WorldWideScience
 
 
1

Foundry sand reclamation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A dry method of conditioning spent foundry sand is disclosed. After having sized the sand and removal of tramp metallic elements, the sand is subjected to a sequence of squeezing under a high-stress low kinetic energy system for a period of 5-30 minutes, and then propelled against a target with high-kinetic energy in the presence of a suction for several minutes. This sequence can be preferably repeated to increase the quality of the resulting product which should have 0.1% or less of fine particles, a pH of 6-9, a clay content and organic combustible content of substantially zero. The reclaimed sand will exhibit a density of at least 100 grams/biscuit when compacted for core making or molding

2

Dilatometric Characterization of Foundry Sands  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The goal of this contribution is summary of physical – chemistry properties of usually used foundry silica and no – silica sands in Czech foundries. With the help of dilatometry analysis theoretical assumptions of influence of grain shape and size on dilatation value of sands were confirmed. Determined was the possibility of dilatometry analysis employment for preparing special (hybrid) sands with lower and/or more linear character of dilatation.

Br?uska, M.; Ben?o, J.; Cagala, M.; Jasinkova, V.

2012-01-01

3

Dilatometric Characterization of Foundry Sands  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The goal of this contribution is summary of physical – chemistry properties of usually used foundry silica and no – silica sands in Czech foundries. With the help of dilatometry analysis theoretical assumptions of influence of grain shape and size on dilatation value of sands were confirmed. Determined was the possibility of dilatometry analysis employment for preparing special (hybrid sands with lower and/or more linear character of dilatation.

M. B?uska

2012-04-01

4

[Environmental toxicity of waste foundry sand].  

Science.gov (United States)

The metal leaching characteristics and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of five different types of waste foundry sands were analyzed with the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) and head space-gas chromatography (HS-GC). Microtox and soil dehydrogenase activity (DHA) tests were then used to evaluate the bio-effects of these waste sands. The results showed that due to the different metals poured and casting materials used to make the sand molds, there was significant difference among the five waste foundry sands in the compositions and concentrations of metal and organic pollutants. The concentrations of Fe in the leachates of iron and steel casting waste foundry sand exceeded the maximal allowable concentrations specified in the National Standard of Drinking Water Quality, whereas the As concentration in the leachate of aluminum casting waste foundry sand exceeded the standard. The five waste foundry sands had quite different compositions and levels of VOCs, which resulted in different levels of inhibition effects on the luminescent bacteria (30% and 95%). Additionally, the soil DHA tests suggested that metal pollutants in waste foundry sands may inhibit the soil microbial activity, whereas organics in the sands may slightly promote the microbial activity. The results of this study indicated that the waste foundry sands may pose considerable threat to the environment when improperly disposed. PMID:23745431

Zhang, Hai-Feng; Wang, Yu-Jue; Wang, Jin-Lin; Huang, Tian-You; Xiong, Ying

2013-03-01

5

Waste foundry sand: Environmental implication and characterization  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper presents the results of analyses using Scanning Electron Microscopy in field samples of waste foundry sand, as well as the results of granulometric, chemical and groundwater analyses. Field data allowed to characterize waste foundry sand and showed that there are elevated concentrations of metals in the groundwater (iron, manganese, boron and selenium), in addition to other potentially toxic elements (chromium, copper, cobalt, nickel, zinc, aluminum, iron, manganese), which are pre...

Gabriela Penkaitis; Joel Barbujiani Sígolo

2012-01-01

6

Use of Foundry Sands in Transportation Applications.  

Science.gov (United States)

The primary objective of this project was to verify the availability and suitability of Texas-generated foundry sand (FS) for TxDOT and to develop specifications for use of these sands in TxDOT construction and maintenance applications. Extensive literatu...

C. Vipulanandan, S. Cho, S. Wang

2005-01-01

7

Alternate utilization of foundry sand waste  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Illinois Geological Survey data indicate that Illinois foundries purchase nearly 800,000 tons of silica sand each year for the production of molds and cores. This paper reports that once utilized, this sand becomes an expensive and difficult commodity to dispose. The volume and regulatory status requirements make it unattractive to landfill operators. Most foundries use an industrial grade of silica of very high purity for the production of molds and cores. Recent data from the Illinois Geological Survey record silica usage in excess of 30 million tons per year in the state. Construction usage of silica includes applications such as: cement, concrete products, asphalt, fill and others. Industrial usage includes: glass products, foundry molds and cores, oil well propant, inert carriers for fertilizers and others

8

Waste foundry sand: Environmental implication and characterization  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents the results of analyses using Scanning Electron Microscopy in field samples of waste foundry sand, as well as the results of granulometric, chemical and groundwater analyses. Field data allowed to characterize waste foundry sand and showed that there are elevated concentrations of metals in the groundwater (iron, manganese, boron and selenium, in addition to other potentially toxic elements (chromium, copper, cobalt, nickel, zinc, aluminum, iron, manganese, which are present in the waste and are considered not hazardous by current standards. Even if these elements are not considered hazardous, their concentrations above the permissible limit compromise the environmental quality of the site, posing risks to the local population, since they work in agriculture and use groundwater. Two different types of waste foundry sands were identified using granulometric analyses. Electron microscopy showed features related to morphological, chemical and mineralogical characteristics of grains that make up the waste. Quartz was the dominant mineral. Waste foundry sand is composed of two types of grains: a rounded grain with almost no incrustations formed during alloy production, and a second type of grain, which is not rounded, has incrustations, and always has several metals derived from alloys and associated with these incrustations. Chemical elements detected in groundwater with concentrations above the limits established by the regulatory bodies were found in wells located in the landfill area. Most of these elements show higher concentrations downstream, some of them with concentrations above the regulatory limit, and others show an increase in concentration upstream, indicating that the landfill may be impacting the local environment.

Gabriela Penkaitis

2012-12-01

9

An investigation of waste foundry sand in asphalt concrete mixtures.  

Science.gov (United States)

A laboratory study regarding the reuse of waste foundry sand in asphalt concrete production by replacing a certain portion of aggregate with WFS was undertaken. The results showed that replacement of 10% aggregates with waste foundry sand was found to be the most suitable for asphalt concrete mixtures. Furthermore, the chemical and physical properties of waste foundry sand were analysed in the laboratory to determine the potential effect on the environment. The results indicated that the investigated waste foundry sand did not significantly affect the environment around the deposition PMID:16784170

Bakis, Recep; Koyuncu, Hakan; Demirbas, Ayhan

2006-06-01

10

Characterization of Beach/River Sand for Foundry Application  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A detailed experimental investigation is been reported on the characterization of beach/river sand for foundry use. Bulk properties of the sand samples collected were evaluated. The experimental results were analyzed as per the American Foundry Society (AFS) standard. The analyses show that samples from Ughelli River, Warri River and Ethiope River could be used effectively in the foundry. The sample from Lagos bar beach requires to be sieved properly to remove the coarse fractions in order to...

Bala, Katsina Christopher; Khan, Reyazul Haque

2013-01-01

11

Characterization of Beach/River Sand for Foundry Application  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A detailed experimental investigation is been reported on the characterization of beach/river sand for foundry use. Bulk properties of the sand samples collected were evaluated. The experimental results were analyzed as per the American Foundry Society (AFS standard. The analyses show that samples from Ughelli River, Warri River and Ethiope River could be used effectively in the foundry. The sample from Lagos bar beach requires to be sieved properly to remove the coarse fractions in order to make it suitable for foundry use.

Katsina Christopher BALA

2013-11-01

12

Evaluation of Toxicity Analysis for Foundry Sand Specifications  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Byproducts from many industries have the potential to be used as construction materials, but some means is required to determine if the material is environmentally benign. Foundry sands are produced in many states and can be useful as in transportation projects. However, INDOT currently requires the use of the MICROTOX test to assess the potential toxicity of the sands, and this requirement is viewed as an unnecessary impediment by the producers of foundry sands and is a requirement not encou...

Banks, M. Katherine; Schwab, A. Paul

2010-01-01

13

Properties of Self-Compacting Concrete Incorporating Waste Foundry Sand  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper demonstrates the possibilities of using waste foundry sand as partial replacement of sand in self-compacting concrete. Self-compacting concrete, as the name indicates, is a type of concrete that does not require external or internal compaction, because it becomes levelled and consolidated under its self-weight. Foundry sand is high quality silica sand used as a moulding material by ferrous and non-ferrous metal casting industries. It can be reused several times in foundries but, after a certain period, cannot be used further and becomes waste material, referred to as waste, used or spent foundry sand (WFS,UFS or SFS. This experimental investigation was performed to evaluate the strength and durability properties of SCC, in which natural sand was partial replaced with waste foundry sand (WFS. Natural sand was replaced with four percentage (0%, 10%, 15%, 20% of WFS by weight. Fresh properties of self-compacting concrete were studied. Compression test and splitting tensile strength test were carried out to evaluate the strength properties of concrete at the age of 7, 28, and 56 days. In case of durability properties, sulphate resistance was evaluated at the age of 7, 28 and 56 days and Rapid Chloride Permeability test was conducted at age of 28 days. Test results showed that there is increase in compressive strength, splitting tensile strength of self-compacting concrete by incorporating waste foundry sand (WFS as partial replacement by sand up to 15%. Resistance of concrete against sulphate attack and rapid chloride permeability were also improved for concrete mixes.

Rafat SIDDIQUE

2013-11-01

14

Blending foundry sands with soil: Effect on dehydrogenase activity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Each year U.S. foundries landfill several million tons of sand that can no longer be used to make metalcasting molds and cores. A possible use for these materials is as an ingredient in manufactured soils; however, potentially harmful metals and resin binders (used to make cores) may adversely impact the soil microbial community. In this study, the dehydrogenase activity (DHA) of soil amended with molding sand (clay-coated sand known as "green sand") or core sands at 10%, 30%, and 50% (dry wt.) was determined. The green sands were obtained from iron, aluminum, and brass foundries; the core sands were made with phenol-formaldehyde or furfuryl alcohol based resins. Overall, incremental additions of these sands resulted in a decrease in the DHA which lasted throughout the 12-week experimental period. A brass green sand, which contained high concentrations of Cu, Pb, and Zn, severely impacted the DHA. By week 12 no DHA was detected in the 30% and 50% treatments. In contrast, the DHA in soil amended with an aluminum green sand was 2.1 times higher (all blending ratios), on average, at week 4 and 1.4 times greater (30% and 50% treatments only) than the controls by week 12. In core sand-amended soil, the DHA results were similar to soils amended with aluminum and iron green sands. Increased activity in some treatments may be a result of the soil microorganisms utilizing the core resins as a carbon source. The DHA assay is a sensitive indicator of environmental stress caused by foundry sand constituents and may be useful to assess which foundry sands are suitable for beneficial use in the environment. PMID:15975632

Dungan, Robert S; Kukier, Urzsula; Lee, Brad

2006-03-15

15

Microtox(TM) characterization of foundry sand residuals  

Science.gov (United States)

Although foundry residuals, consisting mostly of waste Sands, represent a potentially attractive, high-volume resource for beneficial reuse applications (e.g. highway embankment construction), prospective end users are understandably concerned about unforeseen liabilities stemming from the use of these residuals. This paper, therefore, focuses on the innovative use of a microbial bioassay as a means of developing a characterization of environmental suitability extending beyond the analytical coverage already provided by mandated chemical-specific tests (i.e., TCLP, etc.). Microtox(TM) bioassays were conducted on leachates derived from residuals obtained at a wide range of facilities, including: 11 gray and ductile iron foundries plus one each steel and aluminum foundries. In addition, virgin sand samples were used to establish a relative 'natural' benchmark against which the waste foundry sands could then be compared in terms of their apparent quality. These bioassay tests were able to effectively 'fingerprint' those residuals whose bioassay behavior was comparable to that of virgin materials. In fact, the majority of gray and ductile iron foundry residuals tested during this reported study elicited Microtox(TM) response levels which fell within or below the virgin sand response range, consequently providing another quantifiable layer of Support for this industry's claim that their sands are 'cleaner than dirt.' However, negative Microtox(TM) responses beyond that of the virgin sands were observed with a number of foundry samples (i.e. four of the 11 gray or ductile iron sands plus both non-iron sands). Therefore, the latter results would suggest that these latter residuals be excluded from beneficial reuse for the immediate future, at least until the cause and nature of this negative response has been further identified.

Bastian, K.C.; Alleman, J.E.

1998-01-01

16

Geoenvironmental behavior of foundry sand amended mixtures for highway subbases.  

Science.gov (United States)

The high cost of landfilling and the potential uses of waste foundry sands have prompted research into their beneficial reuse. Roadways have a high potential for large volume usage of the foundry sands. A laboratory testing program was conducted on soil-foundry sand mixtures amended with cement and lime to assess their applicability as highway subbase materials. The mixtures were compacted in the laboratory at a variety of moisture contents and compactive efforts and subjected to unconfined compression, California bearing ratio, and hydraulic conductivity tests. The environmental suitability of the prepared mixtures was evaluated by analyzing the effluent collected during hydraulic conductivity tests. Finally, required subbase thicknesses were calculated using the laboratory-based strength parameters. The results of the study show that the strength of a mixture is highly dependent on the curing period, compactive energy, lime or cement presence, and water content at compaction. The resistance of foundry sand-based specimens to winter conditions is generally better than that of a typical subbase reference material. Laboratory leaching tests indicated that if these mixtures later come in contact with water that has been discharged directly to the environment (e.g., drainage through asphalt pavement), the quality of water will not be affected. PMID:16111882

Guney, Yucel; Aydilek, Ahmet H; Demirkan, M Melih

2006-01-01

17

Glass matrix composite material prepared with waste foundry sand  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The technology of glass matrix of the composite material manufactured through a sintering process and using waste foundry sand and waste glass as the main raw materials was studied. The effects of technological factors on the performance of this material were studied. The results showed that this composite material is formed with glass as matrix, core particulate as strengthening material, it has the performance of glass and ceramics, and could be used to substitute for stone.

Zhang, Zhao-shu; Xia, Ju-pei; Zhu, Xiao-qin

2006-01-01

18

Geotechnical Performance of Highway Embankment Constructed Using Waste Foundry Sand  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of waste foundry sand (WFS) as a highway embankment material in a fullscale field demonstration project. This evaluation included geotechnical concerns, such as deformation, strength, hydraulic conductivity, and ease of construction. The report presents an introduction and previous research concerning WFS use in highway construction. A geotechnical laboratory testing program characterized the WFS used in the project, which was a waste product ...

Fox, Patrick J.; Mast, David G.

1998-01-01

19

Extraction of toxic and valuable metals from foundry sands  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There were extracted valuable metals from foundry sands such as: gold, platinum, silver, cobalt, germanium, nickel and zinc among others, as well as highly toxic metals such as chromium, lead, vanadium and arsenic. The extraction efficiency was up to 100% in some cases. For this reason there were obtained two patents at the United States, patent number 5,356,601, in October 1994, given for the developed process and patent number 5,376,000, in December 1994, obtained for the equipment employed. Therefore, the preliminary parameters for the installation of a pilot plant have also been developed. (Author)

20

Re-usage of waste foundry sand in high-strength concrete.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, the potential re-use of waste foundry sand in high-strength concrete production was investigated. The natural fine sand is replaced with waste foundry sand (0%, 5%, 10%, and 15%). The findings from a series of test program has shown reduction in compressive and tensile strengths, and the elasticity modulus which is directly related to waste foundry inclusion in concrete. Nevertheless the concrete with 10% waste foundry sand exhibits almost similar results to that of the control one. The slump and the workability of the fresh concrete decreases with the increase of the waste foundry sand ratio. Although the freezing and thawing significantly reduces the mechanical and physical properties of the concrete. The obtained results satisfies the acceptable limits set by the American Concrete Institute (ACI). PMID:20219339

Guney, Yucel; Sari, Yasin Dursun; Yalcin, Muhsin; Tuncan, Ahmet; Donmez, Senayi

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
21

INSOLUBILIZATION METHOD OF THE FLUORINE IN WASTE FOUNDRY SAND AND THE PRODUCTION METHOD OF THE ROADBED MATERIAL  

Science.gov (United States)

We have studied how the fluorine-insoluble in the waste foundry sand (chromite sand) and production method of the roadbed material with insolubilized waste foundry sand. And we got following knowledges. (1) We found a minimum mixing rate to insolubilize of fluorine in the waste foundry sand by the ingenuity of mixing procedure. (2) Now we can insolubilize the waste foundry sand including comparatively high concentration fluorine (elution concentration: 20-70mg/l) by the mixing time difference of MgO and blast furnace cement. (3) In the verification test the roadbed material made from the insolubilized waste foundry sand satisfied reference value of environment safety.

Fukayama, Masamitu; Terazono, Katsuhiro; Koga, Yasuyuki

22

Excess foundry sand characterization and experimental investigation in controlled low-strength material  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this dissertation is to provide support with technical data for the reuse of excess foundry sand. The dissertation addresses two topics: a statistical sound evaluation of the characterization of foundry waste streams, and a laboratory investigation to qualify excess foundry sand as a major component in controlled low-strength material (CLSM). The survival analysis statistical technique is developed for processing censored characterization data with significant confidence. Using this methodology, supported by abundant characterization datasets, foundry waste streams are characterized in full spectrum of general chemical parameters, metallic elements and organic compounds regarding bulk analysis and leachate characterization. Not limited to characterization and environmental impact, foundry waste streams are evaluated by factor analyses, which contributes to proper selection of factor and maximization of reuse marketplace of foundry waste streams. Excavatable CLSM and structural CLSM containing different types of excess foundry sands are investigated through laboratory experiments. Technical data regarding physical characteristics of excess foundry sands, design, behavior, performance and environmental impact of fresh and hardened CLSM are presented in details. Wide span of parameters are analyzed to evaluate the qualification of integrating excess foundry sands into CLSM.

Deng, An

23

Excess Foundry Sand Characterization and Experimental Investigation in Controlled Low-Strength Material and Hot-Mixing Asphalt  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report provides technical data regarding the reuse of excess foundry sand. The report addresses three topics: (1) a statistically sound evaluation of the characterization of foundry sand, (2) a laboratory investigation to qualify excess foundry sand as a major component in controlled low-strength material (CLSM), and (3) the identification of the best methods for using foundry sand as a replacement for natural aggregates for construction purposes, specifically in asphalt paving materials. The survival analysis statistical technique was used to characterize foundry sand over a full spectrum of general chemical parameters, metallic elements, and organic compounds regarding bulk analysis and leachate characterization. Not limited to characterization and environmental impact, foundry sand was evaluated by factor analyses, which contributes to proper selection of factor and maximization of the reuse marketplace for foundry sand. Regarding the integration of foundry sand into CLSM, excavatable CLSM and structural CLSM containing different types of excess foundry sands were investigated through laboratory experiments. Foundry sand was approved to constitute a major component in CLSM. Regarding the integration of foundry sand into asphalt paving materials, the optimum asphalt content was determined for each mixture, as well as the bulk density, maximum density, asphalt absorption, and air voids at N{sub ini}, N{sub des}, and N{sub max}. It was found that foundry sands can be used as an aggregate in hot-mix asphalt production, but each sand should be evaluated individually. Foundry sands tend to lower the strength of mixtures and also may make them more susceptible to moisture damage. Finally, traditional anti-stripping additives may decrease the moisture sensitivity of a mixture containing foundry sand, but not to the level allowed by most highway agencies.

Pauul J. Tikalsky

2004-10-31

24

Excess Foundry Sand Characterization and Experimental Investigation in Controlled Low-Strength Material and Hot-Mixing Asphalt  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report provides technical data regarding the reuse of excess foundry sand. The report addresses three topics: a statistically sound evaluation of the characterization of foundry sand, a laboratory investigation to qualify excess foundry sand as a major component in controlled low-strength material (CLSM), and the identification of the best methods for using foundry sand as a replacement for natural aggregates for construction purposes, specifically in asphalt paving materials. The survival analysis statistical technique was used to characterize foundry sand over a full spectrum of general chemical parameters, metallic elements, and organic compounds regarding bulk analysis and leachate characterization. Not limited to characterization and environmental impact, foundry sand was evaluated by factor analyses, which contributes to proper selection of factor and maximization of the reuse marketplace for foundry sand. Regarding the integration of foundry sand into CLSM, excavatable CLSM and structural CLSM containing different types of excess foundry sands were investigated through laboratory experiments. Foundry sand was approved to constitute a major component in CLSM. Regarding the integration of foundry sand into asphalt paving materials, the optimum asphalt content was determined for each mixture, as well as the bulk density, maximum density, asphalt absorption, and air voids at Nini, Ndes, and Nmax. It was found that foundry sands can be used as an aggregate in hot-mix asphalt production, but each sand should be evaluated individually. Foundry sands tend to lower the strength of mixtures and also may make them more susceptible to moisture damage. Finally, traditional anti-stripping additives may decrease the moisture sensitivity of a mixture containing foundry sand, but not to the level allowed by most highway agencies.

Paul J. Tikalsky, Hussain U. Bahia, An Deng and Thomas Snyder

2004-10-15

25

Problems of scientific and development research concerning the reclamation of used foundry sands  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In traditional technologies of casting moulds and core production on the basis of high-silica sands with binding agent addition, the reclamation consists mainly of a sand recovery and very seldom of a sand and bentonite recovery.Analysis of data from several countries indicates that from 600 to 1200 kg of fresh sand is used for 1 tonne of ferrous casting alloys. In Poland it is 1000 kg of sand for 1 tonne of castings [1]. Out of this amount approximately 20% of fresh sand is used for core production and the remaining amount for rebounding moulding sands. Analysis of data from 20 largest Polish foundries, performed in 2004 [2] indicates that approximately 50% of waste foundry sands is reclaimed while the rest is directed to dumping grounds. Taking into account all remaining foundries it can be estimated that approximately 250-350 000 tonnes of waste foundry sands are sent to dumping grounds annually.Important issue are costs of storage, which depend on the kind of wastes and on the ownership form of dump-sites (municipal dumpinggrounds, plant’s or own [belonging to the foundry] as well as on their relation to the costs of purchasing fresh sands. Average charges for storage of moulding sands wastes on storage yards in Europe are within the range: 12.5 to 61 Eu, which means from 85% to above 400% of purchasing costs of 1 tonne of fresh high-silica sand. The contractual price accepted for such sand in the BREF UE document [3] is 14.56 Eu. Problems of scientific and development research concerning the reclamation of used foundry sands can be systematised according to the research fields and the actual state of knowledge - based on the analysis of scientific papers.

R. Da?ko

2010-10-01

26

Application of a power quality analyser to the monitoring of sand preparation processes in foundry plants  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Process control plays a major role in supervision and identification of states, for example in monitoring of electric circuits power- supplying the foundry machines and devices, such as sand preparation processes, moulding technologies, melting, cleaning and finishing of castings. The monitoring and control equipment includes the power quality analysers. Testing is done using a Japanese analyser KEW 6319 (Kyoritsu) applied to monitoring of the sand preparation process in a foundry plant with ...

Smyksy, K.; Wrona, R.; Zio??kowski, E.

2011-01-01

27

Application of Waste Foundry Sand for Evolution of Low-Cost Concrete  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Generation of waste foundry sand as by product of metal casting industries causes environmental problems because of its improper disposal. Thus, its usage in building material, construction and in other fields is essential for reduction of environmental problems. This research is carried out to produce a low-cost and eco-friendly concrete. This paper demonstrates the use of waste foundry sand as a partial replacement by fine aggregate in concrete. An experimental investigation is carried out ...

Pathariya Saraswati C, Rana Jaykrushna K.

2013-01-01

28

Use of an integrated approach to characterize the physicochemical properties of foundry green sands  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? Physicochemical properties of fresh, spent, and landfilled foundry green sands were determined. ? A phase composition model was postulated for each material based on thermogravimetric results. ? Sand from the landfill was determined to be composed of almost pure silica sand. ? Weathering is likely responsible for removing the coating materials from the green sands. ? Landfilled sands may be suitable for reuse within the foundry or beneficial use applications. - Abstract: A fresh green sand, spent green sand, and a weathered spent green sand (wSGS) from a foundry landfill were analyzed using diffractometry, electron microscopy, fluorometry, granulometry, spectrometry, and thermogravimetry (TG). Our objective was to understand how the physicochemical properties of the foundry green sands change from their original form after being subjected to the casting process, then after weathering at the landfill. A quantitative phase composition model was also postulated for each material based on the TG results and it was found to be the most reliable and informative quantitative data for this type of residue. The weathered sample, that remained in a landfill for two years, was found to be composed of almost pure sand. Because of the weathering process, it may be possible to use the wSGS as a virgin sand replacement in the regeneration system or in geotechnical applications where bentonite would affect the properties of the final product.

29

Use of an integrated approach to characterize the physicochemical properties of foundry green sands  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Physicochemical properties of fresh, spent, and landfilled foundry green sands were determined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A phase composition model was postulated for each material based on thermogravimetric results. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sand from the landfill was determined to be composed of almost pure silica sand. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Weathering is likely responsible for removing the coating materials from the green sands. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Landfilled sands may be suitable for reuse within the foundry or beneficial use applications. - Abstract: A fresh green sand, spent green sand, and a weathered spent green sand (wSGS) from a foundry landfill were analyzed using diffractometry, electron microscopy, fluorometry, granulometry, spectrometry, and thermogravimetry (TG). Our objective was to understand how the physicochemical properties of the foundry green sands change from their original form after being subjected to the casting process, then after weathering at the landfill. A quantitative phase composition model was also postulated for each material based on the TG results and it was found to be the most reliable and informative quantitative data for this type of residue. The weathered sample, that remained in a landfill for two years, was found to be composed of almost pure sand. Because of the weathering process, it may be possible to use the wSGS as a virgin sand replacement in the regeneration system or in geotechnical applications where bentonite would affect the properties of the final product.

Carnin, Raquel L.P. [Tupy S.A., Rua Albano Schmidt 3.400, Joinville, Santa Catarina (Brazil); Folgueras, Marilena Valadares; Luvizao, Rubia Raquel; Correia, Sivaldo Leite [Universidade do Estado de Santa Catarina, Rua Paulo Malschitzki, s/numero - Campus Universitario Prof. Avelino Marcante, Bairro Zona Industrial Norte, Joinville, Santa Catarina (Brazil); Cunha, Carlos Jorge da [Universidade Federal do Parana, Centro Politecnico, Jardim das Americas, Curitiba, Parana (Brazil); Dungan, Robert S., E-mail: robert.dungan@ars.usda.gov [USDA-ARS, Northwest Irrigation and Soils Research Laboratory, 3793 North 3600 East, Kimberly, ID 83341 (United States)

2012-09-10

30

Application of a power quality analyser to the monitoring of sand preparation processes in foundry plants  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Process control plays a major role in supervision and identification of states, for example in monitoring of electric circuits power- supplying the foundry machines and devices, such as sand preparation processes, moulding technologies, melting, cleaning and finishing of castings. The monitoring and control equipment includes the power quality analysers. Testing is done using a Japanese analyser KEW 6319 (Kyoritsu applied to monitoring of the sand preparation process in a foundry plant with low level of mechanization, equipped with the sand preparation unit based on a roller mixer.

K. Smyksy

2011-10-01

31

Amelioration of physical strength in waste foundry green sands for reuse as a soil amendment.  

Science.gov (United States)

To avoid increasing costs of landfill disposal, it has become increasingly important for U.S. foundries to identify beneficial reuses for the 8 to 12 million tons of waste foundry sand (WFS) generated annually. A major drawback to the reuse of some WFSs as a soil amendment is their high soil strength, under dry conditions, where root growth may be limited. Fifteen WFSs were analyzed for strength to rupture using lab-formed clods, exchangeable cations (Na, Mg, Ca), metal oxide concentration (Fe, Mn, Al, Si), cation exchange capacity (CEC), and % clay. Several WFS samples from gray iron foundries demonstrated high strength to rupture values (> 1.5 MPa), and could potentially restrict root growth in amended soils. The percentage of Na-bentonite exhibited a positive correlation (R(2) = 0.84) with strength to rupture values. When WFSs containing more Na-bentonite were saturated with 1 mol L(-1) Ca ions, strength values decreased by approximately 70%. Waste foundry sands containing less Na-bentonite were saturated with 1 mol L(-1) Na ions and exhibited a threefold increase in strength. Additions of gypsum (up to 9.6 g kg(-1) sand) to high strength waste foundry sands also caused decreases in strength. These results indicate that high strength WFSs have properties similar to hardsetting soils which are caused by high Na(+) clay content and can be ameliorated by the addition of Ca(2+). PMID:18948487

de Koff, J P; Lee, B D; Dungan, R S

2008-01-01

32

Technological behaviour and recycling potential of spent foundry sands in clay bricks.  

Science.gov (United States)

The feasibility of recycling spent foundry sand in clay bricks was assessed in laboratory, pilot line and industrial trials, using naturally occurring sand as a reference. Raw materials were analyzed by X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffraction, particle size distribution, and leaching and combined to produce bodies containing up to 35% wt. sand. The extrusion, drying and firing behaviour (plasticity, drying sensitivity, mechanical strength, bulk density, water absorption, and shrinkage) were determined. The microstructure, phase composition, durability and leaching (EN 12457, granular materials, end-life step, European Waste Landfill Directive; NEN 7345, monolithic materials, use-life step, Dutch Building Material Decree) were evaluated for bricks manufactured at optimal firing temperature. These results demonstrate that spent foundry sand can be recycled in clay bricks. There are no relevant technological drawbacks, but the feasibility strongly depends on the properties of the raw materials. Spent foundry sand may be introduced into bricks up to 30% wt. Most of the hazardous elements from the spent foundry sand are inertized during firing and the concentrations of hazardous components in the leachates are below the standard threshold for inert waste category landfill excepting for chromium and lead; however, their environmental risk during their use-life step can be considered negligible. PMID:21129840

Alonso-Santurde, R; Andrés, A; Viguri, J R; Raimondo, M; Guarini, G; Zanelli, C; Dondi, M

2011-03-01

33

Use of standardized procedures to evaluate metal leaching from waste foundry sands.  

Science.gov (United States)

As part of the casting process, foundries create sand molds and cores to hold the molten metal to specific dimensional tolerances. Although most of the waste foundry sands (WFSs) from this process are land filled, there is great interest in diverting them for use in agricultural and geotechnical applications. One potential limitation to their beneficial use is concern that the WFSs will leach high levels of trace metals. The aim of this study was to quantify Ag, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn in leaching extracts from 96 waste molding and core sands from ferrous and nonferrous foundries. The procedures used to assess leaching in the WFSs were the Extraction Procedure, the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure, and the American Society for Testing and Materials water extraction procedure. The metal extract concentrations were compared with those found in virgin silica sands and Argentinean and U.S. hazardous waste laws to determine if the WFSs met toxicity limits. Regardless of metal cast and sand binder type, the majority of the WFS extracts analyzed contained metal concentrations similar to those found in virgin sand extracts and were below levels considered hazardous. However, 4 of 28 sands that used alkyd urethane binder were deemed hazardous because Pb concentrations in these sands were found to exceed regulatory thresholds. Although other regulated metals, such as As, Hg, and Se, were not analyzed in the extracts, this dataset provides additional evidence that many WFSs have a low metal leaching potential. PMID:23673854

Miguel, Roberto E; Ippolito, James A; Porta, Atilio A; Banda Noriega, Roxana B; Dungan, Robert S

2013-01-01

34

Durability of CLSM with used foundry sand, bottom ash and fly ash in cold regions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The feasibility of using industrial by-products in the production of cement was discussed. In particular, this study examined the physical property and durability of controlled low strength materials (CLSM) made with used foundry sand and bottom ash as fine aggregates. The objective was to determine the effect of mixture proportions on the compressive strength and frost heaving resistance of CLSM for use in cold regions. Tests were conducted for a total of 26 mixtures using a wide variety of foundry sands and bottom ash additions. A series of cost-effective measures were determined for various material costs. It was shown that these by-products could be used in cement instead of fine aggregates. The optimum addition of used foundry sand and bottom ash to fly ash was determined and long-term strength developments of a wide range of mixtures were observed. The frost heaving rate was less than 3 per cent for CLSM with used foundry sand and bottom ash. This is considered to be excellent resistance to frost heaving and less than frost heaving in soil like materials, but some samples showed visible cracks. It was concluded that more research is required to evaluate the durability of CLSM against frost heaving actions. The study showed that the effect of water cementitious material ratio on the compressive strength of CLSM is low, particularly on the long-term strength. 21 refs., 6 tabs., 10 figs.

Horiguchi, T.; Okumura, H.; Saeki, N. [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan)

2001-07-01

35

Granulation process of foundry dusts originated from bentonite sand processing plants  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The results of the investigation results of the granulation process of foundry dusts generated during the mechanical reclamation of spent sands with bentonite and also dusts from the sand processing plants are presented in the paper. The following parameters of the final product were determined: moisture content (W) and granules shatter test (Wz) performed directly after the granulation process and after 1, 3, 5, 10 and 30 days and nights of seasoning, water-resistant ability of gr...

Kamin?ska, J.; Dan?ko, J.

2013-01-01

36

p-Toluenesulfonate in Landfill Leachates : Leachability from Foundry Sands and Aerobic Biodegradation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

p-Toluenesulfonate (pTS) was found at concentrations between 9.6 and 48.8 mg/L in leachates from two Swiss landfill sections where foundry wastes are stored. pTS represented ?33% of the nonpurgable organic carbon (NPOC) in the leachates. A standard test showed that pTS is easily leached from foundry sands that contained 1% (w/w) of a technical hardener consisting of tolu enesulfonates. Hence, the hardener is a likely source of pTS in the landfill leachates. Furthermore, analyses using liqui...

Riediker, Sonja; Ruckstuhl, Sabine; Suter, Marc J. -f; Cook, Alasdair M.; Giger, Walter

2000-01-01

37

A new low-cost method of reclaiming mixed foundry waste sand based on wet-thermal composite reclamation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A lot of mixed clay-resin waste sand from large-scale iron foundries is discharged every day; so mixed waste sand reclamation in low cost and high quality has a great realistic significance. In the study to investigate the possibility of reusing two types of waste foundry sands, resin bonded sand and clay bonded sand which came from a Chinese casting factory, a new low-cost reclamation method of the mixed foundry waste sand based on the wet-thermal composite reclamation was proposed. The waste resin bonded sand was first reclaimed by a thermal method and the waste clay bonded sand was reclaimed by a wet method. Then, hot thermal reclaimed sand and the dehydrated wet reclaimed sand were mixed in certain proportions so that the hot thermal reclaimed sand dried the wet reclaimed sand leaving some water. The thermal reclamation efficiency of the waste resin bonded sand was researched at different heat levels. The optimized wet reclamation process of the waste clay bonded sand was achieved by investigating the effects of wet reclamation times, sand-water ratio and pH value on the reclaimed sand characteristics. The composite reclamation cost also was calculated. The research results showed that the properties of the mixed reclaimed sand can satisfy the application requirements of foundries; in which the temperature of the thermal reclamation waste resin bonded sand needs to be about 800 ?, the number of cycles of wet reclamation waste clay bonded sand should reach four to five, the optimal sand-water ratio of wet reclamation is around 1:1.5, and the pH value should be adjusted by adding acid. The mass ratio of hot thermal reclaimed sand to dehydrated wet reclaimed sand is about 1:2.5, and the composite reclaimed sand cost is around 100 yuan RMB per ton.

Fan Zitian

2014-09-01

38

Applications of the systems theory to the designing of the sand preparation sub-system in foundry plants  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study provides the basic principles for designing the functional structure of manufacturing systems and their components. The analysis of functional values is applied to create the technological and manufacturing model underlying the design of the foundry equipment with machine units and materials handling systems. Quoted examples illustrate the approved procedure to be applied to control the sand preparation process in a foundry.

Wrona, R.; Stawowy, A.; Macio?, A.

2009-01-01

39

Techno- Economical Study of Rigid Pavement by Using the Used Foundry Sand  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Indian road network of almost 3.5 million km comprising both paved and unpaved surfaces is the world’s second largest. Indian roads are presently constructed with not the right choice of material. The two major types of materials, bitumen and concrete are used in road construction in the country. A very small share of roads in the country is made of concrete. Though, it is superior on many counts as a medium for road buildings. The use of large amount of by-product materials as powder or fines not only avoids the requirement of landfills but also reduce the environmental problems. It is most essential to develop profitable building materials from used foundry sand. The innovative use of used foundry sand in concrete formulations as a fine aggregate replacement material was tested as an alternative to traditional concrete. The fine aggregate has been replaced by used foundry sand accordingly in the range of 0%, 10%, 30% & 50% by weight for M-20 grade concrete. Concrete mixtures were produced, tested and compared in terms of compressive and flexural strength with the conventional concrete. These tests were carried out to evaluate the mechanical properties for 7, 14 and 28 days. This research work is to investigate the behaviour of concrete while replacing used foundry sand in different proportion in concrete. This low cost concrete with good strength is used in rigid pavement for 3000 commercial vehicles per day (cvpd and Dry Lean Concrete (DLC 100mm thick for national highway to make it eco-friendly.

Vipul D. Prajapati1 , Nilay Joshi2 , Prof. Jayeshkumar Pitroda

2013-05-01

40

Foundry performance in relation to the radiographic quality of aluminium alloy sand castings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article examines radiographic soundness and acceptance standards for aluminium alloy sand castings for aerospace and general engineering applications. A method is suggested by which foundries can evaluate their performance to provide evidence of capability with respect to radiographic quality; purchasers could use the same system to assess suppliers. The shortcomings of standards are briefly discussed in the light of an approach to radiographic acceptance on the horizon

 
 
 
 
41

Evaluation of the Effective Baking Conditions for Grade 3 Nigerian Acacia Species Bonded Foundry Sand Cores  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The most effective economical baking conditions w ere determined for foundry cores bonded with the grade 3 Nigerian acacia species exudates. Silica sand base cores bonded with the material were oven baked at temperatures ranging from 160 to 250ºC for varying periods oven cooled and then subjected to tensile strength tests to ascertain the best baking conditions for different alloy castings. The experimental core specimens were in accordance with foundry test standard, shaped like figure number eight. They were tested with standard universal strength machine equipped with attachment for gripping the cores and an instantaneous meter from which the test values were read. The result were compared with established standard foundry core property table which showed that the class V iron/steel cores are best made with 3% acacia bonded silica sand baked at 160ºC for 1 h. For magnesium cores, sand bonded with 4.5% acacia baked at 160ºC for 1-2 h was optimum. For class IV iron/steel cores 4.5% acacia bonded sand baked at 180ºC for 1 hour was optimal. Sand bonded with 4.5% grade 3 acacia baked at 200ºC for 1.0-2.0 h was optimum for copper, aluminium, classes II and III iron/steel cores. Sand bonded with 8.0-13.0% grade 3 N igerian acacia species baked at 200ºC for 1.5-2 h was found most effective for class I iron and steel cores.

Nuhu A. ademoh

2010-09-01

42

Synergy of Practical Knowledge of Molding Sands Reclamation in Heavy Casting Foundry of Iron Alloys  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper summarizes research realized by the author in laboratory and industrial conditions (foundries of cast steel and cast iron, castings up to 50 tons on the effects of the chemically hardened molding sands regeneration using hard/soft rubbing in the dry reclamation. A reference was simultaneously made to advisability of application of the thermal regeneration in conditions, where chromite amount in the circulating (reclaimed molding sand goes as high as above ten percent. An advisability of connecting standard and specialized methods of examination of the reclaimed sands and molding sands made using it was pointed out. A way of application of studies with the Hot Distortion Plus® method modified by the author for validation of modeling of the thermo-dynamic phenomena in the mold was shown.

Z. Ignaszak

2013-07-01

43

Applications of the systems theory to the designing of the sand preparation sub-system in foundry plants  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study provides the basic principles for designing the functional structure of manufacturing systems and their components. The analysis of functional values is applied to create the technological and manufacturing model underlying the design of the foundry equipment with machine units and materials handling systems. Quoted examples illustrate the approved procedure to be applied to control the sand preparation process in a foundry.

R. Wrona

2009-07-01

44

Pyrolysis of foundry sand resins: a determination of organic products by mass spectrometry.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (MS) was used to identify the major organic products produced by pyrolysis of three foundry sand resins: (i) Novolac and (ii) phenolic urethane (PU) (both phenol-formaldehyde based resins) and (iii) furan (furfuryl alcohol based resin). These resins are used in the metal casting industry as a "sand binder" for making cores (used to produce cavities in molds) and molds for nonferrous castings. During the casting process, the cores and molds are subjected to intense heat from the molten metal. As a result, the organic resins undergo thermal decomposition and produce a number of complex organic compounds. In this study, the organics were tentatively identified by MS after pyrolysis of the resins at 750 degrees C. The major thermal decomposition products from the Novolac, PU, and furan resins were derivatives of phenol, benzene, and furan, respectively. Compounds identified that are of potential environmental concern were benzene, toluene, phenol, o- and p-xylene, o- and m-cresol, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Pyrolysis of the Novolac resin resulted in the generation of the most compounds of environmental concern. Because there is interest in beneficially using foundry molding sands in manufactured soils and other agricultural products, it is necessary that organic thermal decomposition products be identified to ensure environmental protection. PMID:15991723

Dungan, Robert S; Reeves, James B

2005-01-01

45

Analysis of modern methods of assessing the quality of sand foundry moulds  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Currently offered devices for the hardness measuring or indices of the mould strength, are presented in the hereby paper. The presented results allow to compare approximately the indications of individual devices of different types.The description of the author’s own microprocessor tester for the quality assessment of the sand foundry moulds, is shown. On the bases of the measurements results it is possible, to evaluate indirectly, the mould apparent density in the selected points, as well as several other properties.

K. Smyksy

2015-04-01

46

Granulation process of foundry dusts originated from bentonite sand processing plants  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The results of the investigation results of the granulation process of foundry dusts generated during the mechanical reclamation of spent sands with bentonite and also dusts from the sand processing plants are presented in the paper. The following parameters of the final product were determined: moisture content (W and granules shatter test (Wz performed directly after the granulation process and after 1, 3, 5, 10 and 30 days and nights of seasoning, water-resistant ability of granules after 24 h of immersing in water, surface porosity ep and volumetric porosity ev. In addition the shatter test and water-resistant ability of granulated products dried at a temperature of 105°C was estimated.

J. Kami?ska

2013-01-01

47

Effect of additives promoting the formation of lustrous carbon on the knocking out properties of foundry sands with new inorganic binders  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The article presents the results of investigations, which make a fragment of the broad-scale studies carried out as a part of the statutory activity on optimising the foundry sand technology using new, modified, inorganic binders.The results of investigations regarding the effect of lustrous carbon carriers on the technological properties of foundry sands with inorganic binders were presented in a concise manner. The selected additives were introduced to moulding sands prepared with the new, ...

Izdebska-szanda, I.; Zb Stefan?skidepartment Of Technology, Foundry Research Institute; Pezarski, F.; Szolc, M.

2009-01-01

48

Design and production of a novel sand materials strength testing machine for foundry applications  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In the foundry, existing strength testing machines are used to measure only the maximum fracture strength of mould and core materials. With traditionally used methods, the loading history to ascertain deformation of the material is not available. In this paper, a novel moulding material strength testing machine was designed and built for both green sand and chemically-bonded sand materials. This machine measures and presents the loading response as a force-displacement profile from which the mechanical properties of the moulding materials can be deduced. The system was interfaced to a computer with a commercial PC based-control and data acquisition software. The testing conditions and operations are specified in the user interface and the data acquisition is made according to specifications. The force and displacements were calibrated to ensure consistency and reliability of the measurement data. The force was calibrated using an Amsler Hydraulic Press while the displacements were calibrated with and without loading using a displacement calibrator (Heidenhain Digitaler). The calibration results showed that the data obtained are stable and reliable and the machine can be used for the measurement of the strength of chemically-bonded sand materials.

Nwaogu, Ugochukwu Chibuzoh; Tiedje, Niels Skat

2012-01-01

49

The foundry wastes. Storage  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This work deals with the regulation relative to the management of foundry wastes, such as sands (which can be radioactive), non hazardous and hazardous wastes. Some examples of the reuse of these foundry wastes are given. (O.M.)

50

Effect of compost-, sand-, or gypsum-amended waste foundry sands on turfgrass yield and nutrient content.  

Science.gov (United States)

To prevent the 7 to 11 million metric tons of waste foundry sand (WFS) produced annually in the USA from entering landfills, current research is focused on the reuse of WFSs as soil amendments. The effects of different WFS-containing amendments on turfgrass growth and nutrient content were tested by planting perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) and tall fescue (Schedonorus phoenix (Scop.) Holub) in different blends containing WFS. Blends of WFS were created with compost or acid-washed sand (AWS) at varying percent by volume with WFS or by amendment with gypsum (9.6 g gypsum kg(-1) WFS). Measurements of soil strength, shoot and root dry weight, plant surface coverage, and micronutrients (Al, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, B, Na) and macronutrients (N, P, K, S, Ca, Mg) were performed for each blend and compared with pure WFS and with a commercial potting media control. Results showed that strength was not a factor for any of the parameters studied, but the K/Na base saturation ratio of WFS:compost mixes was highly correlated with total shoot dry weight for perennial ryegrass (r = 0.995) and tall fescue (r = 0.94). This was further substantiated because total shoot dry weight was also correlated with shoot K/Na concentration of perennial ryegrass (r = 0.99) and tall fescue (r = 0.95). A compost blend containing 40% WFS was determined to be the optimal amendment for the reuse of WFS because it incorporated the greatest possible amount of WFS without major reduction in turfgrass growth. PMID:20048325

de Koff, J P; Lee, B D; Dungan, R S; Santini, J B

2010-01-01

51

Peat-assisted phytoremediation of waste foundry sands: plant growth, metal accumulation and fertility aspects.  

Science.gov (United States)

We investigated the potential of peat additions to improve plant growth and fertility and to reduce plant metal uptake in waste foundry sands (WFS) landfills. The WFS contains 78211 mg kg(-1) and 371 mg kg(-1) concentrations of Cr and Ni, respectively, and varied metal concentrations. The experiment investigated the growth of Brassica juncea plants on fertilized WFS mixed with peat at concentrations of 0, 2.5, 5, and 10% (w/w). The highest peat treatment allowed substantial plant growth and increased Ni mass in shoots, which was positively correlated to shoot biomass increments. On a concentration basis, peat additions did not increase shoot Ni values, thus suggesting that plants grown on peat-treated WFS may not increase risks to human and ecological receptors. Chromium was below detection levels in shoots for all peat treatments. Peat-treated substrates also promoted increased CEC values and higher water holding capacity, therefore improving the WFS agronomical properties. These results indicate that peat can be used as an amendment to assist in the phytoremediation of WFS landfill areas. However, there was evidence for increased mobilization of Cr and Ni in the substrate solution which can pose a threat to local groundwater. PMID:22567709

Moreno, Fábio N; Sígolo, Joel B; Figueira, Antonio V

2012-03-01

52

Geotechnical and leaching properties of flowable fill incorporating waste foundry sand.  

Science.gov (United States)

Waste foundry sand (WFS) can be converted into flowable fill for geotechnical applications. In this study, WFS samples were obtained from 17 independent metal casting facilities with different casting processes, thus representing a good range of WFS properties. The laboratory studies include physical, geotechnical and leaching properties of flowable fills consisting of WFS, cement, and fly ash mixed to different water contents. The main properties measured include WFS physical properties (density, particle gradation, grain shape, and fine content), WFS flowable fill geotechnical properties (unconfined compressive strength, hydraulic conductivity, setting time, and bleeding), and the fill's leaching properties (heavy metals and organics in the bleed water and the leachate extracted from hardened WFS flowable fills). The test results indicate that in terms of the physical properties, most of the data fall within narrow ranges, although data from the copper/aluminum-based WFS samples might fall beyond the ranges. Geotechnical properties of WFS flowable fills in both fresh and hardened phases were verified conforming to the features of specified flowable fills. Material leaching analyses indicate that the toxicity of WFS flowable fills is below regulated criteria. A mix formulation range originated from this study is proposed for the design of WFS made flowable fill. PMID:18082390

Deng, An; Tikalsky, Paul J

2008-11-01

53

Mechanical and toxicological evaluation of concrete artifacts containing waste foundry sand.  

Science.gov (United States)

The creation of metal parts via casting uses molds that are generally made from sand and phenolic resin. The waste generated after the casting process is called waste foundry sand (WFS). Depending on the mold composition and the casting process, WFS can contain substances that prevent its direct emission to the environment. In Brazil, this waste is classified according to the Standard ABNT NBR 10004:2004 as a waste Class II (Non-Inert). The recycling of this waste is limited because its characteristics change significantly after use. Although the use (or reuse) of this byproduct in civil construction is a technically feasible alternative, its effects must be evaluated, especially from mechanical and environmental points of view. Thus, the objective of this study is to investigate the effect of the use of WFS in the manufacture of cement artifacts, such as masonry blocks for walls, structural masonry blocks, and paving blocks. Blocks containing different concentrations of WFS (up to 75% by weight) were produced and evaluated using compressive strength tests (35 MPa at 28 days) and toxicity tests on Daphnia magna, Allium cepa (onion root), and Eisenia foetida (earthworm). The results showed that there was not a considerable reduction in the compressive strength, with values of 35 ± 2 MPa at 28 days. The toxicity study with the material obtained from leaching did not significantly interfere with the development of D. magna and E. foetida, but the growth of the A. cepa species was reduced. The study showed that the use of this waste in the production of concrete blocks is feasible from both mechanical and environmental points of view. PMID:24582355

Mastella, Miguel Angelo; Gislon, Edivelton Soratto; Pelisser, Fernando; Ricken, Cláudio; da Silva, Luciano; Angioletto, Elídio; Montedo, Oscar Rubem Klegues

2014-08-01

54

New sol–gel refractory coatings on chemically-bonded sand cores for foundry applications to improve casting surface quality  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Foundry refractory coatings protect bonded sand cores and moulds from producing defective castings during the casting process by providing a barrier between the core and the liquid metal. In this study, new sol–gel refractory coating on phenolic urethane cold box (PUCB) core was examined. The coating density, viscosity, moisture content and wet and dry weight of the coating were evaluated on cores that had been coated at three different dip-coating times. The coating coverage, surface appearance and depth of penetration into the cores were examined with a Stereomicroscope. Gray iron castings were produced with sol-gel coated and uncoated cores and the results were related to the coating properties. The casting results were also compared with castings made with cores coated with commercial alcohol-based and water-based foundry coatings. The analyses show that castings produced with sol–gel coated cores have better surface quality than those from uncoated cores and comparable surface quality with the commercialcoatings. Therefore, the new sol–gel coating has a potential application in the foundry industry for improving the surface finish of castings thereby reducing the cost of fettling in the foundry industry since the raw materials and technology are easily affordable.

Nwaogu, Ugochukwu Chibuzoh; Poulsen, T.

2011-01-01

55

Industrial-hygiene report of radon daughters in foundries using zirconium sand as a molding agent, July 31, September 30-October 2, 1980  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A survey of exposures to radon daughters in foundries using zirconium sand as a molding agent was conducted. The survey was prompted by a report that significant concentrations of uranium- and thorium-decay isotopes were found in zirconium sand. Area air and bulk samples were analyzed for radon-daughter activity in selected operations of five foundries that used zirconium sand as part of the molding aggregate or as a molding agent. One foundry was located in Ohio, the other four were in California. Maximum radon-daughter activity in the area samples ranged from not detectable to 0.023 working level (WL). The OSHA standards for radon-daughter activity is 0.33 WL. No results were available for the bulk samples due to difficulties with the analytical procedures. The author concludes that the measured levels of radon daughter activity in the foundries are extremely low. The potential for a radiological health hazard due to exposure from radon daughters in zirconium sand at this time is very low. Laboratory studies of zirconium sand and a gamma-radiation survey of foundries that use zirconium sand are recommended

56

Ocular effects of exposure to triethylamine in the sand core cold box of a foundry.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OBJECTIVES--To assess the acute and chronic ophthalmological effects of triethylamine exposure among foundry workers. METHODS--Ocular effects on people currently, previously, and never exposed to triethylamine in a foundry cold box were studied at two points in time. The initial phase included an ocular examination with a slit lamp to assess corneal health, a visual acuity test, and a questionnaire to assess vision symptoms. The follow up included measurements of corneal thickness with an ult...

Reilly, M. J.; Rosenman, K. D.; Abrams, J. H.; Zhu, Z.; Tseng, C.; Hertzberg, V.; Rice, C.

1995-01-01

57

Review on Analysis of Foundry Defects for Quality Improvement of Sand Casting  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the present global and competitive environment foundry industries needs to perform efficiently with minimum number of rejections. Also they have to develop casting components in very short lead time. Casting process is still state of art with experienced people, but these experience needs to be transformed in engineering knowledge for the better growth of the foundry industries. Some foundries are working with trial and error method and get their work done. Factually, most of the foundries have very less control on rejections, as they are always on the toes of production urgency; hence they ignore the rejections and salvage the castings. Majority foundries are failed to maintain a satisfactory quality control level. Defect free castings with minimum production cost have become the need of the foundries. This study is aimed to review the research work made by several researchers and an attempt to get technical solution for minimizing various casting defects and to improve the entire process of casting manufacturing.

Sunil Chaudhari

2014-03-01

58

Application of design projects developed by Foundry Research Institute in Krakow in construction of integrated stand for processing and reclamation of moulding sands  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The article is devoted to the description of a new integrated system for processing and reclamation of moulding and core sands using the equipment developed by Foundry Research Institute in Krakow. The idea and operation of a complex stand, which allows for co-existence of three routes of material circulation, i.e. system sand, new sand and reclaim, with maximum utilisation of the existing equipment have been presented. Various aspects, economical and ecological, of the proposed design have b...

Izdebska-szanda, I.; Pezarski, F.; Ste?pniewski, K.

2008-01-01

59

The reclamation of used moulding and core sands as a part of research programme of the Foundry Research Institute in Cracow  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The article presents a historical outline of studies carried out by the Foundry Research Institute in Cracow on technical and technological solutions regarding the development of a reclamation process of the used moulding and core sands with attention focused on the past twenty years. Various aspects that control studies of the sand reclamation, from the thermal process, through pneumatic reclamation, and with preferences focused on the application of a mechanical treatment of the used sand, ...

Izdebska-szanda, I.; Maniowski, Z.; Pezarski, F.

2010-01-01

60

Measurement of elastic modulus and evaluation of viscoelasticity of foundry green sand  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Elastic modulus is an important physical parameter of molding sand; it is closely connected with molding sand's properties. Based on theories of rheology and molding sand microdeformation, elastic modulus of molding sand was measured and investigated using the intelligent molding sand multi-property tester developed by ourselves. The measuring principle was introduced. Effects of bentonite percentage and compactibility of the molding sand were experimentally studied. Furthermore, the essentia...

Xiang, Qingchun; Xie, Zuxi; Zhang, Fengwen

2004-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Measurement of elastic modulus and evaluation of viscoelasticity of foundry green sand  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Elastic modulus is an important physical parameter of molding sand; it is closely connected with molding sand's properties. Based on theories of rheology and molding sand microdeformation, elastic modulus of molding sand was measured and investigated using the intelligent molding sand multi-property tester developed by ourselves. The measuring principle was introduced. Effects of bentonite percentage and compactibility of the molding sand were experimentally studied. Furthermore, the essential viscoelastic nature of green sand was analyzed. It is considered that viscoelastic deformation of molding sand consists mainly of that of Kelvin Body of clay membrane, and elastic modulus of molding sand depends mainly on that of Kelvin Body which is the elastic component of clay membrane between sands. Elastic modulus can be adopted as one of the property parameters, and can be employed to evaluate viscoelastic properties of molding sand.

Qingchun XIANG

2004-08-01

62

Problems of scientific and development research concerning the reclamation of used foundry sands  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In traditional technologies of casting moulds and core production on the basis of high-silica sands with binding agent addition, the reclamation consists mainly of a sand recovery and very seldom of a sand and bentonite recovery.Analysis of data from several countries indicates that from 600 to 1200 kg of fresh sand is used for 1 tonne of ferrous casting alloys. In Poland it is 1000 kg of sand for 1 tonne of castings [1]. Out of this amount approximately 20% of fresh sand is used for core pro...

Dan?ko, R.; Dan?ko, J.; Holtzer, M.

2010-01-01

63

The reclamation of used moulding and core sands as a part of research programme of the Foundry Research Institute in Cracow  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article presents a historical outline of studies carried out by the Foundry Research Institute in Cracow on technical and technological solutions regarding the development of a reclamation process of the used moulding and core sands with attention focused on the past twenty years. Various aspects that control studies of the sand reclamation, from the thermal process, through pneumatic reclamation, and with preferences focused on the application of a mechanical treatment of the used sand, were discussed. Particular emphasis was put on the vibration method.Examples of design solutions developed by the Foundry Research Institute in Cracow were described. They were implemented inindustrial practice both at home and abroad. Their versatility and effectiveness as satisfying BAT criteria was stressed.

I. Izdebska-Szanda

2010-04-01

64

Application of design projects developed by Foundry Research Institute in Krakow in construction of integrated stand for processing and reclamation of moulding sands  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article is devoted to the description of a new integrated system for processing and reclamation of moulding and core sands using the equipment developed by Foundry Research Institute in Krakow. The idea and operation of a complex stand, which allows for co-existence of three routes of material circulation, i.e. system sand, new sand and reclaim, with maximum utilisation of the existing equipment have been presented. Various aspects, economical and ecological, of the proposed design have been discussed.

I. Izdebska-Szanda

2008-04-01

65

Effects of Moisture Content on the Foundry Properties of Yola Natural Sand  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The effect of moisture content of Yola natural sand has been studied. The moisture content was varied from 1 to 9%. The effect of the moisture content on the green compression strength, green permeability and bulk density was investigated. Particle size distribution of the natural sand, the grain fineness number, average grain size, grain shape and the clay content of the natural sand were also studied. 5% moisture gave the optimum green compression strength of 118.6KN/m2. The dry compression strength increased with moisture content, an optimum value of 4000KN/m2 was obtained at 9% moisture. The Yola natural sand had a grain fineness number of 88.05AFS, average grain size of 335.78 microns and a clay content of 26%. A sand mixture containing 5% moisture was prepared and used to produce a test casting with aluminium scraps, the test casting was sound.

Joy OGBODO

2011-12-01

66

Recycling of iron foundry sand and glass waste as raw material for production of whiteware.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the production feasibility of triaxial whiteware using sand from cast iron moulds as a raw material instead of silica, and recycled glass in place of feldspar. Formulations were prepared using sand, glass waste, and white-firing clay such that only 50% of the composition was virgin material (clay). The ceramic bodies were formed by pressing and fired at different temperatures (between 1100 and 1300 degrees C). Specimens were characterized in terms of green density prior to firing; and their flexural strength, linear shrinkage, and water absorption were measured after firing. The microstructure was determined by scanning electron microscopy. Possible environmental impacts of this recycling process were also evaluated, through solubility and leaching tests, according to Brazilian standards. Gaseous emissions during the firing process were also analysed. The results showed that it is possible to produce triaxial ceramics by using such alternative raw materials. PMID:16496871

Bragança, Saulo R; Vicenzi, Juliane; Guerino, Kareline; Bergmann, Carlos P

2006-02-01

67

Effect of additives promoting the formation of lustrous carbon on the knocking out properties of foundry sands with new inorganic binders  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article presents the results of investigations, which make a fragment of the broad-scale studies carried out as a part of the statutory activity on optimising the foundry sand technology using new, modified, inorganic binders.The results of investigations regarding the effect of lustrous carbon carriers on the technological properties of foundry sands with inorganic binders were presented in a concise manner. The selected additives were introduced to moulding sands prepared with the new, modified, inorganic binders bonded by the chemical reaction or by blowing with gaseous CO2.Attention was focussed on the effect of selected additives promoting the formation of lustrous carbon on the knocking out properties ofmoulds and cores prepared from sands with the new types of inorganic binders.The quality of the test castings was also evaluated along with the tendency to the formation of lustrous carbon at the metal – mouldinterface, basing on the results of microscopic examinations and analysis of the chemical composition using an X-ray microanalyser.

I. Izdebska-Szanda

2009-01-01

68

Investigation into the origin of radioactivity in ceramic waste. Zircon sand in iron foundries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 2002 a truck loaded with used car scrap triggered a radiation monitoring gate detector at a scrapyard. The material under suspicion turned out to be some ceramic waste material. The ceramic waste was used for many years to raise roads or pave yards and premises in the surroundings of Almelo, Netherlands, as was the case with the used car dump where the metal scrap came from. The ceramic material contains zircon sand, which has elevated concentrations of naturally occuring radionuclides. Therefore, using this waste in a surface soil layer may cause radiological exposures to the public. From measurements at the used car dump dose rates were determined up to ten times the background. From further research it was determined that part of the ceramic waste has concentrations above exemption level. From these measurements it was also concluded that the ceramic material is retaining radon and its decay products. From some calculations a maximum effective annual dose was estimated of about 1 mSv. This dose is determined mainly by external radiation and is for long lasting exposure on some large factory grounds. On the other hand, children might be playing in smaller yards or premises. Ingestion might play some role in that case. For this exposure path an annual dose of 0.12 mSv was calculated. For adults this is not an important exposure path. Inhalation doesn't seem to play an important role neither for adults nor for children

69

Respiratory disease in foundry workers.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A survey was carried out in a steel foundry in Brisbane to evaluate the nature and frequency of respiratory symptoms and to assess ventilatory function. The foundry used many moulding processes including the Furane, Isocure, Shell, carbon dioxide, and oil sand systems. Nasal symptoms and wheeze were often reported, particularly by workers in the general foundry and core shop, and on a semiautomated line. By contrast, workers in the aftercast section not exposed to fumes or vapours from the va...

Low, I.; Mitchell, C.

1985-01-01

70

Environmental Bioassay Evaluation of Foundry Waste Residuals  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Although the constructive reuse of foundry residuals represents a decidedly beneficial goal with distinct economic and environmental benefits, potential end-users are nonetheless reluctant to use these residuals, given an inherent concern about potential unforeseen environmental liabilities. Results of foundry residual leachate characterization to date strongly suggest that many ferrous foundries are discarding sands whose quality is fully amenable to their future use with embankment constru...

Bastian, Kenneth Chad; Alleman, James E.

1996-01-01

71

Determination of the Physio-Chemical Properties of Nigerian Acacia Species for Foundry Sand Binding Applications  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Nigeria produces four grades of Acacia species in commercial quantities which are not used for localindustrial applications but exported for foreign earnings. The grades 1 and 2 that are preferred by exportercountries are used in the pharmaceutical, confectionary, food, textile and beverage industries. Nigerianfoundries use imported materials for binding their synthetic casting sands due to non development of locallyavailable materials like Acacia species exudates. This rese...

Ademoh, Nuhu A.

2009-01-01

72

CONTROLLING ODOROUS EMISSIONS FROM IRON FOUNDRIES  

Science.gov (United States)

The report discusses the control of odorous emissions from iron foundries. he main process sources of odors in iron foundries are mold and core making, casting, and sand shakeout. he odors are usually caused by chemicals, which may be present as binders and other additives to the...

73

The pneumatic conveying applications in foundry industry  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The paper presents some issues connected to pneumatic conveying usage in foundry industry. The loose materials transportation (sand and moulding sand) through consecutive production cycles were described. The powder injection into liquid metal, the bentonite into mixers and pneumatic used moulding sand reclamation applications were presented, too. The industrial setups, technological descriptions and some loose materials parameters were given, too.

Homa, D.; Janerka, K.; Szajnar, J.; Jezierski, J.

2010-01-01

74

The pneumatic conveying applications in foundry industry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper presents some issues connected to pneumatic conveying usage in foundry industry. The loose materials transportation (sand and moulding sand through consecutive production cycles were described. The powder injection into liquid metal, the bentonite into mixers and pneumatic used moulding sand reclamation applications were presented, too. The industrial setups, technological descriptions and some loose materials parameters were given, too.

D. Homa

2010-10-01

75

Thermal analysis of foundry bentonites  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The results of investigations of 3 calcium bentonites, activated by sodium carbonate, applied in the foundry industry as bindingmaterial for moulding sands are presented in the paper. Investigations were performed by the thermal analysis (TG method. The occurrence of the dehydration and dehydroxylation process was confirmed in all tested bentonites.

S. ?ymankowska-Kumon

2011-10-01

76

Thermal analysis of foundry bentonites  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The results of investigations of 3 calcium bentonites, activated by sodium carbonate, applied in the foundry industry as bindingmaterial for moulding sands are presented in the paper. Investigations were performed by the thermal analysis (TG) method. The occurrence of the dehydration and dehydroxylation process was confirmed in all tested bentonites.

Z?ymankowska-kumon, S.; Holtzer, M.; Grabowski, G.

2011-01-01

77

Foundry Coating Technology: A Review  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The importance of foundry coating in improving the surface quality of castings cannot be over emphasized. The appli-cation of mould and core washes creates a high thermal integrity barrier between the metal and the mould resulting in the reduction of the thermal shock experienced by the sand system. These thermal shock leads to series of surface de-fects such as veining/finning, metal penetration, burn-on/in, scab, rat tail, erosion etc. The use of coatings reduces the tendency of occurrence of these defects. However, the understanding of the coating, its components, characteristics and mechanism of action is important. In this review, a detailed description of these topics and examples are provided where necessary. A potential area of research in foundry coating development, using sol-gel process is suggested. The application of sol-gel technology in the development of foundry coatings is a novel approach.

Nwaogu, Ugochukwu Chibuzoh; Tiedje, Niels Skat

2011-01-01

78

Silicate treatment of impure silica sands  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A process is provided for treating impure silica-containing sands to make them more suitable for foundry use. The sands are treated with aqueous alkali metal silicate solutions and the resulting mixture is heated before the sands are coated with a resin binder. Foundry cores and molds prepared with these treated sands show improved hot and cold tensile strengths

79

Sand  

Science.gov (United States)

This site provides an introduction to sand, a size fraction of what is commonly known as sediment (along with gravel, silt, and clay). An introductory section discusses the sedimentary aspects (grain size, rounding, and sorting), composition, and texture of sand. There is a virtual collection of sand specimens, sorted by location, region, or color. Each photo can be zoomed in or out and is accompanied by a brief description of the specimen. There is also a geographical index of specimens from the virtual collection which uses an interactive map to display them. An exercise is provided which uses specimens from the virtual collection to help students develop a connection between certain characteristics of sands and their environment of formation, information which can be applied to inferring the depositional environments of ancient sandstones. Other materials include a sand discovery kit, created to help teachers use sand in their classrooms, a 'Sands of the World' poster, and links to related websites. Some of these items must be purchased.

80

Dust exposure in Finnish foundries.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dust measurements were made in 51 iron, 9 steel, and 8 nonferrous foundries, at which 4,316 foundrymen were working. The sampling lasted at least two entire shifts or work days continuously during various operations in each foundry. The dust samples were collected at fixed sites or in the breathing zones of the workers. The mass concentration was determined by weighing and the respirable dust fraction was separated by liquid sedimentation. The free silica content was determined by X-ray diffraction. In the study a total of 3,188 samples were collected in the foundries and 6,505 determinations were made in the laboratory. The results indicated a definite difference in the dust exposure during various operations. The highest dust exposures were found during furnace, cupola, and pouring ladle repair. During cleaning work, sand mixing, and shake-out operations excessive silica dust concentrations were also measured. The lowest dust concentrations were measured during melting and pouring operations. Moderate dust concentrations were measured during coremaking and molding operations. The results obtained during the same operations of iron and steel foundries were similar. The distribution of the workers into various exposure categories, the content of respirable dust and quartz, the correlation between respirable dust and total dust, and the correlation between respirable silica and total dust concentrations are discussed. Observations concerning dust suppression and control methods are briefly considered. PMID:184524

Siltanen, E; Koponen, M; Kokko, A; Engström, B; Reponen, J

1976-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Foundry Coating Technology: A Review  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The importance of foundry coating in improving the surface quality of castings cannot be over emphasized. The appli-cation of mould and core washes creates a high thermal integrity barrier between the metal and the mould resulting in the reduction of the thermal shock experienced by the sand system. These thermal shock leads to series of surface de-fects such as veining/finning, metal penetration, burn-on/in, scab, rat tail, erosion etc. The use of coatings reduces the tendency of occurrence ...

Nwaogu, U. C.; Tiedje, N. S.

2011-01-01

82

Influence of foundry dust on moulding mixtures quality  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The objective of this paper was to observe the effect of the addition of the dust from the moulding plant on the quality parameters of the moulding mixtures and determine tolerable content in the moulding mixture. Three types of moulding mixtures were used in experiments: mixture prepared from new quartz sand and bentonite, mixture which is recycled in the experimental foundry and mixture came from the small foundry. To these moulding mixture was added the dust from moulding plant in the rang...

Pribulova?, A.; Futas?, P.; Rosova?, A.; Demeter, P.; Baricova?, D.

2013-01-01

83

Foundry Industry Training Committee  

Science.gov (United States)

The Foundry Industry Training Committee has encouraged the foundry industry in developing systematic manpower training and development programs at all levels. Features developed include competitions as a technique of standard setting, recommendations for technician training, and a widely used manpower information system. (MW)

Industrial Training Journal, 1974

1974-01-01

84

Bacterial bioassay evaluation of foundry residuals for use as construction materials  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The constructive reuse of foundry residuals represents a decidedly beneficial goal with economic and environmental benefits. Results of foundry residual leachate characterization to date strongly suggest that many iron foundries are discarding sands whose quality is fully amenable to their future use with embankment construction and related high-volume highway development activities. Potential end users, however, are reluctant to accept these residuals given concerns regarding unforeseen envi...

Bastian, Kenneth Chad

1996-01-01

85

Investigation into the origin of radioactivity in ceramic waste. Zircon sand in iron foundries; Onderzoek naar de radioactiviteit van keramisch afval. Zirkoonzand in de ijzergieterij  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In 2002 a truck loaded with used car scrap triggered a radiation monitoring gate detector at a scrapyard. The material under suspicion turned out to be some ceramic waste material. The ceramic waste was used for many years to raise roads or pave yards and premises in the surroundings of Almelo, Netherlands, as was the case with the used car dump where the metal scrap came from. The ceramic material contains zircon sand, which has elevated concentrations of naturally occuring radionuclides. Therefore, using this waste in a surface soil layer may cause radiological exposures to the public. From measurements at the used car dump dose rates were determined up to ten times the background. From further research it was determined that part of the ceramic waste has concentrations above exemption level. From these measurements it was also concluded that the ceramic material is retaining radon and its decay products. From some calculations a maximum effective annual dose was estimated of about 1 mSv. This dose is determined mainly by external radiation and is for long lasting exposure on some large factory grounds. On the other hand, children might be playing in smaller yards or premises. Ingestion might play some role in that case. For this exposure path an annual dose of 0.12 mSv was calculated. For adults this is not an important exposure path. Inhalation doesn't seem to play an important role neither for adults nor for children. [Dutch] In 2002 ging bij een schrootbedrijf het alarm af toen naast autoschroot enig radioactief keramisch materiaal door de detector werd gereden. Gedurende een groot aantal jaren is het keramische afval toegepast als verharding voor wegen en erven in de omgeving van Almelo, zo ook bij de autosloper. In het keramische materiaal is zirkoonzand verwerkt. Dit materiaal bevat van nature verhoogde concentraties van radionucliden. Het gebruik van het afval als verharding kan dan ook leiden tot een blootstelling van de persoon die zich daarop bevindt. Bij de autosloper zijn dosistempi gemeten tot tienmaal de natuurlijke achtergrond. Uit nader onderzoek van het keramische afval, is vastgesteld dat het zich deels boven de zogenaamde meldingsplichtige grens bevindt. Uit dit onderzoek is tevens naar voren gekomen dat radon en daaruit ontstane vervalproducten vrijwel niet uit het keramische afval vrijkomen. Uit enkele berekeningen is een maximale effectieve jaardosis geschat van ongeveer 1 mSv, voornamelijk door externe straling bij langdurige blootstelling op bijvoorbeeld een groot bedrijfsterrein. Op kleinere toegankelijke terreinen zoals erven kunnen ook kinderen worden blootgesteld. Dan speelt mogelijk ook ingestie een rol. Voor deze route is een effectieve jaardosis van 0,12 mSv berekend. Voor volwassenen speelt deze blootstellingsroute geen belangrijke rol. Inhalatie blijkt voor zowel volwassenen als kinderen een minder belangrijke rol te spelen.

Blaauboer, R.O

2003-07-01

86

UPGRADING FOUNDRY WASTEWATER TREATMENT  

Science.gov (United States)

The paper summarizes findings of a 10-week pilot plant study of gray iron foundry wastewater treatment. Treatment technologies studied included lime softening, lime/soda ash softening, polymer addition, flocculation/sedimentation, and dual media filtration. Results indicate that ...

87

Process management in foundries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents the nature of process management and the basic process analysis. A general model of process management in a foundry is showed. The essential activities of processing, systems and change management are described. There is also presented a problem of effectiveness, efficiency and processing improvement. The criteria, methods and techniques of process improvement are indicated. The importance of process approach to the improvement of foundry management system is underlined.

L. Wojtynek

2009-07-01

88

Energy conservation in foundry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In any foundry, the cost of fuel in the form of coal, oil or electrical power, is about 10 to 15% of the cost of the product. Saving of the order of 30 to 50% can be achieved in energy by reducing consumption of fuel and increasing efficiency. This has been illustrated by describing 4 examples in foundry industry. In each case, saving in terms of rupees is also indicated. (N.B.)

89

Influência do emprego de areia de fundição residual nas propriedades no estado fresco e endurecido de misturas cimentícias / Influence of foundry sand residues on the fresh and hardened properties of mortars produced with portland cement  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A areia de fundição residual (AFR) consiste em um resíduo arenoso proveniente dos moldes utilizados no processo de fundição de metais. O presente trabalho foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de avaliar a influência do uso da AFR nas propriedades concreto. Para tanto, utilizou-se cimento CPV-ARI RS, adit [...] ivo plastificante, AFR e areias fina, média natural e de britagem. As propriedades no estado fresco foram avaliadas através da determinação da consistência e teor de ar incorporado. No estado endurecido avaliou-se a resistência à compressão axial. Os resultados indicaram que o uso da AFR resulta no aumento do teor de ar incorporado, fissuração por reações expansivas e consequ?ente redução de resistência. Visando investigar a origem das tendências observadas, realizou-se um estudo complementar empregando AFR de diferentes composições. Todavia, independente da composição utilizada, os resultados indicaram tendência semelhante à observada anteriormente. Por fim, considerando os materiais empregados nesta pesquisa, conclui-se que a utilização da AFR em concreto é inadequada, pois prejudica não apenas a resistência mecânica, mas também a durabilidade do material. Abstract in english The foundry sand waste (FSW) derives from moulds used in the metallurgical industries. The present experimental study was developed to evaluate the influence of the use of FSW on concrete properties. The mixtures were produced with cement CPV-ARI-RS, water reducing admixture, FSW, natural and crushe [...] d aggregates. The properties on the fresh state were evaluated by means of flow table test and the determination of the incorporated air content. On the hardened state, compressive strength tests were performed. The initial results have shown that the use of FSW leads to an increase in the air content and cracking, caused by expansive reactions. As a result of that, a reduction in the compressive strength has been noticed. In order to define the origin of the presented trends, a complementary study was developed using FSW with different compositions. However, regardless the composition of the FSW, the obtained results presented trends which were similar to the ones previously observed. Finally, considering the materials herein used, the addition of FSW in concrete is considered inadequate since this leads to a decrease not only in the compressive strength, but also in the durability of the material.

W. R. L da, Silva; E., Tochetto; L. R., Prudêncio JR; A. L., Oliveira.

90

Influência do emprego de areia de fundição residual nas propriedades no estado fresco e endurecido de misturas cimentícias / Influence of foundry sand residues on the fresh and hardened properties of mortars produced with portland cement  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A areia de fundição residual (AFR) consiste em um resíduo arenoso proveniente dos moldes utilizados no processo de fundição de metais. O presente trabalho foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de avaliar a influência do uso da AFR nas propriedades concreto. Para tanto, utilizou-se cimento CPV-ARI RS, adit [...] ivo plastificante, AFR e areias fina, média natural e de britagem. As propriedades no estado fresco foram avaliadas através da determinação da consistência e teor de ar incorporado. No estado endurecido avaliou-se a resistência à compressão axial. Os resultados indicaram que o uso da AFR resulta no aumento do teor de ar incorporado, fissuração por reações expansivas e consequ?ente redução de resistência. Visando investigar a origem das tendências observadas, realizou-se um estudo complementar empregando AFR de diferentes composições. Todavia, independente da composição utilizada, os resultados indicaram tendência semelhante à observada anteriormente. Por fim, considerando os materiais empregados nesta pesquisa, conclui-se que a utilização da AFR em concreto é inadequada, pois prejudica não apenas a resistência mecânica, mas também a durabilidade do material. Abstract in english The foundry sand waste (FSW) derives from moulds used in the metallurgical industries. The present experimental study was developed to evaluate the influence of the use of FSW on concrete properties. The mixtures were produced with cement CPV-ARI-RS, water reducing admixture, FSW, natural and crushe [...] d aggregates. The properties on the fresh state were evaluated by means of flow table test and the determination of the incorporated air content. On the hardened state, compressive strength tests were performed. The initial results have shown that the use of FSW leads to an increase in the air content and cracking, caused by expansive reactions. As a result of that, a reduction in the compressive strength has been noticed. In order to define the origin of the presented trends, a complementary study was developed using FSW with different compositions. However, regardless the composition of the FSW, the obtained results presented trends which were similar to the ones previously observed. Finally, considering the materials herein used, the addition of FSW in concrete is considered inadequate since this leads to a decrease not only in the compressive strength, but also in the durability of the material.

W. R. L da, Silva; E., Tochetto; L. R., Prudêncio JR; A. L., Oliveira.

2011-10-01

91

National Metal Casting Research Institute final report. Volume 1, Sand reclamation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A mobile thermal foundry sand reclamation unit was designed and constructed. This unit consisted of thermal and mechanical sand reclamation equipment installed on the bed of a 50 foot low-boy trailer. It was transported to a number of Midwest foundries for on-site demonstration of the sand reclamation process. This allowed participating foundries to have their own refuse sand (10-100 tons) processed and then reused in production for evaluation. The purpose for building the unit was to demonstrate to foundries through ``hands on`` experience that refuse sands can be reclaimed and successfully reused particularly in regard to product quality. Most of the participating foundries indicated a high level of satisfaction with the reclaimed sand. Laboratory testing of samples of the used sand, before and after processing by the demonstration unit, verified the usability of the reclaimed sand. One of the foundries participating was a brass foundry, the sand from this foundry contained lead and is classified as a hazardous material. After reclamation the sand was no longer hazardous and could also be reused in the foundry.

Vondra, L.F.; Burningham, J.S. [University of Northern Iowa, Cedar Falls, IA (United States). Dept. of Industrial Technology

1995-08-01

92

Pneumatic reclamation devices applied in the conditions of Ostrowiec Foundry  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The scope of publication includes presentation of used sand reclamation system with the use of energy of compressed stream of air, whichshift reclaimed sand in pneumatic system. The solution, by incorporating into pneumatic installation an element which act as special disordered element causing controlled flow of two-phase flow to clean the surface layer of regenerated grains in a dry environment.The described reclamation equipment was installed and operated in the foundry "Ostrowiec".

Homa, D.; Gorazda, Z.; Myszor, A.

2010-01-01

93

Pneumatic reclamation devices applied in the conditions of Ostrowiec Foundry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The scope of publication includes presentation of used sand reclamation system with the use of energy of compressed stream of air, whichshift reclaimed sand in pneumatic system. The solution, by incorporating into pneumatic installation an element which act as special disordered element causing controlled flow of two-phase flow to clean the surface layer of regenerated grains in a dry environment.The described reclamation equipment was installed and operated in the foundry "Ostrowiec".

D. Homa

2010-04-01

94

JPL Innovation Foundry  

Science.gov (United States)

Space science missions are increasingly challenged today: in ambition, by increasingly sophisticated hypotheses tested; in development, by the increasing complexity of advanced technologies; in budgeting, by the decline of flagship-class mission opportunities; in management, by expectations for breakthrough science despite a risk-averse programmatic climate; and in planning, by increasing competition for scarce resources. How are the space-science missions of tomorrow being formulated? The paper describes the JPL Innovation Foundry, created in 2011, to respond to this evolving context. The Foundry integrates methods, tools, and experts that span the mission concept lifecycle. Grounded in JPL's heritage of missions, flight instruments, mission proposals, and concept innovation, the Foundry seeks to provide continuity of support and cost-effective, on-call access to the right domain experts at the right time, as science definition teams and Principal Investigators mature mission ideas from "cocktail napkin" to PDR. The Foundry blends JPL capabilities in proposal development and concurrent engineering, including Team X, with new approaches for open-ended concept exploration in earlier, cost-constrained phases, and with ongoing research and technology projects. It applies complexity and cost models, project-formulation lessons learned, and strategy analyses appropriate to each level of concept maturity. The Foundry is organizationally integrated with JPL formulation program offices; staffed by JPL's line organizations for engineering, science, and costing; and overseen by senior Laboratory leaders to assure experienced coordination and review. Incubation of each concept is tailored depending on its maturity and proposal history, and its highest-leverage modeling and analysis needs.

Sherwood, Brent; McCleese, Daniel

2013-08-01

95

Possibilities of utilizing 3DP technology for foundry mould making  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Possibilities of application of three-dimensional printing (3DP) technology for making casting prototypes are discussed. Three-dimensional printing enables making of foundry moulds for elements of complex shapes. The mould presented in the paper was printed with the use of Z510 Spectrum unit in the Car Technology Sp. z o.o. (Ltd. Co.) in Kraków. The basic material for printing foundry moulds is the ZCast 501 powder. This powder is a mixture of traditional molding sand, gypsum and supplementa...

Budzik, G.

2007-01-01

96

Influence of foundry dust on moulding mixtures quality  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this paper was to observe the effect of the addition of the dust from the moulding plant on the quality parameters of the moulding mixtures and determine tolerable content in the moulding mixture. Three types of moulding mixtures were used in experiments: mixture prepared from new quartz sand and bentonite, mixture which is recycled in the experimental foundry and mixture came from the small foundry. To these moulding mixture was added the dust from moulding plant in the range 0 – 10%. Influence of dust addition on the compression strength, splitting strength and permeability was observed in all three kinds of mixtures.

A. Pribulová

2013-01-01

97

Characterization and extraction of gold contained in foundry industrial wastes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Gold was characterized and leached in foundry sands. These wastes are product among others of the automotive industry where they are used as molds material which are contaminated by diverse metals during the foundry. To fulfil the leaching process four coupled thermostat columns were used. To characterize the solid it was used the X-ray diffraction technique. For the qualitative analysis it was used the Activation analysis technique. Finally, for the study of liquors was used the Plasma diffraction spectroscopy (Icp-As) technique. The obtained results show that the process which was used the thermostat columns was more efficient, than the methods traditionally recommended. (Author)

98

Innovative developments in sand reclamation technologies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Proper sand management and efficient sand reclamation system are two main factors influencing economical and ecological side of modern foundry plant. It is well known fact that the production of 1 metric ton of casting from ferrous alloys generates circa 1 metric ton of waste [1], which due to containing certain amounts of harmful and dangerous compounds should undergo a reclamation – at least of the main component, which means a silica sand grains. The paper present problems of scientific and development research concerning the innovative reclamation technologies of used foundry sands such as: mechanical-cryogenic reclamation and innovative thermal reclamation.

R. Dañko

2011-04-01

99

Influence green sand system by core sand additions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Today, about two thirds of iron alloys casting (especially for graphitizing alloys of iron are produced into green sand systems with usually organically bonded cores. Separation of core sands from the green sand mixture is very difficult, after pouring. The core sand concentration increase due to circulation of green sand mixture in a closed circulation system. Furthermore in some foundries, core sands have been adding to green sand systems as a replacement for new sands. The goal of this contribution is: “How the green sand systems are influenced by core sands?”This effect is considered by determination of selected technological properties and degree of green sand system re-bonding. From the studies, which have been published yet, there is not consistent opinion on influence of core sand dilution on green sand system properties. In order to simulation of the effect of core sands on the technological properties of green sands, there were applied the most common used technologies of cores production, which are based on bonding with phenolic resin. Core sand concentration added to green sand system, was up to 50 %. Influence of core sand dilution on basic properties of green sand systems was determined by evaluation of basic industrial properties: moisture, green compression strength and splitting strength, wet tensile strength, mixture stability against staling and physical-chemistry properties (pH, conductivity, and loss of ignition. Ratio of active betonite by Methylene blue test was also determined.

N. Špirutová

2012-01-01

100

Specificity of SPC Procedures Application in Foundry in Aspect of Data Acquisition and Data Exploration  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper presents an analysis of SPC (Statistical Process Control procedures usability in foundry engineering. The authors pay particular attention to the processes complexity and necessity of correct preparation of data acquisition procedures. Integration of SPC systems with existing IT solutions in area of aiding and assistance during the manufacturing process is important. For each particular foundry, methodology of selective SPC application needs to prepare for supervision and control of stability of manufacturing conditions, regarding specificity of data in particular “branches” of foundry production (Sands, Pouring, Metallurgy, Quality.

Z. Ignaszak

2012-12-01

 
 
 
 
101

UK silica sand resources for fracking  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

UK silica sand resources for fracking Clive Mitchell, Industrial Minerals Specialist, British Geological Survey, Keyworth, Nottingham, NG12 5GG Email: cjmi@bgs.ac.uk Silica sand is high purity quartz sand that is mainly used for glass production, as foundry sand, in horticulture, leisure and other industrial uses. One specialist use is as a ‘proppant’ to enhance oil and gas recovery. This presentation will focus on this application, particularly for shale gas recovery where it i...

Mitchell, Clive

2013-01-01

102

Investigating the reclamability of moulding sand with new, ecological inorganic binders  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The article presents the results of investigations, which make a fragment of the broad-scale studies carried out as a part of the statutory activity on optimising the foundry sand technology using new, modified, inorganic binders.The results of investigations regarding the effect of multiple reclamation on the technological properties of foundry sands with inorganic binders were presented in a concise manner. The reclaim sand were introduced to moulding sands prepared with the new, modified, ...

Izdebska-szanda, I.; Szolc, M.; Smoluchowska, E.

2010-01-01

103

Effect of Used Foundry Sandand Pozzocrete Partial Replacement with Fine Aggregate and Cement in Concrete  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

To produce low cost concrete by blending various ratios of fine aggregate and cement with used foundry sand and Pozzocrete to reduce disposal and pollution problems due to used foundry sand and Pozzocrete.Pozzocrete P60 is a processed quality assured fly ash, investigated for its use as a partial replacement for cement in concrete (1:1.48:3.21). The utilization of Pozzocrete P60 as cement replacement material in concrete or as additive in cement introduces many benefits from economical, techn...

Bhimani, Dushyant R.; Prof. Jayeshkumar Pitroda,; Bhavsar, Prof Jaydev J.

2013-01-01

104

Technologies for decreasing the tap temperature to save energy in steel foundries  

Science.gov (United States)

Steel foundries are one of the most energy intensive industries. The increasing concerns over volatile energy cost and carbon dioxide emission have pushed foundries to improve efficiency and hence decrease electrical energy consumption. Statistical analysis of industrial survey data was combined with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling to investigate the best industrial practices and opportunities to improve energy efficiency. Reducing tap temperature was identified as one of the important ways of reducing energy consumption. Steel foundries typically tap at 1650-1800°C (3000-3300°F) which is 100-250°C (150-450°F) higher than the pouring temperature. The steel temperature is elevated to compensate for the temperature loss associated with tapping, holding and transporting the liquid steel from the furnace to the pouring floor. Based on experimental investigations and CFD modeling of heat losses during holding in the ladle for different foundry practices, a spreadsheet calculator has been developed to calculate the optimum tap temperature for the specific foundry practices which will eliminate unnecessary superheating. The calculated results were compared and validated with industrial measurements. Improving the lining refractory is one significant way of reducing heat losses during holding of the steel in ladle. Silica sand linings are being used in steel foundries as an inexpensive and convenient material for short holding times and small volumes. The possibilities of improvements of silica sand linings by the addition of lower density cenospheres (hollow spheres), a byproduct of coal fired power plants, was studied through property measurements and laboratory trials.

Biswas, Siddhartha

105

JPL Innovation Foundry  

Science.gov (United States)

NASA supports the community of mission principal investigators by helping them ideate, mature, and propose concepts for new missions. As NASA's Federally Funded Research and Development Center (FFRDC), JPL is a primary resource for providing this service. The environmental context for the formulation lifecycle evolves continuously. Contemporary trends include: more competitors; more-complex mission ideas; scarcer formulation resources; and higher standards for technical evaluation. Derived requirements for formulation support include: stable, clear, reliable methods tailored for each stage of the formulation lifecycle; on-demand access to standout technical and programmatic subject-matter experts; optimized, outfitted facilities; smart access to learning embodied in a vast oeuvre of prior formulation work; hands-on method coaching. JPL has retooled its provision of integrated formulation lifecycle support to PIs, teams, and program offices in response to this need. This mission formulation enterprise is the JPL Innovation Foundry.

Sherwood, Brent; McCleese, Daniel J.

2012-01-01

106

Semiconductor foundry, lithography, and partners  

Science.gov (United States)

The semiconductor foundry took off in 1990 with an annual capacity of less than 0.1M 8-inch-equivalent wafers at the 2-mm node. In 2000, the annual capacity rose to more than 10M. Initially, the technology practiced at foundries was 1 to 2 generations behind that at integrated device manufacturers (IDMs). Presently, the progress in 0.13-mm manufacturing goes hand-in-hand with any of the IDMs. There is a two-order of magnitude rise in output and the progress of technology development outpaces IDMs. What are the reasons of the success? Is it possible to sustain the pace? This paper shows the quick rise of foundries in capacity, sales, and market share. It discusses the their uniqueness which gives rise to advantages in conjunction with challenges. It also shows the role foundries take with their customer partners and supplier partners, their mutual dependencies, as well as expectations. What role then does lithography play in the foundries? What are the lithographic challenges to sustain the pace of technology? The experience of technology development and transfer, at one of the major foundries, is used to illustrate the difficulties and progresses made. Looking into the future, as semiconductor manufacturing will become even more expensive and capital investment more prohibitive, we will make an attempt to suggest possible solutions.

Lin, Burn J.

2002-07-01

107

Innovative developments in sand reclamation technologies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Proper sand management and efficient sand reclamation system are two main factors influencing economical and ecological side of modern foundry plant. It is well known fact that the production of 1 metric ton of casting from ferrous alloys generates circa 1 metric ton of waste [1], which due to containing certain amounts of harmful and dangerous compounds should undergo a reclamation – at least of the main component, which means a silica sand grains. The paper present problems of scientific ...

Dan?ko, R.

2011-01-01

108

Application of time-series analysis in foundry production  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Characterization of the time-series analysis is presented, as a data mining tool which facilitates better understanding nature of manufacturing process and permits forecasting of future values of the process parameters or production results on the basis of the past data, recorded in regular intervals. The main methods and problems of the time-series analysis are presented, related to the trend function, evaluation of seasonality and significance of the information contents in the residual values. The authors’ research results, related to exemplary production data collected in a foundry with Disamatic molding line (temperature of the molding sand, are presented. It is concluded that a properly performed analysis of time-series can be a useful tool for analysis and predictions of foundry production process.

J. Koz?owski

2009-07-01

109

The radiological aspects of zircon sand use  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Zircon sand containing radioactivity is being used in the zirconium extraction process, metal casting, and in the ceramic and refractory industries. The sand is being widely distributed as weight in ordinary tape dispensers. Use of the sand by foundries and the zirconium industry has resulted in the accumulation of large volumes of low-level radioactive waste. Radium-226 concentration in typical zircon sand was measured as 90 +- 3 pCi/g. Radon emanation from zircon sand was estimated as 2 pCi/m2 sec. (author)

110

77 FR 32998 - Foundry Coke From China  

Science.gov (United States)

...731-TA-891 (Second Review)] Foundry Coke From China Determination...the antidumping duty order on foundry coke from China would be likely...Commission's Rules of Practice and Procedure (19 CFR 207.2(f...4326 (May 2012), entitled Foundry Coke from China:...

2012-06-04

111

Health and safety at work in foundry companies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The article presents the identification and analysis of threats in the environment of the foundry at individual stages of the casts manufacturing process. A generalized model of the foundry was created in the system presentation including harmful and dangerous factors in the foundry technical workplace. This model can refer to an iron foundry and cast steel and small non-ferrous foundries, to modern foundries, with automatic moulding lines and to chill and pressure foundries where machines ex...

Wojtynek, L.

2011-01-01

112

FUGITIVE EMISSIONS FROM IRON FOUNDRIES  

Science.gov (United States)

The report describes the assessment of fugitive emissions of air pollutants discharged from process operations in iron foundries, and the need for the development of control technology for the most critical sources. Data indicates that the most significant fugitive emissions cont...

113

Molecular Foundry, Berkeley, California (Revised)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This case study provides information on the Molecular Foundry, which incorporates Labs21 principles in its design and construction. The design includes many of the strategies researched at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory for energy efficient cleanroom and data centers. The result is an energy efficient high-performing sustainable laboratory.

Carlisle, N.

2008-03-01

114

Determination of electrical properties of materials used in microwaveheating of foundry moulds and cores  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The environment-friendly and cost efficient microwave heating of moulding and core sands opens possibilities to use plastics and wood for structures of foundry instrumentation, where transparency to microwaves is the main requirement. Presented are results of a preliminary research on determining possibilities to use selected materials in microwave field. From the viewpoint of specificity of this process, the basic parameter is ability to absorb or transmit microwave radiation. Determined were the following electrical properties: tangent of dielectric loss angle and permittivity of selected materials. The materials were classified according to their transparency to electromagnetic radiation in order to choose the ones suitable for tooling applied in foundry processes.

B. Opyd

2015-04-01

115

Possibilities of utilizing 3DP technology for foundry mould making  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Possibilities of application of three-dimensional printing (3DP technology for making casting prototypes are discussed. Three-dimensional printing enables making of foundry moulds for elements of complex shapes. The mould presented in the paper was printed with the use of Z510 Spectrum unit in the Car Technology Sp. z o.o. (Ltd. Co. in Kraków. The basic material for printing foundry moulds is the ZCast 501 powder. This powder is a mixture of traditional molding sand, gypsum and supplementary ingredients. The mould is made in ZCast technology, and it enables casting of zinc, magnesium and aluminum alloys at max. pouring temperature of 1100°C. The paper describes research on the possibility to utilize a standard ZP14 powder for building a rotor blade casting moulds. The research has showed that the ZP14 powder may serve for printing foundry moulds, which should then be subjected to thermo-chemical treatment. Application of the basic ZPrint system powder permits a reduction in mould manufacturing costs.

G. Budzik

2007-04-01

116

Web based foundry knowledge base  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The main assumptions and functions of proposed Foundry Knowledge Base (FKB are presented in this paper. FKB is a framework forinformation exchange of casting products and manufacturing methods. We use CMS (Content Management System to develope andmaintain our web-based system. The CastML – XML dialect developed by authors for description of casting products and processes – isused as a tool for information interchange between ours and outside systems, while SQL is used to store and edit knowledge rules and alsoto solve the basic selection problems in the rule-based module. Besides the standard functions (companies data, news, events, forums and media kit, our website contains a number of nonstandard functions; the intelligent search module based on expert system is the main advantage of our solution. FKB is to be a social portal which content will be developed by foundry community.

A. Stawowy

2009-01-01

117

Iron foundry Torgelow; Eisengiesserei Torgelow  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Equipped with the latest European machinery, the iron foundry Torgelow makes the largest castings for wind turbines in Europe. In the space of three and a half years the manager and co-owner Hermann-Josef Taterra and an Austrian investor turned an industrial ruin into a world market leader. In this period the foundry was extended in two stages for about 45 million Euro, giving it a capacity of around 4000 turbine sets (hub and base frame for 2.5 MW upwards). The main customers are manufacturers of wind turbines and gear boxes. In Torgelow hubs, stub axles, flanges and main frames, and gearbox housings for the multi-megawatt range are manufactured. (orig.)

Anon.

2007-07-01

118

Evaluation of Reclamability of Molding Sands with New Inorganic Binders  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

One of the purposes of the application of chemically modified inorganic binders is to improve knocking out properties and the related reclamability with previously used in foundry inorganic binder (water glass), which allowing the use of ecological binders for casting non- ferrous metals. Good knocking out properties of the sands is directly related to the waste sands reclamability, which is a necessary condition of effective waste management. Reclamation of moulding and core sands is a funda...

Izdebska-szanda, I.; Balin?ski, A.; Angrecki, M.

2012-01-01

119

Biopolimers – structure, properties and applicability in the foundry industry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A review of literature data concerning physicochemical properties and possibilities of practical utilisation of the most important natural biopolymers (proteins, celluloses, starch, chitozan are presented in the paper. Biopolymers being renewable natural polymers characterised by several required physicochemical properties (adhesivity, activity, no toxicity, biodegradability constitute more and more interesting processing raw material for various industrial utilisations including environment friendly binding agents for moulding sands. Protein and starch compositions are used as binding agents for moulding and core sands in the foundry industry. Preliminary tests – performed within own research - of modification and utilisation of biopolymers as binding agents for moulding sands are promising from many aspects: technological (adequate properties of moulding sands, ecological (no toxicity, biodegradability and economic (low price. Starch from the polysaccharide group seems to be especially interesting since it is abundant, easily obtainable, biodegradable and the cheapest polymer. At its actual low price and the possibility of using agricultural wastes in the production, problem of utilising starch in many industry branches can become significant, especially in Poland.

B. Grabowska

2008-04-01

120

Optimising network flow for cost- and value- efficient operation of the supplier-to-foundry system  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Skillful control of a network flow, which creates a real bridge between the supplier and user, is one of the most important conditions for cost-efficient operation of an enterprise, foundry shop included. This paper describes modern principles of the network optimising for better distribution of the moulding sand, using modern methods of operational research and commonly available Excel calculation sheet equipped with an optimising tool called Solver.

Smolin?ski, A.; Szymszal, J.; Mikuszewski, T.

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Health and safety at work in foundry companies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article presents the identification and analysis of threats in the environment of the foundry at individual stages of the casts manufacturing process. A generalized model of the foundry was created in the system presentation including harmful and dangerous factors in the foundry technical workplace. This model can refer to an iron foundry and cast steel and small non-ferrous foundries, to modern foundries, with automatic moulding lines and to chill and pressure foundries where machines execute the majority of essential operations.

L. Wojtynek

2011-07-01

122

The present and future status of Japanese foundry industry  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An introduction is given in detail about the current situation of Japanese foundry industry in 2006 from aspects such as the delivery structure of castings, scale and numbers of foundries, current profi t of foundry industry as well as the background of lower profi tability, etc. The development trend of Japanese foundry industry was also predicted, such as the transition of foundries from family business to modern company business, the improvement of rejection ratio and yield, application of...

Nakatani, Kanetake

2008-01-01

123

Foundry industry – current state and future development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The casting production is considered as one of the main factors influencing the development of world economy. The state of art and foresight of world’s casting production is discussed in the paper on the basis of the latest statistical data. The progress gained during the last few years in foundry engineering is shown as a way to further development of foundry technology. The last decade brought significant changes in the world map of the greatest casting producers. Globalization and transformation of economic systems is reflected by variations of foundry production in different countries, more over the globalization of economy is regarded not only as a chance but also as a menace for the European foundries.

M. Holtzer

2012-07-01

124

Restoration of an Argonne National Laboratory foundry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Environmental Management Operations Waste Management Department (WMD) at Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL-E) undertook the restoration of an unused foundry with the goal of restoring the area for general use. The foundry was used in the fabrication of reactor components for ANL's research and development programs; many of the items fabricated in the facility were radioactive, thereby contaminating the foundry equipment. The major challenges associated with the safe removal of the foundry equipment included the sheer size of the equipment, a limited overhead crane capability (4.5 tonnes), the minimization of radioactive and hazardous wastes, the cost-effective completion of the project, the hazardous and radioactive wastes present, and limited process knowledge (the facility was unused for man years)

125

Advanced technology nodes, a foundry perspective  

Science.gov (United States)

Leading edge foundries need to fulfill a wide range of customer needs and have to deliver state-of-the-art performance processes. Therefore, an innovative but flexible modular technology set up is essential. This paper will show after a brief introduction of foundry challenges in general Global Foundries path towards the 28nm technology. Here, two key elements like high k metal gate process and embedded stressors are discussed. The article is concluded with an outlook on future device scaling from a leading edge foundry's perspective. This look ahead includes recent transistor architecture and process technology trends. More specifically, some challenges of the 20nm technology are discussed. This node will push planar transistor technology to its physical limits. Due to this, subsequent nodes will require substantial innovations in process architecture and device concepts. Two potential device paths are foreseen and compared, i.e. FinFet and ET-SOI-UTBB devices.

Faul, Jürgen; Hoentschel, Jan; Wiatr, Maciej; Horstmann, Manfred

2012-11-01

126

Radiometric measurement techniques in metallurgy and foundry technology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The contributions contain informations concerning the present state and development of radiometric measurement techniques in metallurgy and foundry technology as well as their application to the solution of various problems. The development of isotope techniques is briefly described. Major applications of radiometric equipment in industrial measurement are presented together with the use of isotopes to monitor processes of industrial production. This is followed by a short description of numerous laboratory-scale applications. Another contribution deals with fundamental problems and methods of moisture measurement by neutrons. A complex moisture/density measurement device the practical applicability of which has been tested is described here. Possibilities for clay determination in used-up moulding materials are discussed in a further contribution. The clay content can be determined by real-time radiometric density measurement so that the necessary moisture or addition of fresh sand can be controlled. (orig.) With 20 figs., 9 tabs., 178 refs

127

Temperature influence on structural changes of foundry bentonites  

Science.gov (United States)

The results of investigations of three calcium bentonites, activated by sodium carbonate, applied in the foundry industry as binding material for moulding sands, subjected to the influence of high temperatures - are presented in the paper. Investigations were performed by the thermal analysis (TG) method, the infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) method and the modern Cu(II)-TET complex method (used for the determination of the montmorillonite content in bentonite samples). The occurrence of the dehydration process and two-stage dehydroxylation process was confirmed only for bentonite no. 2. This probably indicates that cis- and trans-isomers are present in the octahedric bentonite structure. Tests were performed at temperatures: 500, 550, 700, 900, 1000, 1100, 1200 °C.

Holtzer, Mariusz; Bobrowski, Artur; ?ymankowska-Kumon, Sylwia

2011-10-01

128

Wastes Characterisation from Foundry Activities on European Level  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This work presents The results of the eco toxicological characterisation of 22 defined wastes from steel foundry activities. The wastes have been selected from three processes, steel mill (smelting). sand casting and cleaning and finishing of steel products,with the common characteristics of represent an important industrial activity in the area and generated the wastes considered in this study. The eco toxicological characterisation obtained applying the Spanish regulations on hazardous waste is compared to the hazardous attributions considered by the European Union in order to characterise a waste as hazardous (non hazardous). The results allow to conclude that a acceptable concordance between both methodologies is reached and remark the need to split the broad generic types of wastes given by the Spanish regulation (Eco toxic / non eco toxic) into clearly identifiable specific types of waste

129

Evaluation of electromagnetic absorbing capacity of materials in foundry industry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the paper, a research on determining the standing wave ratio as a measure of electromagnetic absorbing capacity of moulding materials is presented. Preliminary tests performed using a microwave strip line showed that high-silica, chromite and magnesite moulding sands are characterised by low absorbing capacity of microwaves. It was demonstrated that microwave absorbing capacity is significantly affected by chemical compounds included in the examined substrates. It was found that use of a microwave strip line permits precise determining characteristic microwave absorbing capacities of various moulding materials and thus their suitability for microwave drying/hardening of moulds and cores or for other foundry processes. Such a microwave drier can be applied for identifying mass components and for determining e.g. base granularity by means of precisely determined reflection ratios |?| and positions of minimum signal values.

D. Nowak

2010-01-01

130

International negotiations in the foundry engineering  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of this paper is to introduce the essence of negotiations in general, which could find it’s application in foundry engineering. The paper is the result of long cooperation of the authors with foundry engineering and their participation in negotiations between the domestic and foreign companies. In this paper the essence and the rules of negotiations have been introduced. It presents also the skills and abilities of the negotiators. The cycle of negotiations and the following stages ...

Wojtynek, L.; Pietrowski, S.

2008-01-01

131

Foundry industry – current state and future development  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The casting production is considered as one of the main factors influencing the development of world economy. The state of art and foresight of world’s casting production is discussed in the paper on the basis of the latest statistical data. The progress gained during the last few years in foundry engineering is shown as a way to further development of foundry technology. The last decade brought significant changes in the world map of the greatest casting producers. Globalization and transf...

Holtzer, M.; Dan?ko, R.; Z?ymankowska-kumon, S.

2012-01-01

132

Towards Modeling Changeovers for flexible foundry manufacturing  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Costs involved in implementing manufacturing flexibility to meet customer demand are more important in the SMEs, especially that are labor intensive for example metalcasting companies located in a high cost country like Norway. Changeover is an important issue in foundries, and setup time of the dies is one of the vital parameters in the manufacturing process. This paper presents an analytical method for evaluating product changeover suitable for foundry manufacturing environment.

Rhythm Suren Wadhwa

2012-01-01

133

Towards Modeling Changeovers for flexible foundry manufacturing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Costs involved in implementing manufacturing flexibility to meet customer demand are more important in the SMEs, especially that are labor intensive for example metalcasting companies located in a high cost country like Norway. Changeover is an important issue in foundries, and setup time of the dies is one of the vital parameters in the manufacturing process. This paper presents an analytical method for evaluating product changeover suitable for foundry manufacturing environment.

Rhythm Suren Wadhwa

2012-07-01

134

Hybrid foundry patterns of bevel gears  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Possibilities of making hybrid foundry patterns of bevel gears for investment casting process are presented. Rapid prototyping of gears with complex tooth forms is possible with the use of modern methods. One of such methods is the stereo-lithography, where a pattern is obtained as a result of resin curing with laser beam. Patterns of that type are applicable in precision casting. Removing of stereo-lithographic pattern from foundry mould requires use of high temperatures. Resin burning would...

Budzik G.; Markowski T.; Sobolak M.

2007-01-01

135

Development tendencies of moulding and core sands  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Further development of the technology for making moulding and core sands will be strictly limited by tough requirements due to protection of the natural environment. These tendencies are becoming more and more tense, so that we will reach a point when even processes, that from technological point of view fulfill high requirements of the foundry industry, must be replaced by more ecologically-friendly solutions. Hence, technologies using synthetic resins as binding materials will be limited. T...

Dobosz, Stanislaw M.; Petr Jelinek; Katarzyna Major-Gabrys

2011-01-01

136

Strength properties of moulding sands with chosen biopolymer binders  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article presents the results of primary researches of the IV generation moulding sands, in which as the binders are used differentbiodegradable materials. The bending and the tensile strength of the moulding sands with polylactide, poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid,polycaprolactone, polyhydroxybutyrate and cellulose acetate as binders were measured. The researches show that the best strengthproperties have the moulding sands with polylactide as binder. It was proved that the tested moulding sands’ strength properties are goodenough for foundry practice.

St.M. Dobosz

2010-07-01

137

Optimizing the Moulding Properties of Recycled Ilaro Silica Sand  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Effect of varying binders (bentonite and dextrin and water on the properties of recycled foundry sand made from silica sand mined from Ilaro Silica sand deposit in Ogun State Nigeria and have been used in several cycles for production of cast iron was examined. The used sand was washed in hot water, dried and the sieved for grain distribution. Varying bentonite and dextrin contents were added together with water to portions of the silica sand and thoroughly mixed. The moulding sand properties (permeability, green strength, compatibility, shatter index and moisture content of the recycled foundry sand were determined. It was observed that the recycled Ilaro sand (after several cycle of usage has grain Fineness Index (GFI of 50 and that it can still be reused by minimum addition of binders. It was concluded that the optimum green strength and permeability for the recycled sand was achieved when 12g of bentonite, 8g of dextrin and 12cm3 of water were added to 200g of recycled sand.

Davies Oladayo FOLORUNSO

2011-12-01

138

Gas pressure in sand mould poured with cast iron  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The results of measurements of gas pressure in foundry moulds made from sands bonded with bentonite, sodium sil icate and furan resin were disclosed. It was found that the maximum pressure during pouring of mould with metal occurs in the case of bentonite sands, especially with the addition of coal dust. The effect of this pressure on the formation of surface defects in castings was examined.

A. Chojecki

2011-01-01

139

Mystery Sand  

Science.gov (United States)

In this activity, learners play with surprising sand that doesnât get wet! Learners explore how water behaves differently when it comes in contact with "magic sand" and regular sand. Learners learn about the hydrophobic properties of "magic sand." Use this activity to talk about how many materials behave differently at the nanoscale.

Sciencenter

2012-01-01

140

Thermal reclamation of the used moulding sands  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper presents the results of the research on the used moulding sands subjected to mechanical and thermal reclamation at different stages of the process in the foundry. The research on thermal treatment was carried out in an experimental thermal reclamation appliance. The effects of the process were evaluated with the use of a range of criteria, e.g. loss in roasting, sieve analysis, strength, the acidic reaction (pH. The performed investigations indicate that the thermal reclamation, of spent moulding sands knocked-out from the mould supplying reclaimed materials of the proper quality, can fully substitute the mechanical reclamation.

M. ?ucarz

2015-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Effects of advanced oxidation on green sand properties via iron casting into green sand molds.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of advanced oxidation (AO) processing on the properties of green sand were studied via pouring cast iron into green sand molds. Upon cooling, the green sand molds were autopsied at various distances from the metal-sand interface. Autopsy green sand samples collected from a mold that incorporated AO water were characterized and compared to controlled samples collected from a similar autopsied mold made with conventional tap water (TAP). It was found that the AO processing removed a coating of coal pyrolysis products from the clay surface that typically accumulated on the clay surface. As a result, the AO-conditioned green sand retained 10-15% more active clay as measured bythe standard ultrasonic methylene blue titration than did the TAP-conditioned green sand. The AO processing also nearly doubled the generation of activated carbon from the normalized amount of coal composition of the green sand during the casting process. The AO-enhanced activated carbon generation and the AO-incurred clay surface cleaning provided the AO-conditioned green sand with higher normalized pore volume, and thus higher normalized m-xylene adsorption capacity, i.e., relative to before-metal-pouring conditions. Furthermore, mathematical analysis indicated that the AO-conditioned green sand better retained its important properties after pouring than did the TAP-conditioned green sand. Effectively, this meant after metal pouring, the AO-conditioned sample offered about the same net properties as the TAP-conditioned sample, even though the AO-conditioned sample contained less clay and coal before metal pouring. These results conformed to the full-scale foundry empirical finding that when AO is used, foundries need less makeup clay and coal addition through each casting cycle, and they release less air emissions. PMID:16719117

Wang, Yujue; Cannon, Fred S; Voigt, Robert C; Komarneni, Sridhar; Furness, J C

2006-05-01

142

Moulding Sands with New InorganicBinders - Ecology Assessment in the Aspect of Work Environment  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The development of economy and industry introducing new technologies and materials often means the increased threat of occurrenceof factors harmful to humans and environment. Workers employed in foundries as mould pourers are the group of high professional risk.Foundry moulding sands when poured with liquid metal are a source of the emission of harmful, toxic and carcinogenic (benzene,PAHs) compounds.The paper presents the results of studies on the concentration of chemical compounds emitted ...

Szanda, I.; Z?mudzin?ska, M.; Faber, J.; Perszewska, K.

2012-01-01

143

Influence of dust addition from cast iron production on bentonite sand mixture properties  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In cast iron foundry operations like melting, casting, feetling, casts cleaning and grinding of a high amount of dusts are produced. Threekinds of dusts from different parts of cast iron foundry were analysed; chemical analyses, granulometric analyses and microscopic analyseswere carried out. The bentonite sand mixtures with different portion of dusts were prepared. Technological properties of prepared sandmixtures (compression strength, shearing strength and permeability were measured.

P. Genge?

2010-04-01

144

Preliminary investigation of the organic chemical emissions from green sand pyrolysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Condensable effluents from the thermal decomposition of a typical green sand foundry mold were investigated for the presence of emissions that could present health hazards in a foundry atmosphere. The benzene-soluble fraction extracted from the condensate was analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Over 200 compounds were observed on the chromatograms and benzo(a)pyrene, benzo(e)pyrene and perylene were identified. The concentrations of these materials were not determined, but their presence in foundry atmospheres presents an area of potential concern for health welfare.

Gwin, C.H.; Scott, W.D.; James, R.H.

1976-12-01

145

The human role in a progressive trend of foundry automation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An increasing competition in the foundry market focuses on more efficient methods of production. High quality and efficiency requirements, but also rising labor costs, will make the foundry production largely automated. Currently,molding on automatic lines accounts for 40 % of the foundry production in Poland. The article discusses organizational,technical and ergonomic implications of automation in production processes and presents the results of research carried out in this field in Polish foundries.

A. Misztal

2015-04-01

146

International negotiations in the foundry engineering  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to introduce the essence of negotiations in general, which could find it’s application in foundry engineering. The paper is the result of long cooperation of the authors with foundry engineering and their participation in negotiations between the domestic and foreign companies. In this paper the essence and the rules of negotiations have been introduced. It presents also the skills and abilities of the negotiators. The cycle of negotiations and the following stages of negotiations have been also described. The authors have presented the characteristics of negotiations led by the partners from different parts of the world with particular emphasize on Asian and European countries as with these partners the negotiations in Polish foundries are mainly led.

L. Wojtynek

2008-04-01

147

Incidence of chronic bronchitis in foundry workers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A report about examinations of foundries' workers who live in the destrict Schwarzenberg is given. Hereby the prevalence of chronic bronchitis should be analyzed in comparison to nonexposed controls. In result 21.1% among foundries' workers and 10.2% among controls had symptoms of chronic bronchitis. The differences are significant. As expected it could be shown, that smoking habits and age are further factors for development of chronic bronchitis. Both the observance of occupational limit-values for dusts and other harmful materials at the work place, which have effects on the respiration system, and the medical survey of workers with the use of special methods for examination of respiratory system are necessary. In workers with findings of respiratory system the factory doctors and pulmonary physicians have to decide together the ability to work in the foundry.

Hahn, R.; Beck, B.

1986-01-01

148

Moisture content measurement of foundry raw materials with NZK 201 neutron moisture gage  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The possibility was studied of applying densimeters and moisture gages of the NZK 201 type in a foundry. The experiments were conducted in the measurement of pure quartz sands and sands with binding agents, such as sodium silicate and bentonite, within the moisture range of 0.5 to 6% water, and in the measurement of a fuel mixture consisting of ground anthracite and ground coke with a moisture content of more than 5%. The dependence was determined of the recorded pulse rates on the water content in quartz sands without binding agents. The measurements were carried out in a volume of 507 dm3 over a period of 3 mins. The accuracy of moisture determination within 0 to 1.5% water was 0.2 to 0.3%, for a higher water content 0.1 to 0.2%. The results of measurements in volumes of 38 and 25 dm3 are given in form of calibration curves. In the minimal volume of 25 dm3 an accuracy of +-0.2% could be obtained. Similar measurements were carried out in a mixture of sand with sodium silicate. The calibration curves for pure quartz sand and sand with sodium silicate are similar. A calibration curve could not be obtained in measurements of quartz sand with bentonite and of the fuel mixture of ground anthracite and ground coke owing to the unreproducibility of results. (J.B.)

149

The effect of mechanical reclamation on the wear of silica sand grains  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The wear effect of silica sands is usually joined with many foundry processes during the fresh sand preparation. The significant effect of silica grains destruction by means of crushing, abrasion and attrition is caused by most of mechanical reclamation treatments, which leads to a higher sand consumption. The experimental reclaimer was equipped with two different peripheral rings, which enabled both impact and impact-free way of the reclamation treatment of silica grains. In each case the du...

?ucarz, M.

2008-01-01

150

Sand Stories  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this project is to use a sample of sand from a give are to tell its geologic history. Each student is given a 50 mL tube of sand labeled with the latitude and longitude of where it was found. They must then use this information along with analysis of the sand itself to tell the story of its formation.

Christensen, Hilary

151

The Molecular Foundry: a nanoscience user facility  

Science.gov (United States)

In this talk, I will describe current and planned activities at the Molecular Foundry, a new national nanoscience center at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory funded by the Department of Energy. The Foundry's mission is to provide scientists in academia, the national labs, and industry with resources--materials, instrumentation, and access to scientific staff--for synthesis, characterization, and assembly of nanostructures. User support and in-house research will be carried out by staff and postdoctoral fellows in six closely coupled facilities: the Inorganic, Organic, and Biological Nanostructures Facilities for synthesis, preparation, and assembly; the Nanofabrication Facility for processing and integration; the Imaging and Manipulation Facility; and the Theory Facility for understanding and modeling. The diversity across these facilities reflects the multidisciplinary nature of nanoscience and will provide a unique environment for discovery and development. After summarizing the Foundry program, I will present some examples of Foundry research during its initial ‘ramp-up’ phase. In particular, recent results from several on-going user and internal projects of the Theory Facility highlighting complex physical phenomena at the nanoscale will be discussed. These projects include investigation of fluorescence shifts in nanostructures, level alignment at the metal-organic interfaces, and electron transport through single molecules at finite bias.

Neaton, J. B.

2005-03-01

152

Increase of foundry properties of secondary silumins  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The work is devoted to increase of foundry properties of secondary silumins. The influence of a chip contents in charge, quantities of iron in an alloy and the modifier used for processing of liquid metal, on fluidity, linear shrinkage, crack resistance and a porosity number of silumin AlSi9Cu2 is considered.

O.V. Ljutova

2008-04-01

153

AIR TOXIC EMISSIONS FROM IRON FOUNDRIES  

Science.gov (United States)

The paper presents uncontrolled air toxic emission factors for different process operations in a gray iron foundry. he emission factors are based on the results of on-site test measurements available in the literature. he emission factors are presented for organic and inorganic c...

154

Increase of foundry properties of secondary silumins  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The work is devoted to increase of foundry properties of secondary silumins. The influence of a chip contents in charge, quantities of iron in an alloy and the modifier used for processing of liquid metal, on fluidity, linear shrinkage, crack resistance and a porosity number of silumin AlSi9Cu2 is considered.

Ljutova, O. V.; Volchok, I. P.

2008-01-01

155

Towards Measuring Investment in Flexible Foundry Manufacturing  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Manufacturing flexibility is an important instrument to ensure the success of manufacturing systems in the modern day competitive and uncertain environment. The major hindrance in integrating flexibility into decision making process is that it is difficult to measure and be compared to future indefinable manufacturing scenarios. This paper presents a methodical concept utilizing real options to evaluate flexible foundry manufacturing system.

Rhythm Suren Wadhwa

2012-01-01

156

Towards Measuring Investment in Flexible Foundry Manufacturing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Manufacturing flexibility is an important instrument to ensure the success of manufacturing systems in the modern day competitive and uncertain environment. The major hindrance in integrating flexibility into decision making process is that it is difficult to measure and be compared to future indefinable manufacturing scenarios. This paper presents a methodical concept utilizing real options to evaluate flexible foundry manufacturing system.

Rhythm Suren Wadhwa

2012-07-01

157

Discovering Sand and Sand Paintings  

Science.gov (United States)

This activity blends social studies and art with math and science. First, students will explore the visible characteristics of sand, and then they will make Navajo-style sand paintings with paper, glue, and colored sand. In the process, they will hone the

Eichinger, John

2009-05-30

158

Failure effects and resolution of modes: a novel FMEA treatise for finalizing mould designs in foundries  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english This paper proposes a novel strategy to finalize the mould design of a specific cast component through the failure analysis using case study data of a foundry. Traditional failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) is one of the effective tools for prioritizing the possible failure modes by calculating [...] the Risk priority Number (RPN) of a process/design. But in foundries, prioritizing the failures through the traditional FMEA produces unmatched results when RPN values are identical during preproduction trials. Hence it is very difficult to finalize moulds design of a specific cast component using traditional FMEA approach. This research paper addresses an alternate FMEA approach named FEAROM (Failure Effects And Resolution of Modes) to resolve the difficulty in finalizing the mould designs. Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) is used for validating the results obtained using FEAROM method. The results presented are based on an experimental study carried out for a specific component in a foundry using the sand casting method. It is found that proposed FEAROM model matches well in practice and produces quality castings.

T.A., Selvan; C., Jegadheesan; P., Ashoka Varthanan; K.M., Senthilkumar.

159

Study of exposure to radiation in a lost wax foundry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

f the areas, external irradiation is the dominant pathway, and in order to assess doses a Monte-Carlo simulation using MCNP-4C code has been performed. Photons fluxes so obtained are multiplied by the conversion factor of Flux to Kerma for air, by conversion factor to Effective Dose by kerma unit, and by the number of emitted photons per disintegration of parent nuclide. The application of this methodology to given mill has obtained the following results: Individual doses by area received by workers have a mean value of 5.9 ?Sv/y and a standard deviation of 7.7 ?Sv/y with an upper limit of 20.3 ?Sv/y and a lower limit of 0.2 ?Sv/y. The corresponding collective dose is 232.8 ?Sv/y and being the distribution of dose by task as follows: - Maintenance: Carrying the zircon sands from lorry to store (0.039 ?Sv/y), putting the zircon sand pallet on the shelf (0.012 ?Sv/y), while the pallet is on the shelf (2.8 ?Sv/y), taking the pallet off the shelf (0.022 ?Sv/y), taking the pallet to mould preparation area (0.39 ?Sv/y). The total collective dose making that task is 3.263 ?Sv/y. - Shell Making: shell preparation (58.2 ?Sv/y), shell cover (big trays) (76 ?Sv/y), shell cover (small trays) (9 ?Sv/y), exposures to moulds (5.6?Sv/y), loading the pieces on the wagon (2.1?Sv/y), taking the wagon to foundry area (7.4 ?Sv/y), taking the residues to waste area (2.2 ?Sv/y), putting the pieces into the take wax removing kiln (1.4 ?Sv/y). The total collective dose making that task is 161.91 ?Sv/y. - Mould preparation (35.2 ?Sv/y). - Shell removal: waste material removal (0.4 ?Sv/y), and moving the cart from foundry area (0.6 ?Sv/y). - Finishing (28.6 ?Sv/y). - Waste (0.00034 ?Sv). And here it can be seen that those workers working on the shell making are the most exposed ones, but the value of collective dose is less than 1 mSv/y. Comparing with the levels of the graphical representation of the classification system, it can conclude that the processes 'do not need to consider regulation'. (author)

160

Investigating the reclamability of moulding sand with new, ecological inorganic binders  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article presents the results of investigations, which make a fragment of the broad-scale studies carried out as a part of the statutory activity on optimising the foundry sand technology using new, modified, inorganic binders.The results of investigations regarding the effect of multiple reclamation on the technological properties of foundry sands with inorganic binders were presented in a concise manner. The reclaim sand were introduced to moulding sands prepared with the new, modified, inorganic binders bonded by the chemical reaction or by blowing with gaseous CO2.Attention was focussed on the effect of multiple reclamation on the residual strength and bench life properties of moulding sands prepared with the new types of inorganic binders.

I. Izdebska-Szanda

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Casting Ductile Iron in Layer Moulds Made from Ecological Sands  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article contains the results of tests performed under the target project in Hardtop Foundry Charsznica.The objective of the tests and studies was to develop a technology of making high-quality ductile iron castings, combined witheffective means of environmental protection. The studies presented in this article related to castings weighing from 1 to 300 kg made from ductile iron of grades 400-15 and 500-7, using two-layer moulds, where the facing and core sand was the sand with an alkaline organic binder, while backing sand was the sand with an inorganic geopolymer binder.A simplified method of sand reclamation was applied with possible reuse of the reclaim as an addition to the backing sand. The castiron spheroidising treatment and inoculation were selected taking into account the specific conditions of Hardtop Foundry. A pilot batch of castings was made, testing the gating and feeding systems and using exothermic sleeves on risers. The study confirmed the validity of the adopted concept of making ductile iron castings in layer moulds, while maintaining the content of sand with an organic binder at a level of maximum 15%.

M. R?czka

2012-09-01

162

Development tendencies of moulding and core sands  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Further development of the technology for making moulding and core sands will be strictly limited by tough requirements due to protection of the natural environment. These tendencies are becoming more and more tense, so that we will reach a point when even processes, that from technological point of view fulfill high requirements of the foundry industry, must be replaced by more ecologically-friendly solutions. Hence, technologies using synthetic resins as binding materials will be limited. This paper presents some predictable development tendencies of moulding and core sands. The increasing role of inorganic substances will be noticed, including silicate binders with significantly improved properties, such as improved knock-out property or higher reclamation strength. Other interesting solutions might also be moulding sands bonded by geo-polymers and phosphate binders or salts and also binders based on degradable biopolymers. These tendencies and the usefulness of these binders are put forward in this paper.

Stanislaw M. Dobosz1

2011-11-01

163

78 FR 21123 - Charlotte Pipe and Foundry; Analysis to Aid Public Comment  

Science.gov (United States)

...Charlotte Pipe and Foundry; Analysis to Aid Public...you have to follow the procedure explained in FTC Rule...from Charlotte Pipe and Foundry Company (hereinafter...premerger notification procedures and waiting periods...2004, and Richmond Foundry, Inc....

2013-04-09

164

Commercial negotiations in the foundry engineering  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article presents the process of commercial negotiations paying attention to the negotiation itself as well as to its basic elements. The specificity of the Polish foundries’ main negotiation partners from The European Union, who are the deliverers of diverse casting range, was specified. The most important cultural factors, which determine the process of negotiations conducted by the representatives of various cultural groups, were analysed. The understanding of cultural differences and adapting to them while negotiating are important factors which constitute the parties’ negotiation process. The meaning of price in the commercial negotiation process was described. The elements of sale process and the factors which influence the casts price were enumerated. What is more, the main methods of determining price were characterized. The essential problems connected with conducting the price negotiations in foundries were indicated.

L. Wojtynek

2008-10-01

165

Improving electrical efficiency in the foundry industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the current economic climate, it is essential for industry to minimize costs wherever possible. This is particularly important in the foundry industry that is being subjected to competitive pressure from offshore suppliers and by suppliers of competing materials. This paper reports that foundries must continuously strive to lower operating costs wherever possible. In many respects, the utility industry is no different. The situation facing utilities over the past several years has resulted in its transition from a producer and supplier of energy to that of a more customer oriented service company. In many cases, utilities have formed departments dedicated to providing assistance to their customers in the application of electricity to their business. At the same time, the need for energy conservation has become widespread in North America as energy demand increases, environmental concerns increase and the cost of providing new power plants become formidable

166

Monitoring of the supply system of electrical foundry equipment  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The article presents examples of recording the instantaneous values voltages, currents and power in electrical power systems foundry.Recorded measurements of the instantaneous values allow to make an analysis of transients at the time of turning on the foundry device.The author on the bases of the measurements results in power systems selected foundry mixers, describes examples of analysis andevaluation of transients when switching these devices.

Zio??kowski, E.

2010-01-01

167

How orthogonal are the OBO Foundry ontologies?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Ontologies in biomedicine facilitate information integration, data exchange, search and query of biomedical data, and other critical knowledge-intensive tasks. The OBO Foundry is a collaborative effort to establish a set of principles for ontology development with the eventual goal of creating a set of interoperable reference ontologies in the domain of biomedicine. One of the key requirements to achieve this goal is to ensure that ontology developers reus...

Ghazvinian Amir; Noy Natalya F; Musen Mark A

2011-01-01

168

A Formalised Description of Foundry Production Program  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Rational designing of foundry enterprises is based on a program allowing for both the quantitative and qualitative aspects of production. Studies carried out in this respect are mainly oriented at the task of establishing a classification system of castings and formalising their description. This article refers to the absolute classification and technological classification of castings existing so far; some principles of the formation of a model of the data on production program have been pre...

Wrona, R.; Stawowy, A.; Macio?, A.

2007-01-01

169

Ion traps fabricated in a CMOS foundry  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We demonstrate trapping in a surface-electrode ion trap fabricated in a 90-nm CMOS (complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor) foundry process utilizing the top metal layer of the process for the trap electrodes. The process includes doped active regions and metal interconnect layers, allowing for co-fabrication of standard CMOS circuitry as well as devices for optical control and measurement. With one of the interconnect layers defining a ground plane between the trap electro...

Mehta, K. K.; Eltony, A. M.; Bruzewicz, C. D.; Chuang, I. L.; Ram, R. J.; Sage, J. M.; Chiaverini, J.

2014-01-01

170

Maintenance system improvement in cast iron foundry  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The work presents the issue of technical equipment management in an iron foundry basing on the assumptions of the TPM system (Total Productive Maintenance). Exploitation analysis of automatic casting lines has been carried out and their work’s influence on the whole production system’s functioning has been researched. Within maintenance system improvement, implementation of autonomic service and planned lines’ review have been proposed in order to minimize the time of breakdown stoppage...

Kukla, S.

2011-01-01

171

Foundry Wastes Reuse and Recycling in Concrete Production  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The industrial process of a cast iron foundry plant located in the North of Italy was analyzed in order to determine the amount and kind of produced wastes. The main fractions are core and moulding sands, muds and powders from dust abatement plants, furnace and ladle slags, and exhaust lime, making about 750-800 t/d of residues for a production of about 800 t/d of globular and grey cast iron. All wastes were sampled and characterized by means of particle-size distribution and chemical analyses to evaluate the best reuse and recycling solutions. On the grounds of the gathered results, the residues may be divided in three categories according to the particle-size dimensions: below 0.1 mm, between 0.1 and 0.6 mm and above 0.6 mm. The fraction above 0.6 mm, mainly made of metallic iron, may be reused in the furnaces. The fraction between 0.1 mm and 0.6 mm may be reused in cores production, after a regeneration treatment. The fraction between 0.1 and 0.025 mm may be recycled as raw material for the concrete industry, and the below 0.025 mm fraction may be reused in green moulding operations. An economic evaluation of the proposed reuse and recycling solutions was performed.

Silvia Fiore

2007-01-01

172

Evaluation of occupational hazards in foundries.  

Science.gov (United States)

The working environment of foundries is hazardous and characterized by multiple simultaneous chemical, physical and mechanical hazards exposure, which would lead to injuries of foundry workers. The aim of the present work is to evaluate occupational hazards in four foundries, two in Alexandria: El Nasr and Ramsis, and two in Behira: Misr Spinning and Weaving and Misr Rayon companies. Levels of total and respirable dust, free silica % in total dust and lead concentration in total and respirable dust; NO2, SO2 and CO concentrations; noise and heat stress levels have been determined in the present work. Occupational injuries data were analyzed in a three years period from 1998 to 2000. The results of the present work revealed; 1. The levels of total dust and respirable dust exceeded the threshold limit values at knockout and cleaning operations at El Nasr Company. 2. Free silica percentage exceeded permissible levels in all operations except pouring in El Nasr Company. 3. CO levels in Misr Spinning and Weaving Company were higher than threshold levels. 4. Noise levels in knockout and cleaning operations at the four companies were exceeding the threshold limit values. 5. Heat stress levels in melting and pouring operations in El Nasr and in pouring operation in Ramsis Company were higher than the maximum permissible levels. 6. The age group 31-40 years has recorded the highest average incidence rate of injuries of age groups (Pfoundries. PMID:16900617

Zakaria, Adel M; Noweir, Kamal H; El-Maghrabi, Gamal

2005-01-01

173

Method of the Moulding Sands Binding Power Assessment in Two-Layer Moulds Systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available More and more foundry plants applying moulding sands with water-glass or its substitutes for obtaining the high-quality casting surface at the smallest costs, consider the possibility of implementing two-layer moulds, in which e.g. the facing sand is a sand with an organic binder (no-bake type and the backing sand is a sand with inorganic binder. Both kinds of sands must have the same chemical reaction. The most often applied system is the moulding sand on the water-glass or geopolymer bases - as the backing sand and the moulding sand from the group of self-hardening sands with a resol resin - as the facing sand. Investigations were performed for the system: moulding sand with inorganic GEOPOL binder or moulding sand with water glass (as a backing sand and moulding sand, no-bake type, with a resol resin originated from various producers: Rezolit AM, Estrofen, Avenol NB 700 (as a facing sand. The LUZ apparatus, produced by Multiserw Morek, was adapted for investigations. A special partition with cuts was mounted in the attachment for making test specimens for measuring the tensile strength. This partition allowed a simultaneous compaction of two kinds of moulding sands. After 24 hours of hardening the highest values were obtained for the system: Geopol binder - Avenol resin.

M. Holtzer

2014-07-01

174

Thermal aspects of temperature transformations in silica sand  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problems related with the choice of moulding sand composition considering its behaviour in contact with molten metal were discussed.The investigations of high-temperature phenomena enable moulding sand composition to be evaluated in terms of its applicability underthe specific conditions of a foundry shop. It is also possible to eliminate the casting defects related to moulding sand and its properties. The investigations were carried out on selected moulding sands from the family of the traditional carbon-free moulding mixtures. The effect of moulding sand composition and moisture content on the linear dilatation and stress formation caused by an allotropic quartz transformation was determined. The investigated phenomena were analysed on 3D diagrams plotted from the test data. A strong effect of the beta quartz - alpha quartz transformation at a temperature of about 6000C was stated.

J.St. Kowalski

2010-07-01

175

Properties of sodium silicate bonded sand hardened by microwave heating  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The sodium silicate bonded sand hardened by microwave heating has many advantages, such as low sodium silicate adding quantity, fast hardening speed, high room temperature strength, good collapsibility and certain surface stability. However, it has big moisture absorbability in the air, which would lead to the compression strength and the surface stability of the sand molds being sharply reduced. In this study, the moisture absorbability of the sodium silicate bonded sand hardened by microwave heating in ifferent humidity conditions and the effect factors were investigated. Meanwhile, the reasons for the big moisture absorbability of the sand were analyzed. Some measures to overcome the problems of high moisture absorbability, bad surface stability and sharply reducing strength in the air were discussed. The results of this study establish the foundation of green and clean foundry technology based on the microwave heating hardening sodium silicate sand process.

Fan Zitian

2009-08-01

176

Characterization of modified 9 Cr-1 Mo steel sand castings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Experience with the sand casting of modified 9 Cr-1 Mo steel at several foundries is presented. The castings included simple blocks, elbows, valve bodies, and a steam chest. Castings were characterized by tensile and Charpy impact tests, for the effects of thermal aging on Charpy impact properties and hardness, and by creep, fatigue, and microstructure. Properties of the castings were compared with those observed for wrought material. In general, mechanical properties of castings were slightly lower than those of the wrought material

177

The effect of mechanical reclamation on the wear of silica sand grains  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The wear effect of silica sands is usually joined with many foundry processes during the fresh sand preparation. The significant effect of silica grains destruction by means of crushing, abrasion and attrition is caused by most of mechanical reclamation treatments, which leads to a higher sand consumption. The experimental reclaimer was equipped with two different peripheral rings, which enabled both impact and impact-free way of the reclamation treatment of silica grains. In each case the duration of treatment and the rotational speed as well as the number of reclamation cycles were changed and effects were checked by multiple sieve analyses of the sand.

?ucarz, M.

2008-01-01

178

Gas evolution rate from heated moulding sands bonded with organic binders  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study is continuation of research on gas evolution rate from heated moulding sands used in the manufacture of foundry moulds. Thefirst stage of the study described in [1] included bentonite-bonded sands. At the second stage, sands bonded with organic binders weretested. The composition of gases, evolved at a given temperature using mould heating system that simulates the process of mould pouringwith molten metal, was determined. Metal was not used in these studies to prevent its reaction with gases formed as a result of moulding sand heating, since this effect would significantly impede the gas identification or even make it totally impossible.

A. Siewiorek

2011-01-01

179

Photonic Device Layout Within the Foundry CMOS Design Environment  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A design methodology to layout photonic devices within standard electronic complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) foundry data preparation flows is described. This platform has enabled the fabrication of designs in three foundry scaled-CMOS processes from two semiconductor manufacturers.

Orcutt, Jason Scott; Ram, Rajeev J.

2009-01-01

180

Mutagenic material in air particles in a steel foundry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recently published epidemiological reports indicate lung cancer mortality amongst foundry workers at DOFASCO, Ltd., was higher than found elsewhere in the plant or control populations. Presented are preliminary work on mutagen screening efforts and studies on the use of various sampling devices and on optimization of the assays, followed by data which show a diverse range of mutagenic compounds present in foundry air particulates

 
 
 
 
181

GRAY IRON FOUNDRY INDUSTRY PARTICULATE EMISSIONS: SOURCE CATEGORY REPORT  

Science.gov (United States)

The report gives results of a study to develop particulate emission factors based on cutoff size for inhalable particles for the gray iron foundry industry. After a review of available information characterizing particulate emissions from gray iron foundries, the data were summar...

182

Foundry. Trade and Industrial Education Trade Preparatory Training Guide.  

Science.gov (United States)

One of a series of curriculum guides prepared for the metals occupations cluster of the construction/fabrication occupational group, this guide identifies the essentials of the foundry trade as recommended by the successful foundry operator. An instructional program based upon the implementation of the guide is expected to prepare a student to…

Nebraska State Dept. of Education, Lincoln. Div. of Vocational Education.

183

Evaluation by PIXE external beam-of the leaching efficiency for a thermo stated column for the sand treatment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this paper was to measure the leaching efficiency for a thermo stated column designed to extract metals in muds originated by foundry process. The results obtained were useful to contemplate different alternatives helping to solve the problem of stocking enormous volumes of polluted sand produced by industries. Samples of residual sands and muds (treated sands) coming from an engine factory and from a thermo stated column respectively, were irradiated using an external beam of 3.55 MeV energy protons. From the quantitative analysis PIXE (Proton Induced X-ray Emission), it was possible to establish the level of pollution in sands due to the foundry processes and to evaluate the leaching efficiency of the output liquid phase from the thermo stated column. For polluted sands, certain cases were observed for which the efficiency was not enough to decrease the level of pollution in, e.g., Cu, Zn, Br and Pb. (Author)

184

Evaluation by PIXE external beam of the leaching efficiency for a thermo stated column for the sand treatment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this paper was to measure the leaching efficiency for a thermo stated column designed to extract metals in muds originated by foundry processes. The results obtained were useful to contemplate different alternatives helping to solve the problem of stocking enormous volumes of polluted sand produced by industries. Samples of residual sands and muds (treated sands) coming from an engine factory and from a thermo stated column respectively, were irradiated using an external beam of 3.55 MeV energy protons. From the quantitative analysis PIXE (Proton Induced X-ray Emission), it was possible to establish the level of pollution in sands due to the foundry processes and to evaluate the leaching efficiency of the output liquid phase from the thermo stated column. For polluted sands, certain cases were observed for which the efficiency was not enough to decrease the level of pollution in e.g., Cu, Zn, Br y Pb. (Author)

185

CO-OP DOE foundry process results  

Science.gov (United States)

The DARPA-funded Consortium for Optical and Optoelectronic Technologies for Computing (CO-OP) recently completed the first DOE Foundry run delivering ten samples to each of nineteen users, each with a unique design. The binary optics process was used to provide a maximum of eight phase levels at a design wavelength of 850 nm. Averaged over all users and all samples, an etch depth error of one percent and alignment accuracy within 0.25 micron were achieved. This paper summarizes the details of the process results.

Werner, Thomas R.; Cox, J. Allen; Gieske, J.; Hewitt, K.; Raj, Kannan; Athale, Ravindra A.

1997-05-01

186

Casting Ductile Iron in Layer Moulds Made from Ecological Sands  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The article contains the results of tests performed under the target project in Hardtop Foundry Charsznica.The objective of the tests and studies was to develop a technology of making high-quality ductile iron castings, combined witheffective means of environmental protection. The studies presented in this article related to castings weighing from 1 to 300 kg made from ductile iron of grades 400-15 and 500-7, using two-layer moulds, where the facing and core sand was the sand with an alkaline...

Ra?czka, M.; Gandurski, K.; Isendorf, B.

2012-01-01

187

Small Scale Foundries in Ghana: The challenges  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Small Scale Foundries (SSFs have been in existence for several years in Ghana. The industry has created several jobs for the people of Ghana and has minimized the burden on government to find ways of disposing scrap metals generated within the country. While scrap metals are still being exported, the quantity exported has decreased as a result of recycling by foundrymen in producing various parts. The government of Ghana has not paid special attention to this industry. Nevertheless, individuals and private investors are heavily involved in producing several thousands of tonnes of castings annually generating revenue for the government through taxation as well as helping with metal waste disposal. Metal cast products are sold both locally and internationally to neighbouring countries. The industry is however faced with numerous challenges. These include quality issues due to lack of technical know-how, access to funding from both government and private financial institutions and foundry waste management. To promote this industry, government and private financial institutions must be encouraged to come on board. Policies must be established and proper training programme developed to improve and promote this technology. This could go a long way in reducing the high unemployment rate in Ghana.

Emmanuel GIKUNOO

2011-12-01

188

Space Technology for the Iron Foundry  

Science.gov (United States)

Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) initiated development of a plasma melter intended to solve a major problem in the U.S. foundry industry. EPRI is a non-profit organization that manages research and development for some 600 electric utility member companies. For the plasma melter program, EPRI enlisted as co-sponsors Westinghouse Electric's Environmental Systems and Services Division, General Motors Corporation, and Modern Equipment Company, supplier of equipment and services to the foundry industry. General Motor's plasma melter, first in the U.S., is an advanced technology system designed to improve the efficiency of coke-burning cupolas that melt iron to produce automotive castings. The key elements are six Westinghouse plasma torches. Electrically-powered plasma torch creates an ionized gas that superheats air entering the cupola to 10,000 degrees Fahrenheit. That great heat, three times higher than that attainable by oil or natural gas systems, is the key to making iron cheaper, cleaner, and faster. System offers an environmental bonus in reduced cupola emissions. Plasma torches increase GM's electric bill at Defiance, but that cost is more than compensated by the savings in charge material. The EPRI-sponsored Center for Materials Production (CMP) is evaluating the potential of plasma cupola technology.

1990-01-01

189

In vitro characterization of DNA adducts formed by foundry air particulate matter.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study is part of an ongoing investigation of biomarkers in iron foundry workers exposed to polycyclic aromatic compounds. Foundry workers with the highest exposures had elevated levels of DNA adducts in their white blood cells in previous studies. The purpose of this study was to characterize the nature of DNA reactive chemicals in foundry air samples through incubating the foundry filter extract with DNA and activation enzymes. Calf thymus DNA was incubated with foundry filter extract a...

Savela, K.; Kohan, M. J.; Walsh, D.; Perera, F. P.; Hemminki, K.

1996-01-01

190

Sand Babies  

Science.gov (United States)

In this math lesson, learners explore and investigate measurement using standard and non-standard units. First, learners round their birth weight to the nearest pound and construct a bar graph displaying the weights of the entire group. Next, learners measure and place enough sand into a plastic bag to equal their birth weight. With construction paper, crayons and markers, they draw a head, arms, and legs and turn the bags into sand babies. At centers, learners also investigate other types of measurements using non-standard plastic links to measure parts of their body and square tiles to measure the area of a footprint.

Pbs

2012-01-01

191

Study of exposure to radiation in a lost wax foundry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Lost wax casting is an ancient method for making metal pieces. At the beginning of the process, the required metal piece is made in wax. After that, the wax model is covered with a silicaceous shell. When the silicaceous shell is finished, the wax is melted and replaced by liquid metal. As soon as the metal is cool the silicaceous shell is broken away. Finally a finishing process is made, and the piece is ready for utilization. The silicaceous shell is prepared with zircon sands containing varying concentrations of natural radionuclides: 238U, 232Th and 235U together with their progenies. For that reason it is very convenient to assess the dose to workers, considering the tasks they perform and the exposure time during these activities over a year. The first part of the study focuses on identifying the situations and areas where workers are exposed to radiation. The exposure pathways are: inhalation of dust, ingestion of dust, inhalation of radon, skin contamination and external irradiation. In a plant where this process is implemented the areas where workers are exposed are: the store, the shell building area, the foundry area, the shell or mold breaking area, and the waste area, including the areas close to the store. In these areas, workers are exposed while they work at their different tasks. The second part of the study deals with dose assessment. In most of the areas, external irradiation is the dominant pathway, and in order to assess doses a Monte-Carlo simulation using MCNP-4C code has been performed. The photon fluxes thus obtained are multiplied by the conversion factor of flux to kerma for air, by conversion factor to Effective Dose by kerma unit, and by the number of emitted photons per disintegration of parent nuclide. The application of this methodology to a given mill has produced the following results: Individual doses received by workers by area have a mean value of 5.9 ?Sv/y and a standard deviation of 7.7 ?Sv/y with an upper limit of 20.3 ?Sv/y and a lower limit of 0.2 ?Sv/y. The corresponding collective dose is 232.8 ?Sv/y and the distribution of dose by task being as follows: 1) Maintenance: carrying the zircon sands from lorry to store (0.039 ?Sv/y), placing the zircon sand pallet on the shelf (0.012 ?Sv/y), exposure while the pallet is on the shelf (2.8 ?Sv/y), taking the pallet off the shelf (0.022 ?Sv/y), taking the pallet to the mold preparation area (0.39 ?Sv/y). The total collective dose associated to this task is 3.263 ?Sv/y 2) Shell Making: shell preparation (58.2 ?Sv/y), shell cover (big trays) (76 ?Sv/y), shell cover (small trays) (9 ?Sv/y), exposures to molds (5.6?Sv/y), loading the pieces on the wagon (2.1?Sv/y), taking the wagon to the foundry area (7.4 ?Sv/y), taking the residues to the waste area (2.2 ?Sv/y), putting the pieces into the wax removing kiln (1.4 ?Sv/y). The total collective dose of this task is 161.91 ?Sv/y 3) Mold preparation (35.2 ?Sv/y) 4) Shell removal: waste material removal (0.4 ?Sv/y), and moving the cart from the foundry area (0.6 ?Sv/y) 5) Finishing (28.6 ?Sv/y) 6) Waste (0.00034 ?Sv) Workers in shell making are the most exposed, but the value of the collective dose is less than 1 mSv/y. Comparing with the levels of the graphical representation of the classification system, we can conclude that the processes 'do not need to consider regulation'. (author)

192

Using sol-gel component as additive to foundry coatings to improve casting quality  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The improvement of foundry coatings to enhance performance is important. This paper investigates the effect of using sol?gel component as an additive to foundry coatings applied on chemically bonded sand cores. Three parameters at three levels each were investigated using Taguchi experimental parameter design. The effects of the sol?gel component on viscosity, density, °Baumé, core coverage and permeability are shown. Numerical simulations were used to predict defect areas. The thermal profiles of the core materials during casting were determined, and the surface quality of the castings was evaluated. The results show that the surface quality of castings obtained by adding the sol?gel component to the coatings for cold box cores has no significant difference from castings produced with coatings without sol?gel component. On the other hand, the addition of the sol?gel component in coatings for furan cores showed significant improvement on the surface quality of the castings compared to that obtained without sol?gel component.

Nwaogu, Ugochukwu Chibuzoh; Tiedje, Niels Skat

2012-01-01

193

Beach Sand  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this assessment probe is to elicit students' ideas about weathering, erosion, deposition, and landforms. It is designed to determine if students recognize that sand on a beach may have come from distant mountains and landforms as a result of the weathering of rock, subsequent erosion, and deposition.

Eberle, Francis; Farrin, Lynn; Keeley, Page

2005-01-01

194

Examination and analysis of influence of compaction degree on dielectricproperties of moulding sand components  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the paper, presented are results of a research on influence of compaction degree on dielectric properties of components of moulding sands. During recent years, intensive research works on possibilities of using microwave heating in foundry technique are carried-out. However, introduction of such innovative, environment-friendly and efficient heating processes to foundry technologies is accompanied by a shortage of basic knowledge about behaviour of components of moulding sands in microwave field. In this case, of particular importance becomes knowledge of electrical properties of components of moulding and core sands, i.e. their permittivity ?r and dielectric loss factor tg? that characterise efficiency of absorbing electromagnetic radiation and thus prove effectiveness of the heating process.

D. Nowak

2015-04-01

195

Contamination at a small precious metals foundry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Extensive contamination of foundry premises resulted from the accidental inclusion of a radioactive source, a strontium-90 compound probably incorporated in rolled silver foil, in a melt for reprocessing silver scrap. Most of this contamination was easily removed using an industrial vacuum cleaner, but some brickwork, concrete flooring, the furnace lining and waste flux bin had to be removed. Fortunately the strontium contamination from the melt was concentrated in the flux around the silver. It is recommended that every radioactive source should be permanently and recognisably marked if such incidents are to be avoided in future. The correct procedure for accounting for radioactive sources should also have been followed. Subsequent monitoring by the company of scrap metal led to the discovery of an empty depleted uranium radiography source container in a consignment of lead. (U.K.)

196

Maintenance system improvement in cast iron foundry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The work presents the issue of technical equipment management in an iron foundry basing on the assumptions of the TPM system (Total Productive Maintenance. Exploitation analysis of automatic casting lines has been carried out and their work’s influence on the whole production system’s functioning has been researched. Within maintenance system improvement, implementation of autonomic service and planned lines’ review have been proposed in order to minimize the time of breakdown stoppages. The SMED method was used to optimize changeover time, and the OEE (Overall Equipment Effectiveness was applied to evaluate the level of resources usage before and after implementing changes. Further, the influence of the maintenance strategy of casting devices’ efficiency on own costs of casting manufac- ture was estimated.

S. Kukla

2011-07-01

197

The restoration of an Argonne National Laboratory foundry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Environmental Management Operations' Waste Management Department (WMD) at Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL-E) undertook the restoration of an unused foundry with the goal of restoring the area for general use. The foundry was used in the fabrication of reactor components for ANL's research and development programs; many of the items fabricated in the facility were radioactive, thereby contaminating the foundry equipment. This paper very briefly describes the dismantling and decontamination of the facility. The major challenges associated with the safe removal of the foundry equipment included the sheer size of the equipment, a limited overhead crane capability (4.5 tonne), the minimization of radioactive and hazardous wastes, and the cost-effective completion of the project, the hazardous and radioactive wastes present, and limited process knowledge (the facility was unused for many years)

198

Technical summary for the Foundry Data eXchange system  

Science.gov (United States)

Many companies are ramping their usage of third party wafer foundries for the manufacture of their integrated circuits. As such, new demands of data management and handoff are required. Maintaining a digital record and designing a digital interface with our foundry partners is critical to optimize the tape out and ramp to manufacturing processes. This paper describes the current development of Agere System's 'Foundry Data eXchange' system, which puts structure and consistency around the design data transfer and tape out process. The system streamlines the tapeout process and yields a consistent platform for all data handling. This will lead to greater efficiency and accuracy, saving time during the data handoff. In addition, the system lays the groundwork for the future application of an electronic data handoff with foundry partners.

Braun, Christopher P.; Krupka, Gerry; Peiffer, Frederick R.; Polk, Thomas A.; Roadcap, Evelyn E.; Sosik, John M.; Van Allen, Gregory P.; Wilkinson, William P.

2005-11-01

199

Porosity, Permeability, Shear Strength: Crosswell Tomography Below an Iron Foundry.  

Science.gov (United States)

Crosswell tomography of a sedimentary foundation at an iron foundry was affected by very high background noise; nevertheless, high-resolution velocity images were obtained between wells separated by long distances (120 to 250 m). A piezoelectric source in...

T. Yamamoto, T. Nye, M. Kuru

1994-01-01

200

Guide to energy efficiency opportunities in Canadian foundries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In Canada, the foundry sector employs about 15000 people and most of the companies are members of the Canadian Foundry Association (CFA). The CFA is committed to reducing its greenhouse gas emissions and is therefore looking for energy savings which, in addition to reducing emissions, would help the industry save costs and improve its competitiveness. The aim of this document is to provide operators with a guide to improving energy efficiency in their foundries. The report provides guidance on carrying out energy audits, gathering energy saving ideas, prioritizing projects, and charting the course of improved energy performance. Many different energy saving ideas for many kinds of operation are presented in this guidebook as a help to operators in finding where they could improve their energy efficiency; references to energy saving methods from all over the world are provided. This guidebook is a useful tool for helping foundry operators improve energy efficiency in their operations.

NONE

2003-07-01

 
 
 
 
201

Investigations of physicochemical properties of dusts generated in mechanical reclamation process of spent moulding sands with alkaline resins  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mechanical reclamation processes of spent moulding sands generate large amounts of post-reclamation dusts mainly containing rubbed spent binding agents and quartz dusts. The amount of post-reclamation dusts, depending in the reclamation system efficiency and the reclaim dedusting system, can reach 5%-10% in relation to the total reclaimed spent moulding sand. The proper utilization of such material is a big problem facing foundries these days. This study presents the results of investigations of physicochemical properties of post- reclamation dusts. All tested dusts originated from various Polish cast steel plants applying the mechanical reclamation process of moulding sands with alkaline resins, obtained from different producers. Different dusts, delivered from foundries, were tested to determine their chemical composition, granular characterization, physicochemical and energetic properties. Presented results confirmed assumptions that it is possible to utilize dusts generated during mechanical reclamation of used sands with organic resins as a source of energy.

R. Da?ko

2014-03-01

202

Elements of the efficiency system improvement of foundry  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The effectiveness of industrial systems is being ranked among important factors industrial engineering in foundry. He determines internal production abilities of foundry. It is possible to describe the effectiveness the measure of matching closely possibilities maximum number of products for definite quality standards, at the optimal use of production factors and with the application the best methods pouring out. The second worship of article is devoted to problems market supply casting produ...

Sitko, J.

2010-01-01

203

Logic Foundry: Rapid Prototyping for FPGA-Based DSP Systems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We introduce the Logic Foundry, a system for the rapid creation and integration of FPGA-based digital signal processing systems. Recognizing that some of the greatest challenges in creating FPGA-based systems occur in the integration of the various components, we have proposed a system that targets the following four areas of integration: design flow integration, component integration, platform integration, and software integration. Using the Logic Foundry, a system can be easily specified, a...

Gary Spivey

2003-01-01

204

Rationalization of foundry processes on the basis of simulation experiment  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The paper presents results of research obtained on the basis of simulation experiment, whose aim was to analyze the performance of cast iron foundry. A simulation model of automobile industry foundry was made. The course of the following processes was analyzedin a computer model: preparation of liquid cast iron, forming and filling the moulds, cooling and stamping the castings, cleaning andfinishing treatment. The sheets of multi-criterion evaluation were prepared, where criteria and variants...

Kukla, S.

2008-01-01

205

Iron removal from wastewater generated in foundry industry  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Nowadays, industrial wastewater significantly contaminates our environment. There are many technologies for cleaning these waters. When we are constructing a new treatment plant we must take into consideration the existing standards and laws of the Republic of Slovenia. The company where I did my research is specialised in foundry industry and it is the manufacturer of the components for automotive and motorcycle industry. Wastewaters in the foundry are cleaned with ultrafiltration treatment ...

Murovec, Nika

2013-01-01

206

Investigations of the Influence of the Matrix Recycling on Properties of the Moulding Sand with Geopol 618 Binder  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Self-hardening moulding sands with water-glass hardened by liquid esters are applied in several foundry plants for making moulds for the production of heavy iron and steel castings. The main good point of this process is a low cost of sands. However, on account of a lowsusceptibility of this moulding sand for the matrix reclamation the fraction of sands originated from the reclamation is limited.The investigations presented in this work were aimed at the determination of the addition of the r...

Kamin?ska, J.

2013-01-01

207

77 FR 20788 - Foundry Coke Products From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Expedited Second...  

Science.gov (United States)

...International Trade Administration [A-570-862] Foundry Coke Products From the People's Republic of China...sunset'') review of the antidumping duty order on foundry coke products (``foundry coke'') from the People's Republic of...

2012-04-06

208

40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Zzzzzz... - Applicability of General Provisions to Aluminum, Copper, and Other Nonferrous Foundries Area Sources  

Science.gov (United States)

...Aluminum, Copper, and Other Nonferrous Foundries Area Sources 1 Table 1 to Subpart...Aluminum, Copper, and Other Nonferrous Foundries Pt. 63, Subpt. ZZZZZZ, Table 1...Aluminum, Copper, and Other Nonferrous Foundries Area Sources As required in §...

2010-07-01

209

Preliminary Research on Granulation Process of Dust Waste from Reclamation Process of Moulding Sands with Furan Resin  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The results of investigations of the granulation process of foundry dusts generated in the dry mechanical reclamation process of usedsands, where furan resins were binders are presented in the paper. Investigations concerned producing of granules of the determineddimensions and strength parameters.Granules were formed from the dusts mixture consisting in 50 mass% of dusts obtained after the reclamation of the furane sands and in50 mass % of dusts from sands with bentonite. Dusts from the bent...

Kamin?ska, J.; Dan?ko, J.

2012-01-01

210

sand mold  

Science.gov (United States)

Interfacial heat transfer coefficient at the metal-mold interface (IHTC) was estimated by an iterative algorithm based on the function specification method. An Al-9 wt% Si alloy plate casting was made in a sand mold prepared by CO2 process. Thermal history obtained from the experiment was used to solve an inverse heat conduction problem. Acquired transient IHTC values are then given in function of the casting surface temperature at the interface. By comparing the obtained results with previous findings, the influence of grain fineness number and consequently of mold roughness on maximum IHTC values is revealed.

Kova?evi?, Lazar; Terek, Pal; Mileti?, Aleksandar; Kakaš, Damir

2014-08-01

211

Assessment of harmfulness of green sand with additions of dust from dry dedusting  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Recently, in the literature about the problems cause to the environment by foundry industry, attention has been paid to the presence and harmful effect of aromatic hydrocarbons: benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and isomers of xylenes (BTEX and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs. The growing interest in these pollutants of the environment is a result of their biological activity; some of them are characterized by mutagenic and carcinogenic action. In foundries these hydrocarbons are emitted during the contact between mould or core sands and liquid metal.This article discusses the results of the studies made on the elution rate of some harmful compounds include polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs (Table 3 and 4 from waste mould sand with bentonite and coal dust M1 (mixture Kormix 75 and this one with addition of dust from dry dedusting of sand M2 preparing station (partial replacement of bentonite and emission of BTEX gases from this moulds poured with molten cast iron. From the results given in these tables it follows that both mould sands are characterized by low values of the concentration of investigation substances and haven’t negative influence for environment during casting or management in other means. Tests were done according to the methodology developed at Faculty of Foundry Engineering University of Science and Technology in Cracow.

M. Holtzer

2010-07-01

212

Secondary foundry alloy damage and particle fracture  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The damage mechanisms of a hypoeutectic Al-Si-Cu foundry alloy, obtained through die casting, have been studied. Observations were made during tensile tests using a tensile test machine that was inserted into an scanning electron microscope. The microstructure features that are critical for damage were determined. The cleavage fracture of intermetallic particles was found to be the main process that limited the alloy ductility. Shrinkage cavities mainly play a role in the final fracture stage; the reduction in cross-section area induced by shrinkage cavities was assumed to be the main contribution of these defects to the fracture of the specimens. Attempts were made to determine the cleavage stress that initiated the fracture of the particles. Three-dimensional finite element computations were performed considering particular locations at the free surface of the observed fractured particles. The maximum principal stress was calculated for different locations of the particle with reference to the free surface. Different shapes and different elastic behaviour were studied. It was shown that the influence of a free surface on the stress level in a particle depends on its shape. The results were compared with those found in literature concerning the fracture strength of particles in Al alloys

213

40 CFR 63.10900 - What parts of the General Provisions apply to my large foundry?  

Science.gov (United States)

40 Protection of Environment 14 2010-07-01...Provisions apply to my large foundry? 63.10900 Section 63.10900 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...Pollutants for Iron and Steel Foundries Area Sources...

2010-07-01

214

40 CFR 63.7682 - What parts of my foundry does this subpart cover?  

Science.gov (United States)

40 Protection of Environment 13 2010-07-01...false What parts of my foundry does this subpart cover...7682 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...Pollutants for Iron and Steel Foundries What This Subpart...

2010-07-01

215

40 CFR 63.10900 - What parts of the General Provisions apply to my large foundry?  

Science.gov (United States)

...the General Provisions apply to my large foundry? 63.10900 Section 63.10900...Hazardous Air Pollutants for Iron and Steel Foundries Area Sources Requirements for New...Sources Classified As Large Iron and Steel Foundries § 63.10900 What parts of the...

2010-07-01

216

40 CFR 63.7682 - What parts of my foundry does this subpart cover?  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 false What parts of my foundry does this subpart cover? 63.7682...Hazardous Air Pollutants for Iron and Steel Foundries What This Subpart Covers § 63.7682 What parts of my foundry does this subpart cover? (a)...

2010-07-01

217

76 FR 74810 - Foundry Coke From China; Institution of a Five-Year Review  

Science.gov (United States)

...731-TA-891 (Second Review)] Foundry Coke From China; Institution...the antidumping duty order on foundry coke from China would be likely...Commission's Rules of Practice and Procedure, part 201, subparts A through...antidumping duty order on imports of foundry coke from China (66 FR...

2011-12-01

218

77 FR 15123 - Foundry Coke From China; Scheduling of an Expedited Five-Year Review  

Science.gov (United States)

...731-TA-891 (Second Review)] Foundry Coke From China; Scheduling...the antidumping duty order on foundry coke from China would be likely...Commission's Rules of Practice and Procedure, part 201, subparts A through...731-TA-891 (Second Review) FOUNDRY COKE FROM CHINA Staff...

2012-03-14

219

The AHP method used in assessment of foundry enterprise position  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Complex assessment of activity of a selected foundry enterprise based on a modern AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process method has beenpresented. Having defined the areas of analysis, which include: marketing (products, distribution channels, sales organisation and client concentration, personnel (skills, managerial abilities, organisation climate, effectiveness of incentives, personnel fluctuations, production (availability of raw materials, technical level of production, effective use of production capacities, organisation and management (foundry structure, organisation culture, management performance, the analysis was made using the weighted sum of evaluations. The second step consisted in a comparative assessment of Foundry position using Saaty’s scale modified by Weber and the AHP method with examinationof a hierarchy structure involving the main (parent problem and its direct evolution into sub-problems. The assessment of Foundryposition made by AHP enables introducing changes and/or innovations which are expected to improve the overall productioneffectiveness.

J. Szymszal

2008-10-01

220

Foundry industries: environmental aspects and environmental condition indicators  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nowadays, environmental indicators are widely used as effective tools to assist decision-making in both public and private sectors. The lack of literature and research about local and regional Environmental Condition Indicators (ECI), the poor knowledge regarding solid waste generation, effluents and gas emissions from foundry industries, and their particular location in the urban area of Tandil, Argentina are the main reasons for this investigation, aiming to develop a set a of ECI to provide information about the environment in relation to the foundry industry. The study involves all the foundries located in the city between March and April 2010. The set of ECI developed includes 9 indicators for air, 5 for soil and 1 for water. Specific methodology was used for each indicator. (Author) 31 refs.

 
 
 
 
221

Rationalization of foundry processes on the basis of simulation experiment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper presents results of research obtained on the basis of simulation experiment, whose aim was to analyze the performance of cast iron foundry. A simulation model of automobile industry foundry was made. The course of the following processes was analyzedin a computer model: preparation of liquid cast iron, forming and filling the moulds, cooling and stamping the castings, cleaning andfinishing treatment. The sheets of multi-criterion evaluation were prepared, where criteria and variants were assessed by meansof subjective point evaluation and fuzzy character evaluation. The paper presents an analysis example of finishing activities of castings realized in foundry on traditional machines and efficient presses and in cooperation. On the basis of reports from a simulation experiment information was achieved related to activities’ duration, load of accessible resources, the problems of storage and transport, bottle necks in the system and appearing queues in from of workplaces. The research used a universal modelling and simulation packet for productionsystems - ARENA.

S. Kukla

2008-10-01

222

Optimization of a new animal glue binder system cured by CO2 for use in foundry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A new sand binder system cured by CO2 was prepared based on the animal bone glue. To overcome the disadvantages of animal glue such as agglomeration at room temperature, high energy consumption and low efficiency, an alkaline decomposition process was selected, and certain modifier was used to modify the performance of the animal glue binder. For the alkaline decomposition, NaOH was used as the catalyst with an addition of 4wt.% to the animal glue. A modifier was determined through the orthogonal experiment with a weight ratio of glycerin: glycol: dextrin: animal glue = 9:16:15:100, and the optimal modification reaction should be performed at 75 ? with a reaction time of 90 min. Ca(OH2 was used as a promoter; the optimal CO2 gas flux blowing into the sand was 0.7 m3·h-1 for a duration of 60 s under the experimental conditions. Results show that an original strength above 0.7 MPa and a final strength about 4.2 MPa can be achieved, which could meet the requirement of rapid moulding and core-making for foundry. The new binder was characterized and analyzed by means of IR, and the modification and CO2-cured mechanisms of this animal glue binder were also discussed.

Liu Weihua

2012-11-01

223

Reduced energy consumption for melting in foundries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

By improving the gating technology in traditional gating systems it is possible to reduce the amount of metal to be re-melted, and hence reduce the energy consumption for melting in foundries. Traditional gating systems are known for a straight tapered down runner a well base and 90 deg. bends in the runner system. In the streamlined gating systems there are no sharp changes in direction and a large effort is done to confine and control the flow of the molten metal during mould filling. Experiments in real production lines have proven that using streamlined gating systems improves yield by decreasing the poured weight compared to traditional layouts. In a layout for casting of valve housings in a vertically parted mould the weight of the gating system was reduced by 1,1kg which is a 20% weight reduction for the gating system. In a layout for horizontally parted moulds the weight of the gating system has been reduced by 3,7kg which is a weight reduction of 60% for the gating system. The experiments casting valve housings in ductile iron also proved that it is possible to lower the pouring temperature from 1400 deg. C to 1300 deg. C without the risk of cold runs. Glass plate fronted moulds have been used to study the flow of melt during mould filling. These experiments have also been used for studying the flow pattern when ceramic filters are used. The thorough study of the use of filters revealed that the metal passing through the filter is divided into a number of small jets. This proves that filters do not have the claimed positive effect on the flow of metal. The volumes necessary on either side of the filter is not filled till a backpressure is build up and results in formation of pressure shocks when backfilled. These pressure shocks result in more turbulence inside the casting than the same gating system with no filter. Not using filters can mean a reduction in poured weight of 0,6kg. To examine if the experiments using glass plate fronted moulds give representative results of how the melt flows in a real mould a series of experiments have been conducted using the xray facilities at the Metallurgy and Materials department at the University of Birmingham. The results proved that the glass plate do not have any large effect on the flow pattern during mould filling. It was also found that using fan gates only 1mm thick holds back slag and in this way works as a filter. A complete set of guidelines for designing streamlined gating systems have been made in this project. Using these guidelines and combining standard geometries and the presented spreadsheet makes it possible for foundries to use streamlined gating systems in praxis. (au)

Skov-Hansen, S.

2007-09-15

224

Contribution to determination of the life time of chemically self-hardening mould sand  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article presents the problem of quality of casting moulds made of self-hardening sand, especially for manufacturing moulds for large-sized iron alloy castings. In such cases, unequivocal determination of so-called time of life of moulding sand is one of the most important issues, since it affects usability of a self-hardening sand for making subsequent layers of the mould prepared in time above one hour. Life time, measured in minutes, is dependent on the type of used sand grains, resins and their hardeners (catalysts and also on the temperature and air humidity. Companies which manufacture and sell binding materials estimate the time of life according to their own criteria, which do not always correspond with real conditions. This article shows the experiences of the author, who has been working as an expert in European foundries for many years. New proposed parameter named FIP characterizing a life time of tested sands is also presented.

Z. Ignaszak

2011-10-01

225

Application of time-series analysis for prediction of molding sand properties in production cycle  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Time-series analysis is characterized, as a data mining tool which facilitates understanding nature of manufacturing processes and permits prediction of future values of the process parameters or production results on the basis of the past data, recorded in regular intervals. The main methods and problems of the time-series analysis are presented. The authors’ research results, based on green molding sand properties data collected in a foundry with Disamatic molding line, are presented. The work was aimed at finding optimal settings and models of the time-series analysis for that data as well as detection of possible periodicities appearing in the sand properties. It is concluded that although the time-series analysis requires individual approach to each particular problem, some general recommendations can be also formulated. It can be a useful tool for analysis and predictions of outcomes of foundry processes.

M. Perzyk

2011-04-01

226

Costs Models in Design and Manufacturing of Sand Casting Products  

CERN Document Server

In the early phases of the product life cycle, the costs controls became a major decision tool in the competitiveness of the companies due to the world competition. After defining the problems related to this control difficulties, we will present an approach using a concept of cost entity related to the design and realization activities of the product. We will try to apply this approach to the fields of the sand casting foundry. This work will highlight the enterprise modelling difficulties (limits of a global cost modelling) and some specifics limitations of the tool used for this development. Finally we will discuss on the limits of a generic approach.

Perry, Nicolas; Bernard, Alain

2010-01-01

227

Manganese exposure in foundry furnacemen and scrap recycling workers  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Cast iron products are alloyed with small quantities of manganese, and foundry furnacemen are potentially exposed to manganese during tapping and handling of smelts. Manganese is a neurotoxic substance that accumulates in the central nervous system, where it may cause a neurological disorder that bears many similarities to Parkinson's disease. The aim of the study was to investigate the sources and levels of manganese exposure in foundry furnacemen by a combined measuring of blood-manganese (B-Mn) and manganese in ambient air (air-Mn).

Lauritsen, Jens

1999-01-01

228

Electromagnet Gripping in Iron Foundry Automation Part III: Practice  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Flexibility can be defined as the ability to respond efficiently to the changing demands of the customer and is different in SMEs (Small-to-Medium manufacturing Enterprises than the traditional OEMs (Original Equipment Manufacturers. Costs involved in implementing manufacturing flexibility to meet customer demand are more important in the SMEs, especially those that are labor intensive for example foundries. Manufacturing systems with a high degree of flexibility can be rapidly changed to cover a wide range of production requirements. In this paper, we present a methodology enabling part handling flexibility, which has been incorporated in an iron foundry SME framework.

Rhythm Suren Wadhwa

2012-07-01

229

FMEA: Methodology, Design and Implementation in a Foundry  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Failure Mode And Effect Analysis (FMEA) is a technique to identify and prioritize potential failures of a process. This paper reports the description of FMEA methodology & its implementation in a foundry. It is used as a tool to assure products quality & as a mean to improve operational performance of the process. The work was developed in an Indian foundry, in co-operation with part of the internal staff chosen as FMEA team members & was focused on the study of core making process. The probl...

AWADHESH KUMAR,; M.P. POONIA,; UPENDER PANDEL,; Jethoo, A. S.

2011-01-01

230

09 sand dunes  

...me-not carline thistle TYPICAL SAND DUNE SYSTEM HAMMOCK PIONEER DUNE BEACH SHRUB DUNE FIELD FORE DUNE SAND DUNES SAND DUNES MATURE REAR DUNES The...bell heather, moss and lichen. DUNE SLACKS Underneath most dune systems is a permanent layer...wind. • Trees planted to stabilise sand have destroyed the typical dune vegetation. • Drainage, water extraction and afforestation...

231

SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS OF WASTES GENERATED BY GRAY IRON FOUNDRIES  

Science.gov (United States)

Thirty (30) wastes generated by 21 gray iron foundries in Pennsylvania and Michigan were sampled and analyzed. The samples were collected by Northrop Services, Inc., in accordance with strict chain-of-custody procedures, and sent to the Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory...

232

Methods of the montmorillonite content determination in foundry bentonites  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents results of the measurements montmorillonite content in foundry bentonites and mixtures of bentonite – lustrous carbon carrier by three methods: spectrophotometric method with the use of methylene blue, spectrophotometric method with the use of Cu(II triethylenotetramine (Cu-TET complex, infrared spectroscopic method (FTIR.

M. Holtzer

2009-10-01

233

Methods of the montmorillonite content determination in foundry bentonites  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper presents results of the measurements montmorillonite content in foundry bentonites and mixtures of bentonite – lustrous carbon carrier by three methods: spectrophotometric method with the use of methylene blue, spectrophotometric method with the use of Cu(II) – triethylenotetramine (Cu-TET) complex, infrared spectroscopic method (FTIR).

Holtzer, M.; Grabowska, B.; Bobrowski, A.; Z?ymankowska-kumon, S.

2009-01-01

234

The AHP method used in assessment of foundry enterprise position  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Complex assessment of activity of a selected foundry enterprise based on a modern AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process) method has beenpresented. Having defined the areas of analysis, which include: marketing (products, distribution channels, sales organisation and client concentration), personnel (skills, managerial abilities, organisation climate, effectiveness of incentives, personnel fluctuations), production (availability of raw materials, technical level of production, effective use of produ...

Szymszal, J.; Pia?tkowski, J.; Mikuszewski, T.; Klis?, J.

2008-01-01

235

Using lean methodologies for economically and environmentally sustainable foundries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Lean manufacturing is often seen as a set of tools that reduce the total cost and improve the quality of manufactured products. The lean management philosophy is one which targets waste reduction in every facet of the manufacturing business; however, only recently have studies linked lean management philosophies with improving environmental sustainability. These studies suggest that lean manufacturing is more than a set of lean tools that can optimize manufacturing efficiencies; it is a process and mindset that needs to be integrated into daily manufacturing systems to achieve sustainability. The foundry industry, as well as manufacturing in general, has significant challenges in the current regulatory and political climate with developing an economically and environmentally sustainable business model. Lean manufacturing has proven itself as a model for both economic sustainability and environmental stewardship. Several recent studies have shown that both lean and green techniques and “zero-waste” policies also lead to reductions in overall cost. While these strategies have been examined for general manufacturing, they have not been investigated in detail for the foundry industry. This paper will review the current literature and describe how lean and green can provide a relevant framework for environmentally and economically sustainable foundries. Examples of lean and green technologies and techniques which can be applied to foundries in a global context will be described.

R. M. Torielli

2011-02-01

236

Sand Castle Saturation  

Science.gov (United States)

In this activity about saturation (page 1 of PDF), learners will build a series of sand castle towers using a 16 oz cup. Learners begin with completely dry sand and then add a ¼ cup of water to the sand for each successive tower, each time measuring the height and width of the resulting sand mound until they make a tower that maintains the shape of the cup. Relates to the linked video, DragonflyTV: Sand Dunes.

Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.

2005-01-01

237

Dermal and inhalation exposure to methylene bisphenyl isocyanate (MDI) in iron foundry workers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Diisocyanates are a group of chemically reactive agents, which are used in the production of coatings, adhesives, polyurethane foams, and parts for the automotive industry and as curing agents for cores in the foundry industry. Dermal and inhalation exposure to methylene bisphenyl isocyanate (MDI) is associated with respiratory sensitization and occupational asthma. However, limited research has been performed on the quantitative evaluation of dermal and inhalation exposure to MDI in occupationally exposed workers. The objective of this research was to quantify dermal and inhalation exposure levels in iron foundry workers. Workers involved in mechanized moulding and mechanized production of cores were monitored: 12 core makers, 2 core-sand preparers, and 5 core installers. Personal breathing-zone levels of MDI were measured using impregnated filter sampling. Dermal exposure to MDI was measured using a tape-strip technique. Three or five consecutive tape-strip samples were collected from five exposed skin areas (right and left forefingers, left and right wrists, and forehead). The average personal air concentration was 0.55 microg m(-3), 50-fold lower than the Swedish occupational exposure limit of 30 microg m(-3). The core makers had an average exposure of 0.77 microg m(-3), which was not significantly different from core installers' and core-sand preparers' average exposure of 0.16 microg m(-3) (P = 0.059). Three core makers had a 10-fold higher inhalation exposure than the other core makers. The core makers' mean dermal exposure at different skin sites varied from 0.13 to 0.34 microg while the two other groups' exposure ranged from 0.006 to 0.062 microg. No significant difference was observed in the MDI levels between the skin sites in a pairwise comparison, except for left forefinger compared to left and right wrist (P MDI were observed in the consecutive tape strip per site indicating MDI penetration into the skin. This study indicates that exposure to MDI can be quantified on workers' skin even if air levels are close to unquantifiable. Thus, the potential for uncured MDI to deposit on and penetrate into the skin is demonstrated. Therefore, dermal exposure along with inhalation exposure to MDI should be measured in the occupational settings where MDI is present in order to shed light on their roles in the development of occupational isocyanate asthma. PMID:19783835

Liljelind, I; Norberg, C; Egelrud, L; Westberg, H; Eriksson, K; Nylander-French, L A

2010-01-01

238

Techno- Economical Study of Rigid Pavement by Using the Used Foundry Sand  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Indian road network of almost 3.5 million km comprising both paved and unpaved surfaces is the world’s second largest. Indian roads are presently constructed with not the right choice of material. The two major types of materials, bitumen and concrete are used in road construction in the country. A very small share of roads in the country is made of concrete. Though, it is superior on many counts as a medium for road buildings. The use of large amount of by-product materials as powder or fi...

Vipul D Prajapati, Nilay Joshi

2013-01-01

239

Reduction in Energy Consumption & Variability in Steel Foundry Operations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This project worked to improve the efficiency of the steel casting industry by reducing the variability that occurs because of process and product variation. The project focused on the post shakeout operations since roughly half of the production costs are in this area. These improvements will reduce the amount of variability, making it easier to manage the operation and improve the competitiveness. The reduction in variability will also reduce the need for many rework operations, which will result in a direct reduction of energy usage, particularly by the reduction of repeated heat treatment operations. Further energy savings will be realized from the reduction of scrap and reduced handling. Field studies were conducted at ten steel foundries that represented the U.S. steel casting industry, for a total of over 100 weeks of production observation. These studies quantified the amount of variability, and looked toward determining the source. A focus of the data collected was the grinding operations since this is a major effort in the cleaning room, and it represents the overall casting quality. The grinding was divided into two categories, expected and unexpected. Expected grinding is that in which the location of the effort is known prior to making the casting, such as smoothing parting lines, gates, and riser contacts. Unexpected grinding, which was approximately 80% of the effort, was done to improve the surfaces at weld repair locations, to rectify burnt on sand, and other surface anomalies at random locations. Unexpected grinding represents about 80% of the grinding effort. By quantifying this effort, the project raised awareness within the industry and the industry is continuing to make improvements. The field studies showed that the amount of variation of grinding operations (normalized because of the diverse set of parts studied) was very consistent across the industry. The field studies identified several specific sources that individually contributed to large process variation. This indicates the need for ongoing monitoring of the process and system to quantify the effort being expended. A system to measure the grinding effort was investigated but did not prove to be successful. A weld wire counting system was shown to be very successful in tracking casting quality by monitoring the quantity of weld wire being expended on a per casting basis. Further use of such systems is highly recommended. The field studies showed that the visual inspection process for the casting surface was a potentially large source of process variation. Measurement system analysis studies were conducted at three steel casting producers. The tests measured the consistency of the inspectors in identifying the same surface anomalies. The repeatability (variation of the same operator inspecting the same casting) was found to be relatively consistent across the companies at about 60-70%. However, this is still are very large amount of variation. Reproducibility (variation of different operators inspecting the same casting) was worse, ranging between 20 to 80% at the three locations. This large amount of variation shows that there is a great opportunity for improvement. Falsely identifying anomalies for reworking will cause increased expense and energy consumption. This is particularly true if a weld repair and repeated heat treatment is required. However, not identifying an anomaly could also result in future rework processing, a customer return, or scrap. To help alleviate this problem, casting surface comparator plates were developed and distributed to the industry. These plates are very inexpensive which enables them to be provided to all those involved with casting surface quality, such as operators, inspectors, sales, and management.

Frank Peters

2005-05-04

240

Control of rebonding sand mixing as a condition for optimisation of the sand feeding system in the casting line  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In order to ensure the effective operation of the casting line, synthetic sand containing bentonite has to be fed in a precisely controlled quality and quantity. The required quantity is ensured by mixing stations outfitted with turbine mixers. The quality of sand mix, defined by its technological parameters, depends on the available measurement and control equipment and the system controlling the mixers’ operation. These issues are investigated at the Department of Foundry Engineering AGH-UST in collaboration with the PPP Technical Company in Now Sól (Poland, a major manufacturer of turbine mixers.This study outlines the scope and results of research work aimed to improve the control equipment to enhance the performance of turbine mixers.

A. Fedoryszyn

2010-04-01

 
 
 
 
241

The Condition of Silica Sand Grains Surface Subjected to Reclamation Treatment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The results of investigations are concerned on evaluation of new silica sand grains surface condition after mechanical reclamation treatment as well as on the conditions of reclaimed sand grains surface subjected to thermal and thermo-mechanical reclamation processes. The purpose of research was to answer the question how the applied methods have influenced the surface condition of reclaimed sand grains which was tested by means of bending strength determination of sand samples prepared with resin binder and reclaimed sand. The immediate aim of the research was to explain the mechanism of impurities cleaning on the sand grains surface after thermal reclamation, when the sand is used several times in preparation of a foundry mixture, and to determine what effect these impurities may have on the technological properties of the ready sand mixture. The task of the additionally applied mechanical reclamation was to remove the accumulated inorganic compounds from the sand grains surface and confirm if further improvement of the reclaim quality is possible.

?ucarz, M.

2006-01-01

242

Granulation of After Reclamation Dusts from the Mixed Sands Technology: Water Glass – Resolit  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A technology of sands with water glass hardened by liquid esters is a cheap and ecologic method of producing moulding sands. Due to these advantages, this technology is still very important in several foundry plants for production of heavy iron and steel castings. Reclamation of the mixed moulding and core sands generates significant amounts of dusts, which require further treatments for their reuse. The results of investigations of a pressureless granulation of dusts generated in the dry mechanical reclamation process of the mixture consisting in app. 90 % of moulding sands from the Floster S technology and in 10 % of core sands with phenolic resin resol type, are presented in the hereby paper. Investigations were aimed at obtaining granulates of the determined dimensional and strength parameters. Granules were formed from the mixture of dusts consisting of 75 mass% of dusts after the reclamation of sands mixture and of 25 mass% of dusts from bentonite sands processing plant. Wetted dusts from bentonite sands were used as a binding agent allowing the granulation of after reclamation dusts originated from the mixed sands technology.

J. Kami?ska

2013-04-01

243

Characterization of Coated Sand Cores from Two Different Binder Systems for Grey Iron Castings  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Expansion defects on the surface of the castings include sand burn-in, metal penetration and/or veining, finning or scab. Veining or finning and metal penetration are of interest. These defects are associated with silica sand and result from the penetration of liquid metal into cracks formed during differential expansion of the core during heating. The rapid expansion of silica sand up to 600 oC and especially at 573 oC, where the ? – ? phase transformation occurs, is the cause of stresses in the core system. These stresses cause crack formation and metal melt flows into these cracks causing finning or veining and metal penetration defects. The use of refractory coatings on cores is fundamental to obtaining acceptable casting surface quality and is used on resin bonded cores in production foundries. In this study new sol gel-coated sand cores made from coldbox and furan binder systems were investigated for their casting properties.

Nwaogu, Ugochukwu Chibuzoh; Tiedje, Niels Skat

244

40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Zzzzz of... - Procedures for Establishing Operating Limits for New Affected Sources Classified as Large Foundries  

Science.gov (United States)

...New Affected Sources Classified as Large Foundries 2 Table 2 to Subpart ZZZZZ of Part...Hazardous Air Pollutants for Iron and Steel Foundries Area Sources Pt. 63, Subpt. ZZZZZ...Affected Sources Classified as Large Foundries As required in §...

2010-07-01

245

40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Zzzzz of... - Performance Test Requirements for New and Existing Affected Sources Classified as Large Foundries  

Science.gov (United States)

...Existing Affected Sources Classified as Large Foundries 1 Table 1 to Subpart ZZZZZ of Part...Hazardous Air Pollutants for Iron and Steel Foundries Area Sources Pt. 63, Subpt. ZZZZZ...Affected Sources Classified as Large Foundries As required in §...

2010-07-01

246

Production system rationalisation on the example of iron foundry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present paper presents a systemic approach to foundry management. Thanks to production process modelling and simulation techniques, an attempt was made to synthesise many interconnected devices and numerous manufacturing stages into one production system. In the beginning, a factor analysis was carried out of the research object, which is a system of iron castings manufacture on automated foundry lines. On the basis of a simulation experiment, use the accessible production resources and manufacturing own cost of castings were analysed, depending on batch content and melting order, choice of an automatic line and the model of line fed with cast iron, sequence of order realization and the size of production lots. Simulation experiments were carried out on a computer simulation model prepared in the Arena packet produced by Rockwell Automation. Cost was estimated on the basis of additional calculation according to cost centres basing on factory spreadsheet.

S. Kukla

2010-04-01

247

FMEA: Methodology, Design and Implementation in a Foundry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Failure Mode And Effect Analysis (FMEA is a technique to identify and prioritize potential failures of a process. This paper reports the description of FMEA methodology & its implementation in a foundry. It is used as a tool to assure products quality & as a mean to improve operational performance of the process. The work was developed in an Indian foundry, in co-operation with part of the internal staff chosen as FMEA team members & was focused on the study of core making process. The problems identified in the various steps of core making process contributing for high rejection are studied & analyzed in terms of RPN to prioritize the attention for each of the problem. The monetary loss due to core rejection is considered as measure of risk.

AWADHESH KUMAR,

2011-06-01

248

Logistics of Materials Flow in an Iron Foundry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article presents issues related to creating and realizing added value by logistic processes and processing in a casting enterprise. It discusses possibilities of improving systems of casts production by evaluating labour intensity of casts manufacture and analyzing manufacturing prime costs. Operations with added value, processes indirectly creating added value and operations without added value have been specified. The problem was presented on the example of materials flow design in a foundry, where casts are manufactured in expendable moulds and using automated foundry lines. On the basis of the Pareto analysis, a group of casts was specified whose manufacture significantly influences the functioning of the whole enterprise. Finishing treatment operations have been particularly underlined, as they are performed away from the line and are among the most labour-consuming processes during casts production.

S. Kukla

2013-07-01

249

Energy conservation and emissions reduction strategies in foundry industry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Current energy conservation and emissions reduction strategies in iron and steel industry were reviewed. Since foundry industry is one of the major source of energy consumption and pollution emission (especially CO2, issues concerning energy-saving and emission-reduction have been raised by governments and the industry. Specialists from around the world carried out multidimensional analyses and evaluation on the potentials in energy conservation and emissions reduction in iron and steel industry, and proposed various kinds of analyzing models. The primary measures mainly focus on the targeted policies formulation and also on clean and high-efficient technologies development. The differences and similarities in energy conservation and emission reduction in foundry industry between China and other countries were discussed, while, the future development trend was also pointed out.

Li Yuanyuan

2010-11-01

250

The management of production value stream factors in a foundry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Connection of two value streams: production and human resources were proposed as a new approach to the production process. To assess the factors of production value streams the elements of the top of the Toyota's house as well as fourth and sixth Toyota's managing principles were used. On the basis of the feedback from respondents –the foundry workers, there can be determined the validity of series of decisive factors' importance that equalizes the work load and requires the standardization.

S. Borkowski

2010-01-01

251

Safety management system of subcontractors’ works in foundry companies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Most companies use the services of subcontractors, either in their core business, or to support the work – e.g. maintenance. This poses the need for effective and systematic monitoring of the work of subcontractors, especially if they perform it on the premises of an enterprise. In some industries such as construction, energy, petrochemicals, metallurgy and foundry additional system requirements appear, particularly with regard to safety and the environment, a compliance with which is neces...

Ra?czka, M.

2010-01-01

252

Foundry Technologies Focused on Environmental and Ecological Applications  

Science.gov (United States)

Solutions allowing fabrication of remote control systems with integrated sensors (motes) were introduced as a part of CMOS foundry production platform and verified on silicon. The integrated features include sensors employing principles previously verified in the development of ultra-low power consuming non-volatile memories (C-Flash, MRAM) and components allowing low-power energy harvesting (low voltage rectifiers, high -voltage solar cells). The developed systems are discussed with emphasis on their environmental and security applications.

Roizin, Ya.; Lisiansky, M.; Pikhay, E.

253

Classification of foundry clients using business rules approach  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The paper presents the application of business rules approach for the classification of foundry clients taking into account t he economic and technological attributes. Business Rules Management (BRM) systems allow non-technical business people to change the rules, analyze them for errors, and test and simulate them for impact analysis. Although BRM is focused on business processes improvement, it is possible to use this approach in technology management. The model of classification problem, a...

Stawowy, A.; Wrona, R.; Ronduda, M.

2011-01-01

254

The management of production value stream factors in a foundry  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Connection of two value streams: production and human resources were proposed as a new approach to the production process. To assess the factors of production value streams the elements of the top of the Toyota's house as well as fourth and sixth Toyota's managing principles were used. On the basis of the feedback from respondents –the foundry workers, there can be determined the validity of series of decisive factors' importance that equalizes the work load and requires the standardization.

Borkowski, S.; Knop, K.

2010-01-01

255

Kinetics of moisture absorption in mixtures for iron foundry  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The moisture absorption in granulated materials used in foundry technologies is analyzed. The absorption process has a diffusive behavior mainly. A simple experimental technique, in which the wet weight increment was recorded as the experimental parameter and an analytic method with computing procedure to find the parameters characterizing the process was used. The determination of these parameters by traditional methods is a very difficult task so, very refined and expensiv...

Cocina, Ernesto Villar; Morales, Eduardo Valencia; Rodriguez, Romulo Gonzalez

1999-01-01

256

The production of TiAl by foundry processes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper describes a foundry technique that enables the production of TiAl employing an adapted melting procedure that uses an induction furnace with suitable refractory crucibles, inside a controlled atmosphere chamber. The developed technique allows the production of samples with a low and controlled amount of residual elements, with a thin superficial hard skin – known as “alpha-case” – and allows the use of higher superheating temperatures, when compared with alte...

Barbosa, J.; Ribeiro, Carlos Silva; Monteiro, A. Caetano

2002-01-01

257

Natural gas on its way into aluminium foundries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The article deals with natural gas as a fuel for aluminium smelters. The traditional way of heating the smelters in Norway has been the use of oil-fired combustors or electric heaters. According to the article, the aluminium foundries increase the use of natural gas in the heating process. The cycle principle of regenerative combustion is discussed together with the combustion process of propane with air or oxygen. 3 figs

258

Electromagnet Gripping in Iron Foundry Automation Part III: Practice  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Flexibility can be defined as the ability to respond efficiently to the changing demands of the customer and is different in SMEs (Small-to-Medium manufacturing Enterprises) than the traditional OEMs (Original Equipment Manufacturers). Costs involved in implementing manufacturing flexibility to meet customer demand are more important in the SMEs, especially those that are labor intensive for example foundries. Manufacturing systems with a high degree of flexibility can be rapidly changed to c...

Rhythm Suren Wadhwa

2012-01-01

259

Energy conservation and emissions reduction strategies in foundry industry  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Current energy conservation and emissions reduction strategies in iron and steel industry were reviewed. Since foundry industry is one of the major source of energy consumption and pollution emission (especially CO2), issues concerning energy-saving and emission-reduction have been raised by governments and the industry. Specialists from around the world carried out multidimensional analyses and evaluation on the potentials in energy conservation and emissions reduction in iron and steel indu...

Li Yuanyuan; Chen Weiping; Huang Dan

2010-01-01

260

Emission of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs and benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX from the furan moulding sands with addition of the reclaim  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper, the results of decomposition of a moulding sand with furfuryl resin also on a quartz matrix and with additions of a reclaimed material, under industrial conditions, are presented. Investigations of the gases emission in the test foundry plant were performed according to the original method developed in the Faculty of Foundry Engineering, AGH UST. The dependence of the emitted PAHs and BTEX group substances and ignition losses on the reclaim fraction in a moulding sand are of a linear character of a very high correlation coefficient R2. On the bases of the derived equations, it is possible to determine the amount of the emitted hazardous substances from the moulding sand containing the known fraction of the reclaim.

M. Holtzer

2014-10-01

 
 
 
 
261

Investigations of the Influence of the Matrix Recycling on Properties of the Moulding Sand with Geopol 618 Binder  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Self-hardening moulding sands with water-glass hardened by liquid esters are applied in several foundry plants for making moulds for the production of heavy iron and steel castings. The main good point of this process is a low cost of sands. However, on account of a lowsusceptibility of this moulding sand for the matrix reclamation the fraction of sands originated from the reclamation is limited.The investigations presented in this work were aimed at the determination of the addition of the reclaimed material, obtained in the dry mechanical reclamation, on properties of the moulding sand with the Geopol 618 binder, which is water-glass modified by polymers and hardened by esters.

J. Kami?ska

2013-01-01

262

Ultrasonic testing of the hardening kinetics of epoxy resins used for foundry patterns  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study presents the results of investigations on the hardening kinetics of modern pattern materials which, among others, include alsoepoxy resins. Tests were carried out using a new ultrasonic technique developed by the author of the present study. On the example of theEPO 999 resin, the run of the hardening process at temperatures of 10, 20 and 30oC was shown. This is the temperature range appliedduring production of foundry patterns. The time of the preliminary hardening amounted to 800 min at a temperature of 10oC, and to only180 min at a temperature of 30oC. Using ultrasonic technique, the effect of temperature on the modulus of elasticity Ed of the examinedresin was determined. The temperature has been observed to exert a linear effect on the value of the modulus Ed. When the resin pattern is preheated in the range of temperatures from 20 to 50oC, the value of the modulus Ed decreases by 30%. The drop in the value of themodulus Ed, as well as the resin hardness decreasing from 18 to 9,0HB at the increasing temperature reduce the applicability of thismaterial for patterns operating at high temperatures (moulding sands.

J. Zych

2010-07-01

263

Solidification and foundry studies of Zn/Al alloys  

Science.gov (United States)

It is well known that the commercial Zn/Al alloys, particularly the Zn-11%Al and Zn-27%Al alloys, segregate markedly during founding and also that an "inverted pipe" is commonly present. A detailed study of the solidification of 8, 11 and 27% aluminum alloys has been carried-out to investigate the manner of an extent to which segregation arises in order to develop better foundry procedures to exploit the considerable potential of these alloys. This work has involved the uni-directional solidification of many samples under a wide variety of conditions selected to exploit naturally-induced and forced fluid flow in the melt. The results of this work are being applied to develop various foundry procedures aimed at the production of sound homogeneous castings. Since it is possible to eliminate the major foundry problem with these alloys, namely, underside shrinkage, in the case of the Zn-8%Al and Zn-11%Al by adjusting such casting variables as pouring temperature, mold type and riser volume and placement, discussion of the results will be confined to the Zn-27%Al alloys. This alloy type displays the greatest mechanical strength and is most prone to underside shrinkage in "chunky" castings.

Ayik, O.; Ghoreshy, M.; Sahoo, M.; Smith, R. W.

1986-12-01

264

Statistical and Visualization Data Mining Tools for Foundry Production  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In recent years a rapid development of a new, interdisciplinary knowledge area, called data mining, is observed. Its main task is extracting useful information from previously collected large amount of data. The main possibilities and potential applications of data mining in manufacturing industry are characterized. The main types of data mining techniques are briefly discussed, including statistical, artificial intelligence, data base and visualization tools. The statistical methods and visualization methods are presented in more detail, showing their general possibilities, advantages as well as characteristic examples of applications in foundry production. Results of the author’s research are presented, aimed at validation of selected statistical tools which can be easily and effectively used in manufacturing industry. A performance analysis of ANOVA and contingency tables based methods, dedicated for determination of the most significant process parameters as well as for detection of possible interactions among them, has been made. Several numerical tests have been performed using simulated data sets, with assumed hidden relationships as well some real data, related to the strength of ductile cast iron, collected in a foundry. It is concluded that the statistical methods offer relatively easy and fairly reliable tools for extraction of that type of knowledge about foundry manufacturing processes. However, further research is needed, aimed at explanation of some imperfections of the investigated tools as well assessment of their validity for more complex tasks.

M. Perzyk

2007-07-01

265

Exploring Products: Nano Sand  

Science.gov (United States)

In this activity, learners explore how water behaves differently when it comes in contact with "nano sand" and regular sand. Learners learn about the hydrophobic properties of "nano sand." Use this activity to talk about how many materials behave differently at the nanoscale.

Network, Nanoscale I.; Sciencenter

2010-01-01

266

Study of radon and its progeny concentrations in an oil refinery and foundry environment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

LR-115 type II detectors were used to measure the radon concentrations in the dwellings of an oil refinery and in some foundries. The radon levels inside an oil refinery and foundries are found to be below the USEPA's remedial action levels of 150 Bq m-3. The radon concentrations in oil refinery were found to be higher in both outdoor and indoor environment, as compared to those found in normal background dwellings. The radon levels inside the foundries investigated are of the same order as measured in dwellings of the same city. The reported higher lung cancer rates in foundries may not be attributed to radon. (author)

267

Selected parameters of moulding sands for designing quality control systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One of the modern methods of production optimisation are artificial neural networks. Neural networks owe their popularity to the fact thatthey are convenient tools, which can be utilised in a wide scope of problems. They are capable of reflecting complex functions. Especiallytheir non-linearity should be emphasised. They are gaining wider and wider application in the foundry industry, among others, to controlmelting processes in cupolas and arc furnaces, designing castings and supply systems, control of moulding sands treatments, prediction ofproperties of cast alloys as well as selecting die casting.An attempt of the application neural networks to the quality control of moulding sands with bentonite is presented in the paper. This isa method of assessing the suitability of moulding sands by finding correlations in between individual parameters, by means of artificialneural network systems. The presented investigations were performed with the application of the Statistica 8.0 program.The investigations were aimed at the selection of the proper kind of a neural network for prediction a sand moistness on the bases ofcertain moulding sand properties such as: permeability, compactibility and friability. These parameters – determined as sand moistness functions - were introduced as initial parameters.Application of the Statistica program allowed for an automatic selection of the most suitable network for the reflection of dependencies and interactions existing among the proposed parameters. The best results were obtained for unidirectional multi-layer perception network (MLP. The neural network sensitivity to individual moulding sand parameters was determined, which allowed to reject not important parameters when constructing the network.

J. Jakubski

2010-07-01

268

Sand Pile Avalanche Model  

Science.gov (United States)

The Sand Pile Avalanche Model simulates the occurences of avalanches in sand piles and plots the frequencies of the size of these avalanches. The general shape, size, and growth of a sand pile is easy to model as new sand grains are added. Although the pile assumes a conical shape, a new grain of sand can trigger an avalanche which causes some number of grains to slide down the side of the cone into new positions. These avalanches are chaotic and it is nearly impossible to predict if the next grain of sand will cause an avalanche, where that avalanche will occur on the pile, how many grains of sand will be involved in the event, and so on. The avalanche models have been related to other more chaotic phenomena, such as the frequency and intensity of earthquakes, historical fluctuations in cotton prices, extinction of species, sizes of cities, and solar eruptions.

Franciscouembre

2012-02-12

269

40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Zzzzzz... - Applicability of General Provisions to Aluminum, Copper, and Other Nonferrous Foundries Area Sources  

Science.gov (United States)

40 Protection of Environment 14 2010-07-01...and Other Nonferrous Foundries Area Sources 1 Table...Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...and Other Nonferrous Foundries Pt. 63, Subpt....

2010-07-01

270

77 FR 34012 - Foundry Coke Products From the People's Republic of China: Continuation of Antidumping Duty Order  

Science.gov (United States)

...Trade Administration [A-570-862] Foundry Coke Products From the People's Republic...revocation of the antidumping duty order on foundry coke products from the People's Republic...review of the antidumping duty order on foundry coke products from the PRC,...

2012-06-08

271

Quality management as a tool forming foundry competitive capacity in the process of market globalisation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper presents the analysis and identification of the key factors influencing the competitiveness of the foundry in the process of market globalisation. The main attention is paid to the quality management as an important tool used for the formation of the foundry's competitive capacity.

Wojtynek, L.

2010-01-01

272

Quality management as a tool forming foundry competitive capacity in the process of market globalisation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents the analysis and identification of the key factors influencing the competitiveness of the foundry in the process of market globalisation. The main attention is paid to the quality management as an important tool used for the formation of the foundry's competitive capacity.

L. Wojtynek

2010-04-01

273

Potential of modified iron-rich foundry waste for environmental applications: Fenton reaction and Cr(VI) reduction.  

Science.gov (United States)

A magnetic fraction (15%) from a waste of foundry sand (WFS), composed of sand, carbon, bentonite clay and iron (10%) was modified by thermal treatment at 400, 600 and 800°C under inert atmosphere. Mössbauer analyses showed that the thermal treatment increased the amount of Fe(3)O(4) from 25 to 55% by reduction of Fe(2)O(3) and highly dispersed Fe(3+) by the carbon present in the waste. The Fe(3)O(4) caused a significant increase on the activity of two important reactions with application in environmental remediation: the Fenton oxidation of indigo carmine dye with H(2)O(2) and the reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III). The magnetic fraction of WFS was also mixed with hematite (Fe(2)O(3)) and thermally treated at 400, 600 and 800°C. This treatment produced large amounts of surface Fe(3)O(4) and increased substantially the rate of Fenton reaction as well as Cr(VI) reduction. This reactivity combined with the presence of carbon (an adsorbent for organic contaminants), bentonite clay (an adsorbent for metallic contaminants) and the granulometry/packing/hydrodynamic features make WFS a promising material for use in reactive permeable barriers. PMID:21890267

Oliveira, Patrícia E F; Oliveira, Leandro D; Ardisson, José D; Lago, Rochel M

2011-10-30

274

Oil sands and petrochemicals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A study was conducted to evaluate new feedstocks from Alberta's vast oil sands resources to supplement natural gas liquids. The long-term competitiveness of Alberta's petrochemical industry can be increased by having both gas and oil feedstock options. Several schemes were evaluated to help Alberta develop synergies for its oil sands and petrochemical industries through cost effective integration of oil sands, upgrading, refining and petrochemical development. It was shown that phased integration of oil sands and petrochemical developments is technically and economically feasible to co-produce high grade fuels and petrochemicals. Alberta has the potential to become a world-scale energy and petrochemical producer. Alberta's oil sands facilities are potentially capable of supporting new world-scale plants producing ethylene, propylene, benzene, para-xylene, and other high-value-added derivatives. The products can be produced by integrating existing and new oil sands upgrading plants, refineries and petrochemical plants. tabs., figs

275

Industrial sand and gravel  

Science.gov (United States)

In 2005, domestic production of industrial sand and gravel was about 31 Mt, a 5% increase from 2004. This increase was bouyed by robust construction and petroleum sectors of the US economy. Based on estimated world production figures, the United States was the world's leading producer and consumer of industrial sand and gravel. In the short term, local shortages of industrial sand and gravel will continue to increase.

Dolley, T.P.

2006-01-01

276

Investigations of the Quality of the Reclaim of Spent Moulding Sands with Organic Binders  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Modern investigation methods and equipment for the quality estimation of the moulding sands matrices with organic binders, in theircirculation process, are presented in the paper. These methods, utilising the special equipment combined with the authors investigationmethods developed in the Faculty of Foundry Engineering, AGH the University of Science and Technology, allow for the better estimationof the matrix quality. Moulding sands systems with organic binders require an in-depth approach to factors deciding on the matrixtechnological suitability as well as on their environmental impact. Into modern methods allowing for the better assessment of the matrixquality belongs the grain size analysis of the reclaimed material performed by means of the laser diffraction and also the estimation of the moulding sand gas evolution rate and identification of the emitted gases and their BTEX group gases content, since they are specially hazardous from the point of view of the Occupational Safety and Health.

R. Da?ko

2012-09-01

277

Sand Sea Wonders: Geology  

Science.gov (United States)

This site describes the geology of The Great Sand Dunes National Monument and Preserve. Active links allow students to explore the geologic timeline, geologic cross section in animation, and the wind regime. A reversing dune is shown in animation and other dunes such as star, parabolic, barchan, and transverse are discussed. Another section illustrates sand recycling by seasonal streams. A sand deposits map shows topography, dunes watershed, old national monument boundary, roads, and surface water and a section called 'How Much Sand' quantifies the description. Artwork on this site includes both adult and 'Hands on the Land' student artwork while photography depicts dunes, landscape, animals, plants, and human history.

278

Active binder content as a factor of the control system of the moulding sand quality  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One of the modern methods of the production optimisation are artificial neural networks. Neural networks are gaining broader and broaderapplication in the foundry industry, among others for controlling melting processes in cupolas and in arc furnaces, for designing castingsand supply systems, for controlling moulding sand processing, for predicting properties of cast alloys or selecting parameters of pressurecastings. An attempt to apply neural networks for controlling the quality of bentonite moulding sands is presented in this paper. This is theassessment method of sands suitability by means of detecting correlations between their individual parameters. The presentedinvestigations were obtained by using the Statistica 9.0 program. The presented investigations were aimed at the selection of the neuralnetwork able to predict the active bentonite content in the moulding sand on the basis of this sand properties such as: permeability,compactibility and the compressive strength. An application of the Statistica program allowed to select automatically the type of networkproper for the representation of dependencies occurring in between the proposed moulding sand parameters. The most advantageousconditions were obtained for the uni-directional multi-layer perception (MLP network. Knowledge of the neural network sensitivity to individual moulding sand parameters, allowed to eliminate not essential ones.

J. Jakubski

2011-01-01

279

Use of Solid Waste (Foundry Slag) Mortar and Bamboo Reinforcement in Seismic Analysis for Single Storey Masonry Building  

Science.gov (United States)

The conversion of large amount of solid waste (foundry slag) into alternate source of building material will contribute not only as a solution to growing waste problem, but also it will conserve the natural resources of other building material and thereby reduce the cost of construction. The present work makes an effort to safe and economic use of recycle mortar (1:6) as a supplementary material. Conventional and recycled twelve prisms were casted with varying percentage of solid waste (foundry slag) added (0, 10, 20, 30 %) replacing cement by weight and tested under compression testing machine. As the replacement is increasing, the strength is decreasing. 10 % replacement curve is very closed to 0 % whereas 20 % is farther and 30 % is farthest. 20 % replacement was chosen for dynamic testing as its strength is within permissible limit as per IS code. A 1:4 scale single storey brick model with half size brick was fabricated on shake table in the lab for dynamic testing using pure friction isolation system (coarse sand as friction material µ = 0.34). Pure friction isolation technique can be adopted economically in developing countries where low-rise building prevails due to their low cost. The superstructure was separated from the foundation at plinth level, so as to permit sliding of superstructure during severe earthquake. The observed values of acceleration and displacement responses compare fairly with the analytical values of the analytical model. It also concluded that 20 % replacement of cement by solid waste (foundry slag) could be safely adopted without endangering the safety of the masonry structures under seismic load.To have an idea that how much energy is dissipated through this isolation, the same model with fixed base was tested and results were compared with the isolated free sliding model and it has been observed that more than 60 % energy is dissipated through this pure friction isolation technique. In case of base isolation, no visible cracks were observed up to the table force of 4.25 kN (1,300 rpm), whereas for fixed base failure started at 800 rpm.To strengthen the fixed base model, bamboo reinforcement were used for economical point of view. Another model of same dimension with same mortar ratio was fabricated on the shake table with bamboo reinforcement as plinth band and lintel band. In addition another four round bamboo bars of 3 mm diameter were placed at each of the four corners of the model. The building model was tested and found very encouraging and surprising results. The model failure started at 1,600 rpm, which means that this model is surviving the double force in comparison with the non-bamboo reinforcement.

Ahmad, S.; Husain, A.; Ghani, F.; Alam, M. N.

2013-11-01

280

Investigation of Pollution Emits By Cupola Furnace in Gujarat Foundry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The foundry industry is the major contributor in pollution among all other industries in India. At present only few foundries in India have pollution controllable system. Most of these casting industries use cupola furnace that emits gases namely carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide, suspended particle matter, dust and ash. Though, emission from single furnace is not considerable but it has huge impact if much such type of furnaces located in particular area. A inclusive study on the type of gas emitted, rate of gases and amount of pollution cause from cupola furnace is essential before design any emission controlling system. In this paper investigation on furnace wastages is carried out on GIDC (Gujarat, India. The outcomes of research are based on data taken out from cupola furnace where the pollution measuring system was set up. The rates of emission of gases are measured hourly for a whole day and it has been noted that in very first hours of firing the emission was at peak. It also been noted that pollution from this furnace was much higher than decided pollution range by the Gujarat pollution control board (GPCB. There are some alternatives of such furnaces are also suggested.

Hardikkumar Patil1 , Gajanan Patange2 , M.P.Khond

2013-05-01

 
 
 
 
281

Total productive maintenance on example of automated foundry lines  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Within framework of the presented study one has performed analysis of stoppages in automatic foundry lines operation, and basing on assumptions from complex maintenance system has undertaken himself to develop a service maintenance schedule for machinery installed in the line. Moreover, one has presented general assumptions of TPM system operated in conditions of series and multi-series production of cast iron castings. One has constructed operational database and has elaborated a list of line stoppage causes within a year. One has proposed a possibility of implementation of manufacturing systems modeling and simulating technique in management of production machinery operation in a foundry shop. Within framework of the simulation experiment one has developed schedules of production, schedules of maintenance and has forecasted indices of general productivity of the machinery for a various scenarios of events on example of casting line having in-series structure of operational reliability. In course of the study there was implemented ARENA universal software package to modeling and simulation of the manufacturing systems.

S. Kukla

2009-07-01

282

Total dose hardness of three commercial CMOS microelectronics foundries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The authors have measured the effects of total ionizing dose (TID) on CMOS FETs, ring oscillators and field-oxide transistor test structures fabricated at three different commercial foundries with four different processes. The foundries spanned a range of integration levels and included Hewlett-Packard (HP) 0.5 microm and 0.8 microm processes, an Orbit 1.2 microm process, and an AMI 1.6 microm process. They found that the highest tolerance to TID was for the HP 0.5 microm process, where the shift in NMOS threshold voltage was less than 40 mV at 300 krad. An examination of the dependence of the threshold voltage shift on gate oxide thickness indicated that oxides of the different commercial processes were of similar quality, and that the improvement in the total dose tolerance of the HP 0.5 microm technology is associated with the scaling of the gate oxide. Measurements on field-oxide transistors from the HP 0.5 microm process were shown not to invert for signal voltages at 300 krad, maintaining the integrity of the LOCOS isolation

283

Design for manufacturability guideline development: integrated foundry approach  

Science.gov (United States)

It has been widely accepted that to ensure good yield in IC wafer manufacturing, early adaptation of DFM (Design for Manufacturability) guidelines in design phase is required and it is particularly true in Foundry business. Integrated foundry approaches for DFM guideline development were presented in this paper. With emphasis of process variations and process sensitivity impact on design patterns, we describe the procedure of the combination of rule-based and simulation-based lithographical hotspot pattern characterizations. An evaluation of process sensitivity metrics for analyzing potential pattern hotspots is then described. In addition, based on hotspot pattern severity, repeated patterns from different designs are saved into a pattern library as knowledge deposition tool and those patterns can be easily identified later in new designs through pattern search, which is much faster than simulation based hotspot detections. With this approach, a set of DFM compliance rules is derived to designs in the design implementation stage for both 110nm and 90nm technology nodes, striving to gain more yield, device performance, and improve time-to-volume production.

Lee, Hyesung; Shim, Yeon-Ah; Choi, Jae-Young; Choi, Kwang-Seon; Wu, Joanne; Su, Bo; Zhou, Xinwei; Kim, Kenny

2008-10-01

284

DataFoundry: Warehousing techniques for dynamic environments  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Data warehouses and data marts have been successfully applied to a multitude of commercial business applications as tools for integrating and providing access to data located across an enterprise. Although the need for this capability is as vital in the scientific world as in the business domain, working warehouses in our community are scarce. A primary technical reason for this is that our understanding of the concepts being explored in an evolving scientific domain change constantly, leading to rapid changes in the data representation. When any database providing information to a warehouse changes its format, the warehouse must be updated to reflect these changes, or it will not function properly. The cost of maintaining a warehouse using traditional techniques in this environment is prohibitive. This paper describes ideas for dramatically reducing the amount of work that must be done to keep a warehouse up to date in a dynamic, scientific environment. The ideas are being applied in a prototype warehouse called DataFoundry. DataFoundry, currently in use by structural biologists at LLNL, will eventually support scientists at the Department of Energy`s Joint Genome Institute.

Critchlow, T.; Fidelis, K.; Ganesh, M.; Musick, R.; Slezak, T., LLNL

1998-01-29

285

Energy efficiency improvement and pollution reduction in a cupola route foundry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Coke is the major source of fuel used in foundries, primarily to melt the metallic charges in a vertical shaft furnace called cupola. Most of the cupolas operating in the small-scale foundries have very low energy efficiencies and poor environmental performances. The paper describes a technological upgradation initiative undertaken to improve the energy efficiency environmental performance of small-scale foundry units in India. Technology upgradation of the melting plant leads to reduced energy consumption, which in turn leads to savings in operating cost and has the added attraction of reduction in emissions generation at source. The reduction of pollution at source reduces the size of the pollution control system necessary to meet the statutory emission standards. Till recently, most of the foundries had conventional cupolas. The DBC (divided blast cupola) is an attractive option of reducing coke consumption at a modest investment. The design of a suitable flue gas cleaning system along with DBC was undertaken to provide a viable solution to small-scale foundries. The paper describes the design features as regards energy efficiency, pollution, and melting of a demonstration cupola plant that was set up at a foundry in Howrah. Results of the demonstration project reveal that there is a huge potential for energy saving and pollution reduction in foundries of India. However, the compliance to environmental standards will be better if the emission limits are made more pragmatic and a better rapport is established between the industry associations and controlling authorities. 3 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

Pal, P.; Bhattacherjee, S. [Tata Energy Research Institute, New Delhi (India)

2001-07-01

286

Exposure to low molecular weight isocyanates and formaldehyde in foundries using hot box core binders.  

Science.gov (United States)

Emissions from a chemical core binder system (Hot Box) based on a formaldehyde-carbamide resin have been investigated. The binder is used in some Swedish die-casting foundries. During core-making and casting, low molecular monoisocyanates, in particular methyl isocyanate (MIC) and isocyanic acid (ICA), were identified. Exposure to air concentrations of MIC, ICA and formaldehyde were subsequently determined in all Swedish foundries using the Hot Box binder, and involved three brass and one grey iron foundry. The survey was carried out in the winter period of 2001, and involved core-makers, casters and fettlers in the brass foundries, whereas only core-makers were included in the grey iron foundry. For each worker, four to five short-term samples of isocyanates (n = 298) and one 8 h sample of formaldehyde (n = 64) were collected during one shift for 15 die-casters, 39 core-makers and 10 other workers in the foundry. The air concentrations of the MIC short-term samples varied between casting, low molecular monoisocyanates, in particular MIC and ICA, were identified. Compared to the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) threshold limit value-time weighted average (TLV-TWA) for MIC, the exposures were low. The lack of toxicological and human data for ICA and the relatively high air concentrations call for medical examination and preventive measures in production, ventilation and the use of personal safety equipment in the investigated foundries. PMID:16126762

Westberg, Håkan; Löfstedt, Håkan; Seldén, Anders; Lilja, Bengt-Gunnar; Nayström, Peter

2005-11-01

287

Petrochemicals from oil sands  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The petrochemical industry in Alberta developed rapidly during the 1980s and 1990s. However, projected diminishing gas production from the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin has raised concerns about the future growth of the industry in Alberta. A joint industry/government study has been conducted to evaluate new feedstocks from Alberta's vast oil sands resources to supplement natural gas liquids. Having both gas and oil sands feedstock options should increase the long-term competitiveness of Alberta's petrochemical industry.This paper presents a framework for evaluating and optimizing schemes for helping Alberta develop synergies for its oil sands and petrochemical industries through cost effective integration of oil sands, upgrading, refining and petrochemical development from 2005 to 2020. The paper places emphasis on specific locations and market conditions. It demonstrates that phased integration of oil sands and petrochemical developments is technically and economically feasible to co-produce high grade fuels and petrochemicals, assuming a new pipeline is built between Edmonton and Vancouver. Alberta has the potential to become a world-scale energy and petrochemical cluster. Alberta's oil sands facilities are potentially capable of supporting new world-scale plants producing ethylene, propylene, benzene, para-xylene, and other high-value-added derivatives. The products can be produced by integrating existing and new oil sands upgrading plants, refineries and petsands upgrading plants, refineries and petrochemical plants within the next 5 to 10 years. 3 refs., 2 tabs., 7 figs

288

Sand-rich deltas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article focuses on the reservoir characteristics of high-energy sand-rich deltas. These form when the wave and tidal action is sufficiently strong to rework the deposits brought in by distributary channels before their burial. The principal types of sand bodies and highest-quality reservoir rocks in a delta are channels and stream-mouth bars. Also present are the sheet sands deposited on a delta front and localized sand bodies left in minor crevasse deposits adjacent to channels during floods. While these bodies have definite areal relationships to one another during the process of building a lobe on the delta, their three-dimensional relationships become complex as the deltas build seaward or shift positions along the shoreline. Thus, a channel active during a later building cycle may cut into or may lie over stream-mouth bars, delta-front sheets, or crevasse sands left earlier. Fortunately, the various sand bodies have different distributions or permeability and different responses to logs so that they can be identified. The coarsest sand is left at the base of a channel and silt and clays are left at the top. Low gamma ray log responses at the bases show that little clay or shale is present. The increased gamma ray log response toward the tops of the channels reflects the presence of more clay and shale

289

System and process for the abatement of casting pollution, reclaiming resin bonded sand, and/or recovering a low BTU fuel from castings  

Science.gov (United States)

Air is caused to flow through the resin bonded mold to aid combustion of the resin binder to form a low BTU gas fuel. Casting heat is recovered for use in a waste heat boiler or other heat abstraction equipment. Foundry air pollution is reduced, the burned portion of the molding sand is recovered for immediate reuse and savings in fuel and other energy is achieved.

Scheffer, Karl D. (121 Governor Dr., Scotia, NY 12302)

1984-07-03

290

Analysis of effectiveness of used sands reclamation treatment – in various technological devices  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The analysis of effectiveness of spent sands reclamation treatment performed in technological devices of various intensity of dry reclamation – during which used binding material is being removed from grain surfaces – is presented in the paper. Variety of reclamation influences was considered via the realization of the so called elementary operations such as: rubbing, grinding and crushing [1-5], which are realised mainly in dry mechanical reclamation devices but also appear in other technological devices for sand preparation.The model rotor reclaimer and two types of mixers used for preparing initial foundry sands with resin U 404 and hardener 100 T3 of the Hüttenes-Albertus Company were applied for tests.The theoretical model for assessing the effectiveness of reclamation treatment developed by the author [3, 4], was experimentally verified [5, 7], with the application of standard testing procedures. The model can be considered a new tool enabling the selection of optimal reclamation times for the given used sand at the assumed intensity of silica sand matrix recovery. Sand mixture of a proper composition fulfilled needed technological properties after total hardening was used as charge material in experiments. The reclamation treatment consisted of mechanical and mechanical-cryogenic reclamation performed within a wide range of times and conditions influencing the treatment intensity.

R. Da?ko

2009-10-01

291

Gravel and sand resources of the New England-New York region  

Science.gov (United States)

Deposits of sand and gravel are widespread in the New England-New York regions and constitute one of its principal mineral resources. Most of the pits are operated intermittently to supply local needs. Because of the great number and variety of known deposits, and because they have been worked at countless points it is impracticable to describe in detail either the deposits or the individual pits. On the other hand, a broad description of the geologic modes of occurrence with relation to the regional geology will serve adequately to indicate the importance of the resource in the regional economy and development. Except for some special sands, such as "glass sand", certain molding and foundry sands, et. al., for which restrictive textural, compositional and physical properties are required, sand and gravel are used chiefly for local construction and are not commonly transported for long distances. Sand and gravel deposits of the region fall into four principal genetic categories - e.g., glacial, alluvial, marine, and aeolian. Of these, deposits of glacial origin are by far the most widespread and important.

Currier, Louis W.

1955-01-01

292

The influence of microwave heating and water glass kind on the properties of molding sands  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This work presents rcsults of research on thc influcncc of microwave heating time on the process of hardening of warcr glass moldingsands. Essential influence of this drying process on basic properties such as: cornprcssion, bcnding mind tcnsitc strcng~h as well aspcrrneabili~y and war resistance, has bccn found. It has bccn proved, that at1 thc investigated sorts of sodium water glass could be uscd asbinding material of molding sands intended for curing with the microwave process healing. It has bccn found, while analyzing the rcsultsof property studics or microwavc heated molding sands with 2.5% addition of water glass, that aIl available on the markct kinds of thisbinding agent (inctuding the most frequently uscd in foundry 145 and 149 kinds after microwave heating guarantee very goodcompression, bending and tensile strength as well as permeability and wcar resistance. Moroovcr, it has bccn dctcrmined that the optimalcuring powcr of molding sands containing various kinds of water gIass is 560 W. AII values exceeding this rcsult in stabilization of basicpropcrtics of molding sands. The use of microwave curing of water glass molding sands results in a significant decrease of hardeningprocess time. full stabilization of molding sands as well as much lower energy consumption.

K. Granat

2008-03-01

293

UK Frac Sand Resources  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Although still just a glimmer in the gas man’s eye, the prospect of shale gas development in the UK has many companies thinking about the industrial minerals it will require. Chief amongst these is silica sand which is used as a ‘proppant’ in the hydraulic fracturing, or ‘fracking’, of shales to help release the gas. The UK has large resources of sand and sandstone, of which only a small proportion have the necessary technical properties that classify them as ‘silica sand’. S...

Mitchell, Clive

2014-01-01

294

Evolutionary based system for production scheduling in foundry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This work presents a development of a capable-to-promise system for companies that operate under the hybrid make-to-order and maketo-stock strategy in a lot-sizing and flowshop environment. Proposed system simultaneously considers planning and scheduling processesin order to achieve the optimality. Optimisation engine is based on an advanced evolutionary algorithm. Information available in ERPsystem from different production units and stages, the optimization module, and customer requests are integrated via Internet using XMLlanguage as a data exchange standard.The details on key elements of the system and a software architecture are given. Practical application of the system is illustrated on the example of production scheduling for an iron castings foundry.

A. Stawowy

2008-10-01

295

Advanced laser mask repair in the current wafer foundry environment  

Science.gov (United States)

Contrary to the prior assumptions of its technical demise, deep UV (DUV) femtosecond pulsed laser repair of photomasks is continuing to mature and improve as a technology. Similar to the optical enhancements that allow for 193 nm wavelength light to continue being used down to the 32, or even in some cases 22 nm, node, the process regimes for this type of laser repair continue to expand as new processes are discovered. This work reviews the qualification of repair performance for production at a major wafer foundry site. In addition advances are shown in the area of through-pellicle repair (TRP) process development. These advances include the preferential (versus surrounding reference mask structures) removal of soft defects and the capability to remove or manipulate particles on top of a flat absorber region with no detectable removal of the absorber. These developments will further demonstrate the progressive decoupling of the laser repair spot size from the minimum technology node for laser repair.

Robinson, Tod; Yi, Daniel; LeClaire, Jeff; White, Roy; Bozak, Ron; Archuletta, Mike

2010-09-01

296

Beneficial Use Information Center (BUIC): Foundry By-products  

Science.gov (United States)

The database on beneficial reuse of foundry by-products may be downloaded as a Microsoft Access (.mdb) file through the Beneficial Use Information Center of the University of Wisconsin-Madison. The database was designed "to identify (1) materials and applications where methods and specifications exist such that beneficial reuse can begin or be expanded immediately and (2) areas in need of further research." Data were assembled by the University of Wisconsin-Madison researchers from 98 projects in fourteen states and two locations in Canada. Applications described in the database are Structural/Base/Sub-base Fill, Flowable Fill, Concrete and Related Products, Asphalt, Soil Amendments, Portland Cement, Landfill Liners and Covers, and Other Applications such as pipe bedding, clay bricks, and landfill drainage layers.

297

Classification of foundry clients using business rules approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper presents the application of business rules approach for the classification of foundry clients taking into account t he economic and technological attributes. Business Rules Management (BRM systems allow non-technical business people to change the rules, analyze them for errors, and test and simulate them for impact analysis. Although BRM is focused on business processes improvement, it is possible to use this approach in technology management. The model of classification problem, and the knowledge base as a set of decision tables are presented in the paper.The results indicate that the proposed business rules tool REBIT, developed by AGH team as the project co-funded by the European Union, is feasible as a complete knowledge base and technology management method.

A. Stawowy

2011-10-01

298

Kinetics of moisture absorption in mixtures for iron foundry  

CERN Document Server

The moisture absorption in granulated materials used in foundry technologies is analyzed. The absorption process has a diffusive behavior mainly. A simple experimental technique, in which the wet weight increment was recorded as the experimental parameter and an analytic method with computing procedure to find the parameters characterizing the process was used. The determination of these parameters by traditional methods is a very difficult task so, very refined and expensive trials are needed. The fitting of the model permits to determine the diffusion coefficient and the moisture concentration in the separation surface between the sample and the environment. The concentration profiles are established for different times. Finally, the possibility of occurrence of superimposed diffusive processes in some materials is analyzed and the diffusion coefficient and the amount of moisture incorporated by each process are calculated.

Cocina, E V; Rodríguez, R; Cocina, Ernesto Villar; Morales, Eduardo Valencia; Rodriguez, Romulo Gonzalez

1999-01-01

299

Sand, Plants and Pants  

Science.gov (United States)

In this activity, learners explore how the application of nano-sized particles or coatings can change a bigger materialâs properties. Learners investigate the hydrophobic properties of plants, nano-fabric pants and magic sand.

Network, Nanoscale I.; Houston, Children'S M.

2014-06-04

300

Closeout of IE Bulletin 80-21: valve parts supplied by Malcom Foundry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cracking of yokes in active valves in a safety-related system was discovered during pre-operational testing of the Residual Heat Removal System at Susquehanna 1. These defective yokes had been supplied to Anchor/Darling Valve Company by Malcolm Foundry Company, Inc. Because Malcolm Foundry had gone out of business, it was necessary to issue the Bulletin to utilities to determine directly whether Malcolm Foundry had provided parts to valve manufacturers other than Anchor/Darling. From results of the extensive survey of valve manufacturers generated by this Bulletin, it was determined that only Anchor/Darling had used Malcolm Foundry as a source of safety-related valve parts. On the basis of survey results and a search of Anchor/Darling records, it was found that only seven facilities had affected valves

 
 
 
 
301

Ergonomic and work safety evaluation criteria of process excellence in the foundry industry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article presents a concept of criteria assessment called the “process excellence” for ergonomics and work safety in enterprises of the foundry industry as well as points to the possibility of its application.

M. Butlewski

2014-10-01

302

Implementation KMES Quality system for acquisition and processing data in chosen foundry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the paper, main assumptions, algorithms and functions of author’s KMES Quality system are discussed. Its working version is tested in chosen foundry by near 2 years. This system is applied to enlarge the use of chosen technological data accessible during foundry processes. The data can be introduced by means of keyboard directly in the fields (windows present on the PC screen according to program commands, instead of report-manuscripts containing measured results, or from the automated measurement recording system by direct data import to KMES Quality system. In the paper, a way of technological data acquisition with their further integration into main foundry databases and their processing, with taking into consideration e.g. kind of casting assortment, current time, sequences of measurements, are presented. Also the capabilities of linking KMES Quality system with SAP R/3 system existing in this foundry useful to quality assurance is show.

R. Sika

2008-08-01

303

Laboratories for the 21st Century: Case Studies, Molecular Foundry, Berkeley, California  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This case study provides information on the Molecular Foundry, which incorporates Labs21 principles in its design and construction. The design includes many of the strategies researched at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory for energy efficient cleanroom and data centers.

2010-11-01

304

Electromagnet Gripping in Iron Foundry Automation Part I: Principles and Framework  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Robot grippers are employed to position and retain parts in automated assembly operations. This paper presents an overview of electromagnet part handling framework in an iron foundry and an equivalent electromagnet circuit model. The manner in which this whole concept of automated gripping system operates will be discussed in this paper. The material handling system uses machine vision system coupled with conveyor motion and Ethernet communication strategy to assist the material handling system for transporting the foundry parts. The paper provides an overview of the electromagnet principles at play. The electromagnet interaction with the part is the key issue in the robust handling of this automated foundry system. This paper helps in the realization of the concept of automation in an iron foundry, in which the number of published studies is very limited.

Rhythm Suren Wadhwa

2011-11-01

305

Magic Sand Movie  

Science.gov (United States)

This document from the Midwest Regional Center for Nanotechnology Education (NANO-LINK) is intended to be used with the other materials in the "magic sand" series of classroom lessons, which are available here. This resource is a 4 minute video demonstrating the magic sand experiment. In this experiment, students "will explore how the properties of a substance at the molecular level affects the way that it reacts and behaves."

2013-07-03

306

Sand Grain Observations  

Science.gov (United States)

In this activity (on page 1 of the PDF), learners will use a magnifier to carefully examine samples of sand from different locations. They record their observations regarding the different grain characteristics to formulate their own explanations of where the sand came from, why the grains are jagged or smooth, and how they may have been sorted. Relates to the linked video, DragonflyTV GPS: Earthquakes.

Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.

2006-01-01

307

Assessment of Occupational Exposure to Aluminum Respirable Aerosols among Aluminum Foundry Workers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available AbstractBackgrounds and Aims: Aluminum and in particular its compounds make up a large proportion of the pollutants coming from the aluminum foundry. In several studies conducted on the harmful effects of aluminum in recent decades, it has been identified as a neurotoxic metal. Chronic occupational exposure through inhalation of dust is a common problem in aluminum foundries. Investigation of the exposure of various occupational groups in two aluminum foundry plants to aluminum aerosols.Materials and Methods: To study the occupational exposure of foundry workers to respirable aerosols of aluminum, personal sampling was conducted from the breathing zone of 63 workers at two foundries in the south of Tehran city following NIOSH method No. 0600. Then samples were treated using NIOSH Institute optimized method No. 7013 and analyzed by high sensitivity graphite atomic absorption.Collected data were analyzed with SPSS V.16 statistical software using an independent sample t-test and ANOVA.Result: The average of aluminum respirable aerosols in A and B factories were 3.21±2.33 and 3.31±2.15 mg/m3 respectively. The one-way ANOVA indicated that occupational exposure among various occupational groups (Similar Exposure Group in Foundry A had no significant difference (p=0.089, but differences between the exposure of melting and assembling groups in Foundry B are significant (p=0.044. In general, in exposure frequency to aerosols in aluminum foundries, a significant difference was observed between melting and assembling groups (p=0.005 as well among abrading and assembling groups (p=0.02. Conclusion: Most of the exposures to aluminum in foundry workers exceeded the current limits given by ACGIH Institute and the Iranian occupational exposure limits. According to the occupational exposure of both foundries and the absence of differences among variables involved in the exposure, the high exposure of melting and abrading groups compared to assembling groups can be attributed to the nature of these units in the production of aluminum aerosols.Keywords: Occupational Exposure; Aluminum Foundry; Respirable Aerosols.

Rezazadeh Azari M

2013-01-01

308

Specificity of SPC Procedures Application in Foundry in Aspect of Data Acquisition and Data Exploration  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The paper presents an analysis of SPC (Statistical Process Control) procedures usability in foundry engineering. The authors pay particular attention to the processes complexity and necessity of correct preparation of data acquisition procedures. Integration of SPC systems with existing IT solutions in area of aiding and assistance during the manufacturing process is important. For each particular foundry, methodology of selective SPC application needs to prepare for supervision and control o...

Ignaszak, Z.; Sika, R.

2012-01-01

309

Implementation KMES Quality system for acquisition and processing data in chosen foundry  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the paper, main assumptions, algorithms and functions of author’s KMES Quality system are discussed. Its working version is tested in chosen foundry by near 2 years. This system is applied to enlarge the use of chosen technological data accessible during foundry processes. The data can be introduced by means of keyboard directly in the fields (windows) present on the PC screen according to program commands, instead of report-manuscripts containing measured results, or from the automated ...

Sika, R.; Ignaszak, Z.

2008-01-01

310

Database for foundry engineers – simulationDB – a modern database storing simulation results  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Purpose: of this paper The main aim of this paper is to build specific database system for collecting, analysing and searching simulation results.Design/methodology/approach: It was prepared using client-server architecture. Then was prepared GUI - Graphical User Interface.Findings: New database system for foundry was discovered.Practical implications: System development is in progress and practical implication will be hold in one of iron foundry in next year.Originality/value: The original v...

Malinowski, P.; Suchy, J. S.

2010-01-01

311

Research and application of enterprise resource planning system for foundry enterprises  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

PPDB issues - four aspects of current management issues of foundry enterprises are discussed in this paper, including Production Management, Process Control, Duration Monitoring and Business Intelligence Data Analysis. Also a whole Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) solution for foundry enterprises is proposed. The solution contains many models, four of which are used to solve the PPDB issues. These are called SPDB models, which separately are the Single-piece management model (based on casti...

Zhou Jianxin; Ji Xiaoyuan; Liao Dunming

2013-01-01

312

Evaluation and Verification of Time and Costs of Production Activities in Foundry Industry  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This work presents the possibility of using technology of modelling and simulation of productive systems in the management of cast iron production by means of automated foundry lines to maximize assembly line structure. The computer model of foundry has been planed and conducted in order to compile the schedule of cast production. The variants of solution have been estimated talking into account time limitations imposed by clients and the criterion for prime costs appointed on the basis of th...

Kukla, S.

2007-01-01

313

Simulation by the method of inverse cumulative distribution function applied in optimising of foundry plant production  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The study discusses application of computer simulation based on the method of inverse cumulative distribution function. The simulationrefers to an elementary static case, which can also be solved by physical experiment, consisting mainly in observations of foundryproduction in a selected foundry plant. For the simulation and forecasting of foundry production quality in selected cast iron grade, arandom number generator of Excel calculation sheet was chosen. Very wide potentials of this type o...

Szymszal, J.; Pia?tkowski, J.; Podolski, P.; Klis?, J.

2009-01-01

314

The new foundry line for magnesium alloys high-pressure die-casting  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The new foundry line for high-pressure die-casting of magnesium alloys constructed in the “SILUM” Foundry (Opojowice, Poland) is described. In the process cold chamber die-casting machines are used. The experimental casts and the radiators fabricated using the new cold chamber die-casting line are presented as the final results. The new production line allows to obtain good quality magnesium casts.

Braszczyn?ska-malik, K. N.; Walczak, W.; Braszczyn?ski, J.

2008-01-01

315

Comparison of Energy Consumption in the Classical (PID) and Fuzzy Control of Foundry Resistance Furnace  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Foundry resistance furnaces are thermal devices with a relatively large time delay in their response to a change in power parameters.Commonly used in automation classical PID controllers do not meet the requirements of high-quality control. Developed in recent years,fuzzy control theory is increasingly being used in various branches of economy and industry. Fuzzy controllers allow to introduce newdevelopments in control systems of foundry furnaces as well. Correctly selected fuzzy controller ...

Zio??kowski, E.; S?mierciak, P.

2012-01-01

316

Barriers to and drivers for energy efficiency in the Swedish foundry industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Despite the need for increased industrial energy efficiency, studies indicate that cost-efficient energy conservation measures are not always implemented, explained by the existence of barriers to energy efficiency. This paper investigates the existence of different barriers to and driving forces for the implementation of energy efficiency measures in the energy intensive Swedish foundry industry. The overall results from a questionnaire show that limited access to capital constitutes by far the largest barrier to energy efficiency according to the respondents. A comparison between group-owned and privately owned foundries shows that, except for limited access to capital, they face different high-ranked barriers. While barriers within group owned companies are more related to organizational problems, barriers within private foundries are more related to information problems. This study also found that energy consultants or other actors working with energy issues in foundries are of major importance in overcoming the largest barriers, as the foundries consider them trustworthy. They may thus help the foundries overcome organizational problems such as lack of sub-metering and lack of budget funds by quantifying potential energy efficiency investments. The two, by far, most important drivers were found to be people with real ambition and long-term energy strategies

317

Determination of application possibilities of microwave heating in the curing process of water glass molding sands with fluid esters. Part 2  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article, constituting continuation of the subject discussed in the first part, presents results of the experimental trial of water glass molding sands’ curing method modification with application of fluid esters and innovative microwave heating. The research objective was to determine possibilities of microwave application for curing of water glass molding sands prepared with addition of hardening agents sold under the trade name of Mach. After initial chemical curing molding sands, prepared with addition of the above mentioned hardeners, have been heated with microwaves in order to determine their influence on changes of basic technological and strength parameters of the sands, and indirectly on the quality of quartz grains binding. Studies aimed at determination of water content changes in the sands have also been undertaken. As our studies demonstrated, microwave heating allows for quick reduction of water content, thus resulting in improvement of strength parameters such as bending and tensile strength. Application of the combined methods of ester curing and innovative microwave heating facilitates production of high quality foundry moulds and cores, while simultaneously improving mould and core preparation procedures at the foundries and as a result reduces their time to an indispensable minimum.

K. Granat

2009-01-01

318

Chemical and radiometric determination of uranium and thorium in zircon sands and phosphorites after separation by extraction chromatography  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Zircon sands, essentially composed of zircon, are materials widely used in zirconium extraction industry, in foundry sands, in refractories and ceramics; phosphorites are the starting material for the industrial production of phosphoric acid, fertilisers and plasters. Zircon sands and phosphorites contain sensible concentration of uranium, thorium and radium representing a potential radiation risk for the professionally exposed staff. The measurements by gamma spectrometry give often too high uranium contents if compared with those obtained by other methods because the members of uranium series are not always in radioactive equilibrium with the parents. Consequently it is useful to operate both by analytical and radiochemical techniques which permit the determination of the elementary thorium and uranium and also of their isotopic composition. The aim of the present work was to find out two different methods by Extraction Chromatography for the separation of uranium, thorium and radium before their radiometric determination by ZnS(Ag) alpha counting (Ra-226) and by alpha spectrometry (U, Th)

319

Bituminous sands : tax issues  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper examined some of the tax issues associated with the production of bitumen or synthetic crude oil from oil sands. The oil sands deposits in Alberta are gaining more attention as the supplies of conventional oil in Canada decline. The oil sands reserves located in the Athabasca, Cold Lake and Peace River areas contain about 2.5 trillion barrels of highly viscous hydrocarbons called bitumen, of which nearly 315 billion barrels are recoverable with current technology. The extraction method varies for each geographic area, and even within zones and reservoirs. The two most common extraction methods are surface mining and in-situ extraction such as cyclic steam stimulation (CSS); low pressure steam flood; pressure cycle steam drive; steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD); hot water flooding; and, fire flood. This paper also discussed the following general tax issues: bituminous sands definition; bituminous sands leases and Canadian development expense versus Canadian oil and gas property expense (COGPE); Canadian exploration expense (CEE) for surface mining versus in-situ methods; additional capital cost allowance; and, scientific research and experimental development (SR and ED). 15 refs

320

Rebounding process of moulding sands-thermal degradation of bentonite binding qualities  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problems related to a gradual degradation of binding qualities of montmorillonite, the main component of foundry bentonites, are presented in the paper. This degradation is caused by high temperatures originated from liquid metal influencing moulding sands. Laboratory measurements of an active binding agent content in classic moulding sands prepared with two types of bentonite and subjected to a controlled heating to high temperatures – were performed. These laboratory examinations were compared to industrial tests, in which a temperature distribution was being determined in several places in the thickness of the casting ingot mould for 24 hours from the moment of pouring liquid metal. On the basis of the performed examinations, the method allowing to determine optimal additions in the rebounding process of the tested bentonites was developed.

R. Da?ko

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

New BioCo binders containing biopolymers for foundry industry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Possibilities of cross-linking of new polymer binders from the BioCo group, their hardening in moulding sands at the application of cross-linking agents both physical and chemical are presented. Their thermal stability was determined. It was proved, that moulding sands bound by the BioCo binders are characterised by the compression strength (Ruc of an order of 2 MPa, and the bending strength (Rug of 1 MPa, after 1 hour of a sample curing. The worked out BioCo binders are biodegradable and renewable in the part which was not completely burned. The investigated moulding sands with the BioCo binders are easily knocked out and have a good susceptibility for mechanical reclamation processes.

B. Grabowska

2013-01-01

322

Cleanup under Airlock of an Old Uranium Foundry - 13273  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since 2004, AREVA's subsidiary SICN has been conducting the cleanup and dismantling of an old uranium foundry located in the town of Annecy (France). The first operations consisted in the removal of the foundry's production equipment, producing more than 300 metric tons (MT) of waste. The second step consisted in performing the radiological characterization of the 1,600 m2 (17,200 ft2) building, including underground trenches and galleries. The building was precisely inventoried, based on operations records and direct measurements. All sub-surfaces, which needed to be cleaned up were characterized, and a determination of the contamination migration was established, in particular with trenches and galleries. The wall thicknesses to be treated were empirically justified, knowing that the maximal migration depth inside concrete is 5 mm for a liquid transfer vector. All singularities such as cracks, anchoring points, etc. were spotted for a complete and systematic treatment. Building structures not laying directly on the soil, such as floor slabs, were not cleaned up but directly deconstructed and disposed of as waste. The facility was located within the town of Annecy. Therefore, in order to avoid the risk of dusts dispersion and public exposure during the building deconstruction and the soil treatment, a third of the building's surface was confined in a sliding airlock built from a metal structure capable of resisting to wind and snow, which are frequent in this area. This particular structure provided a static confinement over the half of the building which was covered and a dynamic confinement using a ventilation and high efficiency air filtration system, sized to provide 2.5 air changes per hour. The enclosure and its metallic structure is 33 m long (108 feet), 25 m wide (82 feet), and 13 m high (42 feet), for a volume of 10,000 m3 (353,000 ft3). It was made up of a double skin envelope, allowing the recycling of its structure and outside envelope. After cleaning up and dismantling the first portion of the building, the enclosure was repositioned on the second and the last third of the building, by sliding it on support pads. Almost 7,000 m2 of concrete surface has been treated with no dust dispersion outside the enclosure. After treatment, all the remaining surfaces were controlled by an independent entity to verify their acceptability with regards to residual contamination (less than 0.4 Bq/cm2 (24 DPM) for alpha contamination and less than 1 Bq/g of total uranium). Approximately 1,900 MT of equipment and waste were generated in batches of 1m3, in order to be staged on site, and then characterized and packaged in 20 foot containers for shipment to the final ANDRA repository. The package certification included the verification of the physical and chemical characteristics and the radiological characteristics (mass activity, dose rate, and residual outside surface contamination). Finally, after cleanup and dismantling of the foundry, a concrete slab was poured on the free surface as a clean base for implementation of new activities. (authors)

323

Application of microwave energy for curing of molding sands containing oil binders  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This works presents the results of studies concerning possibility of application of microwave heating in the curing process of molding sands containing oil binders. Molding sands prepared with three kinds of binders, that is oils C, DL and Retanol, have been subject to experiments. The sands have been dried with two methods: in a microwave chamber of 750W power and, for comparison, with classical method at the temperature of 200°C for 120 minutes. Tensile and bending strength of the samples have been determined after cooling down. It has been found that microwave drying in the low-power device used for experiments is effective only in case of molding sand prepared with addition of DL binder. The temperature of heated, even up to 32 minutes in a microwave chamber, blocks prepared from the remaining two masses, was insufficient to initiate binding process. The undertaken attempts of binder modification and introduction of additives intensifying microwave heating process allowed for achievement of satisfactory results. It has been found that power of the heating device is the main factor determining efficiency of microwave curing of molding sands containing oil binders. An additional experiment has been conducted on a laboratory workstation allowing for microwave heating of small mass samples with a high output power of magnetron concentrated in a small substrate volume. It has been observed that microwave drying process of molding sands was of dynamic character over a short period of time, not exceeding 120 seconds, thus assuring efficient curing of the sands containing the used oil binders. Therefore, application of devices of properly high microwave output power allows for efficient drying of oil molding sands, while simultaneously assuring the possibility to reduce time and energy consumption necessary for production of foundry cores of proper functional characteristics.

M. Stachowicz

2008-07-01

324

Pre-SPC Math for Foundry Workers. A Lesson Developed for Robinson Foundry and Bodine-Robinson as Part of a National Workplace Literacy Program.  

Science.gov (United States)

Developed as part of a National Workplace Literacy Program, this lesson focuses on terms and mathematical operations associated with Statistical Process Control (SPC) in the foundry industry. With appropriate assistance and preparatory work, workers testing between grades 4 and 9 on the Test of Adult Basic Education Locator should be able to use…

Rasmussen, Bonnie

325

Signalling a foundry mould filling degree with infrared sensors  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A contactless method of measuring a foundry mould filling degree in course of its pouring with liquid metal is suggested. The concept is based on infrared radiation of molten metal appearing in venting and flow-off holes. As the detector, an infrared channel receiving diode is applied. Three solutions were tested. In the first solution, the diode is placed at the calculated distance from the radiation source, in a housing that suppresses the scattered signal. The housing contains the electronics, while power supply and control signals are delivered by conductors. A diode actuation threshold is established in order to obtain high resolution and repeatability of the results. On the output, a miniature relay transmits the signal to the control system. In the second solution, the measuring system is supplied with a battery and the signal in transmitted through a plastic optical fibre. In the third solution, the optical fibre serves as an energy carrier. The optical system focuses the infrared radiation and introduces the energy to the optical fibre. On the other end of the fibre, a phototransistor amplifies the signal, forms it and transmits to the control system. Some experiments were carried out. Their results permitted noting disadvantages and advantages of individual solutions. It was evidenced that the measurement results obtained using the infrared radiation are independent on a constructional design. The solutions utilising optical fibres proved to be more useful in industrial conditions. Targets and further directions of research works using transceivers for wireless data transmission are presented.

M. Bogdan

2008-07-01

326

Environmental assessment of cement/foundry sludge products.  

Science.gov (United States)

This work deals with the environmental assessment of products based on cement and a waste from a cast iron activity. The waste is a foundry sludge from wastewater treatment previously characterized. This industrial waste shows a high water content (62.4%) and a hazardous behavior due to its metallic content mainly Zn (16.5%), together with a low fraction of organic pollutants, mainly phenolic compounds. The feasibility of immobilizing both typs of contaminants was studied using Portland cement as binder at different cement/waste ratios. The parameters of environmental control were the ecotoxicity and mobilization of zinc and phenolic compounds, all determined on the basis of compliance leaching tests. The acid neutralization capacity of the cement/waste products was measured in order to obtain information on their buffering capacity. Experimental results from chemical analysis of leachates led to a non ecotoxic character of cement/waste products Although the metallic ions were mobilized within the cement mattices, the organic matter did not allow the formation of monolithic forms and an efficient immobilization of phenolic compounds. Concerning the acid neutralization capacity, this parameter was shown to depend mainly on the quantity of cement, although a decrease in alkalinity was observed when the amount of water in the cement/waste products increased. PMID:12803251

Ruiz, M C; Andrés, A; Irabien, A

2003-05-01

327

Electromagnet Gripping in Iron Foundry Automation Part II: Simulation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper compares the simulation and initial experimental results for robust part handling by radially symmetric cylindrical electromagnetic gripper heads, that are used in foundry manufacturing assembly operation. Knowledge of the direct holding force is essential to determine if a given electromagnet is capable of preventing part slipping during pick and place operation. Energy based model and the magnetic circuit model have been described. The latter is developed further and compared with results from a FEA software. It was found that the magnetic circuit model, although simple in form, was limited in its ability to accurately predict the holding force over the entire range of conditions investigated. The shortcomings in the model were attributed to its inability to accurately model the leakage flux and non-uniform distribution of the magnetic flux. A finite element allowed for the ability to couple the mechanical and magnetic models. The finite element model was used to predict the magnetic field based off the solutions to the mechanical (sigma and the magnetic model (B.

Rhythm Suren Wadhwa

2012-03-01

328

40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Zzzzz of... - Performance Test Requirements for New and Existing Affected Sources Classified as Large Foundries  

Science.gov (United States)

40 Protection of Environment 14 2010-07-01...Sources Classified as Large Foundries 1 Table 1 to Subpart...Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...Pollutants for Iron and Steel Foundries Area Sources Pt....

2010-07-01

329

40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Zzzzz of... - Procedures for Establishing Operating Limits for New Affected Sources Classified as Large Foundries  

Science.gov (United States)

40 Protection of Environment 14 2010-07-01...Sources Classified as Large Foundries 2 Table 2 to Subpart...Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...Pollutants for Iron and Steel Foundries Area Sources Pt....

2010-07-01

330

Building with Sand  

Science.gov (United States)

Children playing in damp sand invariably try to make a tower or a tunnel. By providing experiences with a variety of materials, alone and together, teachers set up the conditions for children to learn through their senses and ensure that a class approaches a topic with a common set of experiences to build on. Learning about the properties of…

Ashbrook, Peggy

2010-01-01

331

Extracting Oil From Tar Sands  

Science.gov (United States)

Recovery of oil from tar sands possible by batch process, using steam produced by solar heater. In extraction process, solar heater provides steam for heating solvent boiler. Boiling solvent removes oil from tar sands in Soxhlet extractor.

Ford, L. B.; Daly, D.

1984-01-01

332

Deceleration of Projectiles in Sand.  

Science.gov (United States)

Penetration of projectiles was measured for hemispherical and conical nose shapes penetrating granular media. Targets were beds of Ottawa sand and Eglin sand. Projectiles were rigid metals. Experimental parameters that were varied included velocity (from ...

K. Watanabe, R. Peden, S. Bless, W. Cooper

2012-01-01

333

Erosion phenomena in sand moulds  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Authors studicd the erosion phcnorncna in sand moulds pured with cast iron. Thc study comprises an evaluation of erosionresistance of thc three sands: grccn sand. sand bondcd with inorganic or organic bindcr. It was concluded that thc most resistant is [heclassic green sand with thc addition of 5 B coal dust. Resistance of the sand with organic binder is generally weak and dcvnds onkind of used raisin. Spccinl nztcntion was paid to the sands with no organic bindcr watcr glass and phospha~c. It was Sound that thcirrcsistance depends on dehydratation conditions. When the mould is stored in law humidity of atmosphcrc the very strong crosion canbe expected. It rcsul ts hrn thc micro fractures in the bridges of binders, joining the grains of the sable. This phcnomcna facilitates thetearing away of fragments of sand [tom the surface

A. Chojecki

2008-03-01

334

Measurements of ultrafine particle concentrations and size distribution in an iron foundry.  

Science.gov (United States)

The number and surface area concentration of ultrafine particles in an iron foundry is of interest as freshly generated ultrafine particles are produced by metal melting, pouring and molding processes. This study measured the number and surface area concentrations of ultrafine particles and their size distributions in an iron foundry using a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS). The 10-100 nm ultrafine particle number concentrations (NC(0.01-0.1)) and surface area concentrations (SC(0.01-0.1)) measured at the iron foundry were 2.07 x 10(4) to 2.82 x 10(5)particles cm(-3) and 67.56 to 2.13 x 10(3)microm(2)cm(-3), respectively. The concentrations changed dramatically depending on on-site manufacturing conditions. The NC(0.01-0.1) levels in the iron foundry were approximately 4.5 times higher on average compared with those in the outdoor ambient environment. These measurement results indicate that the presence of extra particles in the workplace air is within the ultrafine range. Additionally, the analytical results suggest that the number mode diameter can be used to estimate the SC(0.01-0.1) levels using the NC(0.01-0.1) levels. Moreover, the ultrafine particle number mode diameter was found to be about 46.1 nm in the iron foundry. PMID:18313211

Cheng, Yu-Hsiang; Chao, Yen-Chi; Wu, Cheng-Han; Tsai, Chuen-Jinn; Uang, Shi-Nian; Shih, Tung-Sheng

2008-10-01

335

Aluminium and iron air pollution near an iron casting and aluminium foundry in Turin district (Italy).  

Science.gov (United States)

This work reports the results of an environmental survey carried out in an industrial area in the Province of Turin: its main aim is to assess the levels of iron and aluminium in the outside air during the period from July to September to assess the influence of industrial activity (a cast-iron and aluminium foundry) which is interrupted during the month of August, on the level of metals present in the air. Conducting the analysis during this period of time made it possible to avoid the confounding effect of pollution due to domestic central heating. The measurements were taken from nine areas at different distances from the foundry in the area and according to the direction of the prevailing winds, as deduced from the historical data. The results of this survey show a statistically significant difference in iron and aluminium levels in the outside air in the geographic areas between the two main periods examined: during August (no foundry activity) v/s July-September (foundry activity). The values recorded are: Aluminium 0.4+/-0.45 microg/m(3) v/s 1.12+/-1.29 microg/m(3) (pIron 0.95+/-0.56 microg/m(3) v/s 1.6+/-1.0 microg/m(3) (piron tended to be higher in the areas farther away from the foundry site in the areas located along the path of the prevailing winds. PMID:17637476

Polizzi, Salvatore; Ferrara, Mauro; Bugiani, Massimiliano; Barbero, Domenico; Baccolo, Tiziana

2007-09-01

336

40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Zzzzz of... - Performance Test Requirements for New and Existing Affected Sources Classified as Large Foundries  

Science.gov (United States)

...Sources Classified as Large Foundries 1 Table 1 to Subpart ZZZZZ...Pollutants for Iron and Steel Foundries Area Sources Pt. 63, Subpt...Sources Classified as Large Foundries As required in § 63...according to the test methods and procedures in the following table:...

2010-07-01

337

Criteria for an advanced assessment of quality of moulding sands with organic binders and reclamation process products  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Reclamation of used moulding and core sands has been defined as a treatment of waste moulding refractory materials, enabling a recovery of at least one of the components having properties similar to those of the fresh component, and reuse for production of casting moulds and cores. However, at present, there is a lack of a reclaimed material assessment index, which could be applied to each type of moulding sand and reclaim. Modern investigation methods and equipment for the estimation of the quality of the moulding sands matrices with organic binders, in their circulation process, are presented in this paper. These methods, utilizing the special equipment combined with the author’s investigation methods developed in the Faculty of Foundry Engineering, AGH - University of Science and Technology, allow the better estimation of the matrix quality both in an aspect of its application as a fresh sand substitute in the preparation of moulding sands, and also with regard to the environmental protection. The most important criteria for the technological assessment of the reclaimed materials and the quality of sands with organic binders are presented in this paper.

R. Da?ko

2013-05-01

338

Comparison of Energy Consumption in the Classical (PID and Fuzzy Control of Foundry Resistance Furnace  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Foundry resistance furnaces are thermal devices with a relatively large time delay in their response to a change in power parameters.Commonly used in automation classical PID controllers do not meet the requirements of high-quality control. Developed in recent years,fuzzy control theory is increasingly being used in various branches of economy and industry. Fuzzy controllers allow to introduce newdevelopments in control systems of foundry furnaces as well. Correctly selected fuzzy controller can significantly reduce energyconsumption in a controlled thermal process of heating equipment. The article presents a comparison of energy consumption by controlsystem of foundry resistance furnace, equipped with either a PID controller or fuzzy controller optimally chosen.

E. Zió?kowski

2012-09-01

339

Reduction of Energy Consumption and GHGs Emission in Conventional Sand Casting Process by Application of a New CRIMSON Process  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

In conventional foundry, engineers generally consider the quality of casting part as the most essential issue and regard the energy consumption and Green House Gas (GHGs emission as the auxiliary ones. This usually causes large amount of energy consumption as a result of the inefficient casting processes used and increases the production costs and environmental pollution. This paper presents the new CRIMSON process where its facility and melting process were compared with conventional melt furnaces and aluminium alloy melting process. An actual case was investigated to reveal quantitatively how the conventional foundry wastes energy and increases GHGs emission, and what the improvement of energy efficiency and the GHGs emission reduction can be achieved using the new CRIMSON process. The results of this investigation will help the foundry engineer recognize the importance of energy saving and environmental protection and show how to utilise this new process to reduce production costs and carbon footprint without decreasing the quality of the cast part.

Key words: Energy consumption; GHGs emission; Furnace; Aluminium; Sanding casting; Melting; CRIMSON

Xiaojun DAI

2012-03-01

340

Improvements in Fabrication of Sand/Binder Cores for Casting  

Science.gov (United States)

Three improvements have been devised for the cold-box process, which is a special molding process used to make sand/binder cores for casting hollow metal parts. These improvements are: The use of fiber-reinforced composite binder materials (in contradistinction to the non-fiber-reinforced binders used heretofore), The substitution of a directed-vortex core-blowing subprocess for a prior core-blowing process that involved a movable gassing plate, and The use of filters made from filtration-grade fabrics to prevent clogging of vents. For reasons that exceed the scope of this article, most foundries have adopted the cold-box process for making cores for casting metals. However, this process is not widely known outside the metal-casting industry; therefore, a description of pertinent aspects of the cold-box process is prerequisite to a meaningful description of the aforementioned improvements. In the cold-box process as practiced heretofore, sand is first mixed with a phenolic resin (considered to be part 1 of a three-part binder) and an isocyanate resin (part 2 of the binder). Then by use of compressed air, the mixture is blown into a core box, which is a mold for forming the core. Next, an amine gas (part 3 of the binder) that acts as a catalyst for polymerization of parts 1 and 2 is blown through the core box. Alternatively, a liquid amine that vaporizes during polymerization can be incorporated into the sand/resin mixture. Once polymerization is complete, the amine gas is purged from the core box by use of compressed air. The finished core is then removed from the core box.

Bakhitiyarov, Sayavur I.; Overfelt, Ruel A.; Adanur, Sabit

2005-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Simulating the deformation of dies in the foundry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Digital simulation (QuikCAST, ProCAST) is already used extensively when designing metallic dies for founding, in particular to design filling and gating systems. Simulation of the steady-state temperature cycles of dies has also been mastered. With large castings, the temperature gradient induced between the moulding surface and the rear surfaces of the die leads to deformations that may be large enough to measure, and incompatible with the required dimensional accuracy. The temperature gradient also creates thermal fatigue stresses that cause crazing of the die surface. In the study conducted by CTIF, aimed at measuring tooling deformations, various ways of measuring displacements at high temperatures (with and without contact) were investigated in order to evaluate their capabilities and limitations. An experimental device was designed - a test bench combining a metallic die having a simple geometry, in which an aluminium part could be cast, and instrumentation (temperature and displacement sensors). The deformations of the die were measured during first cycles of temperature homogenization. Concurrently, thermomechanical calculations were carried out on the same geometry using PROCAST. The calculation results are well correlated with the experimental measurements and validate the tools and the calculation methods. This thermomechanical approach makes it possible to optimize die design in the foundry and to predict high-temperature deformations as early as the desigerature deformations as early as the design stage. Knowledge of these deformations makes it possible in turn to anticipate the geometrical and dimensional variations undergone by the castings themselves and so to improve their accuracy. The designer can act on the temperature of the die or the design of the casting, or create a die in which the expected thermal deformation is reversed so as to produce a casting having the correct dimensions. In short, thermomechanical simulation can be applied to this problem to achieve a better understanding of the phenomena and to test solutions in advance.

342

Simulating the deformation of dies in the foundry  

Science.gov (United States)

Digital simulation (QuikCAST, ProCAST) is already used extensively when designing metallic dies for founding, in particular to design filling and gating systems. Simulation of the steady-state temperature cycles of dies has also been mastered. With large castings, the temperature gradient induced between the moulding surface and the rear surfaces of the die leads to deformations that may be large enough to measure, and incompatible with the required dimensional accuracy. The temperature gradient also creates thermal fatigue stresses that cause crazing of the die surface. In the study conducted by CTIF, aimed at measuring tooling deformations, various ways of measuring displacements at high temperatures (with and without contact) were investigated in order to evaluate their capabilities and limitations. An experimental device was designed - a test bench combining a metallic die having a simple geometry, in which an aluminium part could be cast, and instrumentation (temperature and displacement sensors). The deformations of the die were measured during first cycles of temperature homogenization. Concurrently, thermomechanical calculations were carried out on the same geometry using PROCAST. The calculation results are well correlated with the experimental measurements and validate the tools and the calculation methods. This thermomechanical approach makes it possible to optimize die design in the foundry and to predict high-temperature deformations as early as the design stage. Knowledge of these deformations makes it possible in turn to anticipate the geometrical and dimensional variations undergone by the castings themselves and so to improve their accuracy. The designer can act on the temperature of the die or the design of the casting, or create a die in which the expected thermal deformation is reversed so as to produce a casting having the correct dimensions. In short, thermomechanical simulation can be applied to this problem to achieve a better understanding of the phenomena and to test solutions in advance.

Chabod, A.; Longa, Y.; Dracon, J. M.; Chailler, K.; Hairy, P.; Da Silva, A.

2012-07-01

343

Technology development towards a generic InP-based photonic-integration foundry  

Science.gov (United States)

The main goal of this work is to create a generic foundry service that allows outside users (i.e., universities and small- and-medium enterprises) that do not have fabrication facilities to obtain their own custom-made InP-based photonic-integrated chips (or ASPIC, application-specific photonic-integrated circuits, similar to ASIC in electronics). In this approach, the foundry supplies the user with the cross-section of the interconnect waveguide structure, and the mask layout dimensions and performance of several pre-defined- and wellcharacterized building blocks (BB) such as photodiodes, phase modulators, and spot-size converters (for lowloss fiber-chip coupling). Using this information, the user can generate a mask layout for the foundry by placing the building blocks onto his layout canvas and interconnecting them with the interconnect waveguides. Furthermore, since the material cross-section of the interconnect waveguide is known, the user can design, simulate, and include a mask layout for a desired passive devices such as MMIs, and AWGs, which can subsequently be fabricated at the foundry. We describe the technology development towards obtaining a versatile generic-foundry platform which gives users the freedom to design a large variety of photonic-integrated- devices and circuits. Our generic-foundry technology is based on the fabrication process of our commercially-available high-speed- photodiodes and balanced photodiodes (high-frequency response up to and beyond 100 GHz). We have expanded this fabrication process to include a total of three different types of interconnecting waveguides: a low-contrast-, a medium-contrast, and a high-contrast waveguide, as well as transition BBs to couple light from one waveguide type into the other.

Soares, F. M.; Janiak, K.; Broeke, R. G.; Grote, N.

2011-05-01

344

Moving sand dunes  

CERN Document Server

In several desert areas, the slow motion of sand dunes can be a challenge for modern human activities and a threat for the survival of ancient places or archaeological sites. However, several methods exist for surveying the dune fields and estimate their migration rate. Among these methods, the use of satellite images, in particular of those freely available on the World Wide Web, is a convenient resource for the planning of future human settlements and activities.

Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

2011-01-01

345

Magic Sand: Nanosurfaces  

Science.gov (United States)

This is an activity/demo in which learners are exposed to the difference bewteen hydrophobic surfaces (water repelling) and hydrophilic surfaces (water loving). This activity also demonstrates how changing the size of material to nanoscale changes its behavior at the macroscale. The instructions assume that Magic Sand is performed as a demonstration, but it works great a a hands-on activity as well.

Network, Nanoscle I.; Wisconsin-Madison, University O.

2014-06-18

346

Sand Sieve Analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

John R. Anderson of Georgia Perimeter College has authored this lab experiment on grain size sorting in which students learn about performing a sieve analysis of sand and produce various graphs to represent the data collected. Included are equations for making the graphs and basic information on the importance of sieve analysis and the four useful statistical measurements used to make the graphs. This is a great resource to either the creation or enhancement of an instructors curriculum on this topic.

Anderson, John

2009-05-21

347

Editorial on oil sands  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This special issue of the Canadian Journal of Chemical Engineering includes 24 research papers dealing with bitumen recovery from oil sands, a resource that is expected to meet future Canadian energy demands. Oil sands have become an economically important hydrocarbon resource in North America as conventional oil reserves decline. In 1990, bitumen from oil sands represented approximately 20 per cent of Canadian oil production. Production increased to 35 per cent by 2002 and is expected to meet two-thirds of Canadian crude oil production by 2011. The papers in this special issue focused on the science and technology of bitumen extraction, with particular reference to the following disciplines and their integration: interfacial phenomena; surface science; electrokinetics; fluid mechanics; fluid-particle dynamics; computational fluid dynamics; rheology; water treatment; environmental science; heat and mass transfer; emulsions; and polymers. Enhanced recovery methods were also discussed along with bitumen froth cleaning, tailings management and energy conservation. All 24 papers were catalogued separately for inclusion in this database.

Masliyah, J. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Chemical and Materials Engineering

2004-08-01

348

Oil sands supply outlook  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In March 2004, The Canadian Energy Research Institute released a report on the expected future supply from Alberta's oil sands. The report indicates that the future for the already well-established oil sands industry is promising, particularly given the outlook for oil prices. The challenges facing the industry include higher industry supply costs and the need for innovative commercial and technological solutions to address the risks of irregularities and changes in crude oil prices. In 2003, the industry produced 874 thousand barrels per day of synthetic crude oil and unprocessed crude bitumen. This represents 35 per cent of Canada's total oil production. Current production capacity has increased to 1.0 million barrels per day (mbpd) due to new projects. This number may increase to 3.5 mbpd by 2017. Some new projects may be deferred due to the higher raw bitumen and synthetic crude oil supply costs. This presentation provided supply costs for a range of oil sands recovery technologies and production projections under various business scenarios. tabs., figs

349

Database for foundry engineers – simulationDB – a modern database storing simulation results  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose: of this paper The main aim of this paper is to build specific database system for collecting, analysing and searching simulation results.Design/methodology/approach: It was prepared using client-server architecture. Then was prepared GUI - Graphical User Interface.Findings: New database system for foundry was discovered.Practical implications: System development is in progress and practical implication will be hold in one of iron foundry in next year.Originality/value: The original value of this paper is innovative database system for storing and analysing simulation results.

P. Malinowski

2010-11-01

350

MODELS AND METHODS OF CONTROL SYSTEMS OF ECOLOGICAL SAFETY OF FOUNDRY MANUFACTURE ?????? ? ?????? ?????? ?????????? ????????????? ????????????? ????????? ????????????  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The given developments are devoted to modeling of control systems by ecological safety of foundry manufacture. In a working zone of foundry shops except for a dust the significant amount of polluting substances is allocated. The most unsuccessful sites from a position of allocation of a dust are chambers and lattices. The experimental analysis shows, that in structure of a dust the weight maintenance of fractions with a diameter up to 20 microns reaches 43,8 % on weight. The given dust is mos...

Manohin V. J.; Murzinov V. L.

2011-01-01

351

Cancer mortality in a cohort of United Kingdom steel foundry workers: 1946-85.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The mortality experienced by a cohort of 10,491 United Kingdom steel foundry workers during the period 1946-85 has been investigated. These workers were all male operatives first employed in any one of the 10 participating foundries in 1946-65; all had worked in the industry for a minimum period of one year. Compared with the general population of England and Wales, statistically significant excesses relating to cancer mortality were found for cancer of the stomach (E = 77.4, O = 106, SMR = 1...

Sorahan, T.; Cooke, M. A.

1989-01-01

352

Improvement of conditions in foundry workplaces, using new ceramic mold materials for full mold casting  

Science.gov (United States)

Castable calcium silicate hydrate (CSH) mold materials were developed for the manufacture of lost (combustible) polystyrene molds. General introduction of full mold casting is in the interest of the humanization of conditions in foundry workplaces since it reduces the work involved in fettling and deburring the cast parts. The development was achieved by incorporating thermally conductive SiC components into the CSH materials. Parts of molds relevant to foundry technology were then made from polystyrene in thin walled SiC-filled molds. These results, achieved in the laboratory, can now be applied on an industrial scale in the production of molds.

Heide, H.; Sherriff, R. C.; Broetz, G.; Daerr, G. M.

1982-07-01

353

Sand Dunes in Hellas  

Science.gov (United States)

MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-537, 7 November 2003The smooth, rounded mounds in this Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) picture are sand dunes. The scene is located in southern Hellas Planitia and was acquired in mid-southern autumn, the ideal time of year for Hellas imaging. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the upper left. These dunes are located near 49.1oS, 292.6oW. The picture covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) wide.

2003-01-01

354

Compressive behavior of fine sand.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The compressive mechanical response of fine sand is experimentally investigated. The strain rate, initial density, stress state, and moisture level are systematically varied. A Kolsky bar was modified to obtain uniaxial and triaxial compressive response at high strain rates. A controlled loading pulse allows the specimen to acquire stress equilibrium and constant strain-rates. The results show that the compressive response of the fine sand is not sensitive to strain rate under the loading conditions in this study, but significantly dependent on the moisture content, initial density and lateral confinement. Partially saturated sand is more compliant than dry sand. Similar trends were reported in the quasi-static regime for experiments conducted at comparable specimen conditions. The sand becomes stiffer as initial density and/or confinement pressure increases. The sand particle size become smaller after hydrostatic pressure and further smaller after dynamic axial loading.

Martin, Bradley E. (Air Force Research Laboratory, Eglin, FL); Kabir, Md. E. (Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN); Song, Bo; Chen, Wayne (Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN)

2010-04-01

355

Maths and Science in the Foundry: Integral Components of Accredited Training.  

Science.gov (United States)

A workplace literacy project involved complex math and science concepts and applications integral to foundry operations. It demonstrates that, despite lack of formal schooling or English proficiency, workers can learn complex concepts through practical experience and reflection, using their knowledge and skills with contextual cues. (SK)

Deakin, Rosemary

1995-01-01

356

METRO-APEX Volume 13.1: Industrialist's Manual No. 3, Rusty's Iron Foundry. Revised.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Industrialist's Manual No. 3 (Rusty's Iron Foundry) is one of a set of twenty-one manuals used in METRO-APEX 1974, a computerized college and professional level, computer-supported, role-play, simulation exercise of a community with "normal" problems. Stress is placed on environmental quality considerations. APEX 1974 is an expansion of…

University of Southern California, Los Angeles. COMEX Research Project.

357

APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 8: Industrialist's Manual No. 3, Rusty's Iron Foundry.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Industrialist's Manual No. 3, Rusty's Iron Foundry is part of a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise), a computerized college and professional level "real world" game simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties. The first two sections,…

Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

358

Siempelkamp foundry specializes in big components; Siempelkamp Giesserei: Spezialisten fuer grosse Gussteile  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Siempelkamp foundry at Krefeld, Germany, is the world's biggest producer of modular graphite castings, e.g. engine blocks for passenger vessels, grinding vats for cement mills, spars and big pulleys. For ENERCON, Siempelkamp are fabricating the cast iron components of the E-70/E-82 series and components of the E-126 like supports and rotor hubs. (orig.)

Anon.

2007-07-01

359

Identifying iron foundries as a new source of unintentional polychlorinated naphthalenes and characterizing their emission profiles.  

Science.gov (United States)

Iron foundries have been identified as dioxin sources in previous field investigations. Similar formation mechanisms between dioxins and unintentional polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) have led us to speculate that iron foundries are also potential PCN sources. In this study, PCNs in stack gas and fly ash samples representing atmospheric and residue emissions from 13 typical iron foundry plants were analyzed. The average emission factor of ?2-8PCNs to residue was calculated to be 61 ?g t(-1), with a range of 10-107 ?g t(-1). The emission factors of ?2-8PCNs to air in two case plants were 267 and 1472 ?g t(-1). The derived emission factors might be useful for estimating annual emissions and understanding the contribution of PCNs from iron foundries. The possible formation mechanisms of PCNs, based on the PCN profiles, are discussed. Successive reductions in the abundance of homologues were observed to occur with the increase in chlorine substituted numbers. Abundances of congeners containing more ?-position chlorines in the naphthalene skeleton were much higher than those of congeners containing more ?-position chlorines for penta-, hexa-, and hepta- homologues, which suggests that the ?-positions are favored for chlorination. Potential chlorination pathways from tetra- to octa- homologues are proposed. PMID:25313855

Liu, Guorui; Lv, Pu; Jiang, Xiaoxu; Nie, Zhiqiang; Zheng, Minghui

2014-11-18

360

A family of sand automata  

CERN Document Server

We study some dynamical properties of a family of two-dimensional cellular automata: those that arise from an underlying one dimensional sand automaton whose local rule is obtained using a latin square. We identify a simple sand automaton G whose local rule is algebraic, and classify this automaton as having equicontinuity points, but not being equicontinuous. We also show it is not surjective. We generalise some of these results to a wider class of sand automata.

Faulkner, Nicholas

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

[Application of analytical pyrolysis in air pollution control for green sand casting industry].  

Science.gov (United States)

Analytic pyrolysis was conducted to simulate the heating conditions that the raw materials of green sand would experience during metal casting process. The volatile organic compound (VOC) and hazardous air pollutant (HAP) emissions from analytical pyrolysis were analyzed by gas chromatograph-flame ionization detector/mass spectrometry (GC-FID/MS). The emissions from analytical pyrolysis exhibited some similarity in the compositions and distributions with those from actual casting processes. The major compositions of the emissions included benzene, toluene and phenol. The relative changes of emission levels that were observed in analytical pyrolysis of the various raw materials also showed similar trends with those observed in actual metal casting processes. The emission testing results of both analytic pyrolysis and pre-production foundry have shown that compared to the conventional phenolic urethane binder, the new non-naphthalene phenolic urethane binder diminished more than 50% of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emissions, and the protein-based binder diminished more than 90% of HAP emissions. The similar trends in the two sets of tests offered promise that analytical pyrolysis techniques could be a fast and accurate way to establish the emission inventories, and to evaluate the relative emission levels of various raw materials of casting industry. The results of analytical pyrolysis could provide useful guides for the foundries to select and develop proper clean raw materials for the casting production. PMID:20391731

Wang, Yu-jue; Zhao, Qi; Chen, Ying; Wang, Cheng-wen

2010-02-01

362

Basic properties for sand automata  

CERN Document Server

We prove several results about the relations between injectivity and surjectivity for sand automata. Moreover, we begin the exploration of the dynamical behavior of sand automata proving that the property of nilpotency is undecidable. We believe that the proof technique used for this last result might reveal useful for many other results in this context.

Cervelle, J; Masson, B; Cervelle, Julien; Formenti, Enrico; Masson, Benoit

2004-01-01

363

FINAL REPORT: Reduction in Energy Consumption and Variability in Steel Foundry Operations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This project worked to improve the efficiency of the steel casting industry by reducing the variability that occurs because of process and product variation. The project focused on the post shakeout operations since roughly half of the production costs are in this area. These improvements will reduce the amount of variability, making it easier to manage the operation and improve the competitiveness. The reduction in variability will also reduce the need for many rework operations, which will result in a direct reduction of energy usage, particularly by the reduction of repeated heat treatment operations. Further energy savings will be realized from the reduction of scrap and reduced handling. Field studies were conducted at ten steel foundries that represented the U.S. steel casting industry, for a total of over 100 weeks of production observation. These studies quantified the amount of variability, and looked toward determining the source. A focus of the data collected was the grinding operations since this is a major effort in the cleaning room, and it represents the overall casting quality. The grinding was divided into two categories, expected and unexpected. Expected grinding is that in which the location of the effort is known prior to making the casting, such as smoothing parting lines, gates, and riser contacts. Unexpected grinding, which was approximately 80% of the effort, was done to improve the surfaces at weld repair locations, to rectify burnt on sand, and other surface anomalies at random locations. Unexpected grinding represents about 80% of the grinding effort. By quantifying this effort, the project raised awareness within the industry and the industry is continuing to make improvements. The field studies showed that the amount of variation of grinding operations (normalized because of the diverse set of parts studied) was very consistent across the industry. The field studies identified several specific sources that individually contributed to large process variation. This indicates the need for ongoing monitoring of the process and system to quantify the effort being expended. A system to measure the grinding effort was investigated but did not prove to be successful. A weld wire counting system was shown to be very successful in tracking casting quality by monitoring the quantity of weld wire being expended on a per casting basis. Further use of such systems is highly recommended. The field studies showed that the visual inspection process for the casting surface was a potentially large source of process variation. Measurement system analysis studies were conducted at three steel casting producers. The tests measured the consistency of the inspectors in identifying the same surface anomalies. The repeatability (variation of the same operator inspecting the same casting) was found to be relatively consistent across the companies at about 60-70%. However, this is still are very large amount of variation. Reproducibility (variation of different operators inspecting the same casting) was worse, ranging between 20 to 80% at the three locations. This large amount of variation shows that there is a great opportunity for improvement. Falsely identifying anomalies for reworking will cause increased expense and energy consumption. This is particularly true if a weld repair and repeated heat treatment is required. However, not identifying an anomaly could also result in future rework processing, a customer return, or scrap. To help alleviate this problem, casting surface comparator plates were developed and distributed to the industry. These plates are very inexpensive which enables them to be provided to all those involved with casting surface quality, such as operators, inspectors, sales, and management.

F. Peters

2005-05-24

364

Exploring Magic Sand  

Science.gov (United States)

Nanotechnology is an area of science and engineering that occurs at the atomic and molecular level. This is certainly a difficult concept to grasp. This website, presented by The National Infrastructure Network, highlights many critical concepts to understanding this smaller scale. By using a product called "Magic Sand," the activity "will explore how the properties of a substance at the molecular level affects the way that it reacts and behaves." Additionally, students will explore nanotechnology as an emerging and interdisciplinary field. The experiment will show students how developments in the field can improve devices, materials, and structures we use on a daily basis. A student and teacher guide is provided with the lab. Overall, this is a great exercise for any science classroom interested in the workings of nanotechnology.

2009-01-16

365

Sand swimming lizard: sandfish  

CERN Document Server

We use high-speed x-ray imaging to reveal how a small (~10cm) desert dwelling lizard, the sandfish (Scincus scincus), swims within a granular medium [1]. On the surface, the lizard uses a standard diagonal gait, but once below the surface, the organism no longer uses limbs for propulsion. Instead it propagates a large amplitude single period sinusoidal traveling wave down its body and tail to propel itself at speeds up to ~1.5 body-length/sec. Motivated by these experiments we study a numerical model of the sandfish as it swims within a validated soft sphere Molecular Dynamics granular media simulation. We use this model as a tool to understand dynamics like flow fields and forces generated as the animal swims within the granular media. [1] Maladen, R.D. and Ding, Y. and Li, C. and Goldman, D.I., Undulatory Swimming in Sand: Subsurface Locomotion of the Sandfish Lizard, Science, 325, 314, 2009

Maladen, Ryan D; Kamor, Adam; Goldman, Daniel I

2009-01-01

366

Atlas of Dutch drift sands  

Science.gov (United States)

The Netherlands is well known for its aeolian landscapes. Frequent storms during the High Middle Ages (1000-1300 AD) reactivated Pleistocene coversands and river dunes and are responsible for the formation of the Holocene drift sands at a scale which is unique for Europe. A hypothesized relationship with farmer practices for making plaggensoils has recently been refuted, because drift sand formation began centuries earlier. The coastal dune belt with their parabolic dunes dates from the same period as the drift sand. An estimate of the extent of drift sands can be made from soil maps: drift sands are too young to show much profile development (Regosols). With this method Koster estimated the maximum extent of Holocene drift sands in the Netherlands to be about 800 km2 (Koster 2005). Laser altimetry allows a more precise estimate of the total surface affected by wind from the characteristic relief patterns produced by the Holocene wind, which is different from the smooth surface of cover sand deposits. Laser altimetry has been used before to investigate the mechanism of drift sand formation (Jungerius & Riksen 2010). Most of the surface affected by wind is not active anymore, but the tell-tale rough surface survived ages of different landuse. The total affected surface amounts to 825 km2. It is noteworthy that both methods give comparable results. We recorded a total number of 367 of affected areas of varying shapes, ranging in size from 1.6 ha to a large complex of drif sands of 7,119.5 ha. As is to be expected from their mode of origin, most occurrences are associated with cover sands, and with river dunes along the river Meuse and smaller rivers in other parts of the country. Particularly the final phases of cover sand and river dunes that show more relief as parabolic dunes were affected. There are also small aeolian deposits at the lee side blown from fallow agricultural fields but they are (sub)recent. Most of the relief is irregular, but the larger occurrences associated with push moraines show that drift sand occurs in elongated cells that are parallel to the prevailing SW wind. Their internal structure reflects the characteristic sequence of geomorphological processes: deflation dominant in the south-west, transport and accumulation towards the north east. Literature • Jungerius, P.D., Riksen, M.J.P.M., 2010. Contribution of laser altimetry images to the geomorphology of the Late Holocene inland drift sands of the European Sand Belt. Baltica 23, 1: 59-70. • Koster EA. 2005. Aeolian environments. In The physical Geography of Western Europe, Koster EA (ed). Oxford Regional Environments, Oxford University Press;139-160.

Riksen, Michel; Jungerius, Pieter

2013-04-01

367

Design process optimization, virtual prototyping of manufacturing, and foundry-portable DFM (Invited Paper)  

Science.gov (United States)

We consider modern design for manufacturing (DFM) as a manifestation of IC industry re-integration and intensive cost management dynamics. In that regard DFM is somewhat different from so-called design for yield (DFY) which essentially focuses on productivity (yield) management (that is not to say that DFM and DFY do not have significant overlaps and interactions). We clearly see the shaping of a new "full-chip DFM" infrastructure on the background of the "back to basics" design-manufacturing re-integration dynamics. In the presented work we are focusing on required DFM-efficiencies in a "foundry-fabless" link. Concepts of "virtual prototyping of manufacturing", "design process optimization", and "foundry-portable DFM" models are explored. Both senior management of the industry and leading design groups finally realize the need for a radical change of design styles. Some of the DFM super-goals are to isolate designers from process details and to make designs foundry portable. It requires qualification of designs at different foundries. In their turn, foundries specified and are implementing a set of DFM rules: "action-required", "recommended", and "guidelines" while asking designers to provide netlist and testing information. Also, we observe strong signs of innovation coming back to the mask industry. Powerful solutions are emerging and shaping up toward mask-centered IP as a business. While it seems that pure-play foundries have found their place for now in the "IDM+" model (supporting manufacturing capacity of IDMs) it is not obvious how sustainable the model is. Wafer as a production unit is not sufficient anymore; foundries are being asked by large customers to price products in terms of good die. It brings back the notion of the old ASIC business model where the foundry is responsible for dealing with both random and systematic yield issues for a given design. One scenario of future development would be that some of the leading foundries might eventually transform themselves into IDMs. Another visible trend: some of the manufacturing capacities started to diversify business by providing services for new emerging markets (for example, new energy and medicine applications). Finally it is very unclear what"s going to happen to fabless players. We continue building on the "Think SPICE again!" methodology introduced last year and expanding on previous platforms' discussion. Model expression of DFM, most probably, will be supplied by the equipment suppliers and yield management community. Actual content for a design intent model will be provided by manufacturing. Much like SPICE it describes the behavior and not what the actual measurement in manufacturing is. When the model is available and populated, a design automation solution can be created that will allow a designer to extract, analyze, simulate, and optimize the circuit prior to handoff to manufacturing.

Hogan, James; Progler, Christopher; Chatila, Ahmad; Bruggeman, Bert; Heins, Mitchell; Pack, Robert; Boksha, Victor

2005-05-01

368

Determination of application possibilities of microwave heating in the curing process of water glass molding sands with fluid esters. Part 1  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article presents results of the experimental trial of combination of the chemical method of water glass molding sands’ curing, used in foundry industry, with an innovative microwave heating. The research objective was to indicate at new areas of microwave energy application. The sands prepared, according to recommendations for curing technology, with the use of ethylene glycol diacetate, have been subject to microwave influence. The attempt at determination of microwave influence on qualitative changes of the binding bridges created during the curing process concerned such parameters as: bending and tensile strength, permeability as well as wear resistance. Moreover,we also determined the influence of microwave curing on the phenomena accompanying the process as well as bond stability (storage time of the prepared molding and core sands. It has been found, basing on the result analysis, that the innovative microwave heating might constitute a very good supplementation of the ester curing method. The advantages of the combined chemical and microwave gelation process include, among others, improvement of the described resistance and technological parameters as well as significant decrease of preparation time of foundry moulds and cores. The subject discussed in this article will be continued in its second part.

K. Granat

2009-01-01

369

Unchanging Desert Sand Dunes  

Science.gov (United States)

Deserts are one of the major landforms on earth. They occupy nearly 20% of the total land area but are relatively less studied. With the rise in human population, desert regions are being gradually occupied for settlement posing a management challenge to the concerned authorities. Unrestrained erosion is generally a feature of bare dunes. Stabilized dunes, on the other hand, do not undergo major changes in textures, and can thus facilitate the growth of vegetation. Keeping in view of the above factors, better mapping and monitoring of deserts and particularly of sand dunes is needed. Mapping dunes using field instruments is very arduous and they generate relatively sparse data. In this communication, we present a method of clustering and monitoring sand dunes through imagery captured by remote sensing sensors. Initially Radon spectrum of an area is obtained by decomposition of the image into various projections sampled at finer angular directions. Statistical features such as mode, entropy and standard deviation of Radon spectrum are used in delineation and clustering of regions with different dune orientations. These clustered boundaries are used to detect if there are any changes occurring in the dune regions. In the experiment's, remote sensing data covering various dune regions of the world are observed for possible changes in dune orientations. In all the cases, it is seen that there are no major changes in desert dune orientations. While these findings have implications for understanding of dune geomorphology and changes occurring in dune directions, they also highlight the importance of a wider study of dunes and their evolution both at regional and global scales. Results for Dataset 1 & Dataset 2 Results for Dataset 3

Gadhiraju, S.; Banerjee, B.; Buddhiraju, K.; Shah, V.

2013-12-01

370

Risk assessment related to manual handling on choosen work possition in foundry Alstom Power Sp. z o. o.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Manual handling remains one of the different types of transport inside working place, although technological progress and modernorganization of work. Manual transport as a transport inside working place is related to foundry industry. According to polish lawregulations employer has to give consideration to manual handling in professional risk assessment and introduce actions for manualhandling reduction. In Foundry Elblag case there is found that in many processes manual handling are made by ...

Kowal, G.

2010-01-01

371

Tar Sands or Oil Sands? Behind the petro-spin  

...public relations flacks, to divert attention from just how dirty the Alberta bitumen deposits are. Andrew Nikiforuk explains why tar sands is the ... Behind the petro-spin “Passing off tarlike bitumen as oil is about as accurate as calling an aspen tree a Douglas fir, or ...the oil companies and everyone else used the term tar sands for Alberta’s bitumen deposits. The name wasn’t changed until rising oil prices made ... Bitumen by another name will still poison rivers and wreck the climate.  An excellent explanation of what the tar sands actually are ...

372

AN ANALYSIS OF THE DIFFERENTIATION STRATEGIES OF RURAL FOUNDRIES IN THE BEGINNING OF THE 20TH CENTURY IN THE PROVINCE OF QUEBEC  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The business model and strategic position of Quebec's rural foundries at the beginning of the 20th century is virtually unknown. Inferences have been made based on pictorial and oral data sources. This data reveals that successful rural foundries were, in essence, confined to producing and selling agricultural tools to local farmers on an as-needed basis, because large urban foundries were already mass-producing domestic and industrial objects. In contrast, use of detailed accounting records and advertising publications of three rural foundries over the 1900 to 1914 period provides a clearer picture of the production and of the clientele of those rural foundries. Analysis of these sources suggests that the strategic business model of rural foundries was much more elaborate than the existing literature posits. Rural owner-managers of the early 20th century were sophisticated strategists, marketers, and operators.

Lisa Baillargeon

2009-01-01

373

Retrospective follow-up study of foundry and engine plant workers.  

Science.gov (United States)

A retrospective follow-up study of 21,013 workers employed at a foundry and two engine manufacturing plants was conducted to determine if these workers had an unusual mortality experience. A total of 2,235 deaths occurred during the follow-up period of 1970-1987. Mortality from all causes was lower than expected. Men experienced a 6-13% excess of lung cancer deaths, depending on the choice of the comparison group. The data displayed evidence of a positive trend between lung cancer mortality and increasing duration of employment (p = 0.008). White men experienced a statistically significant excess of deaths from stomach cancer (standardized mortality ratio [SMR] = 158; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 101-234). Black men had increased mortality from pancreatic cancer, especially among engine plant workers (SMR = 303; CI = 121-624), and an excess of prostate cancer, concentrated among foundry workers (SMR = 234; CI = 112-430). PMID:8250066

Rotimi, C; Austin, H; Delzell, E; Day, C; Macaluso, M; Honda, Y

1993-10-01

374

Magnetic and GPR surveys of a former munitions foundry site at the Denver Federal Center  

Science.gov (United States)

We made magnetometer and ground penetrating radar (GPR) surveys over part of the foundation of a World War II-era foundry located on the Denver Federal Center. The site contains a number of highly magnetic source bodies, concrete foundation walls, and underground openings, buried under a clay cap. The cap is several feet thick and has a conductivity of about 35 mS/m, making the features underneath it a poor target for conventional GPR. Indeed, the raw data look unlike typical GPR data, but rather show reverberation (?) bands under sidewalks and other shallow buried sources. Using a newly-written computer package, we made plan maps of the GPR response at different time slices. The sliced GPR data did not outline buried foundry foundations, as we had hoped it might. The resulting plan maps of the sliced data show sidewalks and other blobby features, some of which correspond to magnetometer highs.

Campbell, David L.; Beanland, Shay; Lucius, Jeffrey E.; Powers, Michael H.

2000-01-01

375

Development of method for identification of compounds emitted during thermal degradation of binders used in foundry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of the research was to develop a method for identification of compounds emitted during thermal degradation of binders used in foundry. Research were performed with the use of Certified Reference Materials mixtures of semi-volatiles compounds with furfuryl alcohol and aldehyde. Furfuryl-urea resin samples were also used. Station for thermal degradation of materials used in foundry was designed and made. Thermal degradation process conditions and gas chromatograph coupled with high resolution mass spectrometry operating conditions were established. Organic compounds emitted during degradation were identified. The paper briefly represents the range of study and the results obtained for furfuryl-urea resin thermal degradation. Significant information about volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds emitted in different temperatures is also discussed.

A. Bobrowski

2011-07-01

376

Influence of carbonization conditions on micro-pore structure of foundry formed coke produced with char  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

There are few studies on coke's micro-pore structure in recent years, however, micro-pore structure of foundry coke determines its macroscopically quality index and reactivity in cupola furnace. Effect of such factors on micro-pore structure were investigated under different carbonization conditions with certain ratio of raw materials and material forming process in this article as charging temperature (A); braised furnace time (B); heating rate of the first stage (C)and the second stage (D) and holding time of ultimate temperature (E). Research showed that charging temperature was the most influential factor on the coke porosity, pore volume, pore size and specific surface area. It is suggested that formation of plastic mass and releasing rate of volatile during carbonization period are two main factors on microstructure of foundry coke while charging temperature contributes most to the above factors. 6 refs., 4 figs., 9 tabs.

Jun Qiao; Jianjun Wu; Jingru Zu; Zhiyuan Gao; Guoli Zhou

2009-07-01

377

AN ANALYSIS OF THE DIFFERENTIATION STRATEGIES OF RURAL FOUNDRIES IN THE BEGINNING OF THE 20TH CENTURY IN THE PROVINCE OF QUEBEC  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The business model and strategic position of Quebec's rural foundries at the beginning of the 20th century is virtually unknown. Inferences have been made based on pictorial and oral data sources. This data reveals that successful rural foundries were, in essence, confined to producing and selling agricultural tools to local farmers on an as-needed basis, because large urban foundries were already mass-producing domestic and industrial objects. In contrast, use of detailed accounting records ...

Lisa Baillargeon; Patrice Gélinas

2009-01-01

378

Saltation of Non-Spherical Sand Particles  

Science.gov (United States)

Saltation is an important geological process and the primary source of atmospheric mineral dust aerosols. Unfortunately, no studies to date have been able to precisely reproduce the saltation process because of the simplified theoretical models used. For example, sand particles in most of the existing wind sand movement models are considered to be spherical, the effects of the sand shape on the structure of the wind sand flow are rarely studied, and the effect of mid-air collision is usually neglected. In fact, sand grains are rarely round in natural environments. In this paper, we first analyzed the drag coefficients, drag forces, and starting friction wind speeds of sand grains with different shapes in the saltation process, then established a sand saltation model that considers the coupling effect between wind and the sand grains, the effect of the mid-air collision of sand grains, and the effect of the sand grain shape. Based on this model, the saltation process and sand transport rate of non-spherical sand particles were simulated. The results show that the sand shape has a significant impact on the saltation process; for the same wind speed, the sand transport rates varied for different shapes of sand grains by as much as several-fold. Therefore, sand shape is one of the important factors affecting wind-sand movement. PMID:25170614

Wang, Zhengshi; Ren, Shan; Huang, Ning

2014-01-01

379

Integration of “QES” systems on the small and medium size foundry companies in Portugal  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper presents the present situation concerning the integration of the quality, environment and safety systems on industrial companies. A case study performed by the authors on the Portuguese foundry is presented. The present situation of this activity sector, on what concerns the application of the quality, environment and safety (QES) systems, is characterized, and the short time needs, procedures and initiatives that are being taken, or will be taken in a near future, to accomplish...

Santos, Gilberto; Barbosa, J.; Pedro, Claudia

2004-01-01

380

Replies to Challenges in the Field of Air Pollution Control in Foundry Plants  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The solution of applications for air pollution control in foundries for iron and non-ferrous metals may not only be understood as theobservance of requested emission limit values at the stack outlet. An effective environmental protection already starts with the greatest possible capture of pollutants at the source with at the same time minimisation of the volume flow necessary for this. Independent of this, the downstream installed filtration system has to realise a degree of separation of de...

Margraf, R.

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
381

COMBINED EFFECTS OF HEAT STRESS AND SHIFT WORK ON PHYSIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS IN FOUNDRY WORKERS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In order to investigate the combined effects of shift work and heat stress on the physiological parameters, such as heart rate (HR) and body temperature (BT), a hot-dry working environment was investigated for 53 workers in foundry workshops. In this study Wet Bulb Globe Temperature index (WBGT) was measured and along with that simultaneously heart rate and oral temperature were checked in 3 shifts. The results indicated that the physiological responses of workers changed whenever the shift c...

Nassiri, P.; Taheri, M.; Golbabaie, F.; Mohammadzadeh, M.

1990-01-01

382

Monitoring of power demand of foundry machinery, using the example of paddle mixers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The study outlines the basic features of a newly-designed computer-supported system for monitoring and recording the instantaneous power consumption, used to control the operating parameters of foundry machinery. Explored are potential applications of the module for fast recording of instantaneous currents and voltages in a triple phase power supply system in a paddle mixer. Further research areas are indicated, to extend the system and the range of its potential applications.

Wrona, R.; Zio??kowski, E.; Smyksy, K.

2008-01-01

383

Virtual Factory as a Method of Foundry Design and Production Management  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The paper outlines the methodology of virtual design of a foundry plant as a system. The most important stage in the procedure involvesthe development of a model defined as a set of data about the system. Model development involves two stages: defining the model’sarchitecture and specifying the model data in the form of parameters and input-output relationships. The structure is understood asconfiguration of machines and transport units, representing the sub-systems and system components. A...

Stawowy, A.; Wrona, R.; Brzezin?ski, M.; Zio??kowski, E.

2013-01-01

384

Electromagnet Gripping in Iron Foundry Automation Part I: Principles and Framework  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Robot grippers are employed to position and retain parts in automated assembly operations. This paper presents an overview of electromagnet part handling framework in an iron foundry and an equivalent electromagnet circuit model. The manner in which this whole concept of automated gripping system operates will be discussed in this paper. The material handling system uses machine vision system coupled with conveyor motion and Ethernet communication strategy to assist the material handling syst...

Rhythm Suren Wadhwa; Terje-Lien

2011-01-01

385

Monitoring of power demand of foundry machinery, using the example of paddle mixers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study outlines the basic features of a newly-designed computer-supported system for monitoring and recording the instantaneous power consumption, used to control the operating parameters of foundry machinery. Explored are potential applications of the module for fast recording of instantaneous currents and voltages in a triple phase power supply system in a paddle mixer. Further research areas are indicated, to extend the system and the range of its potential applications.

R. Wrona

2008-04-01

386

Uniaxial and triaxial compression test series on two types of foundry stone  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Uniaxial and triaxial compression experiments were performed on ten cylindrical samples of foundry stone. All of the test samples were nominally 50.8 mm in diameter, with a 2:1 length to diameter ratio. The experiments were run on room dry samples in compression, at room temperature, four confining pressures, and a nominal axial displacement rate of 10-4 mm/s. 3 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs

387

In-depth Evaluation of Energy Management Practices in a Swedish Iron Foundry  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Energy efficiency in industry is became important issue in this century considering cost of energy, energy crisis in the world and environmental issue of using energy sources. To solve this problem energy management can be successful tools due to it positive impact on reduction of energy use and also reduction of energy use environmental impacts. The aim of this thesis is to present results of a successful energy managing practices in a Swedish iron foundry and explain the possibilities to im...

Rahimi Ardkapan, Siamak; Rahimi, Maral

2010-01-01

388

Usulan Perbaikan Tata Letak Gudang Pattern Di PT. Asia Raya Foundry Dengan Menggunakan Metode Dedicated Storage  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

PT. Asia Raya Foundry merupakan salah satu perusahaan yang bergerak dibidang industri pengecoran logam dengan memproduksi berbagai sparepart industri diantaranya Bearing Housing, Bushing/bronze, Hanger bearing, Coupling, Roda Lorry, Transfer Carriage, Sprocket, Worm Screw, Roda gigi, Pisau cutter , Coupling, Stand mangle, Pisau Breaker, Bowl Liner, Impact, Jaw plate, Paddle, Toggle Seat/Block, Liner, Mantle Cone, Jig Plate dan sebagainya. Permasalahan yang dihadapi adalah sempitnya gang un...

Harahap, Hasan Basri

2011-01-01

389

Properties of made by different methods of RP impeller foundry patterns  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article presents the tests of properties of foundry patterns of turbocharger turbine impeller. Impellers prototypes were predestinated for casting by method losing patterns. There were carried out tests of these prototypes made by different methods of Rapid Prototyping (RP). Two impeller were made by growth methods: stereolitography (SLA) and three dimensional printing (3DP). One prototype was made by the method of Vacuum Casting as a wax casting. Tests were executed in the Department of...

Budzik, G.

2007-01-01

390

Barriers to and drivers for energy efficiency in the Swedish foundry industry  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Despite the need for increased industrial energy efficiency, studies indicate that cost-efficient energy conservation measures are not always implemented, explained by the existence of barriers to energy efficiency. This paper investigates the existence of different barriers to and driving forces for the implementation of energy efficiency measures in the energy intensive Swedish foundry industry. The overall results from a questionnaire show that limited access to capital constitutes by far ...

Rohdin, Patrik; Thollander, Patrik; Solding, Patrik

2007-01-01

391

Occupational eosinophilic bronchitis in a foundry worker exposed to isocyanate and a baker exposed to flour  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Eosinophilic bronchitis without asthma may occur as a consequence of occupational exposure. The cases of a foundry worker and a baker who developed symptoms, respectively, due to exposure to isocyanate and flour, are reported. Cough was not associated with variable airflow obstruction or with airway hyper?responsiveness and was responsive to inhaled corticosteroids. The eosinophilia detectable in their sputum was causally related to the occupational exposure in the workplace. The examinatio...

Stefano, Fabio Di; Giampaolo, Luca Di; Verna, Nicola; Gioacchino, Mario Di

2007-01-01

392

Reclaimability of the spent sand mixture – sand with bentonite – sand with furfuryl resin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction of new binding materials and new technologies of their hardening in casting moulds and cores production requires theapplication of reclamation methods adequate to their properties as well as special devices realizing tasks. The spent sands circulationsystem containing the same kind of moulding and core sands is optimal from the point of view of the expected reclamation results.However, in the face of a significant variability of applied technologies and related to them various reclamation methods, the need - of theobtained reclamation products assessment on the grounds of systematic criteria and uniform bases – arises, with a tendency of indicatingwhich criteria are the most important for the given sand system. The reclaimability results of the mixture of the spent moulding sand withGeko S bentonite and the spent core sand with the Kaltharz 404U resin hardened by acidic hardener 100 T3, are presented in the paper.Investigations were performed with regard to the estimation of an influence of core sands additions (10 –25% on the reclaimed materialquality. Dusts and clay content in the reclaim, its chemical reaction (pH and ignition loss were estimated. The verification of the reclaiminstrumental assessment was performed on the basis of the technological properties estimation of moulding sand with bentonite, where the reclaimed material was used as a matrix.

J. Da?ko

2011-04-01

393

Evaluation and Verification of Time and Costs of Production Activities in Foundry Industry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This work presents the possibility of using technology of modelling and simulation of productive systems in the management of cast iron production by means of automated foundry lines to maximize assembly line structure. The computer model of foundry has been planed and conducted in order to compile the schedule of cast production. The variants of solution have been estimated talking into account time limitations imposed by clients and the criterion for prime costs appointed on the basis of the ZAR by means of aided detailed calculation according to planes of their formation. In the research, problem connected with exploitation of automatic foundry lines have been taken into consideration. Moreover, the analysis of line work stoppage has been conducted and construction of schedule of the planned service of line device has been undertaken on the basis of the knowledge of timetables of correct work of these devices. Furthermore, the operational database has been prepared so as to assemble and process data about the damaged and other line work stoppage. It should be noted that the database will give the possibility of working out the schedule of planned service. The problems has been presented by using the pocket for modelling and the simulation of productive systems – ARENA

S. Kukla

2007-07-01

394

STUDY OF CREEP OF SAND  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Statement of the problem. Subgrade has perceived rheological properties, most importantly, creep. As a result, the number subbase displacements and their irregularities grow constantly in re-cent years. But this fact is not taken into account in calculations, this is why additional studies of structural strength and creep of sand are essential.Results. Empirical relationships between displacements of models of sand subbase and loading conditions are obtained. It is shown that creep in sand subbase develops within a few months and years even. A degree of an increase in strength of sand with low moisture content with time result-ing from structural strength formation is examined. It is found that a deformation rate depends largely on a loading level.Conclusions. The data obtained allow us to develop more reliable methods to predict a defor-mation change with time.

K. D. Chyong

2012-07-01

395

Reclaimability of the spent sand mixture – sand with bentonite – sand with furfuryl resin  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Introduction of new binding materials and new technologies of their hardening in casting moulds and cores production requires theapplication of reclamation methods adequate to their properties as well as special devices realizing tasks. The spent sands circulationsystem containing the same kind of moulding and core sands is optimal from the point of view of the expected reclamation results.However, in the face of a significant variability of applied technologies and related to them various re...

Dan?ko, J.; Dan?ko, R.

2011-01-01

396

Characterization and preparation of fluorescent sand tracer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Results on a laboratory scale study on the preparation of fluorescence sand tracer for sediment transport study are presented. Two aspects were emphasized in this study namely the physical properties of sand and the preparation of the fluorescent sand. The physical properties studied were component of sand, grain size distribution, and grain shape or form of the sand. The most common component of sand is quartz. This quartz sand contains small amount of feldspar, calcareous material, iron ore, and volcanic glass. Carbonates grains or particles such as brachiopods, gastropods, mollusk and small pieces of coral can be found in the sand sample. Based on the observation, the shape or form of the sand grains can be classified as a very angular with low sphericity. The materials that used in this experiment were beach sand, Rhodamine , Araldite CY 45, hardener Hy 48, toluene and ethyl alcohol. In order to produce the fluorescent sand, three solutions were prepared at certain proportion i.e. solution A (Whodamine + ethyl alcohol + toluene), solution B (Araldite + ethyl alcohol + toluene) and solution C (Hardener + ethyl alcohol + toluene). These three solutions were mixed together with sand and blended slowly until the surface of the sand grain dried. Fluorescent monitor and cabinet viewer were used to measure the intensity of fluorescent sand. Experimental results show that various intensity of fluorescent sand can be obtained depending on the proportion of the solutions. (ding on the proportion of the solutions. (Author)

397

Oil sands tailings management project  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Oil sands leadership initiative (OSLI) works with the Government of Alberta on the development of the oil sands industry, considering environmental, economical and social aspects. Water management was identified as one of most important areas to focus on. Alberta WaterSMART was requested to support the development and the management of projects resulting from the work done or underway in this field. The development of a regional water management solution stood out as the most interesting solution to obtain significant results. In the Athabasca Region, oil sands producers work independently on their water sourcing and disposal with particular attention to fresh water conservation and economics. The Athabasca River represents a source for mines and distant saline aquifers are the target of steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) operators. As part of a four-phase project aiming to study the environmental and economic footprint (EEF) benefit of alternatives for Athabasca oil sands production water supply and disposal, the purpose of the tailings water management project was to identify tailings treatment technologies that are ready to be implemented, and to design and evaluate solutions in order to improve regional oil sands production water sourcing and disposal. Alternatives were evaluated based on their total EEF, applying a lifecycle assessment methodology with a particular attention on the quantification of important performance indicators. 25 refs., 8 tabs., 40 figs.

Godwalt, C. [Alberta WaterSMART, Calgary, AB (Canada); Kotecha, P. [Suncor Energy Inc, Calgary, AB (Canada); Aumann, C. [Alberta Innovates - Technology Futures, Alberta Governement, AB (Canada)

2010-11-15

398

Sand, gravel properties key to optimum designs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Successful gravel packed and screen well completions require a knowledge of sand as well as gravel textural properties. These completion methods keep sand and fines from entering the well bore, so that long-term production capacity of the well is ensured. This first of a three-part series will cover key factors that influence effective sand control. The concluding parts will present guidelines for both gravel packs and screens. Fines, more than load-bearing formation sands, pose the greater problem for the two sand exclusion techniques. Therefore, reservoir sand analysis is the main key for controlling sand. An integrated team approach to both sand control design and implementation from well planning through drilling to final completion is the best strategy for optimizing well performance in reservoirs with sand problems.

Oyeneyin, M.B. [Robert Gordon Univ., Aberdeen (United Kingdom)

1998-01-26

399

40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Zzzzz of... - Performance Test Requirements for New and Existing Affected Sources Classified as Large Foundries  

Science.gov (United States)

...Sources Classified as Large Foundries 1 Table...Sources Classified as Large Foundries As required...points in each stack or duct using EPA Method 1...carbon monoxide content of exhaust gas, ANSI/ASME PTC 19.10-1981, “Flue and Exhaust Gas Analyses”...

2010-07-01

400

40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Zzzzz of... - Procedures for Establishing Operating Limits for New Affected Sources Classified as Large Foundries  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 false Procedures for Establishing...Classified as Large Foundries 2 Table 2 to Subpart...ZZZZZ of Part 63—Procedures for Establishing Operating...Classified as Large Foundries As required in...operating limits using the procedures in the following...

2010-07-01

 
 
 
 
401

Steamflooding of preheated tar sand  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Steamflooding was evaluated as a thermal oil recovery process for a Utah tar sand. A series of one-dimensional steamflood experiments were conducted to study the effects of the processing conditions on oil recovery efficiency and product oil quality. Processing variables included (1) injected steam fluxes ranging from 200 to 670 scfh/ft/sup 2/, (2) tar sand preheat temperatures ranging from 215/sup 0/ to 500/sup 0/F (102 to 260/sup 0/C), and (3) initial bitumen saturations of 47% and 62% of pore volume. Oil recoveries ranged from 50% original oil in place (OOIP) for the highly saturated tar sand to 35% OOIP for the leaner tar sand. The oil yields improved with increasing initial oil saturations mainly because the steamflood residual oil saturation was independent of the initial bitumen saturation. Residual oil saturations, which decreased with increased steam temperature, averaged 30% of the pore volume regardless of the preheat temperature or the steam injection flux. Increased preheat temperatures reduced the bitumen viscosity and increased the steam zone velocity. This resulted in increased oil production rates and improved product oil quality. However, as preheat temperatures increased, improvements in oil quality and production rate became less significant. Based on the conventional measure for steamflood performance (steam-oil ratio), steamflooding Asphalt Ridge tar sand does not appear to have economic potential as an oil recovery process. At least six pore volumes of steam were injected to produce 35% OOIP from the preheated, highly saturated tar sand. This resulted in a steam-oil ratio of 30 while a ratio of 4 to 6 is typical for commercially operated heavy oil steamfloods which recover 30% to 60% OOIP. 13 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs.

Romanowski, L.J. Jr.; Thomas, K.P.

1985-02-01

402

Sands at Gusev Crater, Mars  

Science.gov (United States)

environments, and the energy associated with the transport and deposition of sand at Gusev Crater are characterized at the microscopic scale through the comparison of statistical moments for particle size and shape distributions. Bivariate and factor analyses define distinct textural groups at 51 sites along the traverse completed by the Spirit rover as it crossed the plains and went into the Columbia Hills. Fine-to-medium sand is ubiquitous in ripples and wind drifts. Most distributions show excess fine material, consistent with a predominance of wind erosion over the last 3.8 billion years. Negative skewness at West Valley is explained by the removal of fine sand during active erosion, or alternatively, by excess accumulation of coarse sand from a local source. The coarse to very coarse sand particles of ripple armors in the basaltic plains have a unique combination of size and shape. Their distribution display significant changes in their statistical moments within the ~400 m that separate the Columbia Memorial Station from Bonneville Crater. Results are consistent with aeolian and/or impact deposition, while the elongated and rounded shape of the grains forming the ripples, as well as their direction of origin, could point to Ma'adim Vallis as a possible source. For smaller particles on the traverse, our findings confirm that aeolian processes have dominated over impact and other processes to produce sands with the observed size and shape patterns across a spectrum of geologic (e.g., ripples and plains soils) and aerographic settings (e.g., wind shadows).

Cabrol, Nathalie A.; Herkenhoff, Kenneth; Knoll, Andrew H.; Farmer, Jack; Arvidson, Raymond; Grin, Edmond; Li, Ronxing; Fenton, Lori; Cohen, Barbara; Bell, James F.; Aileen Yingst, R.

2014-05-01

403

Strange phenomena in Cuban sands  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Several unusual phenomena that occur in certain Cuban sands flows (and some other parts of the world) are presented . First, the phenomenon occurs revolving rivers, explained by a phenomenological model. Several open questions were discussed on the 'microscopic' causes of the phenomenon. Uphill lonely waves are shown in second, in streams of the same type of sand that occur in a cell in Hele-Shaw. The 'microscopic' necessary conditions are explored for these waves emerge as solution of Saint-Venant equations modified hydrodynamic type. (author)

404

Ultrasonic testing of the hardening kinetics of epoxy resins used for foundry patterns  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The study presents the results of investigations on the hardening kinetics of modern pattern materials which, among others, include alsoepoxy resins. Tests were carried out using a new ultrasonic technique developed by the author of the present study. On the example of theEPO 999 resin, the run of the hardening process at temperatures of 10, 20 and 30oC was shown. This is the temperature range appliedduring production of foundry patterns. The time of the preliminary hardening amounted to 800 ...

Zych, J.

2010-01-01

405

Gas flow through a multilayer ceramic mould in lost wax foundry process  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The paper deals with the issues of permeability testing of ceramic moulds used in lost wax foundry process. The main issue in thetesting is to provide proper specimens of ceramic moulds (CM). The moulds have to be repeatable and must be free of internal defects ofmicrocrack type that are formed mainly during the removal of patterns from CM in the course of heat treatment.Moreover, the process of forming ceramic moulds must be similar to the general industrial process of CM moulds making regar...

Matysiak, H.; Haratym, R.; Klabczyk, M.

2009-01-01

406

Open foundry platform for high-performance electronic-photonic integration.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents photonic devices with 3 dB/cm waveguide loss fabricated in an existing commercial electronic 45 nm SOI-CMOS foundry process. By utilizing existing front-end fabrication processes the photonic devices are monolithically integrated with electronics in the same physical device layer as transistors achieving 4 ps logic stage delay, without degradation in transistor performance. We demonstrate an 8-channel optical microring-resonator filter bank and optical modulators, both controlled by integrated digital circuits. By developing a device design methodology that requires zero process infrastructure changes, a widely available platform for high-performance photonic-electronic integrated circuits is enabled. PMID:22714212

Orcutt, Jason S; Moss, Benjamin; Sun, Chen; Leu, Jonathan; Georgas, Michael; Shainline, Jeffrey; Zgraggen, Eugen; Li, Hanqing; Sun, Jie; Weaver, Matthew; Uroševi?, Stevan; Popovi?, Miloš; Ram, Rajeev J; Stojanovi?, Vladimir

2012-05-21

407

Studies on the Executionof Models Used in Iron Foundry From Epoxidic Resins  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The epoxidic resins are materials frequently used in the execution of the models used in iron foundry. This materials can replace casily wood or aluminium in the execution of the models needed in series productions, having better resistance properties and the high dimensional precision. The properties of these resins are obtained from the completion of the epoxibifunctional molecules with supplements. This paper establishes the result of mixing the two components, as well as the supplements used to improve the mechanic and the technological properties.

Cinca - Ionel Lupinca

2006-10-01

408

100% foundry compatible packaging and full wafer release and die separation technique for surface micromachined devices  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A completely foundry compatible chip-scale package for surface micromachines has been successfully demonstrated. A pyrex (Corning 7740) glass cover is placed over the released surface micromachined die and anodically bonded to a planarized polysilicon bonding ring. Electrical feedthroughs for the surface micromachine pass underneath the polysilicon sealing ring. The package has been found to be hermetic with a leak rate of less than 5 x 10{sup {minus}8} atm cm{sup {minus}3}/s. This technology has applications in the areas of hermetic encapsulation and wafer level release and die separation.

OLIVER,ANDREW D.; MATZKE,CAROLYN M.

2000-04-06

409

Gas flow through a multilayer ceramic mould in lost wax foundry process  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper deals with the issues of permeability testing of ceramic moulds used in lost wax foundry process. The main issue in thetesting is to provide proper specimens of ceramic moulds (CM. The moulds have to be repeatable and must be free of internal defects ofmicrocrack type that are formed mainly during the removal of patterns from CM in the course of heat treatment.Moreover, the process of forming ceramic moulds must be similar to the general industrial process of CM moulds making regardingtheir anisotropic structure. The permeability parameter reflecting gas flow through multilayer ceramic moulds was also examined withattention to the investment casting shape accuracy.

H. Matysiak

2009-04-01

410

Occupational eosinophilic bronchitis in a foundry worker exposed to isocyanate and a baker exposed to flour.  

Science.gov (United States)

Eosinophilic bronchitis without asthma may occur as a consequence of occupational exposure. The cases of a foundry worker and a baker who developed symptoms, respectively, due to exposure to isocyanate and flour, are reported. Cough was not associated with variable airflow obstruction or with airway hyper-responsiveness and was responsive to inhaled corticosteroids. The eosinophilia detectable in their sputum was causally related to the occupational exposure in the workplace. The examination of induced sputum should be used in addition to the objective monitoring of lung function for workers who have asthma-like symptoms in an occupational setting. PMID:16055615

Di Stefano, Fabio; Di Giampaolo, Luca; Verna, Nicola; Di Gioacchino, Mario

2007-04-01

411

Characterization of sand lenses embedded in tills  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Tills dominate large parts of the superficial sediments on the Northern hemisphere. These glacial diamictons are extremely heterogeneous and riddled with fractures and lenses of sand or gravel. The frequency and geometry of sand lenses within tills are strongly linked to glaciodynamic processes occurring in various glacial environments. This study specifically focuses on the appearance and spatial distribution of sand lenses in tills. It introduces a methodology on how to measure and characterize sand lenses in the field with regard to size, shape and degree of deformation. A set of geometric parameters is defined to allow characterization of sand lenses. The proposed classification scheme uses a stringent terminology to distinguish several types of sand lenses based on the geometry. It includes sand layers, sand sheets, sand bodies, sand pockets and sand stringers. The methodology has been applied at the Kallerup field site in the Eastern part of Denmark. The site offers exposures in a number of till types that underwent different levels of glaciotectonic deformation. Sand lenses show high spatial variability and only weak uniformity in terms of extent and shape. Secondly, the genesis of the various types of sand lenses is discussed, primarily in relation to the depositional and glaciotectonic processes they underwent. Detailed characterization of sand lenses facilitates such interpretations. Finally, the observations are linked to a more general overview of the distribution of sand lenses in various glacial environments. Due to the complex and mutable appearance of sand lenses, geometric descriptions can reveal the deformation history and even give indications on the palaeo-glaciological conditions during the deposition of the surrounding tills. This information can support the understanding of till genesis and further inform till classifications. In this regard, structural heterogeneity such as sand lenses can supplement traditional directional element analysis to identify till types and may be used as a noveltool in till investigations.

Kessler, Timo Christian; Bjerg, Poul LØgstrup

2012-01-01

412

Proposal for the award of a blanket purchase contract for the supply of foundry services for semiconductor technologies  

CERN Document Server

This document concerns the award of a blanket purchase contract for the supply of foundry services for semiconductor technologies. The Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of a blanket purchase contract with IBM SWITZERLAND (CH), the lowest bidder complying with the specification, for the supply of foundry services for semiconductor technologies for a period of four years, for a total amount not exceeding 4 000 000 US dollars, not subject to revision. At the present rate of exchange, the total amount of the blanket purchase contract is equivalent to approximately 5 000 000 Swiss francs. CERN's financial contribution will not exceed 1 000 000 Swiss francs.

2006-01-01

413

Interaction of smoking, uptake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and cytochrome P450IA2 activity among foundry workers.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An increased lung cancer risk has been described among foundry workers. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and silica are possible aetiological factors. This study describes a urinary PAH metabolite, 1-hydroxypyrene (hpU), as well as the degree of cytochrome P450IA2 activity/induction as reflected by the urinary caffeine ratio (IA2) in 45 foundry workers and 52 controls; IA2 was defined as the ratio of paraxanthine 7-demethylation products to a paraxanthine 8-hydroxylation product (1,7-d...

Sherson, D.; Sigsgaard, T.; Overgaard, E.; Loft, S.; Poulsen, H. E.; Jongeneelen, F. J.

1992-01-01

414

Dry reusing and wet reclaiming of used sodium silicate sand  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Based on the characteristics of used sodium silicate sand and the different use requirements for recycled sand, "dry reusing and wet reclaiming of used sodium silicate sand" is considered as the most suitable technique for the used sand. When the recycled sand is used as support sand, the used sand is only reused by dry process including breaking, screening, dust-removal, etc., and it is not necessary that the used sand is reclaimed with strongly rubbing and scraping method, but when the recycled sand is used as facing sand (or single sand, the used sand must be reclaimed by wet method for higher removal rate of the residual binders. The characteristics and the properties of the dry reused sand are compared with the wet reclaimed sand after combining the different use requirements of support sand and facing sand (or single sand, and above the most adaptive scheme has also been validated.

Zitian FAN

2005-02-01

415

Rheology of oil sands slurries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study focused on integrating rheology and colloid science to improve recovery of bitumen in surface mined oil sands. Factors that influence recovery, such as conditions of particle interaction, solids concentration and shear rate, were reviewed. In an effort to understand the rheological behaviour of clay-in-water suspensions, an elaborate procedure was developed to separate an inter-bedded clay layer from a site at Albian Sands Energy Inc. The variables were water chemistry, solids concentration, and shear rate. The research study was conducted at the Alberta Research Council with the support of the CONRAD Extraction Group. A controlled stress rheometer was used to provide the quantitative evaluations of the clay slurry properties. The research results indicate that the viscoelastic properties of the slurry are highly influenced by the shear history of the slurry, solids content, calcium concentration, and sample aging. Shear thinning behaviour was observed in all slurry samples, but the slurry viscosity increased with test time for a given shear rate. In order to classify the slurries, a method was developed to distinguish the gel strength. The slurries were then classified into 3 distinct patterns, including no gel, weak gel and strong gel. The evolution of the experimental protocols were described along with the current stability maps that correlate the domains of the gel strength according to the solids concentration, calcium ion content, and shear rate. It was concluded that the rheological properties of oil sands slurries influence bitumen recovery in commercial surface-mined oil sands operations. tabs., figs.

Chow, R.; Zhou, J. [Alberta Research Council, Edmonton, AB (Canada). Mineral Oil Sands Unit; Wallace, D. [Dean Wallace Consulting Inc., Beaumont, AB (Canada)

2006-07-01

416

Sand and Water Table Play  

Science.gov (United States)

The authors observed preschoolers engaged at the sand and water table to determine if math could be found within their play. Wanting to understand how children interact with provided materials and what kinds of math ideas they explore during these interactions, the authors offer practical examples of how such play can promote mathematical…

Wallace, Ann H.; White, Mary J.; Stone, Ryan

2010-01-01

417

Avalanche statistics of sand heaps  

CERN Document Server

Large scale computer simulations are presented to investigate the avalanche statistics of sand piles using molecular dynamics. We could show that different methods of measurement lead to contradicting conclusions, presumably due to avalanches not reaching the end of the experimental table.

Buchholtz, V; Buchholtz, Volkhard; Poeschel, Thorsten

1996-01-01

418

Mapping marine sand and gravel  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Aggregates – sands and gravels – are essential for building and maintaining our houses and infrastructure, so we need to be sure we have a reliable supply. Tom Bide and Joseph Mankelow explain how geological mapping is taking us in the right direction.

Bide, Tom; Mankelow, Joseph

2014-01-01

419

Loose sand habitat at the Mojave desert  

Science.gov (United States)

Loose sand soil lacks moisture but contains adequate moisture and nutrients for drought tolerant plants. Loose sand soil is insufficient for animals to find or make shelter. Organisms find shade and shelter under the large shrubs.

Katie Hale (California State University, Fullerton;Student. Biological Sciences)

2007-01-06

420

The eolian sand problems arising from desertification.  

Science.gov (United States)

Eolian (wind blown) sand constitutes a very serious problem to development in sandy desert lands and causes equally serious problems in lands that are undergoing desertification. In this paper, eolian sand movement due to bulk movement such as sand dune and ripple movement, sand drift by saltation, and sand storms by strong winds are discussed. Associated problems such as eolian sand encroachment on highways, farms, communities and industrial complexes are also discussed and workable solutions are offered. Solutions include chemical stabilization of the surface grains, fences to trap the blown sand and vegetation to prevent soil deflation. Vegetation is emphasized and recommended as the ultimate viable solution to combat desertification and eolian sand problems. PMID:24254738

Bofah, K K; Owusu, Y A

1986-05-01

 
 
 
 
421

Laboratory test preparation of fluorescent sand tracer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper described the preparation procedure of fluorescent sand tracer. The materials that used in this experiment were beach sand, Rhodamine-B, Araldite CY-245, hardener Hy-248, toluene and ethyl alcohol. Three solutions were prepared at certain formula i.e. solution A (Rhodamine-B + ethyl alcohol + toluene), solution B (Araldite + ethyl alcohol + toluene) and solution C (Hardener + ethyl alcohol + toluene) in order to produce the fluorescent sand. These solutions were mixed together with sand and blended slowly until the surface of the sand grain dried. Fluorescent monitor and UV cabinet viewer were used to measure and monitor the intensity of fluorescent sand. Results show that various intensity of fluorescent sand can be obtained depending on the formulation. Laboratory test has been carried out purposely to identify the suitable sand for the field test. (Author)

422

Chvorinov’s rule and determination of coefficient of heat accumulation of moulds with non-quartz base sands  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Application of the „Chvorinov’s rule“ for calculation of the total time of casting solidification made also possible to determine chilling effect of foundry moulds (coefficient of heat accumulation of the mould, bf with use of mixtures with new kinds of non-quartz base sands (Magnesite, Chromite, Olivine, Dunite, Kerphalit. Processes by several authors (G. Halbart, A. I. Vejnik, G. A. Anisovich were used for mathematical treatment of measurement results and determination of bf. The highest values were achieved for magnesite moulds followed by chromite ones; the lowest values, approximately half-ones, represented the Dunite moulds. At the same time the results made possible to determine „the Chvorinov’s mean solidification constants“ (k that are in direct proportional dependence on bf and indirect proportional to solidification time (?1.

T. Elbel

2010-10-01

423

Effect of casting/mould interfacial heat transfer during solidification of aluminium alloys cast in CO2-sand mould  

Science.gov (United States)

The ability of heat to flow across the casting and through the interface from the casting to the mold directly affects the evolution of solidification and plays a notable role in determining the freezing conditions within the casting, mainly in foundry systems of high thermal diffusivity such as chill castings. An experimental procedure has been utilized to measure the formation process of an interfacial gap and metal-mould interfacial movement during solidification of hollow cylindrical castings of Al-4.5 % Cu alloy cast in CO2-sand mould. Heat flow between the casting and the mould during solidification of Al-4.5 % Cu alloy in CO2-sand mould was assessed using an inverse modeling technique. The analysis yielded the interfacial heat flux ( q), heat transfer coefficient ( h) and the surface temperatures of the casting and the mould during solidification of the casting. The peak heat flux was incorporated as a dimensionless number and modeled as a function of the thermal diffusivities of the casting and the mould materials. Heat flux transients were normalized with respect to the peak heat flux and modeled as a function of time. The heat flux model proposed was to estimate the heat flux transients during solidification of Al-4.5 % Cu alloy cast in CO2-sand moulds.

Kulkarni, S. N.; Radhakrishna, D. K.

2011-06-01

424

On shelterbelt design for combating sand invasion.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

After a review of the scarce literature on using trees against sand encroachment, a quantitative experiment with a wide shelterbelt to combat sand invasion is reported on. Experimental work was carried out at the northwestern border of the Gezira Scheme (Sudan), an area of severe land degradation and sand movement. Finally, a design of tree shelterbelts for protection against moving sand is discussed. The design suggested from what is known to happen windward of and within shelterbelts and fr...

Mohammed, A. E.; Stigter, C. J.; Adam, H. S.

1996-01-01

425

Preliminary Research on Granulation Process of Dust Waste from Reclamation Process of Moulding Sands with Furan Resin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The results of investigations of the granulation process of foundry dusts generated in the dry mechanical reclamation process of usedsands, where furan resins were binders are presented in the paper. Investigations concerned producing of granules of the determineddimensions and strength parameters.Granules were formed from the dusts mixture consisting in 50 mass% of dusts obtained after the reclamation of the furane sands and in50 mass % of dusts from sands with bentonite. Dusts from the bentonite sands with water were used as a binder allowing the granulation of after reclamation dusts from the furane sands.The following parameters of the ready final product were determined: moisture content (W, shatter test of granules (Wz performeddirectly after the granulation process and after 1, 3, 5, 10 days and nights of seasoning, water-resistance of granules after 24 hours of being immersed in water, surface porosity ep and volumetric porosity ev. In addition the shatter test and water-resistance of granulate dried at a temperature of 105oC were determined.Investigations were performed at the bowl angle of inclination 45o, for three rotational speeds of the bowl being: 10, 15, 20 rpm.For the speed of 10 rpm the granulation tests of dusts mixture after the preliminary mixing in the roller mixer and with the addition ofwater-glass in the amount of 2% in relation to the amount of dust were carried out.The obtained results indicate that the granulator allows to obtain granules from dusts originated from the reclamations of mouldingsands with the furane resin with an addition of dusts from the bentonite sands processing plants.

J. Kami?ska

2012-09-01

426

Tools and Strategies for Product Life Cycle Management ñ A Case Study in Foundry  

Science.gov (United States)

Advances in information and communication technology (ICT) have opened new possibilities of collaborations among the customers, suppliers, manufactures and partners to effectively tackle various business challenges. Product Life Cycle Management(PLM) has been a proven approach for Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) to increase their productivity, improve their product quality, speed up delivery, and increase their profit and to become more efficient. However, their Tier 2 and Tier 3 suppliers like foundry industries are still in their infancy without adopting PLM. Hence to enhance their understanding, the basic concepts, the tools and strategies for PLM are presented is this paper. By selecting and implementing appropriate PLM strategies in a small foundry, an attempt was also made to understand the immediate benefits of using PLM tools (commercial PLM software and digital manufacturing tools). This study indicated a reduction in lead time and improved utilization of organizational resources in the production of automobile impeller. These observations may be further extrapolated to other multiproduct, multi-discipline and multi-customer companies to realize the advantages of using PLM technology

Patil, Rajashekar; Kumar, S. Mohan; Abhilash, E.

2012-08-01

427

Pore structure development of in-situ pyrolyzed coals for pollution prevention in iron foundries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A protocol was devised for preparing pyrolyzed coals that could be made in-situ at foundries to capture volatile organic compound (VOC) emission. This pyrolysis created extensive micropore volume in lignite over a broad range of temperature and time; and could use waste heat from cupola exhaust gases by a heat-exchange tube. For foundry application, moderate porous carbon with relatively uniform pores over wide ranges of temperature and time would be more practical than highly porous activated carbon (AC) that requires narrowly-controlled operations. This pyrolysis protocol was developed in a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) and in a small tube furnace, while using lignite, bituminous coal, and anthracite. The lignite yielded the most pore volume; and this was relatively uniform (0.1-0.13 mL/g of pores) while temperatures were 600-900 C, and times were 0-60 min. Smaller grain sizes yielded improved porosity; and this corresponded to more release of phenols and naphthalenes from smaller grains, as discerned by TGA-mass spectroscopy (MS). TGA-MS also revealed that improved pore development between 600-800 C corresponded to the release of CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O; and concurrently higher slurry pH linked to less oxygenated functionality. Adsorption of benzene was compared between the in-situ porous carbon and a commercial AC. (author)

Huang, He; Cannon, Fred S. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, 212 Sackett Building, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Wang, Yujue [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Bejing, 100084 (China)

2009-09-15

428

Replies to Challenges in the Field of Air Pollution Control in Foundry Plants  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The solution of applications for air pollution control in foundries for iron and non-ferrous metals may not only be understood as theobservance of requested emission limit values at the stack outlet. An effective environmental protection already starts with the greatest possible capture of pollutants at the source with at the same time minimisation of the volume flow necessary for this. Independent of this, the downstream installed filtration system has to realise a degree of separation of definitely above 99%.Furthermore, when selecting the filter construction, attention has to be paid to a high availability. An even temporarily productionwithout filter will more and more no longer be accepted by residents and authorities. Incidents at the filter lead to a shutdown of the whole production.Additional measures for heat recovery while preparing concepts for filtration plants help to reduce the energy consumption and servefor a sustained conservation of environment.A consequent consideration of the items above is also condition for the fact that environmental protection in foundries remainsaffordable. The lecture deals with the subjects above from the point of view of a plant constructor.

R. Margraf

2012-09-01

429

On the measurement of surface tension in binders used for moulding sands  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The surface tension of foundry binders is a very important parameter affecting the properties of a sand-binder system. Combined with other parameters, its value determines an outcome of the process of moulding sand preparation and the mechanical properties of the ready moulding composition. The problem of how to measure the surface tension of binders used in preparation of moulding sands is discussed only occasionally. Indirectly, the surface tension is characterised by the value of a contact angle, but it never means that these two parameters can be considered identical. Numerous methods are available and used at present to measure the surface tension, among others, the capillary rise method, the spinning drop method, the sessile drop method, the pendant drop method, the method of pulled out ring (or plate, or frame. There is also a rich variety of devices offered with different measuring methods. The devices are modern and represent a high level of the technical skill and art. Unfortunately, also their price is high. It is, however, possible to obtain the reliable results of the surface tension measurement using relatively simple methods, viz. the stalagmometric method and the capillary rise method. What is necessary are proper conditions of the measurement, directly related with the specific properties of binders. The present paper gives examples of the results obtained during measurement of the surface tension of some selected binders. Attention was drawn to the methods of taking measurements, and the obtained results were discussed and analysed. The possibilities of detemining the surface tension of the examined binders from the results of the contact angle measurements using the “sessile drop” and “pendant drop” methods were outlined.

B. Hutera

2008-07-01

430

2003/2004 STATISTICALLY VALID NONCOMPLIANCE RATE (SVNR) INSPECTIONS FOR THE FOUNDRY SECTOR IN EPA REGION 4  

Science.gov (United States)

The SVNR initiative involves the determination of a compliance rate for the foundry sector in EPA Region 4. A compliance rate is an estimate of the percentage of all the facilities in a population in compliance. The actual rate could be determined if all facilities were inspect...

431