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Sample records for foundry sand

  1. Dilatometric Characterization of Foundry Sands

    M. Břuska

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this contribution is summary of physical – chemistry properties of usually used foundry silica and no – silica sands in Czech foundries. With the help of dilatometry analysis theoretical assumptions of influence of grain shape and size on dilatation value of sands were confirmed. Determined was the possibility of dilatometry analysis employment for preparing special (hybrid sands with lower and/or more linear character of dilatation.

  2. Alternate utilization of foundry sand waste

    Illinois Geological Survey data indicate that Illinois foundries purchase nearly 800,000 tons of silica sand each year for the production of molds and cores. This paper reports that once utilized, this sand becomes an expensive and difficult commodity to dispose. The volume and regulatory status requirements make it unattractive to landfill operators. Most foundries use an industrial grade of silica of very high purity for the production of molds and cores. Recent data from the Illinois Geological Survey record silica usage in excess of 30 million tons per year in the state. Construction usage of silica includes applications such as: cement, concrete products, asphalt, fill and others. Industrial usage includes: glass products, foundry molds and cores, oil well propant, inert carriers for fertilizers and others

  3. Properties of Self-Compacting Concrete Incorporating Waste Foundry Sand

    Rafat SIDDIQUE; Ravinder Kaur SANDHU

    2013-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the possibilities of using waste foundry sand as partial replacement of sand in self-compacting concrete. Self-compacting concrete, as the name indicates, is a type of concrete that does not require external or internal compaction, because it becomes levelled and consolidated under its self-weight. Foundry sand is high quality silica sand used as a moulding material by ferrous and non-ferrous metal casting industries. It can be reused several times in foundries but, af...

  4. Waste foundry sand: Environmental implication and characterization

    Gabriela Penkaitis

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of analyses using Scanning Electron Microscopy in field samples of waste foundry sand, as well as the results of granulometric, chemical and groundwater analyses. Field data allowed to characterize waste foundry sand and showed that there are elevated concentrations of metals in the groundwater (iron, manganese, boron and selenium, in addition to other potentially toxic elements (chromium, copper, cobalt, nickel, zinc, aluminum, iron, manganese, which are present in the waste and are considered not hazardous by current standards. Even if these elements are not considered hazardous, their concentrations above the permissible limit compromise the environmental quality of the site, posing risks to the local population, since they work in agriculture and use groundwater. Two different types of waste foundry sands were identified using granulometric analyses. Electron microscopy showed features related to morphological, chemical and mineralogical characteristics of grains that make up the waste. Quartz was the dominant mineral. Waste foundry sand is composed of two types of grains: a rounded grain with almost no incrustations formed during alloy production, and a second type of grain, which is not rounded, has incrustations, and always has several metals derived from alloys and associated with these incrustations. Chemical elements detected in groundwater with concentrations above the limits established by the regulatory bodies were found in wells located in the landfill area. Most of these elements show higher concentrations downstream, some of them with concentrations above the regulatory limit, and others show an increase in concentration upstream, indicating that the landfill may be impacting the local environment.

  5. Use Possibilities for River Sand in Foundry

    Rodica Rădulea; Ionel Cincă Lupinca

    2012-01-01

    In this paper the following characteristics are studied: the chemical and mineralogical composition, the granulation and content of leachate component of different types of sands, collected from various fords of running waters in comparison to those coming from known mines and used as such in foundries for the preparation of casting mixtures. The purpose of the study starts from the premises of finding reduction possibilities of costs in part casting, keeping in mind that kn...

  6. Use Possibilities for River Sand in Foundry

    Rodica R?dulea

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the following characteristics are studied: the chemical and mineralogical composition, the granulation and content of leachate component of different types of sands, collected from various fords of running waters in comparison to those coming from known mines and used as such in foundries for the preparation of casting mixtures. The purpose of the study starts from the premises of finding reduction possibilities of costs in part casting, keeping in mind that known deposits from our country contain increasingly reduced quantities of casting sands.

  7. EMBEDDED BASED SYSTEM FOR TESTING TENSILE STRENGTH OF FOUNDRY SAND

    Kumar, P.; K. Nagarajan; S. Daison Stallon

    2015-01-01

    Sand is the principal moulding material in the foundry as it is using for all types of castings. This paper an idea of testing tensile strength of sand which is using for castings in foundries with the help of load cell. This system defines the sand whether it is good or bad for castings. We cannot check tensile strength of each grain of sand so; we form brick of that sand and then check tensile strength of that sand brick. Sand brick is placed in between load cell and DC motor. D...

  8. Characterization of Beach/River Sand for Foundry Application

    Katsina Christopher BALA

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A detailed experimental investigation is been reported on the characterization of beach/river sand for foundry use. Bulk properties of the sand samples collected were evaluated. The experimental results were analyzed as per the American Foundry Society (AFS standard. The analyses show that samples from Ughelli River, Warri River and Ethiope River could be used effectively in the foundry. The sample from Lagos bar beach requires to be sieved properly to remove the coarse fractions in order to make it suitable for foundry use.

  9. Properties of Self-Compacting Concrete Incorporating Waste Foundry Sand

    Rafat SIDDIQUE

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper demonstrates the possibilities of using waste foundry sand as partial replacement of sand in self-compacting concrete. Self-compacting concrete, as the name indicates, is a type of concrete that does not require external or internal compaction, because it becomes levelled and consolidated under its self-weight. Foundry sand is high quality silica sand used as a moulding material by ferrous and non-ferrous metal casting industries. It can be reused several times in foundries but, after a certain period, cannot be used further and becomes waste material, referred to as waste, used or spent foundry sand (WFS,UFS or SFS. This experimental investigation was performed to evaluate the strength and durability properties of SCC, in which natural sand was partial replaced with waste foundry sand (WFS. Natural sand was replaced with four percentage (0%, 10%, 15%, 20% of WFS by weight. Fresh properties of self-compacting concrete were studied. Compression test and splitting tensile strength test were carried out to evaluate the strength properties of concrete at the age of 7, 28, and 56 days. In case of durability properties, sulphate resistance was evaluated at the age of 7, 28 and 56 days and Rapid Chloride Permeability test was conducted at age of 28 days. Test results showed that there is increase in compressive strength, splitting tensile strength of self-compacting concrete by incorporating waste foundry sand (WFS as partial replacement by sand up to 15%. Resistance of concrete against sulphate attack and rapid chloride permeability were also improved for concrete mixes.

  10. Preliminary Studies on Metal Adsorption by Waste Foundry Sand

    Afonso, Ana

    2011-01-01

    In the casting industries, sand is typically reused through the production cycles. Since sand for itself do not have the necessary properties to this process, it’s necessary to introduce binders to force the sand grains to hold their shape during the casting process. When the casting sand cannot be reused it considered a residue, and it is formally called waste foundry sand. Worldwide, China is the larger producer with 35.3 million tonnes (in 2009), followed by North America with 9.6 mi...

  11. Identification of Significant Impact of Silicon Foundry Sands Mining on LCIA

    Jozef Mitterpach; Emília Hroncová; Juraj Ladomerský; Karol Balco

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a case study based on a LCA (Life Cycle Assessment) research program of the silicon foundry sand (SFS) due to the large quantity of produced waste foundry sand (WFS). The foundry waste is a high priority sector within the growing European foundry industry. It is necessary to understand the full life cycle of the foundry waste in order to correctly identify magnitude and types of impacts it has on the environment. System boundary includes the processes: mining, modification...

  12. Glass matrix composite material prepared with waste foundry sand

    ZHANG Zhao-shu; XIA Ju-pei; ZHU Xiao-qin

    2006-01-01

    The technology of glass matrix of the composite material manufactured through a sintering process and using waste foundry sand and waste glass as the main raw materials was studied. The effects of technological factors on the performance of this material were studied. The results showed that this composite material is formed with glass as matrix, core particulate as strengthening material, it has the performance of glass and ceramics, and could be used to substitute for stone.

  13. Glass matrix composite material prepared with waste foundry sand

    ZHANG Zhao-shu

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The technology of glass matrix of the composite material manufactured through a sintering process and using waste foundry sand and waste glass as the main raw materials was studied. The effects of technological factors on the performance of this material were studied. The results showed that this composite material is formed with glass as matrix, core particulate as strengthening material, it has the performance of glass and ceramics, and could be used to substitute for stone.

  14. Pond Ash and Foundry Sand: Opportunities for Development of Eco-Friendly High Strength Concrete

    Gaurav Kantibhai Patel; Prof. Jayeshkumar Pitroda3

    2014-01-01

    To produce low cost concrete by replacement of fine aggregate with pond ash and used foundry sand & also reduce disposal and pollution problems due to pond ash and used foundry sand. The innovative use of pond ash and used foundry sand in concrete formulations as a fine aggregate replacement material was tested as an alternative to traditional concrete. The fine aggregate has been replaced by used foundry sand accordingly in the range of 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% & 50% by weight and pond ash 20%...

  15. Extraction of toxic and valuable metals from foundry sands

    There were extracted valuable metals from foundry sands such as: gold, platinum, silver, cobalt, germanium, nickel and zinc among others, as well as highly toxic metals such as chromium, lead, vanadium and arsenic. The extraction efficiency was up to 100% in some cases. For this reason there were obtained two patents at the United States, patent number 5,356,601, in October 1994, given for the developed process and patent number 5,376,000, in December 1994, obtained for the equipment employed. Therefore, the preliminary parameters for the installation of a pilot plant have also been developed. (Author)

  16. COMPOSTING WASTE FOUNDRY SAND WITH LEAVES TO AMEND ADVERSE PHYSICAL PROPERTIES

    Indiana ranks second in the nation in waste foundry sand production with one million tons annually disposed in landfills. As available landfill space and profit margins steadily decrease, it becomes more important to find ways of diverting waste foundry sand away from landfills and identify benefici...

  17. Excess Foundry Sand Characterization and Experimental Investigation in Controlled Low-Strength Material and Hot-Mixing Asphalt

    Tikalsky, Paul J. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Bahia, Hussain U. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Deng, An [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Snyder, Thomas [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2004-10-15

    This report provides technical data regarding the reuse of excess foundry sand. The report addresses three topics: a statistically sound evaluation of the characterization of foundry sand, a laboratory investigation to qualify excess foundry sand as a major component in controlled low-strength material (CLSM), and the identification of the best methods for using foundry sand as a replacement for natural aggregates for construction purposes, specifically in asphalt paving materials. The survival analysis statistical technique was used to characterize foundry sand over a full spectrum of general chemical parameters, metallic elements, and organic compounds regarding bulk analysis and leachate characterization. Not limited to characterization and environmental impact, foundry sand was evaluated by factor analyses, which contributes to proper selection of factor and maximization of the reuse marketplace for foundry sand. Regarding the integration of foundry sand into CLSM, excavatable CLSM and structural CLSM containing different types of excess foundry sands were investigated through laboratory experiments. Foundry sand was approved to constitute a major component in CLSM. Regarding the integration of foundry sand into asphalt paving materials, the optimum asphalt content was determined for each mixture, as well as the bulk density, maximum density, asphalt absorption, and air voids at Nini, Ndes, and Nmax. It was found that foundry sands can be used as an aggregate in hot-mix asphalt production, but each sand should be evaluated individually. Foundry sands tend to lower the strength of mixtures and also may make them more susceptible to moisture damage. Finally, traditional anti-stripping additives may decrease the moisture sensitivity of a mixture containing foundry sand, but not to the level allowed by most highway agencies.

  18. Excess Foundry Sand Characterization and Experimental Investigation in Controlled Low-Strength Material and Hot-Mixing Asphalt

    Pauul J. Tikalsky

    2004-10-31

    This report provides technical data regarding the reuse of excess foundry sand. The report addresses three topics: (1) a statistically sound evaluation of the characterization of foundry sand, (2) a laboratory investigation to qualify excess foundry sand as a major component in controlled low-strength material (CLSM), and (3) the identification of the best methods for using foundry sand as a replacement for natural aggregates for construction purposes, specifically in asphalt paving materials. The survival analysis statistical technique was used to characterize foundry sand over a full spectrum of general chemical parameters, metallic elements, and organic compounds regarding bulk analysis and leachate characterization. Not limited to characterization and environmental impact, foundry sand was evaluated by factor analyses, which contributes to proper selection of factor and maximization of the reuse marketplace for foundry sand. Regarding the integration of foundry sand into CLSM, excavatable CLSM and structural CLSM containing different types of excess foundry sands were investigated through laboratory experiments. Foundry sand was approved to constitute a major component in CLSM. Regarding the integration of foundry sand into asphalt paving materials, the optimum asphalt content was determined for each mixture, as well as the bulk density, maximum density, asphalt absorption, and air voids at N{sub ini}, N{sub des}, and N{sub max}. It was found that foundry sands can be used as an aggregate in hot-mix asphalt production, but each sand should be evaluated individually. Foundry sands tend to lower the strength of mixtures and also may make them more susceptible to moisture damage. Finally, traditional anti-stripping additives may decrease the moisture sensitivity of a mixture containing foundry sand, but not to the level allowed by most highway agencies.

  19. Application of a power quality analyser to the monitoring of sand preparation processes in foundry plants

    Smyksy, K.; R. Wrona; E. Zi?kowski

    2011-01-01

    Process control plays a major role in supervision and identification of states, for example in monitoring of electric circuits power- supplying the foundry machines and devices, such as sand preparation processes, moulding technologies, melting, cleaning and finishing of castings. The monitoring and control equipment includes the power quality analysers. Testing is done using a Japanese analyser KEW 6319 (Kyoritsu) applied to monitoring of the sand preparation process in a foundry plant with ...

  20. Use of an integrated approach to characterize the physicochemical properties of foundry green sands

    Highlights: ► Physicochemical properties of fresh, spent, and landfilled foundry green sands were determined. ► A phase composition model was postulated for each material based on thermogravimetric results. ► Sand from the landfill was determined to be composed of almost pure silica sand. ► Weathering is likely responsible for removing the coating materials from the green sands. ► Landfilled sands may be suitable for reuse within the foundry or beneficial use applications. - Abstract: A fresh green sand, spent green sand, and a weathered spent green sand (wSGS) from a foundry landfill were analyzed using diffractometry, electron microscopy, fluorometry, granulometry, spectrometry, and thermogravimetry (TG). Our objective was to understand how the physicochemical properties of the foundry green sands change from their original form after being subjected to the casting process, then after weathering at the landfill. A quantitative phase composition model was also postulated for each material based on the TG results and it was found to be the most reliable and informative quantitative data for this type of residue. The weathered sample, that remained in a landfill for two years, was found to be composed of almost pure sand. Because of the weathering process, it may be possible to use the wSGS as a virgin sand replacement in the regeneration system or in geotechnical applications where bentonite would affect the properties of the final product.

  1. Use of an integrated approach to characterize the physicochemical properties of foundry green sands

    Carnin, Raquel L.P. [Tupy S.A., Rua Albano Schmidt 3.400, Joinville, Santa Catarina (Brazil); Folgueras, Marilena Valadares; Luvizao, Rubia Raquel; Correia, Sivaldo Leite [Universidade do Estado de Santa Catarina, Rua Paulo Malschitzki, s/numero - Campus Universitario Prof. Avelino Marcante, Bairro Zona Industrial Norte, Joinville, Santa Catarina (Brazil); Cunha, Carlos Jorge da [Universidade Federal do Parana, Centro Politecnico, Jardim das Americas, Curitiba, Parana (Brazil); Dungan, Robert S., E-mail: robert.dungan@ars.usda.gov [USDA-ARS, Northwest Irrigation and Soils Research Laboratory, 3793 North 3600 East, Kimberly, ID 83341 (United States)

    2012-09-10

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Physicochemical properties of fresh, spent, and landfilled foundry green sands were determined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A phase composition model was postulated for each material based on thermogravimetric results. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sand from the landfill was determined to be composed of almost pure silica sand. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Weathering is likely responsible for removing the coating materials from the green sands. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Landfilled sands may be suitable for reuse within the foundry or beneficial use applications. - Abstract: A fresh green sand, spent green sand, and a weathered spent green sand (wSGS) from a foundry landfill were analyzed using diffractometry, electron microscopy, fluorometry, granulometry, spectrometry, and thermogravimetry (TG). Our objective was to understand how the physicochemical properties of the foundry green sands change from their original form after being subjected to the casting process, then after weathering at the landfill. A quantitative phase composition model was also postulated for each material based on the TG results and it was found to be the most reliable and informative quantitative data for this type of residue. The weathered sample, that remained in a landfill for two years, was found to be composed of almost pure sand. Because of the weathering process, it may be possible to use the wSGS as a virgin sand replacement in the regeneration system or in geotechnical applications where bentonite would affect the properties of the final product.

  2. Reuse of waste foundry sand through interaction with sodium silicate binder

    Green sand molds are used in metal casting process. However, after heating, activated bentonite present in green sand lose the binding properties, and part of the foundry sand has to be discarded from the process. The ABNT NBR 15.984/2011 establishes the management of waste foundry sand (WFS) avoiding disposal in landfills. The objective of this work was to investigate the possibility of reusing the WFS from the study of their interaction with sodium silicate binder. Studies with silica sand and new green sand was performed to compare the results obtained with the WFS. The characterizations of the samples were performed by measures the compressive strength, X-ray diffraction, optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that there is interaction of the sodium silicate with the WFS as well as with the silica sand and green sand. (author)

  3. The characterization of trace metals and organics in spent foundry sands over a one-year period

    Millions of tons of spent sand, used to create metalcasting molds, are generated by the foundry industry each year in the United States. Not surprisingly, spent foundry sands (SFSs) are an excellent substitute for virgin sands that are currently used in manufactured soils and geotechnical applicati...

  4. Application of a power quality analyser to the monitoring of sand preparation processes in foundry plants

    K. Smyksy

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Process control plays a major role in supervision and identification of states, for example in monitoring of electric circuits power- supplying the foundry machines and devices, such as sand preparation processes, moulding technologies, melting, cleaning and finishing of castings. The monitoring and control equipment includes the power quality analysers. Testing is done using a Japanese analyser KEW 6319 (Kyoritsu applied to monitoring of the sand preparation process in a foundry plant with low level of mechanization, equipped with the sand preparation unit based on a roller mixer.

  5. A new low-cost method of reclaiming mixed foundry waste sand based on wet-thermal composite reclamation

    Fan Zitian; Liu Fuchu; Long Wei

    2014-01-01

    A lot of mixed clay-resin waste sand from large-scale iron foundries is discharged every day; so mixed waste sand reclamation in low cost and high quality has a great realistic significance. In the study to investigate the possibility of reusing two types of waste foundry sands, resin bonded sand and clay bonded sand which came from a Chinese casting factory, a new low-cost reclamation method of the mixed foundry waste sand based on the wet-thermal composite reclamation was proposed. The wast...

  6. Application of Waste Foundry Sand for Evolution of Low-Cost Concrete

    Pathariya Saraswati C1 , Rana Jaykrushna K2 , Shah Palas A3 , Mehta Jay G4 ,Assistant Prof. Patel Ankit N

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Generation of waste foundry sand as by product of metal casting industries causes environmental problems because of its improper disposal. Thus, its usage in building material, construction and in other fields is essential for reduction of environmental problems. This research is carried out to produce a low-cost and eco-friendly concrete. This paper demonstrates the use of waste foundry sand as a partial replacement by fine aggregate in concrete. An experimental investigation is carried out on a concrete containing waste foundry sand in the range of 0%, 20%, 40%, and 60% by weight for M-25 grade concrete(PPC. Material was produced, tested and compared with conventional concrete in terms of workability and strength. These tests were carried out on standard cube of 150*150*150* mm for 7, 14 and 28 days to determine the mechanical properties of concrete. Through experimental result we conclude that the compressive strength increases with increase in partial replacement of waste foundry sand and split tensile strength decreases with increases in percentage of waste foundry sand. The aim of this research is to know the behaviour and mechanical properties of concrete after addition of industrial waste in different proportion by tests like compressive strength and split tensile.

  7. Identification of Significant Impact of Silicon Foundry Sands Mining on LCIA

    Jozef Mitterpach

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a case study based on a LCA (Life Cycle Assessment research program of the silicon foundry sand (SFS due to the large quantity of produced waste foundry sand (WFS. The foundry waste is a high priority sector within the growing European foundry industry. It is necessary to understand the full life cycle of the foundry waste in order to correctly identify magnitude and types of impacts it has on the environment. System boundary includes the processes: mining, modification, packing, storage and transport to foundry. Inventory analysis data were analyzed and finally converted to the functional unit, which has been defined as one ton of SFS. The resulting environmental impact of SFS production in endpoint is: consumption of natural resources 70.9%, ecosystem quality 18.2% and human health 10.9%. The following portions, with respective percentages, have the greatest overall effect on these results: diesel fuel consumption 32.4% and natural gas consumption 28.7%, electricity usage 17.2%, transport 12.2%, devastation caused by the SFS 5.35% and oil (engine, gear and hydraulic consumption 4.14%. The highest contributor to the diesel fuel consumption is the SFS exploitation. The overall effect of desiccation was 35.8% and was caused by high consumption of resources and electricity.

  8. Effect of compost-, sand-, or gypsum-amended waste foundry sands on turfgrass yield and nutrient content

    To prevent the 7-11 million metric tons of waste foundry sand (WFS) produced annually in the U.S. from entering landfills, current research is focused on the reuse of WFSs as soil amendments. The effects of different WFS-containing amendments on turfgrass growth and nutrient content were tested by ...

  9. POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS AND PHENOLICS IN FERROUS AND NON-FERROUS WASTE FOUNDRY SANDS

    A total of 43 sets of waste sand were collected from ferrous and non-ferrous foundries in the eastern United States. The concentration of organic compounds known as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and phenolics were determined. These compounds are known to be toxic to humans. Since there ...

  10. Synergy of Practical Knowledge of Molding Sands Reclamation in Heavy Casting Foundry of Iron Alloys

    Z. Ignaszak; J-B. Prunier

    2013-01-01

    The paper summarizes research realized by the author in laboratory and industrial conditions (foundries of cast steel and cast iron, castings up to 50 tons) on the effects of the chemically hardened molding sands regeneration using hard/soft rubbing in the dry reclamation. A reference was simultaneously made to advisability of application of the thermal regeneration in conditions, where chromite amount in the circulating (reclaimed) molding sand goes as high as above ten percent. An advisabil...

  11. An innovative tester system for measuring mechanical property of foundry molding sand

    Zuxi XIE; Qingchun XIANG; Wang, Xu

    2004-01-01

    A new intelligent tester system for measuring multiple mechanical properties of foundry molding sand is introduced and has been patented for the invention in China. The testing process can be simutaneosly controlled wth a build-in chip microcomputer communicating with a PC through a serial port. The testing system pplies dynamic testing technology. During the measurement for compression, relaxation, shearing and tensile processes of sand specimens, the corresponding characteristic curves and ...

  12. p-Toluenesulfonate in Landfill Leachates : Leachability from Foundry Sands and Aerobic Biodegradation

    Riediker, Sonja; Ruckstuhl, Sabine; Suter, Marc J.-F.; Cook, Alasdair M.; Giger, Walter

    2000-01-01

    p-Toluenesulfonate (pTS) was found at concentrations between 9.6 and 48.8 mg/L in leachates from two Swiss landfill sections where foundry wastes are stored. pTS represented ≤33% of the nonpurgable organic carbon (NPOC) in the leachates. A standard test showed that pTS is easily leached from foundry sands that contained 1% (w/w) of a technical hardener consisting of tolu enesulfonates. Hence, the hardener is a likely source of pTS in the landfill leachates. Furthermore, analyses using liquid ...

  13. Mechanical and Durability Properties of Concrete Made with Used Foundry Sand as Fine Aggregate

    G. Ganesh Prabhu; Jin Wook Bang; Byung Jae Lee; Jung Hwan Hyun; Yun Yong Kim

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the construction industry has been faced with a decline in the availability of natural sand due to the growth of the industry. On the other hand, the metal casting industries are being forced to find ways to safely dispose of waste foundry sand (FS). With the aim of resolving both of these issues, an investigation was carried out on the reuse of waste FS as an alternative material to natural sand in concrete production, satisfied with relevant international standards. The phy...

  14. EVALUATION OF THE BENTONITE CONTENT IN SPENT FOUNDRY SANDS AS A FUNCTION OF HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY COEFFICIENT

    Schirlene Chegatti

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the relationship of the bentonite content and hydraulic conductivity coefficient (k of waste foundry sands in tests of hydraulic conductivity in a flexible wall permeameter. The test samples had concentrations of activated sodium bentonite and natural sodium bentonite between 4% and 15%. It was also analyzed chemically the liquid leachate (aluminum, barium, chromium, cadmium, lead, phenols, iron, fluoride, and manganese, following de standard tests of Standard Methods 3111 B e D for the determination of this components in liquid samples. The experiments were supplemented with cation exchange capacity analysis. The results indicate that the values of are is related to the content of bentonite in waste foundry sand and the percolation from this waste disposal.

  15. Analysis of modern methods of assessing the quality of sand foundry moulds

    Smyksy, K.; Zych, J; Snopkiewicz, T.

    2015-01-01

    Currently offered devices for the hardness measuring or indices of the mould strength, are presented in the hereby paper. The presented results allow to compare approximately the indications of individual devices of different types.The description of the author’s own microprocessor tester for the quality assessment of the sand foundry moulds, is shown. On the bases of the measurements results it is possible, to evaluate indirectly, the mould apparent density in the selected points, as well as...

  16. EVALUATION OF THE BENTONITE CONTENT IN SPENT FOUNDRY SANDS AS A FUNCTION OF HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY COEFFICIENT

    Schirlene Chegatti; Sebastião Roberto Soares; Mailyn Kafer Gonçalves; Marcelo Buras; Rodrigo Moraes da Silveira

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluates the relationship of the bentonite content and hydraulic conductivity coefficient (k) of waste foundry sands in tests of hydraulic conductivity in a flexible wall permeameter. The test samples had concentrations of activated sodium bentonite and natural sodium bentonite between 4% and 15%. It was also analyzed chemically the liquid leachate (aluminum, barium, chromium, cadmium, lead, phenols, iron, fluoride, and manganese, following de standard tests of Standar...

  17. Techno- Economical Study of Rigid Pavement by Using the Used Foundry Sand

    Vipul D. Prajapati1 , Nilay Joshi2 , Prof. Jayeshkumar Pitroda

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Indian road network of almost 3.5 million km comprising both paved and unpaved surfaces is the world’s second largest. Indian roads are presently constructed with not the right choice of material. The two major types of materials, bitumen and concrete are used in road construction in the country. A very small share of roads in the country is made of concrete. Though, it is superior on many counts as a medium for road buildings. The use of large amount of by-product materials as powder or fines not only avoids the requirement of landfills but also reduce the environmental problems. It is most essential to develop profitable building materials from used foundry sand. The innovative use of used foundry sand in concrete formulations as a fine aggregate replacement material was tested as an alternative to traditional concrete. The fine aggregate has been replaced by used foundry sand accordingly in the range of 0%, 10%, 30% & 50% by weight for M-20 grade concrete. Concrete mixtures were produced, tested and compared in terms of compressive and flexural strength with the conventional concrete. These tests were carried out to evaluate the mechanical properties for 7, 14 and 28 days. This research work is to investigate the behaviour of concrete while replacing used foundry sand in different proportion in concrete. This low cost concrete with good strength is used in rigid pavement for 3000 commercial vehicles per day (cvpd and Dry Lean Concrete (DLC 100mm thick for national highway to make it eco-friendly.

  18. Synergy of Practical Knowledge of Molding Sands Reclamation in Heavy Casting Foundry of Iron Alloys

    Z. Ignaszak

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper summarizes research realized by the author in laboratory and industrial conditions (foundries of cast steel and cast iron, castings up to 50 tons on the effects of the chemically hardened molding sands regeneration using hard/soft rubbing in the dry reclamation. A reference was simultaneously made to advisability of application of the thermal regeneration in conditions, where chromite amount in the circulating (reclaimed molding sand goes as high as above ten percent. An advisability of connecting standard and specialized methods of examination of the reclaimed sands and molding sands made using it was pointed out. A way of application of studies with the Hot Distortion Plus® method modified by the author for validation of modeling of the thermo-dynamic phenomena in the mold was shown.

  19. Applications of the systems theory to the designing of the sand preparation sub-system in foundry plants

    R. Wrona

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This study provides the basic principles for designing the functional structure of manufacturing systems and their components. The analysis of functional values is applied to create the technological and manufacturing model underlying the design of the foundry equipment with machine units and materials handling systems. Quoted examples illustrate the approved procedure to be applied to control the sand preparation process in a foundry.

  20. Physical and chemical effects of direct aqueous advanced oxidation processing on green sand foundry mold materials

    Clobes, Jason Kenneth

    Iron foundries using the common green sand molding process have increasingly been incorporating aqueous advanced oxidation (AO) systems to reduce the consumption of sand system bentonite clay and coal raw materials by and to decrease their volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions. These AO systems typically use a combination of sonication, ozone aeration, and hydrogen peroxide to treat and recycle slurries of sand system baghouse dust, which is rich in clay and coal. While the overall effects of AO on raw material consumption and organic emissions are known, the mechanisms behind these effects are not well understood. This research examined the effects of bench-scale direct aqueous AO processing on green sand mold materials at the micro level. Bench-scale AO processing, including acoustic sonication, ozone/oxygen aeration, and hydrogen peroxide dramatically decreased the particle sizes of both western bentonite and foundry sand system baghouse dust. Bench-scale AO processing was shown to effectively separate the clay material from the larger silica and coal particles and to extensively break up the larger clay agglomerates. The acoustic sonication component of AO processing was the key contributor to enhanced clay recovery. Acoustic sonication alone was slightly more effective than combined component AO in reducing the particle sizes of the baghouse dust and in the recovery of clay yields in the supernatant during sedimentation experiments. Sedimentation separation results correlated well with the increase in small particle concentrations due to AO processing. Clay suspension viscosity decreased with AO processing due to enhanced dispersion of the particles. X-ray diffraction of freeze-dried baghouse dust indicated that AO processing does not rehydrate calcined montmorillonite and does not increase the level of interlayer water hydration in the dry clays. Zeta potential measurements indicated that AO processing also does not produce any large changes in the surface charge of the small clay particles upon AO treatment.

  1. Analysis of total metals in waste molding and core sands from ferrous and non-ferrous foundries.

    Miguel, Roberto E; Ippolito, James A; Leytem, April B; Porta, Atilio A; Banda Noriega, Roxana B; Dungan, Robert S

    2012-11-15

    Waste molding and core sands from the foundry industry are successfully being used around the world in geotechnical and soil-related applications. Although waste foundry sands (WFSs) are generally not hazardous in nature, relevant data is currently not available in Argentina. This study aimed to quantify metals in waste molding and core sands from foundries using a variety of metal-binder combinations. Metal concentrations in WFSs were compared to those in virgin silica sands (VSSs), surface soils and soil guidance levels. A total analysis for Ag, Al, Ba, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Te, Tl, V, and Zn was conducted on 96 WFSs and 14 VSSs collected from 17 small and medium-sized foundries. The majority of WFSs analyzed, regardless of metal cast and binder type, contained metal concentrations similar to those found in VSSs and native soils. In several cases where alkyd urethane binder was used, Co and Pb concentrations were elevated in the waste sands. Elevated Cr, Mo, Ni, and Tl concentrations associated with VSSs should not be an issue since these metals are bound within the silica sand matrix. Because of the naturally low metal concentrations found in most WFSs examined in this study, they should not be considered hazardous waste, thus making them available for encapsulated and unencapsulated beneficial use applications. PMID:22738693

  2. Reuse of waste foundry sand through interaction with sodium silicate binder; Reutilizacao da areia descartada da fundicao, a partir da sua interacao com agente ligante silicato de sodio

    Souza, J.C.; Chinelatto, A.S.A.; Chinelatto, A.L., E-mail: josi3souza@gmail.com [Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa (UEPG), PR (Brazil); Oliveira, I.L. [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Ponta Grossa, PR (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Green sand molds are used in metal casting process. However, after heating, activated bentonite present in green sand lose the binding properties, and part of the foundry sand has to be discarded from the process. The ABNT NBR 15.984/2011 establishes the management of waste foundry sand (WFS) avoiding disposal in landfills. The objective of this work was to investigate the possibility of reusing the WFS from the study of their interaction with sodium silicate binder. Studies with silica sand and new green sand was performed to compare the results obtained with the WFS. The characterizations of the samples were performed by measures the compressive strength, X-ray diffraction, optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that there is interaction of the sodium silicate with the WFS as well as with the silica sand and green sand. (author)

  3. New sol–gel refractory coatings on chemically-bonded sand cores for foundry applications to improve casting surface quality

    Nwaogu, Ugochukwu Chibuzoh; Poulsen, T.; Stage, R.K.; Bischoff, C.; Tiedje, Niels Skat

    2011-01-01

    coating density, viscosity, moisture content and wet and dry weight of the coating were evaluated on cores that had been coated at three different dip-coating times. The coating coverage, surface appearance and depth of penetration into the cores were examined with a Stereomicroscope. Gray iron castings......–gel coated cores have better surface quality than those from uncoated cores and comparable surface quality with the commercial coatings. Therefore, the new sol–gel coating has a potential application in the foundry industry for improving the surface finish of castings thereby reducing the cost of fettling in......Foundry refractory coatings protect bonded sand cores and moulds from producing defective castings during the casting process by providing a barrier between the core and the liquid metal. In this study, new sol–gel refractory coating on phenolic urethane cold box (PUCB) core was examined. The...

  4. Review on Analysis of Foundry Defects for Quality Improvement of Sand Casting

    Sunil Chaudhari

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present global and competitive environment foundry industries needs to perform efficiently with minimum number of rejections. Also they have to develop casting components in very short lead time. Casting process is still state of art with experienced people, but these experience needs to be transformed in engineering knowledge for the better growth of the foundry industries. Some foundries are working with trial and error method and get their work done. Factually, most of the foundries have very less control on rejections, as they are always on the toes of production urgency; hence they ignore the rejections and salvage the castings. Majority foundries are failed to maintain a satisfactory quality control level. Defect free castings with minimum production cost have become the need of the foundries. This study is aimed to review the research work made by several researchers and an attempt to get technical solution for minimizing various casting defects and to improve the entire process of casting manufacturing.

  5. Measurement of elastic modulus and evaluation of viscoelasticity of foundry green sand

    Qingchun XIANG; Zuxi XIE; Fengwen ZHANG

    2004-01-01

    Elastic modulus is an important physical parameter of molding sand; it is closely connected with molding sand's properties. Based on theories of rheology and molding sand microdeformation, elastic modulus of molding sand was measured and investigated using the intelligent molding sand multi-property tester developed by ourselves. The measuring principle was introduced. Effects of bentonite percentage and compactibility of the molding sand were experimentally studied. Furthermore, the essentia...

  6. The reclamation of used moulding and core sands as a part of research programme of the Foundry Research Institute in Cracow

    I. Izdebska-Szanda

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a historical outline of studies carried out by the Foundry Research Institute in Cracow on technical and technological solutions regarding the development of a reclamation process of the used moulding and core sands with attention focused on the past twenty years. Various aspects that control studies of the sand reclamation, from the thermal process, through pneumatic reclamation, and with preferences focused on the application of a mechanical treatment of the used sand, were discussed. Particular emphasis was put on the vibration method.Examples of design solutions developed by the Foundry Research Institute in Cracow were described. They were implemented inindustrial practice both at home and abroad. Their versatility and effectiveness as satisfying BAT criteria was stressed.

  7. Design and production of a novel sand materials strength testing machine for foundry applications

    Nwaogu, Ugochukwu Chibuzoh; Hansen, K. S.; Tiedje, Niels Skat

    2012-01-01

    In the foundry, existing strength testing machines are used to measure only the maximum fracture strength of mould and core materials. With traditionally used methods, the loading history to ascertain deformation of the material is not available. In this paper, a novel moulding material strength...... data. The force was calibrated using an Amsler Hydraulic Press while the displacements were calibrated with and without loading using a displacement calibrator (Heidenhain Digitaler). The calibration results showed that the data obtained are stable and reliable and the machine can be used for the...

  8. Effects of Moisture Content on the Foundry Properties of Yola Natural Sand

    Paul Aondona IHOM

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of moisture content of Yola natural sand has been studied. The moisture content was varied from 1 to 9%. The effect of the moisture content on the green compression strength, green permeability and bulk density was investigated. Particle size distribution of the natural sand, the grain fineness number, average grain size, grain shape and the clay content of the natural sand were also studied. 5% moisture gave the optimum green compression strength of 118.6KN/m2. The dry compression strength increased with moisture content, an optimum value of 4000KN/m2 was obtained at 9% moisture. The Yola natural sand had a grain fineness number of 88.05AFS, average grain size of 335.78 microns and a clay content of 26%. A sand mixture containing 5% moisture was prepared and used to produce a test casting with aluminium scraps, the test casting was sound.

  9. Effects of Moisture Content on the Foundry Properties of Yola Natural Sand

    Paul Aondona IHOM; Johnson AGUNSOYE; Emmanuel Eric ANBUA; Joy OGBODO

    2012-01-01

    The effect of moisture content of Yola natural sand has been studied. The moisture content was varied from 1 to 9%. The effect of the moisture content on the green compression strength, green permeability and bulk density was investigated. Particle size distribution of the natural sand, the grain fineness number, average grain size, grain shape and the clay content of the natural sand were also studied. 5% moisture gave the optimum green compression strength of 118.6KN/m2. The dry compression...

  10. Headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) for the determination of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX) in foundry molding sand

    Dungan, R.S. [USDA ARS, Beltsville, MD (United States). Environmental Management & Byproducts Utilization Laboratory

    2005-07-01

    The use of headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) to determine benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX) in foundry molding sand, specifically a 'green sand' (clay-bonded sand) was investigated. The BTEX extraction was conducted using a 75 {mu} M carboxen-polydimethylsiloxane (CAR-PDMS) fiber, which was suspended above 10 g of sample. The SPME fiber was desorbed in a gas chromatograph injector port (280{sup o}C for 1 min) and the analytes were characterized by mass spectrometry. The effects of extraction time and temperature, water content, and clay and bituminous coal percentage on HS-SPME of BTEX were investigated. Because green sands contain bentonite clay and carbonaceous material such as crushed bituminous coal, a matrix effect was observed. The detection limits for BTEX were determined to be {lt}= 0.18 ng g{sup -1} of green sand.

  11. Recycling of iron foundry sand and glass waste as raw material for production of whiteware.

    Bragança, Saulo R; Vicenzi, Juliane; Guerino, Kareline; Bergmann, Carlos P

    2006-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the production feasibility of triaxial whiteware using sand from cast iron moulds as a raw material instead of silica, and recycled glass in place of feldspar. Formulations were prepared using sand, glass waste, and white-firing clay such that only 50% of the composition was virgin material (clay). The ceramic bodies were formed by pressing and fired at different temperatures (between 1100 and 1300 degrees C). Specimens were characterized in terms of green density prior to firing; and their flexural strength, linear shrinkage, and water absorption were measured after firing. The microstructure was determined by scanning electron microscopy. Possible environmental impacts of this recycling process were also evaluated, through solubility and leaching tests, according to Brazilian standards. Gaseous emissions during the firing process were also analysed. The results showed that it is possible to produce triaxial ceramics by using such alternative raw materials. PMID:16496871

  12. FOUNDRY WASTE MANAGEMENT

    Borut Kosec

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Waste management in foundries is gaining a higher ecological and economical importance. Waste is becoming an increasingly traded product, where excellent profits can be made. Due to the cost reduction and successful business operation in companies, waste has to be regenerated and used again as a material to the maximum possible extent. Such research is long lasting and expensive and is a great challenge for companies. In the frame of our research, a total waste management case study for the Slovenian foundry Feniks was carried out. From the sustainable development point of view, waste management is most suitable, since it ensures the material utilization of waste, reduces the consumption of natural renewable or non-renewable resources and makes efficient production capacity utilization possible. Properly treated ecologically safe waste with a suitable physical characteristic, long-term existence, is a substitute for natural materials. Sand, dust, slag and other mineral waste from foundries are increasingly being used as materials in other industries. The foundry Feniks was awarded with certification of the environmental management system according to the standard SIST EN ISO 14001 and confirmed its environmental credentials.

  13. The pneumatic conveying applications in foundry industry

    D. Homa

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents some issues connected to pneumatic conveying usage in foundry industry. The loose materials transportation (sand and moulding sand through consecutive production cycles were described. The powder injection into liquid metal, the bentonite into mixers and pneumatic used moulding sand reclamation applications were presented, too. The industrial setups, technological descriptions and some loose materials parameters were given, too.

  14. Foundry Coating Technology: A Review

    Nwaogu, Ugochukwu Chibuzoh; Tiedje, Niels Skat

    2011-01-01

    The importance of foundry coating in improving the surface quality of castings cannot be over emphasized. The appli-cation of mould and core washes creates a high thermal integrity barrier between the metal and the mould resulting in the reduction of the thermal shock experienced by the sand system....... These thermal shock leads to series of surface de-fects such as veining/finning, metal penetration, burn-on/in, scab, rat tail, erosion etc. The use of coatings reduces the tendency of occurrence of these defects. However, the understanding of the coating, its components, characteristics and mechanism...... of action is important. In this review, a detailed description of these topics and examples are provided where necessary. A potential area of research in foundry coating development, using sol-gel process is suggested. The application of sol-gel technology in the development of foundry coatings is a...

  15. Influence green sand system by core sand additions

    N. Špirutová; Beňo, J.; V. Bednářová; J. Kříž; M. Kandrnál

    2012-01-01

    Today, about two thirds of iron alloys casting (especially for graphitizing alloys of iron) are produced into green sand systems with usually organically bonded cores. Separation of core sands from the green sand mixture is very difficult, after pouring. The core sand concentration increase due to circulation of green sand mixture in a closed circulation system. Furthermore in some foundries, core sands have been adding to green sand systems as a replacement for new sands. The goal of this co...

  16. Foundry Coating Technology: A Review

    U. C Nwaogu; N. S Tiedje

    2011-01-01

    The importance of foundry coating in improving the surface quality of castings cannot be over emphasized. The appli-cation of mould and core washes creates a high thermal integrity barrier between the metal and the mould resulting in the reduction of the thermal shock experienced by the sand system. These thermal shock leads to series of surface de-fects such as veining/finning, metal penetration, burn-on/in, scab, rat tail, erosion etc. The use of coatings reduces the tendency of occurrence ...

  17. APPLICATION OF ADDITIVELY MANUFACTURED POLYMER COMPOSITE PROTOTYPES IN FOUNDRY

    Wies?aw Kuczko; Rados?aw Wichniarek; Filip Grski; Pawe? Bu?; Przemys?aw Zawadzki

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents a method, developed by the authors, for manufacturing polymer composites with the matrix manufactured in a layered manner (via 3D printing Fused Deposition Modeling) out of a thermoplastic material. As an example of practical application of this method, functional prototypes are presented, which were used as elements of foundry tooling patterns for sand molding. In case of manufacturing prototype castings or short series of products, foundries usually cooperate with mod...

  18. Process management in foundries

    L. Wojtynek

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the nature of process management and the basic process analysis. A general model of process management in a foundry is showed. The essential activities of processing, systems and change management are described. There is also presented a problem of effectiveness, efficiency and processing improvement. The criteria, methods and techniques of process improvement are indicated. The importance of process approach to the improvement of foundry management system is underlined.

  19. Using sol-gel component as additive to foundry coatings to improve casting quality

    Nwaogu, Ugochukwu Chibuzoh; Poulsen, T.; Gravesen, B.; Tiedje, Niels Skat

    The improvement of foundry coatings to enhance performance is important. This paper investigates the effect of using sol‐gel component as an additive to foundry coatings applied on chemically bonded sand cores. Three parameters at three levels each were investigated using Taguchi experimental...

  20. Tekstil Atıksularının Gideriminde Atık Döküm Kumlarının Kullanımı / Using of Waste Foundry Sands in Removal of Textile Wastewater

    ELİF HATİCE GÜRKAN

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Ülkelerin sanayileşmesi ile birlikte endüstriyel bazlı su kullanımının artması ve son yıllarda ortaya çıkan küresel ısınma sorunu, yüzeysel ve yeraltı su kaynaklarının tükenmesine sebep olmaktadır. Endüstriyel atıksuların doğaya yaptığı etkiler önemli düzeyde, doğal dengeyi değiştirici ve bazı durumlarda geri dönülmez nitelikte olmaktadır. Endüstrilerden kaynaklanan atıksular, evsel atıksulara göre kaynak, miktar ve karakter açısından büyük farklılıklar gösterirler. Bu nedenle endüstri tesisinin çıkış sularının doğal su ortamlarının kirletmesini engelleyecek şekilde arıtılması gerekmektedir. Bu atıksuların arıtılıp geri kazanılması ile hem su kaynaklarının tüketimi hem de deşarj edilen arıtılmış atıksuların miktarı azaltılmakta ve çevresel etkileri en aza indirilebilmektedir. Ülkemizdeki en büyük endüstri dallarından biri olan tekstil endüstrisi, çok su tüketilen, kullanılan hammadde ve kimyasal maddelerin, gerçekleştirilen işlemlerin, her işlem için uygulanan teknolojilerin çeşitliliği nedeni ile farklılık gösteren ve üretilen ürüne bağlı atık kaynağı olarak son derece değişken yapıya sahip bir endüstridir. Tekstil endüstrisi atıksularının en belirgin özelliği, yüksek miktarda organik ve inorganik kimyasal içermesi ve yüksek toplam organik karbon (TOK, kimyasal oksijen ihtiyacı (KOI ve yoğun renk içeriğidir. Alıcı su kaynaklarına verilen boyar maddeler organik yük olarak bu kirliliğin küçük bir kısmını oluşturmaktadır; ancak alıcı ortamda çok düşük konsantrasyonlarda boyar madde bulunması bile estetik açıdan istenmeyen bir durumdur. Bu nedenle boyar madde içeren tekstil endüstrisi atıksularından renk giderim prosesleri ekolojik açıdan önem kazanmaktadır. Günümüzde boyar maddelerin giderimi büyük oranda fiziksel ve kimyasal yöntemlerle gerçekleştirilmektedir. Bu çalışmada, atık döküm kumlarının, tekstil endüstrisi atık sularında renk gideriminde adsorbent olarak kullanılması amaçlanmaktadır. Using of Waste Foundry Sands in Removal of Textile Wastewater Nowadays, the accelerating need of water due to usage of water in industralized countries and global warming is causing all water sources to be exhausted. The effects the industrial wastewater made to the nature are important level, changer of natural balance, and sometimes non returned position. By reusing the treated the wastewater, not only the consumption of natural water sources has been prevented, but also the amount of discharged treated wastewater and its effects to the environment has been decreased. The wastewater resulted from industries shows big differences according to the wastewater in houses in the conditions of resource, amount, and character. So output water of the industry establishment has to be purified to prevent not to dirty natural water places. Textile industry is one of the biggest industries of Turkey and it consumes Access amount of water. As there are several methods and technologies used in this sector due to the different raw materials and various chemicals, the wastewaters obtained vary related to the products produced. The most prominent feature of textile industry wastewater is contained high amounts of organic and inorganic chemicals, and high total organic carbon (TOC, chemical oxygen demand (COD and intense color. The discharge of dyes into the receiving waters constitutes only a small portion of water pollution. However the presence of very low concentrations of dyes in receiving waters is aesthetically undesirable. Therefore, treatment processes removing dyes from textile effluents have become important in order to conserve receiving waters. In this study is to investigate using the adsorpsion method of removal with waste foundry sands, which are used expecially dye nd textile industries and are an important polluting agent in the waste water dumped into the environment by these industries.

  1. Pneumatic reclamation devices applied in the conditions of Ostrowiec Foundry

    D. Homa

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The scope of publication includes presentation of used sand reclamation system with the use of energy of compressed stream of air, whichshift reclaimed sand in pneumatic system. The solution, by incorporating into pneumatic installation an element which act as special disordered element causing controlled flow of two-phase flow to clean the surface layer of regenerated grains in a dry environment.The described reclamation equipment was installed and operated in the foundry "Ostrowiec".

  2. Foundry energy conservation workbook

    1990-12-31

    This report discusses methods for promoting energy conservation in foundries. Use of electric power, natural gas, and coke are evaluated. Waste heat recovery systems are considered. Energy consumption in the specific processes of electric melting, natural gas melting, heat treatments, ladle melting, and coke fuel melting is described. An example energy analysis is included. (GHH)

  3. Foundry energy conservation workbook

    None

    1990-10-01

    This report discusses methods for promoting energy conservation in foundries. Use of electric power, natural gas, and coke are evaluated. Waste heat recovery systems are considered. Energy consumption in the specific processes of electric melting, natural gas melting, heat treatments, ladle melting, and coke fuel melting is described. An example energy analysis is included. (GHH)

  4. JPL Innovation Foundry

    Sherwood, Brent; McCleese, Daniel

    2013-08-01

    Space science missions are increasingly challenged today: in ambition, by increasingly sophisticated hypotheses tested; in development, by the increasing complexity of advanced technologies; in budgeting, by the decline of flagship-class mission opportunities; in management, by expectations for breakthrough science despite a risk-averse programmatic climate; and in planning, by increasing competition for scarce resources. How are the space-science missions of tomorrow being formulated? The paper describes the JPL Innovation Foundry, created in 2011, to respond to this evolving context. The Foundry integrates methods, tools, and experts that span the mission concept lifecycle. Grounded in JPL's heritage of missions, flight instruments, mission proposals, and concept innovation, the Foundry seeks to provide continuity of support and cost-effective, on-call access to the right domain experts at the right time, as science definition teams and Principal Investigators mature mission ideas from "cocktail napkin" to PDR. The Foundry blends JPL capabilities in proposal development and concurrent engineering, including Team X, with new approaches for open-ended concept exploration in earlier, cost-constrained phases, and with ongoing research and technology projects. It applies complexity and cost models, project-formulation lessons learned, and strategy analyses appropriate to each level of concept maturity. The Foundry is organizationally integrated with JPL formulation program offices; staffed by JPL's line organizations for engineering, science, and costing; and overseen by senior Laboratory leaders to assure experienced coordination and review. Incubation of each concept is tailored depending on its maturity and proposal history, and its highest-leverage modeling and analysis needs.

  5. JPL Innovation Foundry

    Sherwood, Brent; McCleese, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Space science missions are increasingly challenged today: in ambition, by increasingly sophisticated hypotheses tested; in development, by the increasing complexity of advanced technologies; in budgeting, by the decline of flagship-class mission opportunities; in management, by expectations for breakthrough science despite a risk-averse programmatic climate; and in planning, by increasing competition for scarce resources. How are the space-science missions of tomorrow being formulated? The paper describes the JPL Innovation Foundry, created in 2011, to respond to this evolving context. The Foundry integrates methods, tools, and experts that span the mission concept lifecycle. Grounded in JPL's heritage of missions, flight instruments, mission proposals, and concept innovation, the Foundry seeks to provide continuity of support and cost-effective, on-call access to the right domain experts at the right time, as science definition teams and Principal Investigators mature mission ideas from "cocktail napkin" to PDR. The Foundry blends JPL capabilities in proposal development and concurrent engineering, including Team X, with new approaches for open-ended concept exploration in earlier, cost-constrained phases, and with ongoing research and technology projects. It applies complexity and cost models, projectformulation lessons learned, and strategy analyses appropriate to each level of concept maturity. The Foundry is organizationally integrated with JPL formulation program offices; staffed by JPL's line organizations for engineering, science, and costing; and overseen by senior Laboratory leaders to assure experienced coordination and review. Incubation of each concept is tailored depending on its maturity and proposal history, and its highest leverage modeling and analysis needs.

  6. Characterization and extraction of gold contained in foundry industrial wastes

    Gold was characterized and leached in foundry sands. These wastes are product among others of the automotive industry where they are used as molds material which are contaminated by diverse metals during the foundry. To fulfil the leaching process four coupled thermostat columns were used. To characterize the solid it was used the X-ray diffraction technique. For the qualitative analysis it was used the Activation analysis technique. Finally, for the study of liquors was used the Plasma diffraction spectroscopy (Icp-As) technique. The obtained results show that the process which was used the thermostat columns was more efficient, than the methods traditionally recommended. (Author)

  7. Possibilities of utilizing 3DP technology for foundry mould making

    G. Budzik

    2007-01-01

    Possibilities of application of three-dimensional printing (3DP) technology for making casting prototypes are discussed. Three-dimensional printing enables making of foundry moulds for elements of complex shapes. The mould presented in the paper was printed with the use of Z510 Spectrum unit in the Car Technology Sp. z o.o. (Ltd. Co.) in Kraków. The basic material for printing foundry moulds is the ZCast 501 powder. This powder is a mixture of traditional molding sand, gypsum and supplementar...

  8. European MEMS foundries

    Salomon, Patric R.

    2003-01-01

    According to the latest release of the NEXUS market study, the market for MEMS or Microsystems Technology (MST) is predicted to grow to $68B by the year 2005, with systems containing these components generating even higher revenues and growth. The latest advances in MST/MEMS technology have enabled the design of a new generation of microsystems that are smaller, cheaper, more reliable, and consume less power. These integrated systems bring together numerous analog/mixed signal microelectronics blocks and MEMS functions on a single chip or on two or more chips assembled within an integrated package. In spite of all these advances in technology and manufacturing, a system manufacturer either faces a substantial up-front R&D investment to create his own infrastructure and expertise, or he can use design and foundry services to get the initial product into the marketplace fast and with an affordable investment. Once he has a viable product, he can still think about his own manufacturing efforts and investments to obtain an optimized high volume manufacturing for the specific product. One of the barriers to successful exploitation of MEMS/MST technology has been the lack of access to industrial foundries capable of producing certified microsystems devices in commercial quantities, including packaging and test. This paper discusses Multi-project wafer (MPW) runs, requirements for foundries and gives some examples of foundry business models. Furthermore, this paper will give an overview on MST/MEMS services that are available in Europe, including pure commercial activities, European project activities (e.g. Europractice), and some academic services.

  9. Specificity of SPC Procedures Application in Foundry in Aspect of Data Acquisition and Data Exploration

    Z. Ignaszak

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an analysis of SPC (Statistical Process Control procedures usability in foundry engineering. The authors pay particular attention to the processes complexity and necessity of correct preparation of data acquisition procedures. Integration of SPC systems with existing IT solutions in area of aiding and assistance during the manufacturing process is important. For each particular foundry, methodology of selective SPC application needs to prepare for supervision and control of stability of manufacturing conditions, regarding specificity of data in particular “branches” of foundry production (Sands, Pouring, Metallurgy, Quality.

  10. Innovative developments in sand reclamation technologies

    R. Dañko

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Proper sand management and efficient sand reclamation system are two main factors influencing economical and ecological side of modern foundry plant. It is well known fact that the production of 1 metric ton of casting from ferrous alloys generates circa 1 metric ton of waste [1], which due to containing certain amounts of harmful and dangerous compounds should undergo a reclamation – at least of the main component, which means a silica sand grains. The paper present problems of scientific and development research concerning the innovative reclamation technologies of used foundry sands such as: mechanical-cryogenic reclamation and innovative thermal reclamation.

  11. Determination of thermal conductivity in foundry mould mixtures

    G. Solenički

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available For a thorough understanding of the behaviour of foundry mould mixtures, a good knowledge of thermal properties of mould materials is needed. Laboratory determination of thermal conductivity of mould mixtures enables a better control over scabbing defects which are a major problem in green sand mould mixtures. A special instrument has been designed for that purpose and it is described in this work.

  12. Influencing of foundry bentonite mixtures by binder activation

    Be?o, J.; Lich, P.; Kroupov, I.; F. Radkovsk

    2016-01-01

    Although new moulding processes for manufacture of high quality castings have been developed and introduced into foundry practice in recent years, the green-sand moulding in bentonite mixture still remains the most widely used technology. Higher utility properties of bentonite binders are achieved through their activation. This contribution is aimed at finding a suitable activating agent. A number of sodium salts and MgO based agents has been chosen. In the framework of the experiment the swe...

  13. Influence green sand system by core sand additions

    N. Špirutová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, about two thirds of iron alloys casting (especially for graphitizing alloys of iron are produced into green sand systems with usually organically bonded cores. Separation of core sands from the green sand mixture is very difficult, after pouring. The core sand concentration increase due to circulation of green sand mixture in a closed circulation system. Furthermore in some foundries, core sands have been adding to green sand systems as a replacement for new sands. The goal of this contribution is: “How the green sand systems are influenced by core sands?”This effect is considered by determination of selected technological properties and degree of green sand system re-bonding. From the studies, which have been published yet, there is not consistent opinion on influence of core sand dilution on green sand system properties. In order to simulation of the effect of core sands on the technological properties of green sands, there were applied the most common used technologies of cores production, which are based on bonding with phenolic resin. Core sand concentration added to green sand system, was up to 50 %. Influence of core sand dilution on basic properties of green sand systems was determined by evaluation of basic industrial properties: moisture, green compression strength and splitting strength, wet tensile strength, mixture stability against staling and physical-chemistry properties (pH, conductivity, and loss of ignition. Ratio of active betonite by Methylene blue test was also determined.

  14. 3D-TECLMOLOGIES IN FORMING AND FOUNDRY

    V. S. Doroshenko

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This review describes metal castings produced using 3D technology. Methods for 3D processing of materials related to the additive method of production, characterized by resource conservation. Frame-cellular casting can inherit the structure of nature with the best combination of materials, durability and attractive appearance. 3D technologies expand the existing range of metal products. Among the new foundry processes at the Institute PTIMA of NAS of Ukraine patented 3D technology of molding sand products through the deformation of granular materials, as well as getting sand shell molds for one-time pattern.

  15. Optimizing the Moulding Properties of Recycled Ilaro Silica Sand

    Davies Oladayo FOLORUNSO; Aribo, Sunday; Fatai Olufemi ARAMIDE

    2011-01-01

    Effect of varying binders (bentonite and dextrin) and water on the properties of recycled foundry sand made from silica sand mined from Ilaro Silica sand deposit in Ogun State Nigeria and have been used in several cycles for production of cast iron was examined. The used sand was washed in hot water, dried and the sieved for grain distribution. Varying bentonite and dextrin contents were added together with water to portions of the silica sand and thoroughly mixed. The moulding sand propertie...

  16. UK silica sand resources for fracking

    Mitchell, Clive

    2013-01-01

    UK silica sand resources for fracking Clive Mitchell, Industrial Minerals Specialist, British Geological Survey, Keyworth, Nottingham, NG12 5GG Email: Silica sand is high purity quartz sand that is mainly used for glass production, as foundry sand, in horticulture, leisure and other industrial uses. One specialist use is as a ‘proppant’ to enhance oil and gas recovery. This presentation will focus on this application, particularly for shale gas recovery where it is mo...

  17. Effect of Used Foundry Sandand Pozzocrete Partial Replacement with Fine Aggregate and Cement in Concrete

    Dushyant R. Bhimani

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available To produce low cost concrete by blending various ratios of fine aggregate and cement with used foundry sand and Pozzocrete to reduce disposal and pollution problems due to used foundry sand and Pozzocrete.Pozzocrete P60 is a processed quality assured fly ash, investigated for its use as a partial replacement for cement in concrete (1:1.48:3.21. The utilization of Pozzocrete P60 as cement replacement material in concrete or as additive in cement introduces many benefits from economical, technical and environmental points of view. The innovative use of used foundry sand in concrete formulations as a fine aggregate replacement material was tested as an alternative to traditional concrete. This paper presents the results of the concrete of mix proportion 1:1.48:3.21 in which cement is partially replaced with Pozzocrete P60 as 10% by weight of cement, and fine aggregate is partially replaced with used foundry sand as 10%, 30% and 50% by weight of fine aggregate. Five set of mixture proportions were made. First (A0 were standard mix (without Pozzocrete and used foundry sand with regional fine aggregate (sandand coarse aggregate and the second (B0 mix contained 10% Pozzocrete P60obtained from DIRK India Private Limited, Nasik, Maharashtra state. Other mixes (B1, B2, and B3 contained Pozzocrete P60 (10%plus foundry sand (10%, 30%and 50%respectively obtained fromferrous and non-ferrous metal casting industries.The compressive strength and water absorption has been obtained with partial replacement of Pozzocrete P60 with cement and foundry sand with fine aggregate. Test results indicate the increase in the strength properties of concrete and decreasing water absorption of concrete up to 10% replacement of cement with pozzocrete plus 30% replacement of fine aggregate with used foundry sand for strength at 7, 14and 28 days. Also it can be used in non-structural elements with the low range compressive strength wherestrength is not required and low cost temporary structure is prepared.

  18. Molecular Foundry, Berkeley, California (Revised)

    Carlisle, N.

    2008-03-01

    This case study provides information on the Molecular Foundry, which incorporates Labs21 principles in its design and construction. The design includes many of the strategies researched at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory for energy efficient cleanroom and data centers. The result is an energy efficient high-performing sustainable laboratory.

  19. Innovative developments in sand reclamation technologies

    R. Dañko

    2011-01-01

    Proper sand management and efficient sand reclamation system are two main factors influencing economical and ecological side of modern foundry plant. It is well known fact that the production of 1 metric ton of casting from ferrous alloys generates circa 1 metric ton of waste [1], which due to containing certain amounts of harmful and dangerous compounds should undergo a reclamation – at least of the main component, which means a silica sand grains. The paper present problems of scientific an...

  20. Possibilities of utilizing 3DP technology for foundry mould making

    G. Budzik

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Possibilities of application of three-dimensional printing (3DP technology for making casting prototypes are discussed. Three-dimensional printing enables making of foundry moulds for elements of complex shapes. The mould presented in the paper was printed with the use of Z510 Spectrum unit in the Car Technology Sp. z o.o. (Ltd. Co. in Kraków. The basic material for printing foundry moulds is the ZCast 501 powder. This powder is a mixture of traditional molding sand, gypsum and supplementary ingredients. The mould is made in ZCast technology, and it enables casting of zinc, magnesium and aluminum alloys at max. pouring temperature of 1100°C. The paper describes research on the possibility to utilize a standard ZP14 powder for building a rotor blade casting moulds. The research has showed that the ZP14 powder may serve for printing foundry moulds, which should then be subjected to thermo-chemical treatment. Application of the basic ZPrint system powder permits a reduction in mould manufacturing costs.

  1. Determination of electrical properties of materials used in microwaveheating of foundry moulds and cores

    B. Opyd

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The environment-friendly and cost efficient microwave heating of moulding and core sands opens possibilities to use plastics and wood for structures of foundry instrumentation, where transparency to microwaves is the main requirement. Presented are results of a preliminary research on determining possibilities to use selected materials in microwave field. From the viewpoint of specificity of this process, the basic parameter is ability to absorb or transmit microwave radiation. Determined were the following electrical properties: tangent of dielectric loss angle and permittivity of selected materials. The materials were classified according to their transparency to electromagnetic radiation in order to choose the ones suitable for tooling applied in foundry processes.

  2. From famous foundry to 'supersurgery'.

    Mann, Steve

    2014-02-01

    Dr Steve Mann, a partner at the Worcester Street Medical Practice in Stourbridge, describes how he and a number of his GP colleagues have worked with architects, Abacus Architects, and main contractor, Amphion Construction, as well as with a number of local NHS and local authority bodies, to co-ordinate construction of a new GP 'supersurgery' - the realisation of a dream - on the former site of what is believed to be one of England's oldest foundries in the West Midlands town. The architects' view on the scheme, one of the key goals of which is to retain both much of the character, and the unusual original metal sub-structure, of the former foundry, is also given. PMID:24620493

  3. Web based foundry knowledge base

    A. Stawowy

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The main assumptions and functions of proposed Foundry Knowledge Base (FKB are presented in this paper. FKB is a framework forinformation exchange of casting products and manufacturing methods. We use CMS (Content Management System to develope andmaintain our web-based system. The CastML – XML dialect developed by authors for description of casting products and processes – isused as a tool for information interchange between ours and outside systems, while SQL is used to store and edit knowledge rules and alsoto solve the basic selection problems in the rule-based module. Besides the standard functions (companies data, news, events, forums and media kit, our website contains a number of nonstandard functions; the intelligent search module based on expert system is the main advantage of our solution. FKB is to be a social portal which content will be developed by foundry community.

  4. Fluidity of Aluminium Foundry Alloys

    Di Sabatino, Marisa

    2007-01-01

    The fluidity of an alloy plays a key role for the foundry and transport industries as it affects the quality and soundness of the cast products. Particularly, fluidity influences the reject rates, hence casting costs and the production of thinwalled, hence light components. Fluidity is a complex technological property and depends on many parameters. However, many aspects of this subject are still not fully understood. The motivation of the research presented in this doctoral thesis was, there...

  5. Thermal aspects of temperature transformations in silica sand

    J.St. Kowalski

    2010-01-01

    Problems related with the choice of moulding sand composition considering its behaviour in contact with molten metal were discussed.The investigations of high-temperature phenomena enable moulding sand composition to be evaluated in terms of its applicability underthe specific conditions of a foundry shop. It is also possible to eliminate the casting defects related to moulding sand and its properties. The investigations were carried out on selected moulding sands from the family of the tradi...

  6. Biopolimers – structure, properties and applicability in the foundry industry

    B. Grabowska

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available A review of literature data concerning physicochemical properties and possibilities of practical utilisation of the most important natural biopolymers (proteins, celluloses, starch, chitozan are presented in the paper. Biopolymers being renewable natural polymers characterised by several required physicochemical properties (adhesivity, activity, no toxicity, biodegradability constitute more and more interesting processing raw material for various industrial utilisations including environment friendly binding agents for moulding sands. Protein and starch compositions are used as binding agents for moulding and core sands in the foundry industry. Preliminary tests – performed within own research - of modification and utilisation of biopolymers as binding agents for moulding sands are promising from many aspects: technological (adequate properties of moulding sands, ecological (no toxicity, biodegradability and economic (low price. Starch from the polysaccharide group seems to be especially interesting since it is abundant, easily obtainable, biodegradable and the cheapest polymer. At its actual low price and the possibility of using agricultural wastes in the production, problem of utilising starch in many industry branches can become significant, especially in Poland.

  7. Health and safety at work in foundry companies

    L. Wojtynek

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the identification and analysis of threats in the environment of the foundry at individual stages of the casts manufacturing process. A generalized model of the foundry was created in the system presentation including harmful and dangerous factors in the foundry technical workplace. This model can refer to an iron foundry and cast steel and small non-ferrous foundries, to modern foundries, with automatic moulding lines and to chill and pressure foundries where machines execute the majority of essential operations.

  8. The present and future status of Japanese foundry industry

    Kanetake NAKATANI

    2008-01-01

    An introduction is given in detail about the current situation of Japanese foundry industry in 2006 from aspects such as the delivery structure of castings, scale and numbers of foundries, current profi t of foundry industry as well as the background of lower profi tability, etc. The development trend of Japanese foundry industry was also predicted, such as the transition of foundries from family business to modern company business, the improvement of rejection ratio and yield, application of...

  9. Evaluation of Reclamability of Molding Sands with New Inorganic Binders

    I. Izdebska-Szanda; A. Bali?ski; M. Angrecki

    2012-01-01

    One of the purposes of the application of chemically modified inorganic binders is to improve knocking out properties and the related reclamability with previously used in foundry inorganic binder (water glass), which allowing the use of ecological binders for casting non- ferrous metals. Good knocking out properties of the sands is directly related to the waste sands reclamability, which is a necessary condition of effective waste management. Reclamation of moulding and core sands is a funda...

  10. APPLICATION OF ADDITIVELY MANUFACTURED POLYMER COMPOSITE PROTOTYPES IN FOUNDRY

    Wiesław Kuczko

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a method, developed by the authors, for manufacturing polymer composites with the matrix manufactured in a layered manner (via 3D printing – Fused Deposition Modeling out of a thermoplastic material. As an example of practical application of this method, functional prototypes are presented, which were used as elements of foundry tooling – patterns for sand molding. In case of manufacturing prototype castings or short series of products, foundries usually cooperate with modeling studios, which produce patterns by conventional, subtractive manufacturing technologies. If patterns have complex shapes, this results in high manufacturing costs and significantly longer time of tooling preparation. The method proposed by the authors allows manufacturing functional prototypes in a short time thanks to utilizing capabilities of additive manufacturing (3D printing technology. Thanks to using two types of materials simultaneously (ABS combined with chemically hardened resins, the produced prototypes are capable of carrying increased loads. Moreover, the method developed by the authors is characterized by manufacturing costs lower than in the basic technology of Fused Deposition Modeling. During the presented studies, the pattern was produced as a polymer composite and it was used to prepare a mold and a set of metal castings.

  11. SEARCH OF COMPOSITIONS OF FOUNDRY GRADES

    O. S. Komarov

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Comparative researches of foundry paints showed that the most acceptable basis for them is disthenesillimanite and it is possible to use sodium aluminate solution as a binding agent.

  12. Advanced technology nodes, a foundry perspective

    Faul, Jürgen; Hoentschel, Jan; Wiatr, Maciej; Horstmann, Manfred

    2012-11-01

    Leading edge foundries need to fulfill a wide range of customer needs and have to deliver state-of-the-art performance processes. Therefore, an innovative but flexible modular technology set up is essential. This paper will show after a brief introduction of foundry challenges in general Global Foundries path towards the 28nm technology. Here, two key elements like high k metal gate process and embedded stressors are discussed. The article is concluded with an outlook on future device scaling from a leading edge foundry's perspective. This look ahead includes recent transistor architecture and process technology trends. More specifically, some challenges of the 20nm technology are discussed. This node will push planar transistor technology to its physical limits. Due to this, subsequent nodes will require substantial innovations in process architecture and device concepts. Two potential device paths are foreseen and compared, i.e. FinFet and ET-SOI-UTBB devices.

  13. Environmental favourable foundries through maintenance activities

    Saniuk, A.; Jasiulewicz-Kaczmarek, M.; Samolejova, A.; S. Saniuk; R. Lenort

    2015-01-01

    Maintenance today contributes to the aim of sustainable development in society, including environmental and energy saving, safety and economical aspects. The main purpose of the paper is to present the role of maintenance in the realization of sustainable developing practices in a foundry industry. Maintenance offers numerous opportunities to reduce the influence of foundry processes on the natural environment and utilize resources more efficiently. Maintenance activities can help to reduce l...

  14. Production scheduling model in aluminium foundry:

    Lovri?, Tadija; Majdandi?, Niko; Mati?evi?, Gordana

    2008-01-01

    There are numerous methods and strategies for production management which are successfully implemented in the metal industry and in the automobile and machine tools industry in particular. However, little research has been published regarding scheduling foundry operations. Therefore, the main goal ofthis paper is to develop a new mathematical model for scheduling foundry operations based on the MRP II (Manufacturing Resource Planning), JIT (Just inTime) and OPT (Optimized Production Technolog...

  15. Hybrid foundry patterns of bevel gears

    Budzik G.; Markowski T.; Sobolak M.

    2007-01-01

    Possibilities of making hybrid foundry patterns of bevel gears for investment casting process are presented. Rapid prototyping of gears with complex tooth forms is possible with the use of modern methods. One of such methods is the stereo-lithography, where a pattern is obtained as a result of resin curing with laser beam. Patterns of that type are applicable in precision casting. Removing of stereo-lithographic pattern from foundry mould requires use of high temperatures. Resin burning would...

  16. Achieving Control of Coating Process in your Foundry

    Di Muoio, G. L.; Tiedje, N. S.

    2015-01-01

    process is prerequisite for a stable drying process. In this study, we analyse the effect of different variables on the coating layer properties. We start by considering four critical variables identified in a previous study such as sand compaction, coating density, dipping time and gravity and then we......Achieving control of coating thickness in foundry moulds is needed in order to guarantee uniform properties of the mould but also to achieve control of drying time. Since drying time of water based coatings is heavily dependent on the amount of water present in the coating layer, a stable coating...... add centre points to the original experimental plans to identify possible non-linear effects and variation in process stability. Finally, we investigate the relation between coating penetration (a variable that is relatively simple to measure in production) and other coating layer thickness properties...

  17. Evaluation of electromagnetic absorbing capacity of materials in foundry industry

    D. Nowak

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, a research on determining the standing wave ratio as a measure of electromagnetic absorbing capacity of moulding materials is presented. Preliminary tests performed using a microwave strip line showed that high-silica, chromite and magnesite moulding sands are characterised by low absorbing capacity of microwaves. It was demonstrated that microwave absorbing capacity is significantly affected by chemical compounds included in the examined substrates. It was found that use of a microwave strip line permits precise determining characteristic microwave absorbing capacities of various moulding materials and thus their suitability for microwave drying/hardening of moulds and cores or for other foundry processes. Such a microwave drier can be applied for identifying mass components and for determining e.g. base granularity by means of precisely determined reflection ratios |Γ| and positions of minimum signal values.

  18. Research and application of enterprise resource planning system for foundry enterprises

    Zhou Jianxin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available PPDB issues - four aspects of current management issues of foundry enterprises are discussed in this paper, including Production Management, Process Control, Duration Monitoring and Business Intelligence Data Analysis. Also a whole Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP solution for foundry enterprises is proposed. The solution contains many models, four of which are used to solve the PPDB issues. These are called SPDB models, which separately are the Single-piece management model (based on casting lifecycle, Process management model (based on task-driven technology, Duration monitoring model (based on surplus period, and Business intelligence data analysis model (based on data mining. An ERP system for foundry enterprises, named HZERP, was researched and developed, and applied to a sand casting company of single piece and small batch production. Qualitatively and quantitatively comparing the application effect before and after implementing the HZERP system, the result demonstrated that the foundry ERP system based on the SPDB models can help metal casting enterprises achieve the single-piece management, better regulate the production processes, improve production and delivery management, shorten the production cycle, reduce costs, and speed up the capital turnover to a large extent.

  19. Method of the Moulding Sands Binding Power Assessment in Two-Layer Moulds Systems

    Holtzer, M.; D. Dro?y?ski; Bobrowski, A.; J. Makselon

    2014-01-01

    More and more foundry plants applying moulding sands with water-glass or its substitutes for obtaining the high-quality casting surface at the smallest costs, consider the possibility of implementing two-layer moulds, in which e.g. the facing sand is a sand with an organic binder (no-bake type) and the backing sand is a sand with inorganic binder. Both kinds of sands must have the same chemical reaction. The most often applied system is the moulding sand on the water-glass or geopolymer bases...

  20. Investigations of reclamation ability of used moulding sand with water glass binder and used sand with CO2 hardened alkaline resin

    R. Da?ko

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction of modern moulding sands with the organic and unorganic binders requires the use of reclamation carried out in order to reuseof used sands. Used sands depending on the type of binding material are characterized by different susceptibility to the recoveryprocesses. Presented research is aimed at determining reclaimability of selected used sands, which are often used in the Polish foundryindustry. This applies to the used moulding sand with water glass binder hardener by esters (ethylene glycol diacetate - technology floster S and used moulding sand with Carbophen 5692 resin, hardened by CO2 as a representative for this type of resins used in foundry.

  1. The present and future status of Japanese foundry industry

    Kanetake NAKATANI

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available An introduction is given in detail about the current situation of Japanese foundry industry in 2006 from aspects such as the delivery structure of castings, scale and numbers of foundries, current profi t of foundry industry as well as the background of lower profi tability, etc. The development trend of Japanese foundry industry was also predicted, such as the transition of foundries from family business to modern company business, the improvement of rejection ratio and yield, application of IT to production and management, human resources and the challenge for zero emission and so on.

  2. Increase of foundry properties of secondary silumins

    O.V. Ljutova; I. P. Volchok

    2008-01-01

    The work is devoted to increase of foundry properties of secondary silumins. The influence of a chip contents in charge, quantities of iron in an alloy and the modifier used for processing of liquid metal, on fluidity, linear shrinkage, crack resistance and a porosity number of silumin AlSi9Cu2 is considered.

  3. 77 FR 32998 - Foundry Coke From China

    2012-06-04

    ... The Commission instituted this review on December 1, 2011 (76 FR 74810) and determined on March 5, 2012 that it would conduct an expedited review (77 FR 15123, March 14, 2012). The Commission... COMMISSION Foundry Coke From China Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject...

  4. Towards Measuring Investment in Flexible Foundry Manufacturing

    Rhythm Suren Wadhwa

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Manufacturing flexibility is an important instrument to ensure the success of manufacturing systems in the modern day competitive and uncertain environment. The major hindrance in integrating flexibility into decision making process is that it is difficult to measure and be compared to future indefinable manufacturing scenarios. This paper presents a methodical concept utilizing real options to evaluate flexible foundry manufacturing system.

  5. Strength properties of moulding sands with chosen biopolymer binders

    St.M. Dobosz

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of primary researches of the IV generation moulding sands, in which as the binders are used differentbiodegradable materials. The bending and the tensile strength of the moulding sands with polylactide, poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid,polycaprolactone, polyhydroxybutyrate and cellulose acetate as binders were measured. The researches show that the best strengthproperties have the moulding sands with polylactide as binder. It was proved that the tested moulding sands strength properties are goodenough for foundry practice.

  6. Influence of dust addition from cast iron production on bentonite sand mixture properties

    P. Gengeľ; Pribulová, A.

    2010-01-01

    In cast iron foundry operations like melting, casting, feetling, casts cleaning and grinding of a high amount of dusts are produced. Threekinds of dusts from different parts of cast iron foundry were analysed; chemical analyses, granulometric analyses and microscopic analyseswere carried out. The bentonite sand mixtures with different portion of dusts were prepared. Technological properties of prepared sandmixtures (compression strength, shearing strength and permeability) were measured.

  7. Influence of dust addition from cast iron production on bentonite sand mixture properties

    P. Gengeľ

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In cast iron foundry operations like melting, casting, feetling, casts cleaning and grinding of a high amount of dusts are produced. Threekinds of dusts from different parts of cast iron foundry were analysed; chemical analyses, granulometric analyses and microscopic analyseswere carried out. The bentonite sand mixtures with different portion of dusts were prepared. Technological properties of prepared sandmixtures (compression strength, shearing strength and permeability were measured.

  8. Preliminary investigation of the organic chemical emissions from green sand pyrolysis

    Gwin, C.H.; Scott, W.D.; James, R.H.

    1976-12-01

    Condensable effluents from the thermal decomposition of a typical green sand foundry mold were investigated for the presence of emissions that could present health hazards in a foundry atmosphere. The benzene-soluble fraction extracted from the condensate was analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Over 200 compounds were observed on the chromatograms and benzo(a)pyrene, benzo(e)pyrene and perylene were identified. The concentrations of these materials were not determined, but their presence in foundry atmospheres presents an area of potential concern for health welfare.

  9. Characterization and extraction of gold contained in foundry industrial wastes; Caracterizacion y extraccion de oro contenido en matrices de desechos industriales de fundicion

    Vite T, J.; Vite T, M.; Diaz C, A.; Carreno de Leon, C. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Depto. de Estudios del Ambiente, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    Gold was characterized and leached in foundry sands. These wastes are product among others of the automotive industry where they are used as molds material which are contaminated by diverse metals during the foundry. To fulfil the leaching process four coupled thermostat columns were used. To characterize the solid it was used the X-ray diffraction technique. For the qualitative analysis it was used the Activation analysis technique. Finally, for the study of liquors was used the Plasma diffraction spectroscopy (Icp-As) technique. The obtained results show that the process which was used the thermostat columns was more efficient, than the methods traditionally recommended. (Author)

  10. Maintenance system improvement in cast iron foundry

    S. Kukla

    2011-01-01

    The work presents the issue of technical equipment management in an iron foundry basing on the assumptions of the TPM system (Total Productive Maintenance). Exploitation analysis of automatic casting lines has been carried out and their work’s influence on the whole production system’s functioning has been researched. Within maintenance system improvement, implementation of autonomic service and planned lines’ review have been proposed in order to minimize the time of breakdown stoppages. The...

  11. How orthogonal are the OBO Foundry ontologies?

    Ghazvinian Amir; Noy Natalya F; Musen Mark A

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Ontologies in biomedicine facilitate information integration, data exchange, search and query of biomedical data, and other critical knowledge-intensive tasks. The OBO Foundry is a collaborative effort to establish a set of principles for ontology development with the eventual goal of creating a set of interoperable reference ontologies in the domain of biomedicine. One of the key requirements to achieve this goal is to ensure that ontology developers reuse term definition...

  12. Granulation of After Reclamation Dusts from the Mixed Sands Technology: Water Glass Resolit

    Kami?ska, J.; J. Da?ko

    2013-01-01

    A technology of sands with water glass hardened by liquid esters is a cheap and ecologic method of producing moulding sands. Due to these advantages, this technology is still very important in several foundry plants for production of heavy iron and steel castings. Reclamation of the mixed moulding and core sands generates significant amounts of dusts, which require further treatments for their reuse. The results of investigations of a pressureless granulation of dusts generated in the dry mec...

  13. Fontainebleau Sand

    Leth, Caspar Thrane

    2006-01-01

    The report is a summary of results from laboratory tests in the geotechncial research group on Fontainebleau sand.......The report is a summary of results from laboratory tests in the geotechncial research group on Fontainebleau sand....

  14. Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene, a PAH biomarker in foundry workers

    Omland, Øyvind; Sherson, D; Hansen, Åse Marie; Sigsgaard, Torben; Autrup, H; Overgaard, E

    1996-01-01

    Exposure to PAH in foundry workers has been studied by urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (HPU) levels, quantitatively measured by reversed phase HPLC. Seventy male foundry workers and 68 matched controls were investigated. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure was defined by 17 breathing zone hygi...

  15. MEMS/MOEMS foundry services at INO

    García-Blanco, Sonia; Ilias, Samir; Williamson, Fraser; Généreux, Francis; Le Noc, Loïc; Poirier, Michel; Proulx, Christian; Tremblay, Bruno; Provençal, Francis; Desroches, Yan; Caron, Jean-Sol; Larouche, Carl; Beaupré, Patrick; Fortin, Benoit; Topart, Patrice; Picard, Francis; Alain, Christine; Pope, Timothy; Jerominek, Hubert

    2010-06-01

    In the MEMS manufacturing world, the "fabless" model is getting increasing importance in recent years as a way for MEMS manufactures and startups to minimize equipment costs and initial capital investment. In order for this model to be successful, the fabless company needs to work closely with a MEMS foundry service provider. Due to the lack of standardization in MEMS processes, as opposed to CMOS microfabrication, the experience in MEMS development processes and the flexibility of the MEMS foundry are of vital importance. A multidisciplinary team together with a complete microfabrication toolset allows INO to offer unique MEMS foundry services to fabless companies looking for low to mid-volume production. Companies that benefit from their own microfabrication facilities can also be interested in INO's assistance in conducting their research and development work during periods where production runs keep their whole staff busy. Services include design, prototyping, fabrication, packaging, and testing of various MEMS and MOEMS devices on wafers fully compatible with CMOS integration. Wafer diameters ranging typically from 1 inch to 6 inches can be accepted while 8-inch wafers can be processed in some instances. Standard microfabrication techniques such as metal, dielectric, and semiconductor film deposition and etching as well as photolithographic pattern transfer are available. A stepper permits reduction of the critical dimension to around 0.4 μm. Metals deposited by vacuum deposition methods include Au, Ag, Al, Al alloys, Ti, Cr, Cu, Mo, MoCr, Ni, Pt, and V with thickness varying from 5 nm to 2 μm. Electroplating of several materials including Ni, Au and In is also available. In addition, INO has developed and built a gold black deposition facility to answer customer's needs for broadband microbolometric detectors. The gold black deposited presents specular reflectance of less than 10% in the wavelength range from 0.2 μm to 100 μm with thickness ranging from 20 to 35 μm and a density of 0.3% the bulk density of gold. Two Balzers thin-film deposition instruments (BAP-800 and BAK-760) permit INO to offer optical thin film manufacturing. Recent work in this field includes the design and development of a custom filter for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) as collaboration with the Canadian company ComDEV. An overview of the different microfabrication foundry services offered by INO will be presented together with the most recent achievements in the field of MEMS/MOEMS.

  16. Casting Ductile Iron in Layer Moulds Made from Ecological Sands

    M. R?czka

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The article contains the results of tests performed under the target project in Hardtop Foundry Charsznica.The objective of the tests and studies was to develop a technology of making high-quality ductile iron castings, combined witheffective means of environmental protection. The studies presented in this article related to castings weighing from 1 to 300 kg made from ductile iron of grades 400-15 and 500-7, using two-layer moulds, where the facing and core sand was the sand with an alkaline organic binder, while backing sand was the sand with an inorganic geopolymer binder.A simplified method of sand reclamation was applied with possible reuse of the reclaim as an addition to the backing sand. The castiron spheroidising treatment and inoculation were selected taking into account the specific conditions of Hardtop Foundry. A pilot batch of castings was made, testing the gating and feeding systems and using exothermic sleeves on risers. The study confirmed the validity of the adopted concept of making ductile iron castings in layer moulds, while maintaining the content of sand with an organic binder at a level of maximum 15%.

  17. Development tendencies of moulding and core sands

    Stanislaw M. Dobosz1

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Further development of the technology for making moulding and core sands will be strictly limited by tough requirements due to protection of the natural environment. These tendencies are becoming more and more tense, so that we will reach a point when even processes, that from technological point of view fulfill high requirements of the foundry industry, must be replaced by more ecologically-friendly solutions. Hence, technologies using synthetic resins as binding materials will be limited. This paper presents some predictable development tendencies of moulding and core sands. The increasing role of inorganic substances will be noticed, including silicate binders with significantly improved properties, such as improved knock-out property or higher reclamation strength. Other interesting solutions might also be moulding sands bonded by geo-polymers and phosphate binders or salts and also binders based on degradable biopolymers. These tendencies and the usefulness of these binders are put forward in this paper.

  18. Mask cycle time reduction for foundry projects

    Balasinski, A.

    2011-11-01

    One of key deliverables of foundry based manufacturing is low cycletime. Building new and enhancing existing products by mask changes involves significant logistical effort, which could be reduced by standardizing data management and communication procedures among design house, mask shop, and foundry (fab) [1]. As an example, a typical process of taping out can take up to two weeks in addition to technical effort, for database handling, mask form completion, management approval, PO signoff and JDV review, translating into loss of revenue. In order to reduce this delay, we are proposing to develop a unified online system which should assist with the following functions: database edits, final verifications, document approvals, mask order entries, and JDV review with engineering signoff as required. This would help a growing number of semiconductor products to be flexibly manufactured at different manufacturing sites. We discuss how the data architecture based on a non-relational database management system (NRDMBS) extracted into a relational one (RDMBS) should provide quality information [2], to reduce cycle time significantly beyond 70% for an example 2 week tapeout schedule.

  19. Hybrid foundry patterns of bevel gears

    Budzik G.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Possibilities of making hybrid foundry patterns of bevel gears for investment casting process are presented. Rapid prototyping of gears with complex tooth forms is possible with the use of modern methods. One of such methods is the stereo-lithography, where a pattern is obtained as a result of resin curing with laser beam. Patterns of that type are applicable in precision casting. Removing of stereo-lithographic pattern from foundry mould requires use of high temperatures. Resin burning would generate significant amounts of harmful gases. In case of a solid stereo-lithographic pattern, the pressure created during gas burning may cause the mould to crack. A gas volume reduction may be achieved by using patterns of honeycomb structure. However, this technique causes a significant worsening of accuracy of stereo-lithographic patterns in respect of their dimensions and shape. In cooperation with WSK PZL Rzeszów, the Machine Design Department of Rzeszow University of Technology carried out research on the design of hybrid stereo-lithographic patterns. Hybrid pattern consists of a section made by stereo-lithographic process and a section made of casting wax. The latter material is used for stereo-lithographic pattern filling and for mould gating system. The hybrid pattern process consists of two stages: wax melting and then the burn-out of stereolithographic pattern. Use of hybrid patterns reduces the costs of production of stereolithographic patterns. High dimensional accuracy remains preserved in this process.

  20. Method of the Moulding Sands Binding Power Assessment in Two-Layer Moulds Systems

    M. Holtzer

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available More and more foundry plants applying moulding sands with water-glass or its substitutes for obtaining the high-quality casting surface at the smallest costs, consider the possibility of implementing two-layer moulds, in which e.g. the facing sand is a sand with an organic binder (no-bake type and the backing sand is a sand with inorganic binder. Both kinds of sands must have the same chemical reaction. The most often applied system is the moulding sand on the water-glass or geopolymer bases - as the backing sand and the moulding sand from the group of self-hardening sands with a resol resin - as the facing sand. Investigations were performed for the system: moulding sand with inorganic GEOPOL binder or moulding sand with water glass (as a backing sand and moulding sand, no-bake type, with a resol resin originated from various producers: Rezolit AM, Estrofen, Avenol NB 700 (as a facing sand. The LUZ apparatus, produced by Multiserw Morek, was adapted for investigations. A special partition with cuts was mounted in the attachment for making test specimens for measuring the tensile strength. This partition allowed a simultaneous compaction of two kinds of moulding sands. After 24 hours of hardening the highest values were obtained for the system: Geopol binder - Avenol resin.

  1. Study of exposure to radiation in a lost wax foundry

    Full text: Lost wax casting is an old method for making metal pieces. At the beginning of the process, the required metal piece is made in wax. After that, the wax model is covered with a siliceous shell. When the siliceous shell is finished, the wax is melted, replacing the wax by liquid metal. In the moment when the metal is cool the siliceous shell is broken away. Finally some finishing process is made, and the piece is just prepared for its utilization. The siliceous shell is prepared with zircon sands containing varying concentrations of natural radionuclides: 238U, 232Th and 235U together with their progenies. For that reason it is very convenient to assess the dose to workers, considering the tasks they perform and the exposure time in these activities during a year. The first part of the study is centred in identifying the situations and areas where workers are exposed to radiation. The exposure pathways are: inhalation of dust, ingestion of dust, inhalation of radon, skin contamination and external irradiation. In a plant where this process is implemented the areas where workers are exposed are: the store, the shell building area, the foundry area, the shell or mould breaking area, and the waste area, including those areas close to the store too. In those sections, workers are exposed while they work in different tasks. The second part of the study deals with dose assessment. In most of the areas, external irradiation is the dominant pathway, and in order to assess doses a Monte-Carlo simulation using MCNP-4C code has been performed. Photons fluxes so obtained are multiplied by the conversion factor of Flux to Kerma for air, by conversion factor to Effective Dose by kerma unit, and by the number of emitted photons per disintegration of parent nuclide. The application of this methodology to given mill has obtained the following results: Individual doses by area received by workers have a mean value of 5.9 μSv/y and a standard deviation of 7.7 μSv/y with an upper limit of 20.3 μSv/y and a lower limit of 0.2 μSv/y. The corresponding collective dose is 232.8 μSv/y and being the distribution of dose by task as follows: - Maintenance: Carrying the zircon sands from lorry to store (0.039 μSv/y), putting the zircon sand pallet on the shelf (0.012 μSv/y), while the pallet is on the shelf (2.8 μSv/y), taking the pallet off the shelf (0.022 μSv/y), taking the pallet to mould preparation area (0.39 μSv/y). The total collective dose making that task is 3.263 μSv/y. - Shell Making: shell preparation (58.2 μSv/y), shell cover (big trays) (76 μSv/y), shell cover (small trays) (9 μSv/y), exposures to moulds (5.6μSv/y), loading the pieces on the wagon (2.1μSv/y), taking the wagon to foundry area (7.4 μSv/y), taking the residues to waste area (2.2 μSv/y), putting the pieces into the take wax removing kiln (1.4 μSv/y). The total collective dose making that task is 161.91 μSv/y. - Mould preparation (35.2 μSv/y). - Shell removal: waste material removal (0.4 μSv/y), and moving the cart from foundry area (0.6 μSv/y). - Finishing (28.6 μSv/y). - Waste (0.00034 μSv). And here it can be seen that those workers working on the shell making are the most exposed ones, but the value of collective dose is less than 1 mSv/y. Comparing with the levels of the graphical representation of the classification system, it can conclude that the processes 'do not need to consider regulation'. (author)

  2. Study of exposure to radiation in a lost wax foundry

    Full text: Lost wax casting is an ancient method for making metal pieces. At the beginning of the process, the required metal piece is made in wax. After that, the wax model is covered with a silicaceous shell. When the silicaceous shell is finished, the wax is melted and replaced by liquid metal. As soon as the metal is cool the silicaceous shell is broken away. Finally a finishing process is made, and the piece is ready for utilization. The silicaceous shell is prepared with zircon sands containing varying concentrations of natural radionuclides: 238U, 232Th and 235U together with their progenies. For that reason it is very convenient to assess the dose to workers, considering the tasks they perform and the exposure time during these activities over a year. The first part of the study focuses on identifying the situations and areas where workers are exposed to radiation. The exposure pathways are: inhalation of dust, ingestion of dust, inhalation of radon, skin contamination and external irradiation. In a plant where this process is implemented the areas where workers are exposed are: the store, the shell building area, the foundry area, the shell or mold breaking area, and the waste area, including the areas close to the store. In these areas, workers are exposed while they work at their different tasks. The second part of the study deals with dose assessment. In most of the areas, external irradiation is the dominant pathway, and in order to assess doses a Monte-Carlo simulation using MCNP-4C code has been performed. The photon fluxes thus obtained are multiplied by the conversion factor of flux to kerma for air, by conversion factor to Effective Dose by kerma unit, and by the number of emitted photons per disintegration of parent nuclide. The application of this methodology to a given mill has produced the following results: Individual doses received by workers by area have a mean value of 5.9 μSv/y and a standard deviation of 7.7 μSv/y with an upper limit of 20.3 μSv/y and a lower limit of 0.2 μSv/y. The corresponding collective dose is 232.8 μSv/y and the distribution of dose by task being as follows: 1) Maintenance: carrying the zircon sands from lorry to store (0.039 μSv/y), placing the zircon sand pallet on the shelf (0.012 μSv/y), exposure while the pallet is on the shelf (2.8 μSv/y), taking the pallet off the shelf (0.022 μSv/y), taking the pallet to the mold preparation area (0.39 μSv/y). The total collective dose associated to this task is 3.263 μSv/y 2) Shell Making: shell preparation (58.2 μSv/y), shell cover (big trays) (76 μSv/y), shell cover (small trays) (9 μSv/y), exposures to molds (5.6μSv/y), loading the pieces on the wagon (2.1μSv/y), taking the wagon to the foundry area (7.4 μSv/y), taking the residues to the waste area (2.2 μSv/y), putting the pieces into the wax removing kiln (1.4 μSv/y). The total collective dose of this task is 161.91 μSv/y 3) Mold preparation (35.2 μSv/y) 4) Shell removal: waste material removal (0.4 μSv/y), and moving the cart from the foundry area (0.6 μSv/y) 5) Finishing (28.6 μSv/y) 6) Waste (0.00034 μSv) Workers in shell making are the most exposed, but the value of the collective dose is less than 1 mSv/y. Comparing with the levels of the graphical representation of the classification system, we can conclude that the processes 'do not need to consider regulation'. (author)

  3. Maintenance system improvement in cast iron foundry

    S. Kukla

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The work presents the issue of technical equipment management in an iron foundry basing on the assumptions of the TPM system (Total Productive Maintenance. Exploitation analysis of automatic casting lines has been carried out and their work’s influence on the whole production system’s functioning has been researched. Within maintenance system improvement, implementation of autonomic service and planned lines’ review have been proposed in order to minimize the time of breakdown stoppages. The SMED method was used to optimize changeover time, and the OEE (Overall Equipment Effectiveness was applied to evaluate the level of resources usage before and after implementing changes. Further, the influence of the maintenance strategy of casting devices’ efficiency on own costs of casting manufac- ture was estimated.

  4. Characterization of modified 9 Cr-1 Mo steel sand castings

    Experience with the sand casting of modified 9 Cr-1 Mo steel at several foundries is presented. The castings included simple blocks, elbows, valve bodies, and a steam chest. Castings were characterized by tensile and Charpy impact tests, for the effects of thermal aging on Charpy impact properties and hardness, and by creep, fatigue, and microstructure. Properties of the castings were compared with those observed for wrought material. In general, mechanical properties of castings were slightly lower than those of the wrought material

  5. A Life Cycle Assessment of Silica Sand: Comparing the Beneficiation Processes

    Anamarija Grbeš

    2015-01-01

    Silica sand or quartz sand is a mineral resource with a wide variety of application; glass industry, construction and foundry are the most common examples thereof. The Republic of Croatia has reserves of 40 million tons of silica sand and a long tradition of surface mining and processing. The average annual production of raw silica sand in Croatia in the period from 2006 to 2011 amounted to 150 thousand tons. This paper presents cradle to gate LCA results of three different types of beneficia...

  6. The effect of mechanical reclamation on the wear of silica sand grains

    Łucarz, M.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The wear effect of silica sands is usually joined with many foundry processes during the fresh sand preparation. The significant effect of silica grains destruction by means of crushing, abrasion and attrition is caused by most of mechanical reclamation treatments, which leads to a higher sand consumption. The experimental reclaimer was equipped with two different peripheral rings, which enabled both impact and impact-free way of the reclamation treatment of silica grains. In each case the duration of treatment and the rotational speed as well as the number of reclamation cycles were changed and effects were checked by multiple sieve analyses of the sand.

  7. Guide to energy efficiency opportunities in Canadian foundries

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    In Canada, the foundry sector employs about 15000 people and most of the companies are members of the Canadian Foundry Association (CFA). The CFA is committed to reducing its greenhouse gas emissions and is therefore looking for energy savings which, in addition to reducing emissions, would help the industry save costs and improve its competitiveness. The aim of this document is to provide operators with a guide to improving energy efficiency in their foundries. The report provides guidance on carrying out energy audits, gathering energy saving ideas, prioritizing projects, and charting the course of improved energy performance. Many different energy saving ideas for many kinds of operation are presented in this guidebook as a help to operators in finding where they could improve their energy efficiency; references to energy saving methods from all over the world are provided. This guidebook is a useful tool for helping foundry operators improve energy efficiency in their operations.

  8. The restoration of an Argonne National Laboratory foundry

    The Environmental Management Operations' Waste Management Department (WMD) at Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL-E) undertook the restoration of an unused foundry with the goal of restoring the area for general use. The foundry was used in the fabrication of reactor components for ANL's research and development programs; many of the items fabricated in the facility were radioactive, thereby contaminating the foundry equipment. This paper very briefly describes the dismantling and decontamination of the facility. The major challenges associated with the safe removal of the foundry equipment included the sheer size of the equipment, a limited overhead crane capability (4.5 tonne), the minimization of radioactive and hazardous wastes, and the cost-effective completion of the project, the hazardous and radioactive wastes present, and limited process knowledge (the facility was unused for many years)

  9. Problems of bentonite rebonding of synthetic system sands in turbine mixers

    A. Fedoryszyn; Zych, J; Cz. Rudy

    2008-01-01

    Turbine (rotor) mixers are widely used in foundries for bentonite rebonding of synthetic system sands. They form basic equipment in modern sand processing plants. Their major advantage is the short time of the rebond mixing cycle.Until now, no complete theoretical description of the process of mixing in turbine mixers has been offered. Neither does it seem reasonable to try to adapt the theoretical backgrounds of the mixing process carried out in mixers of other types, for example, rooler mix...

  10. Investigations of the Quality of the Reclaim of Spent Moulding Sands with Organic Binders

    R. Da?ko

    2012-01-01

    Modern investigation methods and equipment for the quality estimation of the moulding sands matrices with organic binders, in theircirculation process, are presented in the paper. These methods, utilising the special equipment combined with the authors investigationmethods developed in the Faculty of Foundry Engineering, AGH the University of Science and Technology, allow for the better estimationof the matrix quality. Moulding sands systems with organic binders require an in-depth approach t...

  11. Investigation of Pollution Emits By Cupola Furnace in Gujarat Foundry

    Hardikkumar Patil1 , Gajanan Patange2 , M.P.Khond

    2013-01-01

    The foundry industry is the major contributor in pollution among all other industries in India. At present only few foundries in India have pollution controllable system. Most of these casting industries use cupola furnace that emits gases namely carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide, suspended particle matter, dust and ash. Though, emission from single furnace is not considerable but it has huge impact if much such type of furnaces located in particular area. A i...

  12. Evaluation by PIXE external beam-of the leaching efficiency for a thermo stated column for the sand treatment

    The purpose of this paper was to measure the leaching efficiency for a thermo stated column designed to extract metals in muds originated by foundry process. The results obtained were useful to contemplate different alternatives helping to solve the problem of stocking enormous volumes of polluted sand produced by industries. Samples of residual sands and muds (treated sands) coming from an engine factory and from a thermo stated column respectively, were irradiated using an external beam of 3.55 MeV energy protons. From the quantitative analysis PIXE (Proton Induced X-ray Emission), it was possible to establish the level of pollution in sands due to the foundry processes and to evaluate the leaching efficiency of the output liquid phase from the thermo stated column. For polluted sands, certain cases were observed for which the efficiency was not enough to decrease the level of pollution in, e.g., Cu, Zn, Br and Pb. (Author)

  13. Evaluation by PIXE external beam of the leaching efficiency for a thermo stated column for the sand treatment

    The purpose of this paper was to measure the leaching efficiency for a thermo stated column designed to extract metals in muds originated by foundry processes. The results obtained were useful to contemplate different alternatives helping to solve the problem of stocking enormous volumes of polluted sand produced by industries. Samples of residual sands and muds (treated sands) coming from an engine factory and from a thermo stated column respectively, were irradiated using an external beam of 3.55 MeV energy protons. From the quantitative analysis PIXE (Proton Induced X-ray Emission), it was possible to establish the level of pollution in sands due to the foundry processes and to evaluate the leaching efficiency of the output liquid phase from the thermo stated column. For polluted sands, certain cases were observed for which the efficiency was not enough to decrease the level of pollution in e.g., Cu, Zn, Br y Pb. (Author)

  14. Evaluation of Reclamability of Molding Sands with New Inorganic Binders

    I. Izdebska-Szanda

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the purposes of the application of chemically modified inorganic binders is to improve knocking out properties and the related reclamability with previously used in foundry inorganic binder (water glass, which allowing the use of ecological binders for casting non- ferrous metals. Good knocking out properties of the sands is directly related to the waste sands reclamability, which is a necessary condition of effective waste management. Reclamation of moulding and core sands is a fundamental and effective way to manage waste on site at the foundry, in accordance with the Environmental Guidelines. Therefore, studies of reclamation of waste moulding and core sands with new types of inorganic binders (developed within the framework of the project were carried out. These studies allowed to determine the degree of recovery of useful, material, what the reclaimed sand is, and the degree of its use in the production process. The article presents these results of investigation. They are a part of broader research programme executed under the project POIG.01.01.02-00- 015/09 "Advanced materials and technologies".

  15. Secondary foundry alloy damage and particle fracture

    Berdin, C.; Ouglova, A.; Djafari, V.; Doglione, R

    2003-09-25

    The damage mechanisms of a hypoeutectic Al-Si-Cu foundry alloy, obtained through die casting, have been studied. Observations were made during tensile tests using a tensile test machine that was inserted into an scanning electron microscope. The microstructure features that are critical for damage were determined. The cleavage fracture of intermetallic particles was found to be the main process that limited the alloy ductility. Shrinkage cavities mainly play a role in the final fracture stage; the reduction in cross-section area induced by shrinkage cavities was assumed to be the main contribution of these defects to the fracture of the specimens. Attempts were made to determine the cleavage stress that initiated the fracture of the particles. Three-dimensional finite element computations were performed considering particular locations at the free surface of the observed fractured particles. The maximum principal stress was calculated for different locations of the particle with reference to the free surface. Different shapes and different elastic behaviour were studied. It was shown that the influence of a free surface on the stress level in a particle depends on its shape. The results were compared with those found in literature concerning the fracture strength of particles in Al alloys.

  16. Examination and analysis of influence of compaction degree on dielectricproperties of moulding sand components

    D. Nowak

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, presented are results of a research on influence of compaction degree on dielectric properties of components of moulding sands. During recent years, intensive research works on possibilities of using microwave heating in foundry technique are carried-out. However, introduction of such innovative, environment-friendly and efficient heating processes to foundry technologies is accompanied by a shortage of basic knowledge about behaviour of components of moulding sands in microwave field. In this case, of particular importance becomes knowledge of electrical properties of components of moulding and core sands, i.e. their permittivity εr and dielectric loss factor tgδ that characterise efficiency of absorbing electromagnetic radiation and thus prove effectiveness of the heating process.

  17. Moulding Sands with New InorganicBinders - Ecology Assessment in the Aspect of Work Environment

    I. Szanda

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The development of economy and industry introducing new technologies and materials often means the increased threat of occurrenceof factors harmful to humans and environment. Workers employed in foundries as mould pourers are the group of high professional risk.Foundry moulding sands when poured with liquid metal are a source of the emission of harmful, toxic and carcinogenic (benzene,PAHs compounds.The paper presents the results of studies on the concentration of chemical compounds emitted in the process of casting aluminiumalloy and brass using moulding sands with the new inorganic binders. The specific values of the exposure indices were compared with thelimit values. This enabled an assessment of the impact of moulding sands on work environment. The obtained results were compared withthe values of contaminants emitted when pouring foundry moulds made from furan sands and bentonite sands with an addition of coaldust.Studies were carried out under the project POIG.01.01.02-00-015/09 "Advanced materials and technologies."

  18. Reduced energy consumption for melting in foundries

    Skov-Hansen, S.

    2007-09-15

    By improving the gating technology in traditional gating systems it is possible to reduce the amount of metal to be re-melted, and hence reduce the energy consumption for melting in foundries. Traditional gating systems are known for a straight tapered down runner a well base and 90 deg. bends in the runner system. In the streamlined gating systems there are no sharp changes in direction and a large effort is done to confine and control the flow of the molten metal during mould filling. Experiments in real production lines have proven that using streamlined gating systems improves yield by decreasing the poured weight compared to traditional layouts. In a layout for casting of valve housings in a vertically parted mould the weight of the gating system was reduced by 1,1kg which is a 20% weight reduction for the gating system. In a layout for horizontally parted moulds the weight of the gating system has been reduced by 3,7kg which is a weight reduction of 60% for the gating system. The experiments casting valve housings in ductile iron also proved that it is possible to lower the pouring temperature from 1400 deg. C to 1300 deg. C without the risk of cold runs. Glass plate fronted moulds have been used to study the flow of melt during mould filling. These experiments have also been used for studying the flow pattern when ceramic filters are used. The thorough study of the use of filters revealed that the metal passing through the filter is divided into a number of small jets. This proves that filters do not have the claimed positive effect on the flow of metal. The volumes necessary on either side of the filter is not filled till a backpressure is build up and results in formation of pressure shocks when backfilled. These pressure shocks result in more turbulence inside the casting than the same gating system with no filter. Not using filters can mean a reduction in poured weight of 0,6kg. To examine if the experiments using glass plate fronted moulds give representative results of how the melt flows in a real mould a series of experiments have been conducted using the xray facilities at the Metallurgy and Materials department at the University of Birmingham. The results proved that the glass plate do not have any large effect on the flow pattern during mould filling. It was also found that using fan gates only 1mm thick holds back slag and in this way works as a filter. A complete set of guidelines for designing streamlined gating systems have been made in this project. Using these guidelines and combining standard geometries and the presented spreadsheet makes it possible for foundries to use streamlined gating systems in praxis. (au)

  19. Foundry industries: environmental aspects and environmental condition indicators

    Nowadays, environmental indicators are widely used as effective tools to assist decision-making in both public and private sectors. The lack of literature and research about local and regional Environmental Condition Indicators (ECI), the poor knowledge regarding solid waste generation, effluents and gas emissions from foundry industries, and their particular location in the urban area of Tandil, Argentina are the main reasons for this investigation, aiming to develop a set a of ECI to provide information about the environment in relation to the foundry industry. The study involves all the foundries located in the city between March and April 2010. The set of ECI developed includes 9 indicators for air, 5 for soil and 1 for water. Specific methodology was used for each indicator. (Author) 31 refs.

  20. Rationalization of foundry processes on the basis of simulation experiment

    S. Kukla

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of research obtained on the basis of simulation experiment, whose aim was to analyze the performance of cast iron foundry. A simulation model of automobile industry foundry was made. The course of the following processes was analyzedin a computer model: preparation of liquid cast iron, forming and filling the moulds, cooling and stamping the castings, cleaning andfinishing treatment. The sheets of multi-criterion evaluation were prepared, where criteria and variants were assessed by meansof subjective point evaluation and fuzzy character evaluation. The paper presents an analysis example of finishing activities of castings realized in foundry on traditional machines and efficient presses and in cooperation. On the basis of reports from a simulation experiment information was achieved related to activities’ duration, load of accessible resources, the problems of storage and transport, bottle necks in the system and appearing queues in from of workplaces. The research used a universal modelling and simulation packet for productionsystems - ARENA.

  1. The AHP method used in assessment of foundry enterprise position

    J. Szymszal

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Complex assessment of activity of a selected foundry enterprise based on a modern AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process method has beenpresented. Having defined the areas of analysis, which include: marketing (products, distribution channels, sales organisation and client concentration, personnel (skills, managerial abilities, organisation climate, effectiveness of incentives, personnel fluctuations, production (availability of raw materials, technical level of production, effective use of production capacities, organisation and management (foundry structure, organisation culture, management performance, the analysis was made using the weighted sum of evaluations. The second step consisted in a comparative assessment of Foundry position using Saaty’s scale modified by Weber and the AHP method with examinationof a hierarchy structure involving the main (parent problem and its direct evolution into sub-problems. The assessment of Foundryposition made by AHP enables introducing changes and/or innovations which are expected to improve the overall productioneffectiveness.

  2. Investigations of the Influence of the Matrix Recycling on Properties of the Moulding Sand with Geopol 618 Binder

    Kami?ska, J.

    2013-01-01

    Self-hardening moulding sands with water-glass hardened by liquid esters are applied in several foundry plants for making moulds for the production of heavy iron and steel castings. The main good point of this process is a low cost of sands. However, on account of a lowsusceptibility of this moulding sand for the matrix reclamation the fraction of sands originated from the reclamation is limited.The investigations presented in this work were aimed at the determination of the addition of the r...

  3. Logic Foundry: Rapid Prototyping for FPGA-Based DSP Systems

    Bhattacharyya Shuvra S

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce the Logic Foundry, a system for the rapid creation and integration of FPGA-based digital signal processing systems. Recognizing that some of the greatest challenges in creating FPGA-based systems occur in the integration of the various components, we have proposed a system that targets the following four areas of integration: design flow integration, component integration, platform integration, and software integration. Using the Logic Foundry, a system can be easily specified, and then automatically constructed and integrated with system level software.

  4. Molecular Foundry Workshop draws overflow crowd to BerkeleyLab

    Robinson, Art

    2002-11-27

    Nanoscale science and technology is now one of the top research priorities in the United States. With this background, it is no surprise that an overflow crowd or more than 350 registrants filled two auditoriums to hear about and contribute ideas for the new Molecular Foundry during a two-day workshop at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab). Scheduled to open for business at Berkeley Labin early 2006, the Molecular Foundry is one of three Nanoscale Science Research Centers (NSRCs) put forward for funding by the DOE's Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES).

  5. Manganese exposure in foundry furnacemen and scrap recycling workers

    Lander, F; Kristiansen, J; Lauritsen, Jens

    1999-01-01

    Cast iron products are alloyed with small quantities of manganese, and foundry furnacemen are potentially exposed to manganese during tapping and handling of smelts. Manganese is a neurotoxic substance that accumulates in the central nervous system, where it may cause a neurological disorder that...... bears many similarities to Parkinson's disease. The aim of the study was to investigate the sources and levels of manganese exposure in foundry furnacemen by a combined measuring of blood-manganese (B-Mn) and manganese in ambient air (air-Mn)....

  6. Characterization of Coated Sand Cores from Two Different Binder Systems for Grey Iron Castings

    Nwaogu, Ugochukwu Chibuzoh; Tiedje, Niels Skat; Poulsen, Thomas; Bischoff, Claus

    veining and metal penetration defects. The use of refractory coatings on cores is fundamental to obtaining acceptable casting surface quality and is used on resin bonded cores in production foundries. In this study new sol gel-coated sand cores made from coldbox and furan binder systems were investigated......Expansion defects on the surface of the castings include sand burn-in, metal penetration and/or veining, finning or scab. Veining or finning and metal penetration are of interest. These defects are associated with silica sand and result from the penetration of liquid metal into cracks formed during...

  7. Preliminary Research on Granulation Process of Dust Waste from Reclamation Process of Moulding Sands with Furan Resin

    Kami?ska, J.; J. Da?ko

    2012-01-01

    The results of investigations of the granulation process of foundry dusts generated in the dry mechanical reclamation process of usedsands, where furan resins were binders are presented in the paper. Investigations concerned producing of granules of the determineddimensions and strength parameters.Granules were formed from the dusts mixture consisting in 50 mass% of dusts obtained after the reclamation of the furane sands and in50 mass % of dusts from sands with bentonite. Dusts from the bent...

  8. Shifting sands

    Gillmor, D.

    2005-04-01

    The growing global competition for oil between the United States and China, and the potential role of Alberta's vast oil sands resources in the struggle between the two industrial giants to secure these and other potentially available oil supplies for themselves, are discussed. The principal argument made by the author is that for China and the United States oil is an instrument of foreign policy, the means by which to achieve or to maintain super-power status. In contrast, in Canada oil remains purely a commodity. The oil sands of Alberta are the largest hydrocarbon deposit in the world, holding some 1.6 trillion barrels of heavy crude. The oil sands have become the great White Hope of the world's petroleum supply, with intense interest in its development by both China and the United States. While Canadians are eager to cash in on the current high prices and growing shortage and are busy fighting over jurisdiction between the federal and the Alberta provincial government, there is no clear indications as to how Canada proposes to use the oil in broader trade negotiations with Washington, or China. Canadians are urged to become sensitized to the more distant future, raise their voices against the focus on short term benefits and refuse to allow themselves to become bystanders watching their energy heritage flowing south to the United States, and perhaps even east to China without efforts to maximize the potential benefits to Canada.

  9. Sonic sands

    Many desert sand dunes emit a loud sound with a characteristic tremolo around a well-defined frequency whenever sand is avalanching on their slip face. This phenomenon, called the 'song of dunes', has been successfully reproduced in the lab, on a smaller scale. In all cases, the spontaneous acoustic emission in air is due to a vibration of the sand, itself excited by a granular shear flow. This review presents a complete characterization of the phenomenonfrequency, amplitude, source shape, vibration modes, instability thresholdbased on recent studies. The most prominent characteristics of acoustic propagation in weakly compressed granular media are then presented. Finally, this review describes the different mechanisms proposed to explain booming avalanches. Measurements performed to test these theories against data allow one to contrast explanations that must be rejectedsound resonating in a surface layer of the dune, for instancewith those that still need to be confirmed to reach a scientific consensusamplification of guided elastic waves by friction, in particular.

  10. Using lean methodologies for economically and environmentally sustainable foundries

    R. M. Torielli

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Lean manufacturing is often seen as a set of tools that reduce the total cost and improve the quality of manufactured products. The lean management philosophy is one which targets waste reduction in every facet of the manufacturing business; however, only recently have studies linked lean management philosophies with improving environmental sustainability. These studies suggest that lean manufacturing is more than a set of lean tools that can optimize manufacturing efficiencies; it is a process and mindset that needs to be integrated into daily manufacturing systems to achieve sustainability. The foundry industry, as well as manufacturing in general, has significant challenges in the current regulatory and political climate with developing an economically and environmentally sustainable business model. Lean manufacturing has proven itself as a model for both economic sustainability and environmental stewardship. Several recent studies have shown that both lean and green techniques and “zero-waste” policies also lead to reductions in overall cost. While these strategies have been examined for general manufacturing, they have not been investigated in detail for the foundry industry. This paper will review the current literature and describe how lean and green can provide a relevant framework for environmentally and economically sustainable foundries. Examples of lean and green technologies and techniques which can be applied to foundries in a global context will be described.

  11. Biological monitoring of foundry workers exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Sherson, D; Sabro, P; Sigsgaard, Torben; Johansen, F; Autrup, H

    1990-01-01

    This investigation describes benzo(a)pyrene (BP) serum protein adduct concentrations in 45 foundry workers and 45 matched non-occupationally exposed controls. High and low BP exposure groups were defined using breathing zone hygienic samples for both quartz and BP exposures. A newly developed enz...

  12. Sand moulds milling for one-of-a-kind pieces

    Rodríguez, A.; Calleja, A.; Olvera, D.; Peñafiel, F. J.; López de Lacalle, L. N.

    2012-04-01

    Time to market is a critical measurement for today's foundry market. Combining 3D digitizing and sand blocks milling is possible to reduce this time. Avoiding the use of a wood pattern, this technique is useful for art pieces or unique parts, when only one component is necessary. The key of the proposed methodology is to achieve enough tool life with conventional tool qualities, avoiding the risk of sand destruction or damage. A special study of tool wear is presented in this work, studying different tool materials and different sand types. Two examples of unique parts are also presented in this work following the proposed methodology in order to reduce time and cost for the rapid reproduction of very short batches.

  13. Sands styrke

    Jacobsen, H. Moust; Jørgensen, Mogens B.; Poulsen, H. Serup

    På grundlag af triaxialforsøg med D=7 og 20 cm og varierende højde på løse og faste lejringer af Blokhussand kan effekten af varierende højde-breddeforhold og spændingsniveau samt skalaeffekten bestemmes. Ved sammenligning med pladeforsøg med overfladelast op til 8 t/m2 kan den almindelige fremga...... fremgangsmåde ved bæreevneberegninger på sand undersøges....

  14. A Life Cycle Assessment of Silica Sand: Comparing the Beneficiation Processes

    Anamarija Grbeš

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Silica sand or quartz sand is a mineral resource with a wide variety of application; glass industry, construction and foundry are the most common examples thereof. The Republic of Croatia has reserves of 40 million tons of silica sand and a long tradition of surface mining and processing. The average annual production of raw silica sand in Croatia in the period from 2006 to 2011 amounted to 150 thousand tons. This paper presents cradle to gate LCA results of three different types of beneficiation techniques: electrostatic separation; flotation; gravity concentration. The aim of this research is to identify and quantify the environmental impacts of the silica sand production, to learn the range of the impacts for different processing methods, as well as to identify the major contributors and focus for further process design development.

  15. Costs Models in Design and Manufacturing of Sand Casting Products

    Perry, Nicolas; Bernard, Alain

    2010-01-01

    In the early phases of the product life cycle, the costs controls became a major decision tool in the competitiveness of the companies due to the world competition. After defining the problems related to this control difficulties, we will present an approach using a concept of cost entity related to the design and realization activities of the product. We will try to apply this approach to the fields of the sand casting foundry. This work will highlight the enterprise modelling difficulties (limits of a global cost modelling) and some specifics limitations of the tool used for this development. Finally we will discuss on the limits of a generic approach.

  16. Tar sand

    McLendon, T.R.; Bartke, T.C.

    1990-01-01

    Research on tar sand is briefly discussed. The research program supported by the US Department of Energy (DOE) includes a variety of surface extraction schemes. The University of Utah has process development units (PDU) employing fluidized bed, hot, water-assisted, and fluidized-bed/heat-pipe, coupled combustor technology. Considerable process variable test data have been gathered on these systems: (1) a rotary kiln unit has been built recently; (2) solvent extraction processing is being examined; and (3) an advanced hydrogenation upgrading scheme (hydropyrolysis) has been developed. The University of Arkansas, in collaboration with Diversified Petroleum, Inc., has been working on a fatty acid, solvent extraction process. Oleic acid is the solvent/surfactant. Solvent is recovered by adjusting processing fluid concentrations to separate without expensive operations. Western Research Institute has a PDU-scale scheme called the Recycle Oil Pyrolysis and Extraction (ROPE) process, which combines solvent (hot recycle bitumen) and pyrolytic extraction. 14 refs., 19 figs.

  17. ANN modelling for the determination of moulding sand matrix grain size

    J. Jakubski; St.M. Dobosz; K. Major - Gabryś

    2011-01-01

    One of the modern methods of the production optimisation are artificial neural networks. Neural networks are gaining broader and broader application in the foundry industry, among others for controlling melting processes in cupolas and in arc furnaces, for designing castings and supply systems, for controlling moulding sand processing, for predicting properties of cast alloys or selecting parameters of pressure castings. An attempt to apply neural networks for controlling the quality of bento...

  18. Application of time-series analysis for prediction of molding sand properties in production cycle

    M. Perzyk; S. Maciejak; Kozłowski, J.

    2011-01-01

    Time-series analysis is characterized, as a data mining tool which facilitates understanding nature of manufacturing processes and permits prediction of future values of the process parameters or production results on the basis of the past data, recorded in regular intervals. The main methods and problems of the time-series analysis are presented. The authors’ research results, based on green molding sand properties data collected in a foundry with Disamatic molding line, are presented. The w...

  19. Active binder content as a factor of the control system of the moulding sand quality

    J. Jakubski; St.M. Dobosz; K. Major - Gabryś

    2011-01-01

    One of the modern methods of the production optimisation are artificial neural networks. Neural networks are gaining broader and broaderapplication in the foundry industry, among others for controlling melting processes in cupolas and in arc furnaces, for designing castingsand supply systems, for controlling moulding sand processing, for predicting properties of cast alloys or selecting parameters of pressurecastings. An attempt to apply neural networks for controlling the quality of bentonit...

  20. Final Scientific Report Steel Foundry Refractory Lining Optimization

    Smith, J.D.; Peaslee, K.D.

    2002-12-02

    The overall objective of the program was to optimize refractory materials and foundry processing used in casting steel. This objective was to be met by completing the following: (1) Surveying the steel foundries both through paper/electronic surveys sent to North American steel foundries as well as plant visits to participants. Information concerning refractory selection and performance as well as refractory and steelmaking practices provides a baseline for future comparison and to identify opportunities for substantial improvement in energy efficiency. (2) Conducting post-mortem analysis of materials from existing refractory/steelmaking practices to determine wear/failure mechanisms. (3) Identify areas for research on developing refractories for use in steel foundry furnaces, adjusting steelmaking practices to improve efficiency and modifying slag practices to improve refractory performance. The overall objective of the steel foundry refractory lining optimization program was to review established refractory and steelmaking practices to identify opportunities for improvements that would yield substantial energy savings for steel foundries. Energy savings were expected to arise from improved efficiency of the electric arc furnaces and from reductions in the post-casting welding and grinding that are normally required. Ancillary energy savings related to a reduction in the amount of refractories currently produced to meet the needs of the steel foundry industry, and a shift from pre-fired materials (shaped refractories) to monolithic refractories that are heat treated ''in situ'' were anticipated. A review of the complete program results indicates that techniques for achieving the overall goal were demonstrated. The main difference between the predicted and the actual achievements relates to the areas from which actual energy savings could be realized. Although reductions in furnace tap temperature would result in a reduction in the power required for melting, such reductions are realized through changes within the ladle transfer portion of the process, through modified ladle pre-heat and refractory insulation. Reductions in clean room energy usage proved very difficult to track, and some questions as to just how much impact refractory related inclusions have on the degree of welding and grinding required for completion of a casting, remain. Post-mortem analysis of casting defects did identify refractory derived inclusions but the greatest concentration of inclusions related to steel reoxidation issue. In almost every instance, the suggested refractory/process modifications were proven to be both technically and economically feasible. The difficulty in implementation of the proposed changes relates to the ''up front'' expense and the learning curve associated with any process modification. These two issues were compounded by production slow downs that are too common in the current market. Such slow downs normally result in less energy efficient processing coupled with reductions in capital or ''up front'' expenditures. A return to historical norms should allow foundries to implement the suggested modifications and then evaluate the overall benefit.

  1. Logistics of Materials Flow in an Iron Foundry

    S. Kukla

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The article presents issues related to creating and realizing added value by logistic processes and processing in a casting enterprise. It discusses possibilities of improving systems of casts production by evaluating labour intensity of casts manufacture and analyzing manufacturing prime costs. Operations with added value, processes indirectly creating added value and operations without added value have been specified. The problem was presented on the example of materials flow design in a foundry, where casts are manufactured in expendable moulds and using automated foundry lines. On the basis of the Pareto analysis, a group of casts was specified whose manufacture significantly influences the functioning of the whole enterprise. Finishing treatment operations have been particularly underlined, as they are performed away from the line and are among the most labour-consuming processes during casts production.

  2. Production system rationalisation on the example of iron foundry

    S. Kukla

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The present paper presents a systemic approach to foundry management. Thanks to production process modelling and simulation techniques, an attempt was made to synthesise many interconnected devices and numerous manufacturing stages into one production system. In the beginning, a factor analysis was carried out of the research object, which is a system of iron castings manufacture on automated foundry lines. On the basis of a simulation experiment, use the accessible production resources and manufacturing own cost of castings were analysed, depending on batch content and melting order, choice of an automatic line and the model of line fed with cast iron, sequence of order realization and the size of production lots. Simulation experiments were carried out on a computer simulation model prepared in the Arena packet produced by Rockwell Automation. Cost was estimated on the basis of additional calculation according to cost centres basing on factory spreadsheet.

  3. Energy conservation and emissions reduction strategies in foundry industry

    Li Yuanyuan

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Current energy conservation and emissions reduction strategies in iron and steel industry were reviewed. Since foundry industry is one of the major source of energy consumption and pollution emission (especially CO2, issues concerning energy-saving and emission-reduction have been raised by governments and the industry. Specialists from around the world carried out multidimensional analyses and evaluation on the potentials in energy conservation and emissions reduction in iron and steel industry, and proposed various kinds of analyzing models. The primary measures mainly focus on the targeted policies formulation and also on clean and high-efficient technologies development. The differences and similarities in energy conservation and emission reduction in foundry industry between China and other countries were discussed, while, the future development trend was also pointed out.

  4. FMEA: Methodology, Design and Implementation in a Foundry

    AWADHESH KUMAR,

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Failure Mode And Effect Analysis (FMEA is a technique to identify and prioritize potential failures of a process. This paper reports the description of FMEA methodology & its implementation in a foundry. It is used as a tool to assure products quality & as a mean to improve operational performance of the process. The work was developed in an Indian foundry, in co-operation with part of the internal staff chosen as FMEA team members & was focused on the study of core making process. The problems identified in the various steps of core making process contributing for high rejection are studied & analyzed in terms of RPN to prioritize the attention for each of the problem. The monetary loss due to core rejection is considered as measure of risk.

  5. The management of production value stream factors in a foundry

    Borkowski, S.; Knop, K.

    2010-01-01

    Connection of two value streams: production and human resources were proposed as a new approach to the production process. To assess the factors of production value streams the elements of the top of the Toyota's house as well as fourth and sixth Toyota's managing principles were used. On the basis of the feedback from respondents –the foundry workers, there can be determined the validity of series of decisive factors' importance that equalizes the work load and requires the standardization.

  6. Kinetics of moisture absorption in mixtures for iron foundry

    Cocina, Ernesto Villar; Morales, Eduardo Valencia; Rodriguez, Romulo Gonzalez

    1999-01-01

    The moisture absorption in granulated materials used in foundry technologies is analyzed. The absorption process has a diffusive behavior mainly. A simple experimental technique, in which the wet weight increment was recorded as the experimental parameter and an analytic method with computing procedure to find the parameters characterizing the process was used. The determination of these parameters by traditional methods is a very difficult task so, very refined and expensive trials are neede...

  7. Energy efficiency in small and medium scale foundry industry

    Patange, G.; Khond, M.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the research results of surveys which were conducted in an Indian foundry cluster which are potential members of such sectors are presented. These results indicate that there is an enough potential improvement in the energy use. The use of energy efficient practices can result in their energy use effectively as well as cost reduction. The key findings about the energy pattern are a lack of energy efficient practices. The suggested recommendations can contribute to an increase i...

  8. Classification of foundry clients using business rules approach

    A. Stawowy; R. Wrona; M. Ronduda

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents the application of business rules approach for the classification of foundry clients taking into account t he economic and technological attributes. Business Rules Management (BRM) systems allow non-technical business people to change the rules, analyze them for errors, and test and simulate them for impact analysis. Although BRM is focused on business processes improvement, it is possible to use this approach in technology management. The model of classification problem, a...

  9. Energy conservation and emissions reduction strategies in foundry industry

    Li Yuanyuan; Chen Weiping; Huang Dan

    2010-01-01

    Current energy conservation and emissions reduction strategies in iron and steel industry were reviewed. Since foundry industry is one of the major source of energy consumption and pollution emission (especially CO2), issues concerning energy-saving and emission-reduction have been raised by governments and the industry. Specialists from around the world carried out multidimensional analyses and evaluation on the potentials in energy conservation and emissions reduction in iron and steel indu...

  10. Foundry Technologies Focused on Environmental and Ecological Applications

    Roizin, Ya.; Lisiansky, M.; Pikhay, E.

    Solutions allowing fabrication of remote control systems with integrated sensors (motes) were introduced as a part of CMOS foundry production platform and verified on silicon. The integrated features include sensors employing principles previously verified in the development of ultra-low power consuming non-volatile memories (C-Flash, MRAM) and components allowing low-power energy harvesting (low voltage rectifiers, high -voltage solar cells). The developed systems are discussed with emphasis on their environmental and security applications.

  11. Natural gas on its way into aluminium foundries

    The article deals with natural gas as a fuel for aluminium smelters. The traditional way of heating the smelters in Norway has been the use of oil-fired combustors or electric heaters. According to the article, the aluminium foundries increase the use of natural gas in the heating process. The cycle principle of regenerative combustion is discussed together with the combustion process of propane with air or oxygen. 3 figs

  12. Statistical and Visualization Data Mining Tools for Foundry Production

    M. Perzyk

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available In recent years a rapid development of a new, interdisciplinary knowledge area, called data mining, is observed. Its main task is extracting useful information from previously collected large amount of data. The main possibilities and potential applications of data mining in manufacturing industry are characterized. The main types of data mining techniques are briefly discussed, including statistical, artificial intelligence, data base and visualization tools. The statistical methods and visualization methods are presented in more detail, showing their general possibilities, advantages as well as characteristic examples of applications in foundry production. Results of the author’s research are presented, aimed at validation of selected statistical tools which can be easily and effectively used in manufacturing industry. A performance analysis of ANOVA and contingency tables based methods, dedicated for determination of the most significant process parameters as well as for detection of possible interactions among them, has been made. Several numerical tests have been performed using simulated data sets, with assumed hidden relationships as well some real data, related to the strength of ductile cast iron, collected in a foundry. It is concluded that the statistical methods offer relatively easy and fairly reliable tools for extraction of that type of knowledge about foundry manufacturing processes. However, further research is needed, aimed at explanation of some imperfections of the investigated tools as well assessment of their validity for more complex tasks.

  13. The properties of sand-lime bricks manufactured with the use of waste moulding and core sands

    Z. Pytel

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper summarises the laboratory research data on potential applications of selected mould and core mix wastes and dusts fromregeneration processes as alternative or supplementary materials to be added to natural silica sands used in manufacturing of sand-limebricks. The rational behind this solution is the large silica content in used moulding and core mix, their matrices being high-quality natural silica sands. The research program shall involve obtaining the series of silicate sample products, press-formed and made from mixtures containing the waste materials discussed here. In the course of laboratory tests autoclaved materials shall be manufactured, including sand-lime bricks. Apart from conventional components: natural silica sand and quicklime, the prepared mixture shall contain pre-processed mould and core mix and dusts from regeneration processes, depending on the type of applied binder. The previously mentioned wastes from the foundry processes were introduced to the basic composition mix as substitutes for silica sand, ranging from 0-100 % (by weight. Potential applications of these wastes were explored using the comparative analysis, covering the basic functional parameters of two types of materials: the reference material made from conventional constituents and several experimental formulas containing additives, differing in qualitative and quantitative composition. Characteristics of thus obtained materials are supported by selected SEM+EDS test results.

  14. Study of radon and its progeny concentrations in an oil refinery and foundry environment

    LR-115 type II detectors were used to measure the radon concentrations in the dwellings of an oil refinery and in some foundries. The radon levels inside an oil refinery and foundries are found to be below the USEPA's remedial action levels of 150 Bq m-3. The radon concentrations in oil refinery were found to be higher in both outdoor and indoor environment, as compared to those found in normal background dwellings. The radon levels inside the foundries investigated are of the same order as measured in dwellings of the same city. The reported higher lung cancer rates in foundries may not be attributed to radon. (author)

  15. How to solve complex problems in foundry plants - future of casting simulation -

    Ohnaka, I.

    2015-06-01

    Although the computer simulation of casting has progressed dramatically over the last decades, there are still many challenges and problems. This paper discusses how to solve complex engineering problems in foundry plants and what we should do in the future, in particular, for casting simulation. First, problem solving procedures including application of computer simulation are demonstrated and various difficulties are pointed-out exemplifying mainly porosity defects in sand castings of spheroidal graphite cast irons. Next, looking back conventional scientific and engineering research to understand casting phenomena, challenges and problems are discussed from problem solving view point, followed by discussion on the issues we should challenge such as how to integrate huge amount of dispersed knowledge in various disciplines, differentiation of science-oriented and engineering-oriented models, professional ethics, how to handle fluctuating materials, initial and boundary conditions, error accumulation, simulation codes as black-box, etc. Finally some suggestions are made on how to challenge the issues such as promotion of research on the simulation based on the science- oriented model and publication of reliable data of casting phenomena in complicated-shaped castings including reconsideration of the evaluation system.

  16. Develop A Strategic Forecast of Silica Sand Based on Supply Chain Decomposition

    Mohammad Mansour

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available As a commodity, silica sand is a low priced product but a primary ingredient for a diversity of products. On the whole, the consumption of silica sand can be measured as indicator to the global economy’s trends and circumstances. The last decade showed a fluctuation in silica sand consumptions in several industries and reached the lowest level in 2009 due to the global recession. Due to the variety of products and the new or future developments in applications, the long term forecast of silica sand requires nonconventional methods of prediction. As an integrated part of the supply chain of numerous industries, silica sand demand has been decomposed into many sectors based on the intended applications. in this research. the impact of future demand of glass containers, flat glass, specialty glass, fiber glass, fracture sand, foundry sand, whole grain fillers, abrasive, gravel sand, recreation sand, chemicals, fillers, ceramic and filtration industries in the total global silica demand for the next decade. Each unique market position and its interconnection with other industries had been studied to draw a strategic long term forecast of silica sand based on market share of each industry.

  17. Cooling of hot sand with liquid nitrogen and solid carbon dioxide. Ekitai chisso oyobi dry ice ni yoru hotter dot sand no reikyaku

    Ninomiya, M.; Sakaguchi, Y.; Kayo, K.; Nozaki, Y.; Kobayashi, K.; Ota, H. (Government Industrial Research Institute, Nagoya, Nagoya (Japan))

    1990-02-20

    For the rapid cooling of hot sand in which the temperature of recycled foundry sand exeeds ambient by 10 centigrade or more, the mixing of liquid nitrogen and solid carbon dioxide, so called dry ice, into the hot sand was examined. The temperature of hot sand decreased rapidly, and the more rapid cooling effect was demonstrated compared with the conventional air blowing or water spraying methods. The suitable mixing ratios of the refrigerats depended on the temperature of the sand. The suitable mixing ratio of the liquid nitrogen and the dry ice were 5 % and 3 %, respectively, for the usual recycled sand which was at 60 to 80 centigrade of temperature. The water in usual hot sand evapolated rather rapidly as the time proceeded after kneading. Then, the mold strength and the surface stability decreased to form stickness to the pattern. However, when the hot sand was cooled using the refrigerants, the mold strength and the surface stability were recovered and there was not found so much stickness to the pattern. 10 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Field performance measurements of half-facepiece respirators--foundry operations.

    Myers, W R; Zhuang, Z; Nelson, T

    1996-02-01

    A series of field studies was conducted to measure workplace protection factors (WPF) provided by elastomeric and disposable half-facepiece respirators against different particulate contaminants. The research protocol developed for the study has been described in a previous article. This article presents results from dust and fume exposures at three foundries. The major components of the airborne exposures in these foundries were zinc, lead, and silicon. The major components of the in-facepiece samples were zinc, chlorine, and lead. Significant differences were observed in ambient zinc and lead concentration levels among foundries; however, no significant difference was observed in the in-facepiece concentrations of these elements among foundries. Respirator performance varied within each foundry, but there was no difference in performance when pooling all foundry data. The 5th, 10th and 50th percentile estimates for the pooled foundry and respirator WPF data were about 9, 16, and 114 respectively. The infacepiece concentration data clearly indicate that dust-fume-mist (DFM) class half-facepiece respirators, when conscientiously used, worn, and maintained, in conjunction with other existing controls in these foundries, provided effective worker protection. PMID:8615325

  19. Quality management as a tool forming foundry competitive capacity in the process of market globalisation

    L. Wojtynek

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the analysis and identification of the key factors influencing the competitiveness of the foundry in the process of market globalisation. The main attention is paid to the quality management as an important tool used for the formation of the foundry's competitive capacity.

  20. Potential of the application of the modified polysaccharides water solutions as binders of moulding sands

    K. Kaczmarska

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The results of preliminary tests of selected properties of the moulding sands with the binder in the form of a 5 % water solution of the sodium salt of carboxymethyl starch (with a degree of substitution (DS of 0,2 and 0,87 arepresented in this study. The moulding sand properties such as permeability, abrasion resistance, tensile and bendingstrength - after curing - are shown in series of tests. The cure process was conducted in a field of electromagnetic radiation within the microwave range. The effect of the microwave treatment on the moulding sand was evaporating of water (solvent in a binder and cross-linking of the polymeric binder. As a result the cured moulding sands with particular properties, essential in the context of its application in the mould technology in the foundry industry, were obtained.

  1. The Condition of Silica Sand Grains Surface Subjected to Reclamation Treatment

    Łucarz, M.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of investigations are concerned on evaluation of new silica sand grains surface condition after mechanical reclamation treatment as well as on the conditions of reclaimed sand grains surface subjected to thermal and thermo-mechanical reclamation processes. The purpose of research was to answer the question how the applied methods have influenced the surface condition of reclaimed sand grains which was tested by means of bending strength determination of sand samples prepared with resin binder and reclaimed sand. The immediate aim of the research was to explain the mechanism of impurities cleaning on the sand grains surface after thermal reclamation, when the sand is used several times in preparation of a foundry mixture, and to determine what effect these impurities may have on the technological properties of the ready sand mixture. The task of the additionally applied mechanical reclamation was to remove the accumulated inorganic compounds from the sand grains surface and confirm if further improvement of the reclaim quality is possible.

  2. The management of production value stream factors in a foundry

    S. Borkowski

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Connection of two value streams: production and human resources were proposed as a new approach to the production process. To assess the factors of production value streams the elements of the top of the Toyota's house as well as fourth and sixth Toyota's managing principles were used. On the basis of the feedback from respondents –the foundry workers, there can be determined the validity of series of decisive factors' importance that equalizes the work load and requires the standardization.

  3. Methodological aspects of systemic designing of foundry plants

    R. Wrona

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available An approach is attempted to systematise the systemic research. A set of hypotheses are formulated, defining how a conceptual design of afoundry plant should be developed and improved when it is investigated as a system. The methodology aims to eliminate the particular approach to design to be replaced by integral design. The need of integral design seems a logical consequence of a transition from taskoriented design to situational design. The methodology outlined here offers an innovative and modern approach to engineering design, particularly in foundry plant design.

  4. Eastern Scheldt Sand, Baskarp Sand No. 15

    Andersen, A. T; Madsen, E. B.; Schaarup-Jensen, A. L.

    The present data report contains data from 13 drained triaxial tests, performed on two different sand types in the Soil Mechanics Laboratory at Aalborg University in March, 1997. Two tests have been performed on Baskarp Sand No. 15, which has already ken extensively tested in the Soil Mechanics...... Laboratory. The remaining 11 triaxial tests have ben performed on Eastern Scheldt Sand, which is a material not yet investigated at the Soil Mechanics Laboratory. In the first pari of this data report, the characteristics of the two sand types in question will be presented. Next, a description of the...

  5. Wet Sand flows better than dry sand

    Fiscina, Jorge E.; Wagner, Christian

    2007-01-01

    We investigated the yield stress and the apparent viscosity of sand with and without small amounts of liquid. By pushing the sand through a tube with an enforced Poiseuille like profile we minimize the effect of avalanches and shear localization. We find that the system starts to flow when a critical shear of the order of one particle diameter is exceeded. In contrast to common believe, we observe that the resistance against the flow of wet sand is much smaller than that of dry sand. For the ...

  6. Investigations of the Influence of the Matrix Recycling on Properties of the Moulding Sand with Geopol 618 Binder

    J. Kamińska

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Self-hardening moulding sands with water-glass hardened by liquid esters are applied in several foundry plants for making moulds for the production of heavy iron and steel castings. The main good point of this process is a low cost of sands. However, on account of a lowsusceptibility of this moulding sand for the matrix reclamation the fraction of sands originated from the reclamation is limited.The investigations presented in this work were aimed at the determination of the addition of the reclaimed material, obtained in the dry mechanical reclamation, on properties of the moulding sand with the Geopol 618 binder, which is water-glass modified by polymers and hardened by esters.

  7. Environmental factors and work performance of foundry workers.

    Horino, S

    1977-12-01

    Environmental factors such as atmospheric conditions, lighting, noise, and dust in foundry factories of different sizes were evaluated by direct physical measurements and a subjective rating method using an ergonomic checklist. Working postures and subjective feelings of fatigue of the workers were analyzed in various types of foundry shops. The results showed that work load was highly connected with poor working postures and unfavorable arrangement of work space as well as with poor workplace environment, particularly in terms of dust and noise. Forward bending and squatting positions, which were attributable to the manual working height on or just above the floor level, occupied 70--90% of the actual working time handling large-sized casts, while the work using a table allowed workers more frequent erect standing postures. It seemed essential to redesign the fundamental working processes and to improve the work surface height. A comparison was then made as to performance patterns and electromyographic activities of main muscles between the traditional molding work on the floor and the work at a newly developed hydraulic lift-table operated by foot pedals. The new table assured the worker of an optimal standing position and proved to be an effective means of redesigning the work space. PMID:617651

  8. Total productive maintenance on example of automated foundry lines

    S. Kukla

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Within framework of the presented study one has performed analysis of stoppages in automatic foundry lines operation, and basing on assumptions from complex maintenance system has undertaken himself to develop a service maintenance schedule for machinery installed in the line. Moreover, one has presented general assumptions of TPM system operated in conditions of series and multi-series production of cast iron castings. One has constructed operational database and has elaborated a list of line stoppage causes within a year. One has proposed a possibility of implementation of manufacturing systems modeling and simulating technique in management of production machinery operation in a foundry shop. Within framework of the simulation experiment one has developed schedules of production, schedules of maintenance and has forecasted indices of general productivity of the machinery for a various scenarios of events on example of casting line having in-series structure of operational reliability. In course of the study there was implemented ARENA universal software package to modeling and simulation of the manufacturing systems.

  9. Use of Solid Waste (Foundry Slag) Mortar and Bamboo Reinforcement in Seismic Analysis for Single Storey Masonry Building

    Ahmad, S.; Husain, A.; Ghani, F.; Alam, M. N.

    2013-11-01

    The conversion of large amount of solid waste (foundry slag) into alternate source of building material will contribute not only as a solution to growing waste problem, but also it will conserve the natural resources of other building material and thereby reduce the cost of construction. The present work makes an effort to safe and economic use of recycle mortar (1:6) as a supplementary material. Conventional and recycled twelve prisms were casted with varying percentage of solid waste (foundry slag) added (0, 10, 20, 30 %) replacing cement by weight and tested under compression testing machine. As the replacement is increasing, the strength is decreasing. 10 % replacement curve is very closed to 0 % whereas 20 % is farther and 30 % is farthest. 20 % replacement was chosen for dynamic testing as its strength is within permissible limit as per IS code. A 1:4 scale single storey brick model with half size brick was fabricated on shake table in the lab for dynamic testing using pure friction isolation system (coarse sand as friction material µ = 0.34). Pure friction isolation technique can be adopted economically in developing countries where low-rise building prevails due to their low cost. The superstructure was separated from the foundation at plinth level, so as to permit sliding of superstructure during severe earthquake. The observed values of acceleration and displacement responses compare fairly with the analytical values of the analytical model. It also concluded that 20 % replacement of cement by solid waste (foundry slag) could be safely adopted without endangering the safety of the masonry structures under seismic load.To have an idea that how much energy is dissipated through this isolation, the same model with fixed base was tested and results were compared with the isolated free sliding model and it has been observed that more than 60 % energy is dissipated through this pure friction isolation technique. In case of base isolation, no visible cracks were observed up to the table force of 4.25 kN (1,300 rpm), whereas for fixed base failure started at 800 rpm.To strengthen the fixed base model, bamboo reinforcement were used for economical point of view. Another model of same dimension with same mortar ratio was fabricated on the shake table with bamboo reinforcement as plinth band and lintel band. In addition another four round bamboo bars of 3 mm diameter were placed at each of the four corners of the model. The building model was tested and found very encouraging and surprising results. The model failure started at 1,600 rpm, which means that this model is surviving the double force in comparison with the non-bamboo reinforcement.

  10. Baskarp Sand No. 15

    Borup, Marianne; Hedegaard, Jette

    The Soil Mechanics Laboratory has started performing tests with a new sand, Baskarp No 15. Baskarp No 15 is a graded sand from Sweden. The shapes of the largest grains are round, while the small grains have sharp edges. The main part of of Baskarp No 15 is quarts, but it also contains feldspar and...... biotit. Mainly the sand will be used for tests concerning the development og the theory of building up pore pressure in sand, L. B. Ibsen 1993....

  11. Baskarp Sand No. 15

    Ibsen, Lars Bo; Bødker, Lars Bødker

    The Soil Mechanics Laboratory has started performing tests with a new sand, Baskarp No 15. Baskarp No 15 is a graded sand from Sweden. The shapes of the largest grains are round, while the small grains have sharp edges. The main part of of Baskarp No 15 is quarts, but it also contains feldspar and...... biotit. Mainly the sand will be used for tests concerning the development of the theory of building up pore pressure in sand....

  12. Selected parameters of moulding sands for designing quality control systems

    J. Jakubski

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the modern methods of production optimisation are artificial neural networks. Neural networks owe their popularity to the fact thatthey are convenient tools, which can be utilised in a wide scope of problems. They are capable of reflecting complex functions. Especiallytheir non-linearity should be emphasised. They are gaining wider and wider application in the foundry industry, among others, to controlmelting processes in cupolas and arc furnaces, designing castings and supply systems, control of moulding sands treatments, prediction ofproperties of cast alloys as well as selecting die casting.An attempt of the application neural networks to the quality control of moulding sands with bentonite is presented in the paper. This isa method of assessing the suitability of moulding sands by finding correlations in between individual parameters, by means of artificialneural network systems. The presented investigations were performed with the application of the Statistica 8.0 program.The investigations were aimed at the selection of the proper kind of a neural network for prediction a sand moistness on the bases ofcertain moulding sand properties such as: permeability, compactibility and friability. These parameters – determined as sand moistness functions - were introduced as initial parameters.Application of the Statistica program allowed for an automatic selection of the most suitable network for the reflection of dependencies and interactions existing among the proposed parameters. The best results were obtained for unidirectional multi-layer perception network (MLP. The neural network sensitivity to individual moulding sand parameters was determined, which allowed to reject not important parameters when constructing the network.

  13. Lund Sand No 0

    Ibsen, Lars Bo; Jakobsen, Finn Rosendal

    During the last 15 years the Geotechnical Engineering Group (GEG) at Aalborg University has performed triaxial tests with a sand called Lund No 0. Lund No 0 is a graded sand from a gravel pit near Horsens in Denmark. For the classification of the sand the following tests have been performed: Sieve...

  14. Evolutionary based system for production scheduling in foundry

    A. Stawowy

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a development of a capable-to-promise system for companies that operate under the hybrid make-to-order and maketo-stock strategy in a lot-sizing and flowshop environment. Proposed system simultaneously considers planning and scheduling processesin order to achieve the optimality. Optimisation engine is based on an advanced evolutionary algorithm. Information available in ERPsystem from different production units and stages, the optimization module, and customer requests are integrated via Internet using XMLlanguage as a data exchange standard.The details on key elements of the system and a software architecture are given. Practical application of the system is illustrated on the example of production scheduling for an iron castings foundry.

  15. Classification of foundry clients using business rules approach

    A. Stawowy

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the application of business rules approach for the classification of foundry clients taking into account t he economic and technological attributes. Business Rules Management (BRM systems allow non-technical business people to change the rules, analyze them for errors, and test and simulate them for impact analysis. Although BRM is focused on business processes improvement, it is possible to use this approach in technology management. The model of classification problem, and the knowledge base as a set of decision tables are presented in the paper.The results indicate that the proposed business rules tool REBIT, developed by AGH team as the project co-funded by the European Union, is feasible as a complete knowledge base and technology management method.

  16. Laboratories for the 21st Century: Case Studies, Molecular Foundry, Berkeley, California

    2010-11-01

    This case study provides information on the Molecular Foundry, which incorporates Labs21 principles in its design and construction. The design includes many of the strategies researched at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory for energy efficient cleanroom and data centers.

  17. Closeout of IE Bulletin 80-21: valve parts supplied by Malcom Foundry

    Cracking of yokes in active valves in a safety-related system was discovered during pre-operational testing of the Residual Heat Removal System at Susquehanna 1. These defective yokes had been supplied to Anchor/Darling Valve Company by Malcolm Foundry Company, Inc. Because Malcolm Foundry had gone out of business, it was necessary to issue the Bulletin to utilities to determine directly whether Malcolm Foundry had provided parts to valve manufacturers other than Anchor/Darling. From results of the extensive survey of valve manufacturers generated by this Bulletin, it was determined that only Anchor/Darling had used Malcolm Foundry as a source of safety-related valve parts. On the basis of survey results and a search of Anchor/Darling records, it was found that only seven facilities had affected valves

  18. Implementation KMES Quality system for acquisition and processing data in chosen foundry

    R. Sika

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, main assumptions, algorithms and functions of author’s KMES Quality system are discussed. Its working version is tested in chosen foundry by near 2 years. This system is applied to enlarge the use of chosen technological data accessible during foundry processes. The data can be introduced by means of keyboard directly in the fields (windows present on the PC screen according to program commands, instead of report-manuscripts containing measured results, or from the automated measurement recording system by direct data import to KMES Quality system. In the paper, a way of technological data acquisition with their further integration into main foundry databases and their processing, with taking into consideration e.g. kind of casting assortment, current time, sequences of measurements, are presented. Also the capabilities of linking KMES Quality system with SAP R/3 system existing in this foundry useful to quality assurance is show.

  19. Investigations of the Quality of the Reclaim of Spent Moulding Sands with Organic Binders

    R. Da?ko

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Modern investigation methods and equipment for the quality estimation of the moulding sands matrices with organic binders, in theircirculation process, are presented in the paper. These methods, utilising the special equipment combined with the authors investigationmethods developed in the Faculty of Foundry Engineering, AGH the University of Science and Technology, allow for the better estimationof the matrix quality. Moulding sands systems with organic binders require an in-depth approach to factors deciding on the matrixtechnological suitability as well as on their environmental impact. Into modern methods allowing for the better assessment of the matrixquality belongs the grain size analysis of the reclaimed material performed by means of the laser diffraction and also the estimation of the moulding sand gas evolution rate and identification of the emitted gases and their BTEX group gases content, since they are specially hazardous from the point of view of the Occupational Safety and Health.

  20. Specificity of SPC Procedures Application in Foundry in Aspect of Data Acquisition and Data Exploration

    Z. Ignaszak; R. Sika

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents an analysis of SPC (Statistical Process Control) procedures usability in foundry engineering. The authors pay particular attention to the processes complexity and necessity of correct preparation of data acquisition procedures. Integration of SPC systems with existing IT solutions in area of aiding and assistance during the manufacturing process is important. For each particular foundry, methodology of selective SPC application needs to prepare for supervision and control o...

  1. Hexachlorobenzene and octachlorostyrene in plasma of aluminium foundry workers using hexachloroethane for degassing.

    Seldén, A. I.; Nygren, Y; Westberg, H B; Bodin, L. S.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To study the load of selected organochlorine compounds in the blood of aluminium foundry workers who use hexachloroethane as a degassing agent for aluminium and to measure some possible effects on internal organs. METHODS: Plasma from nine male aluminium foundry workers with past experience of use of hexachloroethane and 18 controls (two controls per exposed case) matched for residence, sex, age, and socioeconomic status was analysed for hexachlorobenzene (HCB), (P-HCB), and octac...

  2. Active binder content as a factor of the control system of the moulding sand quality

    J. Jakubski

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the modern methods of the production optimisation are artificial neural networks. Neural networks are gaining broader and broaderapplication in the foundry industry, among others for controlling melting processes in cupolas and in arc furnaces, for designing castingsand supply systems, for controlling moulding sand processing, for predicting properties of cast alloys or selecting parameters of pressurecastings. An attempt to apply neural networks for controlling the quality of bentonite moulding sands is presented in this paper. This is theassessment method of sands suitability by means of detecting correlations between their individual parameters. The presentedinvestigations were obtained by using the Statistica 9.0 program. The presented investigations were aimed at the selection of the neuralnetwork able to predict the active bentonite content in the moulding sand on the basis of this sand properties such as: permeability,compactibility and the compressive strength. An application of the Statistica program allowed to select automatically the type of networkproper for the representation of dependencies occurring in between the proposed moulding sand parameters. The most advantageousconditions were obtained for the uni-directional multi-layer perception (MLP network. Knowledge of the neural network sensitivity to individual moulding sand parameters, allowed to eliminate not essential ones.

  3. Oil sands and petrochemicals

    A study was conducted to evaluate new feedstocks from Alberta's vast oil sands resources to supplement natural gas liquids. The long-term competitiveness of Alberta's petrochemical industry can be increased by having both gas and oil feedstock options. Several schemes were evaluated to help Alberta develop synergies for its oil sands and petrochemical industries through cost effective integration of oil sands, upgrading, refining and petrochemical development. It was shown that phased integration of oil sands and petrochemical developments is technically and economically feasible to co-produce high grade fuels and petrochemicals. Alberta has the potential to become a world-scale energy and petrochemical producer. Alberta's oil sands facilities are potentially capable of supporting new world-scale plants producing ethylene, propylene, benzene, para-xylene, and other high-value-added derivatives. The products can be produced by integrating existing and new oil sands upgrading plants, refineries and petrochemical plants. tabs., figs

  4. Sands cykliske styrke

    Ibsen, Lars Bo

    Sands cykliske styrke kan beskrives ved Cyclic Liquefaction, Mobilisering, Stabilization og Instant Stabilization. I artiklen beskrives hvorfor Stabilization og Instant Stabilization ikke observeres, når sands udrænede styrke undersøges i triaxial celler, der anvender prøver med dobbelt prøvehøjde....

  5. Using mixture design of experiments to assess the environmental impact of clay-based structural ceramics containing foundry wastes.

    Coronado, M; Segades, A M; Andrs, A

    2015-12-15

    This work describes the leaching behavior of potentially hazardous metals from three different clay-based industrial ceramic products (wall bricks, roof tiles, and face bricks) containing foundry sand dust and Waelz slag as alternative raw materials. For each product, ten mixtures were defined by mixture design of experiments and the leaching of As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb, and Zn was evaluated in pressed specimens fired simulating the three industrial ceramic processes. The results showed that, despite the chemical, mineralogical and processing differences, only chrome and molybdenum were not fully immobilized during ceramic processing. Their leaching was modeled as polynomial equations, functions of the raw materials contents, and plotted as response surfaces. This brought to evidence that Cr and Mo leaching from the fired products is not only dependent on the corresponding contents and the basicity of the initial mixtures, but is also clearly related with the mineralogical composition of the fired products, namely the amount of the glassy phase, which depends on both the major oxides contents and the firing temperature. PMID:26252997

  6. Pre-SPC Math for Foundry Workers. A Lesson Developed for Robinson Foundry and Bodine-Robinson as Part of a National Workplace Literacy Program.

    Rasmussen, Bonnie

    Developed as part of a National Workplace Literacy Program, this lesson focuses on terms and mathematical operations associated with Statistical Process Control (SPC) in the foundry industry. With appropriate assistance and preparatory work, workers testing between grades 4 and 9 on the Test of Adult Basic Education Locator should be able to use

  7. Exposure of iron foundry workers to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Omland, Øyvind; Sherson, D; Hansen, Åse Marie; Sigsgaard, Torben; Autrup, H; Overgaard, E

    1994-01-01

    smokers and non-smokers (0.021 (0-0.075) and 0.027 (0.06-0.164)) mumol/mol creatinine than Monday morning median concentrations (0.007 (0-0.021) and 0.008 (0-0.021) mumol/mol creatinine). Smoking did not affect the concentrations of 1-hydroxypyrene or benzo(a)pyrene-albumin adducts. These data suggest.......17-1.15)) pmol/mg albumin and age matched controls (smokers 0.57 (0.16-1.45) and non-smokers 0.70 (0.19-1.55) pmol/mg albumin). Median 1-hydroxypyrene concentrations were significantly higher (P <0.0001) in smoking and non-smoking foundry workers (0.022 (0.006-0.075) and 0.027 (0.006-0.164)) mumol/mol creatinine...... than in smoking and non-smoking controls (0 (0-0.022) and 0 (0-0.010) mumol/mol creatinine). Dose-response relations between total PAH, pyrene, carcinogenic PAHs, and 1-hydroxypyrene for smokers, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons adsorbed to dust for non-smokers are suggested. Exposure to PAHs...

  8. Thin film metal surface micromachining: a new enabling foundry technology

    van Heeren, Henne; Andringa, Toon; Attenborough, K.; Eisenberg, Martin; Meeuws, P.

    2003-01-01

    A new generation of products has been developed at research institutes needing a combination of thin film metal processing and surface micromachining. Especially RF MEMS switches and related products are now entering the market. These products are not only complex in architecture, they also feature relative thick metal layers. The thicknesses of the metal layers give rise to problems in the field of step coverage, dimension control and limited resistance to etching agents. Reliability and yield in production is therefore a major concern. To make robust, compact and reliable structures, combinations of electroplating and Chemical Mechanical Polishing are used. The combinations are not only new in this area; they are rather different from the standards in the semiconductor industry, where the technology was developed. The process modules are used in RF MEMS to create the thick signal lines, as well as the delicate switch and varactor structures. The basic processes, tried and tested in the production of magnetic heads, had to be modified to meet the special demands of RF MEMS. Also new processes had to be introduced to create free hanging membranes. Due to the fragility of the structures, a special technology is being developed in the backend processing: wafer scale packaging. This article gives an overview of the processes, the challenges met and the results of the work on RF MEMS at the OnStream MST foundry.

  9. Signalling a foundry mould filling degree with infrared sensors

    M. Bogdan

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available A contactless method of measuring a foundry mould filling degree in course of its pouring with liquid metal is suggested. The concept is based on infrared radiation of molten metal appearing in venting and flow-off holes. As the detector, an infrared channel receiving diode is applied. Three solutions were tested. In the first solution, the diode is placed at the calculated distance from the radiation source, in a housing that suppresses the scattered signal. The housing contains the electronics, while power supply and control signals are delivered by conductors. A diode actuation threshold is established in order to obtain high resolution and repeatability of the results. On the output, a miniature relay transmits the signal to the control system. In the second solution, the measuring system is supplied with a battery and the signal in transmitted through a plastic optical fibre. In the third solution, the optical fibre serves as an energy carrier. The optical system focuses the infrared radiation and introduces the energy to the optical fibre. On the other end of the fibre, a phototransistor amplifies the signal, forms it and transmits to the control system. Some experiments were carried out. Their results permitted noting disadvantages and advantages of individual solutions. It was evidenced that the measurement results obtained using the infrared radiation are independent on a constructional design. The solutions utilising optical fibres proved to be more useful in industrial conditions. Targets and further directions of research works using transceivers for wireless data transmission are presented.

  10. Analysis of effectiveness of used sands reclamation treatment – in various technological devices

    R. Dańko

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of effectiveness of spent sands reclamation treatment performed in technological devices of various intensity of dry reclamation – during which used binding material is being removed from grain surfaces – is presented in the paper. Variety of reclamation influences was considered via the realization of the so called elementary operations such as: rubbing, grinding and crushing [1-5], which are realised mainly in dry mechanical reclamation devices but also appear in other technological devices for sand preparation.The model rotor reclaimer and two types of mixers used for preparing initial foundry sands with resin U 404 and hardener 100 T3 of the Hüttenes-Albertus Company were applied for tests.The theoretical model for assessing the effectiveness of reclamation treatment developed by the author [3, 4], was experimentally verified [5, 7], with the application of standard testing procedures. The model can be considered a new tool enabling the selection of optimal reclamation times for the given used sand at the assumed intensity of silica sand matrix recovery. Sand mixture of a proper composition fulfilled needed technological properties after total hardening was used as charge material in experiments. The reclamation treatment consisted of mechanical and mechanical-cryogenic reclamation performed within a wide range of times and conditions influencing the treatment intensity.

  11. Petrochemicals from oil sands

    The petrochemical industry in Alberta developed rapidly during the 1980s and 1990s. However, projected diminishing gas production from the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin has raised concerns about the future growth of the industry in Alberta. A joint industry/government study has been conducted to evaluate new feedstocks from Alberta's vast oil sands resources to supplement natural gas liquids. Having both gas and oil sands feedstock options should increase the long-term competitiveness of Alberta's petrochemical industry.This paper presents a framework for evaluating and optimizing schemes for helping Alberta develop synergies for its oil sands and petrochemical industries through cost effective integration of oil sands, upgrading, refining and petrochemical development from 2005 to 2020. The paper places emphasis on specific locations and market conditions. It demonstrates that phased integration of oil sands and petrochemical developments is technically and economically feasible to co-produce high grade fuels and petrochemicals, assuming a new pipeline is built between Edmonton and Vancouver. Alberta has the potential to become a world-scale energy and petrochemical cluster. Alberta's oil sands facilities are potentially capable of supporting new world-scale plants producing ethylene, propylene, benzene, para-xylene, and other high-value-added derivatives. The products can be produced by integrating existing and new oil sands upgrading plants, refineries and petrochemical plants within the next 5 to 10 years. 3 refs., 2 tabs., 7 figs

  12. Property enhancement by grain refinement of zinc-aluminium foundry alloys

    Krajewski, W. K.; Greer, A. L.; Piwowarski, G.; Krajewski, P. K.

    2016-03-01

    Development of cast alloys with good mechanical properties and involving less energy consumption during their melting is one of the key demands of today's industry. Zinc foundry alloys of high and medium Al content, i.e. Zn-(15-30) wt.% Al and Zn-(8-12) wt.% Al, can satisfy these requirements. The present paper summarizes the work [1-9] on improving properties of sand-cast ZnAl10 (Zn-10 wt.% Al) and ZnAl25 (Zn-25 wt. % Al) alloys by melt inoculation. Special attention was devoted to improving ductility, whilst preserving high damping properties at the same time. The composition and structural modification of medium- and high-aluminium zinc alloys influence their strength, tribological properties and structural stability. In a series of studies, Zn - (10-12) wt. % Al and Zn - (25-26) wt.% Al - (1-2.5) wt.% Cu alloys have been doped with different levels of added Ti. The melted alloys were inoculated with ZnTi-based refiners and it was observed that the dendritic structure is significantly finer already after addition of 50 - 100 ppm Ti to the melted alloys. The alloy's structure and mechanical properties have been studied using: SEM (scanning electron microscopy), LM (light microscopy), dilatometry, pin-on-disc wear, and tensile strength measurements. Grain refinement leads to significant improvement of ductility in the binary high-aluminium Zn-(25-27) Al alloys while in the medium-aluminium alloys the effect is rather weak. In the ternary alloys Zn-26Al-Cu, replacing a part of Cu with Ti allows dimensional changes to be reduced while preserving good tribological properties. Furthermore, the high initial damping properties were nearly entirely preserved after inoculation. The results obtained allow us to characterize grain refinement of the examined high-aluminium zinc alloys as a promising process leading to the improvement of their properties. At the same time, using low melting ZnTi-based master alloys makes it possible to avoid the excessive melt overheating needed for TiCAl or TiBAl refiners and reduces the possibility of gas pick-up and material loss.

  13. Problems of bentonite rebonding of synthetic system sands in turbine mixers

    A. Fedoryszyn

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Turbine (rotor mixers are widely used in foundries for bentonite rebonding of synthetic system sands. They form basic equipment in modern sand processing plants. Their major advantage is the short time of the rebond mixing cycle.Until now, no complete theoretical description of the process of mixing in turbine mixers has been offered. Neither does it seem reasonable to try to adapt the theoretical backgrounds of the mixing process carried out in mixers of other types, for example, rooler mixers [1], to the description of operation of the turbine mixers. Truly one can risk the statement that the individual fundamental operations of mixing in rooler mixers, like kneading, grinding, mixing and thinning, are also performed in turbine mixers. Yet, even if so, in turbine mixers these processes are proceeding at a rate and intensity different than in the roller mixers. The fact should also be recalled that the theoretical backgrounds usually relate to the preparation of sand mixtures from new components, and this considerably restricts the field of application of these descriptions when referred to rebond mixing of the system sand. The fundamentals of the process of the synthetic sand rebonding with bentonite require determination and description of operations, like disaggregation, even distribution of binder and water within the entire volume of the rebonded sand batch, sand grains coating, binder activation and aeration.This study presents the scope of research on the sand rebonding process carried out in turbine mixers. The aim has been to determine the range and specific values of the designing and operating parameters to get optimum properties of the rebonded sand as well as energy input in the process.

  14. Avalanches of dry sand

    Boutreux, T.; Raphal, E.; de Gennes, P. G.

    We present here some general features of sand heaps and of dunes. We mainly discuss avalanche flows, using a modified version of the equations of Bouchaud et al., which might be valid for thick avalanches.

  15. The Flow of Sand.

    Yersel, Metin

    2000-01-01

    Describes a simple demonstration of the flow of sand through an orifice at the bottom of a sandbox. Advocates the experiment's use with dimensional analysis for students in an introductory physics course. (WRM)

  16. Interaction of smoking, uptake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and cytochrome P450IA2 activity among foundry workers

    Sherson, D; Sigsgaard, T; Overgaard, E; Loft, S; Poulsen, H E; Jongeneelen, F J

    1992-01-01

    reflected by the urinary caffeine ratio (IA2) in 45 foundry workers and 52 controls; IA2 was defined as the ratio of paraxanthine 7-demethylation products to a paraxanthine 8-hydroxylation product (1,7-dimethyluric acid). Mean exposure concentrations for foundry workers were defined by breathing zone...

  17. Qualitative Analysis of Foundry Industry: A DMAIC Approach

    Sehgala, Sumit; Kaushisha, Deepak; Rathia, Vijayesh

    2015-01-01

    DMAIC approach is a business strategy used to improve business profitability and efficiency of all operation to meet customer needs and expectations. In the present research work, an attempt has been made to apply DMAIC (Define, Measure, analysis, improve, control) approach. The emphasis was laid down towards reduction in the defects (Blow holes, Misrun, Slag inclusion, Rough surface) occurred in the sand castings by controlling the parameters with DMAIC technique. The results achieved shows ...

  18. Vestled - Hvide Sande

    Juel-Christiansen, Carsten; Hesselbjerg, Marianne; Schønherr, Torben

    2009-01-01

    Værket Vestled i Hvide Sande præsenteret i sammenhæng af 1000 nutidige landskabsarkitektoniske arbejder fra hele verden, hvor hvert værk vises på én side......Værket Vestled i Hvide Sande præsenteret i sammenhæng af 1000 nutidige landskabsarkitektoniske arbejder fra hele verden, hvor hvert værk vises på én side...

  19. Erosion phenomena in sand moulds

    A. Chojecki; J. Mocek

    2008-01-01

    Authors studicd the erosion phcnorncna in sand moulds pured with cast iron. Thc study comprises an evaluation of erosionresistance of thc three sands: grccn sand. sand bondcd with inorganic or organic bindcr. It was concluded that thc most resistant is [heclassic green sand with thc addition of 5 B coal dust. Resistance of the sand with organic binder is generally weak and dcvnds onkind of used raisin. Spccinl nztcntion was paid to the sands with no organic bindcr watcr glass and phospha~c. I...

  20. Database for foundry engineers – simulationDB – a modern database storing simulation results

    P. Malinowski

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: of this paper The main aim of this paper is to build specific database system for collecting, analysing and searching simulation results.Design/methodology/approach: It was prepared using client-server architecture. Then was prepared GUI - Graphical User Interface.Findings: New database system for foundry was discovered.Practical implications: System development is in progress and practical implication will be hold in one of iron foundry in next year.Originality/value: The original value of this paper is innovative database system for storing and analysing simulation results.

  1. Rebounding process of moulding sands-thermal degradation of bentonite binding qualities

    R. Dańko

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problems related to a gradual degradation of binding qualities of montmorillonite, the main component of foundry bentonites, are presented in the paper. This degradation is caused by high temperatures originated from liquid metal influencing moulding sands. Laboratory measurements of an active binding agent content in classic moulding sands prepared with two types of bentonite and subjected to a controlled heating to high temperatures – were performed. These laboratory examinations were compared to industrial tests, in which a temperature distribution was being determined in several places in the thickness of the casting ingot mould for 24 hours from the moment of pouring liquid metal. On the basis of the performed examinations, the method allowing to determine optimal additions in the rebounding process of the tested bentonites was developed.

  2. Sand pits and gravel-sand pits

    Řehounková, Klára; Řehounek, J.; Beran, L.; Bogusch, P.; Blízek, J.; Boukal, M.; Grycz, F.; Hátle, M.; Hlásek, J.; Heneberg, P.; Hesoun, P.; Konvička, Martin; Lepšová, A.; Matějček, T.; Rektoris, L.; Stárka, L.; Zavadil, V.

    České Budějovice : Faculty of Science, University of South Bohemia in České Budějovice, 2011 - (Řehounková, K.; Řehounek, J.; Prach, K.), s. 51-67 ISBN 978-80-7394-322-6 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP505/11/0256 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516; CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 ; RVO:60077344 Keywords : sand pits Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  3. Application of microwave energy for curing of molding sands containing oil binders

    M. Stachowicz

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This works presents the results of studies concerning possibility of application of microwave heating in the curing process of molding sands containing oil binders. Molding sands prepared with three kinds of binders, that is oils C, DL and Retanol, have been subject to experiments. The sands have been dried with two methods: in a microwave chamber of 750W power and, for comparison, with classical method at the temperature of 200°C for 120 minutes. Tensile and bending strength of the samples have been determined after cooling down. It has been found that microwave drying in the low-power device used for experiments is effective only in case of molding sand prepared with addition of DL binder. The temperature of heated, even up to 32 minutes in a microwave chamber, blocks prepared from the remaining two masses, was insufficient to initiate binding process. The undertaken attempts of binder modification and introduction of additives intensifying microwave heating process allowed for achievement of satisfactory results. It has been found that power of the heating device is the main factor determining efficiency of microwave curing of molding sands containing oil binders. An additional experiment has been conducted on a laboratory workstation allowing for microwave heating of small mass samples with a high output power of magnetron concentrated in a small substrate volume. It has been observed that microwave drying process of molding sands was of dynamic character over a short period of time, not exceeding 120 seconds, thus assuring efficient curing of the sands containing the used oil binders. Therefore, application of devices of properly high microwave output power allows for efficient drying of oil molding sands, while simultaneously assuring the possibility to reduce time and energy consumption necessary for production of foundry cores of proper functional characteristics.

  4. Oil sands tax expenditures

    The oil sands are a strategic Canadian resource for which federal and provincial governments provide financial incentives to develop and exploit. This report describes the Oil Sands Tax Expenditure Model (OSTEM) developed to estimate the size of the federal income tax expenditure attributed to the oil sands industry. Tax expenditures are tax concessions which are used as alternatives to direct government spending for achieving government policy objectives. The OSTEM was developed within the business Income Tax Division of Canada's Department of Finance. Data inputs for the model were obtained from oil sands developers and Natural Resources Canada. OSTEM calculates annual revenues, royalties and federal taxes at project levels using project-level projections of capital investment, operating expenses and production. OSTEM calculates tax expenditures by comparing taxes paid under different tax regimes. The model also estimates the foregone revenue as a percentage of capital investment. Total tax expenditures associated with investment in the oil sands are projected to total $820 million for the period from 1986 to 2030, representing 4.6 per cent of the total investment. 10 refs., 2 tabs., 7 figs

  5. Risk assessment of chemicals in foundries: The International Chemical Toolkit pilot-project

    In Brazil, problems regarding protection from hazardous substances in small-sized enterprises are similar to those observed in many other countries. Looking for a simple tool to assess and control such exposures, FUNDACENTRO has started in 2005 a pilot-project to implement the International Chemical Control Toolkit. During the series of visits to foundries, it was observed that although many changes have occurred in foundry technology, occupational exposures to silica dust and metal fumes continue to occur, due to a lack of perception of occupational exposure in the work environment. After introducing the Chemical Toolkit concept to the foundry work group, it was possible to show that the activities undertaken to improve the management of chemicals, according to its concept, will support companies in fulfilling government legislations related to chemical management, occupational health and safety, and environmental impact. In the following meetings, the foundry work group and FUNDACENTRO research team will identify 'inadequate work situations'. Based on the Chemical Toolkit, improvement measures will be proposed. Afterwards, a survey will verify the efficency of those measures in the control of hazards and consequently on the management of chemicals. This step is now in course

  6. Gas percolation through sand

    Previous research has determined the shock properties of quartz sand. The effect of the physical processes occurring with varying moisture content and particle size were shock presented. In this study the same quartz sand, in a column is subjected to blast waves over a range of pressure. The diagnostics used are pressure sensors and high-speed photography. The effect of grain size on propagation time and the effect of moisture content are determined. Aspects of particle and liquid movement are also discussed. While the velocity of the percolation through the bed is primarily controlled by grain size the effect of moisture and liquids reveals a more complex dependence.

  7. Sand Dunes with Frost

    2004-01-01

    9 May 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a suite of frost-covered sand dunes in the north polar region of Mars in early spring, 2004. The dunes indicate wind transport of sand from left to right (west to east). These landforms are located near 78.1oN, 220.8oW. This picture is illuminated by sunlight from the lower left and covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) across.

  8. UK Frac Sand Resources

    Mitchell, C J

    2015-01-01

    Although still just a glimmer in the gas man’s eye, the prospect of shale hydrocarbon (oil and gas) development in the UK has many companies thinking about the industrial minerals it will require. Chief amongst these is silica sand which is used as a ‘proppant’ in the hydraulic fracturing, or ‘fracking’, of shales to help release the gas. The UK has large resources of sand and sandstone, of which only a small proportion have the necessary technical properties that classify them as ‘silica san...

  9. Building with Sand

    Ashbrook, Peggy

    2010-01-01

    Children playing in damp sand invariably try to make a tower or a tunnel. By providing experiences with a variety of materials, alone and together, teachers set up the conditions for children to learn through their senses and ensure that a class approaches a topic with a common set of experiences to build on. Learning about the properties of…

  10. Ganges Chasma Sands

    2005-01-01

    8 July 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows dark, windblown sand in the form of dunes and a broad, relatively flat, sand sheet in Ganges Chasma, part of the eastern Valles Marineris trough complex. The winds responsible for these dunes blew largely from the north. Sand dunes on Mars, unlike their Earthly counterparts, are usually dark in tone. This is a reflection of their composition, which includes minerals that are more rich in iron and magnesium than the common silica-rich dunes of Earth. Similar dark sands on Earth are found in volcanic regions such as Iceland and Hawaii. A large dune field of iron/magnesium-rich grains, in the form fragments of the volcanic rock, basalt, occurs south of Moses Lake, Washington, in the U.S. Location near: 7.7oS, 45.3oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Southern Spring

  11. Building with Sand

    Ashbrook, Peggy

    2010-01-01

    Children playing in damp sand invariably try to make a tower or a tunnel. By providing experiences with a variety of materials, alone and together, teachers set up the conditions for children to learn through their senses and ensure that a class approaches a topic with a common set of experiences to build on. Learning about the properties of

  12. Sand transport in multiphase pipelines

    YAN, Wei

    2010-01-01

    Over the life of an oil and gas reservoir, it is likely to encounter sand production. In offshore production fields, as there are lack of processing facilities nearby, gas, liquid and sand are often transported together in long distance pipelines. The existence of sand could accumulate in the pipelines under inappropriate operation condition and eventually will lead to a blockage. Thus, to design such systems requires knowledge on how sand is transported, when and where it will accumulate. ...

  13. On Pluvial Compaction of Sand

    Jacobsen, Moust

    At the Institute of Civil Engineering in Aalborg model tests on dry sand specimens have been carried out during the last five years. To reduce deviations in test results, the sand laying technique has been carefully studied, and the sand mass spreader constructed. Preliminary results have been...

  14. Design process optimization, virtual prototyping of manufacturing, and foundry-portable DFM (Invited Paper)

    Hogan, James; Progler, Christopher; Chatila, Ahmad; Bruggeman, Bert; Heins, Mitchell; Pack, Robert; Boksha, Victor

    2005-05-01

    We consider modern design for manufacturing (DFM) as a manifestation of IC industry re-integration and intensive cost management dynamics. In that regard DFM is somewhat different from so-called design for yield (DFY) which essentially focuses on productivity (yield) management (that is not to say that DFM and DFY do not have significant overlaps and interactions). We clearly see the shaping of a new "full-chip DFM" infrastructure on the background of the "back to basics" design-manufacturing re-integration dynamics. In the presented work we are focusing on required DFM-efficiencies in a "foundry-fabless" link. Concepts of "virtual prototyping of manufacturing", "design process optimization", and "foundry-portable DFM" models are explored. Both senior management of the industry and leading design groups finally realize the need for a radical change of design styles. Some of the DFM super-goals are to isolate designers from process details and to make designs foundry portable. It requires qualification of designs at different foundries. In their turn, foundries specified and are implementing a set of DFM rules: "action-required", "recommended", and "guidelines" while asking designers to provide netlist and testing information. Also, we observe strong signs of innovation coming back to the mask industry. Powerful solutions are emerging and shaping up toward mask-centered IP as a business. While it seems that pure-play foundries have found their place for now in the "IDM+" model (supporting manufacturing capacity of IDMs) it is not obvious how sustainable the model is. Wafer as a production unit is not sufficient anymore; foundries are being asked by large customers to price products in terms of good die. It brings back the notion of the old ASIC business model where the foundry is responsible for dealing with both random and systematic yield issues for a given design. One scenario of future development would be that some of the leading foundries might eventually transform themselves into IDMs. Another visible trend: some of the manufacturing capacities started to diversify business by providing services for new emerging markets (for example, new energy and medicine applications). Finally it is very unclear what"s going to happen to fabless players. We continue building on the "Think SPICE again!" methodology introduced last year and expanding on previous platforms' discussion. Model expression of DFM, most probably, will be supplied by the equipment suppliers and yield management community. Actual content for a design intent model will be provided by manufacturing. Much like SPICE it describes the behavior and not what the actual measurement in manufacturing is. When the model is available and populated, a design automation solution can be created that will allow a designer to extract, analyze, simulate, and optimize the circuit prior to handoff to manufacturing.

  15. Sand hazards on tourist beaches.

    Heggie, Travis W

    2013-01-01

    Visiting the beach is a popular tourist activity worldwide. Unfortunately, the beach environment is abundant with hazards and potential danger to the unsuspecting tourist. While the traditional focus of beach safety has been water safety oriented, there is growing concern about the risks posed by the sand environment on beaches. This study reports on the death and near death experience of eight tourists in the collapse of sand holes, sand dunes, and sand tunnels. Each incident occurred suddenly and the complete burial in sand directly contributed to the victims injury or death in each case report. PMID:23290717

  16. Risk assessment related to manual handling on choosen work possition in foundry Alstom Power Sp. z o. o.

    Kowal, G.

    2010-01-01

    Manual handling remains one of the different types of transport inside working place, although technological progress and modernorganization of work. Manual transport as a transport inside working place is related to foundry industry. According to polish lawregulations employer has to give consideration to manual handling in professional risk assessment and introduce actions for manualhandling reduction. In Foundry Elblag case there is found that in many processes manual handling are made by ...

  17. Moving sand dunes

    Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

    2011-01-01

    In several desert areas, the slow motion of sand dunes can be a challenge for modern human activities and a threat for the survival of ancient places or archaeological sites. However, several methods exist for surveying the dune fields and estimate their migration rate. Among these methods, the use of satellite images, in particular of those freely available on the World Wide Web, is a convenient resource for the planning of future human settlements and activities.

  18. Liquefaction resistance of calcareous sands

    Calcareous sands are unique in terms of their origin, mineralogy, shape, fragility and intra particle porosity. This article presents results from an experimental program carried out to study the liquefaction resistance of a calcareous sand retrieved from Cabo Rojo at Puerto Rico. The experimental program included mineralogical characterization, index properties, and undrained cyclic triaxial tests on isotropically consolidated reconstituted samples. Due to the large variation in the calcareous sand properties, results are compared with previous researches carried out on other calcareous sands around the world. Results showed a wide range in the liquefaction resistance of the studied calcareous sands. Cabo Rojo sand experienced greater liquefaction resistance than most of the calcareous sands used for comparison. Important differences in the excess pore pressure generation characteristics were also found.

  19. Hydrogen porosity in Al-Si foundry alloys

    Akhtar, Shahid

    2010-01-15

    Aluminium alloys based on the aluminium-silicon system are popular for automotive and aerospace applications, thanks to their high strength to weight ratio, excellent castability, and corrosion resistance. Microporosity is widely acknowledged to affect both static and dynamic properties of structural aluminium alloy castings. Formation of microporosity is a complex phenomenon and depends upon various factors but mainly hydrogen content and melt cleanliness, i.e., oxide films and inclusions. In the past few decades numerous studies on microporosity formation have been reported. However, several aspects of this subject are not fully understood. The motivation of this doctoral thesis has been to improve the knowledge of porosity formation and its affect of the mechanical properties of the cast products. This study aimed at understanding the effect of hydrogen and defects on microporosity of aluminium-silicon based castings. A literature review of the theories of porosity formation, and previously reported results on the factors affecting the microporosity formation in aluminium alloys is reported briefly in order to establish a basis of the present study. The research presented in this thesis is divided in five phases. In the first phase, lab scale directional solidification experiments were carried out with an A 356 alloy. Six hydrogen levels from 0.48 to 0.07 mL/100 g melt were reached by various up-gassing and de-gassing treatments of the melt. The melt quality was assessed by porous disc filtration apparatus (PoDFA) and reduced pressure test (RPT) methods. Microporosity distribution in the castings was characterized by the Archmedian method, image analysis and X-ray radiography. The results show that the porosity distribution is strongly dependent on the cooling rate and hydrogen content in the presence of the oxide films type defects. In the next phase, casting experiments with an A356 melt were carried by using a step mould die and castings were produced with and without filtration. The experiments were divided into series I and series II. In the first series 70 kg of the A356 ingots were melted in an electric resistance furnace. Three hydrogen levels namely 0.1, 0.2, and 0.4 mL/100 g melt were reached first by Ar-degassing, and up-gassing with Ar-10 % H2 and Ar-water vapour mixture, respectively. In the second series of experiments similar procedure was applied to another melt but in the reverse order. The castings were characterized in terms of microporosity and mechanical properties distribution. In addition high pressure die casting of an A380 alloy was carried out with different processing parameters like plunger speed, commutation point between first and second phase and pouring temperature. The results shows that tensile properties in both gravity and high pressure die castings were affected by the amount and distribution of casting defects. A series of casting experiments were carried out with the same type of step mould and with two hydrogen levels, namely 0.1 and 0.2 mL/100 g melt, in the third phase of the project. The main focus of these trials was to carefully control the variables during melt preparation, casting and solidification and keep the variations at minimum. Experiments were performed in two different days in order to check the reproducibility of the measurements. For the low gas level (0.1 mL/100 g melt) higher porosity levels are observed in the thinnest step, while the trend is opposite with the medium gas level (0.2 mL/100 g melt) castings. The data obtained form these trials where casting variables were controlled in a reproducible way form a basis for evaluating the results of simulated microporosity distributions using recent modelling approaches. The reproducibility of the step mould used was calculated to be 10-15 %. In the fourth phase, a study in an automotive casting plant was targeted to address the problem of high rejection rate of a cylinder head casting made from an A354 alloy. In the foundry, the castings under investigation were usually made from the mixture of A 354 alloys from three different suppliers in uncontrolled proportions. In an attempt to solve this problem, a number of systematic experiments were carried out to assess the melt quality with RPT, and pressure filtration (PREFIL) tests. The results from these trials show that the bi-film index data from the RPT has a potential to be used in an industrial environment for routine melt quality control as the cause of high scrap was successfully identified with this technique. In the last phase of this work, state-of-the-art low pressure die casting (LPDC) experiments with an A356 melt were carried out using the same step mould die used in second and third phases. Castings were made with two hydrogen levels, namely 0.1 and 0.2 mL/100 g melt. There is not much reported on microporosity simulation under LPDC conditions and reliable experimental validation is needed.

  20. Intricately Rippled Sand Deposits

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for Intricately Rippled Sand Deposits (QTVR) NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit welcomed the beginning of 2006 on Earth by taking this striking panorama of intricately rippled sand deposits in Gusev Crater on Mars. This is an approximate true-color rendering of the 'El Dorado' ripple field provided by Spirit over the New Year's holiday weekend. The view spans about 160 degrees in azimuth from left to right and consists of images acquired by Spirit's panoramic camera on Spirit's 708th and 710th Martian days, or sols, (Dec. 30, 2005 and Jan. 1, 2006). Spirit used the Pancam's 750-nanometer, 530-nanometer and 430-nanometer filters to capture the colors on Mars. Scientists have eliminated seams between individual frames in the sky portion of the mosaic to better simulate the vista a person standing on Mars would see. Spirit spent several days acquiring images, spectral data, and compositional and mineralogical information about these large sand deposits before continuing downhill toward 'Home Plate.'

  1. Oil sands supply outlook

    In March 2004, The Canadian Energy Research Institute released a report on the expected future supply from Alberta's oil sands. The report indicates that the future for the already well-established oil sands industry is promising, particularly given the outlook for oil prices. The challenges facing the industry include higher industry supply costs and the need for innovative commercial and technological solutions to address the risks of irregularities and changes in crude oil prices. In 2003, the industry produced 874 thousand barrels per day of synthetic crude oil and unprocessed crude bitumen. This represents 35 per cent of Canada's total oil production. Current production capacity has increased to 1.0 million barrels per day (mbpd) due to new projects. This number may increase to 3.5 mbpd by 2017. Some new projects may be deferred due to the higher raw bitumen and synthetic crude oil supply costs. This presentation provided supply costs for a range of oil sands recovery technologies and production projections under various business scenarios. tabs., figs

  2. AN ANALYSIS OF THE DIFFERENTIATION STRATEGIES OF RURAL FOUNDRIES IN THE BEGINNING OF THE 20TH CENTURY IN THE PROVINCE OF QUEBEC

    Lisa Baillargeon

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The business model and strategic position of Quebec's rural foundries at the beginning of the 20th century is virtually unknown. Inferences have been made based on pictorial and oral data sources. This data reveals that successful rural foundries were, in essence, confined to producing and selling agricultural tools to local farmers on an as-needed basis, because large urban foundries were already mass-producing domestic and industrial objects. In contrast, use of detailed accounting records and advertising publications of three rural foundries over the 1900 to 1914 period provides a clearer picture of the production and of the clientele of those rural foundries. Analysis of these sources suggests that the strategic business model of rural foundries was much more elaborate than the existing literature posits. Rural owner-managers of the early 20th century were sophisticated strategists, marketers, and operators.

  3. COMBINED EFFECTS OF HEAT STRESS AND SHIFT WORK ON PHYSIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS IN FOUNDRY WORKERS

    Nassiri, P.; M. Taheri; F. Golbabaie; Mohammadzadeh, M.

    1990-01-01

    In order to investigate the combined effects of shift work and heat stress on the physiological parameters, such as heart rate (HR) and body temperature (BT), a hot-dry working environment was investigated for 53 workers in foundry workshops. In this study Wet Bulb Globe Temperature index (WBGT) was measured and along with that simultaneously heart rate and oral temperature were checked in 3 shifts. The results indicated that the physiological responses of workers changed whenever the shift c...

  4. Replies to Challenges in the Field of Air Pollution Control in Foundry Plants

    R. Margraf

    2012-01-01

    The solution of applications for air pollution control in foundries for iron and non-ferrous metals may not only be understood as theobservance of requested emission limit values at the stack outlet. An effective environmental protection already starts with the greatest possible capture of pollutants at the source with at the same time minimisation of the volume flow necessary for this. Independent of this, the downstream installed filtration system has to realise a degree of separation of de...

  5. Risk assessment of gaseous/particulate phase PAH exposure in foundry industry.

    Liu, Hung-Hsin; Yang, Hsi-Hsien; Chou, Choa-Da; Lin, Ming-Hsiu; Chen, Hsiu-Ling

    2010-09-15

    Thirty-seven air samplings in different working areas of two foundry industries were collected to assess polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) levels. The average PAH level inside Foundry A was 19.56 microg/m(3), which was higher than that in Foundry B (8.26 microg/m(3)), whereas for the benzo[a]pyrene toxic equivalent (BaPeq) level (38.81 ng/m(3) vs. 46.52 ng/m(3)). A higher PAH level was found for big moulding process than for the small one, and the chemical binder in the different size moulds was hypothesized to be the main cause. The higher PAH levels were found in the painting area (95.51 microg/m(3)), pouring area (18.42 microg/m(3)), and inside the office (16.48 microg/m(3)); as well as the higher BaPeq level was in the painting area (152.3 ng/m(3)), and the furnace for melting iron (96.9 ng/m(3)). The gas phase (over 90%) was the major contributor of total PAHs in the manufacturing areas. Moreover, health risk assessment of PAHs exposure showed that lung cancer risks were 9.06x10(-4) and 1.09x10(-3) in Foundries A and B, respectively. This study suggests that the workers shall use appropriate respiratory masks in painting, melting, and pouring areas to prevent their occupational exposure to PAHs. PMID:20554114

  6. Properties of made by different methods of RP impeller foundry patterns

    G. Budzik

    2007-01-01

    This article presents the tests of properties of foundry patterns of turbocharger turbine impeller. Impellers prototypes were predestinated for casting by method losing patterns. There were carried out tests of these prototypes made by different methods of Rapid Prototyping (RP). Two impeller were made by growth methods: stereolitography (SLA) and three dimensional printing (3DP). One prototype was made by the method of Vacuum Casting as a wax casting. Tests were executed in the Department of...

  7. Evaluation and Verification of Time and Costs of Production Activities in Foundry Industry

    S. Kukla

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the possibility of using technology of modelling and simulation of productive systems in the management of cast iron production by means of automated foundry lines to maximize assembly line structure. The computer model of foundry has been planed and conducted in order to compile the schedule of cast production. The variants of solution have been estimated talking into account time limitations imposed by clients and the criterion for prime costs appointed on the basis of the ZAR by means of aided detailed calculation according to planes of their formation. In the research, problem connected with exploitation of automatic foundry lines have been taken into consideration. Moreover, the analysis of line work stoppage has been conducted and construction of schedule of the planned service of line device has been undertaken on the basis of the knowledge of timetables of correct work of these devices. Furthermore, the operational database has been prepared so as to assemble and process data about the damaged and other line work stoppage. It should be noted that the database will give the possibility of working out the schedule of planned service. The problems has been presented by using the pocket for modelling and the simulation of productive systems – ARENA

  8. Micromechanics of sand grain failure and sand compaction

    Brzesowsky, R.H.

    1995-01-01

    While there exists a considerable body of theoretical and experimental work regarding the time-independent compaction and compaction creep behaviour of sands under near-surface and upper-crustal conditions where brittle processes are important, a number of important questions remain unanswered. In particular, the brittle failure behaviour of single sand grains is poorly understood at the microphysical level, and previous experimental studies performed on sand aggregates have not systematicall...

  9. Oil sands development update

    A detailed review and update of oil sands development in Alberta are provided covering every aspect of the production and economic aspects of the industry. It is pointed out that at present oil sands account for 28 per cent of Canadian crude oil production, expected to reach 50 per cent by 2005. Based on recent announcements, a total of 26 billion dollars worth of projects are in progress or planned; 20 billion dollars worth of this development is in the Athabasca area, the remainder in Cold Lake and other areas. The current update envisages up to 1,800,000 barrels per day by 2008, creating 47,000 new jobs and total government revenues through direct and indirect taxes of 118 billion dollars. Provinces other than Alberta also benefit from these development, since 60 per cent of all employment and income created by oil sands production is in other parts of Canada. Up to 60 per cent of the expansion is for goods and services and of this, 50 to 55 per cent will be purchased from Canadian sources. The remaining 40 per cent of the new investment is for engineering and construction of which 95 per cent is Canadian content. Aboriginal workforce by common consent of existing operators matches regional representation (about 13 per cent), and new developers are expected to match these standards. Planned or ongoing development in environmental protection through improved technologies and optimization, energy efficiency and improved tailings management, and active support of flexibility mechanisms such as emission credits trading, joint implementation and carbon sinks are very high on the industry's agenda. The importance of offsets are discussed extensively along with key considerations for international negotiations, as well as further research of other options such as sequestration, environmentally benign disposal of waste, and enhanced voluntary action

  10. Nearshore oblique sand bars

    Ribas Prats, Francesca; Falqués Serra, Albert; Montoto Gayete, Amadeo

    2003-01-01

    The coupling between hydrodynamics and the evolving topography in the surf zone has been theoretically examined for oblique wave incidence. It is shown that positive feedback can lead to the initial growth of several types of rhythmic systems of sand bars. The bars can be down-current oriented or up-current oriented, which means that the offshore end of the bar is shifted down-current or up-current with respect to the shore attachment. In the limit of strong current compared to wave orbita...

  11. Compressive behavior of fine sand.

    Martin, Bradley E. (Air Force Research Laboratory, Eglin, FL); Kabir, Md. E. (Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN); Song, Bo; Chen, Wayne (Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN)

    2010-04-01

    The compressive mechanical response of fine sand is experimentally investigated. The strain rate, initial density, stress state, and moisture level are systematically varied. A Kolsky bar was modified to obtain uniaxial and triaxial compressive response at high strain rates. A controlled loading pulse allows the specimen to acquire stress equilibrium and constant strain-rates. The results show that the compressive response of the fine sand is not sensitive to strain rate under the loading conditions in this study, but significantly dependent on the moisture content, initial density and lateral confinement. Partially saturated sand is more compliant than dry sand. Similar trends were reported in the quasi-static regime for experiments conducted at comparable specimen conditions. The sand becomes stiffer as initial density and/or confinement pressure increases. The sand particle size become smaller after hydrostatic pressure and further smaller after dynamic axial loading.

  12. A family of sand automata

    Faulkner, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    We study some dynamical properties of a family of two-dimensional cellular automata: those that arise from an underlying one dimensional sand automaton whose local rule is obtained using a latin square. We identify a simple sand automaton G whose local rule is algebraic, and classify this automaton as having equicontinuity points, but not being equicontinuous. We also show it is not surjective. We generalise some of these results to a wider class of sand automata.

  13. STUDY OF CREEP OF SAND

    K. D. Chyong; V. V. Ledenev

    2012-01-01

    Statement of the problem. Subgrade has perceived rheological properties, most importantly, creep. As a result, the number subbase displacements and their irregularities grow constantly in re-cent years. But this fact is not taken into account in calculations, this is why additional studies of structural strength and creep of sand are essential.Results. Empirical relationships between displacements of models of sand subbase and loading conditions are obtained. It is shown that creep in sand su...

  14. Dynamics of aeolian sand ripples

    Csahok, Z.; Misbah, C; Rioual, F.; Valance, A.

    2000-01-01

    We analyze theoretically the dynamics of aeolian sand ripples. In order to put the study in the context we first review existing models. We argue on the local character of sand ripple formation. Using a hydrodynamical model we derive a nonlinear equation for the sand profile. We show how the hydrodynamical model may be modified to recover the missing terms that are dictated by symmetries. The symmetry and conservation arguments are powerful in that the form of the equation is model-independen...

  15. Optimization of Mold Yield in MultiCavity Sand Castings

    Shinde, Vasudev D.; Joshi, Durgesh; Ravi, B.; Narasimhan, K.

    2013-06-01

    The productivity of ductile iron foundries engaging in mass production of castings for the automobile and other engineering sectors depends on the number of cavities per mold. A denser packing of cavities, however, results in slower heat transfer from adjacent cavities, leading to delayed solidification, possible shrinkage defects, and lower mechanical properties. In this article, we propose a methodology to optimize mold yield by selecting the correct combination of the mold box size and the number of cavities based on solidification time and mold temperature. Simulation studies were carried out by modeling solid and hollow cube castings with different values of cavity-wall gap and finding the minimum value of the gap beyond which there is no change in casting solidification time. Then double-cavity molds were modeled with different values of cavity-cavity gap, and simulated to find the minimum value of gap. The simulation results were verified by melting and pouring ductile iron in green sand molds instrumented with thermocouples, and recording the temperature in mold at predetermined locations. The proposed approach can be employed to generate a technological database of minimum gaps for various combinations of part geometry, metal and process, which will be very useful to optimize the mold cavity layouts.

  16. Namibia : triaxial test on sand

    Steenfelt, Jørgen S.; Jacobsen, Kim P.

    In connection with a harbour project the friction angle of a fine sand is required. On Friday 13 March 1998 the Danish Geotechnical Institute (DGI) delivered app. 2.5 kg sand for testing at the Geotechnical Engineering Laboratory, Aalborg University. The present Data Report summarises the results...

  17. Basic properties for sand automata

    Cervelle, Julien; Formenti, Enrico; Masson, Benoît

    2007-01-01

    We prove several results about the relations between injectivity and surjectivity for sand automata. Moreover, we begin the exploration of the dynamical behavior of sand automata proving that the property of nilpotency is undecidable. We believe that the proof technique used for this last result might reveal useful for many other results in this context.

  18. Sand swimming lizard: sandfish

    Maladen, Ryan D; Kamor, Adam; Goldman, Daniel I

    2009-01-01

    We use high-speed x-ray imaging to reveal how a small (~10cm) desert dwelling lizard, the sandfish (Scincus scincus), swims within a granular medium [1]. On the surface, the lizard uses a standard diagonal gait, but once below the surface, the organism no longer uses limbs for propulsion. Instead it propagates a large amplitude single period sinusoidal traveling wave down its body and tail to propel itself at speeds up to ~1.5 body-length/sec. Motivated by these experiments we study a numerical model of the sandfish as it swims within a validated soft sphere Molecular Dynamics granular media simulation. We use this model as a tool to understand dynamics like flow fields and forces generated as the animal swims within the granular media. [1] Maladen, R.D. and Ding, Y. and Li, C. and Goldman, D.I., Undulatory Swimming in Sand: Subsurface Locomotion of the Sandfish Lizard, Science, 325, 314, 2009

  19. 2010 oil sands performance report

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    With the depletion of traditional energy resources and the rising demand for energy, oil sands have become an important energy resource for meeting energy needs. Oil sands are a mixture of water, sand, clay and bitumen which is recovered either through open pit mining or in situ drilling techniques. The bitumen is then converted into syncrude or sold to refineries for the production of gasoline, diesel or other products. Shell has oil sands operations in Alberta and the aim of this report is to present its 2010 performance in terms of CO2, water, tailings, land, and reclamation and engagement. This document covers several of Shell's operations in the Muskeg River and Jackpine mines, Scotford upgrader, Peace River, Orion, Seal, Cliffdale and Chipmunk. It provides useful information on Shell's oil sands performance to governments, environmental groups, First Nations, local communities and the public.

  20. Linking energy efficiency and innovation practices: Empirical evidence from the foundry sector

    The Europe 2020 strategy currently promotes energy efficiency and innovation through disconnected targets focusing on either energy or R&D. Similar policies indicate that in practice, these two concepts are usually perceived as mutually exclusive. Furthermore, evidence in the literature regarding the relationship between R&D and energy efficiency is still highly limited. This exploratory study aims to address this gap by investigating the link between innovation practices and energy efficiency through a multiple case study of 30 foundries in Northern Italy. We analysed the firms' innovativeness, measured by internal R&D and Open Innovation practices (inbound and outbound), and energy efficiency, measured by specific energy consumption, level of adoption of energy-efficient technologies and barriers to energy efficiency. The results seem to show that those foundries complementing internal R&D with inbound practices have a higher level of energy efficiency, a higher level of adoption of available technologies, and a lower perception of barriers to efficiency improvements. This finding suggests that diversifying innovation practices could lead to better performance with respect to all three indicators of energy efficiency analysed. This study contributes to understanding how more innovative firms can be more energy efficient, providing interesting highlights for managers and policymakers. -- Highlights: •The relation between innovation practices and energy efficiency is articulated. •The link between innovation practices and energy efficiency is tested for foundries. •Energy efficiency is measured with three different indicators. •Analyses of the relations between these indicators support the link with innovation. •Concurrent adoption of internal R&D and inbound practices leads to higher efficiency

  1. Foundry industries: environmental aspects and environmental condition indicators; Industrias de fundicion: aspectos ambientales e indicadores de condicion ambiental

    Sosa, B. s.; Banda-Noriega, R. B.; Guerrero, E. M.

    2013-03-01

    Nowadays, environmental indicators are widely used as effective tools to assist decision-making in both public and private sectors. The lack of literature and research about local and regional Environmental Condition Indicators (ECI), the poor knowledge regarding solid waste generation, effluents and gas emissions from foundry industries, and their particular location in the urban area of Tandil, Argentina are the main reasons for this investigation, aiming to develop a set a of ECI to provide information about the environment in relation to the foundry industry. The study involves all the foundries located in the city between March and April 2010. The set of ECI developed includes 9 indicators for air, 5 for soil and 1 for water. Specific methodology was used for each indicator. (Author) 31 refs.

  2. COMBINED EFFECTS OF HEAT STRESS AND SHIFT WORK ON PHYSIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS IN FOUNDRY WORKERS

    P.Nassiri

    1990-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the combined effects of shift work and heat stress on the physiological parameters, such as heart rate (HR and body temperature (BT, a hot-dry working environment was investigated for 53 workers in foundry workshops. In this study Wet Bulb Globe Temperature index (WBGT was measured and along with that simultaneously heart rate and oral temperature were checked in 3 shifts. The results indicated that the physiological responses of workers changed whenever the shift changed and the responses were increased by a corresponding increase in heat stress, index.

  3. Mechanical engineering note - safety analysis of molten uranium/water interaction in the uranium foundry furnace

    Gourdin, W H; Sze, J

    1999-08-19

    This Engineering Note describes the development of the accident criteria used the basis for the design of the uranium foundry vacuum vessel. The results of this analysis provide input into other safety notes that investigate how well the uranium containment boundary will maintain its integrity during the design basis accident. The preventative measures that have been designed into the system to minimize the potential to produce a flammable gas mixture are described. The system response is designed for consistency with applicable sections of the LLNL Health and Safety Manual, as well as the Mechanical engineering Safety Design Standards.

  4. Studies on the Executionof Models Used in Iron Foundry From Epoxidic Resins

    Cinca - Ionel Lupinca

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The epoxidic resins are materials frequently used in the execution of the models used in iron foundry. This materials can replace casily wood or aluminium in the execution of the models needed in series productions, having better resistance properties and the high dimensional precision. The properties of these resins are obtained from the completion of the epoxibifunctional molecules with supplements. This paper establishes the result of mixing the two components, as well as the supplements used to improve the mechanic and the technological properties.

  5. Gas flow through a multilayer ceramic mould in lost wax foundry process

    H. Matysiak

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the issues of permeability testing of ceramic moulds used in lost wax foundry process. The main issue in thetesting is to provide proper specimens of ceramic moulds (CM. The moulds have to be repeatable and must be free of internal defects ofmicrocrack type that are formed mainly during the removal of patterns from CM in the course of heat treatment.Moreover, the process of forming ceramic moulds must be similar to the general industrial process of CM moulds making regardingtheir anisotropic structure. The permeability parameter reflecting gas flow through multilayer ceramic moulds was also examined withattention to the investment casting shape accuracy.

  6. Gas flow through a multilayer ceramic mould in lost wax foundry process

    Matysiak, H.; R. Haratym; M. Klabczyk

    2009-01-01

    The paper deals with the issues of permeability testing of ceramic moulds used in lost wax foundry process. The main issue in thetesting is to provide proper specimens of ceramic moulds (CM). The moulds have to be repeatable and must be free of internal defects ofmicrocrack type that are formed mainly during the removal of patterns from CM in the course of heat treatment.Moreover, the process of forming ceramic moulds must be similar to the general industrial process of CM moulds making regar...

  7. Interaction of smoking, uptake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and cytochrome P450IA2 activity among foundry workers.

    Sherson, D; Sigsgaard, T.; Overgaard, E; Loft, S.; H. E. Poulsen; Jongeneelen, F J

    1992-01-01

    An increased lung cancer risk has been described among foundry workers. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and silica are possible aetiological factors. This study describes a urinary PAH metabolite, 1-hydroxypyrene (hpU), as well as the degree of cytochrome P450IA2 activity/induction as reflected by the urinary caffeine ratio (IA2) in 45 foundry workers and 52 controls; IA2 was defined as the ratio of paraxanthine 7-demethylation products to a paraxanthine 8-hydroxylation product (1,7-d...

  8. Proposal for the award of a blanket purchase contract for the supply of foundry services for semiconductor technologies

    2006-01-01

    This document concerns the award of a blanket purchase contract for the supply of foundry services for semiconductor technologies. The Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of a blanket purchase contract with IBM SWITZERLAND (CH), the lowest bidder complying with the specification, for the supply of foundry services for semiconductor technologies for a period of four years, for a total amount not exceeding 4 000 000 US dollars, not subject to revision. At the present rate of exchange, the total amount of the blanket purchase contract is equivalent to approximately 5 000 000 Swiss francs. CERN's financial contribution will not exceed 1 000 000 Swiss francs.

  9. Sand engine quells the coast's hunger for sand

    Dijk, T. van

    2012-01-01

    An artificial peninsula at Ter Heijde is designed to feed the coast with sediment. Scientists are investigating whether this kind of sand engine could be the Netherlands’ answer to rising sea levels.

  10. Alberta oil sands royalty regime

    The long term objective of the Oil Sands Business Unit of Alberta Energy is to pave the way for Alberta's bitumen production to reach 3 million barrels per day by 2020. This presentation described the national government's role in resource development. It was emphasized that since the Crown is the owner of the oil sands resource, it would benefit by providing strategic leadership and by generating a larger royalty base. The oil sands fiscal regime was described with reference to generic royalty, risk sharing, investment, and project economics. Business rule principles were also outlined along with criteria for project expansions. Both upstream and downstream challenges and opportunities were listed. 4 figs

  11. Direct Chlorination of Zircon Sand

    It was investigated the direct chlorination of zircon sand in a unit chlorination equipment. The process was in semi batch. The product gas was scrubbed in aqueous NaOH. It was search the influence of time, ratio of reactant and size of particle sand to the concentration of Zr and Si in the product. From these research it was found that as the times, ratio of reactant increased, the concentration of Zr increased, but the concentration of Si decreased, while as grain size of zircon sand decreased the concentration of Zr decreased, but the concentration of Si increased. (author)

  12. Saltation of non-spherical sand particles.

    Wang, Zhengshi; Ren, Shan; Huang, Ning

    2014-01-01

    Saltation is an important geological process and the primary source of atmospheric mineral dust aerosols. Unfortunately, no studies to date have been able to precisely reproduce the saltation process because of the simplified theoretical models used. For example, sand particles in most of the existing wind sand movement models are considered to be spherical, the effects of the sand shape on the structure of the wind sand flow are rarely studied, and the effect of mid-air collision is usually neglected. In fact, sand grains are rarely round in natural environments. In this paper, we first analyzed the drag coefficients, drag forces, and starting friction wind speeds of sand grains with different shapes in the saltation process, then established a sand saltation model that considers the coupling effect between wind and the sand grains, the effect of the mid-air collision of sand grains, and the effect of the sand grain shape. Based on this model, the saltation process and sand transport rate of non-spherical sand particles were simulated. The results show that the sand shape has a significant impact on the saltation process; for the same wind speed, the sand transport rates varied for different shapes of sand grains by as much as several-fold. Therefore, sand shape is one of the important factors affecting wind-sand movement. PMID:25170614

  13. Reclaimability of the spent sand mixture – sand with bentonite – sand with furfuryl resin

    J. Dańko

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction of new binding materials and new technologies of their hardening in casting moulds and cores production requires theapplication of reclamation methods adequate to their properties as well as special devices realizing tasks. The spent sands circulationsystem containing the same kind of moulding and core sands is optimal from the point of view of the expected reclamation results.However, in the face of a significant variability of applied technologies and related to them various reclamation methods, the need - of theobtained reclamation products assessment on the grounds of systematic criteria and uniform bases – arises, with a tendency of indicatingwhich criteria are the most important for the given sand system. The reclaimability results of the mixture of the spent moulding sand withGeko S bentonite and the spent core sand with the Kaltharz 404U resin hardened by acidic hardener 100 T3, are presented in the paper.Investigations were performed with regard to the estimation of an influence of core sands additions (10 –25% on the reclaimed materialquality. Dusts and clay content in the reclaim, its chemical reaction (pH and ignition loss were estimated. The verification of the reclaiminstrumental assessment was performed on the basis of the technological properties estimation of moulding sand with bentonite, where the reclaimed material was used as a matrix.

  14. Replies to Challenges in the Field of Air Pollution Control in Foundry Plants

    R. Margraf

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The solution of applications for air pollution control in foundries for iron and non-ferrous metals may not only be understood as theobservance of requested emission limit values at the stack outlet. An effective environmental protection already starts with the greatest possible capture of pollutants at the source with at the same time minimisation of the volume flow necessary for this. Independent of this, the downstream installed filtration system has to realise a degree of separation of definitely above 99%.Furthermore, when selecting the filter construction, attention has to be paid to a high availability. An even temporarily productionwithout filter will more and more no longer be accepted by residents and authorities. Incidents at the filter lead to a shutdown of the whole production.Additional measures for heat recovery while preparing concepts for filtration plants help to reduce the energy consumption and servefor a sustained conservation of environment.A consequent consideration of the items above is also condition for the fact that environmental protection in foundries remainsaffordable. The lecture deals with the subjects above from the point of view of a plant constructor.

  15. View on the foundry industries in South East Asia. Tonan Asia no imono jijo

    Ono, S. (Shinto Kogyo Ltd., Nagoya (Japan))

    1993-11-25

    This paper summarizes circumstances in foundry industries in South East Asia. Collectively said South East Asia, it consists of completely different histories, races, and cultures. This paper, therefore, explains such countries as Philippines, Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore, and Indonesia from their historical developments to the current problems. The number of foundry factories is, in the above order, 120, 160, 160, 20, and 100, with annual cast product ion of 54,000, 207,000, 65,000, 30,000, and 90,000 tons. Philippines, for example, is the most highly industrialized nation, where a large number of Japanese corporations has advanced. Active production is being carried out on casts for producing automotive parts. The country is blessed also with talented persons who can support the production. What is common to these countries is the long time that takes from starting of a factory until the production gets on a profit making basis. Several factors could be enumerated for this situation, including insufficient infrastructure availability. 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Aeolian sand ripples around plants.

    Zhang, Qian-Hua; Miao, Tian-De

    2003-05-01

    Plants in the desert may locally change the aeolian process, and hence the pattern of sand ripples traveling nearby. The effect of plants on ripples is investigated using a coupled map lattice model with nonuniform coupling coefficients. PMID:12786143

  17. Minimal Model for Sand Dunes

    Kroy, Klaus; Sauermann, Gerd; Herrmann, Hans J.

    2001-01-01

    We propose a minimal model for aeolian sand dunes. It combines an analytical description of the turbulent wind velocity field above the dune with a continuum saltation model that allows for saturation transients in the sand flux. The model provides a qualitative understanding of important features of real dunes, such as their longitudinal shape and aspect ratio, the formation of a slip face, the breaking of scale invariance, and the existence of a minimum dune size.

  18. Sand Erosion in Hydraulic Machinery

    Thapa, Bhola

    2004-01-01

    The topic of this thesis is damage of hydraulic machinery due to sand erosion. This is a very broad topic in which all the aspects of design of hydraulic machinery namely material selection; mechanics of material and hydraulics are involved. The issue of sand erosion is equally important for operation and maintenance of hydropower plants. The erosion damage of turbines of hydropower plants in Himalayan Rivers, in particular in Nepal, due to high sediment contents in river is a motivating fact...

  19. Sensuous Communism: Sand with Marx

    White, Claire

    2015-01-01

    This article reads George Sand's Le Compagnon du Tour de France (1840) alongside Karl Marx's “Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts of 1844.” It considers how these contemporaries bring to bear on their accounts of labor, estrangement, and the structures of property an attention to the fate of the senses under capitalism. Both elaborate a critique of political economy—Sand's voiced by her worker-hero—that demonstrates how the individual's sensuous life is circumscribed by the pressures of mate...

  20. Formation of aeolian ripples and sand sorting

    Manukyan, Edgar; Prigozhin, Leonid

    2008-01-01

    We present a continuous model capable of demonstrating some salient features of aeolian sand ripples: the realistic asymmetric ripple shape, coarsening of ripple field at the nonlinear stage of ripple growth, saturation of ripple growth for homogeneous sand, typical size segregation of sand and formation of armoring layers of coarse particles on ripple crests and windward slopes if sand is inhomogeneous.

  1. Sand transport over an immobile gravel substrate

    Experiments were conducted in a laboratory flume channel to evaluate the effects of increasing amounts of sand with an immobile gravel fraction on the sand transport rate and configuration of the sand bed. Knowledge of the movement of sand in gravel beds is important for the management of streams a...

  2. Value-Chain Dynamics of the West Point Foundry, 1817-1911: A Historical Case Analysis in Marketing

    Petkus, Ed, Jr.

    2013-01-01

    This case provides the opportunity for students to explore marketing and value/supply-chain dynamics in a unique historical context. The West Point Foundry (WPF), located in Cold Spring, New York, was one of the most important manufacturing ventures in the United States from 1817 to 1911. The case outlines the supply-chain details of the WPF as

  3. Value-Chain Dynamics of the West Point Foundry, 1817-1911: A Historical Case Analysis in Marketing

    Petkus, Ed, Jr.

    2013-01-01

    This case provides the opportunity for students to explore marketing and value/supply-chain dynamics in a unique historical context. The West Point Foundry (WPF), located in Cold Spring, New York, was one of the most important manufacturing ventures in the United States from 1817 to 1911. The case outlines the supply-chain details of the WPF as…

  4. Reclaimability of the spent sand mixture – sand with bentonite – sand with furfuryl resin

    J. Dańko; Dańko, R.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction of new binding materials and new technologies of their hardening in casting moulds and cores production requires theapplication of reclamation methods adequate to their properties as well as special devices realizing tasks. The spent sands circulationsystem containing the same kind of moulding and core sands is optimal from the point of view of the expected reclamation results.However, in the face of a significant variability of applied technologies and related to them various re...

  5. Physical modelling of sand injectites

    Rodrigues, N.; Cobbold, P. R.; Løseth, H.

    2009-09-01

    Sand injectites are structures that result from intrusion of fluidized sand into fractures. We have studied them in the Tampen Spur area of the North Sea, and have reproduced them experimentally, by driving compressed air through layers of sand, glass microspheres, and silica powder. The silica powder was cohesive and capable of hydraulic fracturing, whereas the sand and glass microspheres were almost non-cohesive and therefore able to fluidize. The models were dynamically similar to their natural counterparts, for as long as equilibrium was static. When the processes became dynamic, so that inertial forces were significant, the scaling was approximate and the corresponding Reynolds numbers differed. The experimental apparatus was a square box, 1 m × 1 m wide, resting on a grid of fluid diffusers. During the experiments, the fluid pressure increased, until it attained and surpassed the weight of overburden. Flat-lying hydraulic fractures, containing air, formed within cohesive and least permeable layers. Heterogeneities in material properties and layer thicknesses were responsible for localizing fracture networks. When any one network broke through to the surface, rapid flow of air through the fractures fluidized the underlying mobile materials and even depleted some of the layers. Some of the fluidized material extruded at the surface through vents, forming volcanoes and sheets. The remainder lodged at depth, forming sand injectites or laccoliths. Conical sand injectites formed preferentially, where layers had high resistance to bending. Laccoliths formed nearer the surface, where overlying layers had low resistance to bending. The experimental sand injectites were broadly similar to those in the Tampen Spur area of the North Sea, as well as other areas.

  6. Oil sands tailings management project

    The Oil sands leadership initiative (OSLI) works with the Government of Alberta on the development of the oil sands industry, considering environmental, economical and social aspects. Water management was identified as one of most important areas to focus on. Alberta WaterSMART was requested to support the development and the management of projects resulting from the work done or underway in this field. The development of a regional water management solution stood out as the most interesting solution to obtain significant results. In the Athabasca Region, oil sands producers work independently on their water sourcing and disposal with particular attention to fresh water conservation and economics. The Athabasca River represents a source for mines and distant saline aquifers are the target of steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) operators. As part of a four-phase project aiming to study the environmental and economic footprint (EEF) benefit of alternatives for Athabasca oil sands production water supply and disposal, the purpose of the tailings water management project was to identify tailings treatment technologies that are ready to be implemented, and to design and evaluate solutions in order to improve regional oil sands production water sourcing and disposal. Alternatives were evaluated based on their total EEF, applying a lifecycle assessment methodology with a particular attention on the quantification of important performance indicators. 25 refs., 8 tabs., 40 figs.

  7. Sand Dunes in Noachis Terra

    2004-01-01

    11 February 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows dark-toned sand dunes in a crater in eastern Noachis Terra. Most big martian dunes tend to be dark, as opposed to the more familiar light-toned dunes of Earth. This difference is a product of the composition of the dunes; on Earth, most dunes contain abundant quartz. Quartz is usually clear (transparent), though quartz sand grains that have been kicked around by wind usually develop a white, frosty surface. On Mars, the sand is mostly made up of the darker minerals that comprise iron- and magnesium-rich volcanic rocks--i.e., like the black sand beaches found on volcanic islands like Hawaii. Examples of dark sand dunes on Earth are found in central Washington state and Iceland, among other places. This picture is located near 49.0oS, 326.3oW. Sunlight illuminates this scene from the upper left; the image covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) wide.

  8. To Determine the Molding Sand Strength by Using Different Sand Control Test

    Mazhar Iqbal*

    2014-01-01

    The need for systematic evaluation of the working qualities of molding sands has led to the development of a wide range of sand control tests. Production of sound casting largely depends upon uniform and good quality of molding sand.

  9. Study of Black Sand Particles from Sand Dunes in Badr, Saudi Arabia Using Electron Microscopy

    Haider Abbas Khwaja; Omar Siraj Aburizaiza; Daniel L. Hershey; Azhar Siddique; David A. Guerrieri P. E.; Jahan Zeb; Mohammad Abbass; Blake, Donald R.; Mirza Mozammel Hussain; Abdullah Jameel Aburiziza; Malissa A. Kramer; Simpson, Isobel J.

    2015-01-01

    Particulate air pollution is a health concern. This study determines the microscopic make-up of different varieties of sand particles collected at a sand dune site in Badr, Saudi Arabia in 2012. Three categories of sand were studied: black sand, white sand, and volcanic sand. The study used multiple high resolution electron microscopies to study the morphologies, emission source types, size, and elemental composition of the particles, and to evaluate the presence of surface coatings or cont...

  10. Hydrometallurgical treatment of brass foundry and EAF steelmaking dusts for zinc recovery

    Ducati, U.; Bestetti, M. [Politechnico di Milano, Milano (Italy); Colombo, D. [Univ. di Trento, Mesiano (Italy); Nodari, L.; Belitrandi, L. [Colmetal Combiago S.p.A., Cambiago (Italy); Cagol, A. [Nordeco S.p.A., Pergine Valsugana (Italy)

    1998-12-31

    Pyrometallurgical treatments are commonly used to recover zinc from oxidic residues generated in metallurgical plants. This study showed how hydrometallurgy offers a more versatile ensemble of technologies to face the challenge of metal recovery from both primary and secondary sources. Solvent extraction, in particular, is a promising technology for various fields in non-ferrous metallurgy. A process was described to treat zinc oxide containing residues, such as Waelz kiln oxides and plasma smelting oxides. The process can be applied to the treatment of brass foundry dusts, and is based on leaching with concentrated ammonium chloride solution and media exchange by solvent extraction. The process can also be applied to electric arc furnace dust with some modifications. 17 refs., 10 tabs., 4 figs.

  11. The analysis of the wax foundry models fabrication process for the CPX3000 device

    G. Budzik

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents possibilities of creating wax founding models by means of CPX3000 device. The device is used for Rapid Prototypingof models made of foundry wax in an incremental process. The paper also presents problems connected with choosing technologicalparameters for incremental shaping which influence the accuracy of created models. Issues connected with post-processing are alsodescribed. This process is of great importance for obtaining geometrically correct models. The analysis of parameters of cleaning models from supporting material is also presented. At present CPX3000 printer is the first used in Poland device by 3D Systems firm for creating wax models. The printer is at The Faculty of Mechanical Engineering at Rzeszów University of Technology.

  12. Models and Algorithms for Production Planning and Scheduling in Foundries – Current State and Development Perspectives

    A. Stawowy

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Mathematical programming, constraint programming and computational intelligence techniques, presented in the literature in the field of operations research and production management, are generally inadequate for planning real-life production process. These methods are in fact dedicated to solving the standard problems such as shop floor scheduling or lot-sizing, or their simple combinations such as scheduling with batching. Whereas many real-world production planning problems require the simultaneous solution of several problems (in addition to task scheduling and lot-sizing, the problems such as cutting, workforce scheduling, packing and transport issues, including the problems that are difficult to structure. The article presents examples and classification of production planning and scheduling systems in the foundry industry described in the literature, and also outlines the possible development directions of models and algorithms used in such systems.

  13. Risk Assessment of Occupational Exposure to Crystalline Silica in Small Foundries in Pakdasht, Iran

    Ali OMIDIANIDOST

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The term crystallized silica refers to the crystallized form of Sio2 and quartz, the most frequency composition in the earth’s crust that can cause silicosis and lung cancer through occupational exposure and inhalation of its large quantities.Methods: Occupational exposure of workers in Pakdasht, Iran, in 2011 was investigated in four different casting processes in small foundries with less than 10 workers. Sampling respirable dust was collected on MCE filter, using HD cyclone at a flow rate of 2.2 lit/min. The filters were analyzed for dust using NIOSH Method 7601. Gravimetric and visible absorption spectrophotometer was used to determine amounts of inhalable dust and free silica, respectively. Risk assessment techniques were also used to predict silicosis and lung cancer.Results: Geometric means of occupational exposure to crystalline silica in 4 different casting processes were studied within the range of 0.009-0.04 mg/m3. Mortality rate due to silicosis was in the range of 1-13.7 per 1000 persons exposed. Risk of mortality due to lung cancer in exposed workers in small casting workshops in Pakdasht, Iran ranged 4-16 per 1000 persons exposed based on geometric mean and 45 years of exposure. According to risk assessment, mortality due to silicosis, cumulative exposure of 96% of population was at an acceptable level of 1/1000.Conclusion: Fifty percent of workers were exposed to crystalline silica dust in excess of Recommended Exposure Limit -NIOSH and Threshold Limit Value ACGIH (0.025 mg/m3. Several cases of silicosis and lung cancer are anticipated for this occupational group in near future. Keywords: Crystalline silica, Small casting foundries, Silicosis, Lung cancer, Risk assessment

  14. Sands at Gusev Crater, Mars

    Cabrol, Nathalie A.; Herkenhoff, Kenneth; Knoll, Andrew H.; Farmer, Jack; Arvidson, Raymond; Grin, Edmond; Li, Ronxing; Fenton, Lori; Cohen, Barbara; Bell, James F.; Aileen Yingst, R.

    2014-05-01

    Processes, environments, and the energy associated with the transport and deposition of sand at Gusev Crater are characterized at the microscopic scale through the comparison of statistical moments for particle size and shape distributions. Bivariate and factor analyses define distinct textural groups at 51 sites along the traverse completed by the Spirit rover as it crossed the plains and went into the Columbia Hills. Fine-to-medium sand is ubiquitous in ripples and wind drifts. Most distributions show excess fine material, consistent with a predominance of wind erosion over the last 3.8 billion years. Negative skewness at West Valley is explained by the removal of fine sand during active erosion, or alternatively, by excess accumulation of coarse sand from a local source. The coarse to very coarse sand particles of ripple armors in the basaltic plains have a unique combination of size and shape. Their distribution display significant changes in their statistical moments within the ~400 m that separate the Columbia Memorial Station from Bonneville Crater. Results are consistent with aeolian and/or impact deposition, while the elongated and rounded shape of the grains forming the ripples, as well as their direction of origin, could point to Ma'adim Vallis as a possible source. For smaller particles on the traverse, our findings confirm that aeolian processes have dominated over impact and other processes to produce sands with the observed size and shape patterns across a spectrum of geologic (e.g., ripples and plains soils) and aerographic settings (e.g., wind shadows).

  15. Strange phenomena in Cuban sands

    Full text: Several unusual phenomena that occur in certain Cuban sands flows (and some other parts of the world) are presented . First, the phenomenon occurs revolving rivers, explained by a phenomenological model. Several open questions were discussed on the 'microscopic' causes of the phenomenon. Uphill lonely waves are shown in second, in streams of the same type of sand that occur in a cell in Hele-Shaw. The 'microscopic' necessary conditions are explored for these waves emerge as solution of Saint-Venant equations modified hydrodynamic type. (author)

  16. Chvorinovs rule and determination of coefficient of heat accumulation of moulds with non-quartz base sands

    T. Elbel

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Application of the Chvorinovs rule for calculation of the total time of casting solidification made also possible to determine chilling effect of foundry moulds (coefficient of heat accumulation of the mould, bf with use of mixtures with new kinds of non-quartz base sands (Magnesite, Chromite, Olivine, Dunite, Kerphalit. Processes by several authors (G. Halbart, A. I. Vejnik, G. A. Anisovich were used for mathematical treatment of measurement results and determination of bf. The highest values were achieved for magnesite moulds followed by chromite ones; the lowest values, approximately half-ones, represented the Dunite moulds. At the same time the results made possible to determine the Chvorinovs mean solidification constants (k that are in direct proportional dependence on bf and indirect proportional to solidification time (?1.

  17. Beyond barriers – A case study on driving forces for improved energy efficiency in the foundry industries in Finland, France, Germany, Italy, Poland, Spain, and Sweden

    Highlights: • Results are based on a questionnaire in the European foundry industry. • The energy efficiency potential is assed to be 7.5% of the total energy use. • Most important drivers to and barriers for energy efficiency are financial followed by organizational. • EPC is used among 23% of the foundries, third party financing among 12%. • Large energy management improvement potentials are uncovered. - Abstract: Energy management plays an important role in the transformation of industrial energy systems towards improved energy efficiency and increased sustainability. This paper aims to study driving forces for improved energy efficiency in some European energy-intensive foundry industries. The investigation has been conducted as a multiple case study involving 65 foundries located in Finland, France, Germany, Italy, Poland, Spain, and Sweden. The most relevant perceived driving forces were found to be financially related, followed by organizational driving forces. Nevertheless, some differences can be appreciated according to the firm’s size and country. Almost half of the studied foundries lack a long-term energy strategy, about one-fourth stated that they have used Energy Performance Contracting (EPC), and only approximately one in ten foundries have used Third Party Financing (TPF). Among the studied foundries, three out of five have conducted an energy audit. On average, the energy saving potential according to the respondents is stated to be 7.5%. In conclusion, energy management in the European foundry industry, despite increasing energy prices and extensive energy policy actions taken by the EU, still seems to have great improvement potential, calling for future research and policy actions in the field

  18. Beyond barriers A case study on driving forces for improved energy efficiency in the foundry industries in Finland, France, Germany, Italy, Poland, Spain, and Sweden

    Thollander, Patrik; Backlund, Sandra; Trianni, Andrea; Cagno, Enrico

    2013-01-01

    Energy management plays an important role in the transformation of industrial energy systems towards improved energy efficiency and increased sustainability. This paper aims to study driving forces for improved energy efficiency in some European energy-intensive foundry industries. The investigation has been conducted as a multiple case study involving 65 foundries located in Finland, France, Germany, Italy, Poland, Spain, and Sweden. The most relevant perceived driving forces were found to b...

  19. Sand and Water Table Play

    Wallace, Ann H.; White, Mary J.; Stone, Ryan

    2010-01-01

    The authors observed preschoolers engaged at the sand and water table to determine if math could be found within their play. Wanting to understand how children interact with provided materials and what kinds of math ideas they explore during these interactions, the authors offer practical examples of how such play can promote mathematical…

  20. Silo model tests with sand

    Munch-Andersen, Jørgen

    Tests have been carried out in a large silo model with Leighton Buzzard Sand. Normal pressures and shear stresses have been measured during tests carried out with inlet and outlet geometry. The filling method is a very important parameter for the strength of the mass and thereby the pressures as...

  1. Avalanche statistics of sand heaps

    Buchholtz, V; Buchholtz, Volkhard; Poeschel, Thorsten

    1996-01-01

    Large scale computer simulations are presented to investigate the avalanche statistics of sand piles using molecular dynamics. We could show that different methods of measurement lead to contradicting conclusions, presumably due to avalanches not reaching the end of the experimental table.

  2. Sand and Water Table Play

    Wallace, Ann H.; White, Mary J.; Stone, Ryan

    2010-01-01

    The authors observed preschoolers engaged at the sand and water table to determine if math could be found within their play. Wanting to understand how children interact with provided materials and what kinds of math ideas they explore during these interactions, the authors offer practical examples of how such play can promote mathematical

  3. Avalanche statistics of sand heaps

    Buchholtz, Volkhard; Poeschel, Thorsten

    2002-01-01

    Large scale computer simulations are presented to investigate the avalanche statistics of sand piles using molecular dynamics. We could show that different methods of measurement lead to contradicting conclusions, presumably due to avalanches not reaching the end of the experimental table.

  4. Mapping marine sand and gravel

    Bide, Tom; Mankelow, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Aggregates – sands and gravels – are essential for building and maintaining our houses and infrastructure, so we need to be sure we have a reliable supply. Tom Bide and Joseph Mankelow explain how geological mapping is taking us in the right direction.

  5. Preliminary Research on Granulation Process of Dust Waste from Reclamation Process of Moulding Sands with Furan Resin

    J. Kami?ska

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The results of investigations of the granulation process of foundry dusts generated in the dry mechanical reclamation process of usedsands, where furan resins were binders are presented in the paper. Investigations concerned producing of granules of the determineddimensions and strength parameters.Granules were formed from the dusts mixture consisting in 50 mass% of dusts obtained after the reclamation of the furane sands and in50 mass % of dusts from sands with bentonite. Dusts from the bentonite sands with water were used as a binder allowing the granulation of after reclamation dusts from the furane sands.The following parameters of the ready final product were determined: moisture content (W, shatter test of granules (Wz performeddirectly after the granulation process and after 1, 3, 5, 10 days and nights of seasoning, water-resistance of granules after 24 hours of being immersed in water, surface porosity ep and volumetric porosity ev. In addition the shatter test and water-resistance of granulate dried at a temperature of 105oC were determined.Investigations were performed at the bowl angle of inclination 45o, for three rotational speeds of the bowl being: 10, 15, 20 rpm.For the speed of 10 rpm the granulation tests of dusts mixture after the preliminary mixing in the roller mixer and with the addition ofwater-glass in the amount of 2% in relation to the amount of dust were carried out.The obtained results indicate that the granulator allows to obtain granules from dusts originated from the reclamations of mouldingsands with the furane resin with an addition of dusts from the bentonite sands processing plants.

  6. Formation of aeolian ripples and sand sorting.

    Manukyan, Edgar; Prigozhin, Leonid

    2009-03-01

    We present a continuous model capable of demonstrating some salient features of aeolian sand ripples: the realistic asymmetric ripple shape, coarsening of the ripple field at the nonlinear stage of ripple growth, saturation of ripple growth for homogeneous sand, typical size segregation of sand, and formation of armoring layers of coarse particles on ripple crests and windward slopes if the sand is inhomogeneous. PMID:19391931

  7. Saltation of Non-Spherical Sand Particles

    WANG, ZHENGSHI; Ren, Shan; Huang, Ning

    2014-01-01

    Saltation is an important geological process and the primary source of atmospheric mineral dust aerosols. Unfortunately, no studies to date have been able to precisely reproduce the saltation process because of the simplified theoretical models used. For example, sand particles in most of the existing wind sand movement models are considered to be spherical, the effects of the sand shape on the structure of the wind sand flow are rarely studied, and the effect of mid-air collision is usually ...

  8. Effects of pipe orientation on sand transportation

    Osho, Adeyemi Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Sand transport in hilly terrain geometry is different and complex to understand compared to horizontal pipeline, due to the influence of the geometry that greatly affect multiphase flow and sand behaviour at the dip. The overall aim of this research work is to use experimental method to investigate the effects of multiphase flow behaviour on sand transport in a dip configuration. Experimental work was carried out to understand the complex dynamic mechanisms that exist during sand multipha...

  9. Baskarp Sand No. 15:data report 9403

    Borup, M.; Hedegaard, J

    1995-01-01

    The Soil Mechanics Laboratory has started performing tests with a new sand, Baskarp No 15. Baskarp No 15 is a graded sand from Sweden. The shapes of the largest grains are round, while the small grains have sharp edges. The main part of of Baskarp No 15 is quarts, but it also contains feldspar and biotit. Mainly the sand will be used for tests concerning the development og the theory of building up pore pressure in sand, L. B. Ibsen 1993.

  10. Baskarp Sand No. 15:data report 9301

    Ibsen, Lars Bo; Bdker, Lars Bdker

    1994-01-01

    The Soil Mechanics Laboratory has started performing tests with a new sand, Baskarp No 15. Baskarp No 15 is a graded sand from Sweden. The shapes of the largest grains are round, while the small grains have sharp edges. The main part of of Baskarp No 15 is quarts, but it also contains feldspar and biotit. Mainly the sand will be used for tests concerning the development of the theory of building up pore pressure in sand.

  11. A compact topology for sand automata

    Dennunzio, Alberto; Guillon, Pierre; Masson, Benot

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we exhibit a strong relation between the sand automata configuration space and the cellular automata configuration space. This relation induces a compact topology for sand automata, and a new context in which sand automata are homeomorphic to cellular automata acting on a specific subshift. We show that the existing topological results for sand automata, including the Hedlund-like representation theorem, still hold. In this context, we give a characterization of the cellular au...

  12. Impact to groundwater resources by landfill foundry industries waste in Tandil, Buenos Aires, Argentina. A preliminary study

    In Tandil city, in Buenos Aires province, Argentina, the foundry industry is one of the most important production lines. The waste generated by these industries has historically been disposed as fill material in pit quarries and brick works of the likelihood that some of his constituents leach contacting the underground water resources. The aim of this paper is to present the preliminaries results hydrochemical and hydrodynamic study conducted in a landfill of waste foundry industries. The work is around developing a disposal site with the measurement of groundwater levels and taking water samples along an annual hydrological cycle (November 2007 - November 2008). The hydrodynamic analysis shows that the groundwater flow is from the west from a rocky area where high variance across the study area. Hydrochemistry in relation to concentrations of nitrate and electrical conductivity vary significantly upstream and downstream of the landfill. (Author) 9 refs.

  13. Treating tar sands formations with karsted zones

    Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Karanikas, John Michael (Houston, TX)

    2010-03-09

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. The tar sands formation may have one or more karsted zones. Methods may include providing heat from one or more heaters to one or more karsted zones of the tar sands formation to mobilize fluids in the formation. At least some of the mobilized fluids may be produced from the formation.

  14. Restoration and conservation of sand and gravel-sand pits

    Řehounková, Klára; Řehounek, J.

    Praha : Agentura ochrany přírody a krajiny České republiky, 2012 - (Jongepierová, I.; Pešout, P.; Jongepier, J.; Prach, K.), s. 94-96 ISBN 978-80-87457-32-0 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP505/11/0256 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : restoration * conservation * sand pits Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  15. A lithography aware design optimization using foundry-certified models and hotspot detection

    Karklin, L.; Arkhipov, A.; Blakely, D.; Dingenen, M.; Mehrotra, A.; Watson, B.; Zelnik, C.; Cote, M.; Hurat, P.

    2007-10-01

    An automated litho-aware design migration solution has been implemented to enable designers to port existing IP layouts (custom, library, and block) to nanometer technologies while optimizing layout printability and silicon yield. With rapidly shrinking technology nodes, the industry consolidation toward fabless or fab-lite manufacturing, demand for second-sourcing and dramatic increase in cost of IP development, the automation of "vertical" (between nodes) and 'horizontal" (between chip manufacturers) migration becomes a very important task. The challenge comes from the fact that even within the same technology node design and process-induced rules deviate substantially among different IDMs and foundries, which leads to costly, error-prone and time consuming design modifications. At the same time, fast and reliable adjustments to design and ability to switch between processes and chip manufacturers could represent significant improvement to TTM, and respectively improving ROI. Using conservative rules (or restricted design rules) is not always a viable option because of the area, performance and yield penalties. The difficulty of migration is augmented by the fact that design rules are not sufficient to guaranty good printability, maximum process window and high yield. Model-based detection of lithography-induced systematic yield-limiting defects (a.k.a. hotspots) is becoming a vital part of the design-for-manufacturing flow for advanced technology nodes at 65nm and below. Driven by customer demand, a collaborative effort between EDA vendors provides a complete design-for-manufacturing migration solution that allows sub-65 nanometer designers to comprehensively address the impact of manufacturing variations on design yield and performance during layout migration. First, the physical hard IP is migrated from its existing 90nm process to a more advanced 65 and 45 nm processes, resulting in an area-optimized DRC-clean 65nm design retaining the original hierarchy to facilitate further editing and design verification the original hierarchy is maintained. Then, the design manufacturability is checked using a model-based hotspot detection solution, applying foundry-certified models. Along with hotspots, it is also critical for the hotspot detection tool to generate directives on how to modify the layout to fix hotspots and prevent creation of new hotspots. Several alternative fixing guidelines, ranked by amount of design perturbation, are generated to provide focus and maximum flexibility to the correction tool. The correction tool reads hotspot locations, severities along with the fixing guidelines, identifies area to be fixed and converts the fixing guidelines into geometry constraints. Correction is then done on each area while respecting design rules, managing ripple effects through multiple layers and maintaining the hierarchy. When all the corrections are completed areas that have been affected are identified to allow these to be incrementally checked by the lithography verification tool (LPC) and re-assembled. In case new or residual hotspots are detected, this fix-verify flow iterates over to converge on a DRC and lithography-compliant design. Usually no more than three iterations are needed to output hotspot-free, DRC and Lithocompliant design. We present the results of this fully automated lithography-aware migration flow on layout IPs ranging from 65 nm to 45 nm design and migrated across foundries. Results show substantial layout quality improvements, reduced design sensitivity to process variability by eliminating hotspots. Run-time and hotspot fixing performance are shown.

  16. Risk assessment related to manual handling on choosen work possition in foundry Alstom Power Sp. z o. o.

    G. Kowal

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Manual handling remains one of the different types of transport inside working place, although technological progress and modernorganization of work. Manual transport as a transport inside working place is related to foundry industry. According to polish lawregulations employer has to give consideration to manual handling in professional risk assessment and introduce actions for manualhandling reduction. In Foundry Elblag case there is found that in many processes manual handling are made by workers. For example wecan choose melting processes (additives manual feeding, mixing and pulling metallurgical slag, etc. or fettling processes like grinding.Objective of that analysis was to define level of risk related to manual handling in work stand chosen and define activities impacted onrisk assessment result with biggest range. For risk reduction, technical and organizational solutions were shown (better ergonomically work stand, method of work and worker’s awareness about good practices. In this study methods related to manual handling risk assessment were described, focus on KIM method used in Foundry Elblag. Key Item Method allow to estimate the risk by simple calculation based on key indicators (time rating points, rating points of mass, posture or work condition. Points were chosen based on timekeeping, information from workers and foreman.

  17. Combining optimisation and simulation in an energy systems analysis of a Swedish iron foundry

    To face global competition, and also reduce environmental and climate impact, industry-wide changes are needed, especially regarding energy use, which is closely related to global warming. Energy efficiency is therefore an essential task for the future as it has a significant impact on both business profits and the environment. For the analysis of possible changes in industrial production processes, and to choose what changes should be made, various modelling tools can be used as a decision support. This paper uses two types of energy analysis tool: Discrete Event Simulation (DES) and Energy Systems Optimisation (ESO). The aim of this study is to describe how a DES and an ESO tool can be combined. A comprehensive five-step approach is proposed for reducing system costs and making a more robust production system. A case study representing a new investment in part of a Swedish iron foundry is also included to illustrate the method's use. The method described in this paper is based on the use of the DES program QUEST and the ESO tool reMIND. The method combination itself is generic, i.e. other similar programs can be used as well with some adjustments and adaptations. The results from the case study show that when different boundary conditions are used the result obtained from the simulation tools is not optimum, in other words, the result shows only a feasible solution and not the best way to run the factory. It is therefore important to use the optimisation tool in such cases in order to obtain the optimum operating strategy. By using the optimisation tool a substantial amount of resources can be saved. The results also show that the combination of optimisation and simulation tools is useful to provide very detailed information about how the system works and to predict system behaviour as well as to minimise the system cost. -- Highlights: ? This study describes how a simulation and an optimisation tool can be combined. ? A case study representing a new investment in part of a foundry is included to illustrate the method's use. ? Combination of the optimization and simulation tools provides detailed information about how the system works. ? By using the optimization and simulation tools a substantial amount of resources can be saved.

  18. Sand dunes as migrating strings.

    Guignier, L; Niiya, H; Nishimori, H; Lague, D; Valance, A

    2013-05-01

    We develop a reduced complexity model for three-dimensional sand dunes, based on a simplified description of the longitudinal and lateral sand transport. The spatiotemporal evolution of a dune migrating over a nonerodible bed under unidirectional wind is reduced to the dynamics of its crest line, providing a simple framework for the investigation of three-dimensional dunes, such as barchan and transverse dunes. Within this model, we derive analytical solutions for barchan dunes and investigate the stability of a rectilinear transverse dune against lateral fluctuations. We show, in particular, that the latter is unstable only if the lateral transport on the dune slip face prevails over that on the upwind face. We also predict the wavelength and the characteristic time that control the subsequent evolution of an unstable transverse dune into a wavy ridge and the ultimate fragmentation into barchan dunes. PMID:23767529

  19. Impact Behavior of A356 Foundry Alloys in the Presence of Trace Elements Ni and V

    Casari, Daniele; Ludwig, Thomas H.; Merlin, Mattia; Arnberg, Lars; Garagnani, Gian Luca

    2015-02-01

    In the present work, the impact behavior of unmodified A356 alloys with the addition of Ni or V in as-cast and T6 heat-treated conditions was assessed. Charpy V-notched specimens obtained from sand and permanent mold casting showed low total absorbed energy average values ( W t A356 alloy, V had a strong influence: (i) V-containing sand cast alloys absorbed slightly higher impact energies compared to the corresponding A356 base alloys; (ii) in the permanent mold cast alloys, V in solid solution led to a considerable loss of ductility, which in turn decreased the total absorbed energy.

  20. Formation of Craters in Sand

    Vanissra Boonyaleepun

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The diameter of craters formed by spheres of varying mass dropped into sand at low speed was studied. The relationship between the diameter of the crater formed and the kinetic energy of the projectile at impact was found to be of the same general form as that for planetary meteor craters. The relationship is shown to be a power law with exponent 0.17.

  1. Stable Dynamics of Sand Automata

    Dennunzio, Alberto; Guillon, Pierre; Masson, Benoît

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we study different notions of stability of sand automata, dynamical systems inspired by sandpile models and cellular automata. First, we study the topological stability properties of equicontinuity and ultimate periodicity, proving that they are equivalent. Then, we deal with nilpotency. The classical definition for cellular automata being meaningless in that setting, we define a more suitable one. Finally, we prove that this simple dynamical behavior is undecidable.

  2. Sea sand for reactive barriers

    Some phosphates have the property to suck in radioactive metals in solution, what it is taken in advance to make reactive barriers which are placed in the nuclear waste repositories. In an effort for contributing to the study of this type of materials, it has been obtained the zirconium silicate (ZrSiO4) and the alpha zirconium hydrogen phosphate (Zr(HPO4) 2H2O) starting from sea sand in an easy and economic way. (Author)

  3. Surface Instability in Windblown Sand

    Kurtze, Douglas A.; Both, Joseph A.; Hong, Daniel C.

    1999-01-01

    We investigate the formation of ripples on the surface of windblown sand based on the one-dimensional model of Nishimori and Ouchi [Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 197 (1993)], which contains the processes of saltation and grain relaxation. We carry out a nonlinear analysis to determine the propagation speed of the restabilized ripple patterns, and the amplitudes and phases of their first, second, and third harmonics. The agreement between the theory and our numerical simulations is excellent near the o...

  4. Biological Clogging of Sand Columns

    Katsutoshi Seki

    2013-01-01

    Increased microbial activity leads to biological clogging (or bioclogging), i.e., the pore space is clogged by microbes and saturated hydraulic conductivity of porous media decreases. A series of column experiments were carried out to study the bioclogging of sand columns. Hydraulic conductivity remained unchanged when a sterilizing agent was applied; however, it decreased when a glucose solution was applied. In most cases, bioclogging proceeded from the inlet of the solution; but, in some c...

  5. Formation of Craters in Sand

    Vanissra Boonyaleepun; Se-Won Jang

    2007-01-01

    The diameter of craters formed by spheres of varying mass dropped into sand at low speed was studied. The relationship between the diameter of the crater formed and the kinetic energy of the projectile at impact was found to be of the same general form as that for planetary meteor craters. The relationship is shown to be a power law with exponent 0.17.

  6. Formation of Craters in Sand

    Vanissra Boonyaleepun; Se-Won Jang

    2007-01-01

    The diameter of craters formed by spheres of varying mass dropped into sand at low speed was studied. The relationship between the diameter of the crater formed and the kinetic energy of the projectile at impact was found to be of the same general form as that for planetary meteor craters. The relationship is shown to be a power law with exponent 0.17

  7. Shaking a Box of Sand

    Stadler, Peter F.; Mehta, Anita; Luck, Jean-Marc

    2001-01-01

    We present a simple model of a vibrated box of sand, and discuss its dynamics in terms of two parameters reflecting static and dynamic disorder respectively. The fluidised, intermediate and frozen (`glassy') dynamical regimes are extensively probed by analysing the response of the packing fraction to steady, as well as cyclic, shaking, and indicators of the onset of a `glass transition' are analysed. In the `glassy' regime, our model is exactly solvable, and allows for the qualitative descrip...

  8. Water Film in Saturated Sand

    Peng, C.(Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China); Zhang, X. H.; X.B. LU

    2010-01-01

    In order to investigate the initiation mechanism of landslide and debris flow occurring on a gentle slope. The formation and evolution of water film (or crack) in saturated sand is analyzed by numerical and theoretical simulations under given conditions. First a psudo-three-phase model is presented considering the movement of skeleton and water and the erosion. Secondly, difference method is used to analyze the formation conditions and the evolution of the velocity of water and pore pressure ...

  9. A compact topology for sand automata

    Dennunzio, Alberto; Masson, Benoît

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we exhibit a strong relation between the sand automata configuration space and the cellular automata configuration space. This relation induces a compact topology for sand automata, and a new context in which sand automata are homeomorphic to cellular automata acting on a specific subshift. We show that the existing topological results for sand automata, including the Hedlund-like representation theorem, still hold. In this context, we give a characterization of the cellular automata which are sand automata, and study some dynamical behaviors such as equicontinuity. Furthermore, we deal with the nilpotency. We show that the classical definition is not meaningful for sand automata. Then, we introduce a suitable new notion of nilpotency for sand automata. Finally, we prove that this simple dynamical behavior is undecidable.

  10. Air-sand heat exchanger

    Baumann, Torsten; Zunft, Stefan [German Aerospace Center (DLR), Stuttgart (Germany); Boura, Cristiano; Eckstein, Julian; Felinks, Jan; Goettsche, Joachim; Hoffschmidt, Bernhard; Schmitz, Stefan [FH Aachen, Juelich (Germany). Solar-Inst. Juelich

    2011-07-01

    This paper summarizes research activities that analyse the thermodynamic behaviour of an Air / Sand Heat Exchanger, developed by Solar-Institut Juelich (SIJ) and the German Aerospace Centre (DLR). A numerical 3-D model, new results and a model validation of this particular cross-flow heat exchanger are presented. Simulation results were obtained for sand with 1-2 mm grain size. The simulation was validated with operational results of a new 15 kW prototype unit. Ansys, including Ansys-CFX, is used as modelling and simulation platform. The bulk material is modelled by a porous solid medium without structural dynamic interaction between fluid and solid phase. For pressure drop calculations, Ergun's model for bulk material is used. The model parameters were validated and fitted with measured values of a separate pressure drop test rig. The validation was done with quartz sand. To determine the suitability of available granular products for this application, tests have been conducted regarding the thermomechanical properties as well as their attrition behaviour and abrasion on various wall materials.

  11. Properties of made by different methods of RP impeller foundry patterns

    G. Budzik

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the tests of properties of foundry patterns of turbocharger turbine impeller. Impellers prototypes were predestinated for casting by method losing patterns. There were carried out tests of these prototypes made by different methods of Rapid Prototyping (RP. Two impeller were made by growth methods: stereolitography (SLA and three dimensional printing (3DP. One prototype was made by the method of Vacuum Casting as a wax casting. Tests were executed in the Department of Machine Design of Rzeszow University of Technology in cooperation with WSK PZL Rzeszow and Car Technology Krakow. First impeller was carried out by method of stereolitography on SLA 250 plant. That pattern was also used to carry out silicon matrix for casting of wax pattern. Next pattern was printed by three dimensional printer Z510 from the powder ZP14. Good removability of the pattern from the mould is particularly essential for impellers of small turbines with blades of small thickness of their section. All pattern were tested on their removability from the ceramic mould. The best melting properties had the wax pattern. Patterns made from resin SL5170 (SLA and powder ZP14 (3DP were removed in the process of burning but about 1% of soot was left in the mould.

  12. Exposure vs toxicity levels of airborne quartz, metal and carbon particles in cast iron foundries.

    Moroni, Beatrice; Viti, Cecilia; Cappelletti, David

    2014-01-01

    Aerosol dust samples and quartz raw materials from different working stations in foundry plants were characterized in order to assess the health risk in this working environment. Samples were analysed by scanning and transmission electron microscopy coupled with image analysis and microanalysis, and by cathodoluminescence spectroscopy. In addition, the concentration and the solubility degree of Fe and other metals of potential health effect (Mn, Zn and Pb) in the bulk samples were determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). Overall, the results indicate substantial changes in quartz crystal structure and texture when passing from the raw material to the airborne dust, which include lattice defects, non-bridging oxygen hole centres and contamination of quartz grains by metal and/or graphite particles. All these aspects point towards the relevance of surface properties on reactivity. Exposure doses have been estimated based on surface area, and compared with threshold levels resulting from toxicology. The possible synergistic effects of concomitant exposure to inhalable magnetite, quartz and/or graphite particles in the same working environment have been properly remarked. PMID:23385294

  13. Health-hazard evaluation report GHETA 83-309-1405, Chrysler Corporation Foundry, Indianapolis, Indiana

    In response to a request arising out of employee concerns over the medical surveillance program at the Chrysler Corporation Foundry located in Indianapolis, Indiana, an evaluation was made of chest radiographs evaluated by the program with specific concern directed to disagreement on the radiographic diagnosis of pneumoconiosis. The request was made by the Chrysler Corporation and the United Auto Workers National Joint Committee on Health and Safety. Three NIOSH certified B-readers independently interpreted a set of 78 systematically sampled posteroanterior (PA) chest radiographs from the system files. These interpretations were compared among themselves and with company interpretations. While none of the radiographs was deemed unreadable, 35% were classified as having poor technical quality. Only one film was found which had a profusion of small opacities, and the company had interpreted the film as positive. Overall, agreement on proportion of positive readings and agreement on individual films was as good between the company and B-readers as it was between any two of the individual B-readers. The author recommends, however, that in order to avoid future complaints of the nature, the company should use standard radiographic equipment and techniques, NIOSH certified B-readers, and current international classifications of radiographs for pneumoconioses in their medical surveillance program

  14. Modeling of the influence of coarsening on viscoplastic behavior of a 319 foundry aluminum alloy

    Both metallurgical and mechanical behaviors of a 319 foundry aluminum alloy have been modeled by means of a multiscale approach. The nano-scale, represented by the coarsening of Al2Cu precipitates, has been modeled according to the Lifshitz–Slyozov–Wagner (LSW) law in a range of temperature going from 23 °C to 300 °C up to 1000 h aging time. Results were then compared to transmission electron microscope (TEM) observations and are in good agreement with the experimental measurements. The model allows us to know the critical radius, the volume fraction and the number of particles per μm3 in a α-phase representative volume element (RVE). The increase in yield stress generated by the interaction of dislocations with precipitates, lattice and solid solution, is modeled on the microscale. The yield stress becomes thus a function of the precipitation state, and is time/temperature dependent. These two models were then combined into a mechanical macroscale model in order to represent the Low Cycle Fatigue (LCF) behavior of the material. An elasto-viscoplastic law has been used and all the material parameters were experimentally determined with LCF stress/strain loops for the first cycle and for the mechanical steady state. The simulation results are in good agreement with the experiments.

  15. Influence of Some Trace Elements on Solidification Path and Microstructure of Al-Si Foundry Alloys

    Ludwig, Thomas Hartmut; Schaffer, Paul Louis; Arnberg, Lars

    2013-08-01

    In the present study, Ca, Ni, V, and Zn were added to a high purity binary Al-7wt pct Si and commercial purity A356 foundry alloy in the nominal range of 50 to 600 ppm in order to study their effect on the solidification path and the resultant microstructure. Thermal analysis was used to assess nucleation and growth of the various phases. It was found that Ca and Ni additions suppress characteristic temperatures associated with nucleation and growth of the eutectic by up to 4 and 1.5 K, respectively. Additionally, Ca was observed to modify the eutectic Si and a concentration as low as 39 ppm Ca was sufficient to precipitate the geometrically unfavored polyhedral Al2Si2Ca phase. Furthermore, Ni addition resulted in the formation of two intermetallic phases when the Ni concentration exceeded 300 ppm. These phases have been quantified as Al3Ni and Al9FeNi by SEM-EDS. V and Zn had no apparent effect on the cooling curve and the microstructure. Even though it could be shown that V accumulates preferably in ?-Al5FeSi particles, V concentrations of 600 ppm were too low to have any influence on the phase's morphology.

  16. Performances of MMIC X-band power amplifiers obtained in foundry

    Aperce, Gilles

    1990-09-01

    Two class A X band power Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuits (MMICs) chips designed for phased array applications are described. Both have been consistently manufactured in just one foundry pass. A 10 GHz pulsed output power of 30 dBm saturated with 29 dB associated gain and 13 percent power added efficiency was achieved for the first power amplifier. The accurate small signal modeling of active and passive elements was the key to obtain these very good performances in the first design iteration. A 18 percent power added efficiency with 29 dBm output power at 1 dB compression gain and 24 dB associated gain in CW was obtained for the second amplifier. CW performance over 9 to 11 GHz was accurately predicted using a large signal Field Effect Transistor model (developed with nonlinear characterization tools) and a harmonic balance analysis. Massive DC and RF measurements were performed on the wafers. Good chips were then sorted out with the help of a database. A 58 percent DC and RF yield was obtained.

  17. Modeling of the influence of coarsening on viscoplastic behavior of a 319 foundry aluminum alloy

    Martinez, R., E-mail: remi.martinez@ensmp.fr [Universite Paris-Est Creteil, Institut de Chimie et de Materiaux Paris-Est, CNRS UMR7182, 2-8 rue Henri Dunant, 94320 Thiais (France); Mines ParisTech, Centre des Materiaux, CNRS UMR7633, BP 87, 91003 Evry Cedex (France); Renault SA, Technocentre, Direction de l' ingenierie et des materiaux, 1 avenue du Golf, 78288 Guyancourt (France); Russier, V., E-mail: vincent.russier@icmpe.cnrs.fr [Universite Paris-Est Creteil, Institut de Chimie et de Materiaux Paris-Est, CNRS UMR7182, 2-8 rue Henri Dunant, 94320 Thiais (France); Couzinie, J.P. [Universite Paris-Est Creteil, Institut de Chimie et de Materiaux Paris-Est, CNRS UMR7182, 2-8 rue Henri Dunant, 94320 Thiais (France); Guillot, I., E-mail: ivan.guillot@icmpe.cnrs.fr [Universite Paris-Est Creteil, Institut de Chimie et de Materiaux Paris-Est, CNRS UMR7182, 2-8 rue Henri Dunant, 94320 Thiais (France); Cailletaud, G. [Mines ParisTech, Centre des Materiaux, CNRS UMR7633, BP 87, 91003 Evry Cedex (France)

    2013-01-01

    Both metallurgical and mechanical behaviors of a 319 foundry aluminum alloy have been modeled by means of a multiscale approach. The nano-scale, represented by the coarsening of Al{sub 2}Cu precipitates, has been modeled according to the Lifshitz-Slyozov-Wagner (LSW) law in a range of temperature going from 23 Degree-Sign C to 300 Degree-Sign C up to 1000 h aging time. Results were then compared to transmission electron microscope (TEM) observations and are in good agreement with the experimental measurements. The model allows us to know the critical radius, the volume fraction and the number of particles per {mu}m{sup 3} in a {alpha}-phase representative volume element (RVE). The increase in yield stress generated by the interaction of dislocations with precipitates, lattice and solid solution, is modeled on the microscale. The yield stress becomes thus a function of the precipitation state, and is time/temperature dependent. These two models were then combined into a mechanical macroscale model in order to represent the Low Cycle Fatigue (LCF) behavior of the material. An elasto-viscoplastic law has been used and all the material parameters were experimentally determined with LCF stress/strain loops for the first cycle and for the mechanical steady state. The simulation results are in good agreement with the experiments.

  18. Sands electrical parameters vary with frequency

    Oscar Germn Duarte Velasco

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of two types of test in one kind of sand to obtain resistivity and permittivity values for frequency ranging from Hz to MHz. One test involved wave generation at specific frequencies and the other an impulse generator (continuous fre-quency spectrum. Tests were made for three humidity values. The results of both test revealed non-linear performance on test elec-trode surface. Such non-linearity was modelled and eliminated to give the permittivity and resistivity values in frequency domain.

  19. SAND

    Thorsen, Grete

    Der er udført et konsolideringsforsøg med bakkesand fra Lunds grusgrav, Lund no. O. forsøget er udført i samme konsolideringsapparat, som er anvendt til måling af deformationsegenskaberne af mange forskellige danske jordarter. Forsøgsresultaterne er søgt tolket som ved forsøg med andre jordarter....

  20. Production Mechanisms for the Sand on Titan and the Prospects for a Global Sand Sea

    Barnes, Jason W.; Lorenz, Ralph D.; Radebaugh, Jani; Hayes, Alexander G.; MacKenzie, Shannon

    2014-11-01

    With ~15% of its surface covered by sand seas, Titan turns out to be the Arrakis of the solar system. How the sand particles that make up the dunes are created, however, remains an outstanding question. Titan's haze particles are organic in composition as required by spectral analysis of dunes, however they have diameters of ~1um, and are 10,000,000 times too small by mass to directly represent the ~200-um sand particles. In addition to previous suggestions that sand could come from sintering of sand particles or by burial, lithification, and subsequent erosion (more like typical sands on Earth), we suggest two new mechanisms for production of sand in association with Titan's liquid reservoirs. Dissolution and reprecipitation as evaporite forms the gypsum dunes of White Sands, NM, USA on Earth, and could play a role on Titan as well. Alternatively, haze particles in the lakes and seas could aggregate into larger particles via flocculation, a mechanism seen to occur on Earth in Morocco. Each of these sand particle production ideas has associated predictions that can be tested by future observations. The lack of evident sand sources in VIMS data implies that Titan's sand seas may be old and their continuous interconnectedness across the Dark Equatorial Belt implies that all of the equatorial dunefields may represent a single compositionally uniform sand sea. We will present possibilities for sands from this sea to bridge the large gap across Xanadu, including barchan chains and fluvial transport.

  1. Sand, rarer than one thinks

    Peduzzi, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    Sand and gravel are mined world-wide and account for the largest volume of solid material extracted globally. Formed by erosive processes over thousands of years they are now being extracted at a rate far greater than their renewal. Furthermore, the volume being extracted is having a major impact on rivers, deltas and coastal and marine ecosystems results in loss of land through river or coastal erosion, lowering of the water table and decreases in the amount of sediment supply. Despite the c...

  2. Dynamical evolution of sand ripples under water.

    Stegner, A; Wesfreid, J E

    1999-10-01

    We have performed an experimental study on the evolution of sand ripples formed under the action of an oscillatory flow. An annular sand-water cell was used in order to investigate a wide range of parameters. The sand ripples follow an irreversible condensation mechanism from small to large wavelength until a final state is reached. The wavelength and the shape of these stable sand patterns are mainly governed by the fluid displacement and the static angle of the granular media. A strong hysteresis affects the evolution of steep ripples. When the acceleration of the sand bed reaches a critical value, the final pattern is modified by the superficial fluidization of the sand layer. PMID:11970264

  3. Crest line minimal model for sand dune

    Guignier, Lucie; VALANCE, Alexandre; LAGUE, Dimitri

    2013-01-01

    In desert, complex patterns of dunes form. Under unidirectional wind, transverse rectilinear dunes or crescent shaped dunes called barchan dunes can appear, depending on the amount of sediment available. Most rectilinear transverse sand dunes are observed to fragment, for example at White Sands (New Mexico, United States of America) or Walvis Bay (Namibia). We develop a reduced complexity model to investigate the morphodynamics of sand dunes migrating over a non-erodible bed under unidirectio...

  4. Strength measurement of impulse compacted moulding sand

    T. Mikulczyński; S. Ciskowski

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of impulse compaction process shows that during compaction process moulding sand is subject to deformation and changes oftotal pressure, measured inside compacted moulding sand, represent fading sinusoid. Measured pressure values in stationary states (aftercompaction process) are equal to the sum of squeezing pressure pc and the pressure resulting from compacting the sandmix pu, whichexpresses the obtained strength. Therefore experimental research of moulding sands were conducted. St...

  5. The mechanics of fibre-reinforced sand

    Dos Santos, APS; Consoli, NC; Baudet, BA

    2010-01-01

    Fibres can be an effective means of reinforcing soils. This paper presents data from laboratory triaxial tests on quartzitic sand reinforced with polypropylene fibres. By keeping the studied composite consistent throughout the study (host sand and fibre characteristics kept constant), it has been possible to develop a framework of behaviour for the sand-fibre material, which provides a solid base for future research on fibre-reinforced soils. Data from previous work and from new tests have be...

  6. Extraction of bitumen from oil sands

    Robinson, L.F.; Porcari, G.

    1980-10-22

    Prior to the extraction of bitumen oils from oil sands the oil sands are treated with cold water at a temperature of less than 30 C to separate clay fines as a dispersion of clay in water, the remaining oil sands then being treated with water at a temperature exceeding 60 C to free the bitumen from the sand. The released bitumen is extracted from the hot aqueous slurry with kerosene. The cold water contains a deflocculant, such as sodium silicate, tetrasodium pyrophosphate, and sodium polyacrylate. 9 claims.

  7. Exploring Mission Concepts with the JPL Innovation Foundry A-Team

    Ziemer, John K.; Ervin, Joan; Lang, Jared

    2013-01-01

    The JPL Innovation Foundry has established a new approach for exploring, developing, and evaluating early concepts called the A-Team. The A-Team combines innovative collaborative methods with subject matter expertise and analysis tools to help mature mission concepts. Science, implementation, and programmatic elements are all considered during an A-Team study. Methods are grouped by Concept Maturity Level (CML), from 1 through 3, including idea generation and capture (CML 1), initial feasibility assessment (CML 2), and trade space exploration (CML 3). Methods used for each CML are presented, and the key team roles are described from two points of view: innovative methods and technical expertise. A-Team roles for providing innovative methods include the facilitator, study lead, and assistant study lead. A-Team roles for providing technical expertise include the architect, lead systems engineer, and integration engineer. In addition to these key roles, each A-Team study is uniquely staffed to match the study topic and scope including subject matter experts, scientists, technologists, flight and instrument systems engineers, and program managers as needed. Advanced analysis and collaborative engineering tools (e.g. cost, science traceability, mission design, knowledge capture, study and analysis support infrastructure) are also under development for use in A-Team studies and will be discussed briefly. The A-Team facilities provide a constructive environment for innovative ideas from all aspects of mission formulation to eliminate isolated studies and come together early in the development cycle when they can provide the biggest impact. This paper provides an overview of the A-Team, its study processes, roles, methods, tools and facilities.

  8. Monitoring of heavy metal particle emission in the exhaust duct of a foundry using LIBS.

    Dutouquet, C; Gallou, G; Le Bihan, O; Sirven, J B; Dermigny, A; Torralba, B; Frejafon, E

    2014-09-01

    Heavy metals have long been known to be detrimental to human health and the environment. Their emission is mainly considered to occur via the atmospheric route. Most of airborne heavy metals are of anthropogenic origin and produced through combustion processes at industrial sites such as incinerators and foundries. Current regulations impose threshold limits on heavy metal emissions. The reference method currently implemented for quantitative measurements at exhaust stacks consists of on-site sampling of heavy metals on filters for the particulate phase (the most prominent and only fraction considered in this study) prior to subsequent laboratory analysis. Results are therefore known only a few days after sampling. Stiffer regulations require the development of adapted tools allowing automatic, on-site or even in-situ measurements with temporal resolutions. The Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) technique was deemed as a potential candidate to meet these requirements. On site experiments were run by melting copper bars and monitoring emission of this element in an exhaust duct at a pilot-scale furnace in a French research center dedicated to metal casting. Two approaches designated as indirect and direct analysis were broached in these experiments. The former corresponds to filter enrichment prior to subsequent LIBS interrogation whereas the latter entails laser focusing right through the aerosol for detection. On-site calibration curves were built and compared with those obtained at laboratory scale in order to investigate possible matrix and analyte effects. Eventually, the obtained results in terms of detection limits and quantitative temporal monitoring of copper emission clearly emphasize the potentialities of the direct LIBS measurements. PMID:24913859

  9. Nuclear energy for oil sands

    In working partnership with a number of Alberta-based companies an AECL (Atomic Energy of Canada Limited) study team assessed the technical and economic feasibility of using a nuclear reactor to raise the production steam for the recovery of bitumen. Technically sound concepts have been identified for using CANDU reactors for the in-situ recovery of bitumen from oil sands. Over the life of an oil sands project a steam supply system based on a nuclear reactor is expected to offer a substantial cost advantage (25 - 50 %) over the alternative system based on coal as the make-up fuel. Steam from natural gas is marginally more expensive than that from coal because the cost of natural gas is expected to escalate at a rate higher than inflation. For shallow deposits (150 -250 metres) using intermediate pressure steam, the commercially proven Pressurized Heavy Water (PHW) reactor is most suitable. For deeper deposits (250 - 650 metres), the PHW reactor can provide the higher pressure steam using a compressor, but only with a reduction in thermal efficiency that substantially reduces its cost advantage. The CANDU Organic Cooled Reactor (OCR), however, can provide a high pressure steam required with the large cost advantage. The economic benefit offered by nuclear steam supply systems, a saving of $2-4 per barrel of product, is large enough to justify the commitment of a more detailed study

  10. Nuclear energy for oil sands

    In 1980, Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, working with a number of Alberta-based companies, assessed the technical and economic feasibility of using a CANDU nuclear reactor to raise the production steam for the recovery of bitumen. The study followed several years of analysis which identified oil sands projects as the most appropriate single users of thermal energy of the amount and quality available from reactors. Over the life of an oil sands project a steam supply system based on a nuclear reactor is expected to offer a substantial cost advantage (25 - 50%) over the alternative system based on coal as the make-up fuel. Steam from natural gas is marginally more expensive than that from coal because the cost of natural gas is expected to escalate at a rate higher than inflation. For shallow deposits (150 - 250 metres) using intermediate pressure steam, the commercially proven Pressurized Heavy Water (PHW) reactor is most suitable. For deeper deposits (250 - 650 metres), the PHW reactor can provide the higher pressure steam using a compressor, but only with a reduction in thermal efficiency that substantially reduces its cost advantage. The CANDU Organic Cooled Reactor (OCR), however, can provide the high presure steam required with the large cost advantage. The economic benefit of nuclear steam supply systems, a saving of $2-4 per barrel of product, is large enough to justify a more detailed study

  11. Modeling the response of shoreface-connected sand ridges to sand extraction on an inner shelf

    Nnafie, Abdel; Swart, Huib E. de; Calvete Manrique, Daniel; Garnier, Roland

    2014-01-01

    Shoreface-connected sand ridges are rhythmic bedforms that occur on many storm-dominated inner shelves. The ridges span several kilometers, are a few meters high, and they evolve on a timescale of centuries. A processbased model is used to gain a fundamental insight into the response of these ridges to extraction of sand. Different scenarios of sand extraction (depth, location, and geometry of the extraction area; multiple sand extractions) are imposed. For each scenario, the response timesca...

  12. Sand Failure Mechanism and Sanding Parameters in Niger Delta Oil Reservoirs

    Sunday Isehunwa; Andrew Farotade

    2010-01-01

    Sand production is a major issue during oil and gas production from unconsolidated reservoirs. In predicting the onset of sand production, it is important to accurately determine the failure mechanism and the contributing parameters. The aim of this study was to determine sand failure mechanism in the Niger-Delta, identify themajor contributing parameters and evaluate their effects on sanding.Completion and production data from 78 strings completed on 22 reservoirs in a Niger Delta oil Field ...

  13. Optimization as investment decision support in a Swedish medium-sized iron foundry - A move beyond traditional energy auditing

    Due to increased globalisation, industries are facing greater competition that is pressing companies into decreasing their expenses in order to increase their profits. As regards Swedish industry, it has been faced with substantial increases in energy prices in recent years. Barriers to energy efficiency such as imperfect information inhibit investments in energy efficiency measures, energy audits being one means of reducing barriers and overcoming imperfect information. However, an evaluation of such energy audits in Sweden reveals that it is chiefly low-cost measures that are undertaken as a result of an audit. Moreover, these audits often tend to focus on support processes such as ventilation, lighting, air compressors etc., while measures impacting production processes are often not as extensively covered, which underlines the need for further support in addition to energy audits. Decision support is practised in a variety of different disciplines such as optimization and simulation and the aim of this paper is to explore whether investment decision support practices may be used successfully towards small and medium-sized manufacturers in Sweden when complex production-related investment decisions are taken. The optimization results from the different cases, involving a foundry's investment in a new melting unit, indicate that with no electricity price fluctuations over the day, the investment seems sound as it lowers the overall energy costs. However, with fluctuating electricity prices, there are no large differences in energy costs between the option of retaining the existing five melting furnaces at the foundry and investing in a twin furnace and removing the holding furnaces - which was the initial investment plan for the foundry in the study. It would not have been possible to achieve this outcome without the use of investment decision support such as MIND. One of the main conclusions in this paper is that investment decision support, when strategic investment decisions are to be taken, may be a means of emphasising energy efficiency for energy-intensive SMEs beyond the level of traditional energy auditing. (author)

  14. Optimization as investment decision support in a Swedish medium-sized iron foundry - A move beyond traditional energy auditing

    Due to increased globalisation, industries are facing greater competition that is pressing companies into decreasing their expenses in order to increase their profits. As regards Swedish industry, it has been faced with substantial increases in energy prices in recent years. Barriers to energy efficiency such as imperfect information inhibit investments in energy efficiency measures, energy audits being one means of reducing barriers and overcoming imperfect information. However, an evaluation of such energy audits in Sweden reveals that it is chiefly low-cost measures that are undertaken as a result of an audit. Moreover, these audits often tend to focus on support processes such as ventilation, lighting, air compressors etc., while measures impacting production processes are often not as extensively covered, which underlines the need for further support in addition to energy audits. Decision support is practised in a variety of different disciplines such as optimization and simulation and the aim of this paper is to explore whether investment decision support practices may be used successfully towards small and medium-sized manufacturers in Sweden when complex production-related investment decisions are taken. The optimization results from the different cases, involving a foundry's investment in a new melting unit, indicate that with no electricity price fluctuations over the day, the investment seems sound as it lowers the overall energy costs. However, with fluctuating electricity prices, there are no large differences in energy costs between the option of retaining the existing five melting furnaces at the foundry and investing in a twin furnace and removing the holding furnaces - which was the initial investment plan for the foundry in the study. It would not have been possible to achieve this outcome without the use of investment decision support such as MIND. One of the main conclusions in this paper is that investment decision support, when strategic investment decisions are to be taken, may be a means of emphasising energy efficiency for energy-intensive SMEs beyond the level of traditional energy auditing

  15. Fecal indicators in sand, sand contact, and risk of enteric illness among beach-goers

    BACKGROUND: Beach sand can harbor fecal indicator organisms and pathogens, but enteric illness risk associated with sand contact remains unclear. METHODS: In 2007, visitors at 2 recreational marine beaches were asked on the day of their visit about sand contact. Ten to 12 days...

  16. Evaluation of Synthetic Gypsum Recovered via Wet Flue-Gas Desulfurization from Electric Power Plants for Use in Foundries

    R. Biernacki; R. Haratym; J. Kwapisz

    2012-01-01

    This article investigates possible use of waste gypsum (synthetic), recovered via flue-gas desulfurization from coal-fired electric powerplants, in foundries. Energy sector, which in Eastern Europe is mostly composed from coal-fired electric power plants, is one of the largestproducers of sulfur dioxide (SO2).In order to protect the environment and reduce the amount of pollution flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) is used to remove SO2 fromexhaust flue gases of fossil-fuel power plants. As a resul...

  17. Low-loss passive waveguides in a generic InP foundry process via local diffusion of zinc.

    D'Agostino, Domenico; Carnicella, Giuseppe; Ciminelli, Caterina; Thijs, Peter; Veldhoven, Petrus J; Ambrosius, Huub; Smit, Meint

    2015-09-21

    Generic InP foundry processes allow monolithic integration of active and passive elements into a common p-n doped layerstack. The passive loss can be greatly reduced by restricting the p-dopant to active regions. We report on a localized Zn-diffusion process based on MOVPE, which allows to reduce waveguide loss from 2 dB/cm to below 0.4 dB/cm. We confirm this value by fabrication of a 73 mm long spiral ring resonator, with a record quality factor of 1.2 million and an extinction ratio of 9.7 dB. PMID:26406713

  18. Residence in Proximity of an Iron Foundry and Risk of Lung Cancer in the Municipality of Trieste, Italy, 1995–2009

    Ettore Bidoli; Fabio Barbone; Paolo Collarile; Francesca Valent; Loris Zanier; Fulvio Daris; Andrea Gini; Silvia Birri; Diego Serraino

    2015-01-01

    We assessed the risk of lung cancer in people living near the iron foundry located within the city of Trieste, Northeastern Italy. Between 1995 and 2009, all incident cases of lung cancer and corresponding population were considered. A deposition model of the foundry-specific emissions of SO2 defined: “nearby”, “urban”, and “outlying” areas. Rate ratios (RRs) and annual percent changes (APCs) were computed. Among nearby residents, significantly increased risks of lung cancer were noted in men...

  19. Correlation between work process-related exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and urinary levels of alpha-naphthol, beta-naphthylamine and 1-hydroxypyrene in iron foundry workers

    Hansen, Åse Marie; Omland, Øyvind; Poulsen, O M; Sherson, D; Sigsgaard, Torben; Christensen, J M; Overgaard, E

    1994-01-01

    higher risk of lung cancer, the present study suggests that the elevated risk may be due to exposure to carcinogenic PAH compounds in iron foundries, particularly in some high-risk work processes, e.g. casting and molding. In addition, the present study suggests that biological monitoring of 1...... present study demonstrates that 1-hydroxypyrene is a useful and direct biomarker of low-dose occupational exposure to PAH compounds. Molding and casting had the highest pyrene levels in iron foundries. Furthermore, the data shows that levels of beta-naphthylamine in urine are significantly elevated in...

  20. Fuel options for oil sands

    This presentation examined fuel options in relation to oil sands production. Options include steam and hydrogen (H2) for upgrading; natural gas by pipeline; bitumen; petroleum coke; and coal. Various cost drivers were also considered for each of the fuel options. It was noted that natural gas has high energy value but the capital cost is low, and that coke's energy value is very low but the capital cost is high. A chart forecasting energy prices was presented. The disposition of Western Canada's northern gas situation was presented. Issues concerning rail transportation for coal were considered. Environmental concerns were also examined. A chart of typical gas requirements for 75,000 B/D oil sands projects was presented. Issues concerning steam generation with gas and mining cogeneration with gas fuel and steam turbines were discussed, as well as cogeneration and H2 with gas fuels and steam turbines. Various technology and fuel utility options were examined, along with details of equipment and processes. Boiler technologies were reviewed by type as well as fuel and steam quality and pressure. Charts of cogeneration with gas turbine and circulation fluid bed boilers were presented. Gasification processes were reviewed and a supply cost basis was examined. Cost drivers were ranked according to energy, operating considerations and capital investment. Results indicated that fuel costs were significant for gas and coal. Capital costs and capital recovery charge was most significant with coal and gasification technology. Without capital recovery, cash costs favour the use of bitumen and coke. Gasification would need lower capital and lower capital recovery to compete with direct burning. It was concluded that direct burning of bitumen can compete with natural gas. With price volatility anticipated, dual fuel capability for bitumen and gas has merit. Petroleum coke can be produced or retrieved from stockpiles. Utility supply costs of direct burning of coke is marginally higher than the cost with gas. Direct burning of coal has a higher supply cost than other fuels. However, there will be additional costs for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for heavy fuels. Natural gas is likely to be the fuel of choice for oil sands production unless gas prices are much higher on a sustained basis. tabs., figs

  1. Study of Black Sand Particles from Sand Dunes in Badr, Saudi Arabia Using Electron Microscopy

    Haider Abbas Khwaja

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Particulate air pollution is a health concern. This study determines the microscopic make-up of different varieties of sand particles collected at a sand dune site in Badr, Saudi Arabia in 2012. Three categories of sand were studied: black sand, white sand, and volcanic sand. The study used multiple high resolution electron microscopies to study the morphologies, emission source types, size, and elemental composition of the particles, and to evaluate the presence of surface “coatings or contaminants” deposited or transported by the black sand particles. White sand was comprised of natural coarse particles linked to wind-blown releases from crustal surfaces, weathering of igneous/metamorphic rock sources, and volcanic activities. Black sand particles exhibited different morphologies and microstructures (surface roughness compared with the white sand and volcanic sand. Morphological Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM and Laser Scanning Microscopy (LSM analyses revealed that the black sand contained fine and ultrafine particles (50 to 500 nm ranges and was strongly magnetic, indicating the mineral magnetite or elemental iron. Aqueous extracts of black sands were acidic (pH = 5.0. Fe, C, O, Ti, Si, V, and S dominated the composition of black sand. Results suggest that carbon and other contaminant fine particles were produced by fossil-fuel combustion and industrial emissions in heavily industrialized areas of Haifa and Yanbu, and transported as cloud condensation nuclei to Douf Mountain. The suite of techniques used in this study has yielded an in-depth characterization of sand particles. Such information will be needed in future environmental, toxicological, epidemiological, and source apportionment studies.

  2. Nonlinear dynamics of Aeolian sand ripples.

    Prigozhin, L

    1999-07-01

    We study the initial instability of flat sand surface and further nonlinear dynamics of wind ripples. The proposed continuous model of ripple formation allowed us to simulate the development of a typical asymmetric ripple shape and the evolution of a sand ripple pattern. We suggest that this evolution occurs via ripple merger preceded by several soliton-like interaction of ripples. PMID:11969814

  3. Japan's involvement in oil sands development

    According to Japanese national policy, exploration and development by Japanese companies in overseas countries are promoted in order to ensure stable oil supplies. Japan Canada Oil Sands Limited (JACOS), part of the JAPEX group, was established during the 1978 world oil crisis to explore and develop Canadian oil sand resources in accordance with Japan's national policy. The JAPEX group, including JACOS, has invested $123 million in oil sands projects in Alberta. JAPEX's first involvement in oil sands was in the Primrose Project operated by Norcen in the Cold Lake area. Five years of cyclic steam stimulation pilot tests did not produce sufficiently good results to justify further operation. The second involvement was the PCEJ Project, a joint effort by four companies that are participating in a bitumen recovery test project in the Athabasca Deposit. JACOS holds 2,452 km2 of oil sands leases in Alberta. Tests conducted since 1978 in the PCEJ Project include multiwell steam injection pilot tests, some of which showed promise. JACOS is also participating in steam assisted gravity drainage projects and in federal/provincial research programs. Obstacles identified in developing Alberta oil sands are the lack of a bitumen pipeline to Edmonton and the insufficient length of oil sands leases (currently 10 years), given the difficulties of oil sand development. 10 figs

  4. Oil sands opportunities for midstream companies

    The potential of Alberta's oil sands industry was reviewed. Oil sands production is expected to surpass declining conventional production. It was suggested that oil sands will increase from 42 per cent of Western supply in 2002 to 78 per cent in 2015. An inventory of major oil sands products and sources was presented and upgrading issues were examined. Oil sands products and market outlets were reviewed. Issues concerning the expansion of the value chain from resource to finished product were discussed. It was suggested that the U.S. will require more refined product imports in the future. Various market challenges facing the oil sands processing industries were discussed, including issues concerning producers, refiners and the common market. Potential refined products export markets were examined. Upgrading for both upstream and downstream refineries was discussed. A recent study completed for the Alberta Government and industry was reviewed. It was noted that pipeline changes or expansions need to be configured to accommodate refined products and that a large volume of exports to the Midwest or California markets would be based on pipeline availability. Issues concerning services to large oil sands projects were reviewed. It was concluded that there is significant growth in oil sands, with enormous capital requirements. There are many opportunities for mid streamers to take on smaller portions of large projects. refs., tabs., figs

  5. Shock response of dry sand.

    Reinhart, William Dodd; Thornhill, Tom Finley, III (,; ); Chhabildas, Lalit C.. (..); Vogler, Tracy John; Brown, Justin L.

    2007-08-01

    The dynamic compaction of sand was investigated experimentally and computationally to stresses of 1.8 GPa. Experiments have been performed in the powder's partial compaction regime at impact velocities of approximately 0.25, 0.5, and 0.75 km/s. The experiments utilized multiple velocity interferometry probes on the rear surface of a stepped target for an accurate measurement of shock velocity, and an impedance matching technique was used to deduce the shock Hugoniot state. Wave profiles were further examined for estimates of reshock states. Experimental results were used to fit parameters to the P-Lambda model for porous materials. For simple 1-D simulations, the P-Lambda model seems to capture some of the physics behind the compaction process very well, typically predicting the Hugoniot state to within 3%.

  6. Hematite Outlier and Sand Dunes

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Released 4 December 2003This image shows a crater just south of the edge of the famous hematite-bearing surface, which is visible in the context image as a smooth area to the north. The crater has two features of immediate note. The first is a layered mound in the north part of the crater floor. This mound contains hematite, and it is an outlying remnant of the greater deposits to the north that have otherwise completely disappeared in this crater. The second feature is a dune field in the center of the crater floor, with dark dunes indicating winds from the northwest. The dunes grade into a dark sand sheet with no coherent structure, indicating that the sand layer thins out to the south and east.Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -4.4, Longitude 357.3 East (2.7 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  7. Earth-like sand fluxes on Mars.

    Bridges, N T; Ayoub, F; Avouac, J-P; Leprince, S; Lucas, A; Mattson, S

    2012-05-17

    Strong and sustained winds on Mars have been considered rare, on the basis of surface meteorology measurements and global circulation models, raising the question of whether the abundant dunes and evidence for wind erosion seen on the planet are a current process. Recent studies showed sand activity, but could not determine whether entire dunes were moving--implying large sand fluxes--or whether more localized and surficial changes had occurred. Here we present measurements of the migration rate of sand ripples and dune lee fronts at the Nili Patera dune field. We show that the dunes are near steady state, with their entire volumes composed of mobile sand. The dunes have unexpectedly high sand fluxes, similar, for example, to those in Victoria Valley, Antarctica, implying that rates of landscape modification on Mars and Earth are similar. PMID:22596156

  8. Numerical simulation of aeolian sand ripples

    With a new horizontal saltation displacement vector, a model is implemented to simulate the initiation and evolution of aeolian sand ripples. In the model, saltation distance considers the effects of surface height and slope. A linear stability analysis is also carried out for formation of sand ripples. The results show that, the model can be able to successfully reproduce sand ripples which can increase in scale by merging of small ripples. The linear stability analysis indicates that sand ripples appear when the relaxation rate parameter is below a threshold value and wind strength parameter is larger than a critical value. The results also verified that the formation of sand ripples is a self-organization process

  9. Developing new markets for oil sands products

    This paper presents a review by Purvin and Gertz of western Canadian crude oil supply. This energy consulting firm provides advise to the energy sector. It suggests that oil sands production will surpass declining conventional production. Oil sands supply includes bitumen, synthetic crude oil (SCO), and diluent. It is forecasted that oil sands will increase from 42 per cent of western supply in 2002 to 78 per cent in 2015. The potential of Alberta's oil sands was discussed along with a recent study of refined products and petrochemicals from bitumen. Upgrading, refining and petrochemical case studies were presented. The author examined if a Canadian oil sands upgrading project with high capital costs can be competitive with competing projects in the United States and internationally. In addition to supply and demand issues, the presentation examined infrastructure capability and market potential in the United States. The economic potential and risks of preferred business cases compared to upgrading to SCO were also evaluated. 15 figs

  10. A Continuum Saltation Model for Sand Dunes

    Sauermann, G; Herrmann, H J

    2001-01-01

    We derive a phenomenological continuum saltation model for aeolian sand transport that can serve as an efficient tool for geomorphological applications. The coupled differential equations for the average density and velocity of sand in the saltation layer reproduce both known equilibrium relations for the sand flux and the time evolution of the sand flux as predicted by microscopic saltation models. The three phenomenological parameters of the model are a reference height for the grain-air interaction, an effective restitution coefficient for the grain-bed interaction, and a multiplication factor characterizing the chain reaction caused by the impacts leading to a typical time or length scale of the saturation transients. We determine the values of these parameters by comparing our model with wind tunnel measurements. Our main interest are out of equilibrium situations where saturation transients are important, for instance at phase boundaries (ground/sand) or under unsteady wind conditions. We point out that...

  11. Sand Failure Mechanism and Sanding Parameters in Niger Delta Oil Reservoirs

    Sunday Isehunwa,

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Sand production is a major issue during oil and gas production from unconsolidated reservoirs. In predicting the onset of sand production, it is important to accurately determine the failure mechanism and the contributing parameters. The aim of this study was to determine sand failure mechanism in the Niger-Delta, identify themajor contributing parameters and evaluate their effects on sanding.Completion and production data from 78 strings completed on 22 reservoirs in a Niger Delta oil Field were evaluated. Sand failure mechanisms and contributing parameters were identified and compared with published profiles. The results showed that cohesive stress is the predominant sand failure mechanism. Water cut, bean size and gas oil ratio (GOR impact sand production in the Niger Delta.

  12. Dry reusing and wet reclaiming of used sodium silicate sand

    Zitian FAN; Naiyu HUANG; Wang, Huafang

    2005-01-01

    Based on the characteristics of used sodium silicate sand and the different use requirements for recycled sand, "dry reusing and wet reclaiming of used sodium silicate sand" is considered as the most suitable technique for the used sand. When the recycled sand is used as support sand, the used sand is only reused by dry process including breaking, screening, dust-removal, etc., and it is not necessary that the used sand is reclaimed with strongly rubbing and scraping method, but when the recy...

  13. Comparison of two Satellite Imaging Platforms for Evaluating Sand Dune Migration in the Ubari Sand Sea (Libyan Fazzan)

    Els, A.; Merlo, S.; Knight, J.

    2015-01-01

    Sand dunes can change location, form or dimensions depending on wind direction and strength. Sand dune movements can be effectively monitored through the comparison of multi-temporal satellite images. However, not all remote sensing platforms are suitable to study sand dunes. This study compares coarse (Landsat) and fine (Worldview) resolution platforms, specifically focussing on sand dunes within the Ubari Sand Sea (Libya). Sand dune features (crest line, dune ridge basal outlines) ...

  14. Gas well sand production modelling with coupled geomechanical-gas/sand flow model

    Yi, X. [Texas A and M University, College Station, TX (United States)

    2001-06-01

    Gas well sand production is a serious problem for wells in certain formations because of the resulting erosion damage to downhole tubular goods, surface facilities and the cost of disposing the produced sand. A brief review of the literature and sand production modeling was presented along with a description of a newly developed geomechanical sand/gas flow simulator which can predict the onset of sand production and the amount of sand produced. The gas flow model was based on both Darcy or non-Darcy flow, and allows for variations in porosity and permeability during sand production. The proposed unsteady state fluid flow model should only be used to simulate the time-dependent behaviour of near wellbore stress state. It can also be used to explain the sand production problems that develop after several years of production. It was also noted that more research is needed to work on the amount of sand production and to determine the effect of sand production on the rock mechanical properties. 14 refs., 1 tab., 14 figs.

  15. Oil sands : opportunities and challenges

    Shepherd, R.L. [Husky Oil Operations Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2004-09-01

    Husky Energy's current state of business was outlined in this paper, along with predictions of future growth due to strong demand. Various commercial plans were outlined, with access to new markets expected to add value. Access and stakeholder management issues were examined. Resource opportunities were outlined. Key business challenges include project execution cost, schedules and operating commitments; commodity price risks; deriving full benefits for the full value chain; and management of stakeholder expectations. Husky's position and development strategy were reviewed, along with a map of lands currently owned and operated by Husky. Details of the Husky Tucker oil sands plant were provided, with lump sum figures and start-up dates. An update on the Sunrise project was presented, as well as details of perceived obstacles and opportunities. Details of the Steam-Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) process were presented with reference to in-situ thermal recovery process; horizontal well pairs; continuous injection of steam into the upper well; and bitumen and condensed steam that drain to the lower well by gravity. Reservoir properties were presented, with details of gross pay thickness, horizontal and vertical permeability. Resource factors for the success of SAGD were outlined. Other resource factors include a thick reservoir; high horizontal and vertical permeability; no laterally-continuous permeability barriers; and no thief zones. Future opportunities were outlined. tabs, figs.

  16. Calculation of the store house worker dose in a lost wax foundry using MCNP-4C

    Lost wax casting is an industrial process which permits the transmutation into metal of models made in wax. The wax model is covered with a siliceous shell of the required thickness and once this shell is built the set is heated and wax melted. Liquid metal is then cast into the shell replacing the wax. When the metal is cool, the shell is broken away in order to recover the metallic piece. In this process zircon sands are used for the preparation of the siliceous shell. These sands have varying concentrations of natural radionuclides: 238U, 232Th and 235U together with their progenics. The zircon sand is distributed in bags of 50 kg, and 30 bags are on a pallet, weighing 1,500 kg. The pallets with the bags have dimensions 80 cm x 120 cm x 80 cm, and constitute the radiation source in this case. The only pathway of exposure to workers in the store house is external radiation. In this case there is no dust because the bags are closed and covered by plastic, the store house has a good ventilation rate and so radon accumulation is not possible. The workers do not touch with their hands the bags and consequently skin contamination will not take place. In this study all situations of external irradiation to the workers have been considered; transportation of the pallets from vehicle to store house, lifting the pallets to the shelf, resting of the stock on the shelf, getting down the pallets, and carrying the pallets to production area. Using MCNP-4C exposure situations have been simulated, considering that the source has a homogeneous composition, the minimum stock in the store house is constituted by 7 pallets, and the several distances between pallets and workers when they are at work. The photons flux obtained by MCNP-4C is multiplied by the conversion factor of Flux to Kerma for air by conversion factor to Effective Dose by Kerma unit, and by the number of emitted photons. Those conversion factors are obtained of ICRP 74 table 1 and table 17 respectively. This is the way to obtain a function giving dose rate around the source. (authors)

  17. Geotechnical properties of crude oil contaminated sand

    Contamination of soil due to an oil spill influences its subsequent engineering behavior. An investigation was conducted to study the effect of crude oil contamination on compaction characteristics, shear strength, one-dimensional compression, and coefficient of permeability. Water permeability was also determined by using commercial grade motor oils as contaminants. The test results indicate that the compaction characteristics are influenced by oil contamination. The angle of internal friction of sand (based on total stress condition) decreases due to presence of oil within the pore spaces in sand. One dimensional compression characteristics of sand are significantly influenced by oil contamination resulting in a decrease in the value of constrained modulus with increase in the degree of oil contamination compared to the case of dry sand. Water permeability was observed to be a function of the initial viscosity and the degree of saturation due to the contaminating oil

  18. Petrophysical Analysis of Oil Sand in Athabasca

    cheong, S.; Lee, H.

    2013-12-01

    Oil sands are the major unconventional energy sources which have great reserves in Alberta, Canada. Recovery techniques such as CSS (Cyclic Steam Stimulation) and SAGD (Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage) enabled to develop deeper bitumen about several hundred meter depth. Before applying CSS and SAGD, reservoir heterogeneity of mud barriers or shale breccias should be clarified to establish injection and production wells successfully. We conducted the integrated petro-physical analysis for oil sands deposits in Athabasca by correlating well logs with seismic data. From 33 well logs and 3D seismic, we have made P-wave impedance by recursive inversion. Target formations of our analysis were the top of Wabiskaw member. Using inverted impedance and multi-attributes, porosity volume was derived at a target depth. Porosity of time slice 375 ms ranged 20 ~ 40 % stretching porous sand body from NE to SW direction. Characteristics of porosity distribution may be useful to design optimum oil sands recovery in Athabasca.

  19. Environmental issues in mined oil sands development

    This paper reports that with conventional oil production in Alberta tapering off, and with production from heavy oil and oil sands failing to fill the void left by depleting conventional oil production, new initiatives are required to maintain growth of Alberta business, government and employment. Beside the importance of economics in oil sands development, environmental issues; as for example, the generation of tailings pond sludge in mined oil sands operation, are expected to assume a much greater role in future. Resolving the economic issues and solving the environmental technological problems in a more cost effective manner will do much to remove the hurdles that have prevented the construction of a new Alberta mined oil sands plant for 18 years, since 1973, when the Syncrude construction started

  20. Sexing sand fly pupae (Diptera: Psychodidade: Phlebotominae)

    Brazil Beatriz Gomes; Brazil Reginaldo Peçanha

    2000-01-01

    We describe a technique to separate male and female pupae of sand flies. This has reduced the labour to separate flies after emergence and also allows the isolation of unmated adults for behavioural and physiological studies.

  1. New Method for Estimation of Aeolian Sand Transport Rate Using Ceramic Sand Flux Sensor (UD-101)

    Keiko Udo

    2009-01-01

    In this study, a new method for the estimation of aeolian sand transport rate was developed; the method employs a ceramic sand flux sensor (UD-101). UD-101 detects wind-blown sand impacting on its surface. The method was devised by considering the results of wind tunnel experiments that were performed using a vertical sediment trap and the UD-101. Field measurements to evaluate the estimation accuracy during the prevalence of unsteady winds were performed on a flat backshore. The results show...

  2. Shock and release behaviour of sand

    A considerable body of knowledge exists on the shock properties of dry sand. However, capturing the release properties has proven experimentally complex, and currently little information exists on the topic. The measured Hugoniot and release behaviour from a number of experiments is presented, carried out with the aim of furthering understanding of the fundamental physics behind the unloading of dry sand from a shocked state.

  3. Flow behaviour of sand-water slurries

    Vlasák, Pavel; Chára, Zdeněk

    Cranfield, Bedforshire : BHR Group, 2010 - (Heywood, N.), s. 383-392 ISBN 978-1-85598-119-5. [International Conference on Hydrotransport /18./. Rio de Janeiro (BR), 22.09.2010-24.09.2010] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP105/10/1574 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20600510 Keywords : sand slurry * sand -kaolin slurry * flow behavior * pressure drop * particle size distribution effect * concentration effect * slurry peptisation Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics

  4. Grain Segregation Mechanism in Aeolian Sand Ripples

    Makse, Hernan A.

    1998-01-01

    Many sedimentary rocks are formed by migration of sand ripples. Thin layers of coarse and fine sand are present in these rocks, and understanding how layers in sandstone are created has been a longstanding question. Here, we propose a mechanism for the origin of the most common layered sedimentary structures such as inverse graded climbing ripple lamination and cross-stratification patterns. The mechanism involves a competition between three segregation processes: (i) size-segregation and (ii...

  5. Coagulation in clarifier with micro-sand

    As water treatment play key role in power generation at thermal and nuclear power station. This article is devoted to determine effectiveness of water clarifier with use of micro-sand at Thermal power stations. Efficiency of coagulation with application of aluminum sulphate and flocculants is experimentally detected. Presented the result of the tests of clarifier with micro-sand and given conclusion on these results. (author)

  6. Sand Production Analysis for Depleted Reservoir

    ZHONG Rubing

    2014-01-01

    For most oilfields, the later development stage will be after long time production, and pore pressure is seriously depleted. The in situ stress of reservoir will be affected, and the stress state will be changed, so that to cause sand production. Based on Hookes law, the theoretical formula of two horizontal stress changes is obtained, and the stress distribution is established. The model of critical down-hole pressure for sand production in depleted reservoir is established. Based on the mo...

  7. Displacement pile installation effects in sand

    Beijer-Lundberg, A.

    2015-01-01

    Installation effects govern the post-installation behaviour of displacement piles in sand. These effects are currently not completely understood. Suitable experimental techniques to model these installation effects include field, laboratory and experimental models. In the current thesis a small-scale laboratory model is used to investigate the installation effect of displacement piles in sand, to complement a numerical study of the same subject. The current knowledge of installation effects i...

  8. Lancashire County Council : sand and gravel study

    Crofts, R.G.; McEvoy, F.M.

    2004-01-01

    ENTEC UK in association with the British Geological Survey were commissioned by Lancashire County Council, in conjunction Blackburn and Darwen Borough Council and Blackpool Borough Council, to assess possible sources of sand within their counties. The role of the British Geological Survey (BGS) in the project was to identify all potential areas for future high quality sand and gravel extraction within Lancashire, Blackburn-with-Darwen and Blackpool. The study will also indicate the areas whic...

  9. Treating tar sands formations with dolomite

    Vinegar, Harold J.; Karanikas, John Michael

    2010-06-08

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. The tar sands formation may include dolomite and hydrocarbons. Methods may include providing heat at less than the decomposition temperature of dolomite from one or more heaters to at least a portion of the formation. At least some of the hydrocarbon fluids are mobilized in the formation. At least some of the hydrocarbon fluids may be produced from the formation.

  10. Erosion threshold of sand-mud mixtures

    Jacobs, Walter; Le Hir, Pierre; Van Kesteren, Walther; Cann, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Results of a large number of erosion tests on artificially generated and relatively dense sand-mud mixtures are presented. Soil sample compositions are varied concerning clay-silt and sand-silt ratio, and clay mineralogy. The experimental set-up consists of a re-circulating small-scale rectangular erosion flume with unidirectional flow conditions. The erosion threshold and erosion rate are studied through step by step increasing the flow rate during a test. Results clearly indicate time-decre...

  11. Sand dunes on Mars and on Earth

    Ribeiro Parteli, Eric Josef

    2007-01-01

    In this work the dune model introduced by Sauermann et al. (2001) is extended and applied to investigate the formation of different dune shapes on Mars and on Earth as function of wind directionality and sand availability. The formation of sand dunes on Mars under the present atmospheric conditions of the red planet is studied and conclusions about wind speed, migration velocity of dunes and changing wind regimes on Mars are presented. Field measurements of the shape of coastal transverse dun...

  12. Minimal model for aeolian sand dunes

    Kroy, Klaus; Sauermann, Gerd; Herrmann, Hans J.

    2002-01-01

    We present a minimal model for the formation and migration of aeolian sand dunes. It combines a perturbative description of the turbulent wind velocity field above the dune with a continuum saltation model that allows for saturation transients in the sand flux. The latter are shown to provide the characteristic length scale. The model can explain the origin of important features of dunes, such as the formation of a slip face, the broken scale invariance, and the existence of a minimum dune si...

  13. Tunnelling-induced ground displacements in sand

    ZHOU, BO

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this research was to examine the effects that relative density and stratification have on greenfield soil displacements above tunnels in sandy ground. Data from a series of plane-strain centrifuge tests on tunnels in silica sand are presented. The relative density of the sand samples ranged from 90% to 50% in the tests. The soil displacement data were examined to determine features of greenfield settlement, both surface and subsurface. The effects that relative density a...

  14. Urn model of separation of sand

    Lipowski, Adam; Droz, Michel

    2001-01-01

    We introduce an urn model which describes spatial separation of sand. In this dynamical model, in a certain range of parameters spontaneous symmetry breaking takes place and equipartitioning of sand into two compartments is broken. The steady-state equation for an order parameter, a critical line, and the tricritical point on the phase diagram are found exactly. Master equation and the first-passage problem for the model are solved numerically and the results are used to locate first-order tr...

  15. Electrostatics in wind-blown sand

    Kok, Jasper F.; Renno, Nilton O.

    2007-01-01

    Wind-blown sand, or "saltation," is an important geological process, and the primary source of atmospheric dust aerosols. Significant discrepancies exist between classical saltation theory and measurements. We show here that these discrepancies can be resolved by the inclusion of sand electrification in a physically based saltation model. Indeed, we find that electric forces enhance the concentration of saltating particles and cause them to travel closer to the surface, in agreement with meas...

  16. Recent Sand Avalanching on Rabe Crater Dunes

    2000-01-01

    Dark streaks on the steep, down-wind slopes of sand dunes in Rabe Crater are seen at several locations in this Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image. These streaks indicate relatively recent (i.e., in the past few years or less) movement of sand down these slopes.Sand dunes move forward by the combined action of wind that drives sand up the shallow slope on the windward side of the dune (in this case, the slopes that face toward the lower right) and the avalanching of this sand down the steeper, lee-side slope. The steep slope is also known as the slip face. The dark streaks indicated by arrows are evidence for sand avalanches that occurred within a few months or years of the time when the picture was taken in March 1999. Other streaks which are seen criss-crossing the dunes may be the result of passing dust devils. This image is illuminated from the upper left and located in Rabe Crater of the Hellespontus-Noachis region near 44.2oS, 325.6oW.

  17. Study of titanomagnetite sands from Costa Rica

    Cruz-Sanchez, E.; Alvarez-Castro, J.F.; Ramirez-Picado, J.A.; Matutes-Aquino, J.A

    2004-04-28

    In Cahuita town, Limon province, at the Atlantic coast of Costa Rica there are titanomagnetite sands. The chemical, structural and magnetic characterization of the titanomagnetite sands can clarify aspects of their geological formation; as well as suggest applications from them. The magnetic sand is composed mainly of titanomagnetite and hematite, with very small quartz impurities quantities, pyroxene, etc. The refinement of X-rays diffraction patterns by the method of Rietveld indicates an 86.03% in weight of titanomagnetite and a 13.97% in weight of hematite. The particles size of this magnetic sand have an interval of 75-300 {mu}m and a specific surface area of 1.18 m{sup 2}/g. The specific magnetization of the saturation of the sand is 55.8 emu/g and the intrinsic coercivity is 39.6 Oe. In this work a characterization of the titanomagnetite sands is presented the chemical composition was determined by absorption spectroscopy. The present crystalline phases were determined by X-ray diffraction. The morphology and composition of the particles were determined by scanning electron microscopy together with microanalytical techniques. The classification of the particles by shape and color were carried out using optical microscopy. The magnetic properties and the hyperfine structure were measured by vibrating sample magnetometry and Moessbauer spectroscopy.

  18. Study of titanomagnetite sands from Costa Rica

    In Cahuita town, Limon province, at the Atlantic coast of Costa Rica there are titanomagnetite sands. The chemical, structural and magnetic characterization of the titanomagnetite sands can clarify aspects of their geological formation; as well as suggest applications from them. The magnetic sand is composed mainly of titanomagnetite and hematite, with very small quartz impurities quantities, pyroxene, etc. The refinement of X-rays diffraction patterns by the method of Rietveld indicates an 86.03% in weight of titanomagnetite and a 13.97% in weight of hematite. The particles size of this magnetic sand have an interval of 75-300 μm and a specific surface area of 1.18 m2/g. The specific magnetization of the saturation of the sand is 55.8 emu/g and the intrinsic coercivity is 39.6 Oe. In this work a characterization of the titanomagnetite sands is presented the chemical composition was determined by absorption spectroscopy. The present crystalline phases were determined by X-ray diffraction. The morphology and composition of the particles were determined by scanning electron microscopy together with microanalytical techniques. The classification of the particles by shape and color were carried out using optical microscopy. The magnetic properties and the hyperfine structure were measured by vibrating sample magnetometry and Moessbauer spectroscopy

  19. Layers, Landslides, and Sand Dunes

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Released 27 October 2003This image shows the northern rim of one of the Valles Marineris canyons. Careful inspection shows many interesting features here. Note that the spurs and gullies in the canyon wall disappear some distance below the top of the canyon wall, indicating the presence of some smooth material here that weathers differently from the underlying rocks. On the floor of the canyon, there are remains from a landslide that came hurtling down the canyon wall between two spurs. Riding over the topography of the canyon floor are many large sand dunes, migrating generally from the lower right to upper left.Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -14.1, Longitude 306.7 East (53.3 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  20. No evidence of increased risk of soft tissue sarcomas in the neighborhood of a steel foundry in Verona

    Marta Benedetti

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the possible association between occurrence of soft tissue sarcomas in Verona (Italy and residence near a steel foundry, whose emissions of dioxin-like compounds may be relevant. Exposure to total suspended particulate (TSP emitted from the plant as estimated by ADMS-urban dispersion model was used as an indirect index of exposure to dioxin-like compounds. Verona municipality was divided in six subareas according to the decreasing levels of estimated TSP exposure, and soft tissue sarcomas cases were mapped according to residence at time of diagnosis. Standardized incidence ratios were computed. No statistically significant departures between observed and expected cases were detected as illustrated by trend-test results.

  1. Monolithic silicon photonics in a sub-100nm SOI CMOS microprocessor foundry: progress from devices to systems

    Popović, Miloš A.; Wade, Mark T.; Orcutt, Jason S.; Shainline, Jeffrey M.; Sun, Chen; Georgas, Michael; Moss, Benjamin; Kumar, Rajesh; Alloatti, Luca; Pavanello, Fabio; Chen, Yu-Hsin; Nammari, Kareem; Notaros, Jelena; Atabaki, Amir; Leu, Jonathan; Stojanović, Vladimir; Ram, Rajeev J.

    2015-02-01

    We review recent progress of an effort led by the Stojanović (UC Berkeley), Ram (MIT) and Popović (CU Boulder) research groups to enable the design of photonic devices, and complete on-chip electro-optic systems and interfaces, directly in standard microelectronics CMOS processes in a microprocessor foundry, with no in-foundry process modifications. This approach allows tight and large-scale monolithic integration of silicon photonics with state-of-the-art (sub-100nm-node) microelectronics, here a 45nm SOI CMOS process. It enables natural scale-up to manufacturing, and rapid advances in device design due to process repeatability. The initial driver application was addressing the processor-to-memory communication energy bottleneck. Device results include 5Gbps modulators based on an interleaved junction that take advantage of the high resolution of the sub-100nm CMOS process. We demonstrate operation at 5fJ/bit with 1.5dB insertion loss and 8dB extinction ratio. We also demonstrate the first infrared detectors in a zero-change CMOS process, using absorption in transistor source/drain SiGe stressors. Subsystems described include the first monolithically integrated electronic-photonic transmitter on chip (modulator+driver) with 20-70fJ/bit wall plug energy/bit (2-3.5Gbps), to our knowledge the lowest transmitter energy demonstrated to date. We also demonstrate native-process infrared receivers at 220fJ/bit (5Gbps). These are encouraging signs for the prospects of monolithic electronics-photonics integration. Beyond processor-to-memory interconnects, our approach to photonics as a "More-than- Moore" technology inside advanced CMOS promises to enable VLSI electronic-photonic chip platforms tailored to a vast array of emerging applications, from optical and acoustic sensing, high-speed signal processing, RF and optical metrology and clocks, through to analog computation and quantum technology.

  2. Experimental assessment of the liquefaction resistance of calcareous biogenous sands

    Sandoval Eimar; Pando Miguel A

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT

    Liquefaction is a phenomenon in which soils, typically sands, suddenly loose a substantial amount of their shear strength and stiffness, this often triggered by large-magnitude earthquakes. Most liquefaction research has focused on silicate-based sands and not on other sand types, such as calcareous biogenous sands Calcareous sands ar...

  3. Optimising the composition of natural moulding sands including thermal aspects

    Jerzy St. Kowalski

    2011-01-01

    The paper discusses the problem of the choice of the moulding sand mixture composition in terms of the sand behaviour in contact withmolten metal. Studies of high-temperature phenomena make assessment of the sand composition applicability under real operatingconditions possible, thus leading to the elimination of sand-originating casting defects. The research was conducted on selected moulding materials included in the composition of traditional moulding sand mixtures without the addition of ...

  4. Nuclear energy in the oils sands

    The major Canadian oil sands are located in Alberta and Saskatchewan, with most production from the strata along the Athabasca River in Alberta. The economically recoverable oil sands reserves are estimated to be 168 billion barrels which at a current production rate of 1.8 million barrels per day (2012), are projected to last a very long time. Canada has been blessed with vast energy resources which make it potentially energy-independent and able to provide significant exports but there are concerns that their development cannot be managed in a wholly acceptable manner. Comparable concerns have been applied to nuclear energy in the past and in recent times to the oil sands. The technologies associated with these energy sources have always been controversial because they are at the confluence of economics and politics where finding a balance between risk and reward is difficult. So it should be no surprise that when these technologies get linked together in certain proposals their prospect for success is doubly difficult. The possible use of nuclear energy for production of oil from the oil sands dates back to the late 1950s, when an experiment to mine the oil by detonating an underground nuclear device was proposed. It was predicted that the heat and pressure released from such a device would create a large cavern into which oil would flow, and from where it would be pumped to the surface. Almost at the same time, oil sands research using conventional sources of energy had culminated with the development of practical refining processes, essentially those still in use today. These methods require large amounts of heat energy in the form of hot water and steam. In this century nuclear energy was proposed as the source for the heat required by the oil sands production processes. To date neither of these nuclear proposals for oil sands projects have been successful, because the economic and political balance could not be struck. (author)

  5. Nuclear energy in the oils sands

    Arsenault, J.E.

    2014-09-15

    The major Canadian oil sands are located in Alberta and Saskatchewan, with most production from the strata along the Athabasca River in Alberta. The economically recoverable oil sands reserves are estimated to be 168 billion barrels which at a current production rate of 1.8 million barrels per day (2012), are projected to last a very long time. Canada has been blessed with vast energy resources which make it potentially energy-independent and able to provide significant exports but there are concerns that their development cannot be managed in a wholly acceptable manner. Comparable concerns have been applied to nuclear energy in the past and in recent times to the oil sands. The technologies associated with these energy sources have always been controversial because they are at the confluence of economics and politics where finding a balance between risk and reward is difficult. So it should be no surprise that when these technologies get linked together in certain proposals their prospect for success is doubly difficult. The possible use of nuclear energy for production of oil from the oil sands dates back to the late 1950s, when an experiment to mine the oil by detonating an underground nuclear device was proposed. It was predicted that the heat and pressure released from such a device would create a large cavern into which oil would flow, and from where it would be pumped to the surface. Almost at the same time, oil sands research using conventional sources of energy had culminated with the development of practical refining processes, essentially those still in use today. These methods require large amounts of heat energy in the form of hot water and steam. In this century nuclear energy was proposed as the source for the heat required by the oil sands production processes. To date neither of these nuclear proposals for oil sands projects have been successful, because the economic and political balance could not be struck. (author)

  6. Fact or fiction? oil sands reclamation

    Grant, J.; Dyer, S.; Woynillowicz, D.; Lines, R. (ed.)

    2008-05-15

    Alberta's mineable oil sands deposits underlie nearly 3,500 square kilometres of boreal forest. The rapid and expansion of oil sand development is based on the assumption that mined landscapes can be reclaimed to near pre-development conditions after mining is complete. Land reclamation refers to the stabilization, contouring, maintenance, conditioning or reconstruction of the surface land. Although it is a critical component of responsible oil sands development, current practices indicate there is a potential risk of creating a legacy of environmental degradation and long-term environmental liabilities. From 1967 to 2006, the cumulative disturbance for oil sands mine development was 47,832 hectares of boreal forest. Only 0.2 per cent of the total land base disturbed mines have been certified by the Government of Alberta as reclaimed land. This does not include tailings waste. The authors cautioned that although environmental uncertainties and risk exist, the current oil sands mine reclamation security program is a closed process lacking transparency. Information about reclamation costs, the calculation of liability bonds and the frequency of government validation reclamation plans are not publicly availably. As such, this lack of transparency could mean that taxpayers may end up paying for the reclamation of thousands of square kilometers of mine pits and toxic tailings lakes. The Pembina Institute has proposed that the Government adopt the following recommendations: (1) oblige oil sand operators to restore oil sands mines to self-sustaining boreal forests, (2) establish a set of transparent reclamation standards, (3) prohibit the creation of liquid tailings, (4) reform the reclamation security policy to protect Canadians, (5) institute a total disturbance cap for each project to ensure reclamation occurs at the same time as development, (6) increase public transparency of corporate reclamation performance, and (7) require environmental compensation to offset mining impacts. 112 refs., 3 tabs., 24 figs., 1 appendix.

  7. The Effect of use the Silica Sand

    Nahla N. Helal

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This research includes study the effects of use the silica sand at different rates and comparison some characteristics with other concrete mixture contains ordinary sand to investigate the effect on some mechanical properties of concrete such as compressive strength, density absorption and flexural strength after (3, 7, 14 and 28 days for four mixtures. , the ordinary sand was replaced by the (Silica Sand at different rates ( 25%, 50%, 75%, 100%. Sodium Silicate solution at percentage of cement ratio(water to cement ratio is decreased on same ratio added to the Ideal silica sand mixture to study the effect of addition of some additives on concrete. The study showed that the best results of mixture was when replaced (75% of the ordinary sand by silica sand , then study some mechanical properties of mixtures such as compressive strength, density absorption and flexural strength after (3, 7, 14 and 28 days .The study showed the optimum percentage of sodium silicate was (1.75%. The study showed that the best result of Density was (2493Kg/m3 after (28 days, and the increment ratio in Density was (2.95%, and the large value in compressive strength was (85.76 MPa which was (42.9% after (28 days. The study showed also that the best results of absorption were (0.77 after (28 days, and the decrement ratio in Absorption was (33.8%. The study showed that the best result of flexural strength was (8.02 MPa after (28 days, and the maximum increment ratio in Flexural Strength was (150.6% after (28 days.

  8. Modelling of The Properties of Sand Mould Made of Reclaimed Sand

    M Venkata Ramana

    2014-01-01

    Modelling of the properties of the sand mould made of reclaimed sand bonded with sodium silicate and cured with CO2 gas is attempted in this paper. Properties considered are Mould hardness and Permeability. Regression models are developed and the correlation coefficient is determined. It is observed that the predictions of the model are matching with experimental values within +/- 5 % error.

  9. Cleaning oil sands drilling waste in Alberta

    Mikic, N.; Nilsen, C.; Markabi, M. [Mi SWACO, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    The waste generated from steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) wells is brought to the surface and separated by shale shakers. The waste can include drilling fluids and sand contaminated with bitumen. This paper described a new technology developed to treat waste using the addition of hot water and various mixing and separation technologies to reduce the viscosity of the bitumen and separate it from the sand. The bitumen-contaminated drill cuttings were mixed with hot water to form a slurry that was then separated through the G-force created by a hydrocyclone. A secondary separation was then conducted in an elutriation column to remove residual contaminants from the sand. The flow rate of the process was controlled by the fine solids composition of the cuttings, the temperature of the cleaning process, and the performance of the individual components. Laboratory tests conducted to tests the method showed that the sand particles produced using the method were clean enough to be safely disposed in the environment. A pilot study will be conducted to test the sand cleaning technology at a commercial scale. 6 refs., 3 figs.

  10. Centrifugal modelling of sand production in wellbores

    Vaziri, H. H. [Nova Scotia Technical Univ., Halifax, NS (Canada). Centre for Energy Studies; Phillips, R.; Xiaojun, X. [Memorial Univ. of Newfoundland, St. John`s, NF (Canada). Centre for Cold Ocean Resources Engineering

    1996-12-31

    The mode of sand production in wellbores and its impact on fluid flow rates were examined using the centrifuge model testing system, in an effort to gain insight into the geomechanical mechanisms that could be used to improve production. Thirteen tests were performed to evaluate influences of varying fluid viscosity, inhomogeneity, head differences and centrifugal acceleration. Sand production resulted in a cone-shaped cavity with a maximum radius approximately ten times the original wellbore radius, and an improvement in the steady state flow rate of 400 per cent. These results indicate that sand production can provide production improvements by altering the permeability characteristics of the formation, and by changing spherical flow into radial flow. 10 refs., 4 figs. .

  11. Thermoluminescent dosimetric properties of Descalvado sand

    Sand samples proceeding from Descalvado, Sao Paulo, were studied with regard to their dosimetric properties using the thermoluminescence technique (TL) for high doses. These sand samples present steady physical and chemical characteristics to the end items, and they are used in the glass industry and for casting. The TL curves of the samples were obtained after an irradiation at the Gamma-Cell system (60 Co), of IPEN. The glow curves present two peaks at 80 C and 220 C approximately. Calibration curves were obtained for doses between 50 Gy and 5 kGy. The results indicate that the sand samples can be used for high-doses dosimetry in several areas of applications of ionizing radiation. (Author)

  12. Mine Drainage and Oil Sand Water.

    Wei, Xinchao; Wolfe, F Andrew; Li, Yanjun

    2015-10-01

    Mine drainage from the mining of mineral resources (coal, metals, oil sand, or industrial minerals) remains as a persistent environmental problem. This review summarizes the scientific literature published in 2014 on the technical issues related to mine drainage or mine water in active and abandoned coal/hard rock mining sites or waste spoil piles. Also included in this review is the water from oil sand operations. This review is divided into the four sections: 1) mine drainage characterization, 2) prediction and environmental impact, 3) treatment technologies, 4) oil sand water. Many papers presented in this review address more than one aspect and different sections should not be regarded as being mutuallyexclusive or all-inclusive. PMID:26420092

  13. Thermoluminescent dosimetric properties of Descalvado sand

    Teixeira, M.I.; Caldas, L.V.E

    2006-07-01

    Sand samples proceeding from Descalvado, Sao Paulo, were studied with regard to their dosimetric properties using the thermoluminescence technique (TL) for high doses. These sand samples present steady physical and chemical characteristics to the end items, and they are used in the glass industry and for casting. The TL curves of the samples were obtained after an irradiation at the Gamma-Cell system ({sup 60} Co), of IPEN. The glow curves present two peaks at 80 C and 220 C approximately. Calibration curves were obtained for doses between 50 Gy and 5 kGy. The results indicate that the sand samples can be used for high-doses dosimetry in several areas of applications of ionizing radiation. (Author)

  14. Minimal model for aeolian sand dunes

    Kroy, K; Herrmann, H J; Kroy, Klaus; Sauermann, Gerd; Herrmann, Hans J.

    2002-01-01

    We present a minimal model for the formation and migration of aeolian sand dunes. It combines a perturbative description of the turbulent wind velocity field above the dune with a continuum saltation model that allows for saturation transients in the sand flux. The latter are shown to provide the characteristic length scale. The model can explain the origin of important features of dunes, such as the formation of a slip face, the broken scale invariance, and the existence of a minimum dune size. It also predicts the longitudinal shape and aspect ratio of dunes and heaps, their migration velocity and shape relaxation dynamics. Although the minimal model employs non-local expressions for the wind shear stress as well as for the sand flux, it is simple enough to serve as a very efficient tool for analytical and numerical investigations and to open up the way to simulations of large scale desert topographies.

  15. AN INTRODUCTION TO RAPID CASTING: DEVELOPMENT AND INVESTIGATION OF PROCESS CHAINS FOR SAND CASTING OF FUNCTIONAL PROTOTYPES

    D. Dimitrov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: This paper discusses the results obtained from studies on different Rapid Tooling process chains in order to improve the design and manufacture of foundry equipment that is used for sand casting of prototypes in final material. These prototypes are intended for functional and pre-production tests of vehicles. The Three Dimensional Printing process is used as core technology. Subsequently, while considering aspects such as time, cost, quality (accuracy and surface roughness, and tool life, a framework is presented for the evaluation and selection of the most suitable process chain in accordance with specific requirements. This research builds on an in-depth characterisation of the accuracy and repeatability of a 3D printing process.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Hierdie artikel bespreek die resultate wat verkry is tydens studies op verskillende Snel-Gereedskapvervaardigingproseskettings wat ondersoek is teneinde die ontwerp en vervaardiging van sandgietgereedskap, om prototipes in finale materiaal te vervaardig, te verbeter. Die prototipes is bestem vir gebruik in funksionele- en voorproduksietoetse van voertuie. Die sogenaamde Driedimensionele Drukproses (3DP is as kerntegnologie aangewend. Gevolglik, na oorweging van aspekte soos tyd, koste, kwaliteit (akkuraatheid en oppervlakafwerking, en gereedskapleeftyd, is ’n raamwerk ontwikkel vir die evaluering en seleksie van die mees geskikte prosesketting met inagname van spesifieke vereistes. Hierdie navorsing bou op ’n diepgaande karakterisering van die akkuraatheids- en herhaalbaarheidsvermoë van ’n 3D drukproses.

  16. Permeability Tests on Eastern Scheldt Sand

    Jakobsen, Kim Parsberg

    The flow through porous media plays an important role in various engineering disciplines, as for example in ground water hydrology and soil mechanics. In the present study the permeability is determined for a fine, saturated sand. As the flow through a porous media strongly depends on the...... characteristics of the soil matrix, the permeability is determined for different void ratios. All tests are performed on reconstituted specimens of Eastern Scheldt Sand. The permeability is determined by use of a falling head apparatus. Finally the test results are briefly summarised and a relationship between...

  17. Permeability Tests on Silkeborg Sand No. 0000

    Lund, Willy; Jakobsen, Kim Parsberg

    The flow through porous media plays an important role in various engineering disciplines, as for example in ground water hydrology and soil mechanics. In the present study the permeability is determined for a fine, saturated sand. As the flow through a porous media strongly depends on the...... characteristics of the soil matrix, the permeability is determined for different void ratios. All tests are performed on reconstituted specimens of Silkeborg Sand No. 0000. The permeability is determined by use of a falling head apparatus. The apparatus, test procedures and the analysis method are described in...

  18. Granular size segregation in underwater sand ripples.

    Rousseaux, G; Caps, H; Wesfreid, J-E

    2004-02-01

    We report an experimental study of a binary sand bed under an oscillating water flow. The formation and evolution of ripples is observed. The appearance of a granular segregation is shown to strongly depend on the sand bed preparation. The initial wavelength of the mixture is measured. In the final steady state, a segregation in volume is observed instead of a segregation at the surface as reported before. The correlation between this phenomenon and the fluid flow is emphasised. Finally, different "exotic" patterns and their geophysical implications are presented. PMID:15052430

  19. Strict specifications: UK frac sand potential

    Mitchell, Clive

    2015-01-01

    The UK is actively looking at the potential production of shale gas and, as a result, the country’s extractive minerals industry is looking at the role it can play in providing minerals that could be used in hydraulic fracturing (fracking). One such mineral is silica sand, which is used as a proppant,commonly referred to as “frac sand”. Clive Mitchell, Industrial Minerals Specialist*, provides an educated guess as to where this frac sand could come from in the UK.

  20. Oil sand synfuel production using nuclear energy

    The importance of oil sand as a primary energy carrier is illustrated. The oil sand mining project 'synfuel' in Fort McMurray, Alberta, Canada, is described. On the basis of a layout of an In-situ-process different possibilities of introducing nuclear energy to the process are described. This leads to an increase of the product yield, leading finally to a doubling of the energy output compared to the reference layout. The introduction of nuclear energy contributes to the reduction of emissions, in particular to the emission of carbon dioxide in the conversion process. (orig.)

  1. Gamma Ray Shielding from Saudi White Sand

    Al-horayess OKLA; Al-Dayel OMAR; Hefne JAMEEL; Al-Ajyan TURKI; Bagazi ALI

    2010-01-01

    This study is a comparison of gamma ray linear attenuation coefficient of two typs of shielding materials made of Saudi white and red sand. Each shield was consisted of one part of cement two parts of sand in addi-tion to water. Different thicknesses were tested. The concentrations of all elements in each shield material were determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS). The results obtained from the ICP-MS were used in MCNP4B (Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Computer ...

  2. Queensland mineral comodity report: mineral sands

    The current status of the heavy mineral sands industry in Queensland is reviewed. The main minerals sought are rutile, ilmenite, zircon and monazite. Of these the titanium bearing minerals, rutile and ilmenite are the most important. A description of their phisical and chemical characteristics is given. It is shown that they occur in the Pleistocene to recent coastal deposits of beaches and dune systems backed by sand plains. These areas fringe the Queensland coastline almost continuously with average thicknesses from 25 to 30 meters. The status of current producers , production methods and rates are also briefly discussed. 12 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs

  3. Sand control systems used in completing wells

    Gabriel Wittenberger

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Expandable Tubular Technology is transforming the face of well completion and construction. This technology provides: a substantially higher hydrocarbon production rates from the reservoir, a reduced well drilling and construction costs, new possibilities for previously unreachable or uneconomic reservoirs, and step a change towards the single diameter well. ESS (Expandable Sand Screen has an unrivalled performance worldwide for delivering a reliable sand control in a wide range of applications. Well costs typically cut by over 20 %, and the productivity increases up to 70 %.

  4. Sand Waves along the Dutch Coast

    Verhagen, H.J.

    1989-01-01

    Sand waves, defined as longshore wave-like movements of the shoreline, measured in a horizontal plane, are described along several stretches of the shoreline of The Netherlands. They have a celerity in the order of 50-200 m/yr, a period of 50- 150 years and an amplitude of 30- 500 m. They are found along the whole Dutch shoreline. Analysis of sand waves shows that the assumed effect of groins might be very small along this shoreline. There are indications that groins did not have any long-ter...

  5. Dredged marine sand as construction material

    Limeira de Araujo, Jussara; Agulló Fité, Luís; Etxeberria Larrañaga, Miren

    2012-01-01

    This work deals with the study of dredged marine sand (DMS) from the Port of Sant Carles de la Ràpita (Tarragona, Spain) as construction material. The analysis of its influence on paste, mortar and concrete production is described. Two experimental phases were carried out after the chemical and physical characteristics of DMS were determined. Firstly, pastes and mortars were made using CEM II/A-M 42.5R cement, different percentages of DMS in replacement of raw sand and plasticizer addit...

  6. Influence of wall thickness of spheroidal cast iron, manufactured in the foundry METAL-ODLEW Sp.J., on its graphite shape index and ultrasonic control index

    W. Or?owicz; Tupaj, M.; Mrz, M. (Miroslaw); Guzik, E.; J. Nykiel; A. Zaj?c; B. Piotrowski

    2009-01-01

    This work presents the results of ultrasonic evaluation of the microstructure of spheroidal cast iron manufactured under production condi-tions at the foundry of Metal Odlew Sp.J. Evaluation of ultrasonic control index sensitiveness to changes of graphite shape index Ss of spheroidal cast iron (type 500-7), utilized modelled stepped castings. The relationship was determined between the shape index of graphite precipitation Ss and the velocity of longitudinal ultrasonic wave cL.

  7. Designing, construction, assessment, and efficiency of local exhaust ventilation in controlling crystalline silica dust and particles, and formaldehyde in a foundry industry plant.

    Morteza, Mortezavi Mehrizi; Hossein, Kakooi; Amirhossein, Matin; Naser, Hasheminegad; Gholamhossein, Halvani; Hossein, Fallah

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to design and assess the efficiency of a local exhaust ventilation system used in a foundry operation to control inhalable dust and particles, microcrystal particles, and noxious gases and vapours affecting workers during the foundry process. It was designed based on recommendations from the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygiene. After designing a local exhaust ventilation system (LEV), we prepared and submitted the implementation plan to the manufacturer. High concentrations of crystalline silica dust and formaldehyde, which are common toxic air pollutants in foundries, were ultimately measured as an indicator for studying the efficiency of this system in controlling inhalable dust and particles as well as other air pollutants. The level of occupational exposure to silica and formaldehyde as major air pollutants was assessed in two modes: first, when the LEV was on, and second, when it was off. Air samples from the exposure area were obtained using a personal sampling pump and analysed using the No. 7601 method for crystal silica and the No. 2541 method for formaldehyde of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). Silica and formaldehyde concentrations were determined by visible absorption spectrophotometry and gas chromatography. The results showed that local exhaust ventilation was successful in preserving the crystal silica particles in the work environment at a level below the NIOSH maximum allowed concentration (0.05 mg m-3). In contrast, formaldehyde exceeded the NIOSH limit (1 ppm or 1.228 mg m-3). PMID:23585164

  8. Alpha spectrometric characterization of process-related particle size distributions from active particle sampling at the Los Alamos National Laboratory uranium foundry

    Plionis, Alexander A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Peterson, Dominic S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tandon, Lav [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lamont, Stephen P [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Uranium particles within the respirable size range pose a significant hazard to the health and safety of workers. Significant differences in the deposition and incorporation patterns of aerosols within the respirable range can be identified and integrated into sophisticated health physics models. Data characterizing the uranium particle size distribution resulting from specific foundry-related processes are needed. Using personal air sampling cascade impactors, particles collected from several foundry processes were sorted by activity median aerodynamic diameter onto various Marple substrates. After an initial gravimetric assessment of each impactor stage, the substrates were analyzed by alpha spectrometry to determine the uranium content of each stage. Alpha spectrometry provides rapid nondestructive isotopic data that can distinguish process uranium from natural sources and the degree of uranium contribution to the total accumulated particle load. In addition, the particle size bins utilized by the impactors provide adequate resolution to determine if a process particle size distribution is: lognormal, bimodal, or trimodal. Data on process uranium particle size values and distributions facilitate the development of more sophisticated and accurate models for internal dosimetry, resulting in an improved understanding of foundry worker health and safety.

  9. Alpha spectrometric characterization of process-related particle size distributions from active particle sampling at the Los Alamos National Laboratory uranium foundry

    Uranium particles within the respirable size range pose a significant hazard to the health and safety of workers. Significant differences in the deposition and incorporation patterns of aerosols within the respirable range can be identified and integrated into sophisticated health physics models. Data characterizing the uranium particle size distribution resulting from specific foundry-related processes are needed. Using personal air sampling cascade impactors, particles collected from several foundry processes were sorted by activity median aerodynamic diameter onto various Marple substrates. After an initial gravimetric assessment of each impactor stage, the substrates were analyzed by alpha spectrometry to determine the uranium content of each stage. Alpha spectrometry provides rapid non-distructive isotopic data that can distinguish process uranium from natural sources and the degree of uranium contribution to the total accumulated particle load. In addition, the particle size bins utilized by the impactors provide adequate resolution to determine if a process particle size distribution is: lognormal, bimodal, or trimodal. Data on process uranium particle size values and distributions facilitate the development of more sophisticated and accurate models for internal dosimetry, resulting in an improved understanding of foundry worker health and safety.

  10. Sistema de apoio deciso para programao da produo em fundies de mercado Decision support system for production scheduling in steel casting foundries

    Rodolfo Florence Teixeira Junior

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho tem por objetivo propor um sistema de apoio deciso (SAD para elaborao da programao da produo em fundies que trabalham com produtos personalizados sob encomenda, tambm conhecidas como fundies de mercado. Para isto, o ambiente produtivo das fundies de mercado estruturado por meio do sistema de controle da produo conhecido como PBC, sendo propostas, tambm, trs modelagens decisrias viveis para o processo de programar a produo: um modelo de programao inteira binria, um modelo heurstico clssico de busca em rvore, conhecido como beam search e um modelo meta-heurstico baseado em algoritmos genticos. Este trabalho apresenta ainda os resultados experimentais obtidos com a aplicao dos modelos decisrios e a anlise da adequao do SAD proposto em fundies de mercado representativas do interior do Estado de So Paulo.This work proposes a Decision Support System (DSS for production scheduling in steel casting foundries. To this end, the productive environment of these foundries is organized by means of a production control system known as Period Batch Control (PBC. Three viable decision models for production scheduling are proposed: a binary integer programming model, a model based on classical approximation methods, specifically the method known as beam search, and a model based on a meta-heuristic known as genetic algorithm. Also presented here are the experimental results obtained from the application of the three models and an analysis of the fitness of the proposal for eight representative steel casting foundries in the state of So Paulo, Brazil.

  11. Building Whales in Sand and Mind.

    Warner, Carolyn

    1980-01-01

    Describes two-week summer workshops on evolution, adaptation, and behavior of whales, conducted for children by Cold Spring Harbor Whaling Museum (New York), and culminating in creation of life-size sand sculptures of whales. Provides selected list of periodicals, teaching materials, identification guides, records, and societies devoted to whales

  12. Growing markets to sustain oil sands development

    The utilization of Alberta bitumen for the clean fuels market depends on upgrading, transportation, and refining processes. Forecasts show that oil sands production, which includes synthetic crude oil (SCO), will surpass declining conventional production in Western Canada. Several issues pose a challenge to the oil sands processing industry. The producers' market is affected by crude oil prices, market expansion options, diluent availability/cost, supply cost competitiveness, and regional processing. The common market issues include light/heavy crude prices, oil sands crude qualities, prices of oil sands crudes, pipeline infrastructure, and competitive supplies. The issues facing the refiners are: refining margins, security of crude supply, refined product quality, and competitive product supply. A brief review of markets for Canadian crude oil, including synthetic crude, was provided. The share of the Midwest market by Alberta must be retained and increased. The market expansion options were reviewed for both downstream (refining) and upstream (upgrading) operations. To reach more distant markets such as Southern Midwest, Washington, and California, new pipeline capacity would be required. The market is nearly saturated for Canada's heavy oil supply. More upgrading will be required as bitumen production increases. Market growth is still possible for Canada's SCO but according to forecasts, the market could also become saturated. To increase demand and allow supplies to grow, SCO prices may fall below light crude prices. It was noted that a balance must be achieved in order for producers to increase production and for refiner/upgraders to expand their conversion capacity. tabs., figs

  13. Radiation safety in Australia's mineral sands industry

    This brochure is part of a training package aiming to explain in simple terms what radiation is, how it affects people's lives and how, in the specific case of the mineral sand industry, the risk of ill-effects from low-level radioactivity could be effectively guarded against by simple and easily followed safety precautions. ills

  14. Characterization of sand lenses embedded in tills

    Kessler, Timo Christian; Klint, K.E.S.; Nilsson, B.; Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup

    2012-01-01

    lenses in various glacial environments. Due to the complex and mutable appearance of sand lenses, geometric descriptions can reveal the deformation history and even give indications on the palaeo-glaciological conditions during the deposition of the surrounding tills. This information can support the...

  15. Sand - a high gamma dose thermoluminescence dosimeter

    The thermoluminescent (TL) properties of typical sand from Rajasthan has been studied for possible use as high dose gamma dosimeter. The change in shape of glow curve with gamma dose and the intercomparison results of this dosimeter with national standards in the dose range 0.05-5.0 kGy are reported

  16. Market opportunities and challenges for oil sands

    The use of Alberta bitumen as a clean fuel depends on upgrading, transportation, and refining processes. Forecasts show that oil sands production, which includes synthetic crude oil (SCO), will surpass declining conventional production from the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin. The challenges facing the oils sands processing industry include: crude oil prices which affect the producer's market; market expansion options; diluent availability/cost; supply cost competitiveness; and, regional processing. The common market issues include light/heavy crude prices, oil sands crude qualities, prices of oil sands crudes, pipeline infrastructure, and competitive supplies. The issues facing the refiners are: refining margins, security of crude supply, refined product quality, and competitive product supply. It was noted that Alberta must retain or increase its share of the Midwest market. The market expansion options were reviewed for both downstream (refining) and upstream (upgrading) operations. New pipeline capacity is needed to reach more distant markets such as Southern Midwest, Washington, and California. The market is nearly saturated for Canada's heavy oil supply. More upgrading will be required as bitumen production increases. Market growth is still possible for Canada's SCO but according to forecasts, the market could also become saturated. To increase demand and allow supplies to grow, SCO prices may fall below light crude prices. It was noted that a balance must be achieved in order for producers to increase production and for refiner/upgraders to expand their conversion capacity. 13 figs

  17. Undrained Cyclic Behaviour of Dense Frederikshavn Sand

    Nielsen, Søren Kjær; Ibsen, Lars Bo; Sørensen, Kris Wessel; Shajarati, Amir

    A modified contour diagram is created for the Frederikshavn Sand in the undrained case for a relative density of ID = 80 %. It can be used to estimate the number of cycles to failure for a given combination of pore pressure, average and cyclic load ratio. The diagram is based on a series of undra...

  18. The provenance of Taklamakan desert sand

    Rittner, Martin; Vermeesch, Pieter; Carter, Andrew; Bird, Anna; Stevens, Thomas; Garzanti, Eduardo; Andò, Sergio; Vezzoli, Giovanni; Dutt, Ripul; Xu, Zhiwei; Lu, Huayu

    2016-03-01

    Sand migration in the vast Taklamakan desert within the Tarim Basin (Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous region, PR China) is governed by two competing transport agents: wind and water, which work in diametrically opposed directions. Net aeolian transport is from northeast to south, while fluvial transport occurs from the south to the north and then west to east at the northern rim, due to a gradual northward slope of the underlying topography. We here present the first comprehensive provenance study of Taklamakan desert sand with the aim to characterise the interplay of these two transport mechanisms and their roles in the formation of the sand sea, and to consider the potential of the Tarim Basin as a contributing source to the Chinese Loess Plateau (CLP). Our dataset comprises 39 aeolian and fluvial samples, which were characterised by detrital-zircon U-Pb geochronology, heavy-mineral, and bulk-petrography analyses. Although the inter-sample differences of all three datasets are subtle, a multivariate statistical analysis using multidimensional scaling (MDS) clearly shows that Tarim desert sand is most similar in composition to rivers draining the Kunlun Shan (south) and the Pamirs (west), and is distinctly different from sediment sources in the Tian Shan (north). A small set of samples from the Junggar Basin (north of the Tian Shan) yields different detrital compositions and age spectra than anywhere in the Tarim Basin, indicating that aeolian sediment exchange between the two basins is minimal. Although river transport dominates delivery of sand into the Tarim Basin, wind remobilises and reworks the sediment in the central sand sea. Characteristic signatures of main rivers can be traced from entrance into the basin to the terminus of the Tarim River, and those crossing the desert from the south to north can seasonally bypass sediment through the sand sea. Smaller ephemeral rivers from the Kunlun Shan end in the desert and discharge their sediment there. Both river run-off and wind intensity are strongly seasonal, their respective transport strength and opposing directions maintain the Taklamakan in its position and topography.

  19. Gating Technology for Vertically Parted Green Sand Moulds

    Larsen, Per

    Gating technology for vertically parted green sand moulds. Literature study of different ways of designing gating systems.......Gating technology for vertically parted green sand moulds. Literature study of different ways of designing gating systems....

  20. Isotope fractionation due to evaporation from sand dunes

    Dune sand moisture isotope data and results from laboratory sand column experiments are reported. The evaporation process and the mechanisms producing the isotope fractionation depth profiles observed are discussed. (author)

  1. Expandable sand screens: from novel concept to proven sand control technique

    Metcalfe, Paul; Jones, Colin; Ballard, Tracey; Beare, Steve; Hillis, Dave [Weatherford International Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    2004-07-01

    Expandable Sand Screens (ESS) have proved a viable alternative to gravel packing for sand control. With over 300 installations worldwide, analysis of their use has confirmed that ESS offers excellent production performance and sand control reliability in Open hole. This paper presents details of a global survey on ESS performance that gives accurate information on production performance, sand exclusion reliability and cost effectiveness in Open hole and cased hole application scenarios. This paper also discusses the role and effect of compliant expansion in observed productivity performance and skin values. The rock mechanical, reservoir characterization and metallurgical requirements of ESS systems are also investigated. Finally, the latest advances of the technology for use within the reservoir are explained. This paper demonstrates how the combination of ESS and Expandable Zonal Isolation devices can offer cased hole functionality (in terms of zonal isolation) in combination with Open hole levels of production performance (from the ESS). (author)

  2. New Method for Estimation of Aeolian Sand Transport Rate Using Ceramic Sand Flux Sensor (UD-101

    Keiko Udo

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a new method for the estimation of aeolian sand transport rate was developed; the method employs a ceramic sand flux sensor (UD-101. UD-101 detects wind-blown sand impacting on its surface. The method was devised by considering the results of wind tunnel experiments that were performed using a vertical sediment trap and the UD-101. Field measurements to evaluate the estimation accuracy during the prevalence of unsteady winds were performed on a flat backshore. The results showed that aeolian sand transport rates estimated using the developed method were of the same order as those estimated using the existing method for high transport rates, i.e., for transport rates greater than 0.01 kg m–1 s–1.

  3. Drag reduction using superhydrophobic sanded Teflon surfaces

    Song, Dong; Daniello, Robert J.; Rothstein, Jonathan P.

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, a series of experiments are presented which demonstrate drag reduction for the laminar flow of water through microchannels using superhydrophobic surfaces with random surface microstructure. These superhydrophobic surfaces were fabricated with a simple, inexpensive technique of sanding polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) with sandpaper having grit sizes between 120- and 600-grit. A microfluidic device was used to measure the pressure drop as a function of the flow rate to determine the drag reduction and slip length of each surface. A maximum pressure drop reduction of 27 % and a maximum apparent slip length of b = 20 μm were obtained for the superhydrophobic surfaces created by sanding PTFE with a 240-grit sandpaper. The pressure drop reduction and slip length were found to increase with increasing mean particle size of the sandpaper up to 240-grit. Beyond that grit size, increasing the pitch of the surface roughness was found to cause the interface to transition from the Cassie-Baxter state to the Wenzel state. This transition was observed both as an increase in the contact angle hysteresis and simultaneously as a reduction in the pressure drop reduction. For these randomly rough surfaces, a correlation between the slip length and the contact angle hysteresis was found. The surfaces with the smallest contact angle hysteresis were found to also have the largest slip length. Finally, a number of sanding protocols were tested by sanding preferentially along the flow direction, across the flow direction and with a random circular pattern. In all cases, sanding in the flow direction was found to produce the largest pressure drop reduction.

  4. Imaging of Acoustic Waves in Sand

    Deason, Vance Albert; Telschow, Kenneth Louis; Watson, Scott Marshall

    2003-08-01

    There is considerable interest in detecting objects such as landmines shallowly buried in loose earth or sand. Various techniques involving microwave, acoustic, thermal and magnetic sensors have been used to detect such objects. Acoustic and microwave sensors have shown promise, especially if used together. In most cases, the sensor package is scanned over an area to eventually build up an image or map of anomalies. We are proposing an alternate, acoustic method that directly provides an image of acoustic waves in sand or soil, and their interaction with buried objects. The INEEL Laser Ultrasonic Camera utilizes dynamic holography within photorefractive recording materials. This permits one to image and demodulate acoustic waves on surfaces in real time, without scanning. A video image is produced where intensity is directly and linearly proportional to surface motion. Both specular and diffusely reflecting surfaces can be accomodated and surface motion as small as 0.1 nm can be quantitatively detected. This system was used to directly image acoustic surface waves in sand as well as in solid objects. Waves as frequencies of 16 kHz were generated using modified acoustic speakers. These waves were directed through sand toward partially buried objects. The sand container was not on a vibration isolation table, but sat on the lab floor. Interaction of wavefronts with buried objects showed reflection, diffraction and interference effects that could provide clues to location and characteristics of buried objects. Although results are preliminary, success in this effort suggests that this method could be applied to detection of buried landmines or other near-surface items such as pipes and tanks.

  5. Geochemical evidence for a Cretaceous oil sand (Bima oil sand) in the Chad Basin, Nigeria

    Bata, Timothy; Parnell, John; Samaila, Nuhu K.; Abubakar, M. B.; Maigari, A. S.

    2015-11-01

    Paleogeographic studies have shown that Earth was covered with more water during the Cretaceous than it is today, as the global sea level was significantly higher. The Cretaceous witnessed one of the greatest marine transgressions in Earth's history, represented by widespread deposition of sands directly on underlying basement. These sand bodies hold much of the world's heavy oil. Here, we present for the first time, geochemical evidence of a Cretaceous oil sand (Bima oil sand) in the Chad Basin, Nigeria. Bima oil sand is similar to other Cretaceous oil sands, predominantly occurring at shallow depths on basin flanks and generally lacking a seal cover, making the oil susceptible to biodegradation. The bulk properties and distribution of molecular features in oils from the Bima oil sand suggest that they are biodegraded. Sterane maturity parameters and the trisnorhopane thermal indicator for the oils suggest thermal maturities consistent with oils generated as conventional light oils, which later degraded into heavy oils. These oils also show no evidence of 25-norhopane, strongly suggesting that biodegradation occurred at shallow depths, consistent with the shallow depth of occurrence of the Bima Formation at the study locality. Low diasterane/sterane ratios and C29H/C30H ratios greater than 1 suggest a carbonate source rock for the studied oil. The Sterane distribution further suggests that the oils were sourced from marine carbonate rocks. The C32 homohopane isomerization ratios for the Bima oil sand are 0.59-0.60, implying that the source rock has surpassed the main oil generation phase, consistent with burial depths of the Fika and Gongila Formations, which are both possible petroleum source rocks in the basin.

  6. Sand sheet dynamics and Quaternary landscape evolution of the Selima Sand Sheet, southern Egypt

    Maxwell, Ted A.; Haynes, C. Vance

    2001-09-01

    The Selima Sand Sheet occupies more than 120,000 km 2 of the hyperarid, uninhabited Darb el-Arba'in Desert centered at the border of Egypt and Sudan at latitude 22° N, and is characterized by a featureless surface of lag granules and fine sand broken only by widely separated dune fields and giant ripples of varying height and wavelength. Monitoring of the largest of these chevron-shaped ripples using repeat orbital images and field surveys indicates migration rates of 500-1000 m/yr, accompanied by 0-2.0 cm erosion or deposition of the youngest sand sheet stratigraphic units. Beneath this active surface, several developmental stages of sand sheet sediments have undulatory upper contacts and varying degrees of pedogenic alteration. The younger stages retain their horizontal lamination and have cracking patterns indicative of past wetter conditions, while older stages have lost their laminar structure through pedogenesis. Historical remains in the desert as well as 14C and Uranium-series dating indicate that the younger strata of the sand sheet have a very low accumulation rate, despite the active movement of the surface. The lower strata were extensively modified during mid and late Pleistocene pluvials, resulting in an initial undulatory surface that set the stage for later accumulation of sand sheet. Below these Quaternary sediments lies irregular topography dissected by channels of mid-Tertiary drainage. The Selima Sand Sheet is neither the result of net aggradation nor degradation, but results from inheritance of an initial fluvial landscape increasingly modified during climatic cycles. Wet periods led to local drainage and deposition, while the increasingly severe arid periods of the late Pleistocene and Holocene resulted in deposition of the blanketing bimodal sediments of the sand sheet.

  7. Geosynthetic Reinforcement of Sand-Mat Layer above Soft Ground

    Jong-Beom Park; Hyun-Soo Park; Daehyeon Kim

    2013-01-01

    In order to improve the bearing capacity of soft ground for the purpose of getting trafficability of construction vehicles, the reinforcement of geosynthetics for sand-mat layers on soft ground has often been used. As the strength of the geosynthetics increases, and the sand-mat system becomes stronger, the bearing capacity of sand-mat systems will be increased. The depths of geosynthetics, reinforced in sand-mat layers, were varied with respect to the width of footing. The tensile strengths...

  8. Strength appraisal of artificial sand as fine aggregate in SFRC

    Mahendra R. Chitlange; Prakash S. Pajgade

    2010-01-01

    The huge quantity concrete is consumed by the construction industry all over the world, probably second largest after water. In India, the conventional concrete is produced by using natural sand from riverbeds as fine aggregate. Dwindling sand resources poses the environmental problem and hence government restrictions on sand quarrying resulted in scarcity and significant increase in its cost. This paper presents the study of steel fiber reinforced concrete with artificial sand as fine aggreg...

  9. Numerical Modeling of Flow in a Horizontal Sand Filter

    Ruth Mossad; Hal Aral

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: Horizontal sand filters may offer some advantage over vertical sand filters as they could be used for in-line treatment of wastewaters. Horizontal pipelines of tens and if not hundreds of meters length, filled with ordinary sand or permeable reactive media such as activated carbon or natural zeolite or iron filings, may be used to remove impurities from mine drainage waters, sewer and storm waters. Approach: However, in reality, in industrial-scale applications, the sand fi...

  10. Topological properties of sand automata as cellular automata

    Dennunzio, Alberto; Guillon, Pierre; Masson, Benoît

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we exhibit a strong relation between the sand automata configuration space and the cellular automata configuration space. This relation induces a compact topology for sand automata, and a new context in which sand automata are homeomorphic to cellular automata acting on a specific subshift. We show that the existing topological results for sand automata, including the Hedlund-like representation theorem, still hold. In this context, we give a characterization of the cellular au...

  11. Evaluation of wettability of binders used in moulding sands

    Hutera B.; Smyksy K.; Drożyński D.

    2007-01-01

    Binders used in moulding sand have the differential properties. One of the main parameters influencing on moulding sand properties is wettability of the sand grain by binding material. In the article some problems concerned with wettability evaluation have been presented and the importance of this parameter for quantity description of process occurring in system: binder- sand grain has been mentioned. The procedure of wetting angle measurement and operation of prototype apparatus for wettabil...

  12. SPECIFIC RESISTANCE AND SPECIFIC INTENSITY OF BELT SANDING OF WOOD

    Boleslaw Porankiewicz

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines and discusses the specific belt sanding resistance K (N·cm-2 and specific belt sanding intensity SI (g·cm-2·min-1, for wood of Pinus sylvestris L., Picea abies L., Quercus robra L., Acer pseudoplatanus L., Alnus glutinosa Gaertn., and Populus Nigra L., by different sanding pressure pS, different sanding grit NG number, and different wood grain angles Phi(v.

  13. Thermal deformation of moulding sands with biopolymer binders

    K. Major-Gabryś; St. M. Dobosz; J. Jakubski

    2010-01-01

    Investigations concerning an application of biopolymer materials as binders for moulding sands are presented in the paper. Theseinvestigations constitute the continuation of examinations related to applications of various biopolymers as binding agents. The results ofstrength tests, obtained for the investigated sands (with the PLA2 biopolymer binder) prepared in a self-hardening sands technology andair as well as microwave hardened, are presented. Examinations of sand thermal deformations bas...

  14. Radiographic parameters for diagnosing sand colic in horses

    Egenvall Agneta; Ley Charles; Kendall Anna; Brjer Johan

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Ingestion of sand can cause colic, diarrhoea and weight loss in horses, but these signs are unspecific and can have many other causes. The amount of sand that induces disease may vary between individuals. To avoid over-diagnosing, it is important to determine the amount of sand that can be found in horses without clinical signs of gastrointestinal disease. The aim of this study was to use previously suggested parameters for establishing a radiographic diagnosis of sand col...

  15. Declining metal levels at Foundry Cove (Hudson River, New York): Response to localized dredging of contaminated sediments

    This study examines the effectiveness of remediating a well-recognized case of heavy metal pollution at Foundry Cove (FC), Hudson River, New York. This tidal freshwater marsh was polluted with battery-factory wastes (1953-1979) and dredged in 1994-1995. Eight years after remediation, dissolved and particulate metals (Cd, Co, Cu, Pb, Ni, and Ag) were found to be lower than levels in the lower Hudson near New York City. Levels of metals (Co, Ni, Cd) on suspended particles were comparatively high. Concentrations of surface sediment Cd throughout the marsh system remain high, but have decreased both in the dredged and undredged areas: Cd was 2.4-230 mg/kg dw of sediment in 2005 vs. 109-1500 mg/kg in the same area in 1983. The rate of tidal export of Cd from FC has decreased by >300-fold, suggesting that dredging successfully stemmed a major source of Cd to the Hudson River. - Dredging of a hotspot of metal-contaminated sediment is associated with a recognizable local and river-wide decline in cadmium in the Hudson River, New York

  16. Optimising a Model of Minimum Stock Level Control and a Model of Standing Order Cycle in Selected Foundry Plant

    J. Szymszal

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available It has been found that the area where one can look for significant reserves in the procurement logistics is a rational management of the stock of raw materials. Currently, the main purpose of projects which increase the efficiency of inventory management is to rationalise all the activities in this area, taking into account and minimising at the same time the total inventory costs. The paper presents a method for optimising the inventory level of raw materials under a foundry plant conditions using two different control models. The first model is based on the estimate of an optimal level of the minimum emergency stock of raw materials, giving information about the need for an order to be placed immediately and about the optimal size of consignments ordered after the minimum emergency level has occurred. The second model is based on the estimate of a maximum inventory level of raw materials and an optimal order cycle. Optimisation of the presented models has been based on the previously done selection and use of rational methods for forecasting the time series of the delivery of a chosen auxiliary material (ceramic filters to a casting plant, including forecasting a mean size of the delivered batch of products and its standard deviation.

  17. Evaluation of Synthetic Gypsum Recovered via Wet Flue-Gas Desulfurization from Electric Power Plants for Use in Foundries

    R. Biernacki

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates possible use of waste gypsum (synthetic, recovered via flue-gas desulfurization from coal-fired electric powerplants, in foundries. Energy sector, which in Eastern Europe is mostly composed from coal-fired electric power plants, is one of the largestproducers of sulfur dioxide (SO2.In order to protect the environment and reduce the amount of pollution flue-gas desulfurization (FGD is used to remove SO2 fromexhaust flue gases of fossil-fuel power plants. As a result of this process gypsum waste is produced that can be used in practicalapplications.Strength and permeability tests have been made and also in-depth analysis of energy consumption of production process to investigateways of preparing the synthetic gypsum for casting moulds application. This paper also assesses the chemical composition, strength andpermeability of moulds made with synthetic gypsum, in comparison with moulds made with traditional GoldStar XL gypsum and withceramic molds. Moreover examination of structure of synthetic gypsum, the investigations on derivatograph and calculations of energyconsumption during production process of synthetic gypsum in wet flue-gas desulfurization were made.After analysis of gathered data it’s possible to conclude that synthetic gypsum can be used as a material for casting mould. There is nosignificant decrease in key properties, and on the other hand there is many additional benefits including low energy consumption,decreased cost, and decreased environmental impact.

  18. Sustainability innovation foundry %3CU%2B2013%3E FY13 : merging research and operations.

    Mizner, Jack Harry,; Passell, Howard David; Keller, Elizabeth James Kistin; Gordon, Margaret Ellen; McNeish, Jerry A. [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA; Sullivan, Kristina [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA

    2013-12-01

    Sustainability is a critical national security issue for the U.S. and other nations. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is already a global leader in sustainability science and technology (SS&T) as documented in this report. This report documents the ongoing work conducted this year as part of the Sustainability Innovation Foundry (SIF). The efforts of the SIF support Sandia's national and international security missions related to sustainability and resilience revolving around energy use, water use, and materials, both on site at Sandia and externally. The SIF leverages existing Sandia research and development (R&D) in sustainability science and technology to support new solutions to complex problems. The SIF also builds on existing Sandia initiatives to support transformation of Sandia into a fully sustainable entity in terms of materials, energy, and water use. In the long term, the SIF will demonstrate the efficacy of sustainability technology developed at Sandia through prototyping and test bed approaches and will provide a common platform for support of solutions to the complex problems surrounding sustainability. Highlights from this year include the Sustainability Idea Challenge, improvements in facilities energy use, lectures and presentations from relevant experts in sustainability [Dr. Barry Hughes, University of Denver], and significant development of the Institutional Transformation (IX) modeling tools to support evaluation of proposed modifications to the SNL infrastructure to realize energy savings.

  19. CFD Study for the Optimization of the Drying Process of Foundry Moulds used in the Production of Wind Turbine Components

    Giovanni Luca Di Muoio

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to drive down the cost of wind turbine cast components, the optimization of each production step is necessary. In particular, foundry moulds used for the production of cast components undergo a process of drying needed to avoid quality problems in the final parts. In order to reduce drying times forced convection by the use of fans is needed. In this work we perform Computational Fluid Dynamic studies with the aim to optimize the drying process for mould geometries typically used for the production of wind turbine components. Representative geometries are modelled in a 3D software, imported in a fluid flow solver and complete NavierStokes equations coupled with energy transport equations are solved. Velocity profiles from shop floor measurements are used as boundary conditions for the problem. Finally surface heat exchange coefficients are determined and results analyzed. Results show that it is possible to use this methodology to optimize the drying process, and determine areas of the moulds that are more difficult to dry than others. Optimal fan arrangement for typical geometries are also provided.

  20. Design and management of conventional fluidized-sand biofilters

    Fluidized sand biofilters (FSBs) are relatively compact, efficient, and cost-competitive biofilters, especially in recirculating systems that require maintaining consistently low levels of ammonia and nitrite. Filter sand is low cost (often $70-200/m3 of sand delivered) and has a high specific surf...

  1. Numerical simulation of wind sand movement in straw checkerboard barriers.

    Huang, Ning; Xia, Xianpan; Tong, Ding

    2013-09-01

    Straw checkerboard barrier (SCB) is the most representative antidesertification measure and plays a significant role in antidesertification projects. Large-eddy simulation and discrete-particle tracing were used to numerically simulate the wind sand movement inside the straw checkerboard barrier (SCB), study the movement characteristics of sand particles, find the transverse velocities of sand particles and flow field, and obtain the contour of the transverse velocity of coupled wind field within the SCB. The results showed that 1) compared with that at the inlet of the SCB, the sand transport rate inside the SCB greatly decreases and the speed of sand grain movement also evidently drops, indicating that the SCB has very good sand movement preventing and fixing function; 2) within the SCB there exists a series of unevenly distributed eddies of wind sand flow, their strength decreases gradually with increasing the transverse distance; 3) affected by eddies or reflux, sand particles carried by the wind sand flow have to drop forward and backward the two interior walls inside the SCB, respectively, forming a v-shaped sand trough; 4) the sand transport rate gradually decreases with increasing number of SCBs, which reveals that the capacity of the wind field to transport sand particles decreases. This research is of significance in sandstorm and land desertification control. PMID:24026396

  2. Mineral processing of heavy mineral sands from Malawi and Malaysia

    Mitchell, C J

    1992-01-01

    Processing of heavy mineral sands involves many techniques including gravity, magnetic and electrostatic separation. As part of a laboratory programme to develop effective mineral processing techniques, two mineral sands from Malawi and Malaysia were processed using the standard techniques, with emphasis placed on the Carpco electrostatic separator. These sands were initially characterised mineralogically by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron microprobe analysis (EPMA...

  3. Assessment of harmfulness of green sand with additions of dust from dry dedusting

    Holtzer, M; A. Bobrowski

    2010-01-01

    Recently, in the literature about the problems cause to the environment by foundry industry, attention has been paid to the presence and harmful effect of aromatic hydrocarbons: benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and isomers of xylenes (BTEX) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The growing interest in these pollutants of the environment is a result of their biological activity; some of them are characterized by mutagenic and carcinogenic action. In foundries these hydrocarbons are emitte...

  4. Interactions between microbial activity and distribution and mineral coatings on sand grains from rapid sand filters treating groundwater

    Gülay, Arda; Tatari, Karolina; Musovic, Sanin; Mateiu, Ramona Valentina; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen; Smets, Barth F.

    Rapid sand filtration is a traditional and widespread technology for drinking water purification which combines biological, chemical and physical processes together. Granular media, especially sand, is a common filter material that allows several oxidized compounds to accumulate on its surface...

  5. Optimization of Partially Replacement of Natural Sand & Ordinary Portland cement By M-Sand and Lime stone powder

    Jayaraman, A

    2014-01-01

    A study is conduct to determine the engineering properties viz. Compressive Strength, tensile strength and water absorption capacity of the partially replacement of river sand and ordinary Portland cement . In recent days the demand for river sand is increasing due to its lesser availability. Hence the practice of partially replacing river sand with M-Sand and ordinary Portland cement with lime stone powder is taking a tremendous growth. It is also inferred from the literature...

  6. Sand bodies and sand transport paths at the English Channel-North Sea border: Morphology, hydrodynamics and radioactive tracing

    Beck, C.; Clabaut, P.; Dewez, S; Vicaire, O; Chamley, H.; Augris, C.; Hoslin, R.; Caillot, A

    1991-01-01

    Surficial sediments and detailed submarine morphology of the southern Strait of Dover have been mapped using different complementary techniques: side-scan sonar survey, bottom sediment sampling, and bathymetry. The geometry and regional pattern of sand bodies - sand waves, megaripples, sand ribbons, etc. - as well as current-meter data and eight radioactive tracing experiments in different settings, are presented and analyzed. The mean regional net sand transport is 0.2 m super(3)/linear metr...

  7. The Rheology of Acoustically Fluidized Sand

    Conrad, J. W.; Melosh, J.

    2013-12-01

    The collapse of large craters and the formation of central peaks and peak rings is well modeled by numerical computer codes that incorporate the acoustic fluidization mechanism to temporarily allow the fluid-like flow of rock debris immediately after crater excavation. Furthermore, long runout landslides require a similar mechanism to explain their almost frictionless movement, which is probably also a consequence of their granular composition coupled with internal vibrations. Many different investigators have now confirmed the ability of vibrations to fluidize granular materials. Yet it still remains to fully describe the rheology of vibrated sand as a function of stress, frequency and amplitude of the vibrations in the sand itself. We constructed a rotational viscometer to quantitatively investigate the relation between the stress and strain rate in a horizontal bed of strongly vibrated sand. In addition to the macroscopic stain rate, the amplitude and frequency of the vibrations produced by a pair of pneumatic vibrators were also measured with the aid of miniaturized piezoelectric accelerometers (B&K 4393) whose output was recorded on a digital storage oscilloscope. The initial gathering of the experimental data was difficult due to granular memory, but by having the sand compacted vibrationally for 8 minutes before each run the scatter of data was reduced and we were able to obtain consistent results. Nevertheless, our major source of uncertainty was variations in strain rate from run to run. We find that vibrated sand flows like a highly non-Newtonian fluid, in which the shear strain rate is proportional to stress to a power much greater than one, where the precise power depends on the amplitude and frequency of the applied vibrations. Rapid flow occurs at stresses less than half of the static yield stress (that is, the yield stress when no vibration is applied) when strong vibrations are present. For a Newtonian fluid, such as water, the relation between strain rate and stress is linear. In our experiments we found that the shear strain rate is proportional to shear stress raised to the powers 5.9 and 8.4 at frequencies of 8.5 kHz and 7.4 kHz and increasing amplitude of vibration, respectively. This demonstrates that vibrated sand behaves as a strongly nonlinear pseudo-plastic material that, like glacier ice, can also be approximated as a Bingham material with a rate-dependent yield stress. The flow of acoustically fluidized granular materials provides a reasonable explanation of crater collapse, long runout landslides, and other events involving large masses of granular material.

  8. The physics of wind-blown sand and dust

    The transport of sand and dust by wind is a potent erosional force, creates sand dunes and ripples, and loads the atmosphere with suspended dust aerosols. This paper presents an extensive review of the physics of wind-blown sand and dust on Earth and Mars. Specifically, we review the physics of aeolian saltation, the formation and development of sand dunes and ripples, the physics of dust aerosol emission, the weather phenomena that trigger dust storms, and the lifting of dust by dust devils and other small-scale vortices. We also discuss the physics of wind-blown sand and dune formation on Venus and Titan. (review article)

  9. The physics of wind-blown sand and dust

    Kok, Jasper F; Michaels, Timothy I; Karam, Diana Bou

    2012-01-01

    The transport of dust and sand by wind is a potent erosional force, creates sand dunes and ripples, and loads the atmosphere with suspended dust aerosols. This article presents an extensive review of the physics of wind-blown sand and dust on Earth and Mars. Specifically, we review the physics of aeolian saltation, the formation and development of sand dunes and ripples, the physics of dust aerosol emission, the weather phenomena that trigger dust storms, and the lifting of dust by dust devils and other small-scale vortices. We also discuss the physics of wind-blown sand and dune formation on Venus and Titan.

  10. The physics of wind-blown sand and dust.

    Kok, Jasper F; Parteli, Eric J R; Michaels, Timothy I; Karam, Diana Bou

    2012-10-01

    The transport of sand and dust by wind is a potent erosional force, creates sand dunes and ripples, and loads the atmosphere with suspended dust aerosols. This paper presents an extensive review of the physics of wind-blown sand and dust on Earth and Mars. Specifically, we review the physics of aeolian saltation, the formation and development of sand dunes and ripples, the physics of dust aerosol emission, the weather phenomena that trigger dust storms, and the lifting of dust by dust devils and other small-scale vortices. We also discuss the physics of wind-blown sand and dune formation on Venus and Titan. PMID:22982806

  11. Dynamic characteristics of quaternary sand-gravel deposits

    There had been few researches and experiments concerned with the dynamic characteristics of sand-gravel, so far. But the number of report concerned with the dynamic characteristics of sand-gravel are increasing gradually now. This report provides a brief introduction to the basic dynamic characteristics of sand-gravel: initial shear modulus, cyclic deformation property, liquefaction resistance, settlement of ground, based on the recent researches and experiments. And this report describes the dynamic properties of sand-gravel deposit in comparison with those of sand and clay. (author)

  12. Analysis of Wind-blown Sand Movement over Transverse Dunes

    Jiang, Hong; Huang, Ning; Zhu, Yuanjian

    2014-01-01

    Wind-blown sand movement often occurs in a very complicated desert environment where sand dunes and ripples are the basic forms. However, most current studies on the theoretic and numerical models of wind-blown sand movement only consider ideal conditions such as steady wind velocity, flat sand surface, etc. In fact, the windward slope gradient plays a great role in the lift-off and sand particle saltation. In this paper, we propose a numerical model for the coupling effect between wind flow ...

  13. Laboratory spectroscopy experiment : Spectral reflectance of beach sand as function of surface moisture content with sample of beach sand collected from the Sand Motor, the Netherlands

    C. Nolet; Roosjen, P.P.J.

    2014-01-01

    Spectral reflectance of beach sand (350-2500 nm) under different moisture conditions at 1 nm interval, obtained by a laboratory spectroscopy experiment. Optical remote sensing has the potential to measure surface moisture at a high spatio-temporal resolution. It is based on the principle that wet sand appears darker than dry sand: it is less reflective. The goals of this study are (1) to measure and model reflectance under controlled laboratory conditions as function of wavelength ( ) and sur...

  14. Exposure to mineral sands dust particles

    Dias da Cunha, K.; Barros Leite, C. V.; Zays, Z.

    2004-06-01

    The aim of this study is to characterize the airborne particles in a Brazilian region with high concentration of mineral sands (Buena village). In this study proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE), plasma desorption mass spectrometry and alpha spectrometry were used for analyses of airborne particles. The analyses of aerosol samples and lichen samples show that the inhabitants of the Buena village are exposed to airborne particles in the fine fraction of aerosols. The main anthropogenic sources of particles are the mineral sands processing plant and truck traffic, and natural sources as the sea, soil and the swamp. The results from the lichen samples show that at least during the last 15 years the inhabitants of the village have been exposed to monazite particles. The results from aerosols and lichens samples also suggested that the swamp is a source of 226Ra and 210Pb bearing particles besides the monazite dust.

  15. Three dimensional fabric evolution of sheared sand

    Hasan, Alsidqi; Alshibli, Khalid (UWA)

    2012-10-24

    Granular particles undergo translation and rolling when they are sheared. This paper presents a three-dimensional (3D) experimental assessment of fabric evolution of sheared sand at the particle level. F-75 Ottawa sand specimen was tested under an axisymmetric triaxial loading condition. It measured 9.5 mm in diameter and 20 mm in height. The quantitative evaluation was conducted by analyzing 3D high-resolution x-ray synchrotron micro-tomography images of the specimen at eight axial strain levels. The analyses included visualization of particle translation and rotation, and quantification of fabric orientation as shearing continued. Representative individual particles were successfully tracked and visualized to assess the mode of interaction between them. This paper discusses fabric evolution and compares the evolution of particles within and outside the shear band as shearing continues. Changes in particle orientation distributions are presented using fabric histograms and fabric tensor.

  16. Stratified chaos in a sand pile formation

    Poortinga, Ate; Ritsema, Coen J

    2014-01-01

    Sand pile formation is often used to describe stratified chaos in dynamic systems due to self-emergent and scale invariant behaviour. Cellular automata (Bak-Tang-Wiesenfeld model) are often used to describe chaotic behaviour, as simulating physical interactions between individual particles is computationally demanding. In this study, we use a state-of-the-art parallel implementation of the discrete element method on the graphical processing unit to simulate sand pile formation. Interactions between individual grains were simulated using a contact model in an Euler integration scheme. Results show non-linear self-emergent behaviour which is in good agreement with experimental results, theoretical work and self organized criticality (SOC) approaches. Moreover, it was found that the fully deterministic model, where the position and forces on every individual particle can be determined every iteration has a brown noise signal in the x and y direction, where the signal is the z direction is closer to a white noise...

  17. Reflection of internal waves by sand ripples

    Uma Basu

    1995-03-01

    Full Text Available An investigation is made to study the diffraction of a train of time harmonic progressive waves propagating along the surface of separation of two superposed fluids which are laterally unbounded, the upper fluid being extended infinitely upwards, the lower fluid being of finite depth with sand ripples at the bottom. The first order correction to the velocity potential for the problem of diffraction of interface waves in the presence of bottom deformation is obtained by integral transform technique after introduction of a linear frictional term in the kinematic boundary condition at the surface of separation following Lamb (1932, and the reflection and transmission coefficients are estimated for a patch of sand ripples.

  18. Oil sands tailings preliminary ecological risk assessment

    Chemical data collected from various oil sands soil-tailings mixtures were used to determine the ecological risk that such tailings would pose to terrestrial wildlife at the surface of a reclaimed site. A methodology that could be used to evaluate the risks posed by various reclamation options (for dry land only) was proposed. Risks associated with other reclamation options, such as wet landscapes or deeper in-pit disposal, were not evaluated. Ten constituents (eight organic and two inorganic) were found to pose a threat to terrestrial biota. The relative contribution of different exposure pathways (water and food ingestion, incidental soil ingestion, inhalation) were studied by probabilistic models. Some physical and chemical reclamation alternatives which involve incorporating oil sands tailings in the landscape to produce a surface that could sustain a productive ecosystem, were described. 53 refs., 15 tabs., 3 figs

  19. Bison and the oil sands industry

    The feasibility of raising bison on land reclaimed after disturbance by oil sands development was explored. A five-year research program by Syncrude Canada and the Fort McKay First Nations found that forage productivity and carrying capacity for bison was comparable to that of grassland elsewhere in Alberta. Weight gains typical for ranched bison and calving rates of 90 per cent, a value typical of ranched bison, were observed. Analysis indicated that a 1000 hectare bison ranch on reclaimed land has a net present value that compares favorably with a similar area supporting commercial forest. If approved by Alberta Environmental Protection, the study will be expanded as a pilot commercial venture to explore commercial viability as a business venture by the Fort McKay First Nations. Assuming that the project will proceed as planned, measures will be also implemented to resolve various regulatory issues associated with commercial bison production in the oil sands area

  20. A bedload trap for aeolian sand transport

    Swann, C.; Sherman, D. J.

    2013-12-01

    This paper describes a bedload trap designed to separate bedload from saltation load in aeolian environments. The trap is installed below the sand surface and features a chimney that can be adjusted to the height of the surface. The chimney houses an internal wall to separate saltation load from bedload. Bedload particles are funneled to a piezo-electric sensor that converts grain impacts to voltages that can be sampled at very high frequencies (44,000 Hz in this example). Grains are then collected in a container that is easily retrieved so that sand samples can be obtained for weighing and subsequent grain size analysis. An algorithm to isolate single grain impacts is described. The version of the trap presented here is intended for the study of the initiation of grain motion.

  1. Oil sands market and transportation solutions

    This presentation outlined the immense potential of the western Canadian oil sands reserves. Recoverable reserves have been estimated at 180 billion barrels, with production forecasts estimated at 5 million barrels per day by 2030. Resource development is occurring at a time when the world's largest oil importer is increasing supplies through concern for security of supply. The second and third largest oil importers in the world are experiencing economic and energy demand growth. These factors underscore the motivation for rapid growth of the Western Canadian Oil Sands reserves. One of the challenges that must be addressed is to ensure that incremental markets for the increased production are accessed. Another challenge is to ensure adequate infrastructure in terms of pipeline capacity to ensure deliverability of the product. tabs., figs

  2. Grain Segregation Mechanisms in Aeolian Sand Ripples

    Makse, H A

    1998-01-01

    Sand ripples and small dunes are one of most ubiquitous sedimentary structures in nature. Small-scale lamination and cross-stratification patterns composed of successive thin layers of fine and coarse grains are known to be formed during ripple migration. Here we develop a discrete model of grain dynamics, suitable to study the formation of laminae, which takes into account the coupling between the moving grains and the static sand surface, as well as the different properties of grains, such as size and roughness. The model appears to describe essential aspects of the dynamical formation of aeolian ripple lamination and cross-stratification as observed in actual sandstones. A common mechanism for ripple lamination and cross stratification is identified as a competition between different segregation processes involving the size and surface roughness of the grains.

  3. Longshore sediment transport at Golden Sands (Bulgaria

    Hristo Nikolov

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of studies on the qualitative and quantitative features of the littoral drift at Golden Sands (Bulgaria, carried out jointly by Polish and Bulgarian researchers. The mathematical modelling of physical coastal processes took wave transformation (wave diffraction and refraction; the effects of shoaling and wave breaking and longshore sediment transport into account. The computations were carried out for the mean statistical annual wave climate, determined on the basis of IO BAS wave data, simulated using the WAM method from long-term Black Sea wind data. The results of sediment transport computations clearly show that its direction off the Golden Sands shore is from north to south.

  4. Analysis of Wind-blown Sand Movement over Transverse Dunes

    Jiang, Hong; Huang, Ning; Zhu, Yuanjian

    2014-12-01

    Wind-blown sand movement often occurs in a very complicated desert environment where sand dunes and ripples are the basic forms. However, most current studies on the theoretic and numerical models of wind-blown sand movement only consider ideal conditions such as steady wind velocity, flat sand surface, etc. In fact, the windward slope gradient plays a great role in the lift-off and sand particle saltation. In this paper, we propose a numerical model for the coupling effect between wind flow and saltating sand particles to simulate wind-blown sand movement over the slope surface and use the SIMPLE algorithm to calculate wind flow and simulate sands transport by tracking sand particle trajectories. We furthermore compare the result of numerical simulation with wind tunnel experiments. These results prove that sand particles have obvious effect on wind flow, especially that over the leeward slope. This study is a preliminary study on windblown sand movement in a complex terrain, and is of significance in the control of dust storms and land desertification.

  5. Analysis of wind-blown sand movement over transverse dunes.

    Jiang, Hong; Huang, Ning; Zhu, Yuanjian

    2014-01-01

    Wind-blown sand movement often occurs in a very complicated desert environment where sand dunes and ripples are the basic forms. However, most current studies on the theoretic and numerical models of wind-blown sand movement only consider ideal conditions such as steady wind velocity, flat sand surface, etc. In fact, the windward slope gradient plays a great role in the lift-off and sand particle saltation. In this paper, we propose a numerical model for the coupling effect between wind flow and saltating sand particles to simulate wind-blown sand movement over the slope surface and use the SIMPLE algorithm to calculate wind flow and simulate sands transport by tracking sand particle trajectories. We furthermore compare the result of numerical simulation with wind tunnel experiments. These results prove that sand particles have obvious effect on wind flow, especially that over the leeward slope. This study is a preliminary study on windblown sand movement in a complex terrain, and is of significance in the control of dust storms and land desertification. PMID:25434372

  6. Pullout capacity of batter pile in sand

    Ashraf Nazir

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Many offshore structures are subjected to overturning moments due to wind load, wave pressure, and ship impacts. Also most of retaining walls are subjected to horizontal forces and bending moments, these forces are due to earth pressure. For foundations in such structures, usually a combination of vertical and batter piles is used. Little information is available in the literature about estimating the capacity of piles under uplift. In cases where these supporting piles are not vertical, the behavior under axial pullout is not well established. In order to delineate the significant variables affecting the ultimate uplift shaft resistance of batter pile in dry sand, a testing program comprising 62 pullout tests was conducted. The tests are conducted on model steel pile installed in loose, medium, and dense sand to an embedded depth ratio, L/d, vary from 7.5 to 30 and with various batter angles of 0°, 10°, 20°, and 30°. Results indicate that the pullout capacity of a batter pile constructed in dense and/or medium density sand increases with the increase of batter angle attains maximum value and then decreases, the maximum value of Pα occurs at batter angle approximately equal to 20°, and it is about 21–31% more than the vertical pile capacity, while the pullout capacity for batter pile that constructed in loose sand decreases with the increase of pile inclination. The results also indicated that the circular pile is more resistant to pullout forces than the square and rectangular pile shape. The rough model piles tested is experienced 18–75% increase in capacity compared with the smooth model piles. The suggested relations for the pullout capacity of batter pile regarding the vertical pile capacity are well predicted.

  7. Friction of Pneumatic Rubber Tyres on Sand

    H. D. Sharma

    1970-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes an apparatus for determining the rolling friction of pneumatic rubber tyres on sandy surfaces at different loads for different inflation pressures. The coefficient of friction is dependent on the size and shape of the tyre. The results refer only to measurements at a very low speed. Tyres having a flat tread and low inflation pressure are preferred on sand.

  8. Adding value to Alberta's oil sands

    This paper addressed some of the challenges facing Alberta's oil sand industry with particular reference to diluent availability. Oil sand production in Alberta is currently greater than conventional oil production. In 2003, production of bitumen and synthetic crude oil was close to one million BPD, while conventional oil production was 630,000 BPD. Alberta's bitumen production is expected to triple by the year 2030, if all new projects currently planned take place as scheduled. The need for additional bitumen and synthetic crude oil markets, as well as additional upgrading/refining capacity, has prompted several studies to evaluate new markets and product options, including the production of a wide range of refined products and petrochemical feedstocks, from bitumen. This paper reviewed the results of these studies, and discussed the feasibility of adding value to Alberta's oil sands. Interest in evaluating bitumen for producing petrochemicals stems from the dwindling supply of feedstock for Alberta's ethane-based petrochemical industry. Two industry/government studies evaluated different process schemes for integrating oil sands, refining and petrochemical operations and convert heavy gas oils into both refined products and petrochemicals. Since market demand for fuels and refined products exceeds that for petrochemicals, the performance characteristics of the heavy oil conversion processes are important to optimize the volume ratios of the products to meet market volume demands. The authors reviewed different heavy oil processing technologies focusing on olefin to fuel product ratios and flexibility to change these ratios. The review includes conventional non-catalytic thermal (steam) cracking, as well as catalytic processes. These technologies are at different stages of commercial development for production of fuels and olefins, and must be evaluated and adapted to meet Alberta's aromatic bitumen-derived heavy gas oils. 8 refs., 3 tabs., 8 figs

  9. Mineralogy of Eolian Sands at Gale Crater

    Achilles, C. N.; Vaniman, D. T.; Blake, D. F.; Bristow, T. F.; Rampe, E. B.; Ming, D. W.; Chipera, S. J.; Morris, R. V.; Morrison, S. M.; Downs, R. T.; Fendrich, K. V.; Ehlmann, B. L.; Yen, A. S.; Sarrazin, P. C.; Treiman, A. H.; Craig, P. I.; Lapotre, M. G. A.; Edgett, K. S.; Gellert, R.; Crisp, J. A.; Morookian, J. M.; Grotzinger, J. P.; Des Marais, D. J.; Farmer, J. D.

    2016-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity has been exploring outcrop and regolith in Gale crater since August 6, 2012. During this exploration, the mission has collected 10 samples for mineralogical analysis by X-ray diffraction (XRD), using the CheMin instrument. The CheMin (Chemistry and Mineralogy) instrument on the Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity uses a CCD detector and a Co-anode tube source to acquire both mineralogy (from the pat-tern of Co diffraction) and chemical information (from energies of fluoresced X-rays). A detailed description of CheMin is provided in [1]. As part of the rover checkout after landing, the first sample selected for analysis was an eolian sand deposit (the Rocknest "sand shadow"). This sample was selected in part to characterize unconsolidated eolian regolith, but primarily to prove performance of the scoop collection system on the rover. The focus of the mission after Rocknest was on the consolidated sediments of Gale crater, so all of the nine subsequent samples were collected by drilling into bedrock com-posed of lithified sedimentary materials, including mudstone and sandstone. No scoop samples have been collected since Rocknest, but at the time this abstract was written the mission stands poised to use the scoop again, to collect active dune sands from the Bagnold dune field. Several abstracts at this conference outline the Bagnold dune campaign and summarize preliminary results from analyses on approach to the Namib dune sampling site. In this abstract we review the mineralogy of Rocknest, contrast that with the mineralogy of local sediments, and anticipate what will be learned by XRD analysis of Bagnold dune sands.

  10. Biogenic crust dynamics on sand dunes

    Kinast, Shai; Meron, Ehud; Yizhaq, Hezi; Ashkenazy, Yosef

    2012-01-01

    Sand dunes are often covered by vegetation and biogenic crusts. Despite their significant role in dune stabilization, biogenic crusts have rarely been considered in studies of dune dynamics. Using a simple model, we study the existence and stability ranges of different dune-cover states along gradients of rainfall and wind power. Two ranges of alternative stable states are identified: fixed crusted dunes and fixed vegetated dunes at low wind power, and fixed vegetated dunes and active dunes a...

  11. Guide to preparing SAND reports. Revised

    Locke, T.K. [ed.

    1996-04-01

    This guide contains basic information needed to produce a SAND report. Its guidelines reflect DOE regulation and Sandia policy. The guide includes basic writing instructions in an annotated sample report; guidance for organization, format, and layout of reports produced by line organizations; and information about conference papers, journal articles, and brochures. The appendixes contain sections on Sandia`s preferred usage, equations, references, copyrights and permissions, and publishing terms.

  12. Kirsten Sand. Arkitekt for sin tid

    Elisabeth Seip

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Towards the end of World War II the retreating Germans burnt down nearly all buildings and other constructions in the counties of Finnmark and the northern parts of Troms in North Norway. The population evacuated but many returned as soon as possible, only to find themselves homeless. At this very demanding point Kirsten Sand decided to travel north, and do whatever she could as an architect to help. The pre-war housing situation was generally difficult. Low building standards and lack of money forced families in the cities to live under bad conditions. Kirsten Sand studied these conditions and took part in the efforts to better the situation. This knowledge provided a good starting point for the work she undertook after the war, in particular her profound understanding of the situation of women, their working conditions and positions in the household and society. Houses designed by Sand and her helpmates are simple but adequate, taking into account these women’s point of view. Ingebjørg Hage has thrown light on the work of Kirsten Sand in Finnmark and Troms in several ways. This article aims at describing Sand’s background as an architect before she left Oslo to travel north. It describes how housing and housing policy since long had been central to architects, especially so within the group she belonged to. In pre-war Oslo she had been engaged in planning and designing hospitals. During a period as inspector for the health authorities she learned a lot about the living conditions of people in general. After establishing her own architect’s office she mostly designed family houses, and during the war she engaged in research that further deepened her knowledge in the field. Thus she was particularly well equipped for the demanding tasks she undertook in the summer of 1945.

  13. A Minimal Model for Sand Dunes

    Kroy, K; Herrmann, H J; Kroy, Klaus; Sauermann, Gerd; Herrmann, Hans J.

    2002-01-01

    We propose a minimal model for aeolian sand dunes. This model combines an analytical description of the turbulent wind field above the dune with a continuum saltation model that allows for saturation transients. With a simplified version of the model we can already gain a qualitative understanding of important features of real dunes, such as their longitudinal shape and aspect ratio, the formation of a slipface, the breaking of scale invariance, and the existence of a minimum dune size.

  14. Erosion of mud/sand mixtures

    Torfs, H.

    1995-01-01

    The sediments found in tidal rivers, estuaries and coastal zones are usually a mixture of sand and mud. The accumulation and the erosion of these sediments have a large impact on the accessibility of harbours and on the necessary maintenance dredging operations. The ability of the mud fraction to adsorb large amounts of contaminants makes it even more important to fully understand the mixture behaviour. The sediment bed in a combined sewer system can also be described as a mixture of cohesive...

  15. Phenotype–environment matching in sand fleas

    Stevens, Martin; Broderick, Annette C; Godley, Brendan J; Lown, Alice E.; Troscianko, Jolyon; Weber, Nicola; Weber, Sam B.

    2015-01-01

    Camouflage is perhaps the most widespread anti-predator strategy in nature, found in numerous animal groups. A long-standing prediction is that individuals should have camouflage tuned to the visual backgrounds where they live. However, while several studies have demonstrated phenotype–environment associations, few have directly shown that this confers an improvement in camouflage, particularly with respect to predator vision. Here, we show that an intertidal crustacean, the sand flea (Hippa ...

  16. The provenance of Taklamakan desert sand

    Rittner, M.; Vermeesch, P.; A. Carter; Bird, A.; Stevens, T; E. Garzanti; Andò, S.; VEZZOLI, G.; Dutt, R.; Xu, Z; Lu, H.

    2016-01-01

    Sand migration in the vast Taklamakan desert within the Tarim Basin (Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous region, PR China) is governed by two competing transport agents: wind and water, which work in diametrically opposed directions. Net aeolian transport is from northeast to south, while fluvial transport occurs from the south to the north and then west to east at the northern rim, due to a gradual northward slope of the underlying topography. We here present the first comprehensive provenance study ...

  17. Development and validation of model for sand

    Church P.; Ingamells V.; Wood A.; Gould P.; Perry J.; Jardine A.; Tyas A.

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing requirement within QinetiQ to develop models for assessments when there is very little experimental data. A theoretical approach to developing equations of state for geological materials has been developed using Quantitative Structure Property Modelling based on the Porter-Gould model approach. This has been applied to well-controlled sand with different moisture contents and particle shapes. The Porter-Gould model describes an elastic response and gives good agreement at h...

  18. AEROSOL FILTRATION USING QUARTZ SAND FILTER

    Sulaymon, Abbas H.; Yasmen A. Mustafa

    2012-01-01

    The cement industry is the major source of cement dust which contains heavy metals like nickel, cobalt, lead, chromium, arsenic and hazardous substances like dioxins and furans. Exposure to these substances can cause health problems to human, animals and vegetation. A continuous pilot scale quartz sand filter was constructed and uses to study the effect of important design parameters (temperature, pre-loaded dust on the collector, diameter of the filter, bed depth, collector size and superfic...

  19. Purification of Stormwater Using Sand Filter

    Abdel Majid Nassar; Kamel Hajjaj

    2013-01-01

    Rain water is an important source to feed the groundwater aquifer, whether directly or by harvesting and recharging. The importance of purification is for reducing the risk of pollutants from recharging runoff rainwater. The use of sand filter as a technique considered not expensive and commonly used for removing contaminants from water and wastewater treatment industries. The methodology used laboratory testing, by designing and constructing pilot plant to experiment t...

  20. Dredged marine sand as constructive material

    Limeira de Araujo, Jussara; Agulló Fité, Luís; Etxeberria Larrañaga, Miren

    2010-01-01

    Dredging works are usually required to maintenance activities in many ports all over the world and represents a huge volume of disposal material. The use of dredged aggregates can be considered in several applications as erosive process control, coastal stabilization, beach replenishment, production of construction materials (clay, bricks, aggregates) or construction works (foundation fill, dikes, etc.). Researches revealed the feasibility of dredged marine sand (DMS) in the construction o...