations of a pressureless granulation of dusts generated in the dry mec...

  1. Increase of foundry properties of secondary silumins

    OpenAIRE

    O.V. Ljutova; I.P. Volchok

    2008-01-01

    The work is devoted to increase of foundry properties of secondary silumins. The influence of a chip contents in charge, quantities of iron in an alloy and the modifier used for processing of liquid metal, on fluidity, linear shrinkage, crack resistance and a porosity number of silumin AlSi9Cu2 is considered.

  2. 77 FR 32998 - Foundry Coke From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-04

    ... The Commission instituted this review on December 1, 2011 (76 FR 74810) and determined on March 5, 2012 that it would conduct an expedited review (77 FR 15123, March 14, 2012). The Commission... COMMISSION Foundry Coke From China Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject...

  3. Characterization and extraction of gold contained in foundry industrial wastes; Caracterizacion y extraccion de oro contenido en matrices de desechos industriales de fundicion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vite T, J.; Vite T, M.; Diaz C, A.; Carreno de Leon, C. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Depto. de Estudios del Ambiente, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    Gold was characterized and leached in foundry sands. These wastes are product among others of the automotive industry where they are used as molds material which are contaminated by diverse metals during the foundry. To fulfil the leaching process four coupled thermostat columns were used. To characterize the solid it was used the X-ray diffraction technique. For the qualitative analysis it was used the Activation analysis technique. Finally, for the study of liquors was used the Plasma diffraction spectroscopy (Icp-As) technique. The obtained results show that the process which was used the thermostat columns was more efficient, than the methods traditionally recommended. (Author)

  4. ELABORATION OF MANAGEMENT PLAN OF SOLID WASTE FROM SMALL CAST IRON FOUNDRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Mendes Moraes

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The foundry industry contributes to society meeting the demand of metal scrap recycling, but, at the same time, it brings a high risk of environmental impact for its many potentially pollutant wastes. Among these, there are slag and used foundry sand (cold cure molding. Through a survey about the production process of a small cast iron company, the collected data was compiled to determine the organizational setting in terms of generation and segregation of waste. From a complete environmental diagnosis carried out in eight small cast iron foundries, one of them was chosen to be a basis for the elaboration of an industrial solid waste management plan, which is becoming necessary to know and manage the generation of wastes qualitatively and quantitatively. A data assessment about the production process was carried out and compiled to determine the actual organizational scenario. As a result of that, it is possible to create a favorable environment to develop tools for environmental impacts prevention, which will permit the migration for more complex actions on the direction of more efficient process, cleaner production, and internal and external recycling of exceeding materials.

  5. Failure effects and resolution of modes: a novel FMEA treatise for finalizing mould designs in foundries

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    T.A., Selvan; C., Jegadheesan; P., Ashoka Varthanan; K.M., Senthilkumar.

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel strategy to finalize the mould design of a specific cast component through the failure analysis using case study data of a foundry. Traditional failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) is one of the effective tools for prioritizing the possible failure modes by calculating [...] the Risk priority Number (RPN) of a process/design. But in foundries, prioritizing the failures through the traditional FMEA produces unmatched results when RPN values are identical during preproduction trials. Hence it is very difficult to finalize moulds design of a specific cast component using traditional FMEA approach. This research paper addresses an alternate FMEA approach named FEAROM (Failure Effects And Resolution of Modes) to resolve the difficulty in finalizing the mould designs. Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) is used for validating the results obtained using FEAROM method. The results presented are based on an experimental study carried out for a specific component in a foundry using the sand casting method. It is found that proposed FEAROM model matches well in practice and produces quality castings.

  6. Fontainebleau Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Caspar Thrane

    2006-01-01

    The report is a summary of results from laboratory tests in the geotechncial research group on Fontainebleau sand.......The report is a summary of results from laboratory tests in the geotechncial research group on Fontainebleau sand....

  7. Improving electrical efficiency in the foundry industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the current economic climate, it is essential for industry to minimize costs wherever possible. This is particularly important in the foundry industry that is being subjected to competitive pressure from offshore suppliers and by suppliers of competing materials. This paper reports that foundries must continuously strive to lower operating costs wherever possible. In many respects, the utility industry is no different. The situation facing utilities over the past several years has resulted in its transition from a producer and supplier of energy to that of a more customer oriented service company. In many cases, utilities have formed departments dedicated to providing assistance to their customers in the application of electricity to their business. At the same time, the need for energy conservation has become widespread in North America as energy demand increases, environmental concerns increase and the cost of providing new power plants become formidable

  8. The human role in a progressive trend of foundry automation

    OpenAIRE

    A. Misztal; M. Butlewski; Jasiak, A.; S. Janik

    2015-01-01

    An increasing competition in the foundry market focuses on more efficient methods of production. High quality and efficiency requirements, but also rising labor costs, will make the foundry production largely automated. Currently,molding on automatic lines accounts for 40 % of the foundry production in Poland. The article discusses organizational,technical and ergonomic implications of automation in production processes and presents the results of research carried out in this field in Polish ...

  9. Monitoring of the supply system of electrical foundry equipment

    OpenAIRE

    E. Zió?kowski

    2010-01-01

    The article presents examples of recording the instantaneous values voltages, currents and power in electrical power systems foundry.Recorded measurements of the instantaneous values allow to make an analysis of transients at the time of turning on the foundry device.The author on the bases of the measurements results in power systems selected foundry mixers, describes examples of analysis andevaluation of transients when switching these devices.

  10. Maintenance system improvement in cast iron foundry

    OpenAIRE

    S. Kukla

    2011-01-01

    The work presents the issue of technical equipment management in an iron foundry basing on the assumptions of the TPM system (Total Productive Maintenance). Exploitation analysis of automatic casting lines has been carried out and their work’s influence on the whole production system’s functioning has been researched. Within maintenance system improvement, implementation of autonomic service and planned lines’ review have been proposed in order to minimize the time of breakdown stoppages. The...

  11. A Formalised Description of Foundry Production Program

    OpenAIRE

    R. Wrona; A. Stawowy; A. Macio?

    2007-01-01

    Rational designing of foundry enterprises is based on a program allowing for both the quantitative and qualitative aspects of production. Studies carried out in this respect are mainly oriented at the task of establishing a classification system of castings and formalising their description. This article refers to the absolute classification and technological classification of castings existing so far; some principles of the formation of a model of the data on production program have been pre...

  12. How orthogonal are the OBO Foundry ontologies?

    OpenAIRE

    Ghazvinian Amir; Noy Natalya F; Musen Mark A

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Ontologies in biomedicine facilitate information integration, data exchange, search and query of biomedical data, and other critical knowledge-intensive tasks. The OBO Foundry is a collaborative effort to establish a set of principles for ontology development with the eventual goal of creating a set of interoperable reference ontologies in the domain of biomedicine. One of the key requirements to achieve this goal is to ensure that ontology developers reuse term definition...

  13. Casting Ductile Iron in Layer Moulds Made from Ecological Sands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R?czka

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The article contains the results of tests performed under the target project in Hardtop Foundry Charsznica.The objective of the tests and studies was to develop a technology of making high-quality ductile iron castings, combined witheffective means of environmental protection. The studies presented in this article related to castings weighing from 1 to 300 kg made from ductile iron of grades 400-15 and 500-7, using two-layer moulds, where the facing and core sand was the sand with an alkaline organic binder, while backing sand was the sand with an inorganic geopolymer binder.A simplified method of sand reclamation was applied with possible reuse of the reclaim as an addition to the backing sand. The castiron spheroidising treatment and inoculation were selected taking into account the specific conditions of Hardtop Foundry. A pilot batch of castings was made, testing the gating and feeding systems and using exothermic sleeves on risers. The study confirmed the validity of the adopted concept of making ductile iron castings in layer moulds, while maintaining the content of sand with an organic binder at a level of maximum 15%.

  14. Influence of the Changes of the Structure of Foundry Bentonites on Their Binding Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia ?YMANKOWSKA-KUMON

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the effects of the examination of the structure of calcium bentonites, activated by sodium carbonate, applied in the foundry industry as a binding agent for moulding sands, subjected to the effects of high temperature, were presented. The examination was conducted with the use of the infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and X-ray analysis (XRD. In addition, the montmorillonite contents in the bentonite sample was determined with the use of the modern, Cu(II-TET complex method and the technological properties of moulding sands containing the examined bentonites, such as: compactability, permeability, compression strength were examined.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.18.1.1342

  15. Development tendencies of moulding and core sands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislaw M. Dobosz1

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Further development of the technology for making moulding and core sands will be strictly limited by tough requirements due to protection of the natural environment. These tendencies are becoming more and more tense, so that we will reach a point when even processes, that from technological point of view fulfill high requirements of the foundry industry, must be replaced by more ecologically-friendly solutions. Hence, technologies using synthetic resins as binding materials will be limited. This paper presents some predictable development tendencies of moulding and core sands. The increasing role of inorganic substances will be noticed, including silicate binders with significantly improved properties, such as improved knock-out property or higher reclamation strength. Other interesting solutions might also be moulding sands bonded by geo-polymers and phosphate binders or salts and also binders based on degradable biopolymers. These tendencies and the usefulness of these binders are put forward in this paper.

  16. Method of the Moulding Sands Binding Power Assessment in Two-Layer Moulds Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Holtzer

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available More and more foundry plants applying moulding sands with water-glass or its substitutes for obtaining the high-quality casting surface at the smallest costs, consider the possibility of implementing two-layer moulds, in which e.g. the facing sand is a sand with an organic binder (no-bake type and the backing sand is a sand with inorganic binder. Both kinds of sands must have the same chemical reaction. The most often applied system is the moulding sand on the water-glass or geopolymer bases - as the backing sand and the moulding sand from the group of self-hardening sands with a resol resin - as the facing sand. Investigations were performed for the system: moulding sand with inorganic GEOPOL binder or moulding sand with water glass (as a backing sand and moulding sand, no-bake type, with a resol resin originated from various producers: Rezolit AM, Estrofen, Avenol NB 700 (as a facing sand. The LUZ apparatus, produced by Multiserw Morek, was adapted for investigations. A special partition with cuts was mounted in the attachment for making test specimens for measuring the tensile strength. This partition allowed a simultaneous compaction of two kinds of moulding sands. After 24 hours of hardening the highest values were obtained for the system: Geopol binder - Avenol resin.

  17. GRAY IRON FOUNDRY INDUSTRY PARTICULATE EMISSIONS: SOURCE CATEGORY REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of a study to develop particulate emission factors based on cutoff size for inhalable particles for the gray iron foundry industry. After a review of available information characterizing particulate emissions from gray iron foundries, the data were summar...

  18. Foundry. Trade and Industrial Education Trade Preparatory Training Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebraska State Dept. of Education, Lincoln. Div. of Vocational Education.

    One of a series of curriculum guides prepared for the metals occupations cluster of the construction/fabrication occupational group, this guide identifies the essentials of the foundry trade as recommended by the successful foundry operator. An instructional program based upon the implementation of the guide is expected to prepare a student to…

  19. Mutagenic material in air particles in a steel foundry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently published epidemiological reports indicate lung cancer mortality amongst foundry workers at DOFASCO, Ltd., was higher than found elsewhere in the plant or control populations. Presented are preliminary work on mutagen screening efforts and studies on the use of various sampling devices and on optimization of the assays, followed by data which show a diverse range of mutagenic compounds present in foundry air particulates

  20. Photonic Device Layout Within the Foundry CMOS Design Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Orcutt, Jason Scott; Rajeev J. Ram

    2009-01-01

    A design methodology to layout photonic devices within standard electronic complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) foundry data preparation flows is described. This platform has enabled the fabrication of designs in three foundry scaled-CMOS processes from two semiconductor manufacturers.

  1. Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene, a PAH biomarker in foundry workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Omland, Øyvind; Sherson, D; Hansen, Åse Marie; Sigsgaard, Torben; Autrup, H; Overgaard, E

    1996-01-01

    hygienic samples, consisting of 16 selected PAH compounds. Mean total PAH concentration (SD) was 10.40 (4.04) mu g/m3. A multiple regression model of tobacco consumption, age, airborne PAH-exposure and foundry work on log HPU showed a significant correlation, p <0.001, r2 = 0.69. Only foundry work (p <0...

  2. Thermal aspects of temperature transformations in silica sand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.St. Kowalski

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Problems related with the choice of moulding sand composition considering its behaviour in contact with molten metal were discussed.The investigations of high-temperature phenomena enable moulding sand composition to be evaluated in terms of its applicability underthe specific conditions of a foundry shop. It is also possible to eliminate the casting defects related to moulding sand and its properties. The investigations were carried out on selected moulding sands from the family of the traditional carbon-free moulding mixtures. The effect of moulding sand composition and moisture content on the linear dilatation and stress formation caused by an allotropic quartz transformation was determined. The investigated phenomena were analysed on 3D diagrams plotted from the test data. A strong effect of the beta quartz - alpha quartz transformation at a temperature of about 6000C was stated.

  3. Properties of sodium silicate bonded sand hardened by microwave heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Zitian

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The sodium silicate bonded sand hardened by microwave heating has many advantages, such as low sodium silicate adding quantity, fast hardening speed, high room temperature strength, good collapsibility and certain surface stability. However, it has big moisture absorbability in the air, which would lead to the compression strength and the surface stability of the sand molds being sharply reduced. In this study, the moisture absorbability of the sodium silicate bonded sand hardened by microwave heating in ifferent humidity conditions and the effect factors were investigated. Meanwhile, the reasons for the big moisture absorbability of the sand were analyzed. Some measures to overcome the problems of high moisture absorbability, bad surface stability and sharply reducing strength in the air were discussed. The results of this study establish the foundation of green and clean foundry technology based on the microwave heating hardening sodium silicate sand process.

  4. Contemporary and futuristic views of pollution control devices in foundries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnaraj, R

    2015-10-01

    Foundry practices are used in contemporary world to produce large volume of components and products. Foundry practices involve the melting of metals and pouring the molten metal into the cavities called molds. On solidification, the metals which assume the shape of molds are removed as castings. Foundries that employ these practices were growing in large number till the middle part of the twentieth century in the world. After the middle part of the twentieth century, the world community begun to realize that, foundries were emitting pollutants which were affecting the health of humans. In order to overcome this situation, several countries in the world promulgated laws stipulating the maximum level of pollutants that can emit by foundries. These laws affected the functioning and growth of foundries. In order to sustain amidst these constraints, foundries begun to install energy efficient melting technologies and pollution control devices (PCDs). In this back ground, this paper reports to assess the contemporary scenario and project the future needs for sustaining the foundries. During the conduct of this literature review, it was discernable that, research papers have reported three categories of researches. In the first category of research papers, the researches reporting the achievement of cleaner production technologies in foundries using PCDs have appeared. In the second category of research papers, the application of cleaner production technology in foundries located in different countries has been examined. In the third category of research papers, the application of efficient melting technologies and PCDs in different clusters of foundries located in different parts of world has been explored. Subsequently implementation technics of Environmental Management System in cleaner production technics in foundries has been described the analysis of the information and knowledge drawn from these three categories of papers has revealed that, researches exploring the sustenance of foundries situated in different parts of world are required to be carried out intensively in future. The outcome of these researchers will be useful to apply the cleaner production technologies that would be suitable for implementation in different foundry clusters to suit the different conditions prevailing with regard to the adoption of efficient melting technologies and PCDs. PMID:26070042

  5. Characterization of modified 9 Cr-1 Mo steel sand castings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experience with the sand casting of modified 9 Cr-1 Mo steel at several foundries is presented. The castings included simple blocks, elbows, valve bodies, and a steam chest. Castings were characterized by tensile and Charpy impact tests, for the effects of thermal aging on Charpy impact properties and hardness, and by creep, fatigue, and microstructure. Properties of the castings were compared with those observed for wrought material. In general, mechanical properties of castings were slightly lower than those of the wrought material

  6. MEMS/MOEMS foundry services at INO

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Blanco, Sonia; Ilias, Samir; Williamson, Fraser; Généreux, Francis; Le Noc, Loïc; Poirier, Michel; Proulx, Christian; Tremblay, Bruno; Provençal, Francis; Desroches, Yan; Caron, Jean-Sol; Larouche, Carl; Beaupré, Patrick; Fortin, Benoit; Topart, Patrice; Picard, Francis; Alain, Christine; Pope, Timothy; Jerominek, Hubert

    2010-06-01

    In the MEMS manufacturing world, the "fabless" model is getting increasing importance in recent years as a way for MEMS manufactures and startups to minimize equipment costs and initial capital investment. In order for this model to be successful, the fabless company needs to work closely with a MEMS foundry service provider. Due to the lack of standardization in MEMS processes, as opposed to CMOS microfabrication, the experience in MEMS development processes and the flexibility of the MEMS foundry are of vital importance. A multidisciplinary team together with a complete microfabrication toolset allows INO to offer unique MEMS foundry services to fabless companies looking for low to mid-volume production. Companies that benefit from their own microfabrication facilities can also be interested in INO's assistance in conducting their research and development work during periods where production runs keep their whole staff busy. Services include design, prototyping, fabrication, packaging, and testing of various MEMS and MOEMS devices on wafers fully compatible with CMOS integration. Wafer diameters ranging typically from 1 inch to 6 inches can be accepted while 8-inch wafers can be processed in some instances. Standard microfabrication techniques such as metal, dielectric, and semiconductor film deposition and etching as well as photolithographic pattern transfer are available. A stepper permits reduction of the critical dimension to around 0.4 ?m. Metals deposited by vacuum deposition methods include Au, Ag, Al, Al alloys, Ti, Cr, Cu, Mo, MoCr, Ni, Pt, and V with thickness varying from 5 nm to 2 ?m. Electroplating of several materials including Ni, Au and In is also available. In addition, INO has developed and built a gold black deposition facility to answer customer's needs for broadband microbolometric detectors. The gold black deposited presents specular reflectance of less than 10% in the wavelength range from 0.2 ?m to 100 ?m with thickness ranging from 20 to 35 ?m and a density of 0.3% the bulk density of gold. Two Balzers thin-film deposition instruments (BAP-800 and BAK-760) permit INO to offer optical thin film manufacturing. Recent work in this field includes the design and development of a custom filter for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) as collaboration with the Canadian company ComDEV. An overview of the different microfabrication foundry services offered by INO will be presented together with the most recent achievements in the field of MEMS/MOEMS.

  7. Investigations of the Quality of the Reclaim of Spent Moulding Sands with Organic Binders

    OpenAIRE

    R. Da?ko

    2012-01-01

    Modern investigation methods and equipment for the quality estimation of the moulding sands matrices with organic binders, in theircirculation process, are presented in the paper. These methods, utilising the special equipment combined with the authors investigationmethods developed in the Faculty of Foundry Engineering, AGH the University of Science and Technology, allow for the better estimationof the matrix quality. Moulding sands systems with organic binders require an in-depth approach t...

  8. Problems of bentonite rebonding of synthetic system sands in turbine mixers

    OpenAIRE

    A. Fedoryszyn; Zych, J.; Cz. Rudy

    2008-01-01

    Turbine (rotor) mixers are widely used in foundries for bentonite rebonding of synthetic system sands. They form basic equipment in modern sand processing plants. Their major advantage is the short time of the rebond mixing cycle.Until now, no complete theoretical description of the process of mixing in turbine mixers has been offered. Neither does it seem reasonable to try to adapt the theoretical backgrounds of the mixing process carried out in mixers of other types, for example, rooler mix...

  9. Evaluation by PIXE external beam-of the leaching efficiency for a thermo stated column for the sand treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this paper was to measure the leaching efficiency for a thermo stated column designed to extract metals in muds originated by foundry process. The results obtained were useful to contemplate different alternatives helping to solve the problem of stocking enormous volumes of polluted sand produced by industries. Samples of residual sands and muds (treated sands) coming from an engine factory and from a thermo stated column respectively, were irradiated using an external beam of 3.55 MeV energy protons. From the quantitative analysis PIXE (Proton Induced X-ray Emission), it was possible to establish the level of pollution in sands due to the foundry processes and to evaluate the leaching efficiency of the output liquid phase from the thermo stated column. For polluted sands, certain cases were observed for which the efficiency was not enough to decrease the level of pollution in, e.g., Cu, Zn, Br and Pb. (Author)

  10. Evaluation by PIXE external beam of the leaching efficiency for a thermo stated column for the sand treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this paper was to measure the leaching efficiency for a thermo stated column designed to extract metals in muds originated by foundry processes. The results obtained were useful to contemplate different alternatives helping to solve the problem of stocking enormous volumes of polluted sand produced by industries. Samples of residual sands and muds (treated sands) coming from an engine factory and from a thermo stated column respectively, were irradiated using an external beam of 3.55 MeV energy protons. From the quantitative analysis PIXE (Proton Induced X-ray Emission), it was possible to establish the level of pollution in sands due to the foundry processes and to evaluate the leaching efficiency of the output liquid phase from the thermo stated column. For polluted sands, certain cases were observed for which the efficiency was not enough to decrease the level of pollution in e.g., Cu, Zn, Br y Pb. (Author)

  11. New EUROPRACTICE microsystem design and foundry services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomon, Patric R.; Beernaert, Dirk; Turner, Rob

    2000-08-01

    The microsystems market for MST is predicted to grow to 38 billion dollars by the year 2002, with systems containing these components generating even higher revenues and growth. One of the barriers to successful exploitation of this technology has been the lack of access to industrial foundries capable of producing certified microsystems devices in commercial quantities. To overcome this problem, the European Commission has started the EUROPRACTICE program in 1996 with the installation of manufacturing clusters and demonstration activities to provide access to microsystems foundry services for European small and medium sized companies (SMEs). Since 1996, there has been a shift form providing 'broad technology offers' and 'raising awareness fro microsystem capabilities' to 'direct support of design needs' and 'focused services' which allow SMEs to use even complex microsystems technologies to implement their products, The third phase of EUROPRACTICE has just been launched, and contains 5 Manufacturing Clusters, 12 Designs Houses, and 7 Competence Centers, each working in different application/technology areas. The EUROPRACTICE program will be presented together with a detail description of the capabilities of the participants and information on how to access their services.

  12. Mask cycle time reduction for foundry projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasinski, A.

    2011-11-01

    One of key deliverables of foundry based manufacturing is low cycletime. Building new and enhancing existing products by mask changes involves significant logistical effort, which could be reduced by standardizing data management and communication procedures among design house, mask shop, and foundry (fab) [1]. As an example, a typical process of taping out can take up to two weeks in addition to technical effort, for database handling, mask form completion, management approval, PO signoff and JDV review, translating into loss of revenue. In order to reduce this delay, we are proposing to develop a unified online system which should assist with the following functions: database edits, final verifications, document approvals, mask order entries, and JDV review with engineering signoff as required. This would help a growing number of semiconductor products to be flexibly manufactured at different manufacturing sites. We discuss how the data architecture based on a non-relational database management system (NRDMBS) extracted into a relational one (RDMBS) should provide quality information [2], to reduce cycle time significantly beyond 70% for an example 2 week tapeout schedule.

  13. Hybrid foundry patterns of bevel gears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budzik G.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Possibilities of making hybrid foundry patterns of bevel gears for investment casting process are presented. Rapid prototyping of gears with complex tooth forms is possible with the use of modern methods. One of such methods is the stereo-lithography, where a pattern is obtained as a result of resin curing with laser beam. Patterns of that type are applicable in precision casting. Removing of stereo-lithographic pattern from foundry mould requires use of high temperatures. Resin burning would generate significant amounts of harmful gases. In case of a solid stereo-lithographic pattern, the pressure created during gas burning may cause the mould to crack. A gas volume reduction may be achieved by using patterns of honeycomb structure. However, this technique causes a significant worsening of accuracy of stereo-lithographic patterns in respect of their dimensions and shape. In cooperation with WSK PZL Rzeszów, the Machine Design Department of Rzeszow University of Technology carried out research on the design of hybrid stereo-lithographic patterns. Hybrid pattern consists of a section made by stereo-lithographic process and a section made of casting wax. The latter material is used for stereo-lithographic pattern filling and for mould gating system. The hybrid pattern process consists of two stages: wax melting and then the burn-out of stereolithographic pattern. Use of hybrid patterns reduces the costs of production of stereolithographic patterns. High dimensional accuracy remains preserved in this process.

  14. Casting Ductile Iron in Layer Moulds Made from Ecological Sands

    OpenAIRE

    M. R?czka; K. Gandurski; B. Isendorf

    2012-01-01

    The article contains the results of tests performed under the target project in Hardtop Foundry Charsznica.The objective of the tests and studies was to develop a technology of making high-quality ductile iron castings, combined witheffective means of environmental protection. The studies presented in this article related to castings weighing from 1 to 300 kg made from ductile iron of grades 400-15 and 500-7, using two-layer moulds, where the facing and core sand was the sand with an alkaline...

  15. In vitro characterization of DNA adducts formed by foundry air particulate matter.

    OpenAIRE

    Savela, K; Kohan, M J; Walsh, D.; Perera, F.P.; Hemminki, K; Lewtas, J

    1996-01-01

    This study is part of an ongoing investigation of biomarkers in iron foundry workers exposed to polycyclic aromatic compounds. Foundry workers with the highest exposures had elevated levels of DNA adducts in their white blood cells in previous studies. The purpose of this study was to characterize the nature of DNA reactive chemicals in foundry air samples through incubating the foundry filter extract with DNA and activation enzymes. Calf thymus DNA was incubated with foundry filter extract a...

  16. Study of exposure to radiation in a lost wax foundry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Lost wax casting is an ancient method for making metal pieces. At the beginning of the process, the required metal piece is made in wax. After that, the wax model is covered with a silicaceous shell. When the silicaceous shell is finished, the wax is melted and replaced by liquid metal. As soon as the metal is cool the silicaceous shell is broken away. Finally a finishing process is made, and the piece is ready for utilization. The silicaceous shell is prepared with zircon sands containing varying concentrations of natural radionuclides: 238U, 232Th and 235U together with their progenies. For that reason it is very convenient to assess the dose to workers, considering the tasks they perform and the exposure time during these activities over a year. The first part of the study focuses on identifying the situations and areas where workers are exposed to radiation. The exposure pathways are: inhalation of dust, ingestion of dust, inhalation of radon, skin contamination and external irradiation. In a plant where this process is implemented the areas where workers are exposed are: the store, the shell building area, the foundry area, the shell or mold breaking area, and the waste area, including the areas close to the store. In these areas, workers are exposed while they work at their different tasks. The second part of the study deals with dose assessment. In most of the areas, external irradiation is the dominant pathway, and in order to assess doses a Monte-Carlo simulation using MCNP-4C code has been performed. The photon fluxes thus obtained are multiplied by the conversion factor of flux to kerma for air, by conversion factor to Effective Dose by kerma unit, and by the number of emitted photons per disintegration of parent nuclide. The application of this methodology to a given mill has produced the following results: Individual doses received by workers by area have a mean value of 5.9 ?Sv/y and a standard deviation of 7.7 ?Sv/y with an upper limit of 20.3 ?Sv/y and a lower limit of 0.2 ?Sv/y. The corresponding collective dose is 232.8 ?Sv/y and the distribution of dose by task being as follows: 1) Maintenance: carrying the zircon sands from lorry to store (0.039 ?Sv/y), placing the zircon sand pallet on the shelf (0.012 ?Sv/y), exposure while the pallet is on the shelf (2.8 ?Sv/y), taking the pallet off the shelf (0.022 ?Sv/y), taking the pallet to the mold preparation area (0.39 ?Sv/y). The total collective dose associated to this task is 3.263 ?Sv/y 2) Shell Making: shell preparation (58.2 ?Sv/y), shell cover (big trays) (76 ?Sv/y), shell cover (small trays) (9 ?Sv/y), exposures to molds (5.6?Sv/y), loading the pieces on the wagon (2.1?Sv/y), taking the wagon to the foundry area (7.4 ?Sv/y), taking the residues to the waste area (2.2 ?Sv/y), putting the pieces into the wax removing kiln (1.4 ?Sv/y). The total collective dose of this task is 161.91 ?Sv/y 3) Mold preparation (35.2 ?Sv/y) 4) Shell removal: waste material removal (0.4 ?Sv/y), and moving the cart from the foundry area (0.6 ?Sv/y) 5) Finishing (28.6 ?Sv/y) 6) Waste (0.00034 ?Sv) Workers in shell making are the most exposed, but the value of the collective dose is less than 1 mSv/y. Comparing with the levels of the graphical representation of the classification system, we can conclude that the processes 'do not need to consider regulation'. (author)

  17. Study of exposure to radiation in a lost wax foundry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Lost wax casting is an old method for making metal pieces. At the beginning of the process, the required metal piece is made in wax. After that, the wax model is covered with a siliceous shell. When the siliceous shell is finished, the wax is melted, replacing the wax by liquid metal. In the moment when the metal is cool the siliceous shell is broken away. Finally some finishing process is made, and the piece is just prepared for its utilization. The siliceous shell is prepared with zircon sands containing varying concentrations of natural radionuclides: 238U, 232Th and 235U together with their progenies. For that reason it is very convenient to assess the dose to workers, considering the tasks they perform and the exposure time in these activities during a year. The first part of the study is centred in identifying the situations and areas where workers are exposed to radiation. The exposure pathways are: inhalation of dust, ingestion of dust, inhalation of radon, skin contamination and external irradiation. In a plant where this process is implemented the areas where workers are exposed are: the store, the shell building area, the foundry area, the shell or mould breaking area, and the waste area, including those areas close to the store too. In those sections, workers are exposed while they work in different tasks. The second part of the study deals with dose assessment. In most of the areas, external irradiation is the dominant pathway, and in order to assess doses a Monte-Carlo simulation using MCNP-4C code has been performed. Photons fluxes so obtained are multiplied by the conversion factor of Flux to Kerma for air, by conversion factor to Effective Dose by kerma unit, and by the number of emitted photons per disintegration of parent nuclide. The application of this methodology to given mill has obtained the following results: Individual doses by area received by workers have a mean value of 5.9 ?Sv/y and a standard deviation of 7.7 ?Sv/y with an upper limit of 20.3 ?Sv/y and a lower limit of 0.2 ?Sv/y. The corresponding collective dose is 232.8 ?Sv/y and being the distribution of dose by task as follows: - Maintenance: Carrying the zircon sands from lorry to store (0.039 ?Sv/y), putting the zircon sand pallet on the shelf (0.012 ?Sv/y), while the pallet is on the shelf (2.8 ?Sv/y), taking the pallet off the shelf (0.022 ?Sv/y), taking the pallet to mould preparation area (0.39 ?Sv/y). The total collective dose making that task is 3.263 ?Sv/y. - Shell Making: shell preparation (58.2 ?Sv/y), shell cover (big trays) (76 ?Sv/y), shell cover (small trays) (9 ?Sv/y), exposures to moulds (5.6?Sv/y), loading the pieces on the wagon (2.1?Sv/y), taking the wagon to foundry area (7.4 ?Sv/y), taking the residues to waste area (2.2 ?Sv/y), putting the pieces into the take wax removing kiln (1.4 ?Sv/y). The total collective dose making that task is 161.91 ?Sv/y. - Mould preparation (35.2 ?Sv/y). - Shell removal: waste material removal (0.4 ?Sv/y), and moving the cart from foundry area (0.6 ?Sv/y). - Finishing (28.6 ?Sv/y). - Waste (0.00034 ?Sv). And here it can be seen that those workers working on the shell making are the most exposed ones, but the value of collective dose is less than 1 mSv/y. Comparing with the levels of the graphical representation of the classification system, it can conclude that the processes 'do not need to consider regulation'. (author)

  18. Evaluation of Reclamability of Molding Sands with New Inorganic Binders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Izdebska-Szanda

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the purposes of the application of chemically modified inorganic binders is to improve knocking out properties and the related reclamability with previously used in foundry inorganic binder (water glass, which allowing the use of ecological binders for casting non- ferrous metals. Good knocking out properties of the sands is directly related to the waste sands reclamability, which is a necessary condition of effective waste management. Reclamation of moulding and core sands is a fundamental and effective way to manage waste on site at the foundry, in accordance with the Environmental Guidelines. Therefore, studies of reclamation of waste moulding and core sands with new types of inorganic binders (developed within the framework of the project were carried out. These studies allowed to determine the degree of recovery of useful, material, what the reclaimed sand is, and the degree of its use in the production process. The article presents these results of investigation. They are a part of broader research programme executed under the project POIG.01.01.02-00- 015/09 "Advanced materials and technologies".

  19. Using sol-gel component as additive to foundry coatings to improve casting quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nwaogu, Ugochukwu Chibuzoh; Poulsen, T.

    2012-01-01

    The improvement of foundry coatings to enhance performance is important. This paper investigates the effect of using sol?gel component as an additive to foundry coatings applied on chemically bonded sand cores. Three parameters at three levels each were investigated using Taguchi experimental parameter design. The effects of the sol?gel component on viscosity, density, °Baumé, core coverage and permeability are shown. Numerical simulations were used to predict defect areas. The thermal profiles of the core materials during casting were determined, and the surface quality of the castings was evaluated. The results show that the surface quality of castings obtained by adding the sol?gel component to the coatings for cold box cores has no significant difference from castings produced with coatings without sol?gel component. On the other hand, the addition of the sol?gel component in coatings for furan cores showed significant improvement on the surface quality of the castings compared to that obtained without sol?gel component.

  20. Ion traps fabricated in a CMOS foundry

    CERN Document Server

    Mehta, K K; Bruzewicz, C D; Chuang, I L; Ram, R J; Sage, J M; Chiaverini, J

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate trapping in a surface-electrode ion trap fabricated in a 90-nm CMOS (complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor) foundry process utilizing the top metal layer of the process for the trap electrodes. The process includes doped active regions and metal interconnect layers, allowing for co-fabrication of standard CMOS circuitry as well as devices for optical control and measurement. With one of the interconnect layers defining a ground plane between the trap electrode layer and the p-type doped silicon substrate, ion loading is robust and trapping is stable. We measure a motional heating rate comparable to those seen in surface-electrode traps of similar size. This is the first demonstration of scalable quantum computing hardware, in any modality, utilizing a commercial CMOS process, and it opens the door to integration and co-fabrication of electronics and photonics for large-scale quantum processing in trapped-ion arrays.

  1. Contamination at a small precious metals foundry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extensive contamination of foundry premises resulted from the accidental inclusion of a radioactive source, a strontium-90 compound probably incorporated in rolled silver foil, in a melt for reprocessing silver scrap. Most of this contamination was easily removed using an industrial vacuum cleaner, but some brickwork, concrete flooring, the furnace lining and waste flux bin had to be removed. Fortunately the strontium contamination from the melt was concentrated in the flux around the silver. It is recommended that every radioactive source should be permanently and recognisably marked if such incidents are to be avoided in future. The correct procedure for accounting for radioactive sources should also have been followed. Subsequent monitoring by the company of scrap metal led to the discovery of an empty depleted uranium radiography source container in a consignment of lead. (U.K.)

  2. Ion traps fabricated in a CMOS foundry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehta, K. K.; Ram, R. J. [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Eltony, A. M.; Chuang, I. L. [Center for Ultracold Atoms, Research Laboratory of Electronics and Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Bruzewicz, C. D.; Sage, J. M., E-mail: jsage@ll.mit.edu; Chiaverini, J., E-mail: john.chiaverini@ll.mit.edu [Lincoln Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Lexington, Massachusetts 02420 (United States)

    2014-07-28

    We demonstrate trapping in a surface-electrode ion trap fabricated in a 90-nm CMOS (complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor) foundry process utilizing the top metal layer of the process for the trap electrodes. The process includes doped active regions and metal interconnect layers, allowing for co-fabrication of standard CMOS circuitry as well as devices for optical control and measurement. With one of the interconnect layers defining a ground plane between the trap electrode layer and the p-type doped silicon substrate, ion loading is robust and trapping is stable. We measure a motional heating rate comparable to those seen in surface-electrode traps of similar size. This demonstration of scalable quantum computing hardware utilizing a commercial CMOS process opens the door to integration and co-fabrication of electronics and photonics for large-scale quantum processing in trapped-ion arrays.

  3. Ion traps fabricated in a CMOS foundry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, K. K.; Eltony, A. M.; Bruzewicz, C. D.; Chuang, I. L.; Ram, R. J.; Sage, J. M.; Chiaverini, J.

    2014-07-01

    We demonstrate trapping in a surface-electrode ion trap fabricated in a 90-nm CMOS (complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor) foundry process utilizing the top metal layer of the process for the trap electrodes. The process includes doped active regions and metal interconnect layers, allowing for co-fabrication of standard CMOS circuitry as well as devices for optical control and measurement. With one of the interconnect layers defining a ground plane between the trap electrode layer and the p-type doped silicon substrate, ion loading is robust and trapping is stable. We measure a motional heating rate comparable to those seen in surface-electrode traps of similar size. This demonstration of scalable quantum computing hardware utilizing a commercial CMOS process opens the door to integration and co-fabrication of electronics and photonics for large-scale quantum processing in trapped-ion arrays.

  4. Ion traps fabricated in a CMOS foundry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We demonstrate trapping in a surface-electrode ion trap fabricated in a 90-nm CMOS (complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor) foundry process utilizing the top metal layer of the process for the trap electrodes. The process includes doped active regions and metal interconnect layers, allowing for co-fabrication of standard CMOS circuitry as well as devices for optical control and measurement. With one of the interconnect layers defining a ground plane between the trap electrode layer and the p-type doped silicon substrate, ion loading is robust and trapping is stable. We measure a motional heating rate comparable to those seen in surface-electrode traps of similar size. This demonstration of scalable quantum computing hardware utilizing a commercial CMOS process opens the door to integration and co-fabrication of electronics and photonics for large-scale quantum processing in trapped-ion arrays.

  5. Guide to energy efficiency opportunities in Canadian foundries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    In Canada, the foundry sector employs about 15000 people and most of the companies are members of the Canadian Foundry Association (CFA). The CFA is committed to reducing its greenhouse gas emissions and is therefore looking for energy savings which, in addition to reducing emissions, would help the industry save costs and improve its competitiveness. The aim of this document is to provide operators with a guide to improving energy efficiency in their foundries. The report provides guidance on carrying out energy audits, gathering energy saving ideas, prioritizing projects, and charting the course of improved energy performance. Many different energy saving ideas for many kinds of operation are presented in this guidebook as a help to operators in finding where they could improve their energy efficiency; references to energy saving methods from all over the world are provided. This guidebook is a useful tool for helping foundry operators improve energy efficiency in their operations.

  6. A cluster of Acinetobacter Pneumonia in foundry workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordes, L.G.; Brink, E.W.; Checko, P.J.; Lentnek, A.; Lyons, R.W.; Hayes, P.S.; Wu, T.C.; Tharr, D.G.; Fraser, D.W.

    1981-12-01

    In a 3-month period, three men who had worked for 5 to 19 years as welders or grinders of steel castings in a foundry acquired pneumonia caused by Acinetobacter calcoaceticus variety anitratus serotype 7J. Two of the men died, and postmortem examination showed mixed-dust pneumoconiosis with iron particles in the lungs. A calcoaceticus variety anitratus serotype 7J was isolated from the air in the foundry but the source was not found. The prevalence of antibody titers of 64 or greater to the 7J strain was significantly higher among foundry workers (15%) than among community controls (2%) (p less than 0.01). Sampling showed that the concentrations of total and metallic particles (especially iron) and of free silica in air inhaled by welders and grinders at the foundry frequently exceeded acceptable levels. These findings suggest that chronic exposure to such particles may increase susceptibility to infection by this organism, which rarely affects healthy people.

  7. The restoration of an Argonne National Laboratory foundry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Environmental Management Operations' Waste Management Department (WMD) at Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL-E) undertook the restoration of an unused foundry with the goal of restoring the area for general use. The foundry was used in the fabrication of reactor components for ANL's research and development programs; many of the items fabricated in the facility were radioactive, thereby contaminating the foundry equipment. This paper very briefly describes the dismantling and decontamination of the facility. The major challenges associated with the safe removal of the foundry equipment included the sheer size of the equipment, a limited overhead crane capability (4.5 tonne), the minimization of radioactive and hazardous wastes, and the cost-effective completion of the project, the hazardous and radioactive wastes present, and limited process knowledge (the facility was unused for many years)

  8. Iron removal from wastewater generated in foundry industry

    OpenAIRE

    Murovec, Nika

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, industrial wastewater significantly contaminates our environment. There are many technologies for cleaning these waters. When we are constructing a new treatment plant we must take into consideration the existing standards and laws of the Republic of Slovenia. The company where I did my research is specialised in foundry industry and it is the manufacturer of the components for automotive and motorcycle industry. Wastewaters in the foundry are cleaned with ultrafiltration treatment ...

  9. Logic Foundry: Rapid Prototyping for FPGA-Based DSP Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Gary Spivey; Bhattacharyya, Shuvra S.; Kazuo Nakajima

    2003-01-01

    We introduce the Logic Foundry, a system for the rapid creation and integration of FPGA-based digital signal processing systems. Recognizing that some of the greatest challenges in creating FPGA-based systems occur in the integration of the various components, we have proposed a system that targets the following four areas of integration: design flow integration, component integration, platform integration, and software integration. Using the Logic Foundry, a system can be easily specified, a...

  10. Rationalization of foundry processes on the basis of simulation experiment

    OpenAIRE

    S. Kukla

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents results of research obtained on the basis of simulation experiment, whose aim was to analyze the performance of cast iron foundry. A simulation model of automobile industry foundry was made. The course of the following processes was analyzedin a computer model: preparation of liquid cast iron, forming and filling the moulds, cooling and stamping the castings, cleaning andfinishing treatment. The sheets of multi-criterion evaluation were prepared, where criteria and variants...

  11. Prevalence of Occupational Asthma and Respiratory Symptoms in Foundry Workers

    OpenAIRE

    Servet Kayhan; Umit Tutar; Halit Cinarka; Aziz Gumus; Nurhan Koksal

    2013-01-01

    This cross-sectional study was conducted in a foundry factory to assess the prevalence of respiratory symptoms and occupational asthma in foundry workers. Physical examination, spirometric evaluation, chest radiograph, and a questionnaire related to respiratory symptoms were performed. Monitoring of peak expiratory flow rates, spirometric reversibility test, and high-resolution computed tomographies were performed for the participants having respiratory symptoms and/or impaired respiratory fu...

  12. Elements of the efficiency system improvement of foundry

    OpenAIRE

    J. Sitko

    2010-01-01

    The effectiveness of industrial systems is being ranked among important factors industrial engineering in foundry. He determines internal production abilities of foundry. It is possible to describe the effectiveness the measure of matching closely possibilities maximum number of products for definite quality standards, at the optimal use of production factors and with the application the best methods pouring out. The second worship of article is devoted to problems market supply casting produ...

  13. Logic Foundry: Rapid Prototyping for FPGA-Based DSP Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Bhattacharyya Shuvra S; Nakajima Kazuo; Spivey Gary

    2003-01-01

    We introduce the Logic Foundry, a system for the rapid creation and integration of FPGA-based digital signal processing systems. Recognizing that some of the greatest challenges in creating FPGA-based systems occur in the integration of the various components, we have proposed a system that targets the following four areas of integration: design flow integration, component integration, platform integration, and software integration. Using the Logic Foundry, a system can be easily specified, ...

  14. Examination and analysis of influence of compaction degree on dielectricproperties of moulding sand components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Nowak

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, presented are results of a research on influence of compaction degree on dielectric properties of components of moulding sands. During recent years, intensive research works on possibilities of using microwave heating in foundry technique are carried-out. However, introduction of such innovative, environment-friendly and efficient heating processes to foundry technologies is accompanied by a shortage of basic knowledge about behaviour of components of moulding sands in microwave field. In this case, of particular importance becomes knowledge of electrical properties of components of moulding and core sands, i.e. their permittivity ?r and dielectric loss factor tg? that characterise efficiency of absorbing electromagnetic radiation and thus prove effectiveness of the heating process.

  15. Moulding Sands with New InorganicBinders - Ecology Assessment in the Aspect of Work Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Szanda

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The development of economy and industry introducing new technologies and materials often means the increased threat of occurrenceof factors harmful to humans and environment. Workers employed in foundries as mould pourers are the group of high professional risk.Foundry moulding sands when poured with liquid metal are a source of the emission of harmful, toxic and carcinogenic (benzene,PAHs compounds.The paper presents the results of studies on the concentration of chemical compounds emitted in the process of casting aluminiumalloy and brass using moulding sands with the new inorganic binders. The specific values of the exposure indices were compared with thelimit values. This enabled an assessment of the impact of moulding sands on work environment. The obtained results were compared withthe values of contaminants emitted when pouring foundry moulds made from furan sands and bentonite sands with an addition of coaldust.Studies were carried out under the project POIG.01.01.02-00-015/09 "Advanced materials and technologies."

  16. Sands styrke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, H. Moust; Jørgensen, Mogens B.; Poulsen, H. Serup

    På grundlag af triaxialforsøg med D=7 og 20 cm og varierende højde på løse og faste lejringer af Blokhussand kan effekten af varierende højde-breddeforhold og spændingsniveau samt skalaeffekten bestemmes. Ved sammenligning med pladeforsøg med overfladelast op til 8 t/m2 kan den almindelige fremga...... fremgangsmåde ved bæreevneberegninger på sand undersøges....

  17. Investigations of the Influence of the Matrix Recycling on Properties of the Moulding Sand with Geopol 618 Binder

    OpenAIRE

    Kami?ska, J.

    2013-01-01

    Self-hardening moulding sands with water-glass hardened by liquid esters are applied in several foundry plants for making moulds for the production of heavy iron and steel castings. The main good point of this process is a low cost of sands. However, on account of a lowsusceptibility of this moulding sand for the matrix reclamation the fraction of sands originated from the reclamation is limited.The investigations presented in this work were aimed at the determination of the addition of the r...

  18. Characterization of Coated Sand Cores from Two Different Binder Systems for Grey Iron Castings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nwaogu, Ugochukwu Chibuzoh; Tiedje, Niels Skat; Poulsen, Thomas; Bischoff, Claus

    Expansion defects on the surface of the castings include sand burn-in, metal penetration and/or veining, finning or scab. Veining or finning and metal penetration are of interest. These defects are associated with silica sand and result from the penetration of liquid metal into cracks formed during...... veining and metal penetration defects. The use of refractory coatings on cores is fundamental to obtaining acceptable casting surface quality and is used on resin bonded cores in production foundries. In this study new sol gel-coated sand cores made from coldbox and furan binder systems were investigated...... for their casting properties....

  19. Preliminary Research on Granulation Process of Dust Waste from Reclamation Process of Moulding Sands with Furan Resin

    OpenAIRE

    Kami?ska, J.; J. Da?ko

    2012-01-01

    The results of investigations of the granulation process of foundry dusts generated in the dry mechanical reclamation process of usedsands, where furan resins were binders are presented in the paper. Investigations concerned producing of granules of the determineddimensions and strength parameters.Granules were formed from the dusts mixture consisting in 50 mass% of dusts obtained after the reclamation of the furane sands and in50 mass % of dusts from sands with bentonite. Dusts from the bent...

  20. Sonic sands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many desert sand dunes emit a loud sound with a characteristic tremolo around a well-defined frequency whenever sand is avalanching on their slip face. This phenomenon, called the 'song of dunes', has been successfully reproduced in the lab, on a smaller scale. In all cases, the spontaneous acoustic emission in air is due to a vibration of the sand, itself excited by a granular shear flow. This review presents a complete characterization of the phenomenon—frequency, amplitude, source shape, vibration modes, instability threshold—based on recent studies. The most prominent characteristics of acoustic propagation in weakly compressed granular media are then presented. Finally, this review describes the different mechanisms proposed to explain booming avalanches. Measurements performed to test these theories against data allow one to contrast explanations that must be rejected—sound resonating in a surface layer of the dune, for instance—with those that still need to be confirmed to reach a scientific consensus—amplification of guided elastic waves by friction, in particular.

  1. Secondary foundry alloy damage and particle fracture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The damage mechanisms of a hypoeutectic Al-Si-Cu foundry alloy, obtained through die casting, have been studied. Observations were made during tensile tests using a tensile test machine that was inserted into an scanning electron microscope. The microstructure features that are critical for damage were determined. The cleavage fracture of intermetallic particles was found to be the main process that limited the alloy ductility. Shrinkage cavities mainly play a role in the final fracture stage; the reduction in cross-section area induced by shrinkage cavities was assumed to be the main contribution of these defects to the fracture of the specimens. Attempts were made to determine the cleavage stress that initiated the fracture of the particles. Three-dimensional finite element computations were performed considering particular locations at the free surface of the observed fractured particles. The maximum principal stress was calculated for different locations of the particle with reference to the free surface. Different shapes and different elastic behaviour were studied. It was shown that the influence of a free surface on the stress level in a particle depends on its shape. The results were compared with those found in literature concerning the fracture strength of particles in Al alloys

  2. Assessment of harmfulness of green sand with additions of dust from dry dedusting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Holtzer

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Recently, in the literature about the problems cause to the environment by foundry industry, attention has been paid to the presence and harmful effect of aromatic hydrocarbons: benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and isomers of xylenes (BTEX and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs. The growing interest in these pollutants of the environment is a result of their biological activity; some of them are characterized by mutagenic and carcinogenic action. In foundries these hydrocarbons are emitted during the contact between mould or core sands and liquid metal.This article discusses the results of the studies made on the elution rate of some harmful compounds include polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs (Table 3 and 4 from waste mould sand with bentonite and coal dust M1 (mixture Kormix 75 and this one with addition of dust from dry dedusting of sand M2 preparing station (partial replacement of bentonite and emission of BTEX gases from this moulds poured with molten cast iron. From the results given in these tables it follows that both mould sands are characterized by low values of the concentration of investigation substances and haven’t negative influence for environment during casting or management in other means. Tests were done according to the methodology developed at Faculty of Foundry Engineering University of Science and Technology in Cracow.

  3. 78 FR 21123 - Charlotte Pipe and Foundry; Analysis to Aid Public Comment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-09

    ... Charlotte Pipe and Foundry; Analysis to Aid Public Comment AGENCY: Federal Trade Commission. ACTION... Containing Consent Order (``Consent Agreement'') from Charlotte Pipe and Foundry Company (hereinafter ``CP&F..., including Matco-Norca in 2009, DWV Casting Company (``DWV'') in 2004, and Richmond Foundry, Inc....

  4. 40 CFR 63.7682 - What parts of my foundry does this subpart cover?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What parts of my foundry does this... CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Iron and Steel Foundries What This Subpart Covers § 63.7682 What parts of my foundry does this subpart cover? (a) The...

  5. Manufacturing foundry alloys containing vanadium, niobium, titanium and rare earths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ways to obtain foundry and ferroalloys, containing rare and disseminated metals, are analysed. To extract the expensive metals (V, Nb, rare earths and Ti) out of ores during smelting, the reduction of the metal oxides in accordance with MeO+2C=MeC+CO reaction (where Me- V, Nb, Ti, rare earths) is used. Some additional techniques are used and new compositions of the foundry alloys, in which the activity of the reduced metals is decreased as a result of chemical compound formation, are developed to increase the extraction of the reduced metal. It is shown that the advantages of using the foundry alloys, containing V, Nb, Ti and rare earths expressed in the increase and stabilization of alloying metal assimilation and in their distribution in the bulk of the metal more uniformly

  6. Foundry industries: environmental aspects and environmental condition indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowadays, environmental indicators are widely used as effective tools to assist decision-making in both public and private sectors. The lack of literature and research about local and regional Environmental Condition Indicators (ECI), the poor knowledge regarding solid waste generation, effluents and gas emissions from foundry industries, and their particular location in the urban area of Tandil, Argentina are the main reasons for this investigation, aiming to develop a set a of ECI to provide information about the environment in relation to the foundry industry. The study involves all the foundries located in the city between March and April 2010. The set of ECI developed includes 9 indicators for air, 5 for soil and 1 for water. Specific methodology was used for each indicator. (Author) 31 refs.

  7. Rationalization of foundry processes on the basis of simulation experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kukla

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of research obtained on the basis of simulation experiment, whose aim was to analyze the performance of cast iron foundry. A simulation model of automobile industry foundry was made. The course of the following processes was analyzedin a computer model: preparation of liquid cast iron, forming and filling the moulds, cooling and stamping the castings, cleaning andfinishing treatment. The sheets of multi-criterion evaluation were prepared, where criteria and variants were assessed by meansof subjective point evaluation and fuzzy character evaluation. The paper presents an analysis example of finishing activities of castings realized in foundry on traditional machines and efficient presses and in cooperation. On the basis of reports from a simulation experiment information was achieved related to activities’ duration, load of accessible resources, the problems of storage and transport, bottle necks in the system and appearing queues in from of workplaces. The research used a universal modelling and simulation packet for productionsystems - ARENA.

  8. The AHP method used in assessment of foundry enterprise position

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Szymszal

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Complex assessment of activity of a selected foundry enterprise based on a modern AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process method has beenpresented. Having defined the areas of analysis, which include: marketing (products, distribution channels, sales organisation and client concentration, personnel (skills, managerial abilities, organisation climate, effectiveness of incentives, personnel fluctuations, production (availability of raw materials, technical level of production, effective use of production capacities, organisation and management (foundry structure, organisation culture, management performance, the analysis was made using the weighted sum of evaluations. The second step consisted in a comparative assessment of Foundry position using Saaty’s scale modified by Weber and the AHP method with examinationof a hierarchy structure involving the main (parent problem and its direct evolution into sub-problems. The assessment of Foundryposition made by AHP enables introducing changes and/or innovations which are expected to improve the overall productioneffectiveness.

  9. Reduced energy consumption for melting in foundries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skov-Hansen, S.

    2007-09-15

    By improving the gating technology in traditional gating systems it is possible to reduce the amount of metal to be re-melted, and hence reduce the energy consumption for melting in foundries. Traditional gating systems are known for a straight tapered down runner a well base and 90 deg. bends in the runner system. In the streamlined gating systems there are no sharp changes in direction and a large effort is done to confine and control the flow of the molten metal during mould filling. Experiments in real production lines have proven that using streamlined gating systems improves yield by decreasing the poured weight compared to traditional layouts. In a layout for casting of valve housings in a vertically parted mould the weight of the gating system was reduced by 1,1kg which is a 20% weight reduction for the gating system. In a layout for horizontally parted moulds the weight of the gating system has been reduced by 3,7kg which is a weight reduction of 60% for the gating system. The experiments casting valve housings in ductile iron also proved that it is possible to lower the pouring temperature from 1400 deg. C to 1300 deg. C without the risk of cold runs. Glass plate fronted moulds have been used to study the flow of melt during mould filling. These experiments have also been used for studying the flow pattern when ceramic filters are used. The thorough study of the use of filters revealed that the metal passing through the filter is divided into a number of small jets. This proves that filters do not have the claimed positive effect on the flow of metal. The volumes necessary on either side of the filter is not filled till a backpressure is build up and results in formation of pressure shocks when backfilled. These pressure shocks result in more turbulence inside the casting than the same gating system with no filter. Not using filters can mean a reduction in poured weight of 0,6kg. To examine if the experiments using glass plate fronted moulds give representative results of how the melt flows in a real mould a series of experiments have been conducted using the xray facilities at the Metallurgy and Materials department at the University of Birmingham. The results proved that the glass plate do not have any large effect on the flow pattern during mould filling. It was also found that using fan gates only 1mm thick holds back slag and in this way works as a filter. A complete set of guidelines for designing streamlined gating systems have been made in this project. Using these guidelines and combining standard geometries and the presented spreadsheet makes it possible for foundries to use streamlined gating systems in praxis. (au)

  10. FMEA: Methodology, Design and Implementation in a Foundry

    OpenAIRE

    AWADHESH KUMAR,; M.P. POONIA,; UPENDER PANDEL,; A.S. JETHOO

    2011-01-01

    Failure Mode And Effect Analysis (FMEA) is a technique to identify and prioritize potential failures of a process. This paper reports the description of FMEA methodology & its implementation in a foundry. It is used as a tool to assure products quality & as a mean to improve operational performance of the process. The work was developed in an Indian foundry, in co-operation with part of the internal staff chosen as FMEA team members & was focused on the study of core making process. The probl...

  11. Logic Foundry: Rapid Prototyping for FPGA-Based DSP Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhattacharyya Shuvra S

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce the Logic Foundry, a system for the rapid creation and integration of FPGA-based digital signal processing systems. Recognizing that some of the greatest challenges in creating FPGA-based systems occur in the integration of the various components, we have proposed a system that targets the following four areas of integration: design flow integration, component integration, platform integration, and software integration. Using the Logic Foundry, a system can be easily specified, and then automatically constructed and integrated with system level software.

  12. Electromagnet Gripping in Iron Foundry Automation Part III: Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhythm Suren Wadhwa

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Flexibility can be defined as the ability to respond efficiently to the changing demands of the customer and is different in SMEs (Small-to-Medium manufacturing Enterprises than the traditional OEMs (Original Equipment Manufacturers. Costs involved in implementing manufacturing flexibility to meet customer demand are more important in the SMEs, especially those that are labor intensive for example foundries. Manufacturing systems with a high degree of flexibility can be rapidly changed to cover a wide range of production requirements. In this paper, we present a methodology enabling part handling flexibility, which has been incorporated in an iron foundry SME framework.

  13. Tar sand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLendon, T.R.; Bartke, T.C.

    1990-01-01

    Research on tar sand is briefly discussed. The research program supported by the US Department of Energy (DOE) includes a variety of surface extraction schemes. The University of Utah has process development units (PDU) employing fluidized bed, hot, water-assisted, and fluidized-bed/heat-pipe, coupled combustor technology. Considerable process variable test data have been gathered on these systems: (1) a rotary kiln unit has been built recently; (2) solvent extraction processing is being examined; and (3) an advanced hydrogenation upgrading scheme (hydropyrolysis) has been developed. The University of Arkansas, in collaboration with Diversified Petroleum, Inc., has been working on a fatty acid, solvent extraction process. Oleic acid is the solvent/surfactant. Solvent is recovered by adjusting processing fluid concentrations to separate without expensive operations. Western Research Institute has a PDU-scale scheme called the Recycle Oil Pyrolysis and Extraction (ROPE) process, which combines solvent (hot recycle bitumen) and pyrolytic extraction. 14 refs., 19 figs.

  14. A Life Cycle Assessment of Silica Sand: Comparing the Beneficiation Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anamarija Grbeš

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Silica sand or quartz sand is a mineral resource with a wide variety of application; glass industry, construction and foundry are the most common examples thereof. The Republic of Croatia has reserves of 40 million tons of silica sand and a long tradition of surface mining and processing. The average annual production of raw silica sand in Croatia in the period from 2006 to 2011 amounted to 150 thousand tons. This paper presents cradle to gate LCA results of three different types of beneficiation techniques: electrostatic separation; flotation; gravity concentration. The aim of this research is to identify and quantify the environmental impacts of the silica sand production, to learn the range of the impacts for different processing methods, as well as to identify the major contributors and focus for further process design development.

  15. Costs Models in Design and Manufacturing of Sand Casting Products

    CERN Document Server

    Perry, Nicolas; Bernard, Alain

    2010-01-01

    In the early phases of the product life cycle, the costs controls became a major decision tool in the competitiveness of the companies due to the world competition. After defining the problems related to this control difficulties, we will present an approach using a concept of cost entity related to the design and realization activities of the product. We will try to apply this approach to the fields of the sand casting foundry. This work will highlight the enterprise modelling difficulties (limits of a global cost modelling) and some specifics limitations of the tool used for this development. Finally we will discuss on the limits of a generic approach.

  16. Application of time-series analysis for prediction of molding sand properties in production cycle

    OpenAIRE

    M. Perzyk; S. Maciejak; Koz?owski, J.

    2011-01-01

    Time-series analysis is characterized, as a data mining tool which facilitates understanding nature of manufacturing processes and permits prediction of future values of the process parameters or production results on the basis of the past data, recorded in regular intervals. The main methods and problems of the time-series analysis are presented. The authors’ research results, based on green molding sand properties data collected in a foundry with Disamatic molding line, are presented. The w...

  17. Methods of the montmorillonite content determination in foundry bentonites

    OpenAIRE

    M. Holtzer; B. Grabowska; A. Bobrowski; S. ?ymankowska-Kumon

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents results of the measurements montmorillonite content in foundry bentonites and mixtures of bentonite – lustrous carbon carrier by three methods: spectrophotometric method with the use of methylene blue, spectrophotometric method with the use of Cu(II) – triethylenotetramine (Cu-TET) complex, infrared spectroscopic method (FTIR).

  18. The AHP method used in assessment of foundry enterprise position

    OpenAIRE

    J. Szymszal; J. Pi?tkowski; T. Mikuszewski; J. Kli?

    2008-01-01

    Complex assessment of activity of a selected foundry enterprise based on a modern AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process) method has beenpresented. Having defined the areas of analysis, which include: marketing (products, distribution channels, sales organisation and client concentration), personnel (skills, managerial abilities, organisation climate, effectiveness of incentives, personnel fluctuations), production (availability of raw materials, technical level of production, effective use of produ...

  19. Manganese exposure in foundry furnacemen and scrap recycling workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lander, F; Kristiansen, J; Lauritsen, Jens

    1999-01-01

    Cast iron products are alloyed with small quantities of manganese, and foundry furnacemen are potentially exposed to manganese during tapping and handling of smelts. Manganese is a neurotoxic substance that accumulates in the central nervous system, where it may cause a neurological disorder that...

  20. Using lean methodologies for economically and environmentally sustainable foundries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Torielli

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Lean manufacturing is often seen as a set of tools that reduce the total cost and improve the quality of manufactured products. The lean management philosophy is one which targets waste reduction in every facet of the manufacturing business; however, only recently have studies linked lean management philosophies with improving environmental sustainability. These studies suggest that lean manufacturing is more than a set of lean tools that can optimize manufacturing efficiencies; it is a process and mindset that needs to be integrated into daily manufacturing systems to achieve sustainability. The foundry industry, as well as manufacturing in general, has significant challenges in the current regulatory and political climate with developing an economically and environmentally sustainable business model. Lean manufacturing has proven itself as a model for both economic sustainability and environmental stewardship. Several recent studies have shown that both lean and green techniques and “zero-waste” policies also lead to reductions in overall cost. While these strategies have been examined for general manufacturing, they have not been investigated in detail for the foundry industry. This paper will review the current literature and describe how lean and green can provide a relevant framework for environmentally and economically sustainable foundries. Examples of lean and green technologies and techniques which can be applied to foundries in a global context will be described.

  1. Biological monitoring of foundry workers exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sherson, D; Sabro, P; Sigsgaard, Torben; Johansen, F; Autrup, H

    1990-01-01

    This investigation describes benzo(a)pyrene (BP) serum protein adduct concentrations in 45 foundry workers and 45 matched non-occupationally exposed controls. High and low BP exposure groups were defined using breathing zone hygienic samples for both quartz and BP exposures. A newly developed enz...

  2. Develop A Strategic Forecast of Silica Sand Based on Supply Chain Decomposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mansour

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available As a commodity, silica sand is a low priced product but a primary ingredient for a diversity of products. On the whole, the consumption of silica sand can be measured as indicator to the global economy’s trends and circumstances. The last decade showed a fluctuation in silica sand consumptions in several industries and reached the lowest level in 2009 due to the global recession. Due to the variety of products and the new or future developments in applications, the long term forecast of silica sand requires nonconventional methods of prediction. As an integrated part of the supply chain of numerous industries, silica sand demand has been decomposed into many sectors based on the intended applications. in this research. the impact of future demand of glass containers, flat glass, specialty glass, fiber glass, fracture sand, foundry sand, whole grain fillers, abrasive, gravel sand, recreation sand, chemicals, fillers, ceramic and filtration industries in the total global silica demand for the next decade. Each unique market position and its interconnection with other industries had been studied to draw a strategic long term forecast of silica sand based on market share of each industry.

  3. Reduction in Energy Consumption & Variability in Steel Foundry Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank Peters

    2005-05-04

    This project worked to improve the efficiency of the steel casting industry by reducing the variability that occurs because of process and product variation. The project focused on the post shakeout operations since roughly half of the production costs are in this area. These improvements will reduce the amount of variability, making it easier to manage the operation and improve the competitiveness. The reduction in variability will also reduce the need for many rework operations, which will result in a direct reduction of energy usage, particularly by the reduction of repeated heat treatment operations. Further energy savings will be realized from the reduction of scrap and reduced handling. Field studies were conducted at ten steel foundries that represented the U.S. steel casting industry, for a total of over 100 weeks of production observation. These studies quantified the amount of variability, and looked toward determining the source. A focus of the data collected was the grinding operations since this is a major effort in the cleaning room, and it represents the overall casting quality. The grinding was divided into two categories, expected and unexpected. Expected grinding is that in which the location of the effort is known prior to making the casting, such as smoothing parting lines, gates, and riser contacts. Unexpected grinding, which was approximately 80% of the effort, was done to improve the surfaces at weld repair locations, to rectify burnt on sand, and other surface anomalies at random locations. Unexpected grinding represents about 80% of the grinding effort. By quantifying this effort, the project raised awareness within the industry and the industry is continuing to make improvements. The field studies showed that the amount of variation of grinding operations (normalized because of the diverse set of parts studied) was very consistent across the industry. The field studies identified several specific sources that individually contributed to large process variation. This indicates the need for ongoing monitoring of the process and system to quantify the effort being expended. A system to measure the grinding effort was investigated but did not prove to be successful. A weld wire counting system was shown to be very successful in tracking casting quality by monitoring the quantity of weld wire being expended on a per casting basis. Further use of such systems is highly recommended. The field studies showed that the visual inspection process for the casting surface was a potentially large source of process variation. Measurement system analysis studies were conducted at three steel casting producers. The tests measured the consistency of the inspectors in identifying the same surface anomalies. The repeatability (variation of the same operator inspecting the same casting) was found to be relatively consistent across the companies at about 60-70%. However, this is still are very large amount of variation. Reproducibility (variation of different operators inspecting the same casting) was worse, ranging between 20 to 80% at the three locations. This large amount of variation shows that there is a great opportunity for improvement. Falsely identifying anomalies for reworking will cause increased expense and energy consumption. This is particularly true if a weld repair and repeated heat treatment is required. However, not identifying an anomaly could also result in future rework processing, a customer return, or scrap. To help alleviate this problem, casting surface comparator plates were developed and distributed to the industry. These plates are very inexpensive which enables them to be provided to all those involved with casting surface quality, such as operators, inspectors, sales, and management.

  4. Logistics of Materials Flow in an Iron Foundry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kukla

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The article presents issues related to creating and realizing added value by logistic processes and processing in a casting enterprise. It discusses possibilities of improving systems of casts production by evaluating labour intensity of casts manufacture and analyzing manufacturing prime costs. Operations with added value, processes indirectly creating added value and operations without added value have been specified. The problem was presented on the example of materials flow design in a foundry, where casts are manufactured in expendable moulds and using automated foundry lines. On the basis of the Pareto analysis, a group of casts was specified whose manufacture significantly influences the functioning of the whole enterprise. Finishing treatment operations have been particularly underlined, as they are performed away from the line and are among the most labour-consuming processes during casts production.

  5. Final Scientific Report Steel Foundry Refractory Lining Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J.D.; Peaslee, K.D.

    2002-12-02

    The overall objective of the program was to optimize refractory materials and foundry processing used in casting steel. This objective was to be met by completing the following: (1) Surveying the steel foundries both through paper/electronic surveys sent to North American steel foundries as well as plant visits to participants. Information concerning refractory selection and performance as well as refractory and steelmaking practices provides a baseline for future comparison and to identify opportunities for substantial improvement in energy efficiency. (2) Conducting post-mortem analysis of materials from existing refractory/steelmaking practices to determine wear/failure mechanisms. (3) Identify areas for research on developing refractories for use in steel foundry furnaces, adjusting steelmaking practices to improve efficiency and modifying slag practices to improve refractory performance. The overall objective of the steel foundry refractory lining optimization program was to review established refractory and steelmaking practices to identify opportunities for improvements that would yield substantial energy savings for steel foundries. Energy savings were expected to arise from improved efficiency of the electric arc furnaces and from reductions in the post-casting welding and grinding that are normally required. Ancillary energy savings related to a reduction in the amount of refractories currently produced to meet the needs of the steel foundry industry, and a shift from pre-fired materials (shaped refractories) to monolithic refractories that are heat treated ''in situ'' were anticipated. A review of the complete program results indicates that techniques for achieving the overall goal were demonstrated. The main difference between the predicted and the actual achievements relates to the areas from which actual energy savings could be realized. Although reductions in furnace tap temperature would result in a reduction in the power required for melting, such reductions are realized through changes within the ladle transfer portion of the process, through modified ladle pre-heat and refractory insulation. Reductions in clean room energy usage proved very difficult to track, and some questions as to just how much impact refractory related inclusions have on the degree of welding and grinding required for completion of a casting, remain. Post-mortem analysis of casting defects did identify refractory derived inclusions but the greatest concentration of inclusions related to steel reoxidation issue. In almost every instance, the suggested refractory/process modifications were proven to be both technically and economically feasible. The difficulty in implementation of the proposed changes relates to the ''up front'' expense and the learning curve associated with any process modification. These two issues were compounded by production slow downs that are too common in the current market. Such slow downs normally result in less energy efficient processing coupled with reductions in capital or ''up front'' expenditures. A return to historical norms should allow foundries to implement the suggested modifications and then evaluate the overall benefit.

  6. FMEA: Methodology, Design and Implementation in a Foundry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AWADHESH KUMAR,

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Failure Mode And Effect Analysis (FMEA is a technique to identify and prioritize potential failures of a process. This paper reports the description of FMEA methodology & its implementation in a foundry. It is used as a tool to assure products quality & as a mean to improve operational performance of the process. The work was developed in an Indian foundry, in co-operation with part of the internal staff chosen as FMEA team members & was focused on the study of core making process. The problems identified in the various steps of core making process contributing for high rejection are studied & analyzed in terms of RPN to prioritize the attention for each of the problem. The monetary loss due to core rejection is considered as measure of risk.

  7. Production system rationalisation on the example of iron foundry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kukla

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The present paper presents a systemic approach to foundry management. Thanks to production process modelling and simulation techniques, an attempt was made to synthesise many interconnected devices and numerous manufacturing stages into one production system. In the beginning, a factor analysis was carried out of the research object, which is a system of iron castings manufacture on automated foundry lines. On the basis of a simulation experiment, use the accessible production resources and manufacturing own cost of castings were analysed, depending on batch content and melting order, choice of an automatic line and the model of line fed with cast iron, sequence of order realization and the size of production lots. Simulation experiments were carried out on a computer simulation model prepared in the Arena packet produced by Rockwell Automation. Cost was estimated on the basis of additional calculation according to cost centres basing on factory spreadsheet.

  8. Cooling of hot sand with liquid nitrogen and solid carbon dioxide. Ekitai chisso oyobi dry ice ni yoru hotter dot sand no reikyaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ninomiya, M.; Sakaguchi, Y.; Kayo, K.; Nozaki, Y.; Kobayashi, K.; Ota, H. (Government Industrial Research Institute, Nagoya, Nagoya (Japan))

    1990-02-20

    For the rapid cooling of hot sand in which the temperature of recycled foundry sand exeeds ambient by 10 centigrade or more, the mixing of liquid nitrogen and solid carbon dioxide, so called dry ice, into the hot sand was examined. The temperature of hot sand decreased rapidly, and the more rapid cooling effect was demonstrated compared with the conventional air blowing or water spraying methods. The suitable mixing ratios of the refrigerats depended on the temperature of the sand. The suitable mixing ratio of the liquid nitrogen and the dry ice were 5 % and 3 %, respectively, for the usual recycled sand which was at 60 to 80 centigrade of temperature. The water in usual hot sand evapolated rather rapidly as the time proceeded after kneading. Then, the mold strength and the surface stability decreased to form stickness to the pattern. However, when the hot sand was cooled using the refrigerants, the mold strength and the surface stability were recovered and there was not found so much stickness to the pattern. 10 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Biological monitoring of foundry workers exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    OpenAIRE

    Sherson, D; Sabro, P; Sigsgaard, T.; Johansen, F; Autrup, H.

    1990-01-01

    This investigation describes benzo(a)pyrene (BP) serum protein adduct concentrations in 45 foundry workers and 45 matched non-occupationally exposed controls. High and low BP exposure groups were defined using breathing zone hygienic samples for both quartz and BP exposures. A newly developed enzyme linked immunosorbent assay detected benzo(a)pyrenediolepoxide-I binding to serum protein. Mean BP protein adduct concentrations (SD) for non-smoking (24.0 BP equivalents/100 micrograms protein (21...

  10. The production of TiAl by foundry processes

    OpenAIRE

    Barbosa, J.; Ribeiro, Carlos Silva; Monteiro, A. Caetano

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes a foundry technique that enables the production of TiAl employing an adapted melting procedure that uses an induction furnace with suitable refractory crucibles, inside a controlled atmosphere chamber. The developed technique allows the production of samples with a low and controlled amount of residual elements, with a thin superficial hard skin – known as “alpha-case” – and allows the use of higher superheating temperatures, when compared with alternative ...

  11. Safety management system of subcontractors’ works in foundry companies

    OpenAIRE

    M. R?czka

    2010-01-01

    Most companies use the services of subcontractors, either in their core business, or to support the work – e.g. maintenance. This poses the need for effective and systematic monitoring of the work of subcontractors, especially if they perform it on the premises of an enterprise. In some industries such as construction, energy, petrochemicals, metallurgy and foundry additional system requirements appear, particularly with regard to safety and the environment, a compliance with which is necessa...

  12. Signalling a foundry mould filling degree with infrared sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Bogdan, M.; S. Fita; T. Mikulczy?ski; S. Ciskowski

    2008-01-01

    A contactless method of measuring a foundry mould filling degree in course of its pouring with liquid metal is suggested. The concept is based on infrared radiation of molten metal appearing in venting and flow-off holes. As the detector, an infrared channel receiving diode is applied. Three solutions were tested. In the first solution, the diode is placed at the calculated distance from the radiation source, in a housing that suppresses the scattered signal. The housing contains the electron...

  13. Energy conservation and emissions reduction strategies in foundry industry

    OpenAIRE

    Li Yuanyuan; Chen Weiping; Huang Dan

    2010-01-01

    Current energy conservation and emissions reduction strategies in iron and steel industry were reviewed. Since foundry industry is one of the major source of energy consumption and pollution emission (especially CO2), issues concerning energy-saving and emission-reduction have been raised by governments and the industry. Specialists from around the world carried out multidimensional analyses and evaluation on the potentials in energy conservation and emissions reduction in iron and steel indu...

  14. Classification of foundry clients using business rules approach

    OpenAIRE

    A. Stawowy; R. Wrona; M. Ronduda

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents the application of business rules approach for the classification of foundry clients taking into account t he economic and technological attributes. Business Rules Management (BRM) systems allow non-technical business people to change the rules, analyze them for errors, and test and simulate them for impact analysis. Although BRM is focused on business processes improvement, it is possible to use this approach in technology management. The model of classification problem, a...

  15. Natural gas on its way into aluminium foundries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article deals with natural gas as a fuel for aluminium smelters. The traditional way of heating the smelters in Norway has been the use of oil-fired combustors or electric heaters. According to the article, the aluminium foundries increase the use of natural gas in the heating process. The cycle principle of regenerative combustion is discussed together with the combustion process of propane with air or oxygen. 3 figs

  16. The management of production value stream factors in a foundry

    OpenAIRE

    S. Borkowski; Knop, K (Katrin)

    2010-01-01

    Connection of two value streams: production and human resources were proposed as a new approach to the production process. To assess the factors of production value streams the elements of the top of the Toyota's house as well as fourth and sixth Toyota's managing principles were used. On the basis of the feedback from respondents –the foundry workers, there can be determined the validity of series of decisive factors' importance that equalizes the work load and requires the standardization.

  17. Characterization of Coated Sand Cores from Two Different Binder Systems for Grey Iron Castings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nwaogu, Ugochukwu Chibuzoh; Tiedje, Niels Skat

    Expansion defects on the surface of the castings include sand burn-in, metal penetration and/or veining, finning or scab. Veining or finning and metal penetration are of interest. These defects are associated with silica sand and result from the penetration of liquid metal into cracks formed during differential expansion of the core during heating. The rapid expansion of silica sand up to 600 oC and especially at 573 oC, where the ? – ? phase transformation occurs, is the cause of stresses in the core system. These stresses cause crack formation and metal melt flows into these cracks causing finning or veining and metal penetration defects. The use of refractory coatings on cores is fundamental to obtaining acceptable casting surface quality and is used on resin bonded cores in production foundries. In this study new sol gel-coated sand cores made from coldbox and furan binder systems were investigated for their casting properties.

  18. Potential of the application of the modified polysaccharides water solutions as binders of moulding sands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kaczmarska

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The results of preliminary tests of selected properties of the moulding sands with the binder in the form of a 5 % water solution of the sodium salt of carboxymethyl starch (with a degree of substitution (DS of 0,2 and 0,87 arepresented in this study. The moulding sand properties such as permeability, abrasion resistance, tensile and bendingstrength - after curing - are shown in series of tests. The cure process was conducted in a field of electromagnetic radiation within the microwave range. The effect of the microwave treatment on the moulding sand was evaporating of water (solvent in a binder and cross-linking of the polymeric binder. As a result the cured moulding sands with particular properties, essential in the context of its application in the mould technology in the foundry industry, were obtained.

  19. Eastern Scheldt Sand, Baskarp Sand No. 15

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, A. T; Madsen, E. B.; Schaarup-Jensen, A. L.

    The present data report contains data from 13 drained triaxial tests, performed on two different sand types in the Soil Mechanics Laboratory at Aalborg University in March, 1997. Two tests have been performed on Baskarp Sand No. 15, which has already ken extensively tested in the Soil Mechanics...... Laboratory. The remaining 11 triaxial tests have ben performed on Eastern Scheldt Sand, which is a material not yet investigated at the Soil Mechanics Laboratory. In the first pari of this data report, the characteristics of the two sand types in question will be presented. Next, a description of the...

  20. Granulation of After Reclamation Dusts from the Mixed Sands Technology: Water Glass – Resolit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kami?ska

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A technology of sands with water glass hardened by liquid esters is a cheap and ecologic method of producing moulding sands. Due to these advantages, this technology is still very important in several foundry plants for production of heavy iron and steel castings. Reclamation of the mixed moulding and core sands generates significant amounts of dusts, which require further treatments for their reuse. The results of investigations of a pressureless granulation of dusts generated in the dry mechanical reclamation process of the mixture consisting in app. 90 % of moulding sands from the Floster S technology and in 10 % of core sands with phenolic resin resol type, are presented in the hereby paper. Investigations were aimed at obtaining granulates of the determined dimensional and strength parameters. Granules were formed from the mixture of dusts consisting of 75 mass% of dusts after the reclamation of sands mixture and of 25 mass% of dusts from bentonite sands processing plant. Wetted dusts from bentonite sands were used as a binding agent allowing the granulation of after reclamation dusts originated from the mixed sands technology.

  1. Statistical and Visualization Data Mining Tools for Foundry Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Perzyk

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available In recent years a rapid development of a new, interdisciplinary knowledge area, called data mining, is observed. Its main task is extracting useful information from previously collected large amount of data. The main possibilities and potential applications of data mining in manufacturing industry are characterized. The main types of data mining techniques are briefly discussed, including statistical, artificial intelligence, data base and visualization tools. The statistical methods and visualization methods are presented in more detail, showing their general possibilities, advantages as well as characteristic examples of applications in foundry production. Results of the author’s research are presented, aimed at validation of selected statistical tools which can be easily and effectively used in manufacturing industry. A performance analysis of ANOVA and contingency tables based methods, dedicated for determination of the most significant process parameters as well as for detection of possible interactions among them, has been made. Several numerical tests have been performed using simulated data sets, with assumed hidden relationships as well some real data, related to the strength of ductile cast iron, collected in a foundry. It is concluded that the statistical methods offer relatively easy and fairly reliable tools for extraction of that type of knowledge about foundry manufacturing processes. However, further research is needed, aimed at explanation of some imperfections of the investigated tools as well assessment of their validity for more complex tasks.

  2. Study of radon and its progeny concentrations in an oil refinery and foundry environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LR-115 type II detectors were used to measure the radon concentrations in the dwellings of an oil refinery and in some foundries. The radon levels inside an oil refinery and foundries are found to be below the USEPA's remedial action levels of 150 Bq m-3. The radon concentrations in oil refinery were found to be higher in both outdoor and indoor environment, as compared to those found in normal background dwellings. The radon levels inside the foundries investigated are of the same order as measured in dwellings of the same city. The reported higher lung cancer rates in foundries may not be attributed to radon. (author)

  3. How to solve complex problems in foundry plants - future of casting simulation -

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnaka, I.

    2015-06-01

    Although the computer simulation of casting has progressed dramatically over the last decades, there are still many challenges and problems. This paper discusses how to solve complex engineering problems in foundry plants and what we should do in the future, in particular, for casting simulation. First, problem solving procedures including application of computer simulation are demonstrated and various difficulties are pointed-out exemplifying mainly porosity defects in sand castings of spheroidal graphite cast irons. Next, looking back conventional scientific and engineering research to understand casting phenomena, challenges and problems are discussed from problem solving view point, followed by discussion on the issues we should challenge such as how to integrate huge amount of dispersed knowledge in various disciplines, differentiation of science-oriented and engineering-oriented models, professional ethics, how to handle fluctuating materials, initial and boundary conditions, error accumulation, simulation codes as black-box, etc. Finally some suggestions are made on how to challenge the issues such as promotion of research on the simulation based on the science- oriented model and publication of reliable data of casting phenomena in complicated-shaped castings including reconsideration of the evaluation system.

  4. Investigations of the Influence of the Matrix Recycling on Properties of the Moulding Sand with Geopol 618 Binder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kamińska

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Self-hardening moulding sands with water-glass hardened by liquid esters are applied in several foundry plants for making moulds for the production of heavy iron and steel castings. The main good point of this process is a low cost of sands. However, on account of a lowsusceptibility of this moulding sand for the matrix reclamation the fraction of sands originated from the reclamation is limited.The investigations presented in this work were aimed at the determination of the addition of the reclaimed material, obtained in the dry mechanical reclamation, on properties of the moulding sand with the Geopol 618 binder, which is water-glass modified by polymers and hardened by esters.

  5. Sands cykliske styrke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Lars Bo

    Sands cykliske styrke kan beskrives ved Cyclic Liquefaction, Mobilisering, Stabilization og Instant Stabilization. I artiklen beskrives hvorfor Stabilization og Instant Stabilization ikke observeres, når sands udrænede styrke undersøges i triaxial celler, der anvender prøver med dobbelt prøvehøjde....

  6. Emission of organic compounds from mould and core binders used for casting iron, aluminium and bronze in sand moulds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tiedje, Niels Skat; Crepaz, Rudolf; Eggert, Torben; Bey, Niki

    2010-01-01

    Emissions from mould and core sand binders commonly used in the foundry industry have been investigated. Degradation of three different types of binders was investigated: Furfuryl alcohol (FA), phenolic urethane (PU) and resol-CO2 (RC). In each group of binders at least two different binder compositions were tested. A test method that provides uniform test conditions is described. The method can be used as general test method to analyse off gasses from binders. Moulds containing a standard size ...

  7. Baskarp Sand No. 15

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borup, Marianne; Hedegaard, Jette

    The Soil Mechanics Laboratory has started performing tests with a new sand, Baskarp No 15. Baskarp No 15 is a graded sand from Sweden. The shapes of the largest grains are round, while the small grains have sharp edges. The main part of of Baskarp No 15 is quarts, but it also contains feldspar and...... biotit. Mainly the sand will be used for tests concerning the development og the theory of building up pore pressure in sand, L. B. Ibsen 1993....

  8. Baskarp Sand No. 15

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Lars Bo; Bødker, Lars Bødker

    The Soil Mechanics Laboratory has started performing tests with a new sand, Baskarp No 15. Baskarp No 15 is a graded sand from Sweden. The shapes of the largest grains are round, while the small grains have sharp edges. The main part of of Baskarp No 15 is quarts, but it also contains feldspar and...... biotit. Mainly the sand will be used for tests concerning the development of the theory of building up pore pressure in sand....

  9. Lund Sand No 0

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Lars Bo; Jakobsen, Finn Rosendal

    During the last 15 years the Geotechnical Engineering Group (GEG) at Aalborg University has performed triaxial tests with a sand called Lund No 0. Lund No 0 is a graded sand from a gravel pit near Horsens in Denmark. For the classification of the sand the following tests have been performed: Sieve...

  10. Selected parameters of moulding sands for designing quality control systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Jakubski

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the modern methods of production optimisation are artificial neural networks. Neural networks owe their popularity to the fact thatthey are convenient tools, which can be utilised in a wide scope of problems. They are capable of reflecting complex functions. Especiallytheir non-linearity should be emphasised. They are gaining wider and wider application in the foundry industry, among others, to controlmelting processes in cupolas and arc furnaces, designing castings and supply systems, control of moulding sands treatments, prediction ofproperties of cast alloys as well as selecting die casting.An attempt of the application neural networks to the quality control of moulding sands with bentonite is presented in the paper. This isa method of assessing the suitability of moulding sands by finding correlations in between individual parameters, by means of artificialneural network systems. The presented investigations were performed with the application of the Statistica 8.0 program.The investigations were aimed at the selection of the proper kind of a neural network for prediction a sand moistness on the bases ofcertain moulding sand properties such as: permeability, compactibility and friability. These parameters – determined as sand moistness functions - were introduced as initial parameters.Application of the Statistica program allowed for an automatic selection of the most suitable network for the reflection of dependencies and interactions existing among the proposed parameters. The best results were obtained for unidirectional multi-layer perception network (MLP. The neural network sensitivity to individual moulding sand parameters was determined, which allowed to reject not important parameters when constructing the network.

  11. 40 CFR 63.10900 - What parts of the General Provisions apply to my large foundry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements of the General Provisions (40 CFR part 63, subpart A) according to Table 3 of this subpart. (b) If... apply to my large foundry? 63.10900 Section 63.10900 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Foundries Area Sources Requirements for New and Existing Affected Sources Classified As Large Iron and...

  12. 77 FR 15123 - Foundry Coke From China; Scheduling of an Expedited Five-Year Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-14

    ... of institution (76 FR 74810, December 1, 2011) of the subject five-year review was adequate and that... Foundry Coke From China; Scheduling of an Expedited Five-Year Review AGENCY: United States International... determine whether revocation of the antidumping duty order on foundry coke from China would be likely...

  13. 76 FR 74810 - Foundry Coke From China; Institution of a Five-Year Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    ... duty order on imports of foundry coke from China (66 FR 48025). Following five-year reviews by Commerce... order on imports of foundry coke from China (72 FR 1214). The Commission is now conducting a second..., and F (19 CFR part 207), as most recently amended at 76 FR 61937 (October 6, 2011). \\1\\ No response...

  14. Quality management as a tool forming foundry competitive capacity in the process of market globalisation

    OpenAIRE

    L. Wojtynek

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the analysis and identification of the key factors influencing the competitiveness of the foundry in the process of market globalisation. The main attention is paid to the quality management as an important tool used for the formation of the foundry's competitive capacity.

  15. Plasmonic Smart Windows: A New Invention from Berkeley's Molecular Foundry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Guillermo

    2014-03-01

    In the United States, roughly 20% of the annual energy consumption comes from lighting and thermal management within buildings. By adjusting to the surrounding environment, dynamic ``smart'' window coatings minimize the need for heating and artificial lighting through solar gain optimization. Current dynamic windows can only operate through a visible tint, which reduces natural light during thermal management. This talk will focus on discussing a near infrared plasmonic electrochromic coating developed at Berkeley's Molecular Foundry that dynamically modulate solar heat without affecting visible light. Use of this new class of dynamic coating can improve energy consumption by minimizing artificial lighting during solar gain optimization.

  16. Exposure of iron foundry workers to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Omland, Øyvind; Sherson, D; Hansen, Åse Marie; Sigsgaard, Torben; Autrup, H; Overgaard, E

    1994-01-01

    Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in foundry workers has been evaluated by determination of benzo(a)pyrene-serum albumin adducts and urinary 1-hydroxypyrene. Benzo(a)pyrene binding to albumin and 1-hydroxypyrene were quantitatively measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay...... than in smoking and non-smoking controls (0 (0-0.022) and 0 (0-0.010) mumol/mol creatinine). Dose-response relations between total PAH, pyrene, carcinogenic PAHs, and 1-hydroxypyrene for smokers, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons adsorbed to dust for non-smokers are suggested. Exposure to PAHs...

  17. The management of production value stream factors in a foundry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Borkowski

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Connection of two value streams: production and human resources were proposed as a new approach to the production process. To assess the factors of production value streams the elements of the top of the Toyota's house as well as fourth and sixth Toyota's managing principles were used. On the basis of the feedback from respondents –the foundry workers, there can be determined the validity of series of decisive factors' importance that equalizes the work load and requires the standardization.

  18. Achieving Control of Coating Process in your Foundry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Muoio, G. L.; Tiedje, N. S.

    2015-01-01

    Achieving control of coating thickness in foundry moulds is needed in order to guarantee uniform properties of the mould but also to achieve control of drying time. Since drying time of water based coatings is heavily dependent on the amount of water present in the coating layer, a stable coating...... (relevant for the drying process design). Correlations are found and equations are provided. In particular it is found that water thickness can be directly correlated to penetration with a simple linear equation and without the need to account for other variables....

  19. Methodological aspects of systemic designing of foundry plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Wrona

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available An approach is attempted to systematise the systemic research. A set of hypotheses are formulated, defining how a conceptual design of afoundry plant should be developed and improved when it is investigated as a system. The methodology aims to eliminate the particular approach to design to be replaced by integral design. The need of integral design seems a logical consequence of a transition from taskoriented design to situational design. The methodology outlined here offers an innovative and modern approach to engineering design, particularly in foundry plant design.

  20. Use of Solid Waste (Foundry Slag) Mortar and Bamboo Reinforcement in Seismic Analysis for Single Storey Masonry Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, S.; Husain, A.; Ghani, F.; Alam, M. N.

    2013-11-01

    The conversion of large amount of solid waste (foundry slag) into alternate source of building material will contribute not only as a solution to growing waste problem, but also it will conserve the natural resources of other building material and thereby reduce the cost of construction. The present work makes an effort to safe and economic use of recycle mortar (1:6) as a supplementary material. Conventional and recycled twelve prisms were casted with varying percentage of solid waste (foundry slag) added (0, 10, 20, 30 %) replacing cement by weight and tested under compression testing machine. As the replacement is increasing, the strength is decreasing. 10 % replacement curve is very closed to 0 % whereas 20 % is farther and 30 % is farthest. 20 % replacement was chosen for dynamic testing as its strength is within permissible limit as per IS code. A 1:4 scale single storey brick model with half size brick was fabricated on shake table in the lab for dynamic testing using pure friction isolation system (coarse sand as friction material µ = 0.34). Pure friction isolation technique can be adopted economically in developing countries where low-rise building prevails due to their low cost. The superstructure was separated from the foundation at plinth level, so as to permit sliding of superstructure during severe earthquake. The observed values of acceleration and displacement responses compare fairly with the analytical values of the analytical model. It also concluded that 20 % replacement of cement by solid waste (foundry slag) could be safely adopted without endangering the safety of the masonry structures under seismic load.To have an idea that how much energy is dissipated through this isolation, the same model with fixed base was tested and results were compared with the isolated free sliding model and it has been observed that more than 60 % energy is dissipated through this pure friction isolation technique. In case of base isolation, no visible cracks were observed up to the table force of 4.25 kN (1,300 rpm), whereas for fixed base failure started at 800 rpm.To strengthen the fixed base model, bamboo reinforcement were used for economical point of view. Another model of same dimension with same mortar ratio was fabricated on the shake table with bamboo reinforcement as plinth band and lintel band. In addition another four round bamboo bars of 3 mm diameter were placed at each of the four corners of the model. The building model was tested and found very encouraging and surprising results. The model failure started at 1,600 rpm, which means that this model is surviving the double force in comparison with the non-bamboo reinforcement.

  1. Total productive maintenance on example of automated foundry lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kukla

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Within framework of the presented study one has performed analysis of stoppages in automatic foundry lines operation, and basing on assumptions from complex maintenance system has undertaken himself to develop a service maintenance schedule for machinery installed in the line. Moreover, one has presented general assumptions of TPM system operated in conditions of series and multi-series production of cast iron castings. One has constructed operational database and has elaborated a list of line stoppage causes within a year. One has proposed a possibility of implementation of manufacturing systems modeling and simulating technique in management of production machinery operation in a foundry shop. Within framework of the simulation experiment one has developed schedules of production, schedules of maintenance and has forecasted indices of general productivity of the machinery for a various scenarios of events on example of casting line having in-series structure of operational reliability. In course of the study there was implemented ARENA universal software package to modeling and simulation of the manufacturing systems.

  2. Environmental factors and work performance of foundry workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horino, S

    1977-12-01

    Environmental factors such as atmospheric conditions, lighting, noise, and dust in foundry factories of different sizes were evaluated by direct physical measurements and a subjective rating method using an ergonomic checklist. Working postures and subjective feelings of fatigue of the workers were analyzed in various types of foundry shops. The results showed that work load was highly connected with poor working postures and unfavorable arrangement of work space as well as with poor workplace environment, particularly in terms of dust and noise. Forward bending and squatting positions, which were attributable to the manual working height on or just above the floor level, occupied 70--90% of the actual working time handling large-sized casts, while the work using a table allowed workers more frequent erect standing postures. It seemed essential to redesign the fundamental working processes and to improve the work surface height. A comparison was then made as to performance patterns and electromyographic activities of main muscles between the traditional molding work on the floor and the work at a newly developed hydraulic lift-table operated by foot pedals. The new table assured the worker of an optimal standing position and proved to be an effective means of redesigning the work space. PMID:617651

  3. Total dose hardness of three commercial CMOS microelectronics foundries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors have measured the effects of total ionizing dose (TID) on CMOS FETs, ring oscillators and field-oxide transistor test structures fabricated at three different commercial foundries with four different processes. The foundries spanned a range of integration levels and included Hewlett-Packard (HP) 0.5 microm and 0.8 microm processes, an Orbit 1.2 microm process, and an AMI 1.6 microm process. They found that the highest tolerance to TID was for the HP 0.5 microm process, where the shift in NMOS threshold voltage was less than 40 mV at 300 krad. An examination of the dependence of the threshold voltage shift on gate oxide thickness indicated that oxides of the different commercial processes were of similar quality, and that the improvement in the total dose tolerance of the HP 0.5 microm technology is associated with the scaling of the gate oxide. Measurements on field-oxide transistors from the HP 0.5 microm process were shown not to invert for signal voltages at 300 krad, maintaining the integrity of the LOCOS isolation

  4. DataFoundry: Warehousing techniques for dynamic environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Critchlow, T.; Fidelis, K.; Ganesh, M.; Musick, R.; Slezak, T., LLNL

    1998-01-29

    Data warehouses and data marts have been successfully applied to a multitude of commercial business applications as tools for integrating and providing access to data located across an enterprise. Although the need for this capability is as vital in the scientific world as in the business domain, working warehouses in our community are scarce. A primary technical reason for this is that our understanding of the concepts being explored in an evolving scientific domain change constantly, leading to rapid changes in the data representation. When any database providing information to a warehouse changes its format, the warehouse must be updated to reflect these changes, or it will not function properly. The cost of maintaining a warehouse using traditional techniques in this environment is prohibitive. This paper describes ideas for dramatically reducing the amount of work that must be done to keep a warehouse up to date in a dynamic, scientific environment. The ideas are being applied in a prototype warehouse called DataFoundry. DataFoundry, currently in use by structural biologists at LLNL, will eventually support scientists at the Department of Energy`s Joint Genome Institute.

  5. Reducing exposures during the pouring operations of a brass foundry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonds, M A; Gressel, M G; O'Brien, D M; Clark, N J

    1993-05-01

    The focus of this exposure assessment and control technology study was a brass foundry and the lead exposures of workers involved in the transportation and pouring of metal. Controls in place at the foundry included ventilation systems at the furnace and along the continuous and stationary pouring lines. Real-time measurements were made to determine which tasks were the primary exposure sources, and a hand-held aerosol monitor was used to measure real-time aerosol exposures (as a surrogate for lead) in the workers' breathing zones. Data were collected over two 30-min sampling periods while worker activities were monitored using a video camera. Analysis of the data showed that the greatest aerosol exposures occurred during the transportation of an unventilated, full ladle, resulting in an average concentration of at least twice that of the other tasks. The study concluded that the addition of exhaust ventilation such as a moveable hood and duct system during the ladle transport and pouring tasks, and the implementation of a side draft hood at the pigging area, could result in a reduction of worker exposure to aerosols during the continuous pouring operation by up to 40%. The controls and techniques suggested in this study could be applied to pouring operations throughout the industry to reduce worker exposure to metal fumes. PMID:8498361

  6. Investigations of the Quality of the Reclaim of Spent Moulding Sands with Organic Binders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Da?ko

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Modern investigation methods and equipment for the quality estimation of the moulding sands matrices with organic binders, in theircirculation process, are presented in the paper. These methods, utilising the special equipment combined with the authors investigationmethods developed in the Faculty of Foundry Engineering, AGH the University of Science and Technology, allow for the better estimationof the matrix quality. Moulding sands systems with organic binders require an in-depth approach to factors deciding on the matrixtechnological suitability as well as on their environmental impact. Into modern methods allowing for the better assessment of the matrixquality belongs the grain size analysis of the reclaimed material performed by means of the laser diffraction and also the estimation of the moulding sand gas evolution rate and identification of the emitted gases and their BTEX group gases content, since they are specially hazardous from the point of view of the Occupational Safety and Health.

  7. Active binder content as a factor of the control system of the moulding sand quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Jakubski

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the modern methods of the production optimisation are artificial neural networks. Neural networks are gaining broader and broaderapplication in the foundry industry, among others for controlling melting processes in cupolas and in arc furnaces, for designing castingsand supply systems, for controlling moulding sand processing, for predicting properties of cast alloys or selecting parameters of pressurecastings. An attempt to apply neural networks for controlling the quality of bentonite moulding sands is presented in this paper. This is theassessment method of sands suitability by means of detecting correlations between their individual parameters. The presentedinvestigations were obtained by using the Statistica 9.0 program. The presented investigations were aimed at the selection of the neuralnetwork able to predict the active bentonite content in the moulding sand on the basis of this sand properties such as: permeability,compactibility and the compressive strength. An application of the Statistica program allowed to select automatically the type of networkproper for the representation of dependencies occurring in between the proposed moulding sand parameters. The most advantageousconditions were obtained for the uni-directional multi-layer perception (MLP network. Knowledge of the neural network sensitivity to individual moulding sand parameters, allowed to eliminate not essential ones.

  8. Replacement of Natural Sand with Efficient Alternatives: Recent Advances in Concrete Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anzar Hamid Mir

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Concrete is the most undisputable material being used in infrastructure development throughout the world. It is a globally accepted construction material in all types of Civil Engineering structures. Natural sand is a prime material used for the preparation of concrete and also plays an important role in Mix Design. Now a day?s river erosion and other environmental issues have led to the scarcity of river sand. The reduction in the sources of natural sand and the requirement for reduction in the cost of concrete production has resulted in the increased need to find new alternative materials to replace river sand so that excess river erosion is prevented and high strength concrete is obtained at lower cost. Partial or full replacement of natural sand by the other alternative materials like quarry dust, foundry sand and others are being researched from past two decades, in view of conserving the ecological balance. This paper summarizes conclusions of experiments conducted for the properties like strength, durability etc. It was observed the results have shown positive changes and improvement in mechanical properties of the conventional concrete due to the addition or replacement of fine sand with efficient alternatives.

  9. Industrial sand and gravel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolley, T.P.

    2006-01-01

    In 2005, domestic production of industrial sand and gravel was about 31 Mt, a 5% increase from 2004. This increase was bouyed by robust construction and petroleum sectors of the US economy. Based on estimated world production figures, the United States was the world's leading producer and consumer of industrial sand and gravel. In the short term, local shortages of industrial sand and gravel will continue to increase.

  10. Exposure to low molecular weight isocyanates and formaldehyde in foundries using hot box core binders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westberg, Håkan; Löfstedt, Håkan; Seldén, Anders; Lilja, Bengt-Gunnar; Nayström, Peter

    2005-11-01

    Emissions from a chemical core binder system (Hot Box) based on a formaldehyde-carbamide resin have been investigated. The binder is used in some Swedish die-casting foundries. During core-making and casting, low molecular monoisocyanates, in particular methyl isocyanate (MIC) and isocyanic acid (ICA), were identified. Exposure to air concentrations of MIC, ICA and formaldehyde were subsequently determined in all Swedish foundries using the Hot Box binder, and involved three brass and one grey iron foundry. The survey was carried out in the winter period of 2001, and involved core-makers, casters and fettlers in the brass foundries, whereas only core-makers were included in the grey iron foundry. For each worker, four to five short-term samples of isocyanates (n = 298) and one 8 h sample of formaldehyde (n = 64) were collected during one shift for 15 die-casters, 39 core-makers and 10 other workers in the foundry. The air concentrations of the MIC short-term samples varied between ventilation and the use of personal safety equipment in the investigated foundries. PMID:16126762

  11. Vestled - Hvide Sande

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel-Christiansen, Carsten; Hesselbjerg, Marianne; Schønherr, Torben

    2009-01-01

    Værket Vestled i Hvide Sande præsenteret i sammenhæng af 1000 nutidige landskabsarkitektoniske arbejder fra hele verden, hvor hvert værk vises på én side......Værket Vestled i Hvide Sande præsenteret i sammenhæng af 1000 nutidige landskabsarkitektoniske arbejder fra hele verden, hvor hvert værk vises på én side...

  12. Kinetics of moisture absorption in mixtures for iron foundry

    CERN Document Server

    Cocina, E V; Rodríguez, R; Cocina, Ernesto Villar; Morales, Eduardo Valencia; Rodriguez, Romulo Gonzalez

    1999-01-01

    The moisture absorption in granulated materials used in foundry technologies is analyzed. The absorption process has a diffusive behavior mainly. A simple experimental technique, in which the wet weight increment was recorded as the experimental parameter and an analytic method with computing procedure to find the parameters characterizing the process was used. The determination of these parameters by traditional methods is a very difficult task so, very refined and expensive trials are needed. The fitting of the model permits to determine the diffusion coefficient and the moisture concentration in the separation surface between the sample and the environment. The concentration profiles are established for different times. Finally, the possibility of occurrence of superimposed diffusive processes in some materials is analyzed and the diffusion coefficient and the amount of moisture incorporated by each process are calculated.

  13. Classification of foundry clients using business rules approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Stawowy

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the application of business rules approach for the classification of foundry clients taking into account t he economic and technological attributes. Business Rules Management (BRM systems allow non-technical business people to change the rules, analyze them for errors, and test and simulate them for impact analysis. Although BRM is focused on business processes improvement, it is possible to use this approach in technology management. The model of classification problem, and the knowledge base as a set of decision tables are presented in the paper.The results indicate that the proposed business rules tool REBIT, developed by AGH team as the project co-funded by the European Union, is feasible as a complete knowledge base and technology management method.

  14. Evolutionary based system for production scheduling in foundry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Stawowy

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a development of a capable-to-promise system for companies that operate under the hybrid make-to-order and maketo-stock strategy in a lot-sizing and flowshop environment. Proposed system simultaneously considers planning and scheduling processesin order to achieve the optimality. Optimisation engine is based on an advanced evolutionary algorithm. Information available in ERPsystem from different production units and stages, the optimization module, and customer requests are integrated via Internet using XMLlanguage as a data exchange standard.The details on key elements of the system and a software architecture are given. Practical application of the system is illustrated on the example of production scheduling for an iron castings foundry.

  15. Ergonomic and work safety evaluation criteria of process excellence in the foundry industry

    OpenAIRE

    M. Butlewski; A. Misztal; M. Jasiulewicz-Kaczmarek; S. Janik

    2014-01-01

    The article presents a concept of criteria assessment called the “process excellence” for ergonomics and work safety in enterprises of the foundry industry as well as points to the possibility of its application.

  16. Closeout of IE Bulletin 80-21: valve parts supplied by Malcom Foundry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cracking of yokes in active valves in a safety-related system was discovered during pre-operational testing of the Residual Heat Removal System at Susquehanna 1. These defective yokes had been supplied to Anchor/Darling Valve Company by Malcolm Foundry Company, Inc. Because Malcolm Foundry had gone out of business, it was necessary to issue the Bulletin to utilities to determine directly whether Malcolm Foundry had provided parts to valve manufacturers other than Anchor/Darling. From results of the extensive survey of valve manufacturers generated by this Bulletin, it was determined that only Anchor/Darling had used Malcolm Foundry as a source of safety-related valve parts. On the basis of survey results and a search of Anchor/Darling records, it was found that only seven facilities had affected valves

  17. Electromagnet Gripping in Iron Foundry Automation Part I: Principles and Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhythm Suren Wadhwa

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Robot grippers are employed to position and retain parts in automated assembly operations. This paper presents an overview of electromagnet part handling framework in an iron foundry and an equivalent electromagnet circuit model. The manner in which this whole concept of automated gripping system operates will be discussed in this paper. The material handling system uses machine vision system coupled with conveyor motion and Ethernet communication strategy to assist the material handling system for transporting the foundry parts. The paper provides an overview of the electromagnet principles at play. The electromagnet interaction with the part is the key issue in the robust handling of this automated foundry system. This paper helps in the realization of the concept of automation in an iron foundry, in which the number of published studies is very limited.

  18. Laboratories for the 21st Century: Case Studies, Molecular Foundry, Berkeley, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-11-29

    This case study provides information on the Molecular Foundry, which incorporates Labs21 principles in its design and construction. The design includes many of the strategies researched at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory for energy efficient cleanroom and data centers.

  19. Implementation KMES Quality system for acquisition and processing data in chosen foundry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sika

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, main assumptions, algorithms and functions of author’s KMES Quality system are discussed. Its working version is tested in chosen foundry by near 2 years. This system is applied to enlarge the use of chosen technological data accessible during foundry processes. The data can be introduced by means of keyboard directly in the fields (windows present on the PC screen according to program commands, instead of report-manuscripts containing measured results, or from the automated measurement recording system by direct data import to KMES Quality system. In the paper, a way of technological data acquisition with their further integration into main foundry databases and their processing, with taking into consideration e.g. kind of casting assortment, current time, sequences of measurements, are presented. Also the capabilities of linking KMES Quality system with SAP R/3 system existing in this foundry useful to quality assurance is show.

  20. Laboratories for the 21st Century: Case Studies, Molecular Foundry, Berkeley, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-11-01

    This case study provides information on the Molecular Foundry, which incorporates Labs21 principles in its design and construction. The design includes many of the strategies researched at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory for energy efficient cleanroom and data centers.

  1. Drying of water based foundry coatings: Innovative test, process design and optimization methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Muoio, Giovanni Luca; Johansen, Bjørn Budolph

    capacity goals there is a need to understand how to design, control and optimize drying processes. The main focus of this project was on the critical parameters and properties to be controlled in production in order to achieve a stable and predictable drying process. We propose for each of these parameters...... used or adapted to better control drying processes of water based foundry coatings. Critical drying process related properties were obtained in the several laboratory tests performed and calculation and simulation methods were developed. Additionally, examples of improvement on full scale industrial...... Denmark with the overall aim to optimize the drying process of water based foundry coatings. Drying of foundry coatings is a relatively new process in the foundry industry that followed the introduction of water as a solvent. In order to avoid moisture related quality problems and reach production...

  2. Comparison of Energy Consumption in the Classical (PID) and Fuzzy Control of Foundry Resistance Furnace

    OpenAIRE

    E. Zió?kowski; P. ?mierciak

    2012-01-01

    Foundry resistance furnaces are thermal devices with a relatively large time delay in their response to a change in power parameters.Commonly used in automation classical PID controllers do not meet the requirements of high-quality control. Developed in recent years,fuzzy control theory is increasingly being used in various branches of economy and industry. Fuzzy controllers allow to introduce newdevelopments in control systems of foundry furnaces as well. Correctly selected fuzzy controller ...

  3. Database for foundry engineers – simulationDB – a modern database storing simulation results

    OpenAIRE

    Malinowski, P.; J. S. Suchy

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: of this paper The main aim of this paper is to build specific database system for collecting, analysing and searching simulation results.Design/methodology/approach: It was prepared using client-server architecture. Then was prepared GUI - Graphical User Interface.Findings: New database system for foundry was discovered.Practical implications: System development is in progress and practical implication will be hold in one of iron foundry in next year.Originality/value: The original v...

  4. Evaluation and Verification of Time and Costs of Production Activities in Foundry Industry

    OpenAIRE

    S. Kukla

    2007-01-01

    This work presents the possibility of using technology of modelling and simulation of productive systems in the management of cast iron production by means of automated foundry lines to maximize assembly line structure. The computer model of foundry has been planed and conducted in order to compile the schedule of cast production. The variants of solution have been estimated talking into account time limitations imposed by clients and the criterion for prime costs appointed on the basis of th...

  5. Implementation KMES Quality system for acquisition and processing data in chosen foundry

    OpenAIRE

    R. Sika; Z. Ignaszak

    2008-01-01

    In the paper, main assumptions, algorithms and functions of author’s KMES Quality system are discussed. Its working version is tested in chosen foundry by near 2 years. This system is applied to enlarge the use of chosen technological data accessible during foundry processes. The data can be introduced by means of keyboard directly in the fields (windows) present on the PC screen according to program commands, instead of report-manuscripts containing measured results, or from the automated me...

  6. The new foundry line for magnesium alloys high-pressure die-casting

    OpenAIRE

    K.N Braszczy?ska-Malik; W. Walczak; J. Braszczy?ski

    2008-01-01

    The new foundry line for high-pressure die-casting of magnesium alloys constructed in the “SILUM” Foundry (Opojowice, Poland) is described. In the process cold chamber die-casting machines are used. The experimental casts and the radiators fabricated using the new cold chamber die-casting line are presented as the final results. The new production line allows to obtain good quality magnesium casts.

  7. Simulation by the method of inverse cumulative distribution function applied in optimising of foundry plant production

    OpenAIRE

    J. Szymszal; J. Pi?tkowski; P. Podolski; J. Kli?

    2009-01-01

    The study discusses application of computer simulation based on the method of inverse cumulative distribution function. The simulationrefers to an elementary static case, which can also be solved by physical experiment, consisting mainly in observations of foundryproduction in a selected foundry plant. For the simulation and forecasting of foundry production quality in selected cast iron grade, arandom number generator of Excel calculation sheet was chosen. Very wide potentials of this type o...

  8. Hexachlorobenzene and octachlorostyrene in plasma of aluminium foundry workers using hexachloroethane for degassing.

    OpenAIRE

    Seldén, A. I.; Nygren, Y; Westberg, H B; Bodin, L. S.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To study the load of selected organochlorine compounds in the blood of aluminium foundry workers who use hexachloroethane as a degassing agent for aluminium and to measure some possible effects on internal organs. METHODS: Plasma from nine male aluminium foundry workers with past experience of use of hexachloroethane and 18 controls (two controls per exposed case) matched for residence, sex, age, and socioeconomic status was analysed for hexachlorobenzene (HCB), (P-HCB), and octac...

  9. Specificity of SPC Procedures Application in Foundry in Aspect of Data Acquisition and Data Exploration

    OpenAIRE

    Z. Ignaszak; R. Sika

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents an analysis of SPC (Statistical Process Control) procedures usability in foundry engineering. The authors pay particular attention to the processes complexity and necessity of correct preparation of data acquisition procedures. Integration of SPC systems with existing IT solutions in area of aiding and assistance during the manufacturing process is important. For each particular foundry, methodology of selective SPC application needs to prepare for supervision and control o...

  10. Research and application of enterprise resource planning system for foundry enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou Jianxin; Ji Xiaoyuan; Liao Dunming

    2013-01-01

    PPDB issues - four aspects of current management issues of foundry enterprises are discussed in this paper, including Production Management, Process Control, Duration Monitoring and Business Intelligence Data Analysis. Also a whole Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) solution for foundry enterprises is proposed. The solution contains many models, four of which are used to solve the PPDB issues. These are called SPDB models, which separately are the Single-piece management model (based on casti...

  11. The influence of microwave heating and water glass kind on the properties of molding sands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Granat

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This work presents rcsults of research on thc influcncc of microwave heating time on the process of hardening of warcr glass moldingsands. Essential influence of this drying process on basic properties such as: cornprcssion, bcnding mind tcnsitc strcng~h as well aspcrrneabili~y and war resistance, has bccn found. It has bccn proved, that at1 thc investigated sorts of sodium water glass could be uscd asbinding material of molding sands intended for curing with the microwave process healing. It has bccn found, while analyzing the rcsultsof property studics or microwavc heated molding sands with 2.5% addition of water glass, that aIl available on the markct kinds of thisbinding agent (inctuding the most frequently uscd in foundry 145 and 149 kinds after microwave heating guarantee very goodcompression, bending and tensile strength as well as permeability and wcar resistance. Moroovcr, it has bccn dctcrmined that the optimalcuring powcr of molding sands containing various kinds of water gIass is 560 W. AII values exceeding this rcsult in stabilization of basicpropcrtics of molding sands. The use of microwave curing of water glass molding sands results in a significant decrease of hardeningprocess time. full stabilization of molding sands as well as much lower energy consumption.

  12. Analysis of effectiveness of used sands reclamation treatment – in various technological devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Da?ko

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of effectiveness of spent sands reclamation treatment performed in technological devices of various intensity of dry reclamation – during which used binding material is being removed from grain surfaces – is presented in the paper. Variety of reclamation influences was considered via the realization of the so called elementary operations such as: rubbing, grinding and crushing [1-5], which are realised mainly in dry mechanical reclamation devices but also appear in other technological devices for sand preparation.The model rotor reclaimer and two types of mixers used for preparing initial foundry sands with resin U 404 and hardener 100 T3 of the Hüttenes-Albertus Company were applied for tests.The theoretical model for assessing the effectiveness of reclamation treatment developed by the author [3, 4], was experimentally verified [5, 7], with the application of standard testing procedures. The model can be considered a new tool enabling the selection of optimal reclamation times for the given used sand at the assumed intensity of silica sand matrix recovery. Sand mixture of a proper composition fulfilled needed technological properties after total hardening was used as charge material in experiments. The reclamation treatment consisted of mechanical and mechanical-cryogenic reclamation performed within a wide range of times and conditions influencing the treatment intensity.

  13. Barriers to and drivers for energy efficiency in the Swedish foundry industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite the need for increased industrial energy efficiency, studies indicate that cost-efficient energy conservation measures are not always implemented, explained by the existence of barriers to energy efficiency. This paper investigates the existence of different barriers to and driving forces for the implementation of energy efficiency measures in the energy intensive Swedish foundry industry. The overall results from a questionnaire show that limited access to capital constitutes by far the largest barrier to energy efficiency according to the respondents. A comparison between group-owned and privately owned foundries shows that, except for limited access to capital, they face different high-ranked barriers. While barriers within group owned companies are more related to organizational problems, barriers within private foundries are more related to information problems. This study also found that energy consultants or other actors working with energy issues in foundries are of major importance in overcoming the largest barriers, as the foundries consider them trustworthy. They may thus help the foundries overcome organizational problems such as lack of sub-metering and lack of budget funds by quantifying potential energy efficiency investments. The two, by far, most important drivers were found to be people with real ambition and long-term energy strategies

  14. Lund Sand No 0

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Lars Bo; Jakobsen, Finn Rosendal

    1996-01-01

    During the last 15 years the Geotechnical Engineering Group (GEG) at Aalborg University has performed triaxial tests with a sand called Lund No 0. Lund No 0 is a graded sand from a gravel pit near Horsens in Denmark. For the classification of the sand the following tests have been performed: Sieve test, Grain density, ds, Maximum, emax, and minimum, emin, void ratio. The strength parameters of Lund No 0 are detennined by some drained and undrained triaxial tests in the Danish Triaxial Cell. The ...

  15. Interaction of smoking, uptake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and cytochrome P450IA2 activity among foundry workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sherson, D; Sigsgaard, T; Overgaard, E; Loft, S; Poulsen, H E; Jongeneelen, F J

    1992-01-01

    reflected by the urinary caffeine ratio (IA2) in 45 foundry workers and 52 controls; IA2 was defined as the ratio of paraxanthine 7-demethylation products to a paraxanthine 8-hydroxylation product (1,7-dimethyluric acid). Mean exposure concentrations for foundry workers were defined by breathing zone...... had the highest hpU concentrations (0.70, 95% CI - 0.07-1.47 mumol/mol creatinine) (p less than 0.04). Increased hpU concentrations in smoking foundry workers suggest a more than additive effect from smoking and foundry exposures resulting in increased PAH uptake. Increased P450IA2 enzyme activity was...... only found in smokers and no additional effect of foundry exposures was seen. These data suggest that smoking as well as work related PAH exposure may be casually related to increased risk of lung cancer in foundry workers....

  16. Sand pits and gravel-sand pits.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    ?ehounková, Klára; ?ehounek, J.; Beran, L.; Bogusch, P.; Blízek, J.; Boukal, M.; Grycz, F.; Hátle, M.; Hlásek, J.; Heneberg, P.; Hesoun, P.; Konvi?ka, Martin; Lepšová, A.; Mat?j?ek, T.; Rektoris, L.; Stárka, L.; Zavadil, V.

    ?eské Bud?jovice : Faculty of Science, University of South Bohemia in ?eské Bud?jovice, 2011 - (?ehounková, K.; ?ehounek, J.; Prach, K.), s. 51-67 ISBN 978-80-7394-322-6 R&D Projects: GA ?R(CZ) GAP505/11/0256 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516; CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 ; RVO:60077344 Keywords : sand pits Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  17. Problems of bentonite rebonding of synthetic system sands in turbine mixers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fedoryszyn

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Turbine (rotor mixers are widely used in foundries for bentonite rebonding of synthetic system sands. They form basic equipment in modern sand processing plants. Their major advantage is the short time of the rebond mixing cycle.Until now, no complete theoretical description of the process of mixing in turbine mixers has been offered. Neither does it seem reasonable to try to adapt the theoretical backgrounds of the mixing process carried out in mixers of other types, for example, rooler mixers [1], to the description of operation of the turbine mixers. Truly one can risk the statement that the individual fundamental operations of mixing in rooler mixers, like kneading, grinding, mixing and thinning, are also performed in turbine mixers. Yet, even if so, in turbine mixers these processes are proceeding at a rate and intensity different than in the roller mixers. The fact should also be recalled that the theoretical backgrounds usually relate to the preparation of sand mixtures from new components, and this considerably restricts the field of application of these descriptions when referred to rebond mixing of the system sand. The fundamentals of the process of the synthetic sand rebonding with bentonite require determination and description of operations, like disaggregation, even distribution of binder and water within the entire volume of the rebonded sand batch, sand grains coating, binder activation and aeration.This study presents the scope of research on the sand rebonding process carried out in turbine mixers. The aim has been to determine the range and specific values of the designing and operating parameters to get optimum properties of the rebonded sand as well as energy input in the process.

  18. Avalanches of dry sand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutreux, T.; Raphaël, E.; de Gennes, P. G.

    We present here some general features of sand heaps and of dunes. We mainly discuss avalanche flows, using a modified version of the equations of Bouchaud et al., which might be valid for thick avalanches.

  19. The Flow of Sand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yersel, Metin

    2000-01-01

    Describes a simple demonstration of the flow of sand through an orifice at the bottom of a sandbox. Advocates the experiment's use with dimensional analysis for students in an introductory physics course. (WRM)

  20. Using mixture design of experiments to assess the environmental impact of clay-based structural ceramics containing foundry wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronado, M; Segadães, A M; Andrés, A

    2015-12-15

    This work describes the leaching behavior of potentially hazardous metals from three different clay-based industrial ceramic products (wall bricks, roof tiles, and face bricks) containing foundry sand dust and Waelz slag as alternative raw materials. For each product, ten mixtures were defined by mixture design of experiments and the leaching of As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb, and Zn was evaluated in pressed specimens fired simulating the three industrial ceramic processes. The results showed that, despite the chemical, mineralogical and processing differences, only chrome and molybdenum were not fully immobilized during ceramic processing. Their leaching was modeled as polynomial equations, functions of the raw materials contents, and plotted as response surfaces. This brought to evidence that Cr and Mo leaching from the fired products is not only dependent on the corresponding contents and the basicity of the initial mixtures, but is also clearly related with the mineralogical composition of the fired products, namely the amount of the glassy phase, which depends on both the major oxides contents and the firing temperature. PMID:26252997

  1. Cleanup under Airlock of an Old Uranium Foundry - 13273

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thuillier, Daniel; Houee, Jean-Marie [AREVA D and D BU, Paris La Defense (France); Chambon, Frederic [AREVA FEDERAL SERVICES, Columbia MD (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Since 2004, AREVA's subsidiary SICN has been conducting the cleanup and dismantling of an old uranium foundry located in the town of Annecy (France). The first operations consisted in the removal of the foundry's production equipment, producing more than 300 metric tons (MT) of waste. The second step consisted in performing the radiological characterization of the 1,600 m{sup 2} (17,200 ft{sup 2}) building, including underground trenches and galleries. The building was precisely inventoried, based on operations records and direct measurements. All sub-surfaces, which needed to be cleaned up were characterized, and a determination of the contamination migration was established, in particular with trenches and galleries. The wall thicknesses to be treated were empirically justified, knowing that the maximal migration depth inside concrete is 5 mm for a liquid transfer vector. All singularities such as cracks, anchoring points, etc. were spotted for a complete and systematic treatment. Building structures not laying directly on the soil, such as floor slabs, were not cleaned up but directly deconstructed and disposed of as waste. The facility was located within the town of Annecy. Therefore, in order to avoid the risk of dusts dispersion and public exposure during the building deconstruction and the soil treatment, a third of the building's surface was confined in a sliding airlock built from a metal structure capable of resisting to wind and snow, which are frequent in this area. This particular structure provided a static confinement over the half of the building which was covered and a dynamic confinement using a ventilation and high efficiency air filtration system, sized to provide 2.5 air changes per hour. The enclosure and its metallic structure is 33 m long (108 feet), 25 m wide (82 feet), and 13 m high (42 feet), for a volume of 10,000 m{sup 3} (353,000 ft{sup 3}). It was made up of a double skin envelope, allowing the recycling of its structure and outside envelope. After cleaning up and dismantling the first portion of the building, the enclosure was repositioned on the second and the last third of the building, by sliding it on support pads. Almost 7,000 m{sup 2} of concrete surface has been treated with no dust dispersion outside the enclosure. After treatment, all the remaining surfaces were controlled by an independent entity to verify their acceptability with regards to residual contamination (less than 0.4 Bq/cm{sup 2} (24 DPM) for alpha contamination and less than 1 Bq/g of total uranium). Approximately 1,900 MT of equipment and waste were generated in batches of 1m{sup 3}, in order to be staged on site, and then characterized and packaged in 20 foot containers for shipment to the final ANDRA repository. The package certification included the verification of the physical and chemical characteristics and the radiological characteristics (mass activity, dose rate, and residual outside surface contamination). Finally, after cleanup and dismantling of the foundry, a concrete slab was poured on the free surface as a clean base for implementation of new activities. (authors)

  2. Cleanup under Airlock of an Old Uranium Foundry - 13273

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 2004, AREVA's subsidiary SICN has been conducting the cleanup and dismantling of an old uranium foundry located in the town of Annecy (France). The first operations consisted in the removal of the foundry's production equipment, producing more than 300 metric tons (MT) of waste. The second step consisted in performing the radiological characterization of the 1,600 m2 (17,200 ft2) building, including underground trenches and galleries. The building was precisely inventoried, based on operations records and direct measurements. All sub-surfaces, which needed to be cleaned up were characterized, and a determination of the contamination migration was established, in particular with trenches and galleries. The wall thicknesses to be treated were empirically justified, knowing that the maximal migration depth inside concrete is 5 mm for a liquid transfer vector. All singularities such as cracks, anchoring points, etc. were spotted for a complete and systematic treatment. Building structures not laying directly on the soil, such as floor slabs, were not cleaned up but directly deconstructed and disposed of as waste. The facility was located within the town of Annecy. Therefore, in order to avoid the risk of dusts dispersion and public exposure during the building deconstruction and the soil treatment, a third of the building's surface was confined in a sliding airlock built from a metal structure capable of resisting to wind and snow, which are frequent in this area. This particular structure provided a static confinement over the half of the building which was covered and a dynamic confinement using a ventilation and high efficiency air filtration system, sized to provide 2.5 air changes per hour. The enclosure and its metallic structure is 33 m long (108 feet), 25 m wide (82 feet), and 13 m high (42 feet), for a volume of 10,000 m3 (353,000 ft3). It was made up of a double skin envelope, allowing the recycling of its structure and outside envelope. After cleaning up and dismantling the first portion of the building, the enclosure was repositioned on the second and the last third of the building, by sliding it on support pads. Almost 7,000 m2 of concrete surface has been treated with no dust dispersion outside the enclosure. After treatment, all the remaining surfaces were controlled by an independent entity to verify their acceptability with regards to residual contamination (less than 0.4 Bq/cm2 (24 DPM) for alpha contamination and less than 1 Bq/g of total uranium). Approximately 1,900 MT of equipment and waste were generated in batches of 1m3, in order to be staged on site, and then characterized and packaged in 20 foot containers for shipment to the final ANDRA repository. The package certification included the verification of the physical and chemical characteristics and the radiological characteristics (mass activity, dose rate, and residual outside surface contamination). Finally, after cleanup and dismantling of the foundry, a concrete slab was poured on the free surface as a clean base for implementation of new activities. (authors)

  3. Pre-SPC Math for Foundry Workers. A Lesson Developed for Robinson Foundry and Bodine-Robinson as Part of a National Workplace Literacy Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Bonnie

    Developed as part of a National Workplace Literacy Program, this lesson focuses on terms and mathematical operations associated with Statistical Process Control (SPC) in the foundry industry. With appropriate assistance and preparatory work, workers testing between grades 4 and 9 on the Test of Adult Basic Education Locator should be able to use…

  4. Chemical and radiometric determination of uranium and thorium in zircon sands and phosphorites after separation by extraction chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zircon sands, essentially composed of zircon, are materials widely used in zirconium extraction industry, in foundry sands, in refractories and ceramics; phosphorites are the starting material for the industrial production of phosphoric acid, fertilisers and plasters. Zircon sands and phosphorites contain sensible concentration of uranium, thorium and radium representing a potential radiation risk for the professionally exposed staff. The measurements by gamma spectrometry give often too high uranium contents if compared with those obtained by other methods because the members of uranium series are not always in radioactive equilibrium with the parents. Consequently it is useful to operate both by analytical and radiochemical techniques which permit the determination of the elementary thorium and uranium and also of their isotopic composition. The aim of the present work was to find out two different methods by Extraction Chromatography for the separation of uranium, thorium and radium before their radiometric determination by ZnS(Ag) alpha counting (Ra-226) and by alpha spectrometry (U, Th)

  5. Rebounding process of moulding sands-thermal degradation of bentonite binding qualities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Da?ko

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problems related to a gradual degradation of binding qualities of montmorillonite, the main component of foundry bentonites, are presented in the paper. This degradation is caused by high temperatures originated from liquid metal influencing moulding sands. Laboratory measurements of an active binding agent content in classic moulding sands prepared with two types of bentonite and subjected to a controlled heating to high temperatures – were performed. These laboratory examinations were compared to industrial tests, in which a temperature distribution was being determined in several places in the thickness of the casting ingot mould for 24 hours from the moment of pouring liquid metal. On the basis of the performed examinations, the method allowing to determine optimal additions in the rebounding process of the tested bentonites was developed.

  6. Signalling a foundry mould filling degree with infrared sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bogdan

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available A contactless method of measuring a foundry mould filling degree in course of its pouring with liquid metal is suggested. The concept is based on infrared radiation of molten metal appearing in venting and flow-off holes. As the detector, an infrared channel receiving diode is applied. Three solutions were tested. In the first solution, the diode is placed at the calculated distance from the radiation source, in a housing that suppresses the scattered signal. The housing contains the electronics, while power supply and control signals are delivered by conductors. A diode actuation threshold is established in order to obtain high resolution and repeatability of the results. On the output, a miniature relay transmits the signal to the control system. In the second solution, the measuring system is supplied with a battery and the signal in transmitted through a plastic optical fibre. In the third solution, the optical fibre serves as an energy carrier. The optical system focuses the infrared radiation and introduces the energy to the optical fibre. On the other end of the fibre, a phototransistor amplifies the signal, forms it and transmits to the control system. Some experiments were carried out. Their results permitted noting disadvantages and advantages of individual solutions. It was evidenced that the measurement results obtained using the infrared radiation are independent on a constructional design. The solutions utilising optical fibres proved to be more useful in industrial conditions. Targets and further directions of research works using transceivers for wireless data transmission are presented.

  7. Electromagnet Gripping in Iron Foundry Automation Part II: Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhythm Suren Wadhwa

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares the simulation and initial experimental results for robust part handling by radially symmetric cylindrical electromagnetic gripper heads, that are used in foundry manufacturing assembly operation. Knowledge of the direct holding force is essential to determine if a given electromagnet is capable of preventing part slipping during pick and place operation. Energy based model and the magnetic circuit model have been described. The latter is developed further and compared with results from a FEA software. It was found that the magnetic circuit model, although simple in form, was limited in its ability to accurately predict the holding force over the entire range of conditions investigated. The shortcomings in the model were attributed to its inability to accurately model the leakage flux and non-uniform distribution of the magnetic flux. A finite element allowed for the ability to couple the mechanical and magnetic models. The finite element model was used to predict the magnetic field based off the solutions to the mechanical (sigma and the magnetic model (B.

  8. ???????????? ??????? Information Behavior of the Semiconductor Foundry Industry Engineers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ping Shih

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????This article takes semiconductor foundry industry engineers as research subjects, and tries to understand their information behavior. This article employs the questionnaire and in-depth interview as the research methodology. There are four primary findings: (1 the information need of an engineer lies in enhancing self’s working-ability and solve problems encountered in daily job; (2 the primary information sources of engineers are documents and interpersonal relationships, and the most difficult problems in seeking information are information overload and too little relevant and professional information; (3 quality and accessibility is the main factor when engineers seek information; whether the information fit demands or not and the information accuracy are the primary points when engineers evaluate information; the main purpose of engineers using information is to work more efficiently and to achieve the goal or mission in a timely manner; (4 the engineers’ educational backgrounds, professional titles, and job functions have significant influences on a few activities of information behavior.

  9. Thin film metal surface micromachining: a new enabling foundry technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Heeren, Henne; Andringa, Toon; Attenborough, K.; Eisenberg, Martin; Meeuws, P.

    2003-01-01

    A new generation of products has been developed at research institutes needing a combination of thin film metal processing and surface micromachining. Especially RF MEMS switches and related products are now entering the market. These products are not only complex in architecture, they also feature relative thick metal layers. The thicknesses of the metal layers give rise to problems in the field of step coverage, dimension control and limited resistance to etching agents. Reliability and yield in production is therefore a major concern. To make robust, compact and reliable structures, combinations of electroplating and Chemical Mechanical Polishing are used. The combinations are not only new in this area; they are rather different from the standards in the semiconductor industry, where the technology was developed. The process modules are used in RF MEMS to create the thick signal lines, as well as the delicate switch and varactor structures. The basic processes, tried and tested in the production of magnetic heads, had to be modified to meet the special demands of RF MEMS. Also new processes had to be introduced to create free hanging membranes. Due to the fragility of the structures, a special technology is being developed in the backend processing: wafer scale packaging. This article gives an overview of the processes, the challenges met and the results of the work on RF MEMS at the OnStream MST foundry.

  10. Oil sands tax expenditures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The oil sands are a strategic Canadian resource for which federal and provincial governments provide financial incentives to develop and exploit. This report describes the Oil Sands Tax Expenditure Model (OSTEM) developed to estimate the size of the federal income tax expenditure attributed to the oil sands industry. Tax expenditures are tax concessions which are used as alternatives to direct government spending for achieving government policy objectives. The OSTEM was developed within the business Income Tax Division of Canada's Department of Finance. Data inputs for the model were obtained from oil sands developers and Natural Resources Canada. OSTEM calculates annual revenues, royalties and federal taxes at project levels using project-level projections of capital investment, operating expenses and production. OSTEM calculates tax expenditures by comparing taxes paid under different tax regimes. The model also estimates the foregone revenue as a percentage of capital investment. Total tax expenditures associated with investment in the oil sands are projected to total $820 million for the period from 1986 to 2030, representing 4.6 per cent of the total investment. 10 refs., 2 tabs., 7 figs

  11. Bituminous sands : tax issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper examined some of the tax issues associated with the production of bitumen or synthetic crude oil from oil sands. The oil sands deposits in Alberta are gaining more attention as the supplies of conventional oil in Canada decline. The oil sands reserves located in the Athabasca, Cold Lake and Peace River areas contain about 2.5 trillion barrels of highly viscous hydrocarbons called bitumen, of which nearly 315 billion barrels are recoverable with current technology. The extraction method varies for each geographic area, and even within zones and reservoirs. The two most common extraction methods are surface mining and in-situ extraction such as cyclic steam stimulation (CSS); low pressure steam flood; pressure cycle steam drive; steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD); hot water flooding; and, fire flood. This paper also discussed the following general tax issues: bituminous sands definition; bituminous sands leases and Canadian development expense versus Canadian oil and gas property expense (COGPE); Canadian exploration expense (CEE) for surface mining versus in-situ methods; additional capital cost allowance; and, scientific research and experimental development (SR and ED). 15 refs

  12. Application of microwave energy for curing of molding sands containing oil binders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Stachowicz

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This works presents the results of studies concerning possibility of application of microwave heating in the curing process of molding sands containing oil binders. Molding sands prepared with three kinds of binders, that is oils C, DL and Retanol, have been subject to experiments. The sands have been dried with two methods: in a microwave chamber of 750W power and, for comparison, with classical method at the temperature of 200°C for 120 minutes. Tensile and bending strength of the samples have been determined after cooling down. It has been found that microwave drying in the low-power device used for experiments is effective only in case of molding sand prepared with addition of DL binder. The temperature of heated, even up to 32 minutes in a microwave chamber, blocks prepared from the remaining two masses, was insufficient to initiate binding process. The undertaken attempts of binder modification and introduction of additives intensifying microwave heating process allowed for achievement of satisfactory results. It has been found that power of the heating device is the main factor determining efficiency of microwave curing of molding sands containing oil binders. An additional experiment has been conducted on a laboratory workstation allowing for microwave heating of small mass samples with a high output power of magnetron concentrated in a small substrate volume. It has been observed that microwave drying process of molding sands was of dynamic character over a short period of time, not exceeding 120 seconds, thus assuring efficient curing of the sands containing the used oil binders. Therefore, application of devices of properly high microwave output power allows for efficient drying of oil molding sands, while simultaneously assuring the possibility to reduce time and energy consumption necessary for production of foundry cores of proper functional characteristics.

  13. Gas percolation through sand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous research has determined the shock properties of quartz sand. The effect of the physical processes occurring with varying moisture content and particle size were shock presented. In this study the same quartz sand, in a column is subjected to blast waves over a range of pressure. The diagnostics used are pressure sensors and high-speed photography. The effect of grain size on propagation time and the effect of moisture content are determined. Aspects of particle and liquid movement are also discussed. While the velocity of the percolation through the bed is primarily controlled by grain size the effect of moisture and liquids reveals a more complex dependence.

  14. Sand Dunes with Frost

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    9 May 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a suite of frost-covered sand dunes in the north polar region of Mars in early spring, 2004. The dunes indicate wind transport of sand from left to right (west to east). These landforms are located near 78.1oN, 220.8oW. This picture is illuminated by sunlight from the lower left and covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) across.

  15. UK Frac Sand Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, C J

    2014-01-01

    Although still just a glimmer in the gas man’s eye, the prospect of shale hydrocarbon (oil and gas) development in the UK has many companies thinking about the industrial minerals it will require. Chief amongst these is silica sand which is used as a ‘proppant’ in the hydraulic fracturing, or ‘fracking’, of shales to help release the gas. The UK has large resources of sand and sandstone, of which only a small proportion have the necessary technical properties that classify them as ‘silica san...

  16. 77 FR 34012 - Foundry Coke Products From the People's Republic of China: Continuation of Antidumping Duty Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-08

    ... Five-Year (``Sunset'') Review, 76 FR 74775 (December 1, 2011). \\2\\ See Foundry Coke Products from the... FR 20788 (April 6, 2012) and accompanying Issues and Decision Memorandum. \\3\\ See Foundry Coke Products from China Determination, 77 FR 32998 (June 4, 2012), and USITC Publication 4326 (May 29,...

  17. Simulating the deformation of dies in the foundry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Digital simulation (QuikCAST, ProCAST) is already used extensively when designing metallic dies for founding, in particular to design filling and gating systems. Simulation of the steady-state temperature cycles of dies has also been mastered. With large castings, the temperature gradient induced between the moulding surface and the rear surfaces of the die leads to deformations that may be large enough to measure, and incompatible with the required dimensional accuracy. The temperature gradient also creates thermal fatigue stresses that cause crazing of the die surface. In the study conducted by CTIF, aimed at measuring tooling deformations, various ways of measuring displacements at high temperatures (with and without contact) were investigated in order to evaluate their capabilities and limitations. An experimental device was designed - a test bench combining a metallic die having a simple geometry, in which an aluminium part could be cast, and instrumentation (temperature and displacement sensors). The deformations of the die were measured during first cycles of temperature homogenization. Concurrently, thermomechanical calculations were carried out on the same geometry using PROCAST. The calculation results are well correlated with the experimental measurements and validate the tools and the calculation methods. This thermomechanical approach makes it possible to optimize die design in the foundry and to predict high-temperature deformations as early as the design stage. Knowledge of these deformations makes it possible in turn to anticipate the geometrical and dimensional variations undergone by the castings themselves and so to improve their accuracy. The designer can act on the temperature of the die or the design of the casting, or create a die in which the expected thermal deformation is reversed so as to produce a casting having the correct dimensions. In short, thermomechanical simulation can be applied to this problem to achieve a better understanding of the phenomena and to test solutions in advance.

  18. Simulating the deformation of dies in the foundry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabod, A.; Longa, Y.; Dracon, J. M.; Chailler, K.; Hairy, P.; Da Silva, A.

    2012-07-01

    Digital simulation (QuikCAST, ProCAST) is already used extensively when designing metallic dies for founding, in particular to design filling and gating systems. Simulation of the steady-state temperature cycles of dies has also been mastered. With large castings, the temperature gradient induced between the moulding surface and the rear surfaces of the die leads to deformations that may be large enough to measure, and incompatible with the required dimensional accuracy. The temperature gradient also creates thermal fatigue stresses that cause crazing of the die surface. In the study conducted by CTIF, aimed at measuring tooling deformations, various ways of measuring displacements at high temperatures (with and without contact) were investigated in order to evaluate their capabilities and limitations. An experimental device was designed - a test bench combining a metallic die having a simple geometry, in which an aluminium part could be cast, and instrumentation (temperature and displacement sensors). The deformations of the die were measured during first cycles of temperature homogenization. Concurrently, thermomechanical calculations were carried out on the same geometry using PROCAST. The calculation results are well correlated with the experimental measurements and validate the tools and the calculation methods. This thermomechanical approach makes it possible to optimize die design in the foundry and to predict high-temperature deformations as early as the design stage. Knowledge of these deformations makes it possible in turn to anticipate the geometrical and dimensional variations undergone by the castings themselves and so to improve their accuracy. The designer can act on the temperature of the die or the design of the casting, or create a die in which the expected thermal deformation is reversed so as to produce a casting having the correct dimensions. In short, thermomechanical simulation can be applied to this problem to achieve a better understanding of the phenomena and to test solutions in advance.

  19. Technology development towards a generic InP-based photonic-integration foundry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, F. M.; Janiak, K.; Broeke, R. G.; Grote, N.

    2011-05-01

    The main goal of this work is to create a generic foundry service that allows outside users (i.e., universities and small- and-medium enterprises) that do not have fabrication facilities to obtain their own custom-made InP-based photonic-integrated chips (or ASPIC, application-specific photonic-integrated circuits, similar to ASIC in electronics). In this approach, the foundry supplies the user with the cross-section of the interconnect waveguide structure, and the mask layout dimensions and performance of several pre-defined- and wellcharacterized building blocks (BB) such as photodiodes, phase modulators, and spot-size converters (for lowloss fiber-chip coupling). Using this information, the user can generate a mask layout for the foundry by placing the building blocks onto his layout canvas and interconnecting them with the interconnect waveguides. Furthermore, since the material cross-section of the interconnect waveguide is known, the user can design, simulate, and include a mask layout for a desired passive devices such as MMIs, and AWGs, which can subsequently be fabricated at the foundry. We describe the technology development towards obtaining a versatile generic-foundry platform which gives users the freedom to design a large variety of photonic-integrated- devices and circuits. Our generic-foundry technology is based on the fabrication process of our commercially-available high-speed- photodiodes and balanced photodiodes (high-frequency response up to and beyond 100 GHz). We have expanded this fabrication process to include a total of three different types of interconnecting waveguides: a low-contrast-, a medium-contrast, and a high-contrast waveguide, as well as transition BBs to couple light from one waveguide type into the other.

  20. Building with Sand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashbrook, Peggy

    2010-01-01

    Children playing in damp sand invariably try to make a tower or a tunnel. By providing experiences with a variety of materials, alone and together, teachers set up the conditions for children to learn through their senses and ensure that a class approaches a topic with a common set of experiences to build on. Learning about the properties of…

  1. Ganges Chasma Sands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    8 July 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows dark, windblown sand in the form of dunes and a broad, relatively flat, sand sheet in Ganges Chasma, part of the eastern Valles Marineris trough complex. The winds responsible for these dunes blew largely from the north. Sand dunes on Mars, unlike their Earthly counterparts, are usually dark in tone. This is a reflection of their composition, which includes minerals that are more rich in iron and magnesium than the common silica-rich dunes of Earth. Similar dark sands on Earth are found in volcanic regions such as Iceland and Hawaii. A large dune field of iron/magnesium-rich grains, in the form fragments of the volcanic rock, basalt, occurs south of Moses Lake, Washington, in the U.S. Location near: 7.7oS, 45.3oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Southern Spring

  2. Emission of organic compounds from mould and core binders used for casting iron, aluminium and bronze in sand moulds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tiedje, Niels Skat; Crepaz, Rudolf; Eggert, Torben; Bey, Niki

    2010-01-01

    Emissions from mould and core sand binders commonly used in the foundry industry have been investigated. Degradation of three different types of binders was investigated: Furfuryl alcohol (FA), phenolic urethane (PU) and resol-CO2 (RC). In each group of binders at least two different binder...... of binders was monitored when cast iron, bronze and aluminium was poured in the moulds. Binder degradation was measured by collecting off gasses in a specially designed ventilation hood at a constant flow rate. Samples were taken from the ventilation system and analysed for hydrocarbons and CO...

  3. Highly Unidirectional Uniform Optical Grating Couplers, Fabricated in Standard 45nm SOI-CMOS Foundry Process

    CERN Document Server

    Uroševi?, Stevan Lj

    2014-01-01

    This paper defines new structures of highly unidirectional uniform optical grating couplers which are all within constraints of the standard 45nm SOI-CMOS foundry process. Analysis in terms of unidirectivity and coupling efficiency is done. Maximum achieved unidirectivity (power radiation in one direction) is 98%. Unidirectional uniform gratings are fabricated in the standard 45nm SOI-CMOS foundry process. These gratings are measured and compared, using the new method of comparison, with typical bidirectional uniform gratings fabricated in the same process, in terms of coupling efficiency (in this case unidirectivity) with the standard singlemode fiber. For both types of gratings spectrum is given, measured with optical spectrum analyzer.

  4. Cancer mortality in a cohort of United Kingdom steel foundry workers: 1946-85.

    OpenAIRE

    Sorahan, T.; Cooke, M A

    1989-01-01

    The mortality experienced by a cohort of 10,491 United Kingdom steel foundry workers during the period 1946-85 has been investigated. These workers were all male operatives first employed in any one of the 10 participating foundries in 1946-65; all had worked in the industry for a minimum period of one year. Compared with the general population of England and Wales, statistically significant excesses relating to cancer mortality were found for cancer of the stomach (E = 77.4, O = 106, SMR = 1...

  5. Database for foundry engineers – simulationDB – a modern database storing simulation results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Malinowski

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: of this paper The main aim of this paper is to build specific database system for collecting, analysing and searching simulation results.Design/methodology/approach: It was prepared using client-server architecture. Then was prepared GUI - Graphical User Interface.Findings: New database system for foundry was discovered.Practical implications: System development is in progress and practical implication will be hold in one of iron foundry in next year.Originality/value: The original value of this paper is innovative database system for storing and analysing simulation results.

  6. MODELS AND METHODS OF CONTROL SYSTEMS OF ECOLOGICAL SAFETY OF FOUNDRY MANUFACTURE ?????? ? ?????? ?????? ?????????? ????????????? ????????????? ????????? ????????????

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manohin V. J.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The given developments are devoted to modeling of control systems by ecological safety of foundry manufacture. In a working zone of foundry shops except for a dust the significant amount of polluting substances is allocated. The most unsuccessful sites from a position of allocation of a dust are chambers and lattices. The experimental analysis shows, that in structure of a dust the weight maintenance of fractions with a diameter up to 20 microns reaches 43,8 % on weight. The given dust is most dangerous to health of the working personnel and creates problems when clearing the air

  7. Extracting Oil From Tar Sands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, L. B.; Daly, D.

    1984-01-01

    Recovery of oil from tar sands possible by batch process, using steam produced by solar heater. In extraction process, solar heater provides steam for heating solvent boiler. Boiling solvent removes oil from tar sands in Soxhlet extractor.

  8. Sand transport in multiphase pipelines

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Wei

    2010-01-01

    Over the life of an oil and gas reservoir, it is likely to encounter sand production. In offshore production fields, as there are lack of processing facilities nearby, gas, liquid and sand are often transported together in long distance pipelines. The existence of sand could accumulate in the pipelines under inappropriate operation condition and eventually will lead to a blockage. Thus, to design such systems requires knowledge on how sand is transported, when and where it will accumulate. ...

  9. On Pluvial Compaction of Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Moust

    At the Institute of Civil Engineering in Aalborg model tests on dry sand specimens have been carried out during the last five years. To reduce deviations in test results, the sand laying technique has been carefully studied, and the sand mass spreader constructed. Preliminary results have been...

  10. On Pluvial Compaction of Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Moust

    1976-01-01

    At the Institute of Civil Engineering in Aalborg model tests on dry sand specimens have been carried out during the last five years. To reduce deviations in test results, the sand laying technique has been carefully studied, and the sand mass spreader constructed. Preliminary results have been mentioned at the "Nordisk Geoteknikermøde 1975" in Copenhagen.

  11. Moving sand dunes

    CERN Document Server

    Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

    2011-01-01

    In several desert areas, the slow motion of sand dunes can be a challenge for modern human activities and a threat for the survival of ancient places or archaeological sites. However, several methods exist for surveying the dune fields and estimate their migration rate. Among these methods, the use of satellite images, in particular of those freely available on the World Wide Web, is a convenient resource for the planning of future human settlements and activities.

  12. APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 8: Industrialist's Manual No. 3, Rusty's Iron Foundry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

    The Industrialist's Manual No. 3, Rusty's Iron Foundry is part of a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise), a computerized college and professional level "real world" game simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties. The first two sections,…

  13. METRO-APEX Volume 13.1: Industrialist's Manual No. 3, Rusty's Iron Foundry. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    University of Southern California, Los Angeles. COMEX Research Project.

    The Industrialist's Manual No. 3 (Rusty's Iron Foundry) is one of a set of twenty-one manuals used in METRO-APEX 1974, a computerized college and professional level, computer-supported, role-play, simulation exercise of a community with "normal" problems. Stress is placed on environmental quality considerations. APEX 1974 is an expansion of…

  14. Risk assessment of chemicals in foundries: The International Chemical Toolkit pilot-project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Brazil, problems regarding protection from hazardous substances in small-sized enterprises are similar to those observed in many other countries. Looking for a simple tool to assess and control such exposures, FUNDACENTRO has started in 2005 a pilot-project to implement the International Chemical Control Toolkit. During the series of visits to foundries, it was observed that although many changes have occurred in foundry technology, occupational exposures to silica dust and metal fumes continue to occur, due to a lack of perception of occupational exposure in the work environment. After introducing the Chemical Toolkit concept to the foundry work group, it was possible to show that the activities undertaken to improve the management of chemicals, according to its concept, will support companies in fulfilling government legislations related to chemical management, occupational health and safety, and environmental impact. In the following meetings, the foundry work group and FUNDACENTRO research team will identify 'inadequate work situations'. Based on the Chemical Toolkit, improvement measures will be proposed. Afterwards, a survey will verify the efficency of those measures in the control of hazards and consequently on the management of chemicals. This step is now in course

  15. Laboratory singing sand avalanches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagois-Bohy, Simon; Ngo, Sandrine; du Pont, Sylvain Courrech; Douady, Stéphane

    2010-02-01

    Some desert sand dunes have the peculiar ability to emit a loud sound up to 110 dB, with a well-defined frequency: this phenomenon, known since early travelers (Darwin, Marco Polo, etc.), has been called the song of dunes. But only in late 19th century scientific observations were made, showing three important characteristics of singing dunes: first, not all dunes sing, but all the singing dunes are composed of dry and well-sorted sand; second, this sound occurs spontaneously during avalanches on a slip face; third this is not the only way to produce sound with this sand. More recent field observations have shown that during avalanches, the sound frequency does not depend on the dune size or shape, but on the grain diameter only, and scales as the square root of g/d--with g the gravity and d the diameter of the grains--explaining why all the singing dunes in the same vicinity sing at the same frequency. We have been able to reproduce these singing avalanches in laboratory on a hard plate, which made possible to study them more accurately than on the field. Signals of accelerometers at the flowing surface of the avalanche are compared to signals of microphones placed above, and it evidences a very strong vibration of the flowing layer at the same frequency as on the field, responsible for the emission of sound. Moreover, other characteristics of the booming dunes are reproduced and analyzed, such as a threshold under which no sound is produced, or beats in the sound that appears when the flow is too large. Finally, the size of the coherence zones emitting sound has been measured and discussed. PMID:19880153

  16. Oil sands development update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A detailed review and update of oil sands development in Alberta are provided covering every aspect of the production and economic aspects of the industry. It is pointed out that at present oil sands account for 28 per cent of Canadian crude oil production, expected to reach 50 per cent by 2005. Based on recent announcements, a total of 26 billion dollars worth of projects are in progress or planned; 20 billion dollars worth of this development is in the Athabasca area, the remainder in Cold Lake and other areas. The current update envisages up to 1,800,000 barrels per day by 2008, creating 47,000 new jobs and total government revenues through direct and indirect taxes of 118 billion dollars. Provinces other than Alberta also benefit from these development, since 60 per cent of all employment and income created by oil sands production is in other parts of Canada. Up to 60 per cent of the expansion is for goods and services and of this, 50 to 55 per cent will be purchased from Canadian sources. The remaining 40 per cent of the new investment is for engineering and construction of which 95 per cent is Canadian content. Aboriginal workforce by common consent of existing operators matches regional representation (about 13 per cent), and new developers are expected to match these standards. Planned or ongoing development in environmental protection through improved technologies and optimization, energy efficiency and improved tailings management, and active support of flexibility mechanisms such as emission credits trading, joint implementation and carbon sinks are very high on the industry's agenda. The importance of offsets are discussed extensively along with key considerations for international negotiations, as well as further research of other options such as sequestration, environmentally benign disposal of waste, and enhanced voluntary action

  17. Sand dollar sites orogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amos, Dee

    2013-04-01

    The determinology of the humble sand dollars habitat changing from inception to the drastic evolution of the zone to that of present day. Into the cauldron along the southern Californian 'ring of fire' lithosphere are evidence of geosynclinals areas, metasedimentary rock formations and hydrothermal activity. The explanation begins with 'Theia' and the Moon's formation, battles with cometary impacts, glacial ages, epochs with evolutionary bottlenecks and plate tectonics. Fully illustrated the lecture includes localised diagrams and figures with actual subject photographic examples of plutonic, granitic, jade and peridodite. Finally, the origins of the materials used in the lecture are revealed for prosecution by future students and the enjoyment of interested parties in general.

  18. Compressive behavior of fine sand.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Bradley E. (Air Force Research Laboratory, Eglin, FL); Kabir, Md. E. (Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN); Song, Bo; Chen, Wayne (Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN)

    2010-04-01

    The compressive mechanical response of fine sand is experimentally investigated. The strain rate, initial density, stress state, and moisture level are systematically varied. A Kolsky bar was modified to obtain uniaxial and triaxial compressive response at high strain rates. A controlled loading pulse allows the specimen to acquire stress equilibrium and constant strain-rates. The results show that the compressive response of the fine sand is not sensitive to strain rate under the loading conditions in this study, but significantly dependent on the moisture content, initial density and lateral confinement. Partially saturated sand is more compliant than dry sand. Similar trends were reported in the quasi-static regime for experiments conducted at comparable specimen conditions. The sand becomes stiffer as initial density and/or confinement pressure increases. The sand particle size become smaller after hydrostatic pressure and further smaller after dynamic axial loading.

  19. Design process optimization, virtual prototyping of manufacturing, and foundry-portable DFM (Invited Paper)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, James; Progler, Christopher; Chatila, Ahmad; Bruggeman, Bert; Heins, Mitchell; Pack, Robert; Boksha, Victor

    2005-05-01

    We consider modern design for manufacturing (DFM) as a manifestation of IC industry re-integration and intensive cost management dynamics. In that regard DFM is somewhat different from so-called design for yield (DFY) which essentially focuses on productivity (yield) management (that is not to say that DFM and DFY do not have significant overlaps and interactions). We clearly see the shaping of a new "full-chip DFM" infrastructure on the background of the "back to basics" design-manufacturing re-integration dynamics. In the presented work we are focusing on required DFM-efficiencies in a "foundry-fabless" link. Concepts of "virtual prototyping of manufacturing", "design process optimization", and "foundry-portable DFM" models are explored. Both senior management of the industry and leading design groups finally realize the need for a radical change of design styles. Some of the DFM super-goals are to isolate designers from process details and to make designs foundry portable. It requires qualification of designs at different foundries. In their turn, foundries specified and are implementing a set of DFM rules: "action-required", "recommended", and "guidelines" while asking designers to provide netlist and testing information. Also, we observe strong signs of innovation coming back to the mask industry. Powerful solutions are emerging and shaping up toward mask-centered IP as a business. While it seems that pure-play foundries have found their place for now in the "IDM+" model (supporting manufacturing capacity of IDMs) it is not obvious how sustainable the model is. Wafer as a production unit is not sufficient anymore; foundries are being asked by large customers to price products in terms of good die. It brings back the notion of the old ASIC business model where the foundry is responsible for dealing with both random and systematic yield issues for a given design. One scenario of future development would be that some of the leading foundries might eventually transform themselves into IDMs. Another visible trend: some of the manufacturing capacities started to diversify business by providing services for new emerging markets (for example, new energy and medicine applications). Finally it is very unclear what"s going to happen to fabless players. We continue building on the "Think SPICE again!" methodology introduced last year and expanding on previous platforms' discussion. Model expression of DFM, most probably, will be supplied by the equipment suppliers and yield management community. Actual content for a design intent model will be provided by manufacturing. Much like SPICE it describes the behavior and not what the actual measurement in manufacturing is. When the model is available and populated, a design automation solution can be created that will allow a designer to extract, analyze, simulate, and optimize the circuit prior to handoff to manufacturing.

  20. FINAL REPORT: Reduction in Energy Consumption and Variability in Steel Foundry Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    F. Peters

    2005-05-24

    This project worked to improve the efficiency of the steel casting industry by reducing the variability that occurs because of process and product variation. The project focused on the post shakeout operations since roughly half of the production costs are in this area. These improvements will reduce the amount of variability, making it easier to manage the operation and improve the competitiveness. The reduction in variability will also reduce the need for many rework operations, which will result in a direct reduction of energy usage, particularly by the reduction of repeated heat treatment operations. Further energy savings will be realized from the reduction of scrap and reduced handling. Field studies were conducted at ten steel foundries that represented the U.S. steel casting industry, for a total of over 100 weeks of production observation. These studies quantified the amount of variability, and looked toward determining the source. A focus of the data collected was the grinding operations since this is a major effort in the cleaning room, and it represents the overall casting quality. The grinding was divided into two categories, expected and unexpected. Expected grinding is that in which the location of the effort is known prior to making the casting, such as smoothing parting lines, gates, and riser contacts. Unexpected grinding, which was approximately 80% of the effort, was done to improve the surfaces at weld repair locations, to rectify burnt on sand, and other surface anomalies at random locations. Unexpected grinding represents about 80% of the grinding effort. By quantifying this effort, the project raised awareness within the industry and the industry is continuing to make improvements. The field studies showed that the amount of variation of grinding operations (normalized because of the diverse set of parts studied) was very consistent across the industry. The field studies identified several specific sources that individually contributed to large process variation. This indicates the need for ongoing monitoring of the process and system to quantify the effort being expended. A system to measure the grinding effort was investigated but did not prove to be successful. A weld wire counting system was shown to be very successful in tracking casting quality by monitoring the quantity of weld wire being expended on a per casting basis. Further use of such systems is highly recommended. The field studies showed that the visual inspection process for the casting surface was a potentially large source of process variation. Measurement system analysis studies were conducted at three steel casting producers. The tests measured the consistency of the inspectors in identifying the same surface anomalies. The repeatability (variation of the same operator inspecting the same casting) was found to be relatively consistent across the companies at about 60-70%. However, this is still are very large amount of variation. Reproducibility (variation of different operators inspecting the same casting) was worse, ranging between 20 to 80% at the three locations. This large amount of variation shows that there is a great opportunity for improvement. Falsely identifying anomalies for reworking will cause increased expense and energy consumption. This is particularly true if a weld repair and repeated heat treatment is required. However, not identifying an anomaly could also result in future rework processing, a customer return, or scrap. To help alleviate this problem, casting surface comparator plates were developed and distributed to the industry. These plates are very inexpensive which enables them to be provided to all those involved with casting surface quality, such as operators, inspectors, sales, and management.

  1. [Application of analytical pyrolysis in air pollution control for green sand casting industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu-jue; Zhao, Qi; Chen, Ying; Wang, Cheng-wen

    2010-02-01

    Analytic pyrolysis was conducted to simulate the heating conditions that the raw materials of green sand would experience during metal casting process. The volatile organic compound (VOC) and hazardous air pollutant (HAP) emissions from analytical pyrolysis were analyzed by gas chromatograph-flame ionization detector/mass spectrometry (GC-FID/MS). The emissions from analytical pyrolysis exhibited some similarity in the compositions and distributions with those from actual casting processes. The major compositions of the emissions included benzene, toluene and phenol. The relative changes of emission levels that were observed in analytical pyrolysis of the various raw materials also showed similar trends with those observed in actual metal casting processes. The emission testing results of both analytic pyrolysis and pre-production foundry have shown that compared to the conventional phenolic urethane binder, the new non-naphthalene phenolic urethane binder diminished more than 50% of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emissions, and the protein-based binder diminished more than 90% of HAP emissions. The similar trends in the two sets of tests offered promise that analytical pyrolysis techniques could be a fast and accurate way to establish the emission inventories, and to evaluate the relative emission levels of various raw materials of casting industry. The results of analytical pyrolysis could provide useful guides for the foundries to select and develop proper clean raw materials for the casting production. PMID:20391731

  2. Risk assessment related to manual handling on choosen work possition in foundry Alstom Power Sp. z o. o.

    OpenAIRE

    Kowal, G.

    2010-01-01

    Manual handling remains one of the different types of transport inside working place, although technological progress and modernorganization of work. Manual transport as a transport inside working place is related to foundry industry. According to polish lawregulations employer has to give consideration to manual handling in professional risk assessment and introduce actions for manualhandling reduction. In Foundry Elblag case there is found that in many processes manual handling are made by ...

  3. Optimization of Mold Yield in MultiCavity Sand Castings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinde, Vasudev D.; Joshi, Durgesh; Ravi, B.; Narasimhan, K.

    2013-06-01

    The productivity of ductile iron foundries engaging in mass production of castings for the automobile and other engineering sectors depends on the number of cavities per mold. A denser packing of cavities, however, results in slower heat transfer from adjacent cavities, leading to delayed solidification, possible shrinkage defects, and lower mechanical properties. In this article, we propose a methodology to optimize mold yield by selecting the correct combination of the mold box size and the number of cavities based on solidification time and mold temperature. Simulation studies were carried out by modeling solid and hollow cube castings with different values of cavity-wall gap and finding the minimum value of the gap beyond which there is no change in casting solidification time. Then double-cavity molds were modeled with different values of cavity-cavity gap, and simulated to find the minimum value of gap. The simulation results were verified by melting and pouring ductile iron in green sand molds instrumented with thermocouples, and recording the temperature in mold at predetermined locations. The proposed approach can be employed to generate a technological database of minimum gaps for various combinations of part geometry, metal and process, which will be very useful to optimize the mold cavity layouts.

  4. Determination of application possibilities of microwave heating in the curing process of water glass molding sands with fluid esters. Part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Granat

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents results of the experimental trial of combination of the chemical method of water glass molding sands’ curing, used in foundry industry, with an innovative microwave heating. The research objective was to indicate at new areas of microwave energy application. The sands prepared, according to recommendations for curing technology, with the use of ethylene glycol diacetate, have been subject to microwave influence. The attempt at determination of microwave influence on qualitative changes of the binding bridges created during the curing process concerned such parameters as: bending and tensile strength, permeability as well as wear resistance. Moreover,we also determined the influence of microwave curing on the phenomena accompanying the process as well as bond stability (storage time of the prepared molding and core sands. It has been found, basing on the result analysis, that the innovative microwave heating might constitute a very good supplementation of the ester curing method. The advantages of the combined chemical and microwave gelation process include, among others, improvement of the described resistance and technological parameters as well as significant decrease of preparation time of foundry moulds and cores. The subject discussed in this article will be continued in its second part.

  5. AN ANALYSIS OF THE DIFFERENTIATION STRATEGIES OF RURAL FOUNDRIES IN THE BEGINNING OF THE 20TH CENTURY IN THE PROVINCE OF QUEBEC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Baillargeon

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The business model and strategic position of Quebec's rural foundries at the beginning of the 20th century is virtually unknown. Inferences have been made based on pictorial and oral data sources. This data reveals that successful rural foundries were, in essence, confined to producing and selling agricultural tools to local farmers on an as-needed basis, because large urban foundries were already mass-producing domestic and industrial objects. In contrast, use of detailed accounting records and advertising publications of three rural foundries over the 1900 to 1914 period provides a clearer picture of the production and of the clientele of those rural foundries. Analysis of these sources suggests that the strategic business model of rural foundries was much more elaborate than the existing literature posits. Rural owner-managers of the early 20th century were sophisticated strategists, marketers, and operators.

  6. Namibia : triaxial test on sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenfelt, Jørgen S.; Jacobsen, Kim P.

    In connection with a harbour project the friction angle of a fine sand is required. On Friday 13 March 1998 the Danish Geotechnical Institute (DGI) delivered app. 2.5 kg sand for testing at the Geotechnical Engineering Laboratory, Aalborg University. The present Data Report summarises the results...

  7. Den største fortælling er sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, Ole Fogh

    Evangeliernes utrolige styrke har været udsat for mange sandsynlige forklaringer. Måske glemmer vi den uvidenskabelige, men ægte forklaring: Beretningen er sand ikraft af netop sin gennemslagskraft.......Evangeliernes utrolige styrke har været udsat for mange sandsynlige forklaringer. Måske glemmer vi den uvidenskabelige, men ægte forklaring: Beretningen er sand ikraft af netop sin gennemslagskraft....

  8. Hydrogen porosity in Al-Si foundry alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhtar, Shahid

    2010-01-15

    Aluminium alloys based on the aluminium-silicon system are popular for automotive and aerospace applications, thanks to their high strength to weight ratio, excellent castability, and corrosion resistance. Microporosity is widely acknowledged to affect both static and dynamic properties of structural aluminium alloy castings. Formation of microporosity is a complex phenomenon and depends upon various factors but mainly hydrogen content and melt cleanliness, i.e., oxide films and inclusions. In the past few decades numerous studies on microporosity formation have been reported. However, several aspects of this subject are not fully understood. The motivation of this doctoral thesis has been to improve the knowledge of porosity formation and its affect of the mechanical properties of the cast products. This study aimed at understanding the effect of hydrogen and defects on microporosity of aluminium-silicon based castings. A literature review of the theories of porosity formation, and previously reported results on the factors affecting the microporosity formation in aluminium alloys is reported briefly in order to establish a basis of the present study. The research presented in this thesis is divided in five phases. In the first phase, lab scale directional solidification experiments were carried out with an A 356 alloy. Six hydrogen levels from 0.48 to 0.07 mL/100 g melt were reached by various up-gassing and de-gassing treatments of the melt. The melt quality was assessed by porous disc filtration apparatus (PoDFA) and reduced pressure test (RPT) methods. Microporosity distribution in the castings was characterized by the Archmedian method, image analysis and X-ray radiography. The results show that the porosity distribution is strongly dependent on the cooling rate and hydrogen content in the presence of the oxide films type defects. In the next phase, casting experiments with an A356 melt were carried by using a step mould die and castings were produced with and without filtration. The experiments were divided into series I and series II. In the first series 70 kg of the A356 ingots were melted in an electric resistance furnace. Three hydrogen levels namely 0.1, 0.2, and 0.4 mL/100 g melt were reached first by Ar-degassing, and up-gassing with Ar-10 % H2 and Ar-water vapour mixture, respectively. In the second series of experiments similar procedure was applied to another melt but in the reverse order. The castings were characterized in terms of microporosity and mechanical properties distribution. In addition high pressure die casting of an A380 alloy was carried out with different processing parameters like plunger speed, commutation point between first and second phase and pouring temperature. The results shows that tensile properties in both gravity and high pressure die castings were affected by the amount and distribution of casting defects. A series of casting experiments were carried out with the same type of step mould and with two hydrogen levels, namely 0.1 and 0.2 mL/100 g melt, in the third phase of the project. The main focus of these trials was to carefully control the variables during melt preparation, casting and solidification and keep the variations at minimum. Experiments were performed in two different days in order to check the reproducibility of the measurements. For the low gas level (0.1 mL/100 g melt) higher porosity levels are observed in the thinnest step, while the trend is opposite with the medium gas level (0.2 mL/100 g melt) castings. The data obtained form these trials where casting variables were controlled in a reproducible way form a basis for evaluating the results of simulated microporosity distributions using recent modelling approaches. The reproducibility of the step mould used was calculated to be 10-15 %. In the fourth phase, a study in an automotive casting plant was targeted to address the problem of high rejection rate of a cylinder head casting made from an A354 alloy. In the foundry, the castings under investigation were usually made from the mixture of A 354 alloys fro

  9. Magnetic and GPR surveys of a former munitions foundry site at the Denver Federal Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, David L.; Beanland, Shay; Lucius, Jeffrey E.; Powers, Michael H.

    2000-01-01

    We made magnetometer and ground penetrating radar (GPR) surveys over part of the foundation of a World War II-era foundry located on the Denver Federal Center. The site contains a number of highly magnetic source bodies, concrete foundation walls, and underground openings, buried under a clay cap. The cap is several feet thick and has a conductivity of about 35 mS/m, making the features underneath it a poor target for conventional GPR. Indeed, the raw data look unlike typical GPR data, but rather show reverberation (?) bands under sidewalks and other shallow buried sources. Using a newly-written computer package, we made plan maps of the GPR response at different time slices. The sliced GPR data did not outline buried foundry foundations, as we had hoped it might. The resulting plan maps of the sliced data show sidewalks and other blobby features, some of which correspond to magnetometer highs.

  10. Sand swimming lizard: sandfish

    CERN Document Server

    Maladen, Ryan D; Kamor, Adam; Goldman, Daniel I

    2009-01-01

    We use high-speed x-ray imaging to reveal how a small (~10cm) desert dwelling lizard, the sandfish (Scincus scincus), swims within a granular medium [1]. On the surface, the lizard uses a standard diagonal gait, but once below the surface, the organism no longer uses limbs for propulsion. Instead it propagates a large amplitude single period sinusoidal traveling wave down its body and tail to propel itself at speeds up to ~1.5 body-length/sec. Motivated by these experiments we study a numerical model of the sandfish as it swims within a validated soft sphere Molecular Dynamics granular media simulation. We use this model as a tool to understand dynamics like flow fields and forces generated as the animal swims within the granular media. [1] Maladen, R.D. and Ding, Y. and Li, C. and Goldman, D.I., Undulatory Swimming in Sand: Subsurface Locomotion of the Sandfish Lizard, Science, 325, 314, 2009

  11. 2010 oil sands performance report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    With the depletion of traditional energy resources and the rising demand for energy, oil sands have become an important energy resource for meeting energy needs. Oil sands are a mixture of water, sand, clay and bitumen which is recovered either through open pit mining or in situ drilling techniques. The bitumen is then converted into syncrude or sold to refineries for the production of gasoline, diesel or other products. Shell has oil sands operations in Alberta and the aim of this report is to present its 2010 performance in terms of CO2, water, tailings, land, and reclamation and engagement. This document covers several of Shell's operations in the Muskeg River and Jackpine mines, Scotford upgrader, Peace River, Orion, Seal, Cliffdale and Chipmunk. It provides useful information on Shell's oil sands performance to governments, environmental groups, First Nations, local communities and the public.

  12. Monitoring of power demand of foundry machinery, using the example of paddle mixers

    OpenAIRE

    R. Wrona; E. Zió?kowski; K. Smyksy

    2008-01-01

    The study outlines the basic features of a newly-designed computer-supported system for monitoring and recording the instantaneous power consumption, used to control the operating parameters of foundry machinery. Explored are potential applications of the module for fast recording of instantaneous currents and voltages in a triple phase power supply system in a paddle mixer. Further research areas are indicated, to extend the system and the range of its potential applications.

  13. Studies on the Executionof Models Used in Iron Foundry From Epoxidic Resins

    OpenAIRE

    Cinca - Ionel Lupinca

    2006-01-01

    The epoxidic resins are materials frequently used in the execution of the models used in iron foundry. This materials can replace casily wood or aluminium in the execution of the models needed in series productions, having better resistance properties and the high dimensional precision. The properties of these resins are obtained from the completion of the epoxibifunctional molecules with supplements. This paper establishes the result of mixing the two components, as well as the supplements u...

  14. Electromagnet Gripping in Iron Foundry Automation Part I: Principles and Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Rhythm Suren Wadhwa; Terje-Lien

    2011-01-01

    Robot grippers are employed to position and retain parts in automated assembly operations. This paper presents an overview of electromagnet part handling framework in an iron foundry and an equivalent electromagnet circuit model. The manner in which this whole concept of automated gripping system operates will be discussed in this paper. The material handling system uses machine vision system coupled with conveyor motion and Ethernet communication strategy to assist the material handling syst...

  15. Uniaxial and triaxial compression test series on two types of foundry stone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uniaxial and triaxial compression experiments were performed on ten cylindrical samples of foundry stone. All of the test samples were nominally 50.8 mm in diameter, with a 2:1 length to diameter ratio. The experiments were run on room dry samples in compression, at room temperature, four confining pressures, and a nominal axial displacement rate of 10-4 mm/s. 3 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs

  16. Virtual Factory as a Method of Foundry Design and Production Management

    OpenAIRE

    A. Stawowy; R. Wrona; M. Brzezi?ski; E. Zió?kowski

    2013-01-01

    The paper outlines the methodology of virtual design of a foundry plant as a system. The most important stage in the procedure involvesthe development of a model defined as a set of data about the system. Model development involves two stages: defining the model’sarchitecture and specifying the model data in the form of parameters and input-output relationships. The structure is understood asconfiguration of machines and transport units, representing the sub-systems and system components. As ...

  17. In-depth Evaluation of Energy Management Practices in a Swedish Iron Foundry

    OpenAIRE

    Rahimi Ardkapan, Siamak; Rahimi, Maral

    2010-01-01

    Energy efficiency in industry is became important issue in this century considering cost of energy, energy crisis in the world and environmental issue of using energy sources. To solve this problem energy management can be successful tools due to it positive impact on reduction of energy use and also reduction of energy use environmental impacts. The aim of this thesis is to present results of a successful energy managing practices in a Swedish iron foundry and explain the possibilities to im...

  18. The analysis of the wax foundry models fabrication process for the CPX3000 device

    OpenAIRE

    G. Budzik; B. Kozik; J. Bernaczek; M. Wieczorowski; M. Tutak

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents possibilities of creating wax founding models by means of CPX3000 device. The device is used for Rapid Prototypingof models made of foundry wax in an incremental process. The paper also presents problems connected with choosing technologicalparameters for incremental shaping which influence the accuracy of created models. Issues connected with post-processing are alsodescribed. This process is of great importance for obtaining geometrically correct models. The analysis of p...

  19. Properties of made by different methods of RP impeller foundry patterns

    OpenAIRE

    G. Budzik

    2007-01-01

    This article presents the tests of properties of foundry patterns of turbocharger turbine impeller. Impellers prototypes were predestinated for casting by method losing patterns. There were carried out tests of these prototypes made by different methods of Rapid Prototyping (RP). Two impeller were made by growth methods: stereolitography (SLA) and three dimensional printing (3DP). One prototype was made by the method of Vacuum Casting as a wax casting. Tests were executed in the Department of...

  20. Replies to Challenges in the Field of Air Pollution Control in Foundry Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Margraf, R.

    2012-01-01

    The solution of applications for air pollution control in foundries for iron and non-ferrous metals may not only be understood as theobservance of requested emission limit values at the stack outlet. An effective environmental protection already starts with the greatest possible capture of pollutants at the source with at the same time minimisation of the volume flow necessary for this. Independent of this, the downstream installed filtration system has to realise a degree of separation of de...

  1. Optical coordinate scanners applied for the inspection of large scale housings produced in foundry technology

    OpenAIRE

    M. Grzelka; J. Chajda; G. Budzik; Gessner, A.; M. Wieczorowski; R. Staniek; B. Gapi?ski; R. Koteras; P. Krasicki; L. Marciniak

    2010-01-01

    The paper presents possibilities of the dimensional and geometry measurement of the large scale casting details with a coordinate measuring technique. In particular, the analysis has been devoted to the measurement strategy in case of the measurement of large scale detail (larger than 1000 mm) made in foundry technology, with the 3D optical scanner. The attention was paid on the possibility created by the advanced software attached to the scanner for measurement data processing. Preparation t...

  2. Evaluation and Verification of Time and Costs of Production Activities in Foundry Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kukla

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the possibility of using technology of modelling and simulation of productive systems in the management of cast iron production by means of automated foundry lines to maximize assembly line structure. The computer model of foundry has been planed and conducted in order to compile the schedule of cast production. The variants of solution have been estimated talking into account time limitations imposed by clients and the criterion for prime costs appointed on the basis of the ZAR by means of aided detailed calculation according to planes of their formation. In the research, problem connected with exploitation of automatic foundry lines have been taken into consideration. Moreover, the analysis of line work stoppage has been conducted and construction of schedule of the planned service of line device has been undertaken on the basis of the knowledge of timetables of correct work of these devices. Furthermore, the operational database has been prepared so as to assemble and process data about the damaged and other line work stoppage. It should be noted that the database will give the possibility of working out the schedule of planned service. The problems has been presented by using the pocket for modelling and the simulation of productive systems – ARENA

  3. SRP sand filter: more than a pile of sand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sand filters at the two SRP separations plants have operated well for over twenty years, displaying steadily increasing efficiency for removal of activity. Pressure drop remained low on one filter although some sand was removed from the other to counteract rising pressure drop due to salts in the bed. Activity is not migrating through the beds and such breakthrough does not appear to be a life-limiting phenomenon. The underbed supports and air distribution systems were weakened by acid attack and erosion, with localized failure, prompting construction of new filters. Design studies and tests defined relations between sand characteristics, airflow resistance, and filtration efficiency. Appropriate sands were selected and monitored during construction to ensure that the new filters would have satisfactory efficiency, airflow, and pressure drop at startup

  4. Alberta oil sands royalty regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The long term objective of the Oil Sands Business Unit of Alberta Energy is to pave the way for Alberta's bitumen production to reach 3 million barrels per day by 2020. This presentation described the national government's role in resource development. It was emphasized that since the Crown is the owner of the oil sands resource, it would benefit by providing strategic leadership and by generating a larger royalty base. The oil sands fiscal regime was described with reference to generic royalty, risk sharing, investment, and project economics. Business rule principles were also outlined along with criteria for project expansions. Both upstream and downstream challenges and opportunities were listed. 4 figs

  5. Direct Chlorination of Zircon Sand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It was investigated the direct chlorination of zircon sand in a unit chlorination equipment. The process was in semi batch. The product gas was scrubbed in aqueous NaOH. It was search the influence of time, ratio of reactant and size of particle sand to the concentration of Zr and Si in the product. From these research it was found that as the times, ratio of reactant increased, the concentration of Zr increased, but the concentration of Si decreased, while as grain size of zircon sand decreased the concentration of Zr decreased, but the concentration of Si increased. (author)

  6. Reclaimability of the spent sand mixture – sand with bentonite – sand with furfuryl resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Da?ko

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction of new binding materials and new technologies of their hardening in casting moulds and cores production requires theapplication of reclamation methods adequate to their properties as well as special devices realizing tasks. The spent sands circulationsystem containing the same kind of moulding and core sands is optimal from the point of view of the expected reclamation results.However, in the face of a significant variability of applied technologies and related to them various reclamation methods, the need - of theobtained reclamation products assessment on the grounds of systematic criteria and uniform bases – arises, with a tendency of indicatingwhich criteria are the most important for the given sand system. The reclaimability results of the mixture of the spent moulding sand withGeko S bentonite and the spent core sand with the Kaltharz 404U resin hardened by acidic hardener 100 T3, are presented in the paper.Investigations were performed with regard to the estimation of an influence of core sands additions (10 –25% on the reclaimed materialquality. Dusts and clay content in the reclaim, its chemical reaction (pH and ignition loss were estimated. The verification of the reclaiminstrumental assessment was performed on the basis of the technological properties estimation of moulding sand with bentonite, where the reclaimed material was used as a matrix.

  7. Oil sands of sunny Alberta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. engineers are looking at two types of CANDU reactors for use in the oil sands: the PHWR, a proven commercial reactor, and the organic-cooled reactor, currently an experimental design. A reactor could be used in the oil sands to generate electricity and to produce steam for injection into the ground in an in-situ bitumen recovery process. (NDH)

  8. Minimal Model for Sand Dunes

    OpenAIRE

    Kroy, Klaus; Sauermann, Gerd; Herrmann, Hans J.

    2001-01-01

    We propose a minimal model for aeolian sand dunes. It combines an analytical description of the turbulent wind velocity field above the dune with a continuum saltation model that allows for saturation transients in the sand flux. The model provides a qualitative understanding of important features of real dunes, such as their longitudinal shape and aspect ratio, the formation of a slip face, the breaking of scale invariance, and the existence of a minimum dune size.

  9. Qualidade Superficial de Peças de Alumínio Fundidas em Molde de Areia / Surface Quality of Sand Aluminum Pieces Cost

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Juan C. Campos, Rubio; Túlio Hallak, Panzera; Wagner Alves, Nogueira.

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho consiste basicamente na análise das características físico-químicas de areia-base para fundição e sua influência na qualidade das peças fundidas. Foram coletados cinco diferentes tipos de areia-base, ambas com o mesmo tratamento mineral. A caracterização das areias-base foi reali [...] zada através dos seguintes ensaios de laboratório: distribuição granulométrica, argila AFS, umidade, permeabilidade base, expansão ao choque térmico, perda ao fogo, temperatura de sinterização, teor de finos, caracterização visual e análise química. Foram confeccionados dois modelos diferentes. O primeiro com o formato em espiral, com o objetivo de investigar a fluidez do metal em função das características das diferentes areias-base. O segundo, uma placa escalonada, que permite identificar a qualidade do acabamento superficial da peça fundida para diferentes espessuras. O metal utilizado no processo de fundição foi o alumínio. A partir dos resultados encontrados no ensaio tecnológico, observou-se uma correlação com os resultados de laboratório, verificando que uma correta análise das características identificadas no laboratório permite prever o comportamento da areia-base e seu resultado final observado na peça fundida. Abstract in english The present work consists to analyze the physical and chemical characteristics of sands used to foundry and its influence in the quality of the melted pieces. Five different types of sand were collected, both with the same mineral treatment. The characterization of the sand was carried out through t [...] he following laboratory tests: grain size distribution (sieving), AFS clay content, water content, permeability, thermal expansion, loss on ignition, sinter point, fine contents meshes and chemical composition. The optical microscope was used in order to identify the geometry of the grains of sand. Two different models were made. The first one with a spiral shape was made to investigate the flow’s capacity of the metal with respect the different characteristics of the sands. The second model which is a plate with different thickness was made to investigate the quality of the surface finishing of the melted pieces. The metal used in the foundry process was the aluminum. It was observed a significant correlation between the laboratory and technological results, which means that it is possible to preview the quality of melted pieces from the characteristics of the sand grains.

  10. Formation of aeolian ripples and sand sorting

    OpenAIRE

    Manukyan, Edgar; Prigozhin, Leonid

    2008-01-01

    We present a continuous model capable of demonstrating some salient features of aeolian sand ripples: the realistic asymmetric ripple shape, coarsening of ripple field at the nonlinear stage of ripple growth, saturation of ripple growth for homogeneous sand, typical size segregation of sand and formation of armoring layers of coarse particles on ripple crests and windward slopes if sand is inhomogeneous.

  11. Sand transport over an immobile gravel substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Experiments were conducted in a laboratory flume channel to evaluate the effects of increasing amounts of sand with an immobile gravel fraction on the sand transport rate and configuration of the sand bed. Knowledge of the movement of sand in gravel beds is important for the management of streams a...

  12. Foundry industries: environmental aspects and environmental condition indicators; Industrias de fundicion: aspectos ambientales e indicadores de condicion ambiental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sosa, B. s.; Banda-Noriega, R. B.; Guerrero, E. M.

    2013-03-01

    Nowadays, environmental indicators are widely used as effective tools to assist decision-making in both public and private sectors. The lack of literature and research about local and regional Environmental Condition Indicators (ECI), the poor knowledge regarding solid waste generation, effluents and gas emissions from foundry industries, and their particular location in the urban area of Tandil, Argentina are the main reasons for this investigation, aiming to develop a set a of ECI to provide information about the environment in relation to the foundry industry. The study involves all the foundries located in the city between March and April 2010. The set of ECI developed includes 9 indicators for air, 5 for soil and 1 for water. Specific methodology was used for each indicator. (Author) 31 refs.

  13. Identification of interfacial heat transfer between molten metal and green sand by inverse heat conduction method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Quanpeng

    Heat flux and heat transfer coefficients at the interfaces of castings and molds are important parameters in the mold design and computer simulations of the solidification process in foundry operations. A better understanding of the heat flux and heat transfer coefficient between the solidifying casting and its mold can promote model design and improve the accuracy of computer simulation. The main purpose of the present dissertation involves the estimation of the heat flux and heat transfer coefficient at the interface of the molten metal and green sand. Since the inverse heat conduction method requires temperature measurement data to deduce the missing surface information, it is suitable for the present research. However, heat transfer inside green sand is complicated by the migration of water vapor and zonal temperature distribution results. This makes the solution of the inverse heat conduction problem more challenging. In this dissertation, Galerkin's method of Weighted Residual together with the front tracking technique is used in the development of a forward solver. Beck's future time step method incorporated with the Gaussian iterative minimization method is used as the inverse solver. The mathematical descriptions of the sensitivity coefficient for both the direct heat flux and direct heat transfer coefficient estimation are derived. The variations of the sensitivity coefficients with time are revealed. From the analysis of sensitivity coefficients, the concept of blank time period is proposed. This blank time period makes the inverse problem much more difficult. A total energy balance criterion is used to combat this. Numerical experiments confirmed the accuracy and robustness of both the direct heat flux estimation algorithm and the direct heat transfer coefficient estimation algorithm. Finally, some pouring experiments are carried out. The inverse algorithms are applied to the estimation of the heat flux and heat transfer coefficient at the interface of the molten metal and green sand with the input of measured temperature data from field experiments. The heat flux and heat transfer coefficient history at the interface of molten metal and green sand are obtained.

  14. Linking energy efficiency and innovation practices: Empirical evidence from the foundry sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Europe 2020 strategy currently promotes energy efficiency and innovation through disconnected targets focusing on either energy or R&D. Similar policies indicate that in practice, these two concepts are usually perceived as mutually exclusive. Furthermore, evidence in the literature regarding the relationship between R&D and energy efficiency is still highly limited. This exploratory study aims to address this gap by investigating the link between innovation practices and energy efficiency through a multiple case study of 30 foundries in Northern Italy. We analysed the firms' innovativeness, measured by internal R&D and Open Innovation practices (inbound and outbound), and energy efficiency, measured by specific energy consumption, level of adoption of energy-efficient technologies and barriers to energy efficiency. The results seem to show that those foundries complementing internal R&D with inbound practices have a higher level of energy efficiency, a higher level of adoption of available technologies, and a lower perception of barriers to efficiency improvements. This finding suggests that diversifying innovation practices could lead to better performance with respect to all three indicators of energy efficiency analysed. This study contributes to understanding how more innovative firms can be more energy efficient, providing interesting highlights for managers and policymakers. -- Highlights: •The relation between innovation practices and energy efficiency is articulated. •The link between innovation practices and energy efficiency is tested for foundries. •Energy efficiency is measured with three different indicators. •Analyses of the relations between these indicators support the link with innovation. •Concurrent adoption of internal R&D and inbound practices leads to higher efficiency

  15. Studies on the Executionof Models Used in Iron Foundry From Epoxidic Resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinca - Ionel Lupinca

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The epoxidic resins are materials frequently used in the execution of the models used in iron foundry. This materials can replace casily wood or aluminium in the execution of the models needed in series productions, having better resistance properties and the high dimensional precision. The properties of these resins are obtained from the completion of the epoxibifunctional molecules with supplements. This paper establishes the result of mixing the two components, as well as the supplements used to improve the mechanic and the technological properties.

  16. Drying of water based foundry coatings: Innovative test, process design and optimization methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Muoio, Giovanni Luca

    2015-01-01

    This work has been carried out in in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the award of the degree of Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) at the Technical University of Denmark. Associate Professor Niels Skat Tiedje has been the university supervisor from March 2012 to February 2015. Casting Technology Director Bjørn Budolph Johansen has been the company supervisor from March 2012 to June 2014. In this Industrial PhD Thesis we present the main results of several tests and simulations carried out from 2011 to 2014 at Global Castings A/S (former Vestas Wind Systems A/S) and at the Technical University of Denmark with the overall aim to optimize the drying process of water based foundry coatings. Drying of foundry coatings is a relatively new process in the foundry industry that followed the introduction of water as a solvent. In order to avoid moisture related quality problems and reach production capacity goals there is a need to understand how to design, control and optimize drying processes. The main focus of this project was on the critical parameters and properties to be controlled in production in order to achieve a stable and predictable drying process. We propose for each of these parameters simple methods for testing both at laboratory and production scale so that material characterization and model validation can be carried out also for materials different from the ones considered in this study. Additionally, we present the application of calculation methods and advanced simulation tools on real industrial cases. These tools have been developed in order to simulate and optimize the drying process and reduce drying time and power consumption as well as production process design time and cost of expensive drying equipment. Results show that test methods from other industries can be used or adapted to better control drying processes of water based foundry coatings. Critical drying process related properties were obtained in the several laboratory tests performed and calculation and simulation methods were developed. Additionally, examples of improvement on full scale industrial production line are shown.

  17. Gas flow through a multilayer ceramic mould in lost wax foundry process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Matysiak

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the issues of permeability testing of ceramic moulds used in lost wax foundry process. The main issue in thetesting is to provide proper specimens of ceramic moulds (CM. The moulds have to be repeatable and must be free of internal defects ofmicrocrack type that are formed mainly during the removal of patterns from CM in the course of heat treatment.Moreover, the process of forming ceramic moulds must be similar to the general industrial process of CM moulds making regardingtheir anisotropic structure. The permeability parameter reflecting gas flow through multilayer ceramic moulds was also examined withattention to the investment casting shape accuracy.

  18. Gas flow through a multilayer ceramic mould in lost wax foundry process

    OpenAIRE

    H. Matysiak; R. Haratym; M. Klabczyk

    2009-01-01

    The paper deals with the issues of permeability testing of ceramic moulds used in lost wax foundry process. The main issue in thetesting is to provide proper specimens of ceramic moulds (CM). The moulds have to be repeatable and must be free of internal defects ofmicrocrack type that are formed mainly during the removal of patterns from CM in the course of heat treatment.Moreover, the process of forming ceramic moulds must be similar to the general industrial process of CM moulds making regar...

  19. Interaction of smoking, uptake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and cytochrome P450IA2 activity among foundry workers.

    OpenAIRE

    Sherson, D; Sigsgaard, T.; Overgaard, E.; Loft, S.; Poulsen, H.E.; Jongeneelen, F J

    1992-01-01

    An increased lung cancer risk has been described among foundry workers. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and silica are possible aetiological factors. This study describes a urinary PAH metabolite, 1-hydroxypyrene (hpU), as well as the degree of cytochrome P450IA2 activity/induction as reflected by the urinary caffeine ratio (IA2) in 45 foundry workers and 52 controls; IA2 was defined as the ratio of paraxanthine 7-demethylation products to a paraxanthine 8-hydroxylation product (1,7-d...

  20. Proposal for the award of a blanket purchase contract for the supply of foundry services for semiconductor technologies

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    This document concerns the award of a blanket purchase contract for the supply of foundry services for semiconductor technologies. The Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of a blanket purchase contract with IBM SWITZERLAND (CH), the lowest bidder complying with the specification, for the supply of foundry services for semiconductor technologies for a period of four years, for a total amount not exceeding 4 000 000 US dollars, not subject to revision. At the present rate of exchange, the total amount of the blanket purchase contract is equivalent to approximately 5 000 000 Swiss francs. CERN's financial contribution will not exceed 1 000 000 Swiss francs.

  1. Sand Dunes in Noachis Terra

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    11 February 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows dark-toned sand dunes in a crater in eastern Noachis Terra. Most big martian dunes tend to be dark, as opposed to the more familiar light-toned dunes of Earth. This difference is a product of the composition of the dunes; on Earth, most dunes contain abundant quartz. Quartz is usually clear (transparent), though quartz sand grains that have been kicked around by wind usually develop a white, frosty surface. On Mars, the sand is mostly made up of the darker minerals that comprise iron- and magnesium-rich volcanic rocks--i.e., like the black sand beaches found on volcanic islands like Hawaii. Examples of dark sand dunes on Earth are found in central Washington state and Iceland, among other places. This picture is located near 49.0oS, 326.3oW. Sunlight illuminates this scene from the upper left; the image covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) wide.

  2. Oil sands tailings management project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Oil sands leadership initiative (OSLI) works with the Government of Alberta on the development of the oil sands industry, considering environmental, economical and social aspects. Water management was identified as one of most important areas to focus on. Alberta WaterSMART was requested to support the development and the management of projects resulting from the work done or underway in this field. The development of a regional water management solution stood out as the most interesting solution to obtain significant results. In the Athabasca Region, oil sands producers work independently on their water sourcing and disposal with particular attention to fresh water conservation and economics. The Athabasca River represents a source for mines and distant saline aquifers are the target of steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) operators. As part of a four-phase project aiming to study the environmental and economic footprint (EEF) benefit of alternatives for Athabasca oil sands production water supply and disposal, the purpose of the tailings water management project was to identify tailings treatment technologies that are ready to be implemented, and to design and evaluate solutions in order to improve regional oil sands production water sourcing and disposal. Alternatives were evaluated based on their total EEF, applying a lifecycle assessment methodology with a particular attention on the quantification of important performance indicators. 25 refs., 8 tabs., 40 figs.

  3. Oil sands tailings management project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godwalt, C. [Alberta WaterSMART, Calgary, AB (Canada); Kotecha, P. [Suncor Energy Inc, Calgary, AB (Canada); Aumann, C. [Alberta Innovates - Technology Futures, Alberta Governement, AB (Canada)

    2010-11-15

    The Oil sands leadership initiative (OSLI) works with the Government of Alberta on the development of the oil sands industry, considering environmental, economical and social aspects. Water management was identified as one of most important areas to focus on. Alberta WaterSMART was requested to support the development and the management of projects resulting from the work done or underway in this field. The development of a regional water management solution stood out as the most interesting solution to obtain significant results. In the Athabasca Region, oil sands producers work independently on their water sourcing and disposal with particular attention to fresh water conservation and economics. The Athabasca River represents a source for mines and distant saline aquifers are the target of steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) operators. As part of a four-phase project aiming to study the environmental and economic footprint (EEF) benefit of alternatives for Athabasca oil sands production water supply and disposal, the purpose of the tailings water management project was to identify tailings treatment technologies that are ready to be implemented, and to design and evaluate solutions in order to improve regional oil sands production water sourcing and disposal. Alternatives were evaluated based on their total EEF, applying a lifecycle assessment methodology with a particular attention on the quantification of important performance indicators. 25 refs., 8 tabs., 40 figs.

  4. To Determine the Molding Sand Strength by Using Different Sand Control Test

    OpenAIRE

    Mazhar Iqbal*

    2014-01-01

    The need for systematic evaluation of the working qualities of molding sands has led to the development of a wide range of sand control tests. Production of sound casting largely depends upon uniform and good quality of molding sand.

  5. Study of Black Sand Particles from Sand Dunes in Badr, Saudi Arabia Using Electron Microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Haider Abbas Khwaja; Omar Siraj Aburizaiza; Daniel L. Hershey; Azhar Siddique; David A. Guerrieri P. E.; Jahan Zeb; Mohammad Abbass; Blake, Donald R.; Mirza Mozammel Hussain; Abdullah Jameel Aburiziza; Malissa A. Kramer; Simpson, Isobel J.

    2015-01-01

    Particulate air pollution is a health concern. This study determines the microscopic make-up of different varieties of sand particles collected at a sand dune site in Badr, Saudi Arabia in 2012. Three categories of sand were studied: black sand, white sand, and volcanic sand. The study used multiple high resolution electron microscopies to study the morphologies, emission source types, size, and elemental composition of the particles, and to evaluate the presence of surface “coatings or cont...

  6. Strange phenomena in Cuban sands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Several unusual phenomena that occur in certain Cuban sands flows (and some other parts of the world) are presented . First, the phenomenon occurs revolving rivers, explained by a phenomenological model. Several open questions were discussed on the 'microscopic' causes of the phenomenon. Uphill lonely waves are shown in second, in streams of the same type of sand that occur in a cell in Hele-Shaw. The 'microscopic' necessary conditions are explored for these waves emerge as solution of Saint-Venant equations modified hydrodynamic type. (author)

  7. Replies to Challenges in the Field of Air Pollution Control in Foundry Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Margraf

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The solution of applications for air pollution control in foundries for iron and non-ferrous metals may not only be understood as theobservance of requested emission limit values at the stack outlet. An effective environmental protection already starts with the greatest possible capture of pollutants at the source with at the same time minimisation of the volume flow necessary for this. Independent of this, the downstream installed filtration system has to realise a degree of separation of definitely above 99%.Furthermore, when selecting the filter construction, attention has to be paid to a high availability. An even temporarily productionwithout filter will more and more no longer be accepted by residents and authorities. Incidents at the filter lead to a shutdown of the whole production.Additional measures for heat recovery while preparing concepts for filtration plants help to reduce the energy consumption and servefor a sustained conservation of environment.A consequent consideration of the items above is also condition for the fact that environmental protection in foundries remainsaffordable. The lecture deals with the subjects above from the point of view of a plant constructor.

  8. View on the foundry industries in South East Asia. Tonan Asia no imono jijo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, S. (Shinto Kogyo Ltd., Nagoya (Japan))

    1993-11-25

    This paper summarizes circumstances in foundry industries in South East Asia. Collectively said South East Asia, it consists of completely different histories, races, and cultures. This paper, therefore, explains such countries as Philippines, Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore, and Indonesia from their historical developments to the current problems. The number of foundry factories is, in the above order, 120, 160, 160, 20, and 100, with annual cast product ion of 54,000, 207,000, 65,000, 30,000, and 90,000 tons. Philippines, for example, is the most highly industrialized nation, where a large number of Japanese corporations has advanced. Active production is being carried out on casts for producing automotive parts. The country is blessed also with talented persons who can support the production. What is common to these countries is the long time that takes from starting of a factory until the production gets on a profit making basis. Several factors could be enumerated for this situation, including insufficient infrastructure availability. 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Planarization techniques for vertically integrated metallic MEMS on silicon foundry circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J.-B.; English, J.; Ahn, C.-H.; Allen, M. G.

    1997-06-01

    Various micromachining techniques exist to realize integrated microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), which include sensors, signal processing and/or driving circuits, and/or actuators in one small die. Post-processing techniques performed on foundry-fabricated circuits (e.g., MOSIS) are attractive since such an approach eliminates the need for an in-house integrated circuit fabrication line to produce integrated MEMS. A method based on the combination of metallic (e.g., electroplating) micromachining techniques with multichip module deposited (MCM-D) processes is a possible candidate to realize vertically-stacked integrated MEMS using the post-processing of integrated circuits (post-IC) approach. In order to realize such devices, planarization of the surface of foundry-fabricated circuit chips or wafers is often required. In such planarization layers, mechanical and chemical stability, as well as adhesion between the circuit-containing substrate and the micromachined devices, should be addressed. A PI/BCB/PI sandwich interlayer system, which utilizes both advantages of DuPont polyimide PI 2611 and Dow benzocyclobutene (BCB) Cyclotene 3022 series, was developed as a planarization interlayer for vertically integrated MEMS. The PI/BCB/PI interlayer system shows an over 95% degree of planarization (DOP) as well as passes the Method 107G Thermal Shock from the military standard MIL-STD-202F. A 0960-1317/7/2/002/img7 interlayer system was also developed as an alternative to the PI/BCB/PI system.

  10. Characterizing sand grains to optimize filter performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The operating performance of a deep-bed sand filter used for cleaning radioactive particulates from exhaust air is dependent upon the characteristics of the finest sand layer. This sand is usually specified on the basis of particle size distribution and air permeability. Recent studies have shown this specification is inadequate in providing a basis for selection of an optimum filter media. Sands obtained from different geographic deposits behave differently in the filter. The surface microstructure of the sand related to roughness or texture has been found to be an important variable in determination of the best sands for use as filter media. (U.S.)

  11. Chvorinov’s rule and determination of coefficient of heat accumulation of moulds with non-quartz base sands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Elbel

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Application of the „Chvorinov’s rule“ for calculation of the total time of casting solidification made also possible to determine chilling effect of foundry moulds (coefficient of heat accumulation of the mould, bf with use of mixtures with new kinds of non-quartz base sands (Magnesite, Chromite, Olivine, Dunite, Kerphalit. Processes by several authors (G. Halbart, A. I. Vejnik, G. A. Anisovich were used for mathematical treatment of measurement results and determination of bf. The highest values were achieved for magnesite moulds followed by chromite ones; the lowest values, approximately half-ones, represented the Dunite moulds. At the same time the results made possible to determine „the Chvorinov’s mean solidification constants“ (k that are in direct proportional dependence on bf and indirect proportional to solidification time (?1.

  12. 2003/2004 STATISTICALLY VALID NONCOMPLIANCE RATE (SVNR) INSPECTIONS FOR THE FOUNDRY SECTOR IN EPA REGION 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    The SVNR initiative involves the determination of a compliance rate for the foundry sector in EPA Region 4. A compliance rate is an estimate of the percentage of all the facilities in a population in compliance. The actual rate could be determined if all facilities were inspect...

  13. 77 FR 20788 - Foundry Coke Products From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Expedited Second...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-06

    ...'') Review, 76 FR 74775 (December 1, 2011); see also Notice of Amended Final Determination of Sales at Less... 66 FR 48025 (September 17, 2001) (``Order''). We received a complete substantive response from the... International Trade Administration Foundry Coke Products From the People's Republic of China: Final Results...

  14. Value-Chain Dynamics of the West Point Foundry, 1817-1911: A Historical Case Analysis in Marketing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkus, Ed, Jr.

    2013-01-01

    This case provides the opportunity for students to explore marketing and value/supply-chain dynamics in a unique historical context. The West Point Foundry (WPF), located in Cold Spring, New York, was one of the most important manufacturing ventures in the United States from 1817 to 1911. The case outlines the supply-chain details of the WPF as…

  15. Sand and Water Table Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Ann H.; White, Mary J.; Stone, Ryan

    2010-01-01

    The authors observed preschoolers engaged at the sand and water table to determine if math could be found within their play. Wanting to understand how children interact with provided materials and what kinds of math ideas they explore during these interactions, the authors offer practical examples of how such play can promote mathematical…

  16. Silo model tests with sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch-Andersen, Jørgen

    Tests have been carried out in a large silo model with Leighton Buzzard Sand. Normal pressures and shear stresses have been measured during tests carried out with inlet and outlet geometry. The filling method is a very important parameter for the strength of the mass and thereby the pressures as...

  17. Avalanche statistics of sand heaps

    CERN Document Server

    Buchholtz, V; Buchholtz, Volkhard; Poeschel, Thorsten

    1996-01-01

    Large scale computer simulations are presented to investigate the avalanche statistics of sand piles using molecular dynamics. We could show that different methods of measurement lead to contradicting conclusions, presumably due to avalanches not reaching the end of the experimental table.

  18. Laboratory test preparation of fluorescent sand tracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper described the preparation procedure of fluorescent sand tracer. The materials that used in this experiment were beach sand, Rhodamine-B, Araldite CY-245, hardener Hy-248, toluene and ethyl alcohol. Three solutions were prepared at certain formula i.e. solution A (Rhodamine-B + ethyl alcohol + toluene), solution B (Araldite + ethyl alcohol + toluene) and solution C (Hardener + ethyl alcohol + toluene) in order to produce the fluorescent sand. These solutions were mixed together with sand and blended slowly until the surface of the sand grain dried. Fluorescent monitor and UV cabinet viewer were used to measure and monitor the intensity of fluorescent sand. Results show that various intensity of fluorescent sand can be obtained depending on the formulation. Laboratory test has been carried out purposely to identify the suitable sand for the field test. (Author)

  19. Preliminary Research on Granulation Process of Dust Waste from Reclamation Process of Moulding Sands with Furan Resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kami?ska

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The results of investigations of the granulation process of foundry dusts generated in the dry mechanical reclamation process of usedsands, where furan resins were binders are presented in the paper. Investigations concerned producing of granules of the determineddimensions and strength parameters.Granules were formed from the dusts mixture consisting in 50 mass% of dusts obtained after the reclamation of the furane sands and in50 mass % of dusts from sands with bentonite. Dusts from the bentonite sands with water were used as a binder allowing the granulation of after reclamation dusts from the furane sands.The following parameters of the ready final product were determined: moisture content (W, shatter test of granules (Wz performeddirectly after the granulation process and after 1, 3, 5, 10 days and nights of seasoning, water-resistance of granules after 24 hours of being immersed in water, surface porosity ep and volumetric porosity ev. In addition the shatter test and water-resistance of granulate dried at a temperature of 105oC were determined.Investigations were performed at the bowl angle of inclination 45o, for three rotational speeds of the bowl being: 10, 15, 20 rpm.For the speed of 10 rpm the granulation tests of dusts mixture after the preliminary mixing in the roller mixer and with the addition ofwater-glass in the amount of 2% in relation to the amount of dust were carried out.The obtained results indicate that the granulator allows to obtain granules from dusts originated from the reclamations of mouldingsands with the furane resin with an addition of dusts from the bentonite sands processing plants.

  20. Saltation of Non-Spherical Sand Particles

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Zhengshi; Ren, Shan; Huang, Ning

    2014-01-01

    Saltation is an important geological process and the primary source of atmospheric mineral dust aerosols. Unfortunately, no studies to date have been able to precisely reproduce the saltation process because of the simplified theoretical models used. For example, sand particles in most of the existing wind sand movement models are considered to be spherical, the effects of the sand shape on the structure of the wind sand flow are rarely studied, and the effect of mid-air collision is usually ...

  1. Baskarp Sand No. 15:data report 9403

    OpenAIRE

    Borup, M.; Hedegaard, J

    1995-01-01

    The Soil Mechanics Laboratory has started performing tests with a new sand, Baskarp No 15. Baskarp No 15 is a graded sand from Sweden. The shapes of the largest grains are round, while the small grains have sharp edges. The main part of of Baskarp No 15 is quarts, but it also contains feldspar and biotit. Mainly the sand will be used for tests concerning the development og the theory of building up pore pressure in sand, L. B. Ibsen 1993.

  2. Baskarp Sand No. 15:data report 9301

    OpenAIRE

    Ibsen, Lars Bo; Bødker, Lars Bødker

    1994-01-01

    The Soil Mechanics Laboratory has started performing tests with a new sand, Baskarp No 15. Baskarp No 15 is a graded sand from Sweden. The shapes of the largest grains are round, while the small grains have sharp edges. The main part of of Baskarp No 15 is quarts, but it also contains feldspar and biotit. Mainly the sand will be used for tests concerning the development of the theory of building up pore pressure in sand.

  3. A compact topology for sand automata

    OpenAIRE

    Dennunzio, Alberto; Guillon, Pierre; Masson, Benoît

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we exhibit a strong relation between the sand automata configuration space and the cellular automata configuration space. This relation induces a compact topology for sand automata, and a new context in which sand automata are homeomorphic to cellular automata acting on a specific subshift. We show that the existing topological results for sand automata, including the Hedlund-like representation theorem, still hold. In this context, we give a characterization of the cellular au...

  4. Baskarp Sand No. 15 : data report 9401

    OpenAIRE

    Ibsen, Lars Bo; Bødker, Lars Bødker

    2011-01-01

    The Soil Mechanics Laboratory has started performing tests with a new sand, Baskarp No 15. Baskarp No 15 is a graded sand from Sweden. The shapes of the largest grains are round, while the small grains have sharp edges. The main part of of Baskarp No 15 is quarts, but it also contains feldspar and biotit. Mainly the sand will be used for tests concerning the development og the theory of building up pore pressure in sand, L. B. Ibsen 1993.

  5. Effects of pipe orientation on sand transportation

    OpenAIRE

    Osho, Adeyemi Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Sand transport in hilly terrain geometry is different and complex to understand compared to horizontal pipeline, due to the influence of the geometry that greatly affect multiphase flow and sand behaviour at the dip. The overall aim of this research work is to use experimental method to investigate the effects of multiphase flow behaviour on sand transport in a dip configuration. Experimental work was carried out to understand the complex dynamic mechanisms that exist during sand multipha...

  6. Treating tar sands formations with karsted zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Karanikas, John Michael (Houston, TX)

    2010-03-09

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. The tar sands formation may have one or more karsted zones. Methods may include providing heat from one or more heaters to one or more karsted zones of the tar sands formation to mobilize fluids in the formation. At least some of the mobilized fluids may be produced from the formation.

  7. Elemental composition of dust in an iron foundry as determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the workplace of an iron foundry total and respirable suspended particulate matter was daily collected with a network of stationary filtration systems, with Andersen cascade impactors and with personal samplers. The performances of the different sampling systems are evaluated. All samples were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis. More than 30 elements were determined. The composition of the particulate samples is compared to that of the major emission sources. For visualising and interpretation of the data computer programs for contour plotting, classification and clustering of the elements can be divided in a number of groups, for which easily determined elements are proposed as indicator elements. The results allow an estimate of the impact of the major emission sources on the air quality in the entire workroom. Suggestions for representative sampling techniques and locations are made. (author) 8 refs.; 7 figs

  8. The effect of main alloying elements on the physical properties of Al–Si foundry alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study we describe the effect of the main alloying elements Si, Cu and Ni on the thermal properties of hypoeutectic and near-eutectic Al–Si foundry alloys. By means of systematic variations of the chemical composition, the influence of the amount of ‘second phases’ on the thermal conductivity, thermal expansion coefficient, and thermal shock resistance is evaluated. Thermodynamic calculations predicting the phase formation in multi-component Al–Si cast alloys were carried out and verified using SEM, EDX and XRD analysis. The experimentally obtained data are discussed on a systematic basis of thermodynamic calculations and compared to theoretical models for the thermal conductivity and thermal expansion of heterogeneous solids.

  9. Hydrometallurgical treatment of brass foundry and EAF steelmaking dusts for zinc recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ducati, U.; Bestetti, M. [Politechnico di Milano, Milano (Italy); Colombo, D. [Univ. di Trento, Mesiano (Italy); Nodari, L.; Belitrandi, L. [Colmetal Combiago S.p.A., Cambiago (Italy); Cagol, A. [Nordeco S.p.A., Pergine Valsugana (Italy)

    1998-12-31

    Pyrometallurgical treatments are commonly used to recover zinc from oxidic residues generated in metallurgical plants. This study showed how hydrometallurgy offers a more versatile ensemble of technologies to face the challenge of metal recovery from both primary and secondary sources. Solvent extraction, in particular, is a promising technology for various fields in non-ferrous metallurgy. A process was described to treat zinc oxide containing residues, such as Waelz kiln oxides and plasma smelting oxides. The process can be applied to the treatment of brass foundry dusts, and is based on leaching with concentrated ammonium chloride solution and media exchange by solvent extraction. The process can also be applied to electric arc furnace dust with some modifications. 17 refs., 10 tabs., 4 figs.

  10. Models and Algorithms for Production Planning and Scheduling in Foundries – Current State and Development Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Stawowy

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Mathematical programming, constraint programming and computational intelligence techniques, presented in the literature in the field of operations research and production management, are generally inadequate for planning real-life production process. These methods are in fact dedicated to solving the standard problems such as shop floor scheduling or lot-sizing, or their simple combinations such as scheduling with batching. Whereas many real-world production planning problems require the simultaneous solution of several problems (in addition to task scheduling and lot-sizing, the problems such as cutting, workforce scheduling, packing and transport issues, including the problems that are difficult to structure. The article presents examples and classification of production planning and scheduling systems in the foundry industry described in the literature, and also outlines the possible development directions of models and algorithms used in such systems.

  11. USE OF ACTIVITY BASED COSTING FOR IMPROVING PERFORMANCE IN KOLHAPUR FOUNDRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asif Babalal Waghwale

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Today per kg cost of casting is the basic platform Tthat uses as a measure to cost of casting. In foundry industries die casting is a versatility process of producing engineered metal parts which is used in automobile and many other industries. These components are made through forcing molten metal under high pressure into reusable steel molds. The product produced under die casting is high volume and mass-produced items. In today’s competitive situation every industry has try to update quality management system to make themselves top in business. The purpose of this article is to focus on the top management and operational team can receive the benefits from adoption of activity based costing system.

  12. The analysis of the wax foundry models fabrication process for the CPX3000 device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Budzik

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents possibilities of creating wax founding models by means of CPX3000 device. The device is used for Rapid Prototypingof models made of foundry wax in an incremental process. The paper also presents problems connected with choosing technologicalparameters for incremental shaping which influence the accuracy of created models. Issues connected with post-processing are alsodescribed. This process is of great importance for obtaining geometrically correct models. The analysis of parameters of cleaning models from supporting material is also presented. At present CPX3000 printer is the first used in Poland device by 3D Systems firm for creating wax models. The printer is at The Faculty of Mechanical Engineering at Rzeszów University of Technology.

  13. Sand dunes as migrating strings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guignier, L; Niiya, H; Nishimori, H; Lague, D; Valance, A

    2013-05-01

    We develop a reduced complexity model for three-dimensional sand dunes, based on a simplified description of the longitudinal and lateral sand transport. The spatiotemporal evolution of a dune migrating over a nonerodible bed under unidirectional wind is reduced to the dynamics of its crest line, providing a simple framework for the investigation of three-dimensional dunes, such as barchan and transverse dunes. Within this model, we derive analytical solutions for barchan dunes and investigate the stability of a rectilinear transverse dune against lateral fluctuations. We show, in particular, that the latter is unstable only if the lateral transport on the dune slip face prevails over that on the upwind face. We also predict the wavelength and the characteristic time that control the subsequent evolution of an unstable transverse dune into a wavy ridge and the ultimate fragmentation into barchan dunes. PMID:23767529

  14. Energy for oil sands production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Both integrated mining and thermal in-situ operations consume large quantities of natural gas in their operations. It has been estimated that purchased gas requirements could reach 20% of total Alberta conventional gas production (2.5 trillion cubic feet) by 2020, based on current forecasts for conventional gas supply and efficiency improvements in oil sands production. To reduce the industry's dependence on natural gas, oil sands developers are seeking alternative sources of energy, such as the gasification of coal, coke, and asphaltenes. In addition, Nuclear energy is being explored, as the application of this technology has the potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by as much as ten years worth of Canada's current GHG emissions. (author)

  15. Effect of water glass modification with nanoparticles of zinc oxide on selected physical and chemical properties of binder and mechanical properties of sand mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kmita

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an attempt was made to use the ZnO nanoparticles as a modifier of foundry binder - water glass. The modifier was a colloidal suspension of the ZnO zinc oxide nanoparticles in propanol. A thermal method to obtain metal oxide nanoparticles was adopted. The modifier was product of the thermal decomposition of the basic zinc carbonate ([ZnCO3]2•[Zn(OH2]3, and was introduced into the water glass in an amount of 1 and 3 wt%. To determine the interfacial reactions taking place in a quartz - modified water glass system, the binder wettability of the quartz grains was measured. The effect of water glass modification on the mechanical properties of moulding sands was verified by testing the tensile strength Rm u of moulding sands with the modified binders. Water glass modification with the colloidal solution of ZnO nanoparticles in propanol confirmed the effect of modifier on the water glass wettability of sand grains and on the mechanical properties of the sand mixtures with this additive.

  16. Sea sand for reactive barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some phosphates have the property to suck in radioactive metals in solution, what it is taken in advance to make reactive barriers which are placed in the nuclear waste repositories. In an effort for contributing to the study of this type of materials, it has been obtained the zirconium silicate (ZrSiO4) and the alpha zirconium hydrogen phosphate (Zr(HPO4) 2H2O) starting from sea sand in an easy and economic way. (Author)

  17. Formation of Craters in Sand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanissra Boonyaleepun

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The diameter of craters formed by spheres of varying mass dropped into sand at low speed was studied. The relationship between the diameter of the crater formed and the kinetic energy of the projectile at impact was found to be of the same general form as that for planetary meteor craters. The relationship is shown to be a power law with exponent 0.17.

  18. Air-sand heat exchanger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumann, Torsten; Zunft, Stefan [German Aerospace Center (DLR), Stuttgart (Germany); Boura, Cristiano; Eckstein, Julian; Felinks, Jan; Goettsche, Joachim; Hoffschmidt, Bernhard; Schmitz, Stefan [FH Aachen, Juelich (Germany). Solar-Inst. Juelich

    2011-07-01

    This paper summarizes research activities that analyse the thermodynamic behaviour of an Air / Sand Heat Exchanger, developed by Solar-Institut Juelich (SIJ) and the German Aerospace Centre (DLR). A numerical 3-D model, new results and a model validation of this particular cross-flow heat exchanger are presented. Simulation results were obtained for sand with 1-2 mm grain size. The simulation was validated with operational results of a new 15 kW prototype unit. Ansys, including Ansys-CFX, is used as modelling and simulation platform. The bulk material is modelled by a porous solid medium without structural dynamic interaction between fluid and solid phase. For pressure drop calculations, Ergun's model for bulk material is used. The model parameters were validated and fitted with measured values of a separate pressure drop test rig. The validation was done with quartz sand. To determine the suitability of available granular products for this application, tests have been conducted regarding the thermomechanical properties as well as their attrition behaviour and abrasion on various wall materials.

  19. Beyond barriers – A case study on driving forces for improved energy efficiency in the foundry industries in Finland, France, Germany, Italy, Poland, Spain, and Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Thollander, Patrik; Backlund, Sandra; Trianni, Andrea; Cagno, Enrico

    2013-01-01

    Energy management plays an important role in the transformation of industrial energy systems towards improved energy efficiency and increased sustainability. This paper aims to study driving forces for improved energy efficiency in some European energy-intensive foundry industries. The investigation has been conducted as a multiple case study involving 65 foundries located in Finland, France, Germany, Italy, Poland, Spain, and Sweden. The most relevant perceived driving forces were found to b...

  20. Beyond barriers – A case study on driving forces for improved energy efficiency in the foundry industries in Finland, France, Germany, Italy, Poland, Spain, and Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Results are based on a questionnaire in the European foundry industry. • The energy efficiency potential is assed to be 7.5% of the total energy use. • Most important drivers to and barriers for energy efficiency are financial followed by organizational. • EPC is used among 23% of the foundries, third party financing among 12%. • Large energy management improvement potentials are uncovered. - Abstract: Energy management plays an important role in the transformation of industrial energy systems towards improved energy efficiency and increased sustainability. This paper aims to study driving forces for improved energy efficiency in some European energy-intensive foundry industries. The investigation has been conducted as a multiple case study involving 65 foundries located in Finland, France, Germany, Italy, Poland, Spain, and Sweden. The most relevant perceived driving forces were found to be financially related, followed by organizational driving forces. Nevertheless, some differences can be appreciated according to the firm’s size and country. Almost half of the studied foundries lack a long-term energy strategy, about one-fourth stated that they have used Energy Performance Contracting (EPC), and only approximately one in ten foundries have used Third Party Financing (TPF). Among the studied foundries, three out of five have conducted an energy audit. On average, the energy saving potential according to the respondents is stated to be 7.5%. In conclusion, energy management in the European foundry industry, despite increasing energy prices and extensive energy policy actions taken by the EU, still seems to have great improvement potential, calling for future research and policy actions in the field

  1. Sand’s electrical parameters vary with frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Germán Duarte Velasco

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of two types of test in one kind of sand to obtain resistivity and permittivity values for frequency ranging from Hz to MHz. One test involved wave generation at specific frequencies and the other an impulse generator (continuous fre-quency spectrum. Tests were made for three humidity values. The results of both test revealed non-linear performance on test elec-trode surface. Such non-linearity was modelled and eliminated to give the permittivity and resistivity values in frequency domain.

  2. SAND

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Grete

    Der er udført et konsolideringsforsøg med bakkesand fra Lunds grusgrav, Lund no. O. forsøget er udført i samme konsolideringsapparat, som er anvendt til måling af deformationsegenskaberne af mange forskellige danske jordarter. Forsøgsresultaterne er søgt tolket som ved forsøg med andre jordarter....

  3. Impact to groundwater resources by landfill foundry industries waste in Tandil, Buenos Aires, Argentina. A preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Tandil city, in Buenos Aires province, Argentina, the foundry industry is one of the most important production lines. The waste generated by these industries has historically been disposed as fill material in pit quarries and brick works of the likelihood that some of his constituents leach contacting the underground water resources. The aim of this paper is to present the preliminaries results hydrochemical and hydrodynamic study conducted in a landfill of waste foundry industries. The work is around developing a disposal site with the measurement of groundwater levels and taking water samples along an annual hydrological cycle (November 2007 - November 2008). The hydrodynamic analysis shows that the groundwater flow is from the west from a rocky area where high variance across the study area. Hydrochemistry in relation to concentrations of nitrate and electrical conductivity vary significantly upstream and downstream of the landfill. (Author) 9 refs.

  4. Respiratory cancer and air pollution from iron foundries in a Scottish town: an epidemiological and environmental study.

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, G. H.; Williams, F. L.; Lloyd, O. L.

    1987-01-01

    A geographical association between respiratory cancer and air pollution from steel foundries has been shown previously in Scotland and elsewhere. In the present study the iron-founding town of Kirkintilloch was found to have standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) for respiratory cancer in 1959-63, 1964-8, and 1969-73 that were unexceptional in comparison with Scotland. Nevertheless, when SMRs were calculated for respiratory cancer for the period 1966-76 in five zones of the town arranged, a pri...

  5. Dust exposure and impairment of lung function at a small iron foundry in a rapidly developing country

    OpenAIRE

    Gomes, J.; Lloyd, O; Norman, N; P. Pahwa

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—A cross sectional prospective study was carried out among iron foundry workers (exposed) and soft drink bottling and supply company workers (unexposed) to assess their occupational exposure to ambient respiratory dust in their work environment and its effect on their lung function profile.?PARTICIPANTS—Lung function was measured in 81 exposed and 113 unexposed workers. Personal respirable dust concentrations were measured for all the exposed and the unexposed workers. Information o...

  6. Shaking a Box of Sand

    CERN Document Server

    Stadler, P F; Luck, J M; Stadler, Peter F.; Mehta, Anita; Luck, Jean-Marc

    2001-01-01

    We present a simple model of a vibrated box of sand, and discuss its dynamics in terms of two parameters reflecting static and dynamic disorder respectively. The fluidised, intermediate and frozen (`glassy') dynamical regimes are extensively probed by analysing the response of the packing fraction to steady, as well as cyclic, shaking, and indicators of the onset of a `glass transition' are analysed. In the `glassy' regime, our model is exactly solvable, and allows for the qualitative description of ageing phenomena in terms of two characteristic lengths; predictions are also made about the influence of grain shape anisotropy on ageing behaviour.

  7. Risk assessment related to manual handling on choosen work possition in foundry Alstom Power Sp. z o. o.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kowal

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Manual handling remains one of the different types of transport inside working place, although technological progress and modernorganization of work. Manual transport as a transport inside working place is related to foundry industry. According to polish lawregulations employer has to give consideration to manual handling in professional risk assessment and introduce actions for manualhandling reduction. In Foundry Elblag case there is found that in many processes manual handling are made by workers. For example wecan choose melting processes (additives manual feeding, mixing and pulling metallurgical slag, etc. or fettling processes like grinding.Objective of that analysis was to define level of risk related to manual handling in work stand chosen and define activities impacted onrisk assessment result with biggest range. For risk reduction, technical and organizational solutions were shown (better ergonomically work stand, method of work and worker’s awareness about good practices. In this study methods related to manual handling risk assessment were described, focus on KIM method used in Foundry Elblag. Key Item Method allow to estimate the risk by simple calculation based on key indicators (time rating points, rating points of mass, posture or work condition. Points were chosen based on timekeeping, information from workers and foreman.

  8. Crest line minimal model for sand dune

    OpenAIRE

    Guignier, Lucie; VALANCE, Alexandre; LAGUE, Dimitri

    2013-01-01

    In desert, complex patterns of dunes form. Under unidirectional wind, transverse rectilinear dunes or crescent shaped dunes called barchan dunes can appear, depending on the amount of sediment available. Most rectilinear transverse sand dunes are observed to fragment, for example at White Sands (New Mexico, United States of America) or Walvis Bay (Namibia). We develop a reduced complexity model to investigate the morphodynamics of sand dunes migrating over a non-erodible bed under unidirectio...

  9. Pilot Project Sand Groynes Delfland Coast:

    OpenAIRE

    Hoekstra, R.; Walstra, D.J.R.; Swinkels, C.S.

    2012-01-01

    In October and November 2009 a pilot project has been executed at the Delfland Coast in the Netherlands, constructing three small sandy headlands called Sand Groynes. Sand Groynes are nourished from the shore in seaward direction and anticipated to redistribute in the alongshore due to the impact of waves and currents to create the sediment buffer in the upper shoreface. The results presented in this paper intend to contribute to the assessment of Sand Groynes as a commonly applied nourishmen...

  10. A branching process model for sand avalanches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Pelayo, R.; Salazar, I.; Schieve, W.C. (Univ. of Texas, Austin (United States))

    1993-07-01

    An analytically solvable model for sand avalanches of noninteracting grains of sand, based on the Chapman-Kolmogorov equations, is presented. For a single avalanche, distributions of lifetimes, sizes of overflows and avalanches, and correlation functions are calculated. Some of these are exponentials, some are power laws. Spatially homogeneous distributions of avalanches are also studied. Computer simulations of avalanches of interacting grains of sand are compared to the solutions to the Chapman-Kolmogorov equations. It is found that within the range of parameters explored in the simulation, the approximation of noninteracting grains of sand is a good one. 20 refs., 4 figs.

  11. Fracture behavior of cemented sand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqasabi, Ahmad Othman

    While fracture mechanics for cementitious materials and composites in the past three decades have developed mainly in concrete applications, it has not yet gained its rightful place in the geotechnical field. There are many examples in the geotechnical literature, especially those related to brittle and stiff soils, where traditional approaches of analysis have proven to be inadequate. While geotechnical problems are inherently complex in nature, using the finite element method (FEM) with fracture mechanics (FM) have been shown to provide powerful analytical tool that could be used to investigate and solve many problems in geomechanics and geotechnical engineering. This thesis addresses the application of FM concepts and theories in analysis of cemented soils. In addition to theoretical aspects, experiments were conducted to evaluate the application of FM to cemented soils. Three point bending beam tests with crack mouth opening displacements (CMOD) conducted on cemented sand samples showed that fracture parameters, such as CMOD, indeed could play an important role in investigation of such soils. Using this unambiguous material parameter, field engineers might have a reliable measure that could prove to be useful in stability assessment of earth structures and soil structure system. By studying size effect on cemented sand, strong relationship was established between critical CMOD and failure, which might be a very useful index and analysis tool in geotechnical engineering practice.

  12. Nuclear energy for oil sands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1980, Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, working with a number of Alberta-based companies, assessed the technical and economic feasibility of using a CANDU nuclear reactor to raise the production steam for the recovery of bitumen. The study followed several years of analysis which identified oil sands projects as the most appropriate single users of thermal energy of the amount and quality available from reactors. Over the life of an oil sands project a steam supply system based on a nuclear reactor is expected to offer a substantial cost advantage (25 - 50%) over the alternative system based on coal as the make-up fuel. Steam from natural gas is marginally more expensive than that from coal because the cost of natural gas is expected to escalate at a rate higher than inflation. For shallow deposits (150 - 250 metres) using intermediate pressure steam, the commercially proven Pressurized Heavy Water (PHW) reactor is most suitable. For deeper deposits (250 - 650 metres), the PHW reactor can provide the higher pressure steam using a compressor, but only with a reduction in thermal efficiency that substantially reduces its cost advantage. The CANDU Organic Cooled Reactor (OCR), however, can provide the high presure steam required with the large cost advantage. The economic benefit of nuclear steam supply systems, a saving of $2-4 per barrel of product, is large enough to justify a more detailed study

  13. Combining optimisation and simulation in an energy systems analysis of a Swedish iron foundry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To face global competition, and also reduce environmental and climate impact, industry-wide changes are needed, especially regarding energy use, which is closely related to global warming. Energy efficiency is therefore an essential task for the future as it has a significant impact on both business profits and the environment. For the analysis of possible changes in industrial production processes, and to choose what changes should be made, various modelling tools can be used as a decision support. This paper uses two types of energy analysis tool: Discrete Event Simulation (DES) and Energy Systems Optimisation (ESO). The aim of this study is to describe how a DES and an ESO tool can be combined. A comprehensive five-step approach is proposed for reducing system costs and making a more robust production system. A case study representing a new investment in part of a Swedish iron foundry is also included to illustrate the method's use. The method described in this paper is based on the use of the DES program QUEST and the ESO tool reMIND. The method combination itself is generic, i.e. other similar programs can be used as well with some adjustments and adaptations. The results from the case study show that when different boundary conditions are used the result obtained from the simulation tools is not optimum, in other words, the result shows only a feasible solution and not the best way to run the factory. It is therefore important to use the optimisation tool in such cases in order to obtain the optimum operating strategy. By using the optimisation tool a substantial amount of resources can be saved. The results also show that the combination of optimisation and simulation tools is useful to provide very detailed information about how the system works and to predict system behaviour as well as to minimise the system cost. -- Highlights: ? This study describes how a simulation and an optimisation tool can be combined. ? A case study representing a new investment in part of a foundry is included to illustrate the method's use. ? Combination of the optimization and simulation tools provides detailed information about how the system works. ? By using the optimization and simulation tools a substantial amount of resources can be saved.

  14. Sand Failure Mechanism and Sanding Parameters in Niger Delta Oil Reservoirs

    OpenAIRE

    Sunday Isehunwa; Andrew Farotade

    2010-01-01

    Sand production is a major issue during oil and gas production from unconsolidated reservoirs. In predicting the onset of sand production, it is important to accurately determine the failure mechanism and the contributing parameters. The aim of this study was to determine sand failure mechanism in the Niger-Delta, identify themajor contributing parameters and evaluate their effects on sanding.Completion and production data from 78 strings completed on 22 reservoirs in a Niger Delta oil Field ...

  15. Modeling the response of shoreface-connected sand ridges to sand extraction on an inner shelf

    OpenAIRE

    Nnafie, Abdel; Swart, Huib E. de; Calvete Manrique, Daniel; Garnier, Roland

    2014-01-01

    Shoreface-connected sand ridges are rhythmic bedforms that occur on many storm-dominated inner shelves. The ridges span several kilometers, are a few meters high, and they evolve on a timescale of centuries. A processbased model is used to gain a fundamental insight into the response of these ridges to extraction of sand. Different scenarios of sand extraction (depth, location, and geometry of the extraction area; multiple sand extractions) are imposed. For each scenario, the response timesca...

  16. Impact Behavior of A356 Foundry Alloys in the Presence of Trace Elements Ni and V

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casari, Daniele; Ludwig, Thomas H.; Merlin, Mattia; Arnberg, Lars; Garagnani, Gian Luca

    2015-02-01

    In the present work, the impact behavior of unmodified A356 alloys with the addition of Ni or V in as-cast and T6 heat-treated conditions was assessed. Charpy V-notched specimens obtained from sand and permanent mold casting showed low total absorbed energy average values ( W t A356 alloy, V had a strong influence: (i) V-containing sand cast alloys absorbed slightly higher impact energies compared to the corresponding A356 base alloys; (ii) in the permanent mold cast alloys, V in solid solution led to a considerable loss of ductility, which in turn decreased the total absorbed energy.

  17. Emission of organic compounds from mould and core binders used for casting iron, aluminium and bronze in sand moulds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tiedje, Niels Skat; Crepaz, Rudolf

    2010-01-01

    Emissions from mould and core sand binders commonly used in the foundry industry have been investigated. Degradation of three different types of binders was investigated: Furfuryl alcohol (FA), phenolic urethane (PU) and resol-CO2 (RC). In each group of binders at least two different binder compositions were tested. A test method that provides uniform test conditions is described. The method can be used as general test method to analyse off gasses from binders. Moulds containing a standard size casting were produced and the amount and type of organic compounds resulting from thermal degradation of binders was monitored when cast iron, bronze and aluminium was poured in the moulds. Binder degradation was measured by collecting off gasses in a specially designed ventilation hood at a constant flow rate. Samples were taken from the ventilation system and analysed for hydrocarbons and CO content. It is shown how off gasses vary with time after pouring and shake out. Also the composition of off-gasses is analysed and shown. It is further shown how the composition of off-gasses varies between different types of binders and with varying composition of the binders as well as function of the thermal load on the moulding sand.

  18. Emission of organic compounds from mould and core binders used for casting iron, aluminium and bronze in sand moulds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiedje, Niels; Crepaz, Rudolf; Eggert, Torben; Bey, Niki

    2010-12-01

    Emissions from mould and core sand binders commonly used in the foundry industry have been investigated. Degradation of three different types of binders was investigated: Furfuryl alcohol (FA), phenolic urethane (PU) and resol-CO2 (RC). In each group of binders, at least two different binder compositions were tested. A test method that provides uniform test conditions is described. The method can be used as a general test method to analyse off gases from binders. Moulds, containing a standard size casting, were produced and the amount and type of organic compounds, resulting from thermal degradation of binders, was monitored when cast iron, bronze and aluminium was poured in the moulds. Binder degradation was measured by collecting off gases in a specially designed ventilation hood at a constant flow rate. Samples were taken from the ventilation system and analysed for hydrocarbons and CO content. It is shown how off-gases vary with time after pouring and shake out. Also the composition of off-gases is analysed and shown. It is further shown how the composition of off-gasses varies between different types of binders and with varying composition of the binders as well as function of the thermal load on the moulding sand. PMID:20954042

  19. Fecal indicators in sand, sand contact, and risk of enteric illness among beach-goers

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: Beach sand can harbor fecal indicator organisms and pathogens, but enteric illness risk associated with sand contact remains unclear. METHODS: In 2007, visitors at 2 recreational marine beaches were asked on the day of their visit about sand contact. Ten to 12 days...

  20. Fuel options for oil sands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation examined fuel options in relation to oil sands production. Options include steam and hydrogen (H2) for upgrading; natural gas by pipeline; bitumen; petroleum coke; and coal. Various cost drivers were also considered for each of the fuel options. It was noted that natural gas has high energy value but the capital cost is low, and that coke's energy value is very low but the capital cost is high. A chart forecasting energy prices was presented. The disposition of Western Canada's northern gas situation was presented. Issues concerning rail transportation for coal were considered. Environmental concerns were also examined. A chart of typical gas requirements for 75,000 B/D oil sands projects was presented. Issues concerning steam generation with gas and mining cogeneration with gas fuel and steam turbines were discussed, as well as cogeneration and H2 with gas fuels and steam turbines. Various technology and fuel utility options were examined, along with details of equipment and processes. Boiler technologies were reviewed by type as well as fuel and steam quality and pressure. Charts of cogeneration with gas turbine and circulation fluid bed boilers were presented. Gasification processes were reviewed and a supply cost basis was examined. Cost drivers were ranked according to energy, operating considerations and capital investment. Results indicated that fuel costs were significant for gas and coal. Capital costs and capital recovery charge was most significant with coal and gasification technology. Without capital recovery, cash costs favour the use of bitumen and coke. Gasification would need lower capital and lower capital recovery to compete with direct burning. It was concluded that direct burning of bitumen can compete with natural gas. With price volatility anticipated, dual fuel capability for bitumen and gas has merit. Petroleum coke can be produced or retrieved from stockpiles. Utility supply costs of direct burning of coke is marginally higher than the cost with gas. Direct burning of coal has a higher supply cost than other fuels. However, there will be additional costs for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for heavy fuels. Natural gas is likely to be the fuel of choice for oil sands production unless gas prices are much higher on a sustained basis. tabs., figs

  1. Study of Black Sand Particles from Sand Dunes in Badr, Saudi Arabia Using Electron Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haider Abbas Khwaja

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Particulate air pollution is a health concern. This study determines the microscopic make-up of different varieties of sand particles collected at a sand dune site in Badr, Saudi Arabia in 2012. Three categories of sand were studied: black sand, white sand, and volcanic sand. The study used multiple high resolution electron microscopies to study the morphologies, emission source types, size, and elemental composition of the particles, and to evaluate the presence of surface “coatings or contaminants” deposited or transported by the black sand particles. White sand was comprised of natural coarse particles linked to wind-blown releases from crustal surfaces, weathering of igneous/metamorphic rock sources, and volcanic activities. Black sand particles exhibited different morphologies and microstructures (surface roughness compared with the white sand and volcanic sand. Morphological Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM and Laser Scanning Microscopy (LSM analyses revealed that the black sand contained fine and ultrafine particles (50 to 500 nm ranges and was strongly magnetic, indicating the mineral magnetite or elemental iron. Aqueous extracts of black sands were acidic (pH = 5.0. Fe, C, O, Ti, Si, V, and S dominated the composition of black sand. Results suggest that carbon and other contaminant fine particles were produced by fossil-fuel combustion and industrial emissions in heavily industrialized areas of Haifa and Yanbu, and transported as cloud condensation nuclei to Douf Mountain. The suite of techniques used in this study has yielded an in-depth characterization of sand particles. Such information will be needed in future environmental, toxicological, epidemiological, and source apportionment studies.

  2. Modeling of the influence of coarsening on viscoplastic behavior of a 319 foundry aluminum alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Both metallurgical and mechanical behaviors of a 319 foundry aluminum alloy have been modeled by means of a multiscale approach. The nano-scale, represented by the coarsening of Al2Cu precipitates, has been modeled according to the Lifshitz–Slyozov–Wagner (LSW) law in a range of temperature going from 23 °C to 300 °C up to 1000 h aging time. Results were then compared to transmission electron microscope (TEM) observations and are in good agreement with the experimental measurements. The model allows us to know the critical radius, the volume fraction and the number of particles per ?m3 in a ?-phase representative volume element (RVE). The increase in yield stress generated by the interaction of dislocations with precipitates, lattice and solid solution, is modeled on the microscale. The yield stress becomes thus a function of the precipitation state, and is time/temperature dependent. These two models were then combined into a mechanical macroscale model in order to represent the Low Cycle Fatigue (LCF) behavior of the material. An elasto-viscoplastic law has been used and all the material parameters were experimentally determined with LCF stress/strain loops for the first cycle and for the mechanical steady state. The simulation results are in good agreement with the experiments.

  3. Modeling of the influence of coarsening on viscoplastic behavior of a 319 foundry aluminum alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, R., E-mail: remi.martinez@ensmp.fr [Universite Paris-Est Creteil, Institut de Chimie et de Materiaux Paris-Est, CNRS UMR7182, 2-8 rue Henri Dunant, 94320 Thiais (France); Mines ParisTech, Centre des Materiaux, CNRS UMR7633, BP 87, 91003 Evry Cedex (France); Renault SA, Technocentre, Direction de l' ingenierie et des materiaux, 1 avenue du Golf, 78288 Guyancourt (France); Russier, V., E-mail: vincent.russier@icmpe.cnrs.fr [Universite Paris-Est Creteil, Institut de Chimie et de Materiaux Paris-Est, CNRS UMR7182, 2-8 rue Henri Dunant, 94320 Thiais (France); Couzinie, J.P. [Universite Paris-Est Creteil, Institut de Chimie et de Materiaux Paris-Est, CNRS UMR7182, 2-8 rue Henri Dunant, 94320 Thiais (France); Guillot, I., E-mail: ivan.guillot@icmpe.cnrs.fr [Universite Paris-Est Creteil, Institut de Chimie et de Materiaux Paris-Est, CNRS UMR7182, 2-8 rue Henri Dunant, 94320 Thiais (France); Cailletaud, G. [Mines ParisTech, Centre des Materiaux, CNRS UMR7633, BP 87, 91003 Evry Cedex (France)

    2013-01-01

    Both metallurgical and mechanical behaviors of a 319 foundry aluminum alloy have been modeled by means of a multiscale approach. The nano-scale, represented by the coarsening of Al{sub 2}Cu precipitates, has been modeled according to the Lifshitz-Slyozov-Wagner (LSW) law in a range of temperature going from 23 Degree-Sign C to 300 Degree-Sign C up to 1000 h aging time. Results were then compared to transmission electron microscope (TEM) observations and are in good agreement with the experimental measurements. The model allows us to know the critical radius, the volume fraction and the number of particles per {mu}m{sup 3} in a {alpha}-phase representative volume element (RVE). The increase in yield stress generated by the interaction of dislocations with precipitates, lattice and solid solution, is modeled on the microscale. The yield stress becomes thus a function of the precipitation state, and is time/temperature dependent. These two models were then combined into a mechanical macroscale model in order to represent the Low Cycle Fatigue (LCF) behavior of the material. An elasto-viscoplastic law has been used and all the material parameters were experimentally determined with LCF stress/strain loops for the first cycle and for the mechanical steady state. The simulation results are in good agreement with the experiments.

  4. Exposure vs toxicity levels of airborne quartz, metal and carbon particles in cast iron foundries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moroni, Beatrice; Viti, Cecilia; Cappelletti, David

    2014-01-01

    Aerosol dust samples and quartz raw materials from different working stations in foundry plants were characterized in order to assess the health risk in this working environment. Samples were analysed by scanning and transmission electron microscopy coupled with image analysis and microanalysis, and by cathodoluminescence spectroscopy. In addition, the concentration and the solubility degree of Fe and other metals of potential health effect (Mn, Zn and Pb) in the bulk samples were determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). Overall, the results indicate substantial changes in quartz crystal structure and texture when passing from the raw material to the airborne dust, which include lattice defects, non-bridging oxygen hole centres and contamination of quartz grains by metal and/or graphite particles. All these aspects point towards the relevance of surface properties on reactivity. Exposure doses have been estimated based on surface area, and compared with threshold levels resulting from toxicology. The possible synergistic effects of concomitant exposure to inhalable magnetite, quartz and/or graphite particles in the same working environment have been properly remarked. PMID:23385294

  5. Steel foundry electric arc furnace dust management: stabilization by using lime and Portland cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salihoglu, Guray; Pinarli, Vedat

    2008-05-30

    The purpose of this study was to determine an appropriate treatment for steel foundry electric arc furnace dust (EAFD) prior to permanent disposal. Lime and Portland cement (PC)-based stabilization was applied to treat the EAFD that contains lead and zinc above the landfilling limits, and is listed by USEPA as hazardous waste designation K061 and by EU as 10 02 07. Three types of paste samples were prepared with EAFD content varying between 0 and 90%. The first type contained the EAFD and Portland cement, the second contained the EAFD, Portland cement, and lime, and the third contained the EAFD and lime. All the samples were subjected to toxicity characteristics leaching procedure (TCLP) after an air-curing period of 28 days. pH changes were monitored and acid neutralization capacity of the samples were examined. Treatment effectiveness was evaluated in terms of reducing the heavy metal leachability to the levels below the USEPA landfilling criteria. An optimum composition for the EAFD stabilization was formulated as 30% EAFD +35% lime +35% Portland cement to achieve the landfilling criteria. The pH interval, where the solubility of the heavy metals in the EAFD was minimized, was found to be between 8.2 and 9.4. PMID:17977656

  6. Use of technical and economic analysis in production of liquid metal in foundries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Kafka

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper in its introduction describes main principles of technical and economic analysis the application of which leads to determination of potential costs savings and subsequently to costs reduction. The application of the method is illustrated by an example of production of three types of steel grades for cast steel produced in five tons electric arc furnace. With the aid of the calculation model, incomplete costs of selective complex of the melts were determined (30 melts within the first phase and 260 in the second one. Incomplete costs and selected physical indicators (e.g. melting time, electrical energy consumption etc. were subsequently compiled with the aid of statistical analysis. After that, the individual selective complexes were compared with each other (according to melters; first and second melt on the shift; melting with one or more charge basket; days in a week. The detailed analysis of these outcomes resulted in many particular recommendations how to reduce the costs in the foundry. The final recommendation for the melting shop is a proposal to introduce continuous monitoring of costs.

  7. Properties of made by different methods of RP impeller foundry patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Budzik

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the tests of properties of foundry patterns of turbocharger turbine impeller. Impellers prototypes were predestinated for casting by method losing patterns. There were carried out tests of these prototypes made by different methods of Rapid Prototyping (RP. Two impeller were made by growth methods: stereolitography (SLA and three dimensional printing (3DP. One prototype was made by the method of Vacuum Casting as a wax casting. Tests were executed in the Department of Machine Design of Rzeszow University of Technology in cooperation with WSK PZL Rzeszow and Car Technology Krakow. First impeller was carried out by method of stereolitography on SLA 250 plant. That pattern was also used to carry out silicon matrix for casting of wax pattern. Next pattern was printed by three dimensional printer Z510 from the powder ZP14. Good removability of the pattern from the mould is particularly essential for impellers of small turbines with blades of small thickness of their section. All pattern were tested on their removability from the ceramic mould. The best melting properties had the wax pattern. Patterns made from resin SL5170 (SLA and powder ZP14 (3DP were removed in the process of burning but about 1% of soot was left in the mould.

  8. Influence of Some Trace Elements on Solidification Path and Microstructure of Al-Si Foundry Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Thomas Hartmut; Schaffer, Paul Louis; Arnberg, Lars

    2013-08-01

    In the present study, Ca, Ni, V, and Zn were added to a high purity binary Al-7wt pct Si and commercial purity A356 foundry alloy in the nominal range of 50 to 600 ppm in order to study their effect on the solidification path and the resultant microstructure. Thermal analysis was used to assess nucleation and growth of the various phases. It was found that Ca and Ni additions suppress characteristic temperatures associated with nucleation and growth of the eutectic by up to 4 and 1.5 K, respectively. Additionally, Ca was observed to modify the eutectic Si and a concentration as low as 39 ppm Ca was sufficient to precipitate the geometrically unfavored polyhedral Al2Si2Ca phase. Furthermore, Ni addition resulted in the formation of two intermetallic phases when the Ni concentration exceeded 300 ppm. These phases have been quantified as Al3Ni and Al9FeNi by SEM-EDS. V and Zn had no apparent effect on the cooling curve and the microstructure. Even though it could be shown that V accumulates preferably in ?-Al5FeSi particles, V concentrations of 600 ppm were too low to have any influence on the phase's morphology.

  9. Health-hazard evaluation report GHETA 83-309-1405, Chrysler Corporation Foundry, Indianapolis, Indiana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In response to a request arising out of employee concerns over the medical surveillance program at the Chrysler Corporation Foundry located in Indianapolis, Indiana, an evaluation was made of chest radiographs evaluated by the program with specific concern directed to disagreement on the radiographic diagnosis of pneumoconiosis. The request was made by the Chrysler Corporation and the United Auto Workers National Joint Committee on Health and Safety. Three NIOSH certified B-readers independently interpreted a set of 78 systematically sampled posteroanterior (PA) chest radiographs from the system files. These interpretations were compared among themselves and with company interpretations. While none of the radiographs was deemed unreadable, 35% were classified as having poor technical quality. Only one film was found which had a profusion of small opacities, and the company had interpreted the film as positive. Overall, agreement on proportion of positive readings and agreement on individual films was as good between the company and B-readers as it was between any two of the individual B-readers. The author recommends, however, that in order to avoid future complaints of the nature, the company should use standard radiographic equipment and techniques, NIOSH certified B-readers, and current international classifications of radiographs for pneumoconioses in their medical surveillance program

  10. [Chronic bronchitis and efficiency of lung ventilation in workers of the "Zawadzkie" foundry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niepsuj, G; Niepsuj, K; Oklek, K; Kozielski, J; Krzywiecki, A; Ziora, D; Cie?licki, J; Szurkowska-Kieda, J

    1993-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the influence of smoking habit and occupational exposure to air pollution on the prevalence of chronic bronchitis and lung function efficiency in foundry workers. MRC survey and spirographic measurements were performed in 917 men aged 18-62 years (mean age 38.6). In 455 men (49.6%), occupational exposure to air pollution significantly exceeded the permissible values. In 122 men (13.3%) the exposure was low. Chronic bronchitis was more than twice as frequent in smokers (27.3%) as in nonsmokers (11.0). Cessation of smoking led to an improvement in the symptoms of chronic bronchitis. Chronic bronchitis was slightly more frequent in highly exposed (25.5%) as compared with low-exposed workers (15.6%). Age-related lung function decline was significantly greater in smokers than in nonsmokers. Unlike chronic bronchitis, lung function was still lower after smoking cessation. Among highly exposed workers, age-related FVC and FEV1 declines were significantly larger in smokers than in non-smokers. PMID:8492695

  11. An evaluation of a local exhaust ventilation control system for a foundry casting-cleaning operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gressel, M G

    1997-05-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of a local exhaust ventilation system for a foundry casting-cleaning operation in which a worker cleaned gray iron castings using a variety of handheld chipping and grinding tools. The operation originally had an exhaust system consisting only of an exhaust duct terminating approximately 1 m (3 ft) above the floor and 2 m (6 ft) from the casting-cleaning workstation. An earlier evaluation of this original control system found time-weighted average exposures to respirable silica ranging from 124 to 160 micrograms/m3. The local exhaust ventilation system evaluated in this present study consisted of a downdraft booth outfitted with a turntable for manipulating the castings. The modified local exhaust ventilation system was installed at this facility and connected to the existing plant exhaust ventilation system through the original ductwork. A direct-reading instrument was used to measure the operator's respirable aerosol exposure concentrations during a single day both before and after the installation of the new workstation. The same worker was sampled both times. The operator's activities were recorded on videotape so that the exposures associated with the various tools could be determined. While day-to-day variability could not be accounted for, depending on the type of tool used the local exhaust ventilation system reduced exposures by 59 to 79% during casting cleaning by the sampled worker when compared with the original configuration. These reductions were statistically significant. PMID:9134666

  12. Selvoplevet og sand, men mest det første

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haarder, Jon Helt

    2007-01-01

    Lars Saabye Christensen: SAABYES CIRKUS (Oversat fra norsk af Karsten Sand Iversen) 224 sider, 229 kr. Athene UDKOMMER I DAG Udgivelsesdato: 14.09......Lars Saabye Christensen: SAABYES CIRKUS (Oversat fra norsk af Karsten Sand Iversen) 224 sider, 229 kr. Athene UDKOMMER I DAG Udgivelsesdato: 14.09...

  13. Japan's involvement in oil sands development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to Japanese national policy, exploration and development by Japanese companies in overseas countries are promoted in order to ensure stable oil supplies. Japan Canada Oil Sands Limited (JACOS), part of the JAPEX group, was established during the 1978 world oil crisis to explore and develop Canadian oil sand resources in accordance with Japan's national policy. The JAPEX group, including JACOS, has invested $123 million in oil sands projects in Alberta. JAPEX's first involvement in oil sands was in the Primrose Project operated by Norcen in the Cold Lake area. Five years of cyclic steam stimulation pilot tests did not produce sufficiently good results to justify further operation. The second involvement was the PCEJ Project, a joint effort by four companies that are participating in a bitumen recovery test project in the Athabasca Deposit. JACOS holds 2,452 km2 of oil sands leases in Alberta. Tests conducted since 1978 in the PCEJ Project include multiwell steam injection pilot tests, some of which showed promise. JACOS is also participating in steam assisted gravity drainage projects and in federal/provincial research programs. Obstacles identified in developing Alberta oil sands are the lack of a bitumen pipeline to Edmonton and the insufficient length of oil sands leases (currently 10 years), given the difficulties of oil sand development. 10 figs

  14. Sand control in well construction and operation

    CERN Document Server

    Matanovic, Davorin; Moslavac, Bojan

    2012-01-01

    Sand control issues in wells can result from improper completion or changes in reservoir properties. Covering all aspects of the topic, this volume shows how methods such as reducing drag forces and mechanical sand bridging can reduce the problems that arise.

  15. Hematite Outlier and Sand Dunes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Released 4 December 2003This image shows a crater just south of the edge of the famous hematite-bearing surface, which is visible in the context image as a smooth area to the north. The crater has two features of immediate note. The first is a layered mound in the north part of the crater floor. This mound contains hematite, and it is an outlying remnant of the greater deposits to the north that have otherwise completely disappeared in this crater. The second feature is a dune field in the center of the crater floor, with dark dunes indicating winds from the northwest. The dunes grade into a dark sand sheet with no coherent structure, indicating that the sand layer thins out to the south and east.Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -4.4, Longitude 357.3 East (2.7 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  16. A Continuum Saltation Model for Sand Dunes

    CERN Document Server

    Sauermann, G; Herrmann, H J

    2001-01-01

    We derive a phenomenological continuum saltation model for aeolian sand transport that can serve as an efficient tool for geomorphological applications. The coupled differential equations for the average density and velocity of sand in the saltation layer reproduce both known equilibrium relations for the sand flux and the time evolution of the sand flux as predicted by microscopic saltation models. The three phenomenological parameters of the model are a reference height for the grain-air interaction, an effective restitution coefficient for the grain-bed interaction, and a multiplication factor characterizing the chain reaction caused by the impacts leading to a typical time or length scale of the saturation transients. We determine the values of these parameters by comparing our model with wind tunnel measurements. Our main interest are out of equilibrium situations where saturation transients are important, for instance at phase boundaries (ground/sand) or under unsteady wind conditions. We point out that...

  17. The behavior of gaseous iodine in sand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive iodine gas was passed through 10 different sands collected at rivers and hills. The relation between the amount of the loaded gas and the amount of adsorbed gas was determined at room temperature, 50 -- 600C, and 90 -- 1000C under humidity of 2 sand. This amount was about 1 -- 3 times as much as that of monomolecular membrane adsorption, 0.2 -- 0.3 ?g/cm2. The decrease of adsorption amount that accompanies the increase of humidity is attributable to the decrease of effective surface area of sand due to the presence of water. The transport of iodine in sand was studied by passing gaseous iodine through a glass tubing packed with sand. The distribution in the flow direction of iodine indicated that the ease of desorption depends upon the situation of adsorption. Easily desorbed case was named Henry type adsorption. Hardly desorbed case was named absorption type. Discussion is made on experimental results. (Fukutomi, T.)

  18. Developing new markets for oil sands products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a review by Purvin and Gertz of western Canadian crude oil supply. This energy consulting firm provides advise to the energy sector. It suggests that oil sands production will surpass declining conventional production. Oil sands supply includes bitumen, synthetic crude oil (SCO), and diluent. It is forecasted that oil sands will increase from 42 per cent of western supply in 2002 to 78 per cent in 2015. The potential of Alberta's oil sands was discussed along with a recent study of refined products and petrochemicals from bitumen. Upgrading, refining and petrochemical case studies were presented. The author examined if a Canadian oil sands upgrading project with high capital costs can be competitive with competing projects in the United States and internationally. In addition to supply and demand issues, the presentation examined infrastructure capability and market potential in the United States. The economic potential and risks of preferred business cases compared to upgrading to SCO were also evaluated. 15 figs

  19. Sand Failure Mechanism and Sanding Parameters in Niger Delta Oil Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunday Isehunwa,

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Sand production is a major issue during oil and gas production from unconsolidated reservoirs. In predicting the onset of sand production, it is important to accurately determine the failure mechanism and the contributing parameters. The aim of this study was to determine sand failure mechanism in the Niger-Delta, identify themajor contributing parameters and evaluate their effects on sanding.Completion and production data from 78 strings completed on 22 reservoirs in a Niger Delta oil Field were evaluated. Sand failure mechanisms and contributing parameters were identified and compared with published profiles. The results showed that cohesive stress is the predominant sand failure mechanism. Water cut, bean size and gas oil ratio (GOR impact sand production in the Niger Delta.

  20. Dry reusing and wet reclaiming of used sodium silicate sand

    OpenAIRE

    Zitian FAN; Naiyu HUANG; Wang, Huafang

    2005-01-01

    Based on the characteristics of used sodium silicate sand and the different use requirements for recycled sand, "dry reusing and wet reclaiming of used sodium silicate sand" is considered as the most suitable technique for the used sand. When the recycled sand is used as support sand, the used sand is only reused by dry process including breaking, screening, dust-removal, etc., and it is not necessary that the used sand is reclaimed with strongly rubbing and scraping method, but when the recy...

  1. Comparison of two Satellite Imaging Platforms for Evaluating Sand Dune Migration in the Ubari Sand Sea (Libyan Fazzan)

    OpenAIRE

    Els, A.; Merlo, S.; Knight, J.

    2015-01-01

    Sand dunes can change location, form or dimensions depending on wind direction and strength. Sand dune movements can be effectively monitored through the comparison of multi-temporal satellite images. However, not all remote sensing platforms are suitable to study sand dunes. This study compares coarse (Landsat) and fine (Worldview) resolution platforms, specifically focussing on sand dunes within the Ubari Sand Sea (Libya). Sand dune features (crest line, dune ridge basal outlines) ...

  2. Reducing industrial energy costs through energy-efficiency measures in a liberalized European electricity market: case study of a Swedish iron foundry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swedish industry, which has one of the lowest electricity prices in the European Union, will face higher electricity prices due to the Union's electricity market liberalization. Rising electricity prices, together with a larger use of electricity than other European countries, pose a threat to industrial activity in Sweden. The Swedish foundry industry, with large proportions of energy costs in relation to the added value, is particularly sensitive to higher electricity costs. The aim of this paper is to study the effect of higher electricity prices on the Swedish iron-and-steel foundry industry, quantify an energy efficiency potential for a medium-sized Swedish iron foundry resulting from a thorough industrial energy audit, and investigate what impact they have on the energy cost. (author)

  3. Correlation between work process-related exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and urinary levels of alpha-naphthol, beta-naphthylamine and 1-hydroxypyrene in iron foundry workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Åse Marie; Omland, Øyvind; Poulsen, O M; Sherson, D; Sigsgaard, Torben; Christensen, J M; Overgaard, E

    1994-01-01

    present study demonstrates that 1-hydroxypyrene is a useful and direct biomarker of low-dose occupational exposure to PAH compounds. Molding and casting had the highest pyrene levels in iron foundries. Furthermore, the data shows that levels of beta-naphthylamine in urine are significantly elevated in...... higher risk of lung cancer, the present study suggests that the elevated risk may be due to exposure to carcinogenic PAH compounds in iron foundries, particularly in some high-risk work processes, e.g. casting and molding. In addition, the present study suggests that biological monitoring of 1......In two Danish iron foundries the concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in 24 personal air samples of workers employed in selected processes, i.e. melters, melted iron transporters, casters, machine molders, hand molders, shake-out workers and finishing workers, were measured and...

  4. Optimization as investment decision support in a Swedish medium-sized iron foundry - A move beyond traditional energy auditing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to increased globalisation, industries are facing greater competition that is pressing companies into decreasing their expenses in order to increase their profits. As regards Swedish industry, it has been faced with substantial increases in energy prices in recent years. Barriers to energy efficiency such as imperfect information inhibit investments in energy efficiency measures, energy audits being one means of reducing barriers and overcoming imperfect information. However, an evaluation of such energy audits in Sweden reveals that it is chiefly low-cost measures that are undertaken as a result of an audit. Moreover, these audits often tend to focus on support processes such as ventilation, lighting, air compressors etc., while measures impacting production processes are often not as extensively covered, which underlines the need for further support in addition to energy audits. Decision support is practised in a variety of different disciplines such as optimization and simulation and the aim of this paper is to explore whether investment decision support practices may be used successfully towards small and medium-sized manufacturers in Sweden when complex production-related investment decisions are taken. The optimization results from the different cases, involving a foundry's investment in a new melting unit, indicate that with no electricity price fluctuations over the day, the investment seems sound as it lowers the overall energy costs. However, with fluctuating electricity prices, there are no large differences in energy costs between the option of retaining the existing five melting furnaces at the foundry and investing in a twin furnace and removing the holding furnaces - which was the initial investment plan for the foundry in the study. It would not have been possible to achieve this outcome without the use of investment decision support such as MIND. One of the main conclusions in this paper is that investment decision support, when strategic investment decisions are to be taken, may be a means of emphasising energy efficiency for energy-intensive SMEs beyond the level of traditional energy auditing. (author)

  5. Optimization as investment decision support in a Swedish medium-sized iron foundry - A move beyond traditional energy auditing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to increased globalisation, industries are facing greater competition that is pressing companies into decreasing their expenses in order to increase their profits. As regards Swedish industry, it has been faced with substantial increases in energy prices in recent years. Barriers to energy efficiency such as imperfect information inhibit investments in energy efficiency measures, energy audits being one means of reducing barriers and overcoming imperfect information. However, an evaluation of such energy audits in Sweden reveals that it is chiefly low-cost measures that are undertaken as a result of an audit. Moreover, these audits often tend to focus on support processes such as ventilation, lighting, air compressors etc., while measures impacting production processes are often not as extensively covered, which underlines the need for further support in addition to energy audits. Decision support is practised in a variety of different disciplines such as optimization and simulation and the aim of this paper is to explore whether investment decision support practices may be used successfully towards small and medium-sized manufacturers in Sweden when complex production-related investment decisions are taken. The optimization results from the different cases, involving a foundry's investment in a new melting unit, indicate that with no electricity price fluctuations over the day, the investment seems sound as it lowers the overall energy costs. However, with fluctuating electricity prices, there are no large differences in energy costs between the option of retaining the existing five melting furnaces at the foundry and investing in a twin furnace and removing the holding furnaces - which was the initial investment plan for the foundry in the study. It would not have been possible to achieve this outcome without the use of investment decision support such as MIND. One of the main conclusions in this paper is that investment decision support, when strategic investment decisions are to be taken, may be a means of emphasising energy efficiency for energy-intensive SMEs beyond the level of traditional energy auditing

  6. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans and their association with cancer mortality among workers in one automobile foundry factory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lihua; Weng, Shaofan; Wen, Sheng; Shi, Tingming; Sun, Gangtao; Zeng, Yuyu; Qi, Cheng; Chen, Weihong

    2013-01-15

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) have been reported as possible carcinogenic hazards to humans. However, epidemiological studies on their carcinogenic roles are limited. The current study was designed to determine the concentrations and characteristics of PCDD/Fs and evaluate their association with cancer mortality in exposed workers in one automobile foundry factory. PCDD/F levels in factory and surrounding environment were analyzed through air and settling dust sampling. The cancer mortalities among workers in this foundry factory were calculated using data from a cohort study. The results showed that the PCDD/F concentrations of air in workplace ranged 0.36-2.25 pg World Health Organization-Toxic Equivalent (WHO-TEQ) Nm(-3) (average 1.01 pg WHO-TEQ Nm(-3)), which were 1.16-7.26 times higher than those outside the factory. The PCDD/F concentrations of settling dust in the workplace ranged 3.34-18.64 pg WHO-TEQ g(-1) (average 8.25 pg WHO-TEQ g(-1)), which were lower than those just outside the factory (average 16.13 pg WHO-TEQ g(-1)). Furthermore, a cohort study of workers in this factory with average follow-up of 24.52 years showed that cancer was the leading cause of death, with significant elevated mortality (standardized mortality ratio (SMR)=1.70, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.35-2.13) among workers, when compared with Chinese national mortality. The cancer mortality among front-line workers was increased significantly (adjusted relative risk (RR)=1.73, 95% CI: 1.14-2.60), particularly among melting and casting workers, when compared with that among assistant workers. Our results indicated that there was a dose-response relationship between PCDD/F exposure and cancer mortality among foundry workers. PMID:23178894

  7. Exploring Mission Concepts with the JPL Innovation Foundry A-Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemer, John K.; Ervin, Joan; Lang, Jared

    2013-01-01

    The JPL Innovation Foundry has established a new approach for exploring, developing, and evaluating early concepts called the A-Team. The A-Team combines innovative collaborative methods with subject matter expertise and analysis tools to help mature mission concepts. Science, implementation, and programmatic elements are all considered during an A-Team study. Methods are grouped by Concept Maturity Level (CML), from 1 through 3, including idea generation and capture (CML 1), initial feasibility assessment (CML 2), and trade space exploration (CML 3). Methods used for each CML are presented, and the key team roles are described from two points of view: innovative methods and technical expertise. A-Team roles for providing innovative methods include the facilitator, study lead, and assistant study lead. A-Team roles for providing technical expertise include the architect, lead systems engineer, and integration engineer. In addition to these key roles, each A-Team study is uniquely staffed to match the study topic and scope including subject matter experts, scientists, technologists, flight and instrument systems engineers, and program managers as needed. Advanced analysis and collaborative engineering tools (e.g. cost, science traceability, mission design, knowledge capture, study and analysis support infrastructure) are also under development for use in A-Team studies and will be discussed briefly. The A-Team facilities provide a constructive environment for innovative ideas from all aspects of mission formulation to eliminate isolated studies and come together early in the development cycle when they can provide the biggest impact. This paper provides an overview of the A-Team, its study processes, roles, methods, tools and facilities.

  8. Mechanical engineering note - safety analysis of molten uranium/water interaction in the uranium foundry furnace; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Engineering Note describes the development of the accident criteria used the basis for the design of the uranium foundry vacuum vessel. The results of this analysis provide input into other safety notes that investigate how well the uranium containment boundary will maintain its integrity during the design basis accident. The preventative measures that have been designed into the system to minimize the potential to produce a flammable gas mixture are described. The system response is designed for consistency with applicable sections of the LLNL Health and Safety Manual, as well as the Mechanical engineering Safety Design Standards

  9. Low-loss passive waveguides in a generic InP foundry process via local diffusion of zinc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Agostino, Domenico; Carnicella, Giuseppe; Ciminelli, Caterina; Thijs, Peter; Veldhoven, Petrus J; Ambrosius, Huub; Smit, Meint

    2015-09-21

    Generic InP foundry processes allow monolithic integration of active and passive elements into a common p-n doped layerstack. The passive loss can be greatly reduced by restricting the p-dopant to active regions. We report on a localized Zn-diffusion process based on MOVPE, which allows to reduce waveguide loss from 2 dB/cm to below 0.4 dB/cm. We confirm this value by fabrication of a 73 mm long spiral ring resonator, with a record quality factor of 1.2 million and an extinction ratio of 9.7 dB. PMID:26406713

  10. Exposure assessment and modeling of quartz in Swedish iron foundries for a nested case-control study on lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Lena; Bryngelsson, Ing-Liss; Ngo, Yen; Ohlson, Carl-Göran; Westberg, Håkan

    2012-01-01

    Exposure assessment of quartz in Swedish iron foundries was performed based on historical and current measurement data. To evaluate the exposure-response relationship between quartz exposure and lung cancer, we modeled quartz exposure from our database of measurements using determinants job title, time period, and company. Based on these modeled exposure data, we conducted a nested case-control evaluation. In our database, the overall individual, daily time-weighted average (TWA) quartz concentrations of current and historical data varied between 0.0018 and 4.9 mg/m(3), averaging 0.083 mg/m(3). Job titles with mean TWAs for the whole study period exceeding the European Union recommended occupational exposure limit of 0.05 mg/m(3) were fettlers (0.087 mg/m(3)), furnace and ladle repair (0.42 mg/m(3)), and maintenance (0.054 mg/m(3)) workers. The mixed model analysis demonstrated significant determinants on the job level for furnace and ladle repair (? = 4.06; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.78-5.93). For all jobs, significantly higher exposure levels occurred only during the first time period, 1968-1979 (? = 2.08; 95% CI 1.75-2.47), and a decreasing but not significant trend was noted for the three following 10-year time periods up to 2006 (? = 1.0, 0.96 and 1, respectively). Two iron foundries had significantly higher quartz concentration levels than the others (? = 1.31; 95% CI 1.00-1.71 and ? = 1.63; 95% CI 1.00-2.65, respectively). The individual cumulative quartz exposure measures were categorized in low, medium, and high exposure (0.5-0.05 mg/m(3) of quartz. To conclude, certain foundry workers are still exposed to high levels of quartz, but an increased risk of lung cancer caused by quartz exposure in these Swedish iron foundries could not be confirmed at our exposure levels. PMID:22239127

  11. Oil sands : opportunities and challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepherd, R.L. [Husky Oil Operations Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2004-09-01

    Husky Energy's current state of business was outlined in this paper, along with predictions of future growth due to strong demand. Various commercial plans were outlined, with access to new markets expected to add value. Access and stakeholder management issues were examined. Resource opportunities were outlined. Key business challenges include project execution cost, schedules and operating commitments; commodity price risks; deriving full benefits for the full value chain; and management of stakeholder expectations. Husky's position and development strategy were reviewed, along with a map of lands currently owned and operated by Husky. Details of the Husky Tucker oil sands plant were provided, with lump sum figures and start-up dates. An update on the Sunrise project was presented, as well as details of perceived obstacles and opportunities. Details of the Steam-Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) process were presented with reference to in-situ thermal recovery process; horizontal well pairs; continuous injection of steam into the upper well; and bitumen and condensed steam that drain to the lower well by gravity. Reservoir properties were presented, with details of gross pay thickness, horizontal and vertical permeability. Resource factors for the success of SAGD were outlined. Other resource factors include a thick reservoir; high horizontal and vertical permeability; no laterally-continuous permeability barriers; and no thief zones. Future opportunities were outlined. tabs, figs.

  12. Geotechnical properties of crude oil contaminated sand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contamination of soil due to an oil spill influences its subsequent engineering behavior. An investigation was conducted to study the effect of crude oil contamination on compaction characteristics, shear strength, one-dimensional compression, and coefficient of permeability. Water permeability was also determined by using commercial grade motor oils as contaminants. The test results indicate that the compaction characteristics are influenced by oil contamination. The angle of internal friction of sand (based on total stress condition) decreases due to presence of oil within the pore spaces in sand. One dimensional compression characteristics of sand are significantly influenced by oil contamination resulting in a decrease in the value of constrained modulus with increase in the degree of oil contamination compared to the case of dry sand. Water permeability was observed to be a function of the initial viscosity and the degree of saturation due to the contaminating oil

  13. Humic matter in gravel and sand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weise, G.

    1987-02-01

    Humic matter contained in gravel and sand sedimentation layers and its genesis by decomposition of organic plant material are characterized. About 90% of humic matter containing sand and gravel deposits in the GDR has particles of fossil wood, xylite and brown coal. The genesis of Tertiary brown coal deposits is connected to those of marine and fluviatile sand and gravel strata. Glacial events moved brown coal particles to other sedimentation areas. Brown coal particles are generally preserved in sites below the present day ground water level. Humic matter above the ground water level is predominantly found as organic matter clay complexes. A substantial amount of fossil organic matter was converted by biogeochemical degradation during diagenesis and sedimentation, i.e. humates, humic acids, fulvates and fulvic acids. More than 1000 different compounds have been extracted from organic sediments. Analyses of the organic compound content are regarded as essential for assessing sand and gravel quality for the building industry.

  14. New Method for Estimation of Aeolian Sand Transport Rate Using Ceramic Sand Flux Sensor (UD-101)

    OpenAIRE

    Keiko Udo

    2009-01-01

    In this study, a new method for the estimation of aeolian sand transport rate was developed; the method employs a ceramic sand flux sensor (UD-101). UD-101 detects wind-blown sand impacting on its surface. The method was devised by considering the results of wind tunnel experiments that were performed using a vertical sediment trap and the UD-101. Field measurements to evaluate the estimation accuracy during the prevalence of unsteady winds were performed on a flat backshore. The results show...

  15. Shock and release behaviour of sand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A considerable body of knowledge exists on the shock properties of dry sand. However, capturing the release properties has proven experimentally complex, and currently little information exists on the topic. The measured Hugoniot and release behaviour from a number of experiments is presented, carried out with the aim of furthering understanding of the fundamental physics behind the unloading of dry sand from a shocked state.

  16. Sand dunes on Mars and on Earth

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro Parteli, Eric Josef

    2007-01-01

    In this work the dune model introduced by Sauermann et al. (2001) is extended and applied to investigate the formation of different dune shapes on Mars and on Earth as function of wind directionality and sand availability. The formation of sand dunes on Mars under the present atmospheric conditions of the red planet is studied and conclusions about wind speed, migration velocity of dunes and changing wind regimes on Mars are presented. Field measurements of the shape of coastal transverse dun...

  17. Minimal model for aeolian sand dunes

    OpenAIRE

    Kroy, Klaus; Sauermann, Gerd; Herrmann, Hans J.

    2002-01-01

    We present a minimal model for the formation and migration of aeolian sand dunes. It combines a perturbative description of the turbulent wind velocity field above the dune with a continuum saltation model that allows for saturation transients in the sand flux. The latter are shown to provide the characteristic length scale. The model can explain the origin of important features of dunes, such as the formation of a slip face, the broken scale invariance, and the existence of a minimum dune si...

  18. Treating tar sands formations with dolomite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinegar, Harold J.; Karanikas, John Michael

    2010-06-08

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. The tar sands formation may include dolomite and hydrocarbons. Methods may include providing heat at less than the decomposition temperature of dolomite from one or more heaters to at least a portion of the formation. At least some of the hydrocarbon fluids are mobilized in the formation. At least some of the hydrocarbon fluids may be produced from the formation.

  19. Erosion threshold of sand-mud mixtures

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobs, Walter; Le Hir, Pierre; Van Kesteren, Walther; Cann, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Results of a large number of erosion tests on artificially generated and relatively dense sand-mud mixtures are presented. Soil sample compositions are varied concerning clay-silt and sand-silt ratio, and clay mineralogy. The experimental set-up consists of a re-circulating small-scale rectangular erosion flume with unidirectional flow conditions. The erosion threshold and erosion rate are studied through step by step increasing the flow rate during a test. Results clearly indicate time-decre...

  20. Coagulation in clarifier with micro-sand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As water treatment play key role in power generation at thermal and nuclear power station. This article is devoted to determine effectiveness of water clarifier with use of micro-sand at Thermal power stations. Efficiency of coagulation with application of aluminum sulphate and flocculants is experimentally detected. Presented the result of the tests of clarifier with micro-sand and given conclusion on these results. (author)