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1

Foundry Sand Facts for Civil Engineers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Metal foundries use large amounts of sand as part of the metal casting process. Foundries successfully recycle and reuse the sand many times in a foundry. When the sand can no longer be reused in the foundry, it is removed from the foundry and is termed f...

2004-01-01

2

Dilatometric Characterization of Foundry Sands  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The goal of this contribution is summary of physical – chemistry properties of usually used foundry silica and no – silica sands in Czech foundries. With the help of dilatometry analysis theoretical assumptions of influence of grain shape and size on dilatation value of sands were confirmed. Determined was the possibility of dilatometry analysis employment for preparing special (hybrid) sands with lower and/or more linear character of dilatation.

M. B?uska; J. Be?o; M Cagala; V Jasinkova

2012-01-01

3

[Environmental toxicity of waste foundry sand].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The metal leaching characteristics and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of five different types of waste foundry sands were analyzed with the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) and head space-gas chromatography (HS-GC). Microtox and soil dehydrogenase activity (DHA) tests were then used to evaluate the bio-effects of these waste sands. The results showed that due to the different metals poured and casting materials used to make the sand molds, there was significant difference among the five waste foundry sands in the compositions and concentrations of metal and organic pollutants. The concentrations of Fe in the leachates of iron and steel casting waste foundry sand exceeded the maximal allowable concentrations specified in the National Standard of Drinking Water Quality, whereas the As concentration in the leachate of aluminum casting waste foundry sand exceeded the standard. The five waste foundry sands had quite different compositions and levels of VOCs, which resulted in different levels of inhibition effects on the luminescent bacteria (30% and 95%). Additionally, the soil DHA tests suggested that metal pollutants in waste foundry sands may inhibit the soil microbial activity, whereas organics in the sands may slightly promote the microbial activity. The results of this study indicated that the waste foundry sands may pose considerable threat to the environment when improperly disposed.

Zhang HF; Wang YJ; Wang JL; Huang TY; Xiong Y

2013-03-01

4

[Environmental toxicity of waste foundry sand].  

Science.gov (United States)

The metal leaching characteristics and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of five different types of waste foundry sands were analyzed with the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) and head space-gas chromatography (HS-GC). Microtox and soil dehydrogenase activity (DHA) tests were then used to evaluate the bio-effects of these waste sands. The results showed that due to the different metals poured and casting materials used to make the sand molds, there was significant difference among the five waste foundry sands in the compositions and concentrations of metal and organic pollutants. The concentrations of Fe in the leachates of iron and steel casting waste foundry sand exceeded the maximal allowable concentrations specified in the National Standard of Drinking Water Quality, whereas the As concentration in the leachate of aluminum casting waste foundry sand exceeded the standard. The five waste foundry sands had quite different compositions and levels of VOCs, which resulted in different levels of inhibition effects on the luminescent bacteria (30% and 95%). Additionally, the soil DHA tests suggested that metal pollutants in waste foundry sands may inhibit the soil microbial activity, whereas organics in the sands may slightly promote the microbial activity. The results of this study indicated that the waste foundry sands may pose considerable threat to the environment when improperly disposed. PMID:23745431

Zhang, Hai-Feng; Wang, Yu-Jue; Wang, Jin-Lin; Huang, Tian-You; Xiong, Ying

2013-03-01

5

Use of Foundry Sands in Transportation Applications.  

Science.gov (United States)

The primary objective of this project was to verify the availability and suitability of Texas-generated foundry sand (FS) for TxDOT and to develop specifications for use of these sands in TxDOT construction and maintenance applications. Extensive literatu...

C. Vipulanandan S. Cho S. Wang

2005-01-01

6

Alternate utilization of foundry sand waste  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Illinois Geological Survey data indicate that Illinois foundries purchase nearly 800,000 tons of silica sand each year for the production of molds and cores. This paper reports that once utilized, this sand becomes an expensive and difficult commodity to dispose. The volume and regulatory status requirements make it unattractive to landfill operators. Most foundries use an industrial grade of silica of very high purity for the production of molds and cores. Recent data from the Illinois Geological Survey record silica usage in excess of 30 million tons per year in the state. Construction usage of silica includes applications such as: cement, concrete products, asphalt, fill and others. Industrial usage includes: glass products, foundry molds and cores, oil well propant, inert carriers for fertilizers and others

1992-01-01

7

Plant Availability of Metals in Waste Foundry Sands  

Science.gov (United States)

Foundries in the United States generate several million tons of waste sand each year. These sands are no longer suitable for metalcasting processes, and about 90% are discarded in landfills. However, the majority of these waste foundry sands (WFSs) qualify as non-hazardous industrial waste and the...

8

LEACHING STUDIES WITH COLUMNS OF BLENDED SOIL AND FOUNDRY SAND  

Science.gov (United States)

Millions of tons of foundry sand are generated annually. Although much of this sand is placed in landfills, some is used in blended soil mixes. With soil blends used for landscaping, establishment of turf, and agricultural uses, there is potential for constituents (e.g. heavy metals) to leach. Th...

9

BLENDING FOUNDRY SANDS WITH SOIL: EFFECT ON DEHYDROGENASE ACTIVITY  

Science.gov (United States)

Each year U.S. foundries landfill several million tons of sand that can no longer be used to make metalcasting molds and cores. A possible use for these materials is as an ingredient in manufactured soils; however, potentially harmful metals and resin binders (used to make cores) may adversely impa...

10

SATURATED HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY OF SOILS BLENDED WITH WASTE FOUNDRY SANDS  

Science.gov (United States)

Beneficial uses are being sought after for the large quantities of waste foundry sand (WFS) that are landfilled. Potential applications include their use in synthetic soils and incorporation into agricultural soils. In this laboratory study we investigated the saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks)...

11

METALS IN WASTE FOUNDRY SANDS: ASSESSMENT WITH EARTHWORMS  

Science.gov (United States)

A total of 43 sets of waste sand were collected from ferrous and non-ferrous foundries in the eastern United States. The concentrations of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and 17 phenolics were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry after accelerated solvent extraction. Since t...

12

Pyrolysis of Carbonaceous Foundry Sand Additives: Seacoal and Gilsonite  

Science.gov (United States)

Seacoal and gilsonite are used by the foundry industry as carbonaceous additives in green molding sands. In this study, pyrolysis was used to simulate the heating conditions that the carbonaceous additives would experience during metal casting. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to tent...

13

Near Infrared Spectroscopic Analysis of Foundry Moulding and Core Sands  

Science.gov (United States)

Sands used by the foundry industry for metalcasting are coated with a variety of organic materials. During the casting process, the organic materials are thermally degraded, producing a wide variety of potentially harmful organic byproducts. Because there is great interest in beneficially using wa...

14

Use, reuse and recycling of waste foundry sand  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Navistar International Transportation Corp. is a manufacturer of heavy- and medium-duty trucks and smokeless diesel engines. The company has a very proactive environmental protection policy and management program, that has been favorably recognized by federal, state, and local environmental regulatory agencies, and has earned the company 25 environmental awards. The key to this recognition has been outstanding pollution prevention efforts at its operating locations that have resulted in documented savings to the company of over $37 million over the past five years. Although the company has made significant progress in reducing the generation and disposal of its hazardous wastes (paints solvents and parts washing solvents), and non-hazardous wastes (used oil and coolants), it has faced a great challenge in reducing the volume of its waste foundry sand from its foundry operations in Indiana and Wisconsin. This foundry sand, which has amounted to approximately 100,000 tons per year, and has cost the company over $1 million a year for disposal has historically been sent to industrial waste landfills. This paper will address how the company has worked with regulatory agencies and with potential users in developing environmental regulations and strategies that allowed for beneficial use, reuse, and recycling of waste foundry sand.

Alido, F.B.; Dasher, D.R.

1998-12-31

15

Extraction of toxic and valuable metals from foundry sands  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There were extracted valuable metals from foundry sands such as: gold, platinum, silver, cobalt, germanium, nickel and zinc among others, as well as highly toxic metals such as chromium, lead, vanadium and arsenic. The extraction efficiency was up to 100% in some cases. For this reason there were obtained two patents at the United States, patent number 5,356,601, in October 1994, given for the developed process and patent number 5,376,000, in December 1994, obtained for the equipment employed. Therefore, the preliminary parameters for the installation of a pilot plant have also been developed. (Author)

1996-06-26

16

COMPOSTING WASTE FOUNDRY SAND WITH LEAVES TO AMEND ADVERSE PHYSICAL PROPERTIES  

Science.gov (United States)

Indiana ranks second in the nation in waste foundry sand production with one million tons annually disposed in landfills. As available landfill space and profit margins steadily decrease, it becomes more important to find ways of diverting waste foundry sand away from landfills and identify benefici...

17

USING THE EARTHWORM, EISENIA FETIDA, TO ASSESS THE ECOTOXICITY OF WASTE FOUNDRY SANDS  

Science.gov (United States)

Earthworms are often used to monitor the toxicity of contaminated soils. In this experiment, the earthworm, Eisenia fetida, was utilized to assess the ecotoxicity of waste foundry sands. Each year the U.S. foundry industry generates several million tons of waste sand that is no longer useful to pr...

18

CHEMICAL AND MINERALOGICAL PROPERTIES OF IRON AND ALUMINUM WASTE GREEN FOUNDRY SANDS  

Science.gov (United States)

Indiana ranks second in the nation in waste foundry sand production with one million tons annually disposed in landfills. As available landfill space and profit margins steadily decrease it becomes more important to find ways of diverting waste foundry sand away from landfills and identify benefici...

19

INSOLUBILIZATION METHOD OF THE FLUORINE IN WASTE FOUNDRY SAND AND THE PRODUCTION METHOD OF THE ROADBED MATERIAL  

Science.gov (United States)

We have studied how the fluorine-insoluble in the waste foundry sand (chromite sand) and production method of the roadbed material with insolubilized waste foundry sand. And we got following knowledges. (1) We found a minimum mixing rate to insolubilize of fluorine in the waste foundry sand by the ingenuity of mixing procedure. (2) Now we can insolubilize the waste foundry sand including comparatively high concentration fluorine (elution concentration: 20-70mg/l) by the mixing time difference of MgO and blast furnace cement. (3) In the verification test the roadbed material made from the insolubilized waste foundry sand satisfied reference value of environment safety.

Fukayama, Masamitu; Terazono, Katsuhiro; Koga, Yasuyuki

20

Re-usage of waste foundry sand in high-strength concrete.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this study, the potential re-use of waste foundry sand in high-strength concrete production was investigated. The natural fine sand is replaced with waste foundry sand (0%, 5%, 10%, and 15%). The findings from a series of test program has shown reduction in compressive and tensile strengths, and the elasticity modulus which is directly related to waste foundry inclusion in concrete. Nevertheless the concrete with 10% waste foundry sand exhibits almost similar results to that of the control one. The slump and the workability of the fresh concrete decreases with the increase of the waste foundry sand ratio. Although the freezing and thawing significantly reduces the mechanical and physical properties of the concrete. The obtained results satisfies the acceptable limits set by the American Concrete Institute (ACI).

Guney Y; Sari YD; Yalcin M; Tuncan A; Donmez S

2010-08-01

 
 
 
 
21

MID-INFRARED ANALYSIS OF FOUNDRY GREEN SANDS AND CHEMICALLY BONDED CORES  

Science.gov (United States)

Each year the U.S. foundry industry landfills several million tons of molding sand known as green sand. Currently, there is great interest in using these waste green sands in general construction and agricultural applications. However, there is concern of organic contamination from the green sands...

22

CAN WASTE FOUNDRY SANDS BE USED TO IMPROVE THE INFILTRATION RATE OF POORLY DRAINED SOILS?  

Science.gov (United States)

Each year foundries in the United States generate several million tons of waste sand that can no longer be used to make metalcasting molds. The most common molding material is clay-coated sand, known as green sand. The majority of the waste sands, which are classified as non-hazardous industrial w...

23

The removal of phosphorus by spent foundry sand  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The removal of phosphorus was investigated from sewage waste water (SWW) using the used foundry sand (UFS). The optimal pH occurred at pH 2 for adsorption of phosphorus species in batch test. Phosphorus could be recovered with 99.9% from SWW in two hours at pH 2 using 100 g of UFS per liter of SWW. The adsorption of phosphorus species on UFS obeyed Langmuir isotherm, whose equation could be expressed by {gamma}=0.0005{theta}/(1+2.4987{theta}). Continuous column test for adsorption showed that breakthrough point appeared in 25 hours on the condition of breakthrough concentration of 8 mg/l. (author). 8 refs., 1 tab., 8 figs.

Yun, Churl-Jong; Jin, Yang-Oh; Park, Seung-Cho [Dong-A University, Pusan (Korea)

1999-08-31

24

Amelioration of physical strength in waste foundry green sands for reuse as a soil amendment  

Science.gov (United States)

As available landfill space and profit margins steadily decrease, it becomes more important for U.S. foundries to find ways of diverting 8-12 million tons of waste foundry sand (WFS) away from landfills each year. A major drawback to the reuse of some WFSs as a soil amendment is their high soil str...

25

The characterization of trace metals and organics in spent foundry sands over a one-year period  

Science.gov (United States)

Millions of tons of spent sand, used to create metalcasting molds, are generated by the foundry industry each year in the United States. Not surprisingly, spent foundry sands (SFSs) are an excellent substitute for virgin sands that are currently used in manufactured soils and geotechnical applicati...

26

Concentrations of PCDD/PCDFs and PCBs in spent foundry sands  

Science.gov (United States)

Approximately 10 million tons of spent foundry sand (SFS) are generated in the U.S. each year, and their beneficial use in agricultural and horticultural applications is being considered. Other studies have demonstrated that trace elements are low enough in sands from iron, steel, and aluminum foun...

27

The use of soil washing processes for the reclamation and reuse of foundry waste sands  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Soil washing processes are being investigated for possible use to reclaim foundry waste sands for beneficial reuse. The production of metal castings in foundry operations involves molds, coremaking, melting, pouring, cleaning and inspection. The molten metal is poured into molds cores made from sand during the casting process. After the castings harden, the metal product is separated from the molding sand and core materials in the shakeout process. These castings are then cleaned, inspected and prepared for shipment. Foundries overall have a high rate of spent sand reuse on-site, with about 93% of these sands being recycled. However, the remaining 7% of these waste sands which require disposal accounts for 7 to 8 million tons of waste generated annually in the United States alone. The pollution prevention priorities of source reduction and on-site recycle are not sufficient to fully address the issues of foundry waste sands generation. Off-site beneficial reuse of these sands -- both with and without reclamation treatment -- are necessary to reduce the large quantities of these wastes being sent to disposal sites.

Kocher, W.M. [Cleveland State Univ., OH (United States). Fenn College of Engineering

1995-12-31

28

Application of Waste Foundry Sand for Evolution of Low-Cost Concrete  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Generation of waste foundry sand as by product of metal casting industries causes environmental problems because of its improper disposal. Thus, its usage in building material, construction and in other fields is essential for reduction of environmental problems. This research is carried out to produce a low-cost and eco-friendly concrete. This paper demonstrates the use of waste foundry sand as a partial replacement by fine aggregate in concrete. An experimental investigation is carried out on a concrete containing waste foundry sand in the range of 0%, 20%, 40%, and 60% by weight for M-25 grade concrete(PPC). Material was produced, tested and compared with conventional concrete in terms of workability and strength. These tests were carried out on standard cube of 150*150*150* mm for 7, 14 and 28 days to determine the mechanical properties of concrete. Through experimental result we conclude that the compressive strength increases with increase in partial replacement of waste foundry sand and split tensile strength decreases with increases in percentage of waste foundry sand. The aim of this research is to know the behaviour and mechanical properties of concrete after addition of industrial waste in different proportion by tests like compressive strength and split tensile.

Pathariya Saraswati C1 , Rana Jaykrushna K2 , Shah Palas A3 , Mehta Jay G4 ,Assistant Prof. Patel Ankit N

2013-01-01

29

Permeability of flowable slurry materials containing foundry sand and fly ash  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of foundry sand and fly ash on permeability of flowable slurry mixtures. In this work, two reference flowable fly ash slurry mixtures were proportioned for strength levels in the range of 0.34--0.69 MPa (50--100 psi) at 28 d using two different sources of ASTM Class F fly ash. Other mixtures contained clean and used foundry sands as a replacement for fly ash in the range of 30--85%. The permeability of the flowable mixtures was affected by an increase in either the water to cementitious materials ratio or the foundry sand content. The permeability values were higher comparable to or lower than those reported for granular compacted fills up to 85% fly ash replacement with foundry sand. The type of foundry sand (clean or used) did not materially affect permeability of the mixtures tested. The permeability values for the mixtures tested varied from 3 {times} 10{sup {minus}6} to 74 {times} 10{sup {minus}6} cm/s.

Naik, T.R.; Singh, S.S. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States)

1997-05-01

30

Environmental and technical requirements for the utilization of foundry sands, part 2; Valimoiden ylijaeaemaehiekan hyoetykaeyttoe- ja sijoituskelpoisuus, osa 2  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective of this research work was to characterise the environmental properties of surplus foundry sands used in Finland and to technically and environmentally test their most potential re-use opportunities. Specific quality control procedures based on detailed knowledge of variations in surplus foundry sand residue were developed for two selected foundries. In order to estimate the composition variations and identify critical process parameters affecting the sand residue composition in a specific foundry, several sand residue samples were collected from the production line. The specific quality control proposals comprise guidelines for sampling strategies and deviation management together with proposals for necessary analytical testing methodologies. In the surplus foundry sand utilisation study, the following basic results were obtained: The use of surplus foundry sand does not reduce the wear resistance of asphalt concrete. The use of surplus foundry sand together with fly ash and steel slag is possible in mineral wool production. The use of surplus foundry sand in the composting process of bio wastes does not negatively affect the environmental or technical features of the final product, topsoil. The use of surplus green sand in mineral liners is technically and environmentally possible in the top layers of the landfill. (orig.)

Orkas, J.; Nordlund, H.; Wahlstroem, M.; Laine-Ylijoki, J.

2001-07-01

31

Technological behaviour and recycling potential of spent foundry sands in clay bricks.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The feasibility of recycling spent foundry sand in clay bricks was assessed in laboratory, pilot line and industrial trials, using naturally occurring sand as a reference. Raw materials were analyzed by X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffraction, particle size distribution, and leaching and combined to produce bodies containing up to 35% wt. sand. The extrusion, drying and firing behaviour (plasticity, drying sensitivity, mechanical strength, bulk density, water absorption, and shrinkage) were determined. The microstructure, phase composition, durability and leaching (EN 12457, granular materials, end-life step, European Waste Landfill Directive; NEN 7345, monolithic materials, use-life step, Dutch Building Material Decree) were evaluated for bricks manufactured at optimal firing temperature. These results demonstrate that spent foundry sand can be recycled in clay bricks. There are no relevant technological drawbacks, but the feasibility strongly depends on the properties of the raw materials. Spent foundry sand may be introduced into bricks up to 30% wt. Most of the hazardous elements from the spent foundry sand are inertized during firing and the concentrations of hazardous components in the leachates are below the standard threshold for inert waste category landfill excepting for chromium and lead; however, their environmental risk during their use-life step can be considered negligible.

Alonso-Santurde R; Andrés A; Viguri JR; Raimondo M; Guarini G; Zanelli C; Dondi M

2011-03-01

32

Flowable fill using waste foundry sand: A substitute for compacted or stabilized soil  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Flowable fill is generally a mixture of sand, fly ash, a small amount of cement, and water. Sand is the major component of most flowable fill mixes; consequently, using a waste material as a substitute for natural sand results in the beneficial use of the waste material. Waste foundry sand (WFS) was used as a fine aggregate in this study. Three green sands from ferrous foundries and two class F fly ashes were used. The flow behavior, hardening characteristics, ultimate strength behavior, and permeability characteristics of flowable fill were investigated. The penetration resistance necessary to sustain walkability as the fresh flowable fill hardens was determined. The pH of pore solution of hardened flowable fill indicated that the potential for corrosivity is low. The toxicity tests indicated that some WFSs are environmentally safe.

Bhat, S.T.; Lovell, C.W. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States). School of Civil Engineering

1997-12-31

33

Use of standardized procedures to evaluate metal leaching from waste foundry sands.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

As part of the casting process, foundries create sand molds and cores to hold the molten metal to specific dimensional tolerances. Although most of the waste foundry sands (WFSs) from this process are land filled, there is great interest in diverting them for use in agricultural and geotechnical applications. One potential limitation to their beneficial use is concern that the WFSs will leach high levels of trace metals. The aim of this study was to quantify Ag, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn in leaching extracts from 96 waste molding and core sands from ferrous and nonferrous foundries. The procedures used to assess leaching in the WFSs were the Extraction Procedure, the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure, and the American Society for Testing and Materials water extraction procedure. The metal extract concentrations were compared with those found in virgin silica sands and Argentinean and U.S. hazardous waste laws to determine if the WFSs met toxicity limits. Regardless of metal cast and sand binder type, the majority of the WFS extracts analyzed contained metal concentrations similar to those found in virgin sand extracts and were below levels considered hazardous. However, 4 of 28 sands that used alkyd urethane binder were deemed hazardous because Pb concentrations in these sands were found to exceed regulatory thresholds. Although other regulated metals, such as As, Hg, and Se, were not analyzed in the extracts, this dataset provides additional evidence that many WFSs have a low metal leaching potential.

Miguel RE; Ippolito JA; Porta AA; Banda Noriega RB; Dungan RS

2013-03-01

34

Use of standardized procedures to evaluate metal leaching from waste foundry sands.  

Science.gov (United States)

As part of the casting process, foundries create sand molds and cores to hold the molten metal to specific dimensional tolerances. Although most of the waste foundry sands (WFSs) from this process are land filled, there is great interest in diverting them for use in agricultural and geotechnical applications. One potential limitation to their beneficial use is concern that the WFSs will leach high levels of trace metals. The aim of this study was to quantify Ag, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn in leaching extracts from 96 waste molding and core sands from ferrous and nonferrous foundries. The procedures used to assess leaching in the WFSs were the Extraction Procedure, the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure, and the American Society for Testing and Materials water extraction procedure. The metal extract concentrations were compared with those found in virgin silica sands and Argentinean and U.S. hazardous waste laws to determine if the WFSs met toxicity limits. Regardless of metal cast and sand binder type, the majority of the WFS extracts analyzed contained metal concentrations similar to those found in virgin sand extracts and were below levels considered hazardous. However, 4 of 28 sands that used alkyd urethane binder were deemed hazardous because Pb concentrations in these sands were found to exceed regulatory thresholds. Although other regulated metals, such as As, Hg, and Se, were not analyzed in the extracts, this dataset provides additional evidence that many WFSs have a low metal leaching potential. PMID:23673854

Miguel, Roberto E; Ippolito, James A; Porta, Atilio A; Banda Noriega, Roxana B; Dungan, Robert S

35

Effect of compost-, sand-, or gypsum-amended waste foundry sands on turfgrass yield and nutrient content  

Science.gov (United States)

To prevent the 7-11 million metric tons of waste foundry sand (WFS) produced annually in the U.S. from entering landfills, current research is focused on the reuse of WFSs as soil amendments. The effects of different WFS-containing amendments on turfgrass growth and nutrient content were tested by ...

36

An innovative tester system for measuring mechanical property of foundry molding sand  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A new intelligent tester system for measuring multiple mechanical properties of foundry molding sand is introduced and has been patented for the invention in China. The testing process can be simutaneosly controlled wth a build-in chip microcomputer communicating with a PC through a serial port. The testing system pplies dynamic testing technology. During the measurement for compression, relaxation, shearing and tensile processes of sand specimens, the corresponding characteristic curves and eight mechanical property parameters can be obtained in a short time, simply by consecutively testing on four sand specimens. The properties and parameters to be measurable by the tester include compressive strength, elastic modulus, plastic deformation threshold, springback potential, shear strength, shear deformation limit, toughness and tensile strength. These properties and parameters for sand specimens can be defined as the corresponding characteristic curves with precise physical meanings, carried out by the tester. Two of them, namely plastic deformation threshold and springback potential, as well as their testing methods, have been invented for the first time. The testing system applying advanced data measurement technology as well as performing excellent functions is an important breakthrough and creativity in foundry molding sand property testing field. The parameters acquired by the testing system are stable, accurate and reliable. The test data can be instantly diaplayed or printed out or stored in the PC. As evidence, many experimental data obtained by the tester practically from bth laboratory and foundry floor tests indicate that the testr system can be widely applied in foundry industry.

Zuxi XIE; Qingchun XIANG; Xu WANG

2004-01-01

37

The Characterization of Total and Leachable Metals in Foundry Molding Sands  

Science.gov (United States)

Waste molding sands from the foundry industry have been successfully used as a component in manufactured soils, but concern over metal contamination must be addressed before many states will consider this beneficial use. Since there is little data available on this topic, the purpose of this study ...

38

The characterization and composition of bacterial communities in soils blended with spent foundry sand  

Science.gov (United States)

Spent foundry sands (SFSs) are a likely replacement for virgin aggregate used in manufactured soils, such as topsoils, potting soils, and landscaping mixes. While SFSs generally contain low concentrations of trace elements and xenobiotics, concerns about their impact upon environmental receptors ha...

39

PYROLYSIS OF FOUNDRY SAND RESINS: A PRELIMINARY DETERMINATION OF ORGANIC PRODUCTS BY MASS SPECTROMETRY  

Science.gov (United States)

Pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py-GC-MS) was used to identify the major organic products produced by pyrolysis of three foundry sand resins: 1) Phenolic Urethane Cold-Box, 2) Novolac (both phenol-formaldehyde based resins), and 3) Furan Warm-Box (furfuryl alcohol based resin). Thes...

40

PYROLYSIS OF FOUNDRY SAND RESINS: A DETERMINATION OF ORGANIC PRODUCTS BY MASS SPECTROMETRY  

Science.gov (United States)

Pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py-GC-MS) was used to identify the major organic products produced by pyrolysis of three foundry sand resins: 1) Novolac and 2) phenolic urethane (PU) [both phenol-formaldehyde based resins], and 3) furan (furfuryl alcohol based resin). These resins a...

 
 
 
 
41

Waste Foundry Sand Soil Amendment to Reduce Atrazine Loading to Surface Runoff  

Science.gov (United States)

A series of experiments was conducted to evaluate the potential for surface applied foundry sand (FS) waste material to reduce atrazine in runoff water from fields having atrazine-based weed management. In the first experiment, the ability of several FSs to remove atrazine from the water column was ...

42

Characterization of physical and chemical properties of spent foundry sands pertinent to beneficial use in manufactured soils  

Science.gov (United States)

Of 2,000 United States foundries, 93% produce ferrous or aluminum castings, generating 9.4 million tons of non-hazardous spent foundry sand (SFS) annually, of which only 28% is beneficially used. The U.S. EPA Resource Conservation Challenge identifies SFS as a priority material for beneficial use a...

43

HEADSPACE SOLID-PHASE MICROEXTRACTION FOR THE DETERMINATION OF BENZENE, TOLUENE, ETHYLBENZENES, AND XYLENES IN FOUNDRY MOLDING SAND  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) to determine benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX) in foundry molding sand, specifically a 'green sand' (clay-bonded sand) was investigated. BTEX extraction was conducted using a 75'M Carboxen-polydimethylsiloxane (CAR-PDMS) fi...

44

Foundry performance in relation to the radiographic quality of aluminium alloy sand castings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This article examines radiographic soundness and acceptance standards for aluminium alloy sand castings for aerospace and general engineering applications. A method is suggested by which foundries can evaluate their performance to provide evidence of capability with respect to radiographic quality; purchasers could use the same system to assess suppliers. The shortcomings of standards are briefly discussed in the light of an approach to radiographic acceptance on the horizon

1988-01-01

45

Evaluation of the Effective Baking Conditions for Grade 3 Nigerian Acacia Species Bonded Foundry Sand Cores  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The most effective economical baking conditions w ere determined for foundry cores bonded with the grade 3 Nigerian acacia species exudates. Silica sand base cores bonded with the material were oven baked at temperatures ranging from 160 to 250ºC for varying periods oven cooled and then subjected to tensile strength tests to ascertain the best baking conditions for different alloy castings. The experimental core specimens were in accordance with foundry test standard, shaped like figure number eight. They were tested with standard universal strength machine equipped with attachment for gripping the cores and an instantaneous meter from which the test values were read. The result were compared with established standard foundry core property table which showed that the class V iron/steel cores are best made with 3% acacia bonded silica sand baked at 160ºC for 1 h. For magnesium cores, sand bonded with 4.5% acacia baked at 160ºC for 1-2 h was optimum. For class IV iron/steel cores 4.5% acacia bonded sand baked at 180ºC for 1 hour was optimal. Sand bonded with 4.5% grade 3 acacia baked at 200ºC for 1.0-2.0 h was optimum for copper, aluminium, classes II and III iron/steel cores. Sand bonded with 8.0-13.0% grade 3 N igerian acacia species baked at 200ºC for 1.5-2 h was found most effective for class I iron and steel cores.

Nuhu A. ademoh; A.T. Abdullahi

2010-01-01

46

Use of Spinach, Radish, and Perennial Ryegrass to Assess the Availability of Metals in Waste Foundry Sands  

Science.gov (United States)

Plant uptake is a major pathway by which potentially toxic metals can enter the food chain. In this laboratory study we grew spinach, radish, and perennial ryegrass in sand blends containing 50% waste foundry sand (WFS) to assess the availability of Al, B, Ba, Be, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn,...

47

The regeneration of waste foundry sand and residue stabilization using coal refuse.  

Science.gov (United States)

The processes for recycling waste foundry sand are divided between regeneration and beneficial reuse, and the potential for regeneration is higher than that of reuse. In this study, two processes for the recycling and residue stabilization of waste foundry sands were considered. One is the dry mechanical process for recycling, and the other is the stabilization process for powdered residue. The dry mechanical process of regeneration consists of crushing, grinding, separation, and classification. To stabilize the residues that were generated through the regeneration process, powdered residues were pelletized by a high-shear pelletizer, and the surfaces of the pellets were subsequently coated with coal refuse powders that contained sodium silicate as a binder. Coated pellets were sintered by a self-propagating combustion method. The refractory index of the recycled sands, as measured by the Seger cone method, was over -34, and their SiO(2) contents of 94% was similar to that of green sand. The general conclusion that coal refuse and sodium silicate stabilize heavy metals better than other processes may lead to the development of a cost-effective solution for stabilizing heavy metals in residues. PMID:22197564

Park, Chong-Lyuck; Kim, Byoung-Gon; Yu, Youngchul

2011-12-09

48

The regeneration of waste foundry sand and residue stabilization using coal refuse.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The processes for recycling waste foundry sand are divided between regeneration and beneficial reuse, and the potential for regeneration is higher than that of reuse. In this study, two processes for the recycling and residue stabilization of waste foundry sands were considered. One is the dry mechanical process for recycling, and the other is the stabilization process for powdered residue. The dry mechanical process of regeneration consists of crushing, grinding, separation, and classification. To stabilize the residues that were generated through the regeneration process, powdered residues were pelletized by a high-shear pelletizer, and the surfaces of the pellets were subsequently coated with coal refuse powders that contained sodium silicate as a binder. Coated pellets were sintered by a self-propagating combustion method. The refractory index of the recycled sands, as measured by the Seger cone method, was over -34, and their SiO(2) contents of 94% was similar to that of green sand. The general conclusion that coal refuse and sodium silicate stabilize heavy metals better than other processes may lead to the development of a cost-effective solution for stabilizing heavy metals in residues.

Park CL; Kim BG; Yu Y

2012-02-01

49

Determination of the Physio-Chemical Properties of Nigerian Acacia Species for Foundry Sand Binding Applications  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Nigeria produces four grades of Acacia species in commercial quantities which are not used for localindustrial applications but exported for foreign earnings. The grades 1 and 2 that are preferred by exportercountries are used in the pharmaceutical, confectionary, food, textile and beverage industries. Nigerianfoundries use imported materials for binding their synthetic casting sands due to non development of locallyavailable materials like Acacia species exudates. This research investigated physical and chemical propertiesof Nigerian Acacia species to determine its viability for binding sand. Standard experimental tests andequipment were used in laboratories of the National Research Institute for Chemical Technology and NationalResearch Institute for Leather Technology, Zaria to determine the melting point, optical rotation, specificgravity, water solubility, PH, moisture/volatile matter, metal/sulphate ion content and macro-structural analysesof each grade of the Nigerian Acacia species. In comparison w ith foundry requirements it satisfies majorphysiochemical properties desired of good sand binders. The material can be investigated further for mechanicalproperties as potential high quality sand binder for Nigerian foundries.

Nuhu A. Ademoh

2009-01-01

50

Analysis of total metals in waste molding and core sands from ferrous and non-ferrous foundries.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Waste molding and core sands from the foundry industry are successfully being used around the world in geotechnical and soil-related applications. Although waste foundry sands (WFSs) are generally not hazardous in nature, relevant data is currently not available in Argentina. This study aimed to quantify metals in waste molding and core sands from foundries using a variety of metal-binder combinations. Metal concentrations in WFSs were compared to those in virgin silica sands (VSSs), surface soils and soil guidance levels. A total analysis for Ag, Al, Ba, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Te, Tl, V, and Zn was conducted on 96 WFSs and 14 VSSs collected from 17 small and medium-sized foundries. The majority of WFSs analyzed, regardless of metal cast and binder type, contained metal concentrations similar to those found in VSSs and native soils. In several cases where alkyd urethane binder was used, Co and Pb concentrations were elevated in the waste sands. Elevated Cr, Mo, Ni, and Tl concentrations associated with VSSs should not be an issue since these metals are bound within the silica sand matrix. Because of the naturally low metal concentrations found in most WFSs examined in this study, they should not be considered hazardous waste, thus making them available for encapsulated and unencapsulated beneficial use applications.

Miguel RE; Ippolito JA; Leytem AB; Porta AA; Banda Noriega RB; Dungan RS

2012-11-01

51

Analysis of total metals in waste molding and core sands from ferrous and non-ferrous foundries.  

Science.gov (United States)

Waste molding and core sands from the foundry industry are successfully being used around the world in geotechnical and soil-related applications. Although waste foundry sands (WFSs) are generally not hazardous in nature, relevant data is currently not available in Argentina. This study aimed to quantify metals in waste molding and core sands from foundries using a variety of metal-binder combinations. Metal concentrations in WFSs were compared to those in virgin silica sands (VSSs), surface soils and soil guidance levels. A total analysis for Ag, Al, Ba, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Te, Tl, V, and Zn was conducted on 96 WFSs and 14 VSSs collected from 17 small and medium-sized foundries. The majority of WFSs analyzed, regardless of metal cast and binder type, contained metal concentrations similar to those found in VSSs and native soils. In several cases where alkyd urethane binder was used, Co and Pb concentrations were elevated in the waste sands. Elevated Cr, Mo, Ni, and Tl concentrations associated with VSSs should not be an issue since these metals are bound within the silica sand matrix. Because of the naturally low metal concentrations found in most WFSs examined in this study, they should not be considered hazardous waste, thus making them available for encapsulated and unencapsulated beneficial use applications. PMID:22738693

Miguel, Roberto E; Ippolito, James A; Leytem, April B; Porta, Atilio A; Banda Noriega, Roxana B; Dungan, Robert S

2012-06-26

52

Granulation process of foundry dusts originated from bentonite sand processing plants  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The results of the investigation results of the granulation process of foundry dusts generated during the mechanical reclamation of spent sands with bentonite and also dusts from the sand processing plants are presented in the paper. The following parameters of the final product were determined: moisture content (W) and granules shatter test (Wz) performed directly after the granulation process and after 1, 3, 5, 10 and 30 days and nights of seasoning, water-resistant ability of granules after 24 h of immersing in water, surface porosity ep and volumetric porosity ev. In addition the shatter test and water-resistant ability of granulated products dried at a temperature of 105°C was estimated.

J. Kami?ska; J. Da?ko

2013-01-01

53

On the durability of ceramics sand and various foundry sands from the point of view of its mechanical strength; Ceramics sand to sono ta imonosuna no kikaiteki kyodo kara mita taikyusei  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Utilization of waste sands and dusts as industrial wastes is highlighted in the foundry industry. Foundry sands have been used as aggregates for cement conventionally, but have not fully met the requirement because of weak mechanical strength of the foundry sands. The present study has been performing rupture tests on the durability (rupture resistance) of the foundry sands, including ceramics sand (ceramics beads), conventional silica sand, chromite sand, and zircon sand. As a result, it was verified that the ceramic beads have shown stable rupture resistance and ruptured very little in any of the S-6 method and the NRR method used in the present test. With little generation of microfine particles, the ceramics beads are thought a sand that has a high possibility of solving the problem in the subject dealt in the present study. Silica sands have shown micronization of the powder irrespective of the kinds, and its friability easily causing rupture during transportation and kneading under normal temperatures is a large drawback. Chromite has also shown insufficient strength. 12 figs., 2 tabs.

Matsubara, M.; Yasukawa, S. [Naigai Refractory Co. Ltd., Aichi (Japan)

1994-07-25

54

Laboratory Testing of Foundry Sands as Bulking Agents for Porous Media Filters Used to Treat Agricultural Drainage Waters  

Science.gov (United States)

Foundry sands are industrial byproducts that may have potential application as bulking agents that when mixed with small amounts of more chemically reactive materials (i.e. sulfur modified iron, fly ash, etc.) can be used to produce porous media filters capable of removing contaminants from agricult...

55

New sol–gel refractory coatings on chemically-bonded sand cores for foundry applications to improve casting surface quality  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Foundry refractory coatings protect bonded sand cores and moulds from producing defective castings during the casting process by providing a barrier between the core and the liquid metal. In this study, new sol–gel refractory coating on phenolic urethane cold box (PUCB) core was examined. The coatin...

Nwaogu, Ugochukwu Chibuzoh; Poulsen, T.; Stage, R.K.; Bischoff, C.; Tiedje, Niels Skat

56

Peat-assisted phytoremediation of waste foundry sands: plant growth, metal accumulation and fertility aspects.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We investigated the potential of peat additions to improve plant growth and fertility and to reduce plant metal uptake in waste foundry sands (WFS) landfills. The WFS contains 78211 mg kg(-1) and 371 mg kg(-1) concentrations of Cr and Ni, respectively, and varied metal concentrations. The experiment investigated the growth of Brassica juncea plants on fertilized WFS mixed with peat at concentrations of 0, 2.5, 5, and 10% (w/w). The highest peat treatment allowed substantial plant growth and increased Ni mass in shoots, which was positively correlated to shoot biomass increments. On a concentration basis, peat additions did not increase shoot Ni values, thus suggesting that plants grown on peat-treated WFS may not increase risks to human and ecological receptors. Chromium was below detection levels in shoots for all peat treatments. Peat-treated substrates also promoted increased CEC values and higher water holding capacity, therefore improving the WFS agronomical properties. These results indicate that peat can be used as an amendment to assist in the phytoremediation of WFS landfill areas. However, there was evidence for increased mobilization of Cr and Ni in the substrate solution which can pose a threat to local groundwater.

Moreno FN; Sígolo JB; Figueira AV

2012-03-01

57

Peat-assisted phytoremediation of waste foundry sands: plant growth, metal accumulation and fertility aspects.  

Science.gov (United States)

We investigated the potential of peat additions to improve plant growth and fertility and to reduce plant metal uptake in waste foundry sands (WFS) landfills. The WFS contains 78211 mg kg(-1) and 371 mg kg(-1) concentrations of Cr and Ni, respectively, and varied metal concentrations. The experiment investigated the growth of Brassica juncea plants on fertilized WFS mixed with peat at concentrations of 0, 2.5, 5, and 10% (w/w). The highest peat treatment allowed substantial plant growth and increased Ni mass in shoots, which was positively correlated to shoot biomass increments. On a concentration basis, peat additions did not increase shoot Ni values, thus suggesting that plants grown on peat-treated WFS may not increase risks to human and ecological receptors. Chromium was below detection levels in shoots for all peat treatments. Peat-treated substrates also promoted increased CEC values and higher water holding capacity, therefore improving the WFS agronomical properties. These results indicate that peat can be used as an amendment to assist in the phytoremediation of WFS landfill areas. However, there was evidence for increased mobilization of Cr and Ni in the substrate solution which can pose a threat to local groundwater. PMID:22567709

Moreno, Fábio N; Sígolo, Joel B; Figueira, Antonio V

2012-03-01

58

New sol–gel refractory coatings on chemically-bonded sand cores for foundry applications to improve casting surface quality  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Foundry refractory coatings protect bonded sand cores and moulds from producing defective castings during the casting process by providing a barrier between the core and the liquid metal. In this study, new sol–gel refractory coating on phenolic urethane cold box (PUCB) core was examined. The coating density, viscosity, moisture content and wet and dry weight of the coating were evaluated on cores that had been coated at three different dip-coating times. The coating coverage, surface appearance and depth of penetration into the cores were examined with a Stereomicroscope. Gray iron castings were produced with sol-gel coated and uncoated cores and the results were related to the coating properties. The casting results were also compared with castings made with cores coated with commercial alcohol-based and water-based foundry coatings. The analyses show that castings produced with sol–gel coated cores have better surface quality than those from uncoated cores and comparable surface quality with the commercialcoatings. Therefore, the new sol–gel coating has a potential application in the foundry industry for improving the surface finish of castings thereby reducing the cost of fettling in the foundry industry since the raw materials and technology are easily affordable.

Nwaogu, Ugochukwu Chibuzoh; Poulsen, T.

2011-01-01

59

Industrial-hygiene report of radon daughters in foundries using zirconium sand as a molding agent, July 31, September 30-October 2, 1980  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] A survey of exposures to radon daughters in foundries using zirconium sand as a molding agent was conducted. The survey was prompted by a report that significant concentrations of uranium- and thorium-decay isotopes were found in zirconium sand. Area air and bulk samples were analyzed for radon-daughter activity in selected operations of five foundries that used zirconium sand as part of the molding aggregate or as a molding agent. One foundry was located in Ohio, the other four were in California. Maximum radon-daughter activity in the area samples ranged from not detectable to 0.023 working level (WL). The OSHA standards for radon-daughter activity is 0.33 WL. No results were available for the bulk samples due to difficulties with the analytical procedures. The author concludes that the measured levels of radon daughter activity in the foundries are extremely low. The potential for a radiological health hazard due to exposure from radon daughters in zirconium sand at this time is very low. Laboratory studies of zirconium sand and a gamma-radiation survey of foundries that use zirconium sand are recommended

1985-01-01

60

Ocular effects of exposure to triethylamine in the sand core cold box of a foundry.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OBJECTIVES--To assess the acute and chronic ophthalmological effects of triethylamine exposure among foundry workers. METHODS--Ocular effects on people currently, previously, and never exposed to triethylamine in a foundry cold box were studied at two points in time. The initial phase included an oc...

Reilly, M J; Rosenman, K D; Abrams, J H; Zhu, Z; Tseng, C; Hertzberg, V; Rice, C

 
 
 
 
61

Potential for extraction of high quality foundry sands in the coal bed of field ''D'' at the Kolubarskiy coal basin  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

There are pure quartz sands in the soil of the coal bed ''D'' that is being worked by open-pit method. Industry in Yugoslavia is experiencing a deficit in foundry-type sand. Chemical analysis has shown that the sand is 79.3% SiO/sub 2/ and 12.3% organic substances in the form of coal materials. Granulometric analysis established that 18.6% is +0.5 mm and 80.7% are on the order of -0.5+0.06 mm. Laboratory and semi-industrial tests show potential for cleaning of sand and that required foundry-quality sand may be derived by screening and washing. Technological schemes for processing of sand, using simple technology and servicing equipment are discussed.

Ivankovic, D.; Ceh, M.; Mihailovic, B.

1980-01-01

62

Use of an integrated approach to characterize the physicochemical properties of foundry green sands  

Science.gov (United States)

A fresh green sand, spent green sand, and a weathered spent green sand from a landfill were analyzed using diffractometry, electron microscopy, granulometry, spectrometry, and thermogravimetry. Our objective was to understand how the physicochemical properties of the green sands change from their o...

63

Application of design projects developed by Foundry Research Institute in Krakow in construction of integrated stand for processing and reclamation of moulding sands  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article is devoted to the description of a new integrated system for processing and reclamation of moulding and core sands using the equipment developed by Foundry Research Institute in Krakow. The idea and operation of a complex stand, which allows for co-existence of three routes of material circulation, i.e. system sand, new sand and reclaim, with maximum utilisation of the existing equipment have been presented. Various aspects, economical and ecological, of the proposed design have been discussed.

I. Izdebska-Szanda; F. Pezarski; K. St?pniewski

2008-01-01

64

Effects of Moisture Content on the Foundry Properties of Yola Natural Sand  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The effect of moisture content of Yola natural sand has been studied. The moisture content was varied from 1 to 9%. The effect of the moisture content on the green compression strength, green permeability and bulk density was investigated. Particle size distribution of the natural sand, the grain fineness number, average grain size, grain shape and the clay content of the natural sand were also studied. 5% moisture gave the optimum green compression strength of 118.6KN/m2. The dry compression strength increased with moisture content, an optimum value of 4000KN/m2 was obtained at 9% moisture. The Yola natural sand had a grain fineness number of 88.05AFS, average grain size of 335.78 microns and a clay content of 26%. A sand mixture containing 5% moisture was prepared and used to produce a test casting with aluminium scraps, the test casting was sound.

Paul Aondona IHOM; Johnson AGUNSOYE; Emmanuel Eric ANBUA; Joy OGBODO

2011-01-01

65

Headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) for the determination of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX) in foundry molding sand  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The use of headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) to determine benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX) in foundry molding sand, specifically a 'green sand' (clay-bonded sand) was investigated. The BTEX extraction was conducted using a 75 {mu} M carboxen-polydimethylsiloxane (CAR-PDMS) fiber, which was suspended above 10 g of sample. The SPME fiber was desorbed in a gas chromatograph injector port (280{sup o}C for 1 min) and the analytes were characterized by mass spectrometry. The effects of extraction time and temperature, water content, and clay and bituminous coal percentage on HS-SPME of BTEX were investigated. Because green sands contain bentonite clay and carbonaceous material such as crushed bituminous coal, a matrix effect was observed. The detection limits for BTEX were determined to be {lt}= 0.18 ng g{sup -1} of green sand.

Dungan, R.S. [USDA ARS, Beltsville, MD (United States). Environmental Management & Byproducts Utilization Laboratory

2005-07-01

66

The foundry wastes. Storage  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This work deals with the regulation relative to the management of foundry wastes, such as sands (which can be radioactive), non hazardous and hazardous wastes. Some examples of the reuse of these foundry wastes are given. (O.M.)

2007-01-01

67

Polysialates binders preparation and their influence to shear strength of foundry sand mixtures  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper deals with polysialates water-glasses preparation. There were used various procedures with the goal to create inorganic polymer on silicon and aluminum base. The one composed of SiO2 and AlO4 tetrahedron chains. For the preparation was concentrated NaOH solution used together with metakaolinite in a way low-temperature synthesis in the presence of alkaline silicate: higher pressure and temperature (autoclave) to direct making of alkaline silicate made of sand, NaOH with metakaolinite addition and by melting fritted glass together with metakaolinite and dissolution in autoclave. The dissolving effectivity was evaluated by the concentration of aluminum in alkaline silicate and by the influence to reduce strengths after heat exposition with this inorganic binder.

R. Fridrich; P. Jelínek

2008-01-01

68

Respiratory disease in foundry workers.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A survey was carried out in a steel foundry in Brisbane to evaluate the nature and frequency of respiratory symptoms and to assess ventilatory function. The foundry used many moulding processes including the Furane, Isocure, Shell, carbon dioxide, and oil sand systems. Nasal symptoms and wheeze were...

Low, I; Mitchell, C

69

The foundry wastes. Storage; Les dechets de fonderie. Stockage  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This work deals with the regulation relative to the management of foundry wastes, such as sands (which can be radioactive), non hazardous and hazardous wastes. Some examples of the reuse of these foundry wastes are given. (O.M.)

Duquet, B. [Centre Technique des Industries de la Fonderie (CTIF), 92 - Sevres (France)

2007-03-15

70

The pneumatic conveying applications in foundry industry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper presents some issues connected to pneumatic conveying usage in foundry industry. The loose materials transportation (sand and moulding sand) through consecutive production cycles were described. The powder injection into liquid metal, the bentonite into mixers and pneumatic used moulding sand reclamation applications were presented, too. The industrial setups, technological descriptions and some loose materials parameters were given, too.

D. Homa; K. Janerka; J. Szajnar; J. Jezierski

2010-01-01

71

Foundry Coating Technology: A Review  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The importance of foundry coating in improving the surface quality of castings cannot be over emphasized. The appli-cation of mould and core washes creates a high thermal integrity barrier between the metal and the mould resulting in the reduction of the thermal shock experienced by the sand system....

Nwaogu, Ugochukwu Chibuzoh; Tiedje, Niels Skat

72

Thermal analysis of foundry bentonites  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The results of investigations of 3 calcium bentonites, activated by sodium carbonate, applied in the foundry industry as bindingmaterial for moulding sands are presented in the paper. Investigations were performed by the thermal analysis (TG) method. The occurrence of the dehydration and dehydroxylation process was confirmed in all tested bentonites.

S. ?ymankowska-Kumon; M. Holtzer; G. Grabowski

2011-01-01

73

Foundry Coating Technology: A Review  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The importance of foundry coating in improving the surface quality of castings cannot be over emphasized. The appli-cation of mould and core washes creates a high thermal integrity barrier between the metal and the mould resulting in the reduction of the thermal shock experienced by the sand system. These thermal shock leads to series of surface de-fects such as veining/finning, metal penetration, burn-on/in, scab, rat tail, erosion etc. The use of coatings reduces the tendency of occurrence of these defects. However, the understanding of the coating, its components, characteristics and mechanism of action is important. In this review, a detailed description of these topics and examples are provided where necessary. A potential area of research in foundry coating development, using sol-gel process is suggested. The application of sol-gel technology in the development of foundry coatings is a novel approach.

Nwaogu, Ugochukwu Chibuzoh; Tiedje, Niels Skat

2011-01-01

74

Foundry coke  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An effective amount of silicon carbide, preferably mixed with graphite, is added to the blend of coals used to make a foundry coke, the blend is thoroughly mixed, pulverized, and coked in a by-product coke oven. The resulting coke has improved physical and chemical properties allowing production of gray iron with less fuel. Gray iron castings with improved hardness control at lower cost are produced by the inoculating effect of the silicon from silicon carbide and graphite in the mixture.

Burton, E.D.

1981-10-13

75

Planning and construction of a plant for the manufacture of quartz powder from foundry dust originating from sand by means of thermal treatment. Part project 2: Preliminary experiments on the thermal treatment of foundry dust using a burner; cooperation in the planning and construction of the pilot plant. Final report; Planung und Bau einer Anlage zur Herstellung von Quarzmehl aus Giessereistaub der Sandregenerierung durch thermische Behandlung. Teilvorhaben 2: Vorversuche zur thermischen Behandlung von Giessereistaub mit einem Brenner, Mitarbeit der Planung und Errichtung der Pilotanlage. Schlussbericht  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Foundry dust, a carbon-containing waste product, arises through the recycling of used foundry sands. The aim of the present project was to find a method to burn foundry dust in an open flame and obtain quartz powders as a useful material. A burner suitable for coal dust was used in the experiments. Combustion of foundry dust in an open, self-sustaining flame is only possible using an auxiliary fuel. In this study it proved possible to find reaction conditions in which foundry dust will burn unaided in a fluidised bed. Beside the material product this process also yields energy for, e.g., the thermal regeneration of foundry sand. Short experiments designed to test the process were a success. Process and constructional concepts for a pilot plant were elaborated. (orig.) [Deutsch] Giessereistaub faellt beim Recyclingprozess fuer Giessereialtsande als kohlenstoffhaltiges Abfallprodukt an. Mit der Zielstellung aus dem Giessereistaub durch Verbrennung in freier Flamme, Quarzmehl als verwertbares Produkt herzustellen, wurden Versuche mit einem fuer Kohlenstaub erprobten Brenner durchgefuehrt. Waehrend die Verbrennung des Giessereistaubes in freier, selbsthaltender Flamme nur mit einem Stuetzbrennstoff moeglich ist, konnten Reaktionsbedingungen gefunden werden, unter denen der Giessereistaub ohne Stuetzung in einer Wirbelschicht verbrennt und nicht nur stofflich, sondern auch energetisch, z.B. fuer die thermische Regenerierung von Giessereisand nutzbar ist. Fuer ein solches Verfahren, wurden erfolgreiche Kurzversuche durchgefuehrt. Die verfahrens- und anlagentechnische Konzeption einer Pilotanlage wurde erarbeitet. (orig.)

Weiss, E.; Vogelsang, E.

1995-09-25

76

Foundry Industry Training Committee  

Science.gov (United States)

The Foundry Industry Training Committee has encouraged the foundry industry in developing systematic manpower training and development programs at all levels. Features developed include competitions as a technique of standard setting, recommendations for technician training, and a widely used manpower information system. (MW)

Industrial Training Journal, 1974

1974-01-01

77

Thermal reclaimer apparatus for a thermal sand reclamation system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A thermal reclaimer apparatus is disclosed for thermally removing from the used foundry sand the organic matter that is present therein. The subject thermal reclaimer apparatus includes chamber means in which the used foundry sand is heated to a predetermined temperature for a preestablished period in order to accomplish the burning away of the organic matter that the used foundry sand contains. The chamber means includes inlet means provided at one end thereof and outlet means provided at the other end thereof. Feed means are cooperatively associated with the pipe means and thereby with the inlet means for feeding the used foundry sand through the inlet means into the chamber means. The subject thermal reclaimer apparatus further includes rotating means operative for effecting the rotation of the chamber means as the used foundry sand is being heated therein. The chamber means has cooperatively associated therewith burner means located at the same end thereof as the outlet means. The burner means is operative to effect the heating of the used foundry sand to the desired temperature within the chamber means. Tumbling means are provided inside the chamber means to ensure that the used foundry sand is constantly turned over, i.e., tumbled, and that the lumps therein are broken up as the chamber means rotates. Lastly, the used foundry sand from which the organic matter has been removed leaves the chamber means through the outlet means.

Deve, V.

1984-02-07

78

Investigation into the origin of radioactivity in ceramic waste. Zircon sand in iron foundries; Onderzoek naar de radioactiviteit van keramisch afval. Zirkoonzand in de ijzergieterij  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In 2002 a truck loaded with used car scrap triggered a radiation monitoring gate detector at a scrapyard. The material under suspicion turned out to be some ceramic waste material. The ceramic waste was used for many years to raise roads or pave yards and premises in the surroundings of Almelo, Netherlands, as was the case with the used car dump where the metal scrap came from. The ceramic material contains zircon sand, which has elevated concentrations of naturally occuring radionuclides. Therefore, using this waste in a surface soil layer may cause radiological exposures to the public. From measurements at the used car dump dose rates were determined up to ten times the background. From further research it was determined that part of the ceramic waste has concentrations above exemption level. From these measurements it was also concluded that the ceramic material is retaining radon and its decay products. From some calculations a maximum effective annual dose was estimated of about 1 mSv. This dose is determined mainly by external radiation and is for long lasting exposure on some large factory grounds. On the other hand, children might be playing in smaller yards or premises. Ingestion might play some role in that case. For this exposure path an annual dose of 0.12 mSv was calculated. For adults this is not an important exposure path. Inhalation doesn't seem to play an important role neither for adults nor for children. [Dutch] In 2002 ging bij een schrootbedrijf het alarm af toen naast autoschroot enig radioactief keramisch materiaal door de detector werd gereden. Gedurende een groot aantal jaren is het keramische afval toegepast als verharding voor wegen en erven in de omgeving van Almelo, zo ook bij de autosloper. In het keramische materiaal is zirkoonzand verwerkt. Dit materiaal bevat van nature verhoogde concentraties van radionucliden. Het gebruik van het afval als verharding kan dan ook leiden tot een blootstelling van de persoon die zich daarop bevindt. Bij de autosloper zijn dosistempi gemeten tot tienmaal de natuurlijke achtergrond. Uit nader onderzoek van het keramische afval, is vastgesteld dat het zich deels boven de zogenaamde meldingsplichtige grens bevindt. Uit dit onderzoek is tevens naar voren gekomen dat radon en daaruit ontstane vervalproducten vrijwel niet uit het keramische afval vrijkomen. Uit enkele berekeningen is een maximale effectieve jaardosis geschat van ongeveer 1 mSv, voornamelijk door externe straling bij langdurige blootstelling op bijvoorbeeld een groot bedrijfsterrein. Op kleinere toegankelijke terreinen zoals erven kunnen ook kinderen worden blootgesteld. Dan speelt mogelijk ook ingestie een rol. Voor deze route is een effectieve jaardosis van 0,12 mSv berekend. Voor volwassenen speelt deze blootstellingsroute geen belangrijke rol. Inhalatie blijkt voor zowel volwassenen als kinderen een minder belangrijke rol te spelen.

Blaauboer, R.O

2003-07-01

79

UPGRADING FOUNDRY WASTEWATER TREATMENT  

Science.gov (United States)

The paper summarizes findings of a 10-week pilot plant study of gray iron foundry wastewater treatment. Treatment technologies studied included lime softening, lime/soda ash softening, polymer addition, flocculation/sedimentation, and dual media filtration. Results indicate that ...

80

Foundry energy conservation workbook  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The foundry industry is a significant user of energy, and therefore, a natural candidate for efforts to save energy and improve efficiency by both governmental agencies and technical/trade associations. These efforts are designed to both improve the national energy position and improve the industry's efficiency and profitability. Increased energy cost and the reduced availability of fossil fuels at certain times have provided the incentive to curb waste and to utilize purchased energy wisely. Energy costs now approach and sometimes exceed 10% of the sales dollar of many foundries. Although energy use by foundries has gradually decreased on a per/ton basis in recent years, the foundry industry must continue to find ways to utilize energy more efficiently. This workbook provides ways to achieve this goal.

1990-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Process management in foundries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents the nature of process management and the basic process analysis. A general model of process management in a foundry is showed. The essential activities of processing, systems and change management are described. There is also presented a problem of effectiveness, efficiency and processing improvement. The criteria, methods and techniques of process improvement are indicated. The importance of process approach to the improvement of foundry management system is underlined.

L. Wojtynek

2009-01-01

82

Energy conservation in foundry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] In any foundry, the cost of fuel in the form of coal, oil or electrical power, is about 10 to 15% of the cost of the product. Saving of the order of 30 to 50% can be achieved in energy by reducing consumption of fuel and increasing efficiency. This has been illustrated by describing 4 examples in foundry industry. In each case, saving in terms of rupees is also indicated. (N.B.)

1994-01-01

83

Influence green sand system by core sand additions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Today, about two thirds of iron alloys casting (especially for graphitizing alloys of iron) are produced into green sand systems with usually organically bonded cores. Separation of core sands from the green sand mixture is very difficult, after pouring. The core sand concentration increase due to circulation of green sand mixture in a closed circulation system. Furthermore in some foundries, core sands have been adding to green sand systems as a replacement for new sands. The goal of this contribution is: “How the green sand systems are influenced by core sands?”This effect is considered by determination of selected technological properties and degree of green sand system re-bonding. From the studies, which have been published yet, there is not consistent opinion on influence of core sand dilution on green sand system properties. In order to simulation of the effect of core sands on the technological properties of green sands, there were applied the most common used technologies of cores production, which are based on bonding with phenolic resin. Core sand concentration added to green sand system, was up to 50 %. Influence of core sand dilution on basic properties of green sand systems was determined by evaluation of basic industrial properties: moisture, green compression strength and splitting strength, wet tensile strength, mixture stability against staling and physical-chemistry properties (pH, conductivity, and loss of ignition). Ratio of active betonite by Methylene blue test was also determined.

N. Špirutová; J. Be?o; V. Bedná?ová; J. K?íž; M. Kandrnál

2012-01-01

84

Gaseous and adsorbed PAH in an iron foundry.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The increased risk of lung cancer among foundry workers is assumed to be associated with the inhalation of gaseous and particle bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). These compounds are produced during pyrolysis of carbon containing loading material in the moulding sand. The concentrations o...

Knecht, U; Elliehausen, H J; Woitowitz, H J

85

Foundry Wastes Reuse and Recycling in Concrete Production  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The industrial process of a cast iron foundry plant located in the North of Italy was analyzed in order to determine the amount and kind of produced wastes. The main fractions are core and moulding sands, muds and powders from dust abatement plants, furnace and ladle slags, and exhaust lime, making ...

Silvia Fiore; Maria C.   Zanetti

86

Pneumatic reclamation devices applied in the conditions of Ostrowiec Foundry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The scope of publication includes presentation of used sand reclamation system with the use of energy of compressed stream of air, whichshift reclaimed sand in pneumatic system. The solution, by incorporating into pneumatic installation an element which act as special disordered element causing controlled flow of two-phase flow to clean the surface layer of regenerated grains in a dry environment.The described reclamation equipment was installed and operated in the foundry "Ostrowiec".

D. Homa; Z. Gorazda; A Myszor

2010-01-01

87

Influence of foundry dust on moulding mixtures quality  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this paper was to observe the effect of the addition of the dust from the moulding plant on the quality parameters of the moulding mixtures and determine tolerable content in the moulding mixture. Three types of moulding mixtures were used in experiments: mixture prepared from new quartz sand and bentonite, mixture which is recycled in the experimental foundry and mixture came from the small foundry. To these moulding mixture was added the dust from moulding plant in the range 0 – 10%. Influence of dust addition on the compression strength, splitting strength and permeability was observed in all three kinds of mixtures.

A. Pribulová; P. Futaš; A. Rosová; P. Demeter; D. Baricová

2013-01-01

88

Tensile properties of Class C fly-ash as a foundry core binder  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Fly-ashes are a potential alternative sand binder for production of foundry sand molds. They have previously been evaluated as binders for the main body of the mold, where they displayed suitable properties. Binders are also needed for producing foundry mold cores, which are separate shapes of sand that are placed in the mold to provide castings with contours, cavities, and passages that are not practical to produce with a simple mold. These cores have considerably higher strength requirements than the main mold and the ability of Class C fly-ash to meet the tensile strength requirements for cores was therefore evaluated.

T.C. Eisele; S.K. Kawatra; A. Nofal [Michigan Technological University, Houghton, MI (US). Department of Chemical Engineering

2004-12-01

89

Foundry energy conservation workbook  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report discusses methods for promoting energy conservation in foundries. Use of electric power, natural gas, and coke are evaluated. Waste heat recovery systems are considered. Energy consumption in the specific processes of electric melting, natural gas melting, heat treatments, ladle melting, and coke fuel melting is described. An example energy analysis is included. (GHH)

1990-12-31

90

JPL Innovation Foundry  

Science.gov (United States)

Space science missions are increasingly challenged today: in ambition, by increasingly sophisticated hypotheses tested; in development, by the increasing complexity of advanced technologies; in budgeting, by the decline of flagship-class mission opportunities; in management, by expectations for breakthrough science despite a risk-averse programmatic climate; and in planning, by increasing competition for scarce resources. How are the space-science missions of tomorrow being formulated? The paper describes the JPL Innovation Foundry, created in 2011, to respond to this evolving context. The Foundry integrates methods, tools, and experts that span the mission concept lifecycle. Grounded in JPL's heritage of missions, flight instruments, mission proposals, and concept innovation, the Foundry seeks to provide continuity of support and cost-effective, on-call access to the right domain experts at the right time, as science definition teams and Principal Investigators mature mission ideas from "cocktail napkin" to PDR. The Foundry blends JPL capabilities in proposal development and concurrent engineering, including Team X, with new approaches for open-ended concept exploration in earlier, cost-constrained phases, and with ongoing research and technology projects. It applies complexity and cost models, project-formulation lessons learned, and strategy analyses appropriate to each level of concept maturity. The Foundry is organizationally integrated with JPL formulation program offices; staffed by JPL's line organizations for engineering, science, and costing; and overseen by senior Laboratory leaders to assure experienced coordination and review. Incubation of each concept is tailored depending on its maturity and proposal history, and its highest-leverage modeling and analysis needs.

Sherwood, Brent; McCleese, Daniel

2013-08-01

91

MouldingSandDB – a modern database storing moulding sands properties research results  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The complexity of foundry processes requires the use of modern, advanced IT tools for optimization, storage and analysis of t echnicaldata. Properties of moulding and core sands that are collected in research laboratories, manufacturers, and finally in the foundries, are not in use later on. It seems important to create a database that will allow to use the results stored, along with the possibility of searching according to set criteria, adjusted to casting practice. This paper presents part of the database named „MouldingSandDB”, which allows to collect and search data for synthetic moulding sands.

J. Jakubski; P. Malinowski; M. Hajduk

2011-01-01

92

Effect of Used Foundry Sandand Pozzocrete Partial Replacement with Fine Aggregate and Cement in Concrete  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To produce low cost concrete by blending various ratios of fine aggregate and cement with used foundry sand and Pozzocrete to reduce disposal and pollution problems due to used foundry sand and Pozzocrete.Pozzocrete P60 is a processed quality assured fly ash, investigated for its use as a partial replacement for cement in concrete (1:1.48:3.21). The utilization of Pozzocrete P60 as cement replacement material in concrete or as additive in cement introduces many benefits from economical, technical and environmental points of view. The innovative use of used foundry sand in concrete formulations as a fine aggregate replacement material was tested as an alternative to traditional concrete. This paper presents the results of the concrete of mix proportion 1:1.48:3.21 in which cement is partially replaced with Pozzocrete P60 as 10% by weight of cement, and fine aggregate is partially replaced with used foundry sand as 10%, 30% and 50% by weight of fine aggregate. Five set of mixture proportions were made. First (A0) were standard mix (without Pozzocrete and used foundry) sand with regional fine aggregate (sand)and coarse aggregate and the second (B0) mix contained 10% Pozzocrete P60obtained from DIRK India Private Limited, Nasik, Maharashtra state. Other mixes (B1, B2, and B3) contained Pozzocrete P60 (10%)plus foundry sand (10%, 30%and 50%)respectively obtained fromferrous and non-ferrous metal casting industries.The compressive strength and water absorption has been obtained with partial replacement of Pozzocrete P60 with cement and foundry sand with fine aggregate. Test results indicate the increase in the strength properties of concrete and decreasing water absorption of concrete up to 10% replacement of cement with pozzocrete plus 30% replacement of fine aggregate with used foundry sand for strength at 7, 14and 28 days. Also it can be used in non-structural elements with the low range compressive strength wherestrength is not required and low cost temporary structure is prepared.

Dushyant R. Bhimani; Prof. Jayeshkumar Pitroda; Prof. Jaydev J. Bhavsar

2013-01-01

93

Anode foundry production anomalies  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The production of aluminum anodes used for the cathodic protection of offshore structures and pipelines is a complex process. Various types of production anomalies have been observed during the inspection of these anodes. The anomalies were compiled over the past ten years and many of the examples occurred in foundries no longer producing anodes. They are noted in this paper to aid the reader in better understanding of the complexities of anode casting and to highlight some of the types of anomalies that can occur.

Johnson, D.L. [Sub Sea International Inc., Belle Chasse, LA (United States)

1997-09-01

94

The Torgelow foundry; Eisengiesserei Torgelow  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The contribution presents the Torgelow foundry, whose director Hermann-Josef Taterra turned a derelict plant of the former DDR into Europe's most modern iron foundry, capable of producing big and even very big components for the wind power industry. From the very start, instead of learning by doing he opted for competent consulting of customers and high qualification of staff members. (orig.)

Viergutz, A. [Eisengiesserei Torgelow GmbH, Torgelow (Germany)

2006-07-01

95

Influence of the Changes of the Structure of Foundry Bentonites on Their Binding Properties  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper, the effects of the examination of the structure of calcium bentonites, activated by sodium carbonate, applied in the foundry industry as a binding agent for moulding sands, subjected to the effects of high temperature, were presented. The examination was conducted with the use of the ...

Sylwia ?YMANKOWSKA-KUMON; Mariusz HOLTZER; Ewa OLEJNIK; Artur BOBROWSKI

96

Application of time-series analysis in foundry production  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Characterization of the time-series analysis is presented, as a data mining tool which facilitates better understanding nature of manufacturing process and permits forecasting of future values of the process parameters or production results on the basis of the past data, recorded in regular intervals. The main methods and problems of the time-series analysis are presented, related to the trend function, evaluation of seasonality and significance of the information contents in the residual values. The authors’ research results, related to exemplary production data collected in a foundry with Disamatic molding line (temperature of the molding sand), are presented. It is concluded that a properly performed analysis of time-series can be a useful tool for analysis and predictions of foundry production process.

M. Perzyk; K. Krawiec; J. Koz?owski

2009-01-01

97

Cancer Morbidity of Foundry Workers in Korea  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Foundry workers are potentially exposed to a number of carcinogens. This study was conducted to describe the cancer incidence associated with employment in small-sized Korean iron foundries and to compare those findings to the Korean population. Cancer morbidity in 208 Korean foundries was analyzed ...

Ahn, Yeon-Soon; Won, Jong-Uk; Park, Robert M.

98

77 FR 32998 - Foundry Coke From China  

Science.gov (United States)

...No. 731-TA-891 (Second Review)] Foundry Coke From China Determination On the basis...revocation of the antidumping duty order on foundry coke from China would be likely to lead...Publication 4326 (May 2012), entitled Foundry Coke from China: Investigation No....

2012-06-04

99

Possibilities of utilizing 3DP technology for foundry mould making  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Possibilities of application of three-dimensional printing (3DP) technology for making casting prototypes are discussed. Three-dimensional printing enables making of foundry moulds for elements of complex shapes. The mould presented in the paper was printed with the use of Z510 Spectrum unit in the Car Technology Sp. z o.o. (Ltd. Co.) in Kraków. The basic material for printing foundry moulds is the ZCast 501 powder. This powder is a mixture of traditional molding sand, gypsum and supplementary ingredients. The mould is made in ZCast technology, and it enables casting of zinc, magnesium and aluminum alloys at max. pouring temperature of 1100°C. The paper describes research on the possibility to utilize a standard ZP14 powder for building a rotor blade casting moulds. The research has showed that the ZP14 powder may serve for printing foundry moulds, which should then be subjected to thermo-chemical treatment. Application of the basic ZPrint system powder permits a reduction in mould manufacturing costs.

G. Budzik

2007-01-01

100

Fluidity of Aluminium Foundry Alloys  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The fluidity of an alloy plays a key role for the foundry and transport industries as it affects the quality and soundness of the cast products. Particularly, fluidity influences the reject rates, hence casting costs and the production of thinwalled, hence light components. Fluidity is a complex tec...

Di Sabatino, Marisa

 
 
 
 
101

Molecular Foundry, Berkeley, California (Revised)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This case study provides information on the Molecular Foundry, which incorporates Labs21 principles in its design and construction. The design includes many of the strategies researched at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory for energy efficient cleanroom and data centers. The result is an energy efficient high-performing sustainable laboratory.

Carlisle, N.

2008-03-01

102

[Cohort study of ischemic heart disease among 1817 workers in a foundry].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To determine the risk of ischemic heart disease among foundry workers and the exposure-response relationship between the risk and foundry work and cumulative exposure to silica dust, and to establish a regression model to predict the risk for developing ischemic heart disease by a given length of employment and exposure to silica dust in foundry workers. METHODS: Cohort study was conducted, following-up workers in an automobile foundry employed for more than one year during January 1, 1980 to December 31, 1996 as cohort members. In total, 30 years were followed to December 31, 2009. In cohort, workers exposed to pouring, sand preparation, cast shakeout and finishing, melting, overhead crane operation, moulding and core-making were in foundry group, and auxiliary workers at the same factory, such as electricians, fitters, and inspectors were in control group. The risk of ischemic heart disease among foundry workers and the exposure-response relationship between the risk and foundry work and cumulative exposure to silica dust were analyzed with cox regression model using SPSS software, and a logistic regression model was established for prediction of risk for developing ischemic heart disease at a given length of employment and exposure to silica dust in foundry workers. RESULTS: Totally, 1817 workers were followed-up for 45 553.05 person-years during 30 years, with 156 cases of ischemic heart disease and incidence of 342.46 per 100 000 person-years. And the average age at onset was 51.46 years and duration of employment at onset was 21.61 years. Results showed that male, smoking, alcohol drinking, age and duration of employment were risk factors for ischemic heart disease. Risk of ischemic heart disease in foundry workers positively correlated with cumulative silica exposure, and the risk of ischemic heart disease increased by 75.8 percent (RR = 1.758, 95% CI 1.221-2.532) with cumulative silica exposure of 1 mg/m3 x year, adjusted for smoking. And risk of ischemic heart disease was significantly higher in the exposed group than that in the control one. Compared with control group workers, risk of ischemic heart disease increased by 1.048 folds, 1.395 folds, 70.4 percent, 97.0 percent and 1.270 folds among workers exposed to sand preparation, cast shakeout and finishing, melting, moulding and core-making, respectively, adjusted for smoking. Based on the predictive of model, risk for developing ischemic heart disease increased with the length of employment and exposure to silica dust in foundry workers. CONCLUSION: Workers in foundry face high risk of ischemic heart disease. Risk of ischemic heart disease varies by job, which is higher in workers exposed to sand preparation, cast shakeout and finishing, melting, moulding and core-making. Both foundry work and cumulative exposure to silica are risk factors. The model for prediction of risk for developing ischemic heart disease at a given length of employment and exposure to silica dust in foundry workers resulted in a valid exposure-response relationship.

Lu Y; Zhang M

2012-09-01

103

Exposure to chemical agents in Swedish aluminum foundries and aluminum remelting plants--a comprehensive survey.  

Science.gov (United States)

Secondary aluminum melting is mainly performed in sand, die, and static die-casting foundries and remelting plants. In seven Swedish foundries and two remelting plants, the exposure and area concentrations of total dust, metals, organic gases, and vapors were determined mainly as daily, time-weighted averages (TWAs). For most combinations of jobs and agents, the exposure levels were well below the current threshold limits suggested by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH). However, high exposure levels of mineral oil mist (geometric mean [GM] = 0.6 mg/m3) were observed in the die-casting process, with a maximum of 4 mg/m3. The findings were similar for total dust (GM = 5.1 mg/m3) and crystalline quartz (GM = 0.05 mg/m3) during molding operations in the sand foundries, maximum air concentrations being 31 mg/m3 and 0.22 mg/m3, respectively. Other agents which occasionally reached high exposure levels included furfuryl alcohol (up to 23 mg/m3 during furan binder use in sand foundries), aniline (up to 2.6 mg/m3 during thermal degradation of cold-box binders), and dimethylethylamine (up to 9 mg/m3) in the cold-box process used in static die-casting and sand foundries. The average aluminum exposure levels (GM = 0.043 mg/m3) were low in all foundries, individual values not exceeding 0.94 mg/m3. The exposures to metals were below 10 percent of their threshold limits. Similarly low levels were detected of polyaromatic hydrocarbons, phenol, formaldehyde, methylenebisphenyl diisocyanate, and phenylisocyanate. In the aluminum remelting plants, a few high exposure levels of total dust (GM = 1.4 mg/m3) up to 8 mg/m3 were detected in furnace workers. Aluminum and other metals were well below 10 percent of their threshold limits, with the exception of a few high concentrations of manganese, up to 0.14 mg/m3. The between-worker variability (GSDB) in the foundries for total dust, aluminum, and oil mist were on the order of 3-4. The heterogenicity of secondary aluminum melting requires assessment of a wide variety of chemical agents. For certain exposures, technical and medical monitoring programs are still needed. PMID:11202030

Westberg, H B; Seldén, A I; Bellander, T

2001-01-01

104

Exposure to chemical agents in Swedish aluminum foundries and aluminum remelting plants--a comprehensive survey.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Secondary aluminum melting is mainly performed in sand, die, and static die-casting foundries and remelting plants. In seven Swedish foundries and two remelting plants, the exposure and area concentrations of total dust, metals, organic gases, and vapors were determined mainly as daily, time-weighted averages (TWAs). For most combinations of jobs and agents, the exposure levels were well below the current threshold limits suggested by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH). However, high exposure levels of mineral oil mist (geometric mean [GM] = 0.6 mg/m3) were observed in the die-casting process, with a maximum of 4 mg/m3. The findings were similar for total dust (GM = 5.1 mg/m3) and crystalline quartz (GM = 0.05 mg/m3) during molding operations in the sand foundries, maximum air concentrations being 31 mg/m3 and 0.22 mg/m3, respectively. Other agents which occasionally reached high exposure levels included furfuryl alcohol (up to 23 mg/m3 during furan binder use in sand foundries), aniline (up to 2.6 mg/m3 during thermal degradation of cold-box binders), and dimethylethylamine (up to 9 mg/m3) in the cold-box process used in static die-casting and sand foundries. The average aluminum exposure levels (GM = 0.043 mg/m3) were low in all foundries, individual values not exceeding 0.94 mg/m3. The exposures to metals were below 10 percent of their threshold limits. Similarly low levels were detected of polyaromatic hydrocarbons, phenol, formaldehyde, methylenebisphenyl diisocyanate, and phenylisocyanate. In the aluminum remelting plants, a few high exposure levels of total dust (GM = 1.4 mg/m3) up to 8 mg/m3 were detected in furnace workers. Aluminum and other metals were well below 10 percent of their threshold limits, with the exception of a few high concentrations of manganese, up to 0.14 mg/m3. The between-worker variability (GSDB) in the foundries for total dust, aluminum, and oil mist were on the order of 3-4. The heterogenicity of secondary aluminum melting requires assessment of a wide variety of chemical agents. For certain exposures, technical and medical monitoring programs are still needed.

Westberg HB; Seldén AI; Bellander T

2001-01-01

105

Iron foundry Torgelow; Eisengiesserei Torgelow  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Equipped with the latest European machinery, the iron foundry Torgelow makes the largest castings for wind turbines in Europe. In the space of three and a half years the manager and co-owner Hermann-Josef Taterra and an Austrian investor turned an industrial ruin into a world market leader. In this period the foundry was extended in two stages for about 45 million Euro, giving it a capacity of around 4000 turbine sets (hub and base frame for 2.5 MW upwards). The main customers are manufacturers of wind turbines and gear boxes. In Torgelow hubs, stub axles, flanges and main frames, and gearbox housings for the multi-megawatt range are manufactured. (orig.)

Anon.

2007-07-01

106

Biopolimers – structure, properties and applicability in the foundry industry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A review of literature data concerning physicochemical properties and possibilities of practical utilisation of the most important natural biopolymers (proteins, celluloses, starch, chitozan) are presented in the paper. Biopolymers being renewable natural polymers characterised by several required physicochemical properties (adhesivity, activity, no toxicity, biodegradability) constitute more and more interesting processing raw material for various industrial utilisations including environment friendly binding agents for moulding sands. Protein and starch compositions are used as binding agents for moulding and core sands in the foundry industry. Preliminary tests – performed within own research - of modification and utilisation of biopolymers as binding agents for moulding sands are promising from many aspects: technological (adequate properties of moulding sands), ecological (no toxicity, biodegradability) and economic (low price). Starch from the polysaccharide group seems to be especially interesting since it is abundant, easily obtainable, biodegradable and the cheapest polymer. At its actual low price and the possibility of using agricultural wastes in the production, problem of utilising starch in many industry branches can become significant, especially in Poland.

B. Grabowska

2008-01-01

107

Health and safety at work in foundry companies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article presents the identification and analysis of threats in the environment of the foundry at individual stages of the casts manufacturing process. A generalized model of the foundry was created in the system presentation including harmful and dangerous factors in the foundry technical workplace. This model can refer to an iron foundry and cast steel and small non-ferrous foundries, to modern foundries, with automatic moulding lines and to chill and pressure foundries where machines execute the majority of essential operations.

L. Wojtynek

2011-01-01

108

Influence of dust addition from cast iron production on bentonite sand mixture properties  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In cast iron foundry operations like melting, casting, feetling, casts cleaning and grinding of a high amount of dusts are produced. Threekinds of dusts from different parts of cast iron foundry were analysed; chemical analyses, granulometric analyses and microscopic analyseswere carried out. The bentonite sand mixtures with different portion of dusts were prepared. Technological properties of prepared sandmixtures (compression strength, shearing strength and permeability) were measured.

P. Genge?; A. Pribulová

2010-01-01

109

Advances in electric melting for foundries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

It is now nearly 70 years since coreless induction furnaces were introduced for foundry melting, and this article discusses the impact that this and other electric melting techniques has had on foundry practice and economics. The basic principles of induction melting are described, particularly the effect of frequency on melting characteristics. Induction melting losses are compared with those of other processes and the economic benefits of electric melting, particularly for small iron foundries are described. Reference is also made to resistance crucible furnaces and electric reverberatory furnaces.

Davies, I.

1986-11-01

110

Research and application of enterprise resource planning system for foundry enterprises  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available PPDB issues - four aspects of current management issues of foundry enterprises are discussed in this paper, including Production Management, Process Control, Duration Monitoring and Business Intelligence Data Analysis. Also a whole Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) solution for foundry enterprises is proposed. The solution contains many models, four of which are used to solve the PPDB issues. These are called SPDB models, which separately are the Single-piece management model (based on casting lifecycle), Process management model (based on task-driven technology), Duration monitoring model (based on surplus period), and Business intelligence data analysis model (based on data mining). An ERP system for foundry enterprises, named HZERP, was researched and developed, and applied to a sand casting company of single piece and small batch production. Qualitatively and quantitatively comparing the application effect before and after implementing the HZERP system, the result demonstrated that the foundry ERP system based on the SPDB models can help metal casting enterprises achieve the single-piece management, better regulate the production processes, improve production and delivery management, shorten the production cycle, reduce costs, and speed up the capital turnover to a large extent.

Zhou Jianxin; Ji Xiaoyuan; Liao Dunming

2013-01-01

111

Evaluation of electromagnetic absorbing capacity of materials in foundry industry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the paper, a research on determining the standing wave ratio as a measure of electromagnetic absorbing capacity of moulding materials is presented. Preliminary tests performed using a microwave strip line showed that high-silica, chromite and magnesite moulding sands are characterised by low absorbing capacity of microwaves. It was demonstrated that microwave absorbing capacity is significantly affected by chemical compounds included in the examined substrates. It was found that use of a microwave strip line permits precise determining characteristic microwave absorbing capacities of various moulding materials and thus their suitability for microwave drying/hardening of moulds and cores or for other foundry processes. Such a microwave drier can be applied for identifying mass components and for determining e.g. base granularity by means of precisely determined reflection ratios |?| and positions of minimum signal values.

D. Nowak; M. Stachowicz; M.Pigiel

2010-01-01

112

Temperature influence on structural changes of foundry bentonites  

Science.gov (United States)

The results of investigations of three calcium bentonites, activated by sodium carbonate, applied in the foundry industry as binding material for moulding sands, subjected to the influence of high temperatures - are presented in the paper. Investigations were performed by the thermal analysis (TG) method, the infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) method and the modern Cu(II)-TET complex method (used for the determination of the montmorillonite content in bentonite samples). The occurrence of the dehydration process and two-stage dehydroxylation process was confirmed only for bentonite no. 2. This probably indicates that cis- and trans-isomers are present in the octahedric bentonite structure. Tests were performed at temperatures: 500, 550, 700, 900, 1000, 1100, 1200 °C.

Holtzer, Mariusz; Bobrowski, Artur; ?ymankowska-Kumon, Sylwia

2011-10-01

113

Radiometric measurement techniques in metallurgy and foundry technology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The contributions contain informations concerning the present state and development of radiometric measurement techniques in metallurgy and foundry technology as well as their application to the solution of various problems. The development of isotope techniques is briefly described. Major applications of radiometric equipment in industrial measurement are presented together with the use of isotopes to monitor processes of industrial production. This is followed by a short description of numerous laboratory-scale applications. Another contribution deals with fundamental problems and methods of moisture measurement by neutrons. A complex moisture/density measurement device the practical applicability of which has been tested is described here. Possibilities for clay determination in used-up moulding materials are discussed in a further contribution. The clay content can be determined by real-time radiometric density measurement so that the necessary moisture or addition of fresh sand can be controlled. (orig.) With 20 figs., 9 tabs., 178 refs

1990-01-01

114

Shaft melting furnaces for aluminium foundries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Future demands on foundries to improve the workplace and operate more economically will force furnace manufacturers to further mechanise and automate their product. Shaft melting furnaces for aluminium casting are described.

Roth, J.F.

1987-04-09

115

Foundry industry – current state and future development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The casting production is considered as one of the main factors influencing the development of world economy. The state of art and foresight of world’s casting production is discussed in the paper on the basis of the latest statistical data. The progress gained during the last few years in foundry engineering is shown as a way to further development of foundry technology. The last decade brought significant changes in the world map of the greatest casting producers. Globalization and transformation of economic systems is reflected by variations of foundry production in different countries, more over the globalization of economy is regarded not only as a chance but also as a menace for the European foundries.

M. Holtzer; R. Da?ko; S. ?ymankowska-Kumon

2012-01-01

116

Restoration of an Argonne National Laboratory foundry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The Environmental Management Operations Waste Management Department (WMD) at Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL-E) undertook the restoration of an unused foundry with the goal of restoring the area for general use. The foundry was used in the fabrication of reactor components for ANL's research and development programs; many of the items fabricated in the facility were radioactive, thereby contaminating the foundry equipment. The major challenges associated with the safe removal of the foundry equipment included the sheer size of the equipment, a limited overhead crane capability (4.5 tonnes), the minimization of radioactive and hazardous wastes, the cost-effective completion of the project, the hazardous and radioactive wastes present, and limited process knowledge (the facility was unused for man years)

1997-01-01

117

Foundry coke: physical and chemical properties  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The first part of the paper deals with the desirable properties of foundry coke; the remainder discusses the selection of coal blends and carbonising conditions for manufacturing such coke and describes practice at the Bedwas coking plant.

Hughes, R.T.

1983-01-01

118

Restoration of an Argonne National Laboratory foundry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Environmental Management Operations Waste Management Department (WMD) at Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL-E) undertook the restoration of an unused foundry with the goal of restoring the area for general use. The foundry was used in the fabrication of reactor components for ANL`s research and development programs; many of the items fabricated in the facility were radioactive, thereby contaminating the foundry equipment. The major challenges associated with the safe removal of the foundry equipment included the sheer size of the equipment, a limited overhead crane capability (4.5 tonnes), the minimization of radioactive and hazardous wastes, the cost-effective completion of the project, the hazardous and radioactive wastes present, and limited process knowledge (the facility was unused for man years).

Shearer, T.; Pancake, D.; Shelton, B. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

1997-12-01

119

Advanced technology nodes, a foundry perspective  

Science.gov (United States)

Leading edge foundries need to fulfill a wide range of customer needs and have to deliver state-of-the-art performance processes. Therefore, an innovative but flexible modular technology set up is essential. This paper will show after a brief introduction of foundry challenges in general Global Foundries path towards the 28nm technology. Here, two key elements like high k metal gate process and embedded stressors are discussed. The article is concluded with an outlook on future device scaling from a leading edge foundry's perspective. This look ahead includes recent transistor architecture and process technology trends. More specifically, some challenges of the 20nm technology are discussed. This node will push planar transistor technology to its physical limits. Due to this, subsequent nodes will require substantial innovations in process architecture and device concepts. Two potential device paths are foreseen and compared, i.e. FinFet and ET-SOI-UTBB devices.

Faul, Jürgen; Hoentschel, Jan; Wiatr, Maciej; Horstmann, Manfred

2012-11-01

120

Towards Modeling Changeovers for flexible foundry manufacturing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Costs involved in implementing manufacturing flexibility to meet customer demand are more important in the SMEs, especially that are labor intensive for example metalcasting companies located in a high cost country like Norway. Changeover is an important issue in foundries, and setup time of the dies is one of the vital parameters in the manufacturing process. This paper presents an analytical method for evaluating product changeover suitable for foundry manufacturing environment.

Rhythm Suren Wadhwa

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Moisture content measurement of foundry raw materials with NZK 201 neutron moisture gage  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The possibility was studied of applying densimeters and moisture gages of the NZK 201 type in a foundry. The experiments were conducted in the measurement of pure quartz sands and sands with binding agents, such as sodium silicate and bentonite, within the moisture range of 0.5 to 6% water, and in the measurement of a fuel mixture consisting of ground anthracite and ground coke with a moisture content of more than 5%. The dependence was determined of the recorded pulse rates on the water content in quartz sands without binding agents. The measurements were carried out in a volume of 507 dm3 over a period of 3 mins. The accuracy of moisture determination within 0 to 1.5% water was 0.2 to 0.3%, for a higher water content 0.1 to 0.2%. The results of measurements in volumes of 38 and 25 dm3 are given in form of calibration curves. In the minimal volume of 25 dm3 an accuracy of +-0.2% could be obtained. Similar measurements were carried out in a mixture of sand with sodium silicate. The calibration curves for pure quartz sand and sand with sodium silicate are similar. A calibration curve could not be obtained in measurements of quartz sand with bentonite and of the fuel mixture of ground anthracite and ground coke owing to the unreproducibility of results. (J.B.)

1976-05-21

122

Reclamation of used sand by fluidized-bed roaster  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Most of used sand discharged from foundry shops has so far been disposed by means of dumping it to a reclaimed land. Recently, however, from the viewpoint of the restrictions placed on the dumping to prevent environmental pollution as well as from the problem of exhaustion of good quality sand, used sand is being increasingly re-used by recovery and reclamation. The reclamation method of used sand can be roughly classified into the wet reclamation, the dry reclamation, and the burning reclamation, and the most suitable method is being selected among them depending on the kind of bonding material. For the clay bonded sand, the dry reclamation and the wet reclamation are being mainly employed and for the furan resin bonded sand, the dry reclamation is being employed. Results are described of examination on the burning reclamation by means of a fluidized-bed roaster, concerning the clay bonded sand and furan resin bonded sand. The clay bonded sand can be reclaimed by means of a fluidized-bed roaster, and reclaimed sand obtained under the conditions of a fluidized-bed temperature in the range of 800 to 850/sup 0/C and a superficial velocity for fluidizing in the range of 70 to 75 cm/s (air ratio in the fluidized-bed: 0.8 to 1.0) can be used as shell sand. The furan resin bonded sand can also be reclaimed by means of a fluidized-bed roster and reclaimed sand obtained by its burning at a fluidized-bed temperature in the range of 500 to 650/sup 0/C, has properties equivalent to or higher than those of new sand, from the standpoint of properties at normal and high temperatures. The sand reclaimed by burning reclamation (clay sand and furan resin sand) was better in the results of pouring; as compared with the case of the reclaimed sand by the dry reclamation method.

Watanabe, T.; Matsuoka, K.; Satake, T.; Jahami, Y.; Suzuki, K.; Iwato, K.

1980-02-01

123

Casting Ductile Iron in Layer Moulds Made from Ecological Sands  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article contains the results of tests performed under the target project in Hardtop Foundry Charsznica.The objective of the tests and studies was to develop a technology of making high-quality ductile iron castings, combined witheffective means of environmental protection. The studies presented in this article related to castings weighing from 1 to 300 kg made from ductile iron of grades 400-15 and 500-7, using two-layer moulds, where the facing and core sand was the sand with an alkaline organic binder, while backing sand was the sand with an inorganic geopolymer binder.A simplified method of sand reclamation was applied with possible reuse of the reclaim as an addition to the backing sand. The castiron spheroidising treatment and inoculation were selected taking into account the specific conditions of Hardtop Foundry. A pilot batch of castings was made, testing the gating and feeding systems and using exothermic sleeves on risers. The study confirmed the validity of the adopted concept of making ductile iron castings in layer moulds, while maintaining the content of sand with an organic binder at a level of maximum 15%.

M. R?czka; K. Gandurski; B. Isendorf

2012-01-01

124

International negotiations in the foundry engineering  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to introduce the essence of negotiations in general, which could find it’s application in foundry engineering. The paper is the result of long cooperation of the authors with foundry engineering and their participation in negotiations between the domestic and foreign companies. In this paper the essence and the rules of negotiations have been introduced. It presents also the skills and abilities of the negotiators. The cycle of negotiations and the following stages of negotiations have been also described. The authors have presented the characteristics of negotiations led by the partners from different parts of the world with particular emphasize on Asian and European countries as with these partners the negotiations in Polish foundries are mainly led.

L. Wojtynek; S. Pietrowski

2008-01-01

125

Characterization and extraction of gold contained in foundry industrial wastes; Caracterizacion y extraccion de oro contenido en matrices de desechos industriales de fundicion  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Gold was characterized and leached in foundry sands. These wastes are product among others of the automotive industry where they are used as molds material which are contaminated by diverse metals during the foundry. To fulfil the leaching process four coupled thermostat columns were used. To characterize the solid it was used the X-ray diffraction technique. For the qualitative analysis it was used the Activation analysis technique. Finally, for the study of liquors was used the Plasma diffraction spectroscopy (Icp-As) technique. The obtained results show that the process which was used the thermostat columns was more efficient, than the methods traditionally recommended. (Author)

Vite T, J.; Vite T, M.; Diaz C, A.; Carreno de Leon, C. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Depto. de Estudios del Ambiente, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

1999-07-01

126

The present and future status of Japanese foundry industry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An introduction is given in detail about the current situation of Japanese foundry industry in 2006 from aspects such as the delivery structure of castings, scale and numbers of foundries, current profi t of foundry industry as well as the background of lower profi tability, etc. The development trend of Japanese foundry industry was also predicted, such as the transition of foundries from family business to modern company business, the improvement of rejection ratio and yield, application of IT to production and management, human resources and the challenge for zero emission and so on.

Kanetake NAKATANI

2008-01-01

127

Energy conservation in the foundry industry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The production of castings requires the consumption of considerable quantities of energy. The rapid increase in the price of all forms of energy has therefore had a large impact on the foundry industry. This seminar was planned to bring together a speakers from industry and government and to present a range of information and ideas on energy conservation in the foundry industry. Presentations were oriented to the needs of the operating foundryman. Topics covered included heat recovery, energy conservation, and increased efficiency. Separate abstracts were prepared for 9 papers.

Buhr, R.K. (ed.) (Canada Centre for Mineral and Energy Technology, Ottawa, ON (Canada))

1981-04-01

128

Method and device for determining technological properties of foundry molding materials  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention relates to a method and a device for determining the properties and/or the composition of foundry moulding sand, in which some of the properties are determined in a test sleeve (5) receiving a sample of moulding sand. In order to provide a method and a test method which allow a simpler, more rapid determination of properties of the moulding sand which are essential for a planned use, it is proposed according to the invention that an ultrasonic measurement be undertaken on the sample of moulding sand, at least the measurement or determination of one further property of the sample of moulding sand being carried out independently hereof and, from the combined results of the ultrasonic measurement and the further measurement, the composition and/or the technological properties of the sample are determined. In order to provide a device which allows a simpler, more rapid determination of properties of the moulding sand which are essential for a planned use, it is proposed according to the invention that an ultrasonic transducer be provided on at least one surface adjacent to the test body.

Flemming Eckardt Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil; Tilch Werner Dr.-Ing. hab.; Schuszter Thomas Dr.-Ing.; Ivanov Marian Dipl.Ing.

129

Towards Measuring Investment in Flexible Foundry Manufacturing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Manufacturing flexibility is an important instrument to ensure the success of manufacturing systems in the modern day competitive and uncertain environment. The major hindrance in integrating flexibility into decision making process is that it is difficult to measure and be compared to future indefinable manufacturing scenarios. This paper presents a methodical concept utilizing real options to evaluate flexible foundry manufacturing system.

Rhythm Suren Wadhwa

2012-01-01

130

Increase of foundry properties of secondary silumins  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The work is devoted to increase of foundry properties of secondary silumins. The influence of a chip contents in charge, quantities of iron in an alloy and the modifier used for processing of liquid metal, on fluidity, linear shrinkage, crack resistance and a porosity number of silumin AlSi9Cu2 is considered.

O.V. Ljutova; I.P. Volchok

2008-01-01

131

Towards Modeling Changeovers for flexible foundry manufacturing  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Costs involved in implementing manufacturing flexibility to meet customer demand are more important in the SMEs, especially that are labor intensive for example metalcasting companies located in a high cost country like Norway. Changeover is an important issue in foundries, and setup time of the di...

Rhythm Suren Wadhwa

132

Dirty-gas recuperator installed at foundry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A dirty-gas recuperator installed on two foundry cupolas is saving fuel at a rate of more than $500,000 per year. The unit features the pendant ''U'' tube arrangement in the heat exchanger which enables operation in the 1,000 to 1,600 /sup 0/F range.

1981-09-01

133

Use of anthracite in the foundry industry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Anthracite has been used for smelting iron in North America for nearly 200 years and is still used today in cupolas. Environmental and market factors contribute to continued cost increases in foundry coke that will continue in the future. This paper reviews the availability, quality and properties of anthracite and considers some of the differences in operation when using anthracite in place of coke.

Bethray, A. [McClain Corp., Stamford, CT (United States)

1994-12-31

134

Characterization of modified 9 Cr-1 Mo steel sand castings  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Experience with the sand casting of modified 9 Cr-1 Mo steel at several foundries is presented. The castings included simple blocks, elbows, valve bodies, and a steam chest. Castings were characterized by tensile and Charpy impact tests, for the effects of thermal aging on Charpy impact properties and hardness, and by creep, fatigue, and microstructure. Properties of the castings were compared with those observed for wrought material. In general, mechanical properties of castings were slightly lower than those of the wrought material.

Sikka, V.K.

1985-04-01

135

Gas evolution rate from heated moulding sands bonded with organic binders  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study is continuation of research on gas evolution rate from heated moulding sands used in the manufacture of foundry moulds. Thefirst stage of the study described in [1] included bentonite-bonded sands. At the second stage, sands bonded with organic binders weretested. The composition of gases, evolved at a given temperature using mould heating system that simulates the process of mould pouringwith molten metal, was determined. Metal was not used in these studies to prevent its reaction with gases formed as a result of moulding sand heating, since this effect would significantly impede the gas identification or even make it totally impossible.

A. Siewiorek; R. Nowak; A. Chojecki; J. Mocek

2011-01-01

136

How orthogonal are the OBO Foundry ontologies?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Ontologies in biomedicine facilitate information integration, data exchange, search and query of biomedical data, and other critical knowledge-intensive tasks. The OBO Foundry is a collaborative effort to establish a set of principles for ontology development with the eventual goal of creating a set of interoperable reference ontologies in the domain of biomedicine. One of the key requirements to achieve this goal is to ensure that ontology developers reuse term definitions that others have already created rather than create their own definitions, thereby making the ontologies orthogonal. METHODS: We used a simple lexical algorithm to analyze the extent to which the set of OBO Foundry candidate ontologies identified from September 2009 to September 2010 conforms to this vision. Specifically, we analyzed (1) the level of explicit term reuse in this set of ontologies, (2) the level of overlap, where two ontologies define similar terms independently, and (3) how the levels of reuse and overlap changed during the course of this year. RESULTS: We found that 30% of the ontologies reuse terms from other Foundry candidates and 96% of the candidate ontologies contain terms that overlap with terms from the other ontologies. We found that while term reuse increased among the ontologies between September 2009 and September 2010, the level of overlap among the ontologies remained relatively constant. Additionally, we analyzed the six ontologies announced as OBO Foundry members on March 5, 2010, and identified that the level of overlap was extremely low, but, notably, so was the level of term reuse. CONCLUSIONS: We have created a prototype web application that allows OBO Foundry ontology developers to see which classes from their ontologies overlap with classes from other ontologies in the OBO Foundry (http://obomap.bioontology.org). From our analysis, we conclude that while the OBO Foundry has made significant progress toward orthogonality during the period of this study through increased adoption of explicit term reuse, a large amount of overlap remains among these ontologies. Furthermore, the characteristics of the identified overlap, such as the terms it comprises and its distribution among the ontologies, indicate that the achieving orthogonality will be exceptionally difficult, if not impossible.

Ghazvinian A; Noy NF; Musen MA

2011-01-01

137

[Dynamic monitoring and analysis of occupational hazards in working environment of foundry plant from1987 to 2010].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the characteristics and changing trend of occupational hazards in the working environment of a foundry plant from 1987 to 2010. METHODS: The foundry plant of a large-scale automobile company in Hubei Province, China was chosen as the study site. The data on occupational hazards in the working environment of the foundry plant in the past years were collected, and additional measurements were performed. The means and geometric means of the concentrations of occupational hazards were calculated. The characteristics and changing trend of occupational hazards from 1987 to 2010 were presented. RESULTS: There were dust, chemical, and physical occupational hazards in the working environment of the foundry plant, with silica dust, noise, and heat stress as the main ones. Dust, mainly silica dust, is found in all aspects of foundry. The mean concentration of silica dust was high (3.2?8.2 mg/m(3)), exceeding the national occupational exposure limit (1 mg/m(3)). The mean concentrations of silica dust varied across different types of work, with higher levels in cast shakeout and finishing, overhead crane operation, and sand preparation. The mean concentration of respirable dust in the foundry plant was low (0.38 mg/m(3)), not exceeding the national occupational exposure limit (0.7 mg/m(3)). There were high concentrations of grinding wheel dust (10.6 mg/m(3)) and welding fume (5.7 mg/m(3)) in cast shakeout and finishing, exceeding the national occupational exposure limit (8 and 4 mg/m(3)). Coal dust was mainly found in melting as well as cast shakeout and finishing, with higher concentration in the former (4.7 mg/m(3). The main chemical occupational hazard in the environment of the foundry plant was formaldehyde (1.23 mg/m(3)), exceeding the national occupational exposure limit (0.5 mg/m(3)). The concentrations of ammonia, phenol, metal fume, sulfur dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, and phosphine in the foundry plant were low. The mean concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons was 0.1405 µg/m(3), with a higher level in pouring. The main physical occupational hazards in the working environment of the foundry plant were noise and heat stress. Noise, mainly steady noise, was distributed in all workshops of the foundry plant, with a mean intensity of 85.1 db (A). Noise levels varied across different types of work, higher in cast shakeout and finishing (89.3 db (A)) and moulding (85.4 db (A)). Heat stress mainly existed in overhead crane operation (35.1°C), pouring (33.3°C), and melting (32.8°C). CONCLUSION: Dust, chemical, and physical occupational hazards co-existed in the working environment of the foundry plant. High concentration of dust was widely distributed in many workshops and across many types of work, but the dust concentration showed a downward trend. Chemical occupational hazards included ammonia, phenol, hydrogen sulfide, and metal fume, most at low concentrations. High-intensity noise was widely distributed in all working positions of foundry process and mainly from equipment operation, collision between parts, and gas injection. High-intensity heat stress mainly existed in overhead crane operation, pouring, and melting.

Lu Y; Zhang M; Chen WH; Qi C

2013-08-01

138

Evaluation by PIXE external beam of the leaching efficiency for a thermo stated column for the sand treatment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The purpose of this paper was to measure the leaching efficiency for a thermo stated column designed to extract metals in muds originated by foundry processes. The results obtained were useful to contemplate different alternatives helping to solve the problem of stocking enormous volumes of polluted sand produced by industries. Samples of residual sands and muds (treated sands) coming from an engine factory and from a thermo stated column respectively, were irradiated using an external beam of 3.55 MeV energy protons. From the quantitative analysis PIXE (Proton Induced X-ray Emission), it was possible to establish the level of pollution in sands due to the foundry processes and to evaluate the leaching efficiency of the output liquid phase from the thermo stated column. For polluted sands, certain cases were observed for which the efficiency was not enough to decrease the level of pollution in e.g., Cu, Zn, Br y Pb. (Author)

1995-01-01

139

Influence of the Changes of the Structure of Foundry Bentonites on Their Binding Properties  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper, the effects of the examination of the structure of calcium bentonites, activated by sodium carbonate, applied in the foundry industry as a binding agent for moulding sands, subjected to the effects of high temperature, were presented. The examination was conducted with the use of the infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray analysis (XRD). In addition, the montmorillonite contents in the bentonite sample was determined with the use of the modern, Cu(II)-TET complex method and the technological properties of moulding sands containing the examined bentonites, such as: compactability, permeability, compression strength were examined.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.18.1.1342

Sylwia ?YMANKOWSKA-KUMON; Mariusz HOLTZER; Ewa OLEJNIK; Artur BOBROWSKI

2012-01-01

140

Dust and pneumoconiosis in the South African foundry industry.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The objectives of this study were to estimate the extent of occupational health monitoring for dust and pneumoconiosis in the foundry industry and to assess dust levels and the prevalence of pneumoconiosis in a group of foundries. In only 13 (16%) of the 82 foundries that responded to a postal questionnaire were regular periodic full-sized chest radiographs done. Dust levels were measured every 3 years or more frequently in 20 foundries (24%). An uncontrolled dust hazard was evident in all 9 foundries surveyed between 1983 and 1992. The prevalence of silicosis ranged from 0% to 10.3% and increased with duration of service. The study provided convincing evidence of neglect of occupational health by the foundry industry.

Rees D; Weiner R

1994-12-01

 
 
 
 
141

Monitoring of the supply system of electrical foundry equipment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article presents examples of recording the instantaneous values voltages, currents and power in electrical power systems foundry.Recorded measurements of the instantaneous values allow to make an analysis of transients at the time of turning on the foundry device.The author on the bases of the measurements results in power systems selected foundry mixers, describes examples of analysis andevaluation of transients when switching these devices.

E. Zió?kowski

2010-01-01

142

Energy efficiency of the foundry industry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This thesis is concerned with energy efficiency and management within the cast iron industry and in particular that of the Taff River Foundry of John Williams Foundries Ltd. One and two dimensional models of the heat treatment furnaces were developed based on packed bed heat transfer theory. The models used to analyse the effect of furnace refractory design, charge basket design and charge mass on cycle time and casting and gas temperatures. The effect of furnace cycling operations on energy content was also considered. Experimental investigations were conducted within these furnaces and measurements of velocity distributions through the charge, furnace gas and casting temperatures and static pressure variations with cycle time were obtained. From this work validation of the models was carried out as well as improvements to furnace operations. An investigation of oxygen enrichment of the cupolas led to its installation and commission with improvements in energy costs and iron quality.

Griffiths, A.J.

1986-01-01

143

Improving electrical efficiency in the foundry industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] In the current economic climate, it is essential for industry to minimize costs wherever possible. This is particularly important in the foundry industry that is being subjected to competitive pressure from offshore suppliers and by suppliers of competing materials. This paper reports that foundries must continuously strive to lower operating costs wherever possible. In many respects, the utility industry is no different. The situation facing utilities over the past several years has resulted in its transition from a producer and supplier of energy to that of a more customer oriented service company. In many cases, utilities have formed departments dedicated to providing assistance to their customers in the application of electricity to their business. At the same time, the need for energy conservation has become widespread in North America as energy demand increases, environmental concerns increase and the cost of providing new power plants become formidable

1992-01-01

144

Commercial negotiations in the foundry engineering  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article presents the process of commercial negotiations paying attention to the negotiation itself as well as to its basic elements. The specificity of the Polish foundries’ main negotiation partners from The European Union, who are the deliverers of diverse casting range, was specified. The most important cultural factors, which determine the process of negotiations conducted by the representatives of various cultural groups, were analysed. The understanding of cultural differences and adapting to them while negotiating are important factors which constitute the parties’ negotiation process. The meaning of price in the commercial negotiation process was described. The elements of sale process and the factors which influence the casts price were enumerated. What is more, the main methods of determining price were characterized. The essential problems connected with conducting the price negotiations in foundries were indicated.

L. Wojtynek

2008-01-01

145

Epidemiological adaptation of quartz exposure modeling in Swedish aluminum foundries: nested case-control study on lung cancer.  

Science.gov (United States)

In a recent cohort study in aluminum foundries and remelting plants an unexpectedly high risk of lung cancer was found in workers in sand foundries. On the basis of present and historical measurement data, we developed a statistical model for exposure to total dust and crystalline quartz for different jobs and time periods. Cumulative dose estimates of total dust and crystalline quartz were calculated and used in a nested case-control study in the cohort. From the cohort of foundry workers (n = 5016), 46 cases of lung cancer were identified. The final analysis was performed on 31 cases and 233 controls with one year or more of employment. Historical measurement data from the 1960s and onward were collected, totaling 203 total dust and 103 crystalline quartz exposure observations. Regression models, using the determinants of job title, time period, type of foundry, and size of production, were developed for assessing historical total dust and crystalline quartz air concentrations. These estimates were used to calculate individual cumulative exposure in the case-control study. In the multiple linear regression analysis, the determinants explained much of the variations in dust level (r(2) = 0.58). The explained variation in crystalline quartz was much lower (r(2) = 0.13). The regression coefficients for the type of foundry, time period, and size of production were statistically significant for total dust. On the basis of the regression analysis, the final models were used to calculate individual cumulative exposures. The calculated cumulative dust and quartz exposures averaged 33 mg/m(3) * year and 0.42 mg/m(3) * year, respectively. The odds ratios (ORs) were not significant, but showed dose-response trends for both dust and crystalline quartz. PMID:14612297

Westberg, Håkan B; Bellander, Tom

2003-12-01

146

Epidemiological adaptation of quartz exposure modeling in Swedish aluminum foundries: nested case-control study on lung cancer.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In a recent cohort study in aluminum foundries and remelting plants an unexpectedly high risk of lung cancer was found in workers in sand foundries. On the basis of present and historical measurement data, we developed a statistical model for exposure to total dust and crystalline quartz for different jobs and time periods. Cumulative dose estimates of total dust and crystalline quartz were calculated and used in a nested case-control study in the cohort. From the cohort of foundry workers (n = 5016), 46 cases of lung cancer were identified. The final analysis was performed on 31 cases and 233 controls with one year or more of employment. Historical measurement data from the 1960s and onward were collected, totaling 203 total dust and 103 crystalline quartz exposure observations. Regression models, using the determinants of job title, time period, type of foundry, and size of production, were developed for assessing historical total dust and crystalline quartz air concentrations. These estimates were used to calculate individual cumulative exposure in the case-control study. In the multiple linear regression analysis, the determinants explained much of the variations in dust level (r(2) = 0.58). The explained variation in crystalline quartz was much lower (r(2) = 0.13). The regression coefficients for the type of foundry, time period, and size of production were statistically significant for total dust. On the basis of the regression analysis, the final models were used to calculate individual cumulative exposures. The calculated cumulative dust and quartz exposures averaged 33 mg/m(3) * year and 0.42 mg/m(3) * year, respectively. The odds ratios (ORs) were not significant, but showed dose-response trends for both dust and crystalline quartz.

Westberg HB; Bellander T

2003-12-01

147

GRAY IRON FOUNDRY INDUSTRY PARTICULATE EMISSIONS: SOURCE CATEGORY REPORT  

Science.gov (United States)

The report gives results of a study to develop particulate emission factors based on cutoff size for inhalable particles for the gray iron foundry industry. After a review of available information characterizing particulate emissions from gray iron foundries, the data were summar...

148

Photonic Device Layout Within the Foundry CMOS Design Environment  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A design methodology to layout photonic devices within standard electronic complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) foundry data preparation flows is described. This platform has enabled the fabrication of designs in three foundry scaled-CMOS processes from two semiconductor manufacturers. , Unit...

Orcutt, Jason Scott; Ram, Rajeev J.

149

Use of foundry coke fines in cupola melting  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Investigations into the best choice of sieving equipment for foundry coke containing high proportions of breeze and the reuse of the breeze are reported. Cement-bonded breeze briquettes were found to be a successful substitute for foundry coke in cupolas.

Ernst, G.

1984-03-01

150

Respiratory abnormalities among workers in an iron and steel foundry.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A study of the health of 78 workers in an iron and steel foundry in Vancouver, British Columbia, was carried out and the results compared with those found in 372 railway repair yard workers who were not significantly exposed to air contaminants at work. The foundry workers were exposed to PepSet, wh...

Johnson, A; Moira, C Y; MacLean, L; Atkins, E; Dybuncio, A; Cheng, F; Enarson, D

151

Foundry. Trade and Industrial Education Trade Preparatory Training Guide.  

Science.gov (United States)

One of a series of curriculum guides prepared for the metals occupations cluster of the construction/fabrication occupational group, this guide identifies the essentials of the foundry trade as recommended by the successful foundry operator. An instructional program based upon the implementation of the guide is expected to prepare a student to…

Nebraska State Dept. of Education, Lincoln. Div. of Vocational Education.

152

Sonic sands.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Many desert sand dunes emit a loud sound with a characteristic tremolo around a well-defined frequency whenever sand is avalanching on their slip face. This phenomenon, called the 'song of dunes', has been successfully reproduced in the lab, on a smaller scale. In all cases, the spontaneous acoustic emission in air is due to a vibration of the sand, itself excited by a granular shear flow. This review presents a complete characterization of the phenomenon-frequency, amplitude, source shape, vibration modes, instability threshold-based on recent studies. The most prominent characteristics of acoustic propagation in weakly compressed granular media are then presented. Finally, this review describes the different mechanisms proposed to explain booming avalanches. Measurements performed to test these theories against data allow one to contrast explanations that must be rejected-sound resonating in a surface layer of the dune, for instance-with those that still need to be confirmed to reach a scientific consensus-amplification of guided elastic waves by friction, in particular.

Andreotti B

2012-02-01

153

Shifting sands  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The growing global competition for oil between the United States and China, and the potential role of Alberta's vast oil sands resources in the struggle between the two industrial giants to secure these and other potentially available oil supplies for themselves, are discussed. The principal argument made by the author is that for China and the United States oil is an instrument of foreign policy, the means by which to achieve or to maintain super-power status. In contrast, in Canada oil remains purely a commodity. The oil sands of Alberta are the largest hydrocarbon deposit in the world, holding some 1.6 trillion barrels of heavy crude. The oil sands have become the great White Hope of the world's petroleum supply, with intense interest in its development by both China and the United States. While Canadians are eager to cash in on the current high prices and growing shortage and are busy fighting over jurisdiction between the federal and the Alberta provincial government, there is no clear indications as to how Canada proposes to use the oil in broader trade negotiations with Washington, or China. Canadians are urged to become sensitized to the more distant future, raise their voices against the focus on short term benefits and refuse to allow themselves to become bystanders watching their energy heritage flowing south to the United States, and perhaps even east to China without efforts to maximize the potential benefits to Canada.

Gillmor, D.

2005-04-01

154

A Formalised Description of Foundry Production Program  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Rational designing of foundry enterprises is based on a program allowing for both the quantitative and qualitative aspects of production. Studies carried out in this respect are mainly oriented at the task of establishing a classification system of castings and formalising their description. This article refers to the absolute classification and technological classification of castings existing so far; some principles of the formation of a model of the data on production program have been presented as well. The program was written by the technique of relational databases with description of the documents and diagrams of relations existing between the data.

R. Wrona; A. Stawowy; A. Macio?

2007-01-01

155

Using sol-gel component as additive to foundry coatings to improve casting quality  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The improvement of foundry coatings to enhance performance is important. This paper investigates the effect of using sol?gel component as an additive to foundry coatings applied on chemically bonded sand cores. Three parameters at three levels each were investigated using Taguchi experimental parameter design. The effects of the sol?gel component on viscosity, density, °Baumé, core coverage and permeability are shown. Numerical simulations were used to predict defect areas. The thermal profiles of the core materials during casting were determined, and the surface quality of the castings was evaluated. The results show that the surface quality of castings obtained by adding the sol?gel component to the coatings for cold box cores has no significant difference from castings produced with coatings without sol?gel component. On the other hand, the addition of the sol?gel component in coatings for furan cores showed significant improvement on the surface quality of the castings compared to that obtained without sol?gel component.

Nwaogu, Ugochukwu Chibuzoh; Poulsen, T.

2012-01-01

156

Leaching of metals from beneficially used foundry residuals into soils  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Every year American foundries send thousands of tons of solid waste to landfills. The foundry industry could reduce costs by using the wastes as a component of asphalt, cement materials, and mixing it with construction fill. This would also be environmentally beneficial by reducing the amount of wastes being sent to landfills. The concept has been referred to as beneficial use. Pennsylvania foundries may be permitted to beneficially use their wastes as described in the PA Municipal Waste Code. For regulatory approval, it must be demonstrated that the material to be reused meets similar specifications as the material being replaced without adversely effecting the public health, safety, welfare, and the environment. The purpose of the report from which this paper was developed was to investigate the environmental impact of foundry residuals when beneficially sued as construction materials. Previous environmental assessments have shown that foundry waste does leach metals to a limited degree. This paper indicates the degree that the leached metals may be attenuated by the surrounding soil before entering the local groundwater. Specific objectives of this paper included the following: (1) to report the statistical results of the chemical characterizations of foundry residuals and to relate them to drinking water standards for 12 selected metals; (2) to review selected results for the use of foundry residuals as highway embankment materials; (3) to establish the degree to which typical Pa soils provided an attenuation capacity under extreme conditions for the eight specific metals, namely As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Pb, Hg, Se, Ag (primary drinking water standards).

Fahnline, D.E.; Regan, R.W. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

1996-11-01

157

Assessment of harmfulness of green sand with additions of dust from dry dedusting  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Recently, in the literature about the problems cause to the environment by foundry industry, attention has been paid to the presence and harmful effect of aromatic hydrocarbons: benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and isomers of xylenes (BTEX) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The growing interest in these pollutants of the environment is a result of their biological activity; some of them are characterized by mutagenic and carcinogenic action. In foundries these hydrocarbons are emitted during the contact between mould or core sands and liquid metal.This article discusses the results of the studies made on the elution rate of some harmful compounds include polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) (Table 3 and 4) from waste mould sand with bentonite and coal dust M1 (mixture Kormix 75) and this one with addition of dust from dry dedusting of sand M2 preparing station (partial replacement of bentonite) and emission of BTEX gases from this moulds poured with molten cast iron. From the results given in these tables it follows that both mould sands are characterized by low values of the concentration of investigation substances and haven’t negative influence for environment during casting or management in other means. Tests were done according to the methodology developed at Faculty of Foundry Engineering University of Science and Technology in Cracow.

M. Holtzer; A. Bobrowski

2010-01-01

158

Small Scale Foundries in Ghana: The challenges  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Small Scale Foundries (SSFs) have been in existence for several years in Ghana. The industry has created several jobs for the people of Ghana and has minimized the burden on government to find ways of disposing scrap metals generated within the country. While scrap metals are still being exported, the quantity exported has decreased as a result of recycling by foundrymen in producing various parts. The government of Ghana has not paid special attention to this industry. Nevertheless, individuals and private investors are heavily involved in producing several thousands of tonnes of castings annually generating revenue for the government through taxation as well as helping with metal waste disposal. Metal cast products are sold both locally and internationally to neighbouring countries. The industry is however faced with numerous challenges. These include quality issues due to lack of technical know-how, access to funding from both government and private financial institutions and foundry waste management. To promote this industry, government and private financial institutions must be encouraged to come on board. Policies must be established and proper training programme developed to improve and promote this technology. This could go a long way in reducing the high unemployment rate in Ghana.

Anthony ANDREWS; Emmanuel GIKUNOO

2011-01-01

159

Hybrid foundry patterns of bevel gears  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Possibilities of making hybrid foundry patterns of bevel gears for investment casting process are presented. Rapid prototyping of gears with complex tooth forms is possible with the use of modern methods. One of such methods is the stereo-lithography, where a pattern is obtained as a result of resin curing with laser beam. Patterns of that type are applicable in precision casting. Removing of stereo-lithographic pattern from foundry mould requires use of high temperatures. Resin burning would generate significant amounts of harmful gases. In case of a solid stereo-lithographic pattern, the pressure created during gas burning may cause the mould to crack. A gas volume reduction may be achieved by using patterns of honeycomb structure. However, this technique causes a significant worsening of accuracy of stereo-lithographic patterns in respect of their dimensions and shape. In cooperation with WSK PZL Rzeszów, the Machine Design Department of Rzeszow University of Technology carried out research on the design of hybrid stereo-lithographic patterns. Hybrid pattern consists of a section made by stereo-lithographic process and a section made of casting wax. The latter material is used for stereo-lithographic pattern filling and for mould gating system. The hybrid pattern process consists of two stages: wax melting and then the burn-out of stereolithographic pattern. Use of hybrid patterns reduces the costs of production of stereolithographic patterns. High dimensional accuracy remains preserved in this process.

Budzik G.; Markowski T.; Sobolak M.

2007-01-01

160

Mask cycle time reduction for foundry projects  

Science.gov (United States)

One of key deliverables of foundry based manufacturing is low cycletime. Building new and enhancing existing products by mask changes involves significant logistical effort, which could be reduced by standardizing data management and communication procedures among design house, mask shop, and foundry (fab) [1]. As an example, a typical process of taping out can take up to two weeks in addition to technical effort, for database handling, mask form completion, management approval, PO signoff and JDV review, translating into loss of revenue. In order to reduce this delay, we are proposing to develop a unified online system which should assist with the following functions: database edits, final verifications, document approvals, mask order entries, and JDV review with engineering signoff as required. This would help a growing number of semiconductor products to be flexibly manufactured at different manufacturing sites. We discuss how the data architecture based on a non-relational database management system (NRDMBS) extracted into a relational one (RDMBS) should provide quality information [2], to reduce cycle time significantly beyond 70% for an example 2 week tapeout schedule.

Balasinski, A.

2011-10-01

 
 
 
 
161

Study of exposure to radiation in a lost wax foundry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Full text: Lost wax casting is an old method for making metal pieces. At the beginning of the process, the required metal piece is made in wax. After that, the wax model is covered with a siliceous shell. When the siliceous shell is finished, the wax is melted, replacing the wax by liquid metal. In the moment when the metal is cool the siliceous shell is broken away. Finally some finishing process is made, and the piece is just prepared for its utilization. The siliceous shell is prepared with zircon sands containing varying concentrations of natural radionuclides: 238U, 232Th and 235U together with their progenies. For that reason it is very convenient to assess the dose to workers, considering the tasks they perform and the exposure time in these activities during a year. The first part of the study is centred in identifying the situations and areas where workers are exposed to radiation. The exposure pathways are: inhalation of dust, ingestion of dust, inhalation of radon, skin contamination and external irradiation. In a plant where this process is implemented the areas where workers are exposed are: the store, the shell building area, the foundry area, the shell or mould breaking area, and the waste area, including those areas close to the store too. In those sections, workers are exposed while they work in different tasks. The second part of the study deals with dose assessment. In most of the areas, external irradiation is the dominant pathway, and in order to assess doses a Monte-Carlo simulation using MCNP-4C code has been performed. Photons fluxes so obtained are multiplied by the conversion factor of Flux to Kerma for air, by conversion factor to Effective Dose by kerma unit, and by the number of emitted photons per disintegration of parent nuclide. The application of this methodology to given mill has obtained the following results: Individual doses by area received by workers have a mean value of 5.9 ?Sv/y and a standard deviation of 7.7 ?Sv/y with an upper limit of 20.3 ?Sv/y and a lower limit of 0.2 ?Sv/y. The corresponding collective dose is 232.8 ?Sv/y and being the distribution of dose by task as follows: - Maintenance: Carrying the zircon sands from lorry to store (0.039 ?Sv/y), putting the zircon sand pallet on the shelf (0.012 ?Sv/y), while the pallet is on the shelf (2.8 ?Sv/y), taking the pallet off the shelf (0.022 ?Sv/y), taking the pallet to mould preparation area (0.39 ?Sv/y). The total collective dose making that task is 3.263 ?Sv/y. - Shell Making: shell preparation (58.2 ?Sv/y), shell cover (big trays) (76 ?Sv/y), shell cover (small trays) (9 ?Sv/y), exposures to moulds (5.6?Sv/y), loading the pieces on the wagon (2.1?Sv/y), taking the wagon to foundry area (7.4 ?Sv/y), taking the residues to waste area (2.2 ?Sv/y), putting the pieces into the take wax removing kiln (1.4 ?Sv/y). The total collective dose making that task is 161.91 ?Sv/y. - Mould preparation (35.2 ?Sv/y). - Shell removal: waste material removal (0.4 ?Sv/y), and moving the cart from foundry area (0.6 ?Sv/y). - Finishing (28.6 ?Sv/y). - Waste (0.00034 ?Sv). And here it can be seen that those workers working on the shell making are the most exposed ones, but the value of collective dose is less than 1 mSv/y. Comparing with the levels of the graphical representation of the classification system, it can conclude that the processes 'do not need to consider regulation'. (author)

2004-01-01

162

Walk-through survey report, control technology support for sensor at Ingersoll-Rand Company, Foundry Division, Phillipsburg, New Jersey, March 2, 1989  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A walk-through study was made of the Ingersoll-Rand Company, Phillipsburg, New Jersey to evaluate the facility for an in depth study in which potential worker exposures to silica containing dusts would be measured and a study made of work practices and administration control programs being used to reduce these dust exposures. The firm has operated both gray iron and steel foundries at the site, but at this point the gray iron foundry had closed. The facility was a captive foundry producing steel and stainless steel castings for the parent company. Five induction furnaces were used to melt the scrap. The foundry produced molds using an alkyd/oil molding system. Casting appendages were removed by either an air or oxygen torch in one of two ventilated booths. Grinding of bronze castings was performed in an adjacent booth. This report recommends the modification of the semi-automatic system to allow all molds to be isolated once they are poured, and substitute of olivine sand for silica to reduce the incidence of silicosis. A potential exposure of hand grinding operators will be lessened if the castings are as clean as possible before grinding. Improvements in the local exhaust ventilation system and in the general ventilation system are also recommended.

O' Brien, D.; Froehlich, P.; Hall, R.

1989-08-01

163

Tar sand  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Research on tar sand is briefly discussed. The research program supported by the US Department of Energy (DOE) includes a variety of surface extraction schemes. The University of Utah has process development units (PDU) employing fluidized bed, hot, water-assisted, and fluidized-bed/heat-pipe, coupled combustor technology. Considerable process variable test data have been gathered on these systems: (1) a rotary kiln unit has been built recently; (2) solvent extraction processing is being examined; and (3) an advanced hydrogenation upgrading scheme (hydropyrolysis) has been developed. The University of Arkansas, in collaboration with Diversified Petroleum, Inc., has been working on a fatty acid, solvent extraction process. Oleic acid is the solvent/surfactant. Solvent is recovered by adjusting processing fluid concentrations to separate without expensive operations. Western Research Institute has a PDU-scale scheme called the Recycle Oil Pyrolysis and Extraction (ROPE) process, which combines solvent (hot recycle bitumen) and pyrolytic extraction. 14 refs., 19 figs.

McLendon, T.R.; Bartke, T.C.

1990-01-01

164

Sand resistance of sunscreens.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Like water resistance in sunscreens, sand resistance in sunscreens is the ability of the sunscreen to retain its effectiveness while undergoing sand treatment. The influence of the type of sand on the sand resistance of sunscreens has not been described. The sand resistance of a control standard sunscreen, P2, and data on three grades of Quickrete commercial grade sand, #1961, #1962, and #1152, are described. These sands represent a fine sand, a medium sand, and an all-purpose sand. Using the methodology described in the 2007 proposed amendment of the Final Monograph (1) with one exception, we obtained an SPF of 16.5 (1.6) for the control standard, compared to the expected SPF of 16.3 (3.4). After a five-minute treatment of sand #1961, #1962, or #1151, the SPF of the control standard was 18.3 (1.6), 18.4 (2.0), and 17.5 (2.2), respectively. Thus, all three sands exhibited a similar sand-resistance response. Thus, there was no significant difference in the average SPF with and without sand. The medium grade sand, Quickrete commercial grade #1962, was preferred for sand-resistance testing because the fine sand was difficult to remove from the subject's backs and the coarse sand was unpleasant to the subjects.

Caswell M; Wood C; Martinez A

2012-07-01

165

ANN modelling for the determination of moulding sand matrix grain size  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One of the modern methods of the production optimisation are artificial neural networks. Neural networks are gaining broader and broader application in the foundry industry, among others for controlling melting processes in cupolas and in arc furnaces, for designing castings and supply systems, for controlling moulding sand processing, for predicting properties of cast alloys or selecting parameters of pressure castings. An attempt to apply neural networks for controlling the quality of bentonite moulding sands is presented in this paper. This is the assessment method of sands suitability by means of detecting correlations between their individual parameters. The presented investigations were obtained by using the Statistica 9.0 program. The aim of the investigations was to select the neural network suitable for prediction the moulding sand matrix grain size on the basis of the determined sand properties such as: permeability, compactibility, and compressive strength.

J. Jakubski; St. M. Dobosz; K. Major-Gabry?

2011-01-01

166

The restoration of an Argonne National Laboratory foundry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Environmental Management Operations` Waste Management Department (WMD) at Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL-E) undertook the restoration of an unused foundry with the goal of restoring the area for general use. The foundry was used in the fabrication of reactor components for ANL`s research and development programs; many of the items fabricated in the facility were radioactive, thereby contaminating the foundry equipment. This paper very briefly describes the dismantling and decontamination of the facility. The major challenges associated with the safe removal of the foundry equipment included the sheer size of the equipment, a limited overhead crane capability (4.5 tonne), the minimization of radioactive and hazardous wastes, and the cost-effective completion of the project, the hazardous and radioactive wastes present, and limited process knowledge (the facility was unused for many years).

Shearer, T.; Pancake, D.; Shelton, B.

1997-09-01

167

The restoration of an Argonne National Laboratory foundry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The Environmental Management Operations' Waste Management Department (WMD) at Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL-E) undertook the restoration of an unused foundry with the goal of restoring the area for general use. The foundry was used in the fabrication of reactor components for ANL's research and development programs; many of the items fabricated in the facility were radioactive, thereby contaminating the foundry equipment. This paper very briefly describes the dismantling and decontamination of the facility. The major challenges associated with the safe removal of the foundry equipment included the sheer size of the equipment, a limited overhead crane capability (4.5 tonne), the minimization of radioactive and hazardous wastes, and the cost-effective completion of the project, the hazardous and radioactive wastes present, and limited process knowledge (the facility was unused for many years)

1997-01-01

168

A cluster of Acinetobacter Pneumonia in foundry workers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In a 3-month period, three men who had worked for 5 to 19 years as welders or grinders of steel castings in a foundry acquired pneumonia caused by Acinetobacter calcoaceticus variety anitratus serotype 7J. Two of the men died, and postmortem examination showed mixed-dust pneumoconiosis with iron particles in the lungs. A calcoaceticus variety anitratus serotype 7J was isolated from the air in the foundry but the source was not found. The prevalence of antibody titers of 64 or greater to the 7J strain was significantly higher among foundry workers (15%) than among community controls (2%) (p less than 0.01). Sampling showed that the concentrations of total and metallic particles (especially iron) and of free silica in air inhaled by welders and grinders at the foundry frequently exceeded acceptable levels. These findings suggest that chronic exposure to such particles may increase susceptibility to infection by this organism, which rarely affects healthy people.

Cordes, L.G.; Brink, E.W.; Checko, P.J.; Lentnek, A.; Lyons, R.W.; Hayes, P.S.; Wu, T.C.; Tharr, D.G.; Fraser, D.W.

1981-12-01

169

Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene, a PAH biomarker in foundry workers  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Exposure to PAH in foundry workers has been studied by urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (HPU) levels, quantitatively measured by reversed phase HPLC. Seventy male foundry workers and 68 matched controls were investigated. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure was defined by 17 breathing zone hygienic samples, consisting of 16 selected PAH compounds. Mean total PAH concentration (SD) was 10.40 (4.04) mu g/m3. A multiple regression model of tobacco consumption, age, airborne PAH-exposure and foundry work on log HPU showed a significant correlation, p <0.001, r2 = 0.69. Only foundry work (p <0.0001) and airborne PAH exposure (p = 0.0478) contributed significantly to the model. These data suggest that HPU is a sensitive biomarker for low-dose PAH exposure.

Omland, O; Sherson, D

1996-01-01

170

77 FR 20788 - Foundry Coke Products From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Expedited Second...  

Science.gov (United States)

...International Trade Administration [A-570-862] Foundry Coke Products From the People's Republic of China...sunset'') review of the antidumping duty order on foundry coke products (``foundry coke'') from the People's Republic of...

2012-04-06

171

Mutagenic material in air particles in a steel foundry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Recently published epidemiological reports indicate lung cancer mortality amongst foundry workers at DOFASCO, Ltd., was higher than found elsewhere in the plant or control populations. Presented are preliminary work on mutagen screening efforts and studies on the use of various sampling devices and on optimization of the assays, followed by data which show a diverse range of mutagenic compounds present in foundry air particulates

1979-10-04

172

XML Model of Planning System in Foundry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Contemporary enterprises (including those manufacturing iron castings) have at their disposal advanced computer resources for the management of production processes. The disadvantage of these solutions is an incoherent language for writing production planning and scheduling problems. The lack of the standard for data exchange and model description makes the work on designing, development and implementation difficult. Various dialects of XML language, among others for production planning purposes, which may change this situation have been developed for the last several years. The paper describes a PSLX language, which can be viewed first of all as an ontology and communication protocol inside and outside of the Advanced Planning and Scheduling (APS) system, as well as an XML standard for production planning and scheduling. This language has been then used to develop a model of planning system in a foundry. The model consists of customer’s order model, resources model and scheduling model.

A. Stawowy; J. Duda

2007-01-01

173

Maintenance system improvement in cast iron foundry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The work presents the issue of technical equipment management in an iron foundry basing on the assumptions of the TPM system (Total Productive Maintenance). Exploitation analysis of automatic casting lines has been carried out and their work’s influence on the whole production system’s functioning has been researched. Within maintenance system improvement, implementation of autonomic service and planned lines’ review have been proposed in order to minimize the time of breakdown stoppages. The SMED method was used to optimize changeover time, and the OEE (Overall Equipment Effectiveness) was applied to evaluate the level of resources usage before and after implementing changes. Further, the influence of the maintenance strategy of casting devices’ efficiency on own costs of casting manufac- ture was estimated.

S. Kukla

2011-01-01

174

Contamination at a small precious metals foundry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Extensive contamination of foundry premises resulted from the accidental inclusion of a radioactive source, a strontium-90 compound probably incorporated in rolled silver foil, in a melt for reprocessing silver scrap. Most of this contamination was easily removed using an industrial vacuum cleaner, but some brickwork, concrete flooring, the furnace lining and waste flux bin had to be removed. Fortunately the strontium contamination from the melt was concentrated in the flux around the silver. It is recommended that every radioactive source should be permanently and recognisably marked if such incidents are to be avoided in future. The correct procedure for accounting for radioactive sources should also have been followed. Subsequent monitoring by the company of scrap metal led to the discovery of an empty depleted uranium radiography source container in a consignment of lead. (U.K.)

1977-01-01

175

Application of time-series analysis for prediction of molding sand properties in production cycle  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Time-series analysis is characterized, as a data mining tool which facilitates understanding nature of manufacturing processes and permits prediction of future values of the process parameters or production results on the basis of the past data, recorded in regular intervals. The main methods and problems of the time-series analysis are presented. The authors’ research results, based on green molding sand properties data collected in a foundry with Disamatic molding line, are presented. The work was aimed at finding optimal settings and models of the time-series analysis for that data as well as detection of possible periodicities appearing in the sand properties. It is concluded that although the time-series analysis requires individual approach to each particular problem, some general recommendations can be also formulated. It can be a useful tool for analysis and predictions of outcomes of foundry processes.

M. Perzyk; S. Maciejak; J. Koz?owski

2011-01-01

176

Costs Models in Design and Manufacturing of Sand Casting Products  

CERN Multimedia

In the early phases of the product life cycle, the costs controls became a major decision tool in the competitiveness of the companies due to the world competition. After defining the problems related to this control difficulties, we will present an approach using a concept of cost entity related to the design and realization activities of the product. We will try to apply this approach to the fields of the sand casting foundry. This work will highlight the enterprise modelling difficulties (limits of a global cost modelling) and some specifics limitations of the tool used for this development. Finally we will discuss on the limits of a generic approach.

Perry, Nicolas; Bernard, Alain

2010-01-01

177

Characterization of modified 9 Cr-1 Mo steel sand castings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Experience with the sand casting of modified 9 Cr-1 Mo steel at several foundries is presented. The castings included simple blocks, elbows, valve bodies, and a steam chest. Castings were characterized by tensile and Charpy impact tests, for the effects of thermal aging on Charpy impact properties and hardness, and by creep, fatigue, and microstructure. Properties of the castings were compared with those observed for wrought material. In general, mechanical properties of castings were slightly lower than those of the wrought material

1985-01-01

178

Moulding properties of synthetic sand mixtures. A comparative study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A comparative study has been carried out on the foundry qualities of synthetic moulding sand mixtures prepared from indigenous sand and clays of different plasticity (Enugu sand, Enugu fireclay and Ukpor clay). The effect of clay and water content on compressive strength and gas permeability in the green state was investigated. Results show that the more plastic Ukpor clay is a better binder and that moulding sand with up to 8 wt% fireclay, 3 wt% water; and 10 wt% Ukpor clay, 4 wt% water ensure a good combination of all working properties investigated. In the dry state the compressive and tensile strengths of the moulding sand showed a steady increase with increased clay content. With the addition of sawdust and coal dust, the latter showed best improvement on both the dry compressive and tensile strengths. Excellent collapsibility and high friability (12.53% for Ukpor clay-bonded mixture and 10.35% for fireclay-bonded mixture) were exhibited, but the friability values were reduced to about 1% by adding up to 3 wt% H{sub 2}O for Ukpor clay-bonded mixtures. The negative effect on the collapsibility was partially eliminated by the addition of 3 wt% sawdust. The study also shows that synthetic sand would be suitable for steel and general-purpose casting, considering the low binder contents of the mixtures.

Orumwense, F.F.O. [University of Benin, Benin (Nigeria). Dept. of Mechanical Engineers

2002-04-01

179

The properties of sand-lime bricks manufactured with the use of waste moulding and core sands  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper summarises the laboratory research data on potential applications of selected mould and core mix wastes and dusts fromregeneration processes as alternative or supplementary materials to be added to natural silica sands used in manufacturing of sand-limebricks. The rational behind this solution is the large silica content in used moulding and core mix, their matrices being high-quality natural silica sands. The research program shall involve obtaining the series of silicate sample products, press-formed and made from mixtures containing the waste materials discussed here. In the course of laboratory tests autoclaved materials shall be manufactured, including sand-lime bricks. Apart from conventional components: natural silica sand and quicklime, the prepared mixture shall contain pre-processed mould and core mix and dusts from regeneration processes, depending on the type of applied binder. The previously mentioned wastes from the foundry processes were introduced to the basic composition mix as substitutes for silica sand, ranging from 0-100 % (by weight). Potential applications of these wastes were explored using the comparative analysis, covering the basic functional parameters of two types of materials: the reference material made from conventional constituents and several experimental formulas containing additives, differing in qualitative and quantitative composition. Characteristics of thus obtained materials are supported by selected SEM+EDS test results.

Z. Pytel

2010-01-01

180

Optimization of a new animal glue binder system cured by CO2 for use in foundry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A new sand binder system cured by CO2 was prepared based on the animal bone glue. To overcome the disadvantages of animal glue such as agglomeration at room temperature, high energy consumption and low efficiency, an alkaline decomposition process was selected, and certain modifier was used to modify the performance of the animal glue binder. For the alkaline decomposition, NaOH was used as the catalyst with an addition of 4wt.% to the animal glue. A modifier was determined through the orthogonal experiment with a weight ratio of glycerin: glycol: dextrin: animal glue = 9:16:15:100, and the optimal modification reaction should be performed at 75 ? with a reaction time of 90 min. Ca(OH)2 was used as a promoter; the optimal CO2 gas flux blowing into the sand was 0.7 m3·h-1 for a duration of 60 s under the experimental conditions. Results show that an original strength above 0.7 MPa and a final strength about 4.2 MPa can be achieved, which could meet the requirement of rapid moulding and core-making for foundry. The new binder was characterized and analyzed by means of IR, and the modification and CO2-cured mechanisms of this animal glue binder were also discussed.

Liu Weihua; Zhang Yilin; Li Yingmin

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

77 FR 15123 - Foundry Coke From China; Scheduling of an Expedited Five-Year Review  

Science.gov (United States)

...No. 731-TA-891 (Second Review)] Foundry Coke From China; Scheduling of an Expedited...revocation of the antidumping duty order on foundry coke from China would be likely to lead...No. 731-TA-891 (Second Review) FOUNDRY COKE FROM CHINA Staff Assigned...

2012-03-14

182

40 CFR 63.10900 - What parts of the General Provisions apply to my large foundry?  

Science.gov (United States)

...the General Provisions apply to my large foundry? 63.10900 Section 63.10900...Hazardous Air Pollutants for Iron and Steel Foundries Area Sources Requirements for New...Sources Classified As Large Iron and Steel Foundries § 63.10900 What parts of the...

2009-07-01

183

40 CFR 63.7682 - What parts of my foundry does this subpart cover?  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 false What parts of my foundry does this subpart cover? 63.7682...Hazardous Air Pollutants for Iron and Steel Foundries What This Subpart Covers § 63.7682 What parts of my foundry does this subpart cover? (a)...

2010-07-01

184

76 FR 74810 - Foundry Coke From China; Institution of a Five-Year Review  

Science.gov (United States)

...No. 731-TA-891 (Second Review)] Foundry Coke From China; Institution of a Five-Year...revocation of the antidumping duty order on foundry coke from China would be likely to lead...an antidumping duty order on imports of foundry coke from China (66 FR 48025)....

2011-12-01

185

Biological monitoring of foundry workers exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This investigation describes benzo(a)pyrene (BP) serum protein adduct concentrations in 45 foundry workers and 45 matched non-occupationally exposed controls. High and low BP exposure groups were defined using breathing zone hygienic samples for both quartz and BP exposures. A newly developed enzyme linked immunosorbent assay detected benzo(a)pyrenediolepoxide-I binding to serum protein. Mean BP protein adduct concentrations (SD) for non-smoking (24.0 BP equivalents/100 micrograms protein (21.0] and smoking (28.0 (18.2] foundry workers were significantly higher than mean values for non-smoking (7.23 (8.72] and smoking (14.2 (24.4] controls. Foundry workers with high exposures to either quartz (28.4 (15.5] or BP (30.7 (19.3] had slightly raised mean adduct concentrations compared with foundry workers with low exposure for quartz (23.9 (23.1] or BP (24.5 (19.4). Highest mean adduct concentrations were found among a small group of workers with simultaneous high exposures to both quartz and BP (39.2 (6.5] suggesting an additive effect. These data support the ideas of a possible aetiological connection between an increased risk of lung cancer and BP exposure among foundry workers, and an additive effect between BP and quartz. Measurement of BP serum protein adduct concentrations appears to be a useful method by which groups exposed to BP may be biologically monitored.

Sherson, D; Sabro, P

1990-01-01

186

Energy monitoring and targeting in the foundry industry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Energy Monitoring and Targeting (M and T) is primarily a management technique which enable steel foundries to control energy accurately. This paper reviews the results of development projects undertaken by the Steel Castings Research and Trade Association (SCRATA), under contract to the Department of Energy, as implemented in 3 UK steel foundries. In all three cases, a new energy management structure was superimposed on the existing line management arrangement, and emphasis was placed on securing the committment and involvement of top management. The results from the implementation of M and T systems in the 3 foundries provided adequate evidence that quite substantial savings in energy costs (around 5-10%) could be obtained for a relatively small capital outlay, and without any radical alteration to working practices nor investment in new plant and equipment. Adoption of M and T schemes could also lead to increased and continued awareness of energy usage amongst all levels of personnel. A second contract, aimed at replicating M and T systems throughout the rest of the steel foundry sector, was signed with the Department of Energy and commenced in October 1986, with the aim of encouraging other steelfounders to install M and T systems. The progress being made is described. It is estimated that if all foundries adopted M and T, the annual savings resulting from this control could be between 0.75m and 1.5m pounds.

Henson, J.L.; Stott, M.D.

1988-11-01

187

Secondary foundry alloy damage and particle fracture  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The damage mechanisms of a hypoeutectic Al-Si-Cu foundry alloy, obtained through die casting, have been studied. Observations were made during tensile tests using a tensile test machine that was inserted into an scanning electron microscope. The microstructure features that are critical for damage were determined. The cleavage fracture of intermetallic particles was found to be the main process that limited the alloy ductility. Shrinkage cavities mainly play a role in the final fracture stage; the reduction in cross-section area induced by shrinkage cavities was assumed to be the main contribution of these defects to the fracture of the specimens. Attempts were made to determine the cleavage stress that initiated the fracture of the particles. Three-dimensional finite element computations were performed considering particular locations at the free surface of the observed fractured particles. The maximum principal stress was calculated for different locations of the particle with reference to the free surface. Different shapes and different elastic behaviour were studied. It was shown that the influence of a free surface on the stress level in a particle depends on its shape. The results were compared with those found in literature concerning the fracture strength of particles in Al alloys

2003-09-25

188

Energy conservation and utilization in foundries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The iron casting industry in the United Kingdom accounts for about 2% of all primary energy consumed, equivalent to nearly 6 million tons of coal per year. In view of the diverse nature of the business of the industry as a whole, no single type of melting and casting unit can be identified in the interest of energy conservation. Four changes in melting equipment clearly merit consideration as energy-saving measures however: a) the divided-blast cupola, b) the recuperation hot-blast cupola, c) oxygen injection in cupolas and d) electric furnaces for treating molten metal (duplexing). The average energy requirement for a tonne of iron castings is about 44 GJ/sub t/ (just over 1 1/2 tons of coal equivalent), individual foundries vary from 14 to 60 GJ/sub t/. The divided-blast cupola could save about 1.5 GJ/sub t/ per tonne of molten metal. Oxygen injection into the coke bed can increase the savings to 2.4 GJ/sub t/. The recuperation type of cupola can achieve a saving in energy of 30% if it is operated on a long melting campaign. If long-melting campaigns are not possible electric superheating of the melt may have an energy advantage. The report also examines the air pollution problems of the industry in relation to its energy needs.

Rose, K.S.B.

1981-01-01

189

Characterization of Coated Sand Cores from Two Different Binder Systems for Grey Iron Castings  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Expansion defects on the surface of the castings include sand burn-in, metal penetration and/or veining, finning or scab. Veining or finning and metal penetration are of interest. These defects are associated with silica sand and result from the penetration of liquid metal into cracks formed during differential expansion of the core during heating. The rapid expansion of silica sand up to 600 oC and especially at 573 oC, where the ? – ? phase transformation occurs, is the cause of stresses in the core system. These stresses cause crack formation and metal melt flows into these cracks causing finning or veining and metal penetration defects. The use of refractory coatings on cores is fundamental to obtaining acceptable casting surface quality and is used on resin bonded cores in production foundries. In this study new sol gel-coated sand cores made from coldbox and furan binder systems were investigated for their casting properties.

Nwaogu, Ugochukwu Chibuzoh; Tiedje, Niels Skat

190

Control of rebonding sand mixing as a condition for optimisation of the sand feeding system in the casting line  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In order to ensure the effective operation of the casting line, synthetic sand containing bentonite has to be fed in a precisely controlled quality and quantity. The required quantity is ensured by mixing stations outfitted with turbine mixers. The quality of sand mix, defined by its technological parameters, depends on the available measurement and control equipment and the system controlling the mixers’ operation. These issues are investigated at the Department of Foundry Engineering AGH-UST in collaboration with the PPP Technical Company in Now Sól (Poland), a major manufacturer of turbine mixers.This study outlines the scope and results of research work aimed to improve the control equipment to enhance the performance of turbine mixers.

A. Fedoryszyn

2010-01-01

191

Manufacturing foundry alloys containing vanadium, niobium, titanium and rare earths  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Ways to obtain foundry and ferroalloys, containing rare and disseminated metals, are analysed. To extract the expensive metals (V, Nb, rare earths and Ti) out of ores during smelting, the reduction of the metal oxides in accordance with MeO+2C=MeC+CO reaction (where Me- V, Nb, Ti, rare earths) is used. Some additional techniques are used and new compositions of the foundry alloys, in which the activity of the reduced metals is decreased as a result of chemical compound formation, are developed to increase the extraction of the reduced metal. It is shown that the advantages of using the foundry alloys, containing V, Nb, Ti and rare earths expressed in the increase and stabilization of alloying metal assimilation and in their distribution in the bulk of the metal more uniformly

1982-01-01

192

Rationalization of foundry processes on the basis of simulation experiment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper presents results of research obtained on the basis of simulation experiment, whose aim was to analyze the performance of cast iron foundry. A simulation model of automobile industry foundry was made. The course of the following processes was analyzedin a computer model: preparation of liquid cast iron, forming and filling the moulds, cooling and stamping the castings, cleaning andfinishing treatment. The sheets of multi-criterion evaluation were prepared, where criteria and variants were assessed by meansof subjective point evaluation and fuzzy character evaluation. The paper presents an analysis example of finishing activities of castings realized in foundry on traditional machines and efficient presses and in cooperation. On the basis of reports from a simulation experiment information was achieved related to activities’ duration, load of accessible resources, the problems of storage and transport, bottle necks in the system and appearing queues in from of workplaces. The research used a universal modelling and simulation packet for productionsystems - ARENA.

S. Kukla

2008-01-01

193

Foundry industries: environmental aspects and environmental condition indicators  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Nowadays, environmental indicators are widely used as effective tools to assist decision-making in both public and private sectors. The lack of literature and research about local and regional Environmental Condition Indicators (ECI), the poor knowledge regarding solid waste generation, effluents and gas emissions from foundry industries, and their particular location in the urban area of Tandil, Argentina are the main reasons for this investigation, aiming to develop a set a of ECI to provide information about the environment in relation to the foundry industry. The study involves all the foundries located in the city between March and April 2010. The set of ECI developed includes 9 indicators for air, 5 for soil and 1 for water. Specific methodology was used for each indicator. (Author) 31 refs.

2013-01-01

194

The AHP method used in assessment of foundry enterprise position  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Complex assessment of activity of a selected foundry enterprise based on a modern AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process) method has beenpresented. Having defined the areas of analysis, which include: marketing (products, distribution channels, sales organisation and client concentration), personnel (skills, managerial abilities, organisation climate, effectiveness of incentives, personnel fluctuations), production (availability of raw materials, technical level of production, effective use of production capacities), organisation and management (foundry structure, organisation culture, management performance), the analysis was made using the weighted sum of evaluations. The second step consisted in a comparative assessment of Foundry position using Saaty’s scale modified by Weber and the AHP method with examinationof a hierarchy structure involving the main (parent) problem and its direct evolution into sub-problems. The assessment of Foundryposition made by AHP enables introducing changes and/or innovations which are expected to improve the overall productioneffectiveness.

J. Szymszal; J. Pi?tkowski; T. Mikuszewski; J. Kli?

2008-01-01

195

Sands cykliske styrke  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Sands cykliske styrke kan beskrives ved Cyclic Liquefaction, Mobilisering, Stabilization og Instant Stabilization. I artiklen beskrives hvorfor Stabilization og Instant Stabilization ikke observeres, når sands udrænede styrke undersøges i triaxial celler, der anvender prøver med dobbelt prøvehøjde.

Ibsen, Lars Bo

1992-01-01

196

Manganese exposure in foundry furnacemen and scrap recycling workers  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Cast iron products are alloyed with small quantities of manganese, and foundry furnacemen are potentially exposed to manganese during tapping and handling of smelts. Manganese is a neurotoxic substance that accumulates in the central nervous system, where it may cause a neurological disorder that bears many similarities to Parkinson's disease. The aim of the study was to investigate the sources and levels of manganese exposure in foundry furnacemen by a combined measuring of blood-manganese (B-Mn) and manganese in ambient air (air-Mn).

Lander, F; Kristiansen, J

1999-01-01

197

Quality of foundry coke obtained under regular coking conditions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Foundry coke's physico-mechanical properties can be improved by using coal with the highest coking power and by lowering the temperature to the optimal level in the axial plane of the coke cake. Coke charge quality and composition figures and foundry coke quality figures are presented in a table. Coking duration is approximately 15 hours, temperature is set at approximately 1000 C. Coal quality and composition are shown in further tables. Results prove that Pechorskii coal (M type) has the strongest influence on coke strength. Increasing coking duration leads to improvement in coke properties but worsens technico-economical aspects of coking. (In Russian)

Kiselev, B.P.; Pestov, V.I.; Ivanov, A.I.; Chivilev, M.P.

1982-01-01

198

The production of TiAl by foundry processes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper describes a foundry technique that enables the production of TiAl employing an adapted melting procedure that uses an induction furnace with suitable refractory crucibles, inside a controlled atmosphere chamber. The developed technique allows the production of samples with a low and controlled amount of residual elements, with a thin superficial hard skin - known as ''alpha-case'' - and allows the use of higher superheating temperatures, when compared with alternative melting procedures. The micro-hardness and the residual contamination profiles, from the outside to the interior of samples, are presented and correlated to crucible refractory material and foundry practice. (orig.)

Barbosa, J.; Monteiro, C. [Univ. do Minho, Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica, Guimaraes (Portugal); Silva Ribeiro, C.A. [FEUP, Dept. de Engenharia Metalurgica e Materiais, Porto (Portugal)

2002-07-01

199

Elements of the efficiency system improvement of foundry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The effectiveness of industrial systems is being ranked among important factors industrial engineering in foundry. He determines internal production abilities of foundry. It is possible to describe the effectiveness the measure of matching closely possibilities maximum number of products for definite quality standards, at the optimal use of production factors and with the application the best methods pouring out. The second worship of article is devoted to problems market supply casting products. They discussed comprehensive you will eat a little of processes supplying.

J. Sitko

2010-01-01

200

Electromagnet Gripping in Iron Foundry Automation Part III: Practice  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Flexibility can be defined as the ability to respond efficiently to the changing demands of the customer and is different in SMEs (Small-to-Medium manufacturing Enterprises) than the traditional OEMs (Original Equipment Manufacturers). Costs involved in implementing manufacturing flexibility to meet customer demand are more important in the SMEs, especially those that are labor intensive for example foundries. Manufacturing systems with a high degree of flexibility can be rapidly changed to cover a wide range of production requirements. In this paper, we present a methodology enabling part handling flexibility, which has been incorporated in an iron foundry SME framework.

Rhythm Suren Wadhwa

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Molecular Foundry Workshop draws overflow crowd to BerkeleyLab  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Nanoscale science and technology is now one of the top research priorities in the United States. With this background, it is no surprise that an overflow crowd or more than 350 registrants filled two auditoriums to hear about and contribute ideas for the new Molecular Foundry during a two-day workshop at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab). Scheduled to open for business at Berkeley Labin early 2006, the Molecular Foundry is one of three Nanoscale Science Research Centers (NSRCs) put forward for funding by the DOE's Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES).

Robinson, Art

2002-11-27

202

Logic Foundry: Rapid Prototyping for FPGA-Based DSP Systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We introduce the Logic Foundry, a system for the rapid creation and integration of FPGA-based digital signal processing systems. Recognizing that some of the greatest challenges in creating FPGA-based systems occur in the integration of the various components, we have proposed a system that targets the following four areas of integration: design flow integration, component integration, platform integration, and software integration. Using the Logic Foundry, a system can be easily specified, and then automatically constructed and integrated with system level software.

Kazuo Nakajima; Shuvra S. Bhattacharyya; Gary Spivey

2003-01-01

203

Reduced energy consumption for melting in foundries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

By improving the gating technology in traditional gating systems it is possible to reduce the amount of metal to be re-melted, and hence reduce the energy consumption for melting in foundries. Traditional gating systems are known for a straight tapered down runner a well base and 90 deg. bends in the runner system. In the streamlined gating systems there are no sharp changes in direction and a large effort is done to confine and control the flow of the molten metal during mould filling. Experiments in real production lines have proven that using streamlined gating systems improves yield by decreasing the poured weight compared to traditional layouts. In a layout for casting of valve housings in a vertically parted mould the weight of the gating system was reduced by 1,1kg which is a 20% weight reduction for the gating system. In a layout for horizontally parted moulds the weight of the gating system has been reduced by 3,7kg which is a weight reduction of 60% for the gating system. The experiments casting valve housings in ductile iron also proved that it is possible to lower the pouring temperature from 1400 deg. C to 1300 deg. C without the risk of cold runs. Glass plate fronted moulds have been used to study the flow of melt during mould filling. These experiments have also been used for studying the flow pattern when ceramic filters are used. The thorough study of the use of filters revealed that the metal passing through the filter is divided into a number of small jets. This proves that filters do not have the claimed positive effect on the flow of metal. The volumes necessary on either side of the filter is not filled till a backpressure is build up and results in formation of pressure shocks when backfilled. These pressure shocks result in more turbulence inside the casting than the same gating system with no filter. Not using filters can mean a reduction in poured weight of 0,6kg. To examine if the experiments using glass plate fronted moulds give representative results of how the melt flows in a real mould a series of experiments have been conducted using the xray facilities at the Metallurgy and Materials department at the University of Birmingham. The results proved that the glass plate do not have any large effect on the flow pattern during mould filling. It was also found that using fan gates only 1mm thick holds back slag and in this way works as a filter. A complete set of guidelines for designing streamlined gating systems have been made in this project. Using these guidelines and combining standard geometries and the presented spreadsheet makes it possible for foundries to use streamlined gating systems in praxis. (au)

Skov-Hansen, S.

2007-09-15

204

Selected parameters of moulding sands for designing quality control systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One of the modern methods of production optimisation are artificial neural networks. Neural networks owe their popularity to the fact thatthey are convenient tools, which can be utilised in a wide scope of problems. They are capable of reflecting complex functions. Especiallytheir non-linearity should be emphasised. They are gaining wider and wider application in the foundry industry, among others, to controlmelting processes in cupolas and arc furnaces, designing castings and supply systems, control of moulding sands treatments, prediction ofproperties of cast alloys as well as selecting die casting.An attempt of the application neural networks to the quality control of moulding sands with bentonite is presented in the paper. This isa method of assessing the suitability of moulding sands by finding correlations in between individual parameters, by means of artificialneural network systems. The presented investigations were performed with the application of the Statistica 8.0 program.The investigations were aimed at the selection of the proper kind of a neural network for prediction a sand moistness on the bases ofcertain moulding sand properties such as: permeability, compactibility and friability. These parameters – determined as sand moistness functions - were introduced as initial parameters.Application of the Statistica program allowed for an automatic selection of the most suitable network for the reflection of dependencies and interactions existing among the proposed parameters. The best results were obtained for unidirectional multi-layer perception network (MLP). The neural network sensitivity to individual moulding sand parameters was determined, which allowed to reject not important parameters when constructing the network.

J. Jakubski; St. M. Dobosz

2010-01-01

205

Using lean methodologies for economically and environmentally sustainable foundries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Lean manufacturing is often seen as a set of tools that reduce the total cost and improve the quality of manufactured products. The lean management philosophy is one which targets waste reduction in every facet of the manufacturing business; however, only recently have studies linked lean management philosophies with improving environmental sustainability. These studies suggest that lean manufacturing is more than a set of lean tools that can optimize manufacturing efficiencies; it is a process and mindset that needs to be integrated into daily manufacturing systems to achieve sustainability. The foundry industry, as well as manufacturing in general, has significant challenges in the current regulatory and political climate with developing an economically and environmentally sustainable business model. Lean manufacturing has proven itself as a model for both economic sustainability and environmental stewardship. Several recent studies have shown that both lean and green techniques and “zero-waste” policies also lead to reductions in overall cost. While these strategies have been examined for general manufacturing, they have not been investigated in detail for the foundry industry. This paper will review the current literature and describe how lean and green can provide a relevant framework for environmentally and economically sustainable foundries. Examples of lean and green technologies and techniques which can be applied to foundries in a global context will be described.

R. M. Torielli; R. A. Abrahams; R.W. Smillie

2011-01-01

206

Biological monitoring of foundry workers exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This investigation describes benzo(a)pyrene (BP) serum protein adduct concentrations in 45 foundry workers and 45 matched non-occupationally exposed controls. High and low BP exposure groups were defined using breathing zone hygienic samples for both quartz and BP exposures. A newly developed enzyme...

Sherson, D; Sabro, P; Sigsgaard, T; Johansen, F; Autrup, H

207

Electromagnet Gripping in Iron Foundry Automation Part II: Simulation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper compares the simulation and initial experimental results for robust part handling by radially symmetric cylindrical electromagnetic gripper heads, that are used in foundry manufacturing assembly operation. Knowledge of the direct holding force is essential to determine if a given electro...

Rhythm Suren Wadhwa

208

Respiratory symptoms in children at schools near a foundry.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A survey was carried out in response to complaints of increased respiratory symptoms in children at schools near a foundry in Walsall, West Midlands. Air monitoring around the factory had shown concentrations of formaldehyde most of which were orders of magnitude below the current occupational expos...

Symington, P; Coggon, D; Holgate, S

209

Methods of the montmorillonite content determination in foundry bentonites  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents results of the measurements montmorillonite content in foundry bentonites and mixtures of bentonite – lustrous carbon carrier by three methods: spectrophotometric method with the use of methylene blue, spectrophotometric method with the use of Cu(II) – triethylenotetramine (Cu-TET) complex, infrared spectroscopic method (FTIR).

M. Holtzer; B. Grabowska; A. Bobrowski; S. ?ymankowska-Kumon

2009-01-01

210

Logic Foundry: Rapid Prototyping for FPGA-Based DSP Systems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We introduce the Logic Foundry, a system for the rapid creation and integration of FPGA-based digital signal processing systems. Recognizing that some of the greatest challenges in creating FPGA-based systems occur in the integration of the various components, we have proposed a system that targets ...

Kazuo Nakajima; Shuvra S. Bhattacharyya; Gary Spivey

211

Oil sands and petrochemicals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A study was conducted to evaluate new feedstocks from Alberta's vast oil sands resources to supplement natural gas liquids. The long-term competitiveness of Alberta's petrochemical industry can be increased by having both gas and oil feedstock options. Several schemes were evaluated to help Alberta develop synergies for its oil sands and petrochemical industries through cost effective integration of oil sands, upgrading, refining and petrochemical development. It was shown that phased integration of oil sands and petrochemical developments is technically and economically feasible to co-produce high grade fuels and petrochemicals. Alberta has the potential to become a world-scale energy and petrochemical producer. Alberta's oil sands facilities are potentially capable of supporting new world-scale plants producing ethylene, propylene, benzene, para-xylene, and other high-value-added derivatives. The products can be produced by integrating existing and new oil sands upgrading plants, refineries and petrochemical plants. tabs., figs.

2003-01-01

212

Oil sand production processes  

CERN Multimedia

The combination of global warming and peak oil has made finding alternative sources of energy more important than ever. Written in an easy-to-read format, Oil Sands Production Processes provide the reader with an understandable overview of the chemistry, engineering, and technology of oil sands. The various chapters have been written to include the latest developments in the oil sands industry, including evolving and new processes as well as the various environmental regulations. Overview of the chemistry, engineering, and technology of oil sands Updates on t

Speight, James G

2012-01-01

213

The influence of microwave curing time and water glass kind on the properties of molding sands  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This work presents results of research on the influence of microwave heating time on the process of hardening of water glass molding sands. Essential influence of this drying process on basic properties such as: compression, bending and tensile strength as well as permeability and wear resistance, has been found. It has been proved, that all the investigated sorts of sodium water glass could be used as binding material of molding sands intended for curing with the microwave process heating. It has been found, while analyzing the results of property studies of microwave heated molding sands with 2.5% addition of water glass, that all available on the market kinds of this binding agent (including the most frequently used in foundry 145 and 149 kinds) after microwave heating guarantee very good compression, bending and tensile strength as well as permeability and wear resistance. Moreover, it has been determined that the optimal curing time of molding sands containing various kinds of water glass is 240 seconds. After this time, all basic properties of molding sands are stable. The use of microwave curing of water glass molding sands results in a significant decrease of hardening process time, full stabilization of molding sands as well as much lower energy consumption.

K. Granat; D. Nowak; M. Pigiel; M. Stachowicz; R. Wikiera

2007-01-01

214

Investigations of the Quality of the Reclaim of Spent Moulding Sands with Organic Binders  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Modern investigation methods and equipment for the quality estimation of the moulding sands matrices with organic binders, in theircirculation process, are presented in the paper. These methods, utilising the special equipment combined with the authors investigationmethods developed in the Faculty of Foundry Engineering, AGH the University of Science and Technology, allow for the better estimationof the matrix quality. Moulding sands systems with organic binders require an in-depth approach to factors deciding on the matrixtechnological suitability as well as on their environmental impact. Into modern methods allowing for the better assessment of the matrixquality belongs the grain size analysis of the reclaimed material performed by means of the laser diffraction and also the estimation of the moulding sand gas evolution rate and identification of the emitted gases and their BTEX group gases content, since they are specially hazardous from the point of view of the Occupational Safety and Health.

R. Da?ko

2012-01-01

215

Fire sand (coal ash derived sand) and whisker sand (coal ash derived sand with carbon fibre reinforcement)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Fire sand is prepared from coal ash and cement, while whisker sand is fire sand with 0.5-5% addition of carbon fibre. Fire sand is lightweight, has good heat insulating properties and is strong enough to be used as a building material. Whisker sand retains all these characteristics, and in addition, possesses high flexural strength. Fire sand can be used for filtering feedwater or waste water, for the construction of sand piles (sand drains), and as a soil improver. Whisker sand also has several possible uses, e.g., as a facing material in construction and as a spray-on material. 5 refs., 17 figs., 8 tabs.

Yamamoto, T.

1986-01-01

216

A review of energy consumption and related data : Canadian foundry industry 1990 to 2007 : executive summary  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Energy data from the North American industry classification system (NAICS) offer insight into energy consumption and emissions in different industries. NAICS 3315 provides information on the foundry industry. This paper discussed the quality and quantity of energy and production data available on the foundry industry in Canada. The purpose of the report was to identify trends in energy and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions between 1990 and 2007, and to highlight weaknesses in existing data. The report also suggested ways of improving the quality of data collected on foundries. The report provided background information on the Canadian foundry industry; energy and production data; and the NAICS codes of the Canadian foundry industry. The report also discussed trends in energy consumption, greenhouse gas emissions, industrial production, and intensity indicators. The paper revealed that energy consumption in the foundry industry increased by 116 percent between 1990 and 2007.

Nyboer, J. [Simon Fraser Univ., Burnaby, BC (Canada). Canadian Industrial Energy End-Use Data and Analysis Centre

2009-03-15

217

Ultrasonic testing of the hardening kinetics of epoxy resins used for foundry patterns  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study presents the results of investigations on the hardening kinetics of modern pattern materials which, among others, include alsoepoxy resins. Tests were carried out using a new ultrasonic technique developed by the author of the present study. On the example of theEPO 999 resin, the run of the hardening process at temperatures of 10, 20 and 30oC was shown. This is the temperature range appliedduring production of foundry patterns. The time of the preliminary hardening amounted to 800 min at a temperature of 10oC, and to only180 min at a temperature of 30oC. Using ultrasonic technique, the effect of temperature on the modulus of elasticity Ed of the examinedresin was determined. The temperature has been observed to exert a linear effect on the value of the modulus Ed. When the resin pattern is preheated in the range of temperatures from 20 to 50oC, the value of the modulus Ed decreases by 30%. The drop in the value of themodulus Ed, as well as the resin hardness decreasing from 18 to 9,0HB at the increasing temperature reduce the applicability of thismaterial for patterns operating at high temperatures (moulding sands).

J. Zych

2010-01-01

218

Hazardous waste minimization. Part VI. Waste minimization in the foundry industry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The foundry industry is a major consumer of waste materials (scrap). Unfortunately, the recycling of these waste materials can result in the generation of hazardous wastes that must be properly managed at a significant cost. This article focuses on two waste streams in the foundry industry; calcium carbide desulfurization slag and melt emission control residuals. The author presents an overview of how foundries have evaluated different waste management options with the ultimate goal of minimizing the generation of hazardous waste.

Oman, D.E.

1988-07-01

219

Study of radon and its progeny concentrations in an oil refinery and foundry environment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] LR-115 type II detectors were used to measure the radon concentrations in the dwellings of an oil refinery and in some foundries. The radon levels inside an oil refinery and foundries are found to be below the USEPA's remedial action levels of 150 Bq m-3. The radon concentrations in oil refinery were found to be higher in both outdoor and indoor environment, as compared to those found in normal background dwellings. The radon levels inside the foundries investigated are of the same order as measured in dwellings of the same city. The reported higher lung cancer rates in foundries may not be attributed to radon. (author)

1999-01-01

220

Production system rationalisation on the example of iron foundry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present paper presents a systemic approach to foundry management. Thanks to production process modelling and simulation techniques, an attempt was made to synthesise many interconnected devices and numerous manufacturing stages into one production system. In the beginning, a factor analysis was carried out of the research object, which is a system of iron castings manufacture on automated foundry lines. On the basis of a simulation experiment, use the accessible production resources and manufacturing own cost of castings were analysed, depending on batch content and melting order, choice of an automatic line and the model of line fed with cast iron, sequence of order realization and the size of production lots. Simulation experiments were carried out on a computer simulation model prepared in the Arena packet produced by Rockwell Automation. Cost was estimated on the basis of additional calculation according to cost centres basing on factory spreadsheet.

S. Kukla

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Nanophotonic integration in state-of-the-art CMOS foundries.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We demonstrate a monolithic photonic integration platform that leverages the existing state-of-the-art CMOS foundry infrastructure. In our approach, proven XeF2 post-processing technology and compliance with electronic foundry process flows eliminate the need for specialized substrates or wafer bonding. This approach enables intimate integration of large numbers of nanophotonic devices alongside high-density, high-performance transistors at low initial and incremental cost. We demonstrate this platform by presenting grating-coupled, microring-resonator filter banks fabricated in an unmodified 28 nm bulk-CMOS process by sharing a mask set with standard electronic projects. The lithographic fidelity of this process enables the high-throughput fabrication of second-order, wavelength-division-multiplexing (WDM) filter banks that achieve low insertion loss without post-fabrication trimming.

Orcutt JS; Khilo A; Holzwarth CW; Popovi? MA; Li H; Sun J; Bonifield T; Hollingsworth R; Kärtner FX; Smith HI; Stojanovi? V; Ram RJ

2011-01-01

222

Final Scientific Report Steel Foundry Refractory Lining Optimization  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The overall objective of the program was to optimize refractory materials and foundry processing used in casting steel. This objective was to be met by completing the following: (1) Surveying the steel foundries both through paper/electronic surveys sent to North American steel foundries as well as plant visits to participants. Information concerning refractory selection and performance as well as refractory and steelmaking practices provides a baseline for future comparison and to identify opportunities for substantial improvement in energy efficiency. (2) Conducting post-mortem analysis of materials from existing refractory/steelmaking practices to determine wear/failure mechanisms. (3) Identify areas for research on developing refractories for use in steel foundry furnaces, adjusting steelmaking practices to improve efficiency and modifying slag practices to improve refractory performance. The overall objective of the steel foundry refractory lining optimization program was to review established refractory and steelmaking practices to identify opportunities for improvements that would yield substantial energy savings for steel foundries. Energy savings were expected to arise from improved efficiency of the electric arc furnaces and from reductions in the post-casting welding and grinding that are normally required. Ancillary energy savings related to a reduction in the amount of refractories currently produced to meet the needs of the steel foundry industry, and a shift from pre-fired materials (shaped refractories) to monolithic refractories that are heat treated ''in situ'' were anticipated. A review of the complete program results indicates that techniques for achieving the overall goal were demonstrated. The main difference between the predicted and the actual achievements relates to the areas from which actual energy savings could be realized. Although reductions in furnace tap temperature would result in a reduction in the power required for melting, such reductions are realized through changes within the ladle transfer portion of the process, through modified ladle pre-heat and refractory insulation. Reductions in clean room energy usage proved very difficult to track, and some questions as to just how much impact refractory related inclusions have on the degree of welding and grinding required for completion of a casting, remain. Post-mortem analysis of casting defects did identify refractory derived inclusions but the greatest concentration of inclusions related to steel reoxidation issue. In almost every instance, the suggested refractory/process modifications were proven to be both technically and economically feasible. The difficulty in implementation of the proposed changes relates to the ''up front'' expense and the learning curve associated with any process modification. These two issues were compounded by production slow downs that are too common in the current market. Such slow downs normally result in less energy efficient processing coupled with reductions in capital or ''up front'' expenditures. A return to historical norms should allow foundries to implement the suggested modifications and then evaluate the overall benefit.

Smith, J.D.; Peaslee, K.D.

2002-12-02

223

Energy conservation and emissions reduction strategies in foundry industry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Current energy conservation and emissions reduction strategies in iron and steel industry were reviewed. Since foundry industry is one of the major source of energy consumption and pollution emission (especially CO2), issues concerning energy-saving and emission-reduction have been raised by governments and the industry. Specialists from around the world carried out multidimensional analyses and evaluation on the potentials in energy conservation and emissions reduction in iron and steel industry, and proposed various kinds of analyzing models. The primary measures mainly focus on the targeted policies formulation and also on clean and high-efficient technologies development. The differences and similarities in energy conservation and emission reduction in foundry industry between China and other countries were discussed, while, the future development trend was also pointed out.

Li Yuanyuan; Chen Weiping; Huang Dan

2010-01-01

224

[Occupational risk and work-related diseases on steel foundries].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The iron foundries are still well represented in the area of Brescia and, despite having been involved in a major technological developments, have still risks to the health of workers. In order to verify the state of the art and effectiveness of prevention measures implemented by various companies, in recent years have carried out numerous inspections, environmental monitoring and biological. Furthermore, there were in the regional information system diseases reported and/or by the reported health. In particular it is shown that, in addition to chemical and physical risk factors, although in a much reduced compared to the 80s, are still present in our workplace pollutants (PAHs, silica, metal fumes, formaldehyde) at the base of classification of iron foundries in group 1, carcinogenic to humans, IARC, 1987 e 2012.

Brunelli E; Sarnico M; Garattini S; Carminati F; Borghetti F; Barbieri PG

2012-07-01

225

Mortality patterns among nickel/chromium alloy foundry workers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

All deaths between 1968 and 1979 from 26 foundries were studied to determine whether exposure to nickel/chromium resulted in an increased rate of any cause-specific mortality. The mortality experience of 851 foundrymen exposed to nickel/chromium was compared to that of 141 unexposed foundrymen. No nasal cancers were found. The exposed subgroup had a slightly lower proportion of cancer deaths, including lung cancer, and a slightly higher rate of nonmalignant respiratory disease deaths compared with the unexposed subgroup. Length of exposure was not significantly related to any of the selected cause-specific proportional mortality rates after adjusting for age, length of employment, and race. Standardized comparisons with the 1974 United States mortality patterns indicated that the total numbers of lung cancer and all cancer deaths were not significantly different from expected values for these exposed foundrymen, although there was an excess of lung cancer deaths among white males aged 65-99. These lung cancer rates followed an increasing trend with increasing length of foundry employment, although the trend was not statistically significant. However, this pattern does suggest that the excess of lung cancer deaths may be associated with length of foundry employment rather than exposure to nickel/chromium. There was a significant excess of respiratory system disease deaths among exposed workers associated with length of foundry employment, regardless of exposure to nickel/chromium. When all malignant and nonmalignant respiratory disease deaths are combined, there is no evidence of an increased risk associated with exposure to nickel/chromium.

Cornell, R.G.; Landis, J.R.

1984-01-01

226

Cancer morbidity and quartz exposure in Swedish iron foundries.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to determine cancer morbidity amongst Swedish iron foundry workers with special reference to quartz exposure. In addition to respirable dust and quartz, phenol, formaldehyde, furfuryl alcohols, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), carbon black, isocyanates and asbestos are used or generated by foundry production techniques and exposure to any of these substances could have potentially carcinogenic effects. METHODS: Cancer morbidity between 1958 and 2004 was evaluated in a cohort of 3,045 male foundry workers employed for >1 year between 1913 and 2005. Standardised incidence ratios (SIRs) with 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CI) were determined by comparing observed numbers of incident cancers with frequencies in the Swedish cancer register. Exposure measures were assessed using information from the personal files of employees and modelling quartz measurement based on a database of 1,667 quartz measurements. Dose responses for lung cancer were determined for duration of employment and cumulative quartz exposure for latency periods >20 years. RESULTS: Overall cancer morbidity was not increased amongst the foundry workers (SIR 1.00; 95 % CI, 0.90-1.11), but the incidence of lung cancer was significantly elevated (SIR 1.61; 95 % CI, 1.20-2.12). A non-significant negative dose response was determined using external comparison with a latency period of >20 years (SIR 2.05, 1.72 1.26 for the low, medium and high exposure groups), supported by internal comparison data (hazard ratios 1, 1.01, 0.78) for the corresponding groups. For cancers at sites with at least five observed cases and a SIR > 1.25, non-significant risks with SIRs > 1.5 were determined for cancers of the liver, larynx, testis, connective muscle tissue, multiple myeloma plasmacytoma and lymphatic leukaemia. CONCLUSIONS: A significant overall risk of lung cancer was determined, but using external and internal comparison groups could not confirm any dose response at our cumulative quartz dose levels.

Westberg H; Andersson L; Bryngelsson IL; Ngo Y; Ohlson CG

2013-07-01

227

Foundry Technologies Focused on Environmental and Ecological Applications  

Science.gov (United States)

Solutions allowing fabrication of remote control systems with integrated sensors (motes) were introduced as a part of CMOS foundry production platform and verified on silicon. The integrated features include sensors employing principles previously verified in the development of ultra-low power consuming non-volatile memories (C-Flash, MRAM) and components allowing low-power energy harvesting (low voltage rectifiers, high -voltage solar cells). The developed systems are discussed with emphasis on their environmental and security applications.

Roizin, Ya.; Lisiansky, M.; Pikhay, E.

228

The management of production value stream factors in a foundry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Connection of two value streams: production and human resources were proposed as a new approach to the production process. To assess the factors of production value streams the elements of the top of the Toyota's house as well as fourth and sixth Toyota's managing principles were used. On the basis of the feedback from respondents –the foundry workers, there can be determined the validity of series of decisive factors' importance that equalizes the work load and requires the standardization.

S. Borkowski; K. Knop

2010-01-01

229

Alberta oil sands index. Glossary  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This glossary is a list of keywords used in the Alberta Oil Sands Index (AOSI), including a definition or statement of how the keyword is used for most terms. For this index, it is understood that oil sands consists of bitumen impregnated sands, often called tar sand, bituminous sand, carbonaceous rock, or oil-impregnated rock. The index contains all published information on oil sands, indexed by keywords, categories and weights. Descriptions are given of the subject categories used and the weight system.

1989-01-01

230

Statistical and Visualization Data Mining Tools for Foundry Production  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In recent years a rapid development of a new, interdisciplinary knowledge area, called data mining, is observed. Its main task is extracting useful information from previously collected large amount of data. The main possibilities and potential applications of data mining in manufacturing industry are characterized. The main types of data mining techniques are briefly discussed, including statistical, artificial intelligence, data base and visualization tools. The statistical methods and visualization methods are presented in more detail, showing their general possibilities, advantages as well as characteristic examples of applications in foundry production. Results of the author’s research are presented, aimed at validation of selected statistical tools which can be easily and effectively used in manufacturing industry. A performance analysis of ANOVA and contingency tables based methods, dedicated for determination of the most significant process parameters as well as for detection of possible interactions among them, has been made. Several numerical tests have been performed using simulated data sets, with assumed hidden relationships as well some real data, related to the strength of ductile cast iron, collected in a foundry. It is concluded that the statistical methods offer relatively easy and fairly reliable tools for extraction of that type of knowledge about foundry manufacturing processes. However, further research is needed, aimed at explanation of some imperfections of the investigated tools as well assessment of their validity for more complex tasks.

M. Perzyk

2007-01-01

231

Petrochemicals from oil sands  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The petrochemical industry in Alberta developed rapidly during the 1980s and 1990s. However, projected diminishing gas production from the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin has raised concerns about the future growth of the industry in Alberta. A joint industry/government study has been conducted to evaluate new feedstocks from Alberta's vast oil sands resources to supplement natural gas liquids. Having both gas and oil sands feedstock options should increase the long-term competitiveness of Alberta's petrochemical industry.This paper presents a framework for evaluating and optimizing schemes for helping Alberta develop synergies for its oil sands and petrochemical industries through cost effective integration of oil sands, upgrading, refining and petrochemical development from 2005 to 2020. The paper places emphasis on specific locations and market conditions. It demonstrates that phased integration of oil sands and petrochemical developments is technically and economically feasible to co-produce high grade fuels and petrochemicals, assuming a new pipeline is built between Edmonton and Vancouver. Alberta has the potential to become a world-scale energy and petrochemical cluster. Alberta's oil sands facilities are potentially capable of supporting new world-scale plants producing ethylene, propylene, benzene, para-xylene, and other high-value-added derivatives. The products can be produced by integrating existing and new oil sands upgrading plants, refineries and petrochemical plants within the next 5 to 10 years. 3 refs., 2 tabs., 7 figs.

2003-01-01

232

The influence of microwave heating and water glass kind on the properties of molding sands  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This work presents rcsults of research on thc influcncc of microwave heating time on the process of hardening of warcr glass moldingsands. Essential influence of this drying process on basic properties such as: cornprcssion, bcnding mind tcnsitc strcng~h as well aspcrrneabili~y and war resistance, has bccn found. It has bccn proved, that at1 thc investigated sorts of sodium water glass could be uscd asbinding material of molding sands intended for curing with the microwave process healing. It has bccn found, while analyzing the rcsultsof property studics or microwavc heated molding sands with 2.5% addition of water glass, that aIl available on the markct kinds of thisbinding agent (inctuding the most frequently uscd in foundry 145 and 149 kinds) after microwave heating guarantee very goodcompression, bending and tensile strength as well as permeability and wcar resistance. Moroovcr, it has bccn dctcrmined that the optimalcuring powcr of molding sands containing various kinds of water gIass is 560 W. AII values exceeding this rcsult in stabilization of basicpropcrtics of molding sands. The use of microwave curing of water glass molding sands results in a significant decrease of hardeningprocess time. full stabilization of molding sands as well as much lower energy consumption.

K. Granat; D. Nowak; M. Pigiel; M. Stachowicz; R. Wikiera

2008-01-01

233

Analysis of effectiveness of used sands reclamation treatment – in various technological devices  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The analysis of effectiveness of spent sands reclamation treatment performed in technological devices of various intensity of dry reclamation – during which used binding material is being removed from grain surfaces – is presented in the paper. Variety of reclamation influences was considered via the realization of the so called elementary operations such as: rubbing, grinding and crushing [1-5], which are realised mainly in dry mechanical reclamation devices but also appear in other technological devices for sand preparation.The model rotor reclaimer and two types of mixers used for preparing initial foundry sands with resin U 404 and hardener 100 T3 of the Hüttenes-Albertus Company were applied for tests.The theoretical model for assessing the effectiveness of reclamation treatment developed by the author [3, 4], was experimentally verified [5, 7], with the application of standard testing procedures. The model can be considered a new tool enabling the selection of optimal reclamation times for the given used sand at the assumed intensity of silica sand matrix recovery. Sand mixture of a proper composition fulfilled needed technological properties after total hardening was used as charge material in experiments. The reclamation treatment consisted of mechanical and mechanical-cryogenic reclamation performed within a wide range of times and conditions influencing the treatment intensity.

R. Da?ko

2009-01-01

234

Potential of modified iron-rich foundry waste for environmental applications: Fenton reaction and Cr(VI) reduction.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A magnetic fraction (15%) from a waste of foundry sand (WFS), composed of sand, carbon, bentonite clay and iron (10%) was modified by thermal treatment at 400, 600 and 800°C under inert atmosphere. Mössbauer analyses showed that the thermal treatment increased the amount of Fe(3)O(4) from 25 to 55% by reduction of Fe(2)O(3) and highly dispersed Fe(3+) by the carbon present in the waste. The Fe(3)O(4) caused a significant increase on the activity of two important reactions with application in environmental remediation: the Fenton oxidation of indigo carmine dye with H(2)O(2) and the reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III). The magnetic fraction of WFS was also mixed with hematite (Fe(2)O(3)) and thermally treated at 400, 600 and 800°C. This treatment produced large amounts of surface Fe(3)O(4) and increased substantially the rate of Fenton reaction as well as Cr(VI) reduction. This reactivity combined with the presence of carbon (an adsorbent for organic contaminants), bentonite clay (an adsorbent for metallic contaminants) and the granulometry/packing/hydrodynamic features make WFS a promising material for use in reactive permeable barriers.

Oliveira PE; Oliveira LD; Ardisson JD; Lago RM

2011-10-01

235

77 FR 34012 - Foundry Coke Products From the People's Republic of China: Continuation of Antidumping Duty Order  

Science.gov (United States)

...Trade Administration [A-570-862] Foundry Coke Products From the People's Republic...revocation of the antidumping duty order on foundry coke products from the People's Republic...review of the antidumping duty order on foundry coke products from the PRC,...

2012-06-08

236

System and process for the abatement of casting pollution, reclaiming resin bonded sand, and/or recovering a low BTU fuel from castings  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Air is caused to flow through the resin bonded mold to aid combustion of the resin binder to form a low BTU gas fuel. Casting heat is recovered for use in a waste heat boiler or other heat abstraction equipment. Foundry air pollution is reduced, the burned portion of the molding sand is recovered for immediate reuse and savings in fuel and other energy is achieved.

Scheffer, Karl D. (121 Governor Dr., Scotia, NY 12302)

1984-07-03

237

Oil sands report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This work is the annual review of oil sands and heavy oil projects. An analysis is provided of the Peace River in situ project, its technical feasibility, and its development stages. A review is presented of the 4 major oil sands deposits in Alberta: Athabasca, Wabasca, Peace River, and Cold Lakes. Active experimental project data for each of these areas are provided in tabular form providing the following information: effective date, approval number, expiration, operator, area, and location. Maps provide information on the Alberta oil sands, oil recovery projects in the Cold Lake region, and tertiary recovery projects in the Lloydminster area. A summary is also provided of surface geophysical methods in support of oil sands mining.

1982-03-22

238

Sand consolidation methods  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Methods are provided for selectively consolidating sand grains within a subterranean formation. First an acidic salt catalyst such as ZnCl/sub 2/ is injected into the subterranean formation, wherein the acidic salt catalyst is adsorbed to the surface of the sand grains. Next a polymerizable resin composition such as furfuryl alcohol oligomer is introduced into the well formation. Polymerization of the resin occurs upon exposure to the elevated well temperatures and contact with the acid salt catalyst adsorbed to the sand grains. The polymerized resin serves to consolidate the surfaces of the sand grains while retaining permeability through the pore spaces. An ester of a weak organic acid is included with the resin compositions to control the extent of a polymerization by consuming the water by-product formed druing the polymerization reaction.

Friedman, R.H.

1984-01-24

239

The importance of dematerialization for iron foundries; Dematerialisatie speelt belangrijke rol [voor ijzergieterijen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this third article on long-range agreements on energy efficiency improvement between the Dutch government and different industrial sectors in the Netherlands attention is paid to the activities of iron foundries. Next to process optimization the iron foundries focus on dematerialization, heat recovery and the use of new casting techniques to realize 16% efficiency improvement in the year 2000, compared to 1989

Juijn, P. [Videm Communicatie, Utrecht (Netherlands)

1998-06-01

240

In vitro characterization of DNA adducts formed by foundry air particulate matter.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study is part of an ongoing investigation of biomarkers in iron foundry workers exposed to polycyclic aromatic compounds. Foundry workers with the highest exposures had elevated levels of DNA adducts in their white blood cells in previous studies. The purpose of this study was to characterize t...

Savela, K; Kohan, M J; Walsh, D; Perera, F P; Hemminki, K; Lewtas, J

 
 
 
 
241

Cancer mortality in a cohort of United Kingdom steel foundry workers: 1946-85.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The mortality experienced by a cohort of 10,491 United Kingdom steel foundry workers during the period 1946-85 has been investigated. These workers were all male operatives first employed in any one of the 10 participating foundries in 1946-65; all had worked in the industry for a minimum period of ...

Sorahan, T; Cooke, M A

242

Effect of foundry coke and metallurgical coke on hot metal carburisation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Carburisation of molten iron was found to be faster for foundry coke than for metallurgical coke. This difference was attributed to a difference in the nature of the ash layer on the coke surface: K{sub 2}O-rich and weakly adherent for foundry coke, and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-rich and strongly adherent for metallurgical coke.

Chen Fang; Chen Gang

1991-01-01

243

Quality management as a tool forming foundry competitive capacity in the process of market globalisation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents the analysis and identification of the key factors influencing the competitiveness of the foundry in the process of market globalisation. The main attention is paid to the quality management as an important tool used for the formation of the foundry's competitive capacity.

L. Wojtynek

2010-01-01

244

Historical cohort study of a New Zealand foundry and heavy engineering plant  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the mortality of workers who had been exposed to asbestos, machining fluids and foundry work in a foundry and heavy engineering plant in the railway rolling stock manufacturing industry in New Zealand. METHODS: Historical cohort study design. RESULTS: For the total wo...

Firth, H. M.; Elwood, J. M.; Cox, B.; Herbison, G. P.

245

Chronic exposure to zinc of furnace operators in a brass foundry  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Hamdi, A. E. (1969).Brit. J. industr. Med.,26, 126-134. Chronic exposure to zinc of furnace operators in a brass foundry. Twelve furnace operators with chronic exposure to zinc oxide fumes in a brass foundry and 10 normal non-exposed control subjects were studied. Simultaneous determinations of zinc...

Hamdi, Ebtissam A.

246

Optimising stock management in foundries to keep the economic size of orders  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Skillful stock management is one of the main conditions to raise the production output of an enterprise, foundry shop included. This article outlines modern methods of stock management using the generally available Excel calculation sheet to estimate the economic order quantity and minimum stock level required for selected auxiliary materials used in foundry production.

J. Szymszal; F. Binczyk; A. Smoli?ski; J. Kli?

2007-01-01

247

Hexachlorobenzene and octachlorostyrene in plasma of aluminium foundry workers using hexachloroethane for degassing.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OBJECTIVES: To study the load of selected organochlorine compounds in the blood of aluminium foundry workers who use hexachloroethane as a degassing agent for aluminium and to measure some possible effects on internal organs. METHODS: Plasma from nine male aluminium foundry workers with past experie...

Seldén, A I; Nygren, Y; Westberg, H B; Bodin, L S

248

Oil sands and petrochemicals  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A study was conducted to evaluate new feedstocks from Alberta's vast oil sands resources to supplement natural gas liquids. The long-term competitiveness of Alberta's petrochemical industry can be increased by having both gas and oil feedstock options. Several schemes were evaluated to help Alberta develop synergies for its oil sands and petrochemical industries through cost effective integration of oil sands, upgrading, refining and petrochemical development. It was shown that phased integration of oil sands and petrochemical developments is technically and economically feasible to co-produce high grade fuels and petrochemicals. Alberta has the potential to become a world-scale energy and petrochemical producer. Alberta's oil sands facilities are potentially capable of supporting new world-scale plants producing ethylene, propylene, benzene, para-xylene, and other high-value-added derivatives. The products can be produced by integrating existing and new oil sands upgrading plants, refineries and petrochemical plants. tabs., figs.

McCann, T. [T.J. McCann and Associates Ltd., AB (Canada)

2003-07-01

249

Oil sands tailings retention  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

AMEC Environmental Engineers have designed dams to retain a variety of tailings in various site conditions. The dams are intensively monitored to confirm their safety. Tailings include both liquefiable and fluid tailings, as well as dense, hydraulically compacted sands. Mature fine tailings (MFT) are fluid and require retention, while composite tailings (CT) are non-segregating hydraulically deposited tailings streams. Thickened tailings (TT) also require retention. Tests are currently being conducted to test a process for mixing sands with MFTs. Tailings ponds are used to clarify recycled water. Ground water from surface and basal aquifers can also be stored in the ponds. Water caps can be accommodated by upstream sand dams and sub-aerial beaches. Bitumen and fines are used to seal off ponds from beaches. However, caps can present complications for overburden structures. Designs must make provisions for internal drainage control. Mining wastes are used to construct the dams during winter months. No-filter solutions for ponds include overweighting to suppress hydraulic fractures across high specification core zones. Overburden dykes use high strength fill to build steep slopes. An internal clay core is used to make a downstream filter. Coke is sometimes used as a filter or chimney drain. The overburden in oil sands mines is typically dry and highly overconsolidated sand. Heavy haulers break down the lumps of sand for use in construction. During the winter, fill is spread and compacted before it freezes. New technologies are being developed to reduce wet ponds and allow for faster reclamation. tabs., figs.

McRoberts, E. [AMEC Earth and Environmental Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

2008-07-01

250

Problems of bentonite rebonding of synthetic system sands in turbine mixers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Turbine (rotor) mixers are widely used in foundries for bentonite rebonding of synthetic system sands. They form basic equipment in modern sand processing plants. Their major advantage is the short time of the rebond mixing cycle.Until now, no complete theoretical description of the process of mixing in turbine mixers has been offered. Neither does it seem reasonable to try to adapt the theoretical backgrounds of the mixing process carried out in mixers of other types, for example, rooler mixers [1], to the description of operation of the turbine mixers. Truly one can risk the statement that the individual fundamental operations of mixing in rooler mixers, like kneading, grinding, mixing and thinning, are also performed in turbine mixers. Yet, even if so, in turbine mixers these processes are proceeding at a rate and intensity different than in the roller mixers. The fact should also be recalled that the theoretical backgrounds usually relate to the preparation of sand mixtures from new components, and this considerably restricts the field of application of these descriptions when referred to rebond mixing of the system sand. The fundamentals of the process of the synthetic sand rebonding with bentonite require determination and description of operations, like disaggregation, even distribution of binder and water within the entire volume of the rebonded sand batch, sand grains coating, binder activation and aeration.This study presents the scope of research on the sand rebonding process carried out in turbine mixers. The aim has been to determine the range and specific values of the designing and operating parameters to get optimum properties of the rebonded sand as well as energy input in the process.

A. Fedoryszyn; J. Zych; Cz. Rudy

2008-01-01

251

Process for preparing sand cores and molds  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An improved process for preparing foundry cores and molds using a foundry aggregate and a binder therefor wherein the aggregate is mixed with an aqueous suspension of cereal flour and then with a core oil, the improvement comprising mixing the aggregate with phosphoric acid or sulfuric acid before mixing with the aqueous suspension of the cereal flour.

Varnum, N.C.; Kraemer, J.F.

1984-11-27

252

Quartz and dust exposure in Swedish iron foundries.  

Science.gov (United States)

Exposure to respirable quartz continues to be a major concern in the Swedish iron foundry industry. Recommendations for reducing the European occupational exposure limit (EU-OEL) to 0.05 mg/m3 and the corresponding ACGIH(R) threshold limit value (ACGIH-TLV) to 0.025 mg/m3 prompted this exposure survey. Occupational exposure to respirable dust and respirable quartz were determined in 11 Swedish iron foundries, representing different sizes of industrial operation and different manufacturing techniques. In total, 436 respirable dust and 435 respirable quartz exposure measurements associated with all job titles were carried out and are presented as time-weighted averages. Our sampling strategy enabled us to evaluate the use of respirators in certain jobs, thus determining actual exposure. In addition, measurements using real-time dust monitors were made for high exposure jobs. For respirable quartz, 23% of all the measurements exceeded the EU-OEL, and 56% exceeded the ACGIH-TLV. The overall geometric mean (GM) for the quartz levels was 0.028 mg/m3, ranging from 0.003 to 2.1 mg/m3. Fettler and furnace and ladle repair operatives were exposed to the highest levels of both respirable dust (GM = 0.69 and 1.2 mg/m3; range 0.076-31 and 0.25-9.3 mg/m3 and respirable quartz (GM = 0.041 and 0.052 mg/m3; range 0.004-2.1 and 0.0098-0.83 mg/m3. Fettlers often used respirators and their actual quartz exposure was lower (range 0.003-0.21 mg/m3, but in some cases it still exceeded the Swedish OEL (0.1 mg/m3. For furnace and ladle repair operatives, the actual quartz exposure did not exceed the OEL (range 0.003-0.08 mg/m3, but most respirators provided insufficient protection, i.e., factors less than 200. In summary, measurements in Swedish iron foundries revealed high exposures to respirable quartz, in particular for fettlers and furnace and ladle repair workers. The suggested EU-OEL and the ACGIH-TLV were exceeded in, respectively, 23% and 56% of all measurements regardless of the type of foundry. Further work on elimination techniques to reduce quartz concentrations, along with control of personal protection equipment, is essential. PMID:18982534

Andersson, Lena; Bryngelsson, Ing-Liss; Ohlson, Carl-Göran; Nayström, Peter; Lilja, Bengt-Gunnar; Westberg, Håkan

2009-01-01

253

Methodological aspects of systemic designing of foundry plants  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An approach is attempted to systematise the systemic research. A set of hypotheses are formulated, defining how a conceptual design of afoundry plant should be developed and improved when it is investigated as a system. The methodology aims to eliminate the particular approach to design to be replaced by integral design. The need of integral design seems a logical consequence of a transition from taskoriented design to situational design. The methodology outlined here offers an innovative and modern approach to engineering design, particularly in foundry plant design.

R. Wrona; A. Stawowy; A. Macio?

2008-01-01

254

Saving energy in the non-ferrous foundry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A report is given on a one day seminar by the Energy Efficiency Office on their Demonstration Schemes in the non-ferrous foundry industry. Examples discussed include crucibles for meltholding aluminium, the use of ceramic fibre linings in baleout holding furnaces, immersion tube heaters for holding aluminium, heat recovery systems from crucible flues, fitting flat flame burners to a high efficiency baleout furnace and combined fluxing and degassing processes. The importance of obtaining a good return on the investment in terms of short payback periods is stressed. (UK).

1985-11-07

255

Quartz and dust exposure in Swedish iron foundries.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Exposure to respirable quartz continues to be a major concern in the Swedish iron foundry industry. Recommendations for reducing the European occupational exposure limit (EU-OEL) to 0.05 mg/m3 and the corresponding ACGIH(R) threshold limit value (ACGIH-TLV) to 0.025 mg/m3 prompted this exposure survey. Occupational exposure to respirable dust and respirable quartz were determined in 11 Swedish iron foundries, representing different sizes of industrial operation and different manufacturing techniques. In total, 436 respirable dust and 435 respirable quartz exposure measurements associated with all job titles were carried out and are presented as time-weighted averages. Our sampling strategy enabled us to evaluate the use of respirators in certain jobs, thus determining actual exposure. In addition, measurements using real-time dust monitors were made for high exposure jobs. For respirable quartz, 23% of all the measurements exceeded the EU-OEL, and 56% exceeded the ACGIH-TLV. The overall geometric mean (GM) for the quartz levels was 0.028 mg/m3, ranging from 0.003 to 2.1 mg/m3. Fettler and furnace and ladle repair operatives were exposed to the highest levels of both respirable dust (GM = 0.69 and 1.2 mg/m3; range 0.076-31 and 0.25-9.3 mg/m3 and respirable quartz (GM = 0.041 and 0.052 mg/m3; range 0.004-2.1 and 0.0098-0.83 mg/m3. Fettlers often used respirators and their actual quartz exposure was lower (range 0.003-0.21 mg/m3, but in some cases it still exceeded the Swedish OEL (0.1 mg/m3. For furnace and ladle repair operatives, the actual quartz exposure did not exceed the OEL (range 0.003-0.08 mg/m3, but most respirators provided insufficient protection, i.e., factors less than 200. In summary, measurements in Swedish iron foundries revealed high exposures to respirable quartz, in particular for fettlers and furnace and ladle repair workers. The suggested EU-OEL and the ACGIH-TLV were exceeded in, respectively, 23% and 56% of all measurements regardless of the type of foundry. Further work on elimination techniques to reduce quartz concentrations, along with control of personal protection equipment, is essential.

Andersson L; Bryngelsson IL; Ohlson CG; Nayström P; Lilja BG; Westberg H

2009-01-01

256

Improved sand consolidation methods  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Methods are provided for selectively consolidating sand grains within a subterranean formation. First, an acidic salt catalyst such as ZnCl2 is injected into the subterranean formation, wherein the acidic salt catalyst is adsorbed to the surface of the sand grains. A polymerizable resin composition such as furfuryl alcohol oligomer is introduced into the well formation. Polymerization of the resin occurs upon exposure to the elevated well temperatures and contact with the acid salt catalyst adsorbed to the sand grains. The polymerized resin serves to consolidate the surfaces of the sand grains while retaining permeability through the pore spaces. An ester of a weak organic acid is included with the resin compositions to control the extent of a polymerization by consuming the water by-product formed during the polymerization reaction. The thickness of the consolidated sand layer may be regulated by the contemporaneous injection into the well formation of a second adsorbent salt in addition to the selected acidic salt catalyst. 17 claims.

Friedman, R.H.

1982-12-15

257

Bituminous sands : tax issues  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper examined some of the tax issues associated with the production of bitumen or synthetic crude oil from oil sands. The oil sands deposits in Alberta are gaining more attention as the supplies of conventional oil in Canada decline. The oil sands reserves located in the Athabasca, Cold Lake and Peace River areas contain about 2.5 trillion barrels of highly viscous hydrocarbons called bitumen, of which nearly 315 billion barrels are recoverable with current technology. The extraction method varies for each geographic area, and even within zones and reservoirs. The two most common extraction methods are surface mining and in-situ extraction such as cyclic steam stimulation (CSS); low pressure steam flood; pressure cycle steam drive; steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD); hot water flooding; and, fire flood. This paper also discussed the following general tax issues: bituminous sands definition; bituminous sands leases and Canadian development expense versus Canadian oil and gas property expense (COGPE); Canadian exploration expense (CEE) for surface mining versus in-situ methods; additional capital cost allowance; and, scientific research and experimental development (SR and ED). 15 refs.

2004-01-01

258

Oil sands tax expenditures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The oil sands are a strategic Canadian resource for which federal and provincial governments provide financial incentives to develop and exploit. This report describes the Oil Sands Tax Expenditure Model (OSTEM) developed to estimate the size of the federal income tax expenditure attributed to the oil sands industry. Tax expenditures are tax concessions which are used as alternatives to direct government spending for achieving government policy objectives. The OSTEM was developed within the business Income Tax Division of Canada's Department of Finance. Data inputs for the model were obtained from oil sands developers and Natural Resources Canada. OSTEM calculates annual revenues, royalties and federal taxes at project levels using project-level projections of capital investment, operating expenses and production. OSTEM calculates tax expenditures by comparing taxes paid under different tax regimes. The model also estimates the foregone revenue as a percentage of capital investment. Total tax expenditures associated with investment in the oil sands are projected to total $820 million for the period from 1986 to 2030, representing 4.6 per cent of the total investment. 10 refs., 2 tabs., 7 figs.

2001-01-01

259

Oil sands tax expenditures  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The oil sands are a strategic Canadian resource for which federal and provincial governments provide financial incentives to develop and exploit. This report describes the Oil Sands Tax Expenditure Model (OSTEM) developed to estimate the size of the federal income tax expenditure attributed to the oil sands industry. Tax expenditures are tax concessions which are used as alternatives to direct government spending for achieving government policy objectives. The OSTEM was developed within the business Income Tax Division of Canada's Department of Finance. Data inputs for the model were obtained from oil sands developers and Natural Resources Canada. OSTEM calculates annual revenues, royalties and federal taxes at project levels using project-level projections of capital investment, operating expenses and production. OSTEM calculates tax expenditures by comparing taxes paid under different tax regimes. The model also estimates the foregone revenue as a percentage of capital investment. Total tax expenditures associated with investment in the oil sands are projected to total $820 million for the period from 1986 to 2030, representing 4.6 per cent of the total investment. 10 refs., 2 tabs., 7 figs.

Ketchum, K; Lavigne, R.; Plummer, R. [Department of Finance, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

2001-05-03

260

Studies on the Renewability of Polymeric Binders for Foundry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper the results of studies of polymeric binders on the example of the new BioCo2 binder, including the problem of itsrenewability, are presented. The results of structural studies (FT-IR) for the BioCo2 binder before and after crosslinking, and bendingstrength tests Rg u fresh and renewed cured molding sands with BioCo2 binder are discussed. The cross-linking binder and curring ofmoulding sand was carried out by physical agents (microwave radiation, temperature). On the basis of obtained results was shown that it is possible to restore the initial properties of the adhesive of BioCo2 binder. The initial properties of moulding sand can be achieved, after the cross-linking binders and after curing in the moulding sands with bioCo2 binder , by supplementing the moulding sand composition by the appropriate amount of water.

B. Grabowska; K. Kaczmarska; A. Bobrowski

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Determination of application possibilities of microwave heating in the curing process of water glass molding sands with fluid esters. Part 2  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article, constituting continuation of the subject discussed in the first part, presents results of the experimental trial of water glass molding sands’ curing method modification with application of fluid esters and innovative microwave heating. The research objective was to determine possibilities of microwave application for curing of water glass molding sands prepared with addition of hardening agents sold under the trade name of Mach. After initial chemical curing molding sands, prepared with addition of the above mentioned hardeners, have been heated with microwaves in order to determine their influence on changes of basic technological and strength parameters of the sands, and indirectly on the quality of quartz grains binding. Studies aimed at determination of water content changes in the sands have also been undertaken. As our studies demonstrated, microwave heating allows for quick reduction of water content, thus resulting in improvement of strength parameters such as bending and tensile strength. Application of the combined methods of ester curing and innovative microwave heating facilitates production of high quality foundry moulds and cores, while simultaneously improving mould and core preparation procedures at the foundries and as a result reduces their time to an indispensable minimum.

K. Granat; D. Nowak; M. Pigiel; M. Stachowicz; R. Wikiera

2009-01-01

262

Influence of water-glass grade and quantity on residual strength of microwave-hardened moulding sands. Part 1  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper presents a research on influence of dielectric drying process on mechanical properties of water-glass containing moulding sands. Examined were moulding sands containing additions of 1.5 and 2.5 % of hydrated sodium silicate grades 145, 149 and 150, most oftenused in foundry practice. Standard, cylindrical specimens for mechanical testing were held at temperatur es from 100 to 1200 °C for 30 minutes and next cooled-down to ambient temperature. Then their residual strength was determined. Comparison of the obtained resultswith literature data indicates that dielectric drying is favourable for reduction of residual strength of used water-glass moulding sands, and thus improves their knock-out properties.

M. Stachowicz; K. Granat; D. Nowak

2011-01-01

263

Rebounding process of moulding sands-thermal degradation of bentonite binding qualities  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problems related to a gradual degradation of binding qualities of montmorillonite, the main component of foundry bentonites, are presented in the paper. This degradation is caused by high temperatures originated from liquid metal influencing moulding sands. Laboratory measurements of an active binding agent content in classic moulding sands prepared with two types of bentonite and subjected to a controlled heating to high temperatures – were performed. These laboratory examinations were compared to industrial tests, in which a temperature distribution was being determined in several places in the thickness of the casting ingot mould for 24 hours from the moment of pouring liquid metal. On the basis of the performed examinations, the method allowing to determine optimal additions in the rebounding process of the tested bentonites was developed.

R. Da?ko

2010-01-01

264

Application of microwave energy for curing of molding sands containing oil binders  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This works presents the results of studies concerning possibility of application of microwave heating in the curing process of molding sands containing oil binders. Molding sands prepared with three kinds of binders, that is oils C, DL and Retanol, have been subject to experiments. The sands have been dried with two methods: in a microwave chamber of 750W power and, for comparison, with classical method at the temperature of 200°C for 120 minutes. Tensile and bending strength of the samples have been determined after cooling down. It has been found that microwave drying in the low-power device used for experiments is effective only in case of molding sand prepared with addition of DL binder. The temperature of heated, even up to 32 minutes in a microwave chamber, blocks prepared from the remaining two masses, was insufficient to initiate binding process. The undertaken attempts of binder modification and introduction of additives intensifying microwave heating process allowed for achievement of satisfactory results. It has been found that power of the heating device is the main factor determining efficiency of microwave curing of molding sands containing oil binders. An additional experiment has been conducted on a laboratory workstation allowing for microwave heating of small mass samples with a high output power of magnetron concentrated in a small substrate volume. It has been observed that microwave drying process of molding sands was of dynamic character over a short period of time, not exceeding 120 seconds, thus assuring efficient curing of the sands containing the used oil binders. Therefore, application of devices of properly high microwave output power allows for efficient drying of oil molding sands, while simultaneously assuring the possibility to reduce time and energy consumption necessary for production of foundry cores of proper functional characteristics.

M. Stachowicz; K. Granat; M. Pigiel

2008-01-01

265

STERILIZER SAND OF CHILDREN'S PLAYGROUND  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: A sand sterilizer for a children sand playground is provided to use hot steam and heat for sterilizing sand inside the children sand playground. CONSTITUTION: A sand sterilizer for a children sand playground includes a boiler(10), a water tank(11), steam sprayers(12), a pipe(13), a mounting stand(14), plural drains(15), a bottom unit(16), and an edge unit(17). The boiler combines to the water tank connected to more than one steam sprayer. The pipe combines to the steam sprayers. The mounting stand is connected to the pipe. Drains are combined to the mounting stand. The bottom unit is formed on the drains.

KIM SANG HUN

266

Total productive maintenance on example of automated foundry lines  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Within framework of the presented study one has performed analysis of stoppages in automatic foundry lines operation, and basing on assumptions from complex maintenance system has undertaken himself to develop a service maintenance schedule for machinery installed in the line. Moreover, one has presented general assumptions of TPM system operated in conditions of series and multi-series production of cast iron castings. One has constructed operational database and has elaborated a list of line stoppage causes within a year. One has proposed a possibility of implementation of manufacturing systems modeling and simulating technique in management of production machinery operation in a foundry shop. Within framework of the simulation experiment one has developed schedules of production, schedules of maintenance and has forecasted indices of general productivity of the machinery for a various scenarios of events on example of casting line having in-series structure of operational reliability. In course of the study there was implemented ARENA universal software package to modeling and simulation of the manufacturing systems.

S. Kukla

2009-01-01

267

DataFoundry: Warehousing techniques for dynamic environments  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Data warehouses and data marts have been successfully applied to a multitude of commercial business applications as tools for integrating and providing access to data located across an enterprise. Although the need for this capability is as vital in the scientific world as in the business domain, working warehouses in our community are scarce. A primary technical reason for this is that our understanding of the concepts being explored in an evolving scientific domain change constantly, leading to rapid changes in the data representation. When any database providing information to a warehouse changes its format, the warehouse must be updated to reflect these changes, or it will not function properly. The cost of maintaining a warehouse using traditional techniques in this environment is prohibitive. This paper describes ideas for dramatically reducing the amount of work that must be done to keep a warehouse up to date in a dynamic, scientific environment. The ideas are being applied in a prototype warehouse called DataFoundry. DataFoundry, currently in use by structural biologists at LLNL, will eventually support scientists at the Department of Energy`s Joint Genome Institute.

Critchlow, T.; Fidelis, K.; Ganesh, M.; Musick, R.; Slezak, T., LLNL

1998-01-29

268

Techni-Cast: Foundry Saves Energy with Compressed Air System Retrofit  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In 2002, Techni-Cast improved its compressed air system at its foundry in Southgate, California. The project allowed the foundry to reduce its compressor capacity by 50%, which greatly reduced the foundry's energy and maintenance costs. The annual energy and maintenance savings from the project implementation are 242,000 kWh and $24,200, and the projects cost was $38,000. Because the plant received a $10,000 incentive payment from the California Public Utilities Commission, the total project cost was reduced to $28,000, yielding a 14-month simple payback.

2001-03-01

269

Sand-box modelling  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As the result of an enquiry into BHRA's physical-reservoir-modelling experience, the use of sand box models was investigated. The type of model was considered a possible means of confirmation of a numerical model. The problem facing the numerical model user was comparing the performance of inclined or horizontal oil wells with that of the conventional vertical well.

Avery, P.

1983-01-01

270

Foundry Products: Competitive Conditions in the U.S. Market. Investigation No. 332-460.  

Science.gov (United States)

This investigation provides an overview of the global foundry industry and U.S. market during 1999-2003, including principal metals and casting methods, production steps, technology, and factors of competition affecting the industry's performance and comp...

2005-01-01

271

Closeout of IE Bulletin 80-21: valve parts supplied by Malcom Foundry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Cracking of yokes in active valves in a safety-related system was discovered during pre-operational testing of the Residual Heat Removal System at Susquehanna 1. These defective yokes had been supplied to Anchor/Darling Valve Company by Malcolm Foundry Company, Inc. Because Malcolm Foundry had gone out of business, it was necessary to issue the Bulletin to utilities to determine directly whether Malcolm Foundry had provided parts to valve manufacturers other than Anchor/Darling. From results of the extensive survey of valve manufacturers generated by this Bulletin, it was determined that only Anchor/Darling had used Malcolm Foundry as a source of safety-related valve parts. On the basis of survey results and a search of Anchor/Darling records, it was found that only seven facilities had affected valves.

Foley, W.J.; Hennick, A.

1983-09-01

272

Closeout of IE Bulletin 80-21: valve parts supplied by Malcom Foundry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Cracking of yokes in active valves in a safety-related system was discovered during pre-operational testing of the Residual Heat Removal System at Susquehanna 1. These defective yokes had been supplied to Anchor/Darling Valve Company by Malcolm Foundry Company, Inc. Because Malcolm Foundry had gone out of business, it was necessary to issue the Bulletin to utilities to determine directly whether Malcolm Foundry had provided parts to valve manufacturers other than Anchor/Darling. From results of the extensive survey of valve manufacturers generated by this Bulletin, it was determined that only Anchor/Darling had used Malcolm Foundry as a source of safety-related valve parts. On the basis of survey results and a search of Anchor/Darling records, it was found that only seven facilities had affected valves

1983-01-01

273

Laboratories for the 21st Century: Case Studies, Molecular Foundry, Berkeley, California  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This case study provides information on the Molecular Foundry, which incorporates Labs21 principles in its design and construction. The design includes many of the strategies researched at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory for energy efficient cleanroom and data centers.

2010-11-01

274

Electromagnet Gripping in Iron Foundry Automation Part I: Principles and Framework  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Robot grippers are employed to position and retain parts in automated assembly operations. This paper presents an overview of electromagnet part handling framework in an iron foundry and an equivalent electromagnet circuit model. The manner in which this whole concept of automated gripping system operates will be discussed in this paper. The material handling system uses machine vision system coupled with conveyor motion and Ethernet communication strategy to assist the material handling system for transporting the foundry parts. The paper provides an overview of the electromagnet principles at play. The electromagnet interaction with the part is the key issue in the robust handling of this automated foundry system. This paper helps in the realization of the concept of automation in an iron foundry, in which the number of published studies is very limited.

Rhythm Suren Wadhwa; Terje-Lien

2011-01-01

275

Assessment of Occupational Exposure to Aluminum Respirable Aerosols among Aluminum Foundry Workers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available AbstractBackgrounds and Aims: Aluminum and in particular its compounds make up a large proportion of the pollutants coming from the aluminum foundry. In several studies conducted on the harmful effects of aluminum in recent decades, it has been identified as a neurotoxic metal. Chronic occupational exposure through inhalation of dust is a common problem in aluminum foundries. Investigation of the exposure of various occupational groups in two aluminum foundry plants to aluminum aerosols.Materials and Methods: To study the occupational exposure of foundry workers to respirable aerosols of aluminum, personal sampling was conducted from the breathing zone of 63 workers at two foundries in the south of Tehran city following NIOSH method No. 0600. Then samples were treated using NIOSH Institute optimized method No. 7013 and analyzed by high sensitivity graphite atomic absorption.Collected data were analyzed with SPSS V.16 statistical software using an independent sample t-test and ANOVA.Result: The average of aluminum respirable aerosols in A and B factories were 3.21±2.33 and 3.31±2.15 mg/m3 respectively. The one-way ANOVA indicated that occupational exposure among various occupational groups (Similar Exposure Group) in Foundry A had no significant difference (p=0.089), but differences between the exposure of melting and assembling groups in Foundry B are significant (p=0.044). In general, in exposure frequency to aerosols in aluminum foundries, a significant difference was observed between melting and assembling groups (p=0.005) as well among abrading and assembling groups (p=0.02). Conclusion: Most of the exposures to aluminum in foundry workers exceeded the current limits given by ACGIH Institute and the Iranian occupational exposure limits. According to the occupational exposure of both foundries and the absence of differences among variables involved in the exposure, the high exposure of melting and abrading groups compared to assembling groups can be attributed to the nature of these units in the production of aluminum aerosols.Keywords: Occupational Exposure; Aluminum Foundry; Respirable Aerosols.

Rezazadeh Azari M; Choupani A; Jafari M J; Soori H; Hosseini S Y

2013-01-01

276

Compressed Air System Improvement Project Saves Foundry Energy and Increases Production  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This case study highlights International Truck and Engine Corporation's optimization project on the compressed air system that serves its foundry, Indianapolis Casting Corporation. Due to the project's implementation, the system's efficiency was greatly improved, allowing the foundry to operate with less compressor capacity, which resulted in reduced energy consumption, significant maintenance savings, and more reliable production.

2002-05-01

277

The new foundry line for magnesium alloys high-pressure die-casting  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The new foundry line for high-pressure die-casting of magnesium alloys constructed in the “SILUM” Foundry (Opojowice, Poland) is described. In the process cold chamber die-casting machines are used. The experimental casts and the radiators fabricated using the new cold chamber die-casting line are presented as the final results. The new production line allows to obtain good quality magnesium casts.

K.N Braszczy?ska-Malik; W Walczak; J Braszczy?ski

2008-01-01

278

Recycling of base metals from metal wastes of brass foundries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A process has been developed to recover and recycle metals from wastes of brass foundries which contain copper, zinc and lead in various quantities. Tests were conducted to evaluate several leachants, including sulfuric acid, ammonia, hydrochloric acid, cyanide and acetic acid, and to determine the optimum leaching conditions, such as air flow rate, initial copper ion concentration, temperature, and agitation strength. Sulfuric acid containing copper sulfate with dissolved oxygen is the most successful leachant. More than 99% of the copper and zinc originally present in the waste was dissolved, while only 0.5% of the lead entered the solution after 14 hours of leaching. The leaching mechanisms of copper, zinc, and lead are proposed. The copper and zinc can be recovered from the solution by electrolytic processing. The unleached residue may be converted to a lead carbonate which can be converted to litharge at 400--450 C and to massicot at temperature above 500 C by calcination.

Nesbitt, C.C.; Xue, S. [Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (United States). Dept. of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering

1995-07-01

279

Kinetics of moisture absorption in mixtures for iron foundry  

CERN Document Server

The moisture absorption in granulated materials used in foundry technologies is analyzed. The absorption process has a diffusive behavior mainly. A simple experimental technique, in which the wet weight increment was recorded as the experimental parameter and an analytic method with computing procedure to find the parameters characterizing the process was used. The determination of these parameters by traditional methods is a very difficult task so, very refined and expensive trials are needed. The fitting of the model permits to determine the diffusion coefficient and the moisture concentration in the separation surface between the sample and the environment. The concentration profiles are established for different times. Finally, the possibility of occurrence of superimposed diffusive processes in some materials is analyzed and the diffusion coefficient and the amount of moisture incorporated by each process are calculated.

Cocina, E V; Rodríguez, R; Cocina, Ernesto Villar; Morales, Eduardo Valencia; Rodriguez, Romulo Gonzalez

1999-01-01

280

Beneficial Use Information Center (BUIC): Foundry By-products  

Science.gov (United States)

The database on beneficial reuse of foundry by-products may be downloaded as a Microsoft Access (.mdb) file through the Beneficial Use Information Center of the University of Wisconsin-Madison. The database was designed "to identify (1) materials and applications where methods and specifications exist such that beneficial reuse can begin or be expanded immediately and (2) areas in need of further research." Data were assembled by the University of Wisconsin-Madison researchers from 98 projects in fourteen states and two locations in Canada. Applications described in the database are Structural/Base/Sub-base Fill, Flowable Fill, Concrete and Related Products, Asphalt, Soil Amendments, Portland Cement, Landfill Liners and Covers, and Other Applications such as pipe bedding, clay bricks, and landfill drainage layers.

 
 
 
 
281

Classification of foundry clients using business rules approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper presents the application of business rules approach for the classification of foundry clients taking into account t he economic and technological attributes. Business Rules Management (BRM) systems allow non-technical business people to change the rules, analyze them for errors, and test and simulate them for impact analysis. Although BRM is focused on business processes improvement, it is possible to use this approach in technology management. The model of classification problem, and the knowledge base as a set of decision tables are presented in the paper.The results indicate that the proposed business rules tool REBIT, developed by AGH team as the project co-funded by the European Union, is feasible as a complete knowledge base and technology management method.

A. Stawowy; R. Wrona; M. Ronduda

2011-01-01

282

Evolutionary based system for production scheduling in foundry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This work presents a development of a capable-to-promise system for companies that operate under the hybrid make-to-order and maketo-stock strategy in a lot-sizing and flowshop environment. Proposed system simultaneously considers planning and scheduling processesin order to achieve the optimality. Optimisation engine is based on an advanced evolutionary algorithm. Information available in ERPsystem from different production units and stages, the optimization module, and customer requests are integrated via Internet using XMLlanguage as a data exchange standard.The details on key elements of the system and a software architecture are given. Practical application of the system is illustrated on the example of production scheduling for an iron castings foundry.

A. Stawowy; J. Duda

2008-01-01

283

Safety management system of subcontractors’ works in foundry companies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Most companies use the services of subcontractors, either in their core business, or to support the work – e.g. maintenance. This poses the need for effective and systematic monitoring of the work of subcontractors, especially if they perform it on the premises of an enterprise. In some industries such as construction, energy, petrochemicals, metallurgy and foundry additional system requirements appear, particularly with regard to safety and the environment, a compliance with which is necessary to obtain an order. Often, conformity with these requirements must be confirmed with a certificate. The article presents examples of standardised special requirements, such as SCC /VCA, SCT / VCU, SQAS used for sub-contractors of construction work, maintenance, scaffolding etc. in the European Union member states.

M. R?czka

2010-01-01

284

Production and industrial testing of foundry coke briquettes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Increasing engineering output raises the demand for foundry production at a time when the trend is towards weakly- and non-caking coal inclusion in charges for cokemaking. Tests were continued with the ring furnace, with excess pressure in the roof area, and temperatures in this zone ranging from 750-960 C. The coke briquettes had appreciable volatile matter due to the lower temperatures and retained their surface roughness. Further tests were carried out in which the briquettes were overlain by highly caking smalls which filled the interstices, resulting in improved briquette surface and general properties. In the cupola itself, the coke briquettes appear to have behaved satisfactorily, retaining shape during descent right through to the end of the heating period. Equal amounts of briquetted and conventional coke combined to raise cupola output and raised the iron tap temperature by 60 C. The strength and density of the briquettes expands the combustion zone and up-grades the product.

Gorshkov, M.N.; Zagorets, A.M.; Makarov, G.N.; Timofeev, Yu.D.

1982-05-01

285

Extracting oil from oil sands  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Oil sands are dried to remove all of the connate water and are then introduced into a contactor in which the oil sands are contacted with water and a solvent for the bitumen oils, such as kerosene. The absence of substantial quantities of connate water in the oils sands results in the almost complete absence of crud (interfacial emulsion) in the contactor and in the absence of contaminating bitumen oils in the water and sand discharged from the contactor. Drying is effected preferably by passing the oil sands through a stationary or rotary kiln or conveyor shielding, through which passes countercurrent hot combustion gases. 10 claims.

Robinson, L.F.

1981-01-21

286

Criteria for an advanced assessment of quality of moulding sands with organic binders and reclamation process products  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Reclamation of used moulding and core sands has been defined as a treatment of waste moulding refractory materials, enabling a recovery of at least one of the components having properties similar to those of the fresh component, and reuse for production of casting moulds and cores. However, at present, there is a lack of a reclaimed material assessment index, which could be applied to each type of moulding sand and reclaim. Modern investigation methods and equipment for the estimation of the quality of the moulding sands matrices with organic binders, in their circulation process, are presented in this paper. These methods, utilizing the special equipment combined with the author’s investigation methods developed in the Faculty of Foundry Engineering, AGH - University of Science and Technology, allow the better estimation of the matrix quality both in an aspect of its application as a fresh sand substitute in the preparation of moulding sands, and also with regard to the environmental protection. The most important criteria for the technological assessment of the reclaimed materials and the quality of sands with organic binders are presented in this paper.

R. Da?ko

2013-01-01

287

Barriers to and drivers for energy efficiency in the Swedish foundry industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Despite the need for increased industrial energy efficiency, studies indicate that cost-efficient energy conservation measures are not always implemented, explained by the existence of barriers to energy efficiency. This paper investigates the existence of different barriers to and driving forces for the implementation of energy efficiency measures in the energy intensive Swedish foundry industry. The overall results from a questionnaire show that limited access to capital constitutes by far the largest barrier to energy efficiency according to the respondents. A comparison between group-owned and privately owned foundries shows that, except for limited access to capital, they face different high-ranked barriers. While barriers within group owned companies are more related to organizational problems, barriers within private foundries are more related to information problems. This study also found that energy consultants or other actors working with energy issues in foundries are of major importance in overcoming the largest barriers, as the foundries consider them trustworthy. They may thus help the foundries overcome organizational problems such as lack of sub-metering and lack of budget funds by quantifying potential energy efficiency investments. The two, by far, most important drivers were found to be people with real ambition and long-term energy strategies.

2007-01-01

288

Liquefaction resistance of calcareous sands  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Calcareous sands are unique in terms of their origin, mineralogy, shape, fragility and intra particle porosity. This article presents results from an experimental program carried out to study the liquefaction resistance of a calcareous sand retrieved from Cabo Rojo at Puerto Rico. The experimental program included mineralogical characterization, index properties, and undrained cyclic triaxial tests on isotropically consolidated reconstituted samples. Due to the large variation in the calcareous sand properties, results are compared with previous researches carried out on other calcareous sands around the world. Results showed a wide range in the liquefaction resistance of the studied calcareous sands. Cabo Rojo sand experienced greater liquefaction resistance than most of the calcareous sands used for comparison. Important differences in the excess pore pressure generation characteristics were also found.

2012-01-01

289

Updated oil sands supply outlook  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This conference presentation provided an introduction to Canada's oil sands, resources and reserves and discussed the Canadian Energy Research Institute's (CERI) oil sands industry outlook and what has changed. It provided an update for oil sands supply costs (capital and operating) for thermal in situ projects, mining and bitumen extraction, mining, extraction and upgrading. It also included updated oil sands supply projections for potential production and expected cases. An update on cogeneration opportunities for oil sands projects was presented along with a study on the economic impact of Alberta's oil sands industry. It was concluded that Canada's oil sands are one of the world's largest and most economically attractive hydrocarbon accumulations and that the industry is well developed and growing rapidly. tabs., figs.

Dunbar, B. [Strategy West Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

2005-07-01

290

Moving sand dunes  

CERN Document Server

In several desert areas, the slow motion of sand dunes can be a challenge for modern human activities and a threat for the survival of ancient places or archaeological sites. However, several methods exist for surveying the dune fields and estimate their migration rate. Among these methods, the use of satellite images, in particular of those freely available on the World Wide Web, is a convenient resource for the planning of future human settlements and activities.

Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

2011-01-01

291

Oil sands supply outlook  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In March 2004, The Canadian Energy Research Institute released a report on the expected future supply from Alberta's oil sands. The report indicates that the future for the already well-established oil sands industry is promising, particularly given the outlook for oil prices. The challenges facing the industry include higher industry supply costs and the need for innovative commercial and technological solutions to address the risks of irregularities and changes in crude oil prices. In 2003, the industry produced 874 thousand barrels per day of synthetic crude oil and unprocessed crude bitumen. This represents 35 per cent of Canada's total oil production. Current production capacity has increased to 1.0 million barrels per day (mbpd) due to new projects. This number may increase to 3.5 mbpd by 2017. Some new projects may be deferred due to the higher raw bitumen and synthetic crude oil supply costs. This presentation provided supply costs for a range of oil sands recovery technologies and production projections under various business scenarios. tabs., figs.

2004-01-01

292

Reduction of Energy Consumption and GHGs Emission in Conventional Sand Casting Process by Application of a New CRIMSON Process  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In conventional foundry, engineers generally consider the quality of casting part as the most essential issue and regard the energy consumption and Green House Gas (GHGs) emission as the auxiliary ones. This usually causes large amount of energy consumption as a result of the inefficient casting processes used and increases the production costs and environmental pollution. This paper presents the new CRIMSON process where its facility and melting process were compared with conventional melt furnaces and aluminium alloy melting process. An actual case was investigated to reveal quantitatively how the conventional foundry wastes energy and increases GHGs emission, and what the improvement of energy efficiency and the GHGs emission reduction can be achieved using the new CRIMSON process. The results of this investigation will help the foundry engineer recognize the importance of energy saving and environmental protection and show how to utilise this new process to reduce production costs and carbon footprint without decreasing the quality of the cast part.Key words: Energy consumption; GHGs emission; Furnace; Aluminium; Sanding casting; Melting; CRIMSON

Xiaojun DAI; Mark Jolly; Binxu ZENG

2012-01-01

293

A family of sand automata  

CERN Multimedia

We study some dynamical properties of a family of two-dimensional cellular automata: those that arise from an underlying one dimensional sand automaton whose local rule is obtained using a latin square. We identify a simple sand automaton G whose local rule is algebraic, and classify this automaton as having equicontinuity points, but not being equicontinuous. We also show it is not surjective. We generalise some of these results to a wider class of sand automata.

Faulkner, Nicholas

2012-01-01

294

Pre-SPC Math for Foundry Workers. A Lesson Developed for Robinson Foundry and Bodine-Robinson as Part of a National Workplace Literacy Program.  

Science.gov (United States)

|Developed as part of a National Workplace Literacy Program, this lesson focuses on terms and mathematical operations associated with Statistical Process Control (SPC) in the foundry industry. With appropriate assistance and preparatory work, workers testing between grades 4 and 9 on the Test of Adult Basic Education Locator should be able to use…

Rasmussen, Bonnie

295

Pre-SPC Math for Foundry Workers. A Lesson Developed for Robinson Foundry and Bodine-Robinson as Part of a National Workplace Literacy Program.  

Science.gov (United States)

Developed as part of a National Workplace Literacy Program, this lesson focuses on terms and mathematical operations associated with Statistical Process Control (SPC) in the foundry industry. With appropriate assistance and preparatory work, workers testing between grades 4 and 9 on the Test of Adult Basic Education Locator should be able to use…

Rasmussen, Bonnie

296

No sand in the machinery. Oil sands in Canada  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Which potential is contained in the oil sand reserves is seen from a comparison with energy reserves from other resources. Coal deposits with 1.077 billion tons hard coal units rank first; oil sands with 150 billion tons HCV second and only on the third place we find the conventional petroleum deposits with 87 billion tons HCV, followed by natural gas (59 billion tons HCV) and oil shale (34 billion tons HCV). Nearly one third of the world's known oil sand deposits are in the Canadian province Alberta where the huge Athabasca deposit plus some smaller ones are found. In the processing of oil sand, there are three different steps: 1) Washing the oil sand and separating the bitumen from the sand grains; 2) Separation of the bitumen and sand by flotation; 3) Thermal cracking after which the product comes into the refinery as synthetic raw oil. In order to be able to utilize deeper located oil sands, the 'in-situ-method' has been tested for some years with sometimes nearly 30 test drillings. (orig./HSCH).

Schroeder, P.

1988-02-01

297

Influence of material granularity on micro-pore structure of foundry formed coke produced with char  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Foundry formed coke technology is an effective method to solve environmental pollution problem and enlarge coking coal resources in the coking industry. The macroscopically quality and reactivity in furnace of the foundry formed coke are dependent on the micro-pore structure of the coke. The foundry formed coke was produced in a specific process, using different sizes of semi-coke and prime coking coal as main materials. The Influence of material granularity on micro-pore structure of foundry formed coke was studied by micro-pore structure analyzer and SEM. The results showed that with the increasing of semi-coke granularity, pore size of the maximum mercury rate has a little increase, while the peak value of the maximum mercury rate decreased and the number large pores increased obviously. The peak in the pore size distribution map changed under the semi-coke granularity variation. The variations under different semi-coke granularity of porosity, pore cubage and the average pore size of the coke were almost the same. With the increase of semi-coke granularity, density of foundry formed coke and thickness of pore wall of coke decreased, while the number of large pore and crack increased. The effect tendency of prime coking coal granularity is consistent with the semi-coke's. 3 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

Zhiyuan Gao; Jianjun Wu; Guoli Zhou; Jingru Zu; Jun Qiao

2009-07-01

298

Expanding paradigm of foundry engineering; Chuzo kogaku/chuzo gijutsu no paradaimu no kakudai  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The amount of foundry products in Japan was 10.8 million ton in all (1994), and the details of it were as follows: cast products 6.78 million ton (63%), forged products 2.7 million ton (25%), pressed products 1.13 million ton (10%) and power metallurgy products 0.19 million ton (2%). On the occasion of renaming of this society from `casting` to `foundry engineering`, expansion of paradigm for foundry engineering and the same technology must be promoted. In this paper, `paradigm` means framework of a subject realm. Foundry engineering, being considered to be separated into three spheres those of which are cast materials, foundry processes and constituent elements, must be assigned naturally as the unified technology which get these spheres tied in with one another. For that purpose, simulation technology, constructing of data-bases using computers, environmental harmonization and recycle technology, etc. are must be pursued. And besides, education for engineers and students who will perform various elements mentioned above is indispensable. 5 figs.

Kamio, A. [Tokyo Inst. of Tech. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

1996-01-25

299

Electromagnet Gripping in Iron Foundry Automation Part II: Simulation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper compares the simulation and initial experimental results for robust part handling by radially symmetric cylindrical electromagnetic gripper heads, that are used in foundry manufacturing assembly operation. Knowledge of the direct holding force is essential to determine if a given electromagnet is capable of preventing part slipping during pick and place operation. Energy based model and the magnetic circuit model have been described. The latter is developed further and compared with results from a FEA software. It was found that the magnetic circuit model, although simple in form, was limited in its ability to accurately predict the holding force over the entire range of conditions investigated. The shortcomings in the model were attributed to its inability to accurately model the leakage flux and non-uniform distribution of the magnetic flux. A finite element allowed for the ability to couple the mechanical and magnetic models. The finite element model was used to predict the magnetic field based off the solutions to the mechanical (sigma) and the magnetic model (B).

Rhythm Suren Wadhwa

2012-01-01

300

Signalling a foundry mould filling degree with infrared sensors  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A contactless method of measuring a foundry mould filling degree in course of its pouring with liquid metal is suggested. The concept is based on infrared radiation of molten metal appearing in venting and flow-off holes. As the detector, an infrared channel receiving diode is applied. Three solutions were tested. In the first solution, the diode is placed at the calculated distance from the radiation source, in a housing that suppresses the scattered signal. The housing contains the electronics, while power supply and control signals are delivered by conductors. A diode actuation threshold is established in order to obtain high resolution and repeatability of the results. On the output, a miniature relay transmits the signal to the control system. In the second solution, the measuring system is supplied with a battery and the signal in transmitted through a plastic optical fibre. In the third solution, the optical fibre serves as an energy carrier. The optical system focuses the infrared radiation and introduces the energy to the optical fibre. On the other end of the fibre, a phototransistor amplifies the signal, forms it and transmits to the control system. Some experiments were carried out. Their results permitted noting disadvantages and advantages of individual solutions. It was evidenced that the measurement results obtained using the infrared radiation are independent on a constructional design. The solutions utilising optical fibres proved to be more useful in industrial conditions. Targets and further directions of research works using transceivers for wireless data transmission are presented.

M. Bogdan; S. Fita; T. Mikulczy?ski; S. Ciskowski

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

???????????? ??????? Information Behavior of the Semiconductor Foundry Industry Engineers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????This article takes semiconductor foundry industry engineers as research subjects, and tries to understand their information behavior. This article employs the questionnaire and in-depth interview as the research methodology. There are four primary findings: (1) the information need of an engineer lies in enhancing self’s working-ability and solve problems encountered in daily job; (2) the primary information sources of engineers are documents and interpersonal relationships, and the most difficult problems in seeking information are information overload and too little relevant and professional information; (3) quality and accessibility is the main factor when engineers seek information; whether the information fit demands or not and the information accuracy are the primary points when engineers evaluate information; the main purpose of engineers using information is to work more efficiently and to achieve the goal or mission in a timely manner; (4) the engineers’ educational backgrounds, professional titles, and job functions have significant influences on a few activities of information behavior.

Yu-Ping Shih; Hao-Ren Ke

2010-01-01

302

Basic properties for sand automata  

CERN Multimedia

We prove several results about the relations between injectivity and surjectivity for sand automata. Moreover, we begin the exploration of the dynamical behavior of sand automata proving that the property of nilpotency is undecidable. We believe that the proof technique used for this last result might reveal useful for many other results in this context.

Cervelle, J; Masson, B; Cervelle, Julien; Formenti, Enrico; Masson, Benoit

2004-01-01

303

Development of CANMETCOAT digger teeth for oil sands bucket wheel reclaimer service  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An innovative process has been developed to manufacture digger teeth for bucketwheel excavators used in oil sands mining. Such teeth need to be highly wear resistant, and consequently the steel used to make the teeth needs to be coated with a wear-resistant material. As an alternative to deposition of wear-resistant alloys on the tooth surface by a welding process, research was conducted to develop some kind of as-cast coating in which the casting and coating could be performed in one step. The problems with previous attempts at developing such a process were overcome by using a vacuum both to suck the molten metal into the mold and to hold the coating to the inside surface of the mold, so that the incoming metal would not sweep the coating away. This process, called CANMETCOAT, was tested both at an experimental foundry and a commercial foundry. Over 100 teeth were successfully cast, and modifications of the experimental version of the process are proposed in order to adapt it to commercial production. 3 refs., 6 figs.

Davis, K.G.; Magny, J.-G.

1990-01-01

304

Solvent extraction of bituminous sand  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A method is described for separating tar sand oil from a mixture consisting of a major proportion of sand and a minor proportion of oil. A liquid phase is formed of the tar sand oil and a liquid solvent by contacting the liquid solvent with the sand/oil mixture. The solvent comprises at least one ketone, preferably containing acetone and 3-butanone, and having from 0.1 to 1.0 volume of 2-butanone per volume of acetone. At least a portion of the liquid phase is separated from a fraction of the sand. In addition to the ketone, the solvent includes from 0.1 to 3.0 volumes of a hydrocarbon component for each volume of ketone in the solvent. Suitable hydrocarbons include benzene and alkylaromatic hydrocarbons or hydrocarbon fractions having a boiling range within the range from 75 to 650 F and containing monocyclic aromatics. (17 claims)

Bose, P.R.

1982-08-17

305

Sand swimming lizard: sandfish  

CERN Document Server

We use high-speed x-ray imaging to reveal how a small (~10cm) desert dwelling lizard, the sandfish (Scincus scincus), swims within a granular medium [1]. On the surface, the lizard uses a standard diagonal gait, but once below the surface, the organism no longer uses limbs for propulsion. Instead it propagates a large amplitude single period sinusoidal traveling wave down its body and tail to propel itself at speeds up to ~1.5 body-length/sec. Motivated by these experiments we study a numerical model of the sandfish as it swims within a validated soft sphere Molecular Dynamics granular media simulation. We use this model as a tool to understand dynamics like flow fields and forces generated as the animal swims within the granular media. [1] Maladen, R.D. and Ding, Y. and Li, C. and Goldman, D.I., Undulatory Swimming in Sand: Subsurface Locomotion of the Sandfish Lizard, Science, 325, 314, 2009

Maladen, Ryan D; Kamor, Adam; Goldman, Daniel I

2009-01-01

306

Exploiting the oil sands  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This presentation included several charts and graphs illustrating Suncor's hydrocarbon producing areas, growth in world oil demand, and Canada's vast oil resource in comparison to Saudi Arabia, Iraq, Kuwait, Abu Dhabi, Iran, Venezuela and Russia. Oil sand production in Canada is expected to grow from approximately 750 kbpd in 2000 to approximately 2,400 kbpd in 2015. The challenge in meeting the supply is that significant capital is required and regulatory regimes are needed to attract investment. In addition, the energy infrastructure, pipelines and refineries need to be revamped. Any future increases in production must also take environmental impacts into consideration. Suncor has set an environmental performance example by reducing greenhouse gas intensity through investment in technology to reduce energy consumption. Sulphur dioxide emissions at Suncor operations have declined through investments in scrubbing technology. In addition, new processes now reuse and recycle water. tabs., figs.

Williams, S. [Suncor Energy Inc. Oil Sands, Fort McMurray, AB (Canada)

2004-07-01

307

Sand, jams and jets  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Granular media are offering new insights into problems in condensed-matter physics and materials science, as Heinrich Jaeger explains. The remarkable properties of granular materials are so familiar that most of us do not even notice them. It is clear, for example, that we cannot walk on water unless the temperature has dropped below freezing. However, we take it for granted that sand will support our weight as if it were a solid, even though it can also be poured like a liquid under the same ambient conditions. From breakfast cereal, sugar and flour to construction materials, mining products and pharmaceuticals, granular media are present everywhere in our daily lives. (U.K.)

Jaeger, H. [James Franck Institute and Department of Physics, University of Chicago (United States)]. E-mail: h-jaeger@uchicago.edu

2005-12-01

308

Sand, jams and jets  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Granular media are offering new insights into problems in condensed-matter physics and materials science, as Heinrich Jaeger explains. The remarkable properties of granular materials are so familiar that most of us do not even notice them. It is clear, for example, that we cannot walk on water unless the temperature has dropped below freezing. However, we take it for granted that sand will support our weight as if it were a solid, even though it can also be poured like a liquid under the same ambient conditions. From breakfast cereal, sugar and flour to construction materials, mining products and pharmaceuticals, granular media are present everywhere in our daily lives. (U.K.)

2005-01-01

309

Riddle of the sands  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A geological model of the Alberta landscape during the period stretching from about 110 million to 100 million years ago during the Cretaceous period when dinosaurs roamed the earth, was sketched. Today, the region contains the Cold Lake oil sands deposit. Imperial Oil began large-scale production at Cold Lake in 1985. The formations within the area are the source of almost half of Imperial Oil`s daily crude oil production and account for one in every 20 barrels of oil produced daily in Canada. The bitumen is produced using cyclic steam stimulation where steam is injected at high pressure into the underground reservoir, fracturing the sandstone and heating the bitumen it holds to thin it so that it can then flow through well bores to the surface. Conventional geological theory suggested that the Cold Lake reservoir was the remains of a prehistoric river delta. In 1994, Imperial Oil established a Cold Lake sequence stratigraphy project to verify this theory. This highly complex project involves volumes of geophysical well-log data from the 2,500 wells at Cold Lake, core samples cut from more than 600 of these wells and microscopic fossilized remains of 100-million-year-old flora extracted from the core samples, and seismic information. The interpreted data helps to create a three-dimensional model of the reservoir`s structure and help define its boundaries. Results have shown that the Cold Lake deposit was created from at least 13 intersecting river beds. Each of the rivers flowed for a few hundred thousand years and deposited sands of varying quality in different layers and patterns. The oil came about 40 million years later after the plant and animal materials containing hydrogen and carbon were broken down by heat and pressure to form oil. 1 fig.

Rolheiser, P.

1998-09-01

310

Nasal and ocular effects in foundry workers using the hot box method.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence of nasal and ocular symptoms and nasal signs in foundry workers exposed to monoisocyanates using the Hot Box method. METHODS: Forty-three foundry workers and 69 referents completed questionnaires and were examined by a rhinologist. Exposure to isocyanic acid, methyl isocyanate, formaldehyde, and total dust was measured. RESULTS: Nasal symptoms and signs were associated with exposure, and dose-response relationships between nasal symptoms and exposure to isocyanic acid, methyl isocyanate, and formaldehyde were observed. Dry nasal mucosa was more prevalent in exposed workers than in referents. These findings were not substantially affected by the exclusion of asthmatic and allergic individuals, smokers, or females. CONCLUSIONS: An increased prevalence of nasal symptoms and signs was observed among exposed workers, suggesting an association with the foundry environment involving monoisocyanates and other airway irritants, such as formaldehyde and dust.

Löfstedt H; Westberg H; Seldén AI; Rudblad S; Bryngelsson IL; Ngo Y; Svartengren M

2011-01-01

311

Simulation by the method of inverse cumulative distribution function applied in optimising of foundry plant production  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study discusses application of computer simulation based on the method of inverse cumulative distribution function. The simulationrefers to an elementary static case, which can also be solved by physical experiment, consisting mainly in observations of foundryproduction in a selected foundry plant. For the simulation and forecasting of foundry production quality in selected cast iron grade, arandom number generator of Excel calculation sheet was chosen. Very wide potentials of this type of simulation when applied to theevaluation of foundry production quality were demonstrated, using a number generator of even distribution for generation of a variable ofan arbitrary distribution, especially of a preset empirical distribution, without any need of adjusting to this variable the smooth theoreticaldistributions.

J. Szymszal; J. Pi?tkowski; P. Podolski; J. Kli?

2009-01-01

312

Comparison of Energy Consumption in the Classical (PID) and Fuzzy Control of Foundry Resistance Furnace  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Foundry resistance furnaces are thermal devices with a relatively large time delay in their response to a change in power parameters.Commonly used in automation classical PID controllers do not meet the requirements of high-quality control. Developed in recent years,fuzzy control theory is increasingly being used in various branches of economy and industry. Fuzzy controllers allow to introduce newdevelopments in control systems of foundry furnaces as well. Correctly selected fuzzy controller can significantly reduce energyconsumption in a controlled thermal process of heating equipment. The article presents a comparison of energy consumption by controlsystem of foundry resistance furnace, equipped with either a PID controller or fuzzy controller optimally chosen.

E. Zió?kowski; P. ?mierciak

2012-01-01

313

Determination of isocyanate and aromatic amine emissions from thermally degraded polyurethanes in foundries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Thermal degradation of polyurethanes can cause emissions of isocyanates and aromatic amines into work atmospheres. Results from laboratory studies on the use of 4,4'-methylenediphenyl isocyanate (MDI)-based polyurethane bound foundry core materials showed that anilines and phenyl isocyanates are major degradation products, but the possibility for emissions of MDI and its corresponding diamine, 4-4'-methylenedianiline, also was demonstrated. Results from field investigations in two different foundries showed that of these degradation products, mainly anilines and phenylisocyanates are found in foundry work atmosphere, whereas MDI and methylenedianiline concentrations were negligible. The selection of air sampling and analytical procedures for, as well as interpretation of results from, simultaneous determination of isocyanates and their corresponding amines are discussed.

Sangoe, L.R.; Skarping, G.

1986-10-01

314

Gray-iron foundry industry particulate emissions: source category report. Final report, June 1983-August 1986  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report gives results of a study to develop particulate emission factors based on cutoff size for inhalable particles for the gray-iron foundry industry. After a review of available information characterizing particulate emissions from gray iron foundries, the data are summarized and rated in terms of reliability. Size-specific emission factors were developed from these data for the major processes used in the manufacture of gray iron. A detailed process description is presented with emphasis on factors affecting the generation of emissions. A replacement for Section 7.10 (Gray Iron Foundries) of EPA report AP-42, A Compilation of Air Pollutant Emissions Factors, was prepared, containing the size-specific emission factors developed during the program.

Jeffrey, J.; Fitzgerald, J.; Wolf, P.

1986-12-01

315

Determination of application possibilities of microwave heating in the curing process of water glass molding sands with fluid esters. Part 1  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article presents results of the experimental trial of combination of the chemical method of water glass molding sands’ curing, used in foundry industry, with an innovative microwave heating. The research objective was to indicate at new areas of microwave energy application. The sands prepared, according to recommendations for curing technology, with the use of ethylene glycol diacetate, have been subject to microwave influence. The attempt at determination of microwave influence on qualitative changes of the binding bridges created during the curing process concerned such parameters as: bending and tensile strength, permeability as well as wear resistance. Moreover,we also determined the influence of microwave curing on the phenomena accompanying the process as well as bond stability (storage time of the prepared molding and core sands). It has been found, basing on the result analysis, that the innovative microwave heating might constitute a very good supplementation of the ester curing method. The advantages of the combined chemical and microwave gelation process include, among others, improvement of the described resistance and technological parameters as well as significant decrease of preparation time of foundry moulds and cores. The subject discussed in this article will be continued in its second part.

K. Granat; D. Nowak; M. Pigiel; M. Stachowicz; R. Wikiera

2009-01-01

316

Technology development towards a generic InP-based photonic-integration foundry  

Science.gov (United States)

The main goal of this work is to create a generic foundry service that allows outside users (i.e., universities and small- and-medium enterprises) that do not have fabrication facilities to obtain their own custom-made InP-based photonic-integrated chips (or ASPIC, application-specific photonic-integrated circuits, similar to ASIC in electronics). In this approach, the foundry supplies the user with the cross-section of the interconnect waveguide structure, and the mask layout dimensions and performance of several pre-defined- and wellcharacterized building blocks (BB) such as photodiodes, phase modulators, and spot-size converters (for lowloss fiber-chip coupling). Using this information, the user can generate a mask layout for the foundry by placing the building blocks onto his layout canvas and interconnecting them with the interconnect waveguides. Furthermore, since the material cross-section of the interconnect waveguide is known, the user can design, simulate, and include a mask layout for a desired passive devices such as MMIs, and AWGs, which can subsequently be fabricated at the foundry. We describe the technology development towards obtaining a versatile generic-foundry platform which gives users the freedom to design a large variety of photonic-integrated- devices and circuits. Our generic-foundry technology is based on the fabrication process of our commercially-available high-speed- photodiodes and balanced photodiodes (high-frequency response up to and beyond 100 GHz). We have expanded this fabrication process to include a total of three different types of interconnecting waveguides: a low-contrast-, a medium-contrast, and a high-contrast waveguide, as well as transition BBs to couple light from one waveguide type into the other.

Soares, F. M.; Janiak, K.; Broeke, R. G.; Grote, N.

2011-05-01

317

Determination of dimethylethylamine in air samples from iron foundries by isotachophoresis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A method for the determination of dimethylethylamine in workroom air has been developed. Static gas standards of the amine in air were used to evaluate different sampling techniques. The analysis was performed by isotachophoresis. The sampling equipment of choice was midget impinger flasks of glass or polystyrene containing 10 ml of hydrochloric acid (50 mmol/l). The method was used in a field study of three different iron foundries where air samples were taken. The dimethylethylamine concentration found was in the range 0.5-155 mg//sup 3/. No pretreatment of the samples was necessary, and no interfering substances from the air in the foundries affected the analysis.

Hansen, L.; Sollenberg, J.; Uggla, C.

1985-08-01

318

Simulating the deformation of dies in the foundry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Digital simulation (QuikCAST, ProCAST) is already used extensively when designing metallic dies for founding, in particular to design filling and gating systems. Simulation of the steady-state temperature cycles of dies has also been mastered. With large castings, the temperature gradient induced between the moulding surface and the rear surfaces of the die leads to deformations that may be large enough to measure, and incompatible with the required dimensional accuracy. The temperature gradient also creates thermal fatigue stresses that cause crazing of the die surface. In the study conducted by CTIF, aimed at measuring tooling deformations, various ways of measuring displacements at high temperatures (with and without contact) were investigated in order to evaluate their capabilities and limitations. An experimental device was designed - a test bench combining a metallic die having a simple geometry, in which an aluminium part could be cast, and instrumentation (temperature and displacement sensors). The deformations of the die were measured during first cycles of temperature homogenization. Concurrently, thermomechanical calculations were carried out on the same geometry using PROCAST. The calculation results are well correlated with the experimental measurements and validate the tools and the calculation methods. This thermomechanical approach makes it possible to optimize die design in the foundry and to predict high-temperature deformations as early as the design stage. Knowledge of these deformations makes it possible in turn to anticipate the geometrical and dimensional variations undergone by the castings themselves and so to improve their accuracy. The designer can act on the temperature of the die or the design of the casting, or create a die in which the expected thermal deformation is reversed so as to produce a casting having the correct dimensions. In short, thermomechanical simulation can be applied to this problem to achieve a better understanding of the phenomena and to test solutions in advance.

2012-07-03

319

Simulating the deformation of dies in the foundry  

Science.gov (United States)

Digital simulation (QuikCAST, ProCAST) is already used extensively when designing metallic dies for founding, in particular to design filling and gating systems. Simulation of the steady-state temperature cycles of dies has also been mastered. With large castings, the temperature gradient induced between the moulding surface and the rear surfaces of the die leads to deformations that may be large enough to measure, and incompatible with the required dimensional accuracy. The temperature gradient also creates thermal fatigue stresses that cause crazing of the die surface. In the study conducted by CTIF, aimed at measuring tooling deformations, various ways of measuring displacements at high temperatures (with and without contact) were investigated in order to evaluate their capabilities and limitations. An experimental device was designed - a test bench combining a metallic die having a simple geometry, in which an aluminium part could be cast, and instrumentation (temperature and displacement sensors). The deformations of the die were measured during first cycles of temperature homogenization. Concurrently, thermomechanical calculations were carried out on the same geometry using PROCAST. The calculation results are well correlated with the experimental measurements and validate the tools and the calculation methods. This thermomechanical approach makes it possible to optimize die design in the foundry and to predict high-temperature deformations as early as the design stage. Knowledge of these deformations makes it possible in turn to anticipate the geometrical and dimensional variations undergone by the castings themselves and so to improve their accuracy. The designer can act on the temperature of the die or the design of the casting, or create a die in which the expected thermal deformation is reversed so as to produce a casting having the correct dimensions. In short, thermomechanical simulation can be applied to this problem to achieve a better understanding of the phenomena and to test solutions in advance.

Chabod, A.; Longa, Y.; Dracon, J. M.; Chailler, K.; Hairy, P.; Da Silva, A.

2012-07-01

320

Sand, Syrup and Supervolcanoes  

Science.gov (United States)

Supervolcanic eruptions are amongst the most awesome events in the history of the Earth. A supervolcano can erupt thousands of cubic kilometers of ash devastating entire countries and changing the climate for decades. During the eruption, the magma chamber partially empties and collapses. As the chamber collapses at depth, a massive subsidence pit develops at the surface, called a caldera, some calderas can be the size of the entire San Francisco Bay Area. Fortunately, a supervolcano of this size has not erupted since the development of modern man. Due to the infrequency and massive scale of these eruptions, volcanologists do not yet fully understand how calderas form and how the eruption is affected by the roof collapse and vice versa. Therefore, simple analogue experiments are amongst the best ways to understand these eruptions. We present two of these experiments that can be fun, cheap, and helpful to high school and university instructors to demonstrate caldera formation. The first experiment illustrates how magma chamber roofs collapse to produce different style calderas, the second experiment demonstrates how the magma in the chamber affects the collapse style and magma mixing during a supervolcanic eruption. The collapse of a magma chamber can be demonstrated in a simple sandbox containing a buried balloon filled with air connected to a tube that leads out of the sandbox. At this small scale the buried balloon is a good analogue for a magma chamber and sand has an appropriate strength to represent the earths crust. Faults propagate through the sand in a similar way to faults propagating through the crust on a larger scale. To form a caldera just let the air erupt out of the balloon. This experiment can be used to investigate what controls the shape and structure of calderas. Different shaped balloons, and different burial depths all produce sand calderas with different sizes and structures. Additionally, experiments can be done that erupt only part of the volume of the balloon. These sandbox experiments can be compared to natural calderas and help us understand their internal structure. The second experiment helps us understand how magma behaves during collapse. For this experiment we allowed dense cylindrical blocks to sink into syrup solutions filled with poppy seeds. We mix the syrup with warm water to reduce its viscosity. A series of sinking experiments can be done at different viscosities to investigate different regimes of fluid flow. A key parameter used to the character of the flow of magma is the Reynolds number, the ratio between inertial and viscous forces. The experiments show how the Reynolds number of the magma affects the speed and the style that the block sinks, and also how the magma behaves in the chamber. Fast subsidence in low viscosity fluid (high Reynolds numbers) produces seed vortices in the syrup, indicating mixing. This experiment helps us understand the interplay between eruption and collapse and why mixed magma frequently erupts from calderas. These two simple experiments not only demonstrate caldera formation, but also can be used to get quantative information about the processes governing caldera formation.

Kennedy, B.; Jellinek, M.; Stix, J.

2006-12-01

 
 
 
 
321

Electric hot water sand bottle  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An electric hot water sand bottle comprising a plastic bottle made of heat enduring material, a body in similar form to the widely used rubber bottle, wherein water (or oil) and sand are kept, and a stopper of the bottle where an electric element and power supply unit are built inside and outside respectively. The power supply unit built in the stopper of the bottle is composed of a tripod electric socket (220V-240V, 50-60Hz, 1700-1800W) and a switch, which is automatically cut off when the temperature of the mixture of water and sand reaches a certain pre-defined temperature.

PARK JONGBAE

322

Direct Chlorination of Zircon Sand  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It was investigated the direct chlorination of zircon sand in a unit chlorination equipment. The process was in semi batch. The product gas was scrubbed in aqueous NaOH. It was search the influence of time, ratio of reactant and size of particle sand to the concentration of Zr and Si in the product. From these research it was found that as the times, ratio of reactant increased, the concentration of Zr increased, but the concentration of Si decreased, while as grain size of zircon sand decreased the concentration of Zr decreased, but the concentration of Si increased. (author)

2002-06-27

323

Microbial strengthening of loose sand.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIMS: To test whether the addition of Flavobacterium johnsoniae could increase the strength of saturated Ottawa 30 sand. METHODS AND RESULTS: A box model was built that simulates groundwater-like flow through a main sand compartment. Strength tests were performed at seven locations and at two depths, 10.8 and 20.3 cm below the top of the tank, using a vane shear device before and after the addition of bacteria. After the addition of Fl. johnsoniae, sand samples were obtained from multiple sampling ports on the vertical sides of the box model. The presence of a bacterial biofilm was confirmed by staining these sand samples with SYTO-9 and Alexa Fluor 633 and viewing with a confocal microscope. The average shear strength increases after the addition of Fl. johnsoniae were 15.2-87.5%, depending on the experimental conditions. CONCLUSIONS: Flavobacterium johnsoniae caused a statistically significant increase in the strength of saturated Ottawa 30 sand. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: Biofilm-forming bacteria can increase the shear strength of saturated sand. The addition of biofilm-forming bacteria to a building site may be an alternate method to mitigate the effects of liquefaction.

Banagan BL; Wertheim BM; Roth MJ; Caslake LF

2010-08-01

324

Efficient use of electric furnaces in the non-ferrous foundry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article discusses energy efficiency in induction furnaces and resistance heated furnaces used in the non-ferrous foundry sector. For induction melting, the effects of the alloy, the charge material, the living material, the lining temperature and dross build-up on furnace efficiency are discussed. For resistance furnaces, furnace efficiencies for both crucible and bath furnaces are discussed. (UK)

Smith, L. (AEA Technology, Capenhurst (United Kingdom))

1993-05-01

325

Possibility of application of expert systems in CALS technologies at the foundry ???? ?????? ?????????? ??????? ????????? ???????????? ??????? ??????? ???????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The possibility of expert systems application at technology development in the new range of products (turbine blades) and search for the causes of spoilage in foundry are discussed in article. An algorithmic solution definition of forecasting problem is presented.? ?????? ??????????????? ??????? ?????????????? ??? ?????? ?????????? ?????? ? ??????? ????????? ???????????? ??? ?????????? ?????????? ??????? ??????? ??????, ?????? ?????? ????????????? ???????? ? ??????? ?? ??????????????.

?. ?. ????????; ?. ?. ???????; ?. ?. ????????

2013-01-01

326

Development Program for Improving Foundry and Repair Welding Techniques for ZE41-type Magnesium Alloy Castings.  

Science.gov (United States)

This report describes a development program for improved foundry and repair welding techniques for large complex ZE41-type magnesium castings, such as currently specified by the designers of next generation of army aircraft (e.g. the AAH, UTTAS, etc.). Th...

J. Desai

1976-01-01

327

Siempelkamp foundry specializes in big components; Siempelkamp Giesserei: Spezialisten fuer grosse Gussteile  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Siempelkamp foundry at Krefeld, Germany, is the world's biggest producer of modular graphite castings, e.g. engine blocks for passenger vessels, grinding vats for cement mills, spars and big pulleys. For ENERCON, Siempelkamp are fabricating the cast iron components of the E-70/E-82 series and components of the E-126 like supports and rotor hubs. (orig.)

Anon.

2007-07-01

328

Occupational eosinophilic bronchitis in a foundry worker exposed to isocyanate and a baker exposed to flour  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Eosinophilic bronchitis without asthma may occur as a consequence of occupational exposure. The cases of a foundry worker and a baker who developed symptoms, respectively, due to exposure to isocyanate and flour, are reported. Cough was not associated with variable airflow obstruction or with airway...

Stefano, Fabio Di; Giampaolo, Luca Di; Verna, Nicola; Gioacchino, Mario Di

329

METRO-APEX Volume 13.1: Industrialist's Manual No. 3, Rusty's Iron Foundry. Revised.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Industrialist's Manual No. 3 (Rusty's Iron Foundry) is one of a set of twenty-one manuals used in METRO-APEX 1974, a computerized college and professional level, computer-supported, role-play, simulation exercise of a community with "normal" problems. Stress is placed on environmental quality considerations. APEX 1974 is an expansion of…

University of Southern California, Los Angeles. COMEX Research Project.

330

A feasibility study on the reuse of iron-foundry sludges as land application  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective of this study is to evaluate the applicability of sewage and iron-foundry sludge mixture as landfilling soil. Secondary sewage sludge and iron-foundry sludge were used for this study. Extracted amount of heavy metals and nitrogen with soil and sewage sludge were analyzed to determine the mixture ratio of soil and sewage sludge. Permeability test carried out to assess the mixing ratio of iron-foundry sludge. The growth rate of plants were also examined to test the applicability of sludge mixture as landfilling soil. Extracted copper and nitrogen as well as heavy metals and organic pollutants could meet the level of the recommended environmental guideline. Optimum mixing ratio of soil, sewage, and iron-foundry sludge was 1:0.6:0.2. Some of plants grew up well in sludge mixture and absorbed metals in plant were negligible. Applying sludge mixture to the land will be considered as an effective method for sludge disposal and reuse. (author). 13 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.

Lee, M.W. [Department of Horticulture, Anseong National Polytechnical University, Anseong (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Y.K. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Anseong National Polytechnical University, Anseong (Korea, Republic of)

1998-01-01

331

APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 8: Industrialist's Manual No. 3, Rusty's Iron Foundry.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Industrialist's Manual No. 3, Rusty's Iron Foundry is part of a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise), a computerized college and professional level "real world" game simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties. The first two sections,…

Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

332

Comparison of Fibers for Creep Strengthening of Zinc-aluminum Foundry Alloys  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A comparative evaluation is made of a variety of possible fibrous reinforcements for strengthening zinc-aluminium foundry alloys. The composites are processed by squeeze casting, using preforms of alumina, carbon, stainless steel or low carbon steel fibres. A drastic improvement of the creep strengt...

Tao, L.; Dellis, MA.; Boland, F.; Delannay, Francis; Wegria, J.

333

Electromagnet Gripping in Iron Foundry Automation Part I: Principles and Framework  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Robot grippers are employed to position and retain parts in automated assembly operations. This paper presents an overview of electromagnet part handling framework in an iron foundry and an equivalent electromagnet circuit model. The manner in which this whole concept of automated gripping system o...

Rhythm Suren Wadhwa; Terje-Lien

334

Occupational Exposure to Infrared Radiation in Aluminum and Cast-Iron Foundries in Zanjan, Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The harmful effects of the long-term ocular exposure to cumulative levels of infrared radiation (IR) in glassblowing and foundries have been recognized since the late 19th century. These effects include cataracts, keratitis, and chronic dry eye problems. Therefore, infrared radiation measurements are critical and need to be assessed regularly in the industries and workplaces where there are high temperature furnaces, such as in the glass industries and foundries. However, IR measurement is not very simple, especially when the range of interest is one in which radiometers are not available, as for the IR-B and IR-C ranges, and commonly available radiometers have a limited sensitivity range. The present article deduce a calculation method for evaluating of IR irradiance based on Planck's radiation law for black body radiation and using an IR detector sensitive in the spectral range 750-1150 nm. Based on this method, workers exposure was assessed to all harmful wavelength ranges of IR radiation in three foundries (two aluminums and one cast-iron). The results suggested that IR-A and IR-B radiation (wavelength from 770 nm to 3000 nm) in the mentioned foundries were more than TLVs (threshold limit values) given by ACGIH. There were significant risks of health hazards due to IR radiation exposure. Personal protective equipment should be used in order to prevent serious damage to eyes and skin, and selection of appropriate equipment should be on an individual basis due to different radiation exposure.

Faramarz Majidi; Kamaledin Abedi; Seyed Reza Azimi Pirsaraei

2011-01-01

335

Natural-gas-fuelled heating-up systems in a modern foundry; Erdgasbeheizte Anwaermsysteme in einer modernen Giesserei  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The following article describes the heavy demands made on pre-heating systems in foundries. Well pre-heated containers for accommodation and onward transmission of liquids are essential preconditions for casting quality and foundry cost-efficiency. The crucibles and other equipment are pre-heated and brought to thermal equilibrium before the liquid iron is cast at around 1400 C, thus also reducing the rejection rate for casting. This article demonstrates the way natural gas is used in practice for heating of foundry equipment. (orig.)

Runkel, H. [Hans Runkel Erdgas-Heizsysteme, Wuppertal (Germany); Gorski, R. [Giesserei Heunisch GmbH, Bad Windsheim (Germany)

2001-12-01

336

[Mucociliary clearance and respiratory function in foundry workers  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim of the study was to establish whether changes occur in respiratory function, particularly mucociliary clearance, among second fusion smeltery workers. The research covered 93 male smelters employed in steel forming and casting and 116 male workers of an electric power station, considered as non-exposed. Physiological, pathological and occupational histories of all subjects under study were available. An ECCS respiratory symptoms questionnaire was administered to all subjects ad the two groups also underwent a general medical examination, a spirometry and a chest X-ray. During the medical examination sputum was collected from the subjects to measure mucus transport rate on frog palate, expressed as Normalised Frog Palate Transport Rate (NFPTR). For the environmental research, dust, fumes and gas samplings were taken either at a fixed station or by means of personal dosimeters. Environmental research revealed very low concentrations of respiratory irritants (total dust: 0.2-6.8 mg/m3; respirable dust: 0.1-4.9 mg/m3; total silica: < 2-15.5%; respirable silica: < 0.004-0.3 mg/m3; iron: 0.008-0.085 mg/m3; chromium and manganese: < 0.001 mg/m3; fumes and gases: well below the TLV. The two groups were homogeneous with regard to age and smoking habits. Exposed workers showed rales, dyspnoea and spontaneous phlegm more frequently than non-exposed workers. NFPTR alterations were checked in 49 out of 81 exposed and in 18 out of 81 non-exposed subjects (chi squared = 22.9; p < 0.001). Stratification of the results according to smoking habits further confirmed the strong association between occupational exposure and NFPTR alterations. Smelters showed significantly lower mean NFPTR values compared to non-exposed subjects; also, the mean value of NFPTR in the exposed was below 0.70, which is considered the lowest individual limit in normal subjects. The only variable which explains a large part of the variability of NFPTR is past work in a smeltery rather than in an electric power station. The spirometries showed that only the mean PEF values were significantly lower among the exposed. Stratified analysis of the results according to smoking habits in the two groups revealed a close association between smeltery work and reduction of PEF to under 80% of the ECCS 1983 theoretical values, independently of smoking habits. We also compared the mean PEF values, both as measured values and as percent values of the ECCS 1983 theoretical values, stratified for occupational exposure and smoking; the results again showed that differences between these mean values were mainly due to current or past work in the foundry.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

Di Lorenzo L; Pegorari MM; Capozzi D; Margiotta M; Carpinelli G; Cassano F; Zocchetti C; Sacchitelli F; De Francesco G; Soleo L

1994-11-01

337

Qualidade Superficial de Peças de Alumínio Fundidas em Molde de Areia/ Surface Quality of Sand Aluminum Pieces Cost  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O presente trabalho consiste basicamente na análise das características físico-químicas de areia-base para fundição e sua influência na qualidade das peças fundidas. Foram coletados cinco diferentes tipos de areia-base, ambas com o mesmo tratamento mineral. A caracterização das areias-base foi realizada através dos seguintes ensaios de laboratório: distribuição granulométrica, argila AFS, umidade, permeabilidade base, expansão ao choque térmico, perda ao (more) fogo, temperatura de sinterização, teor de finos, caracterização visual e análise química. Foram confeccionados dois modelos diferentes. O primeiro com o formato em espiral, com o objetivo de investigar a fluidez do metal em função das características das diferentes areias-base. O segundo, uma placa escalonada, que permite identificar a qualidade do acabamento superficial da peça fundida para diferentes espessuras. O metal utilizado no processo de fundição foi o alumínio. A partir dos resultados encontrados no ensaio tecnológico, observou-se uma correlação com os resultados de laboratório, verificando que uma correta análise das características identificadas no laboratório permite prever o comportamento da areia-base e seu resultado final observado na peça fundida. Abstract in english The present work consists to analyze the physical and chemical characteristics of sands used to foundry and its influence in the quality of the melted pieces. Five different types of sand were collected, both with the same mineral treatment. The characterization of the sand was carried out through the following laboratory tests: grain size distribution (sieving), AFS clay content, water content, permeability, thermal expansion, loss on ignition, sinter point, fine content (more) s meshes and chemical composition. The optical microscope was used in order to identify the geometry of the grains of sand. Two different models were made. The first one with a spiral shape was made to investigate the flow?s capacity of the metal with respect the different characteristics of the sands. The second model which is a plate with different thickness was made to investigate the quality of the surface finishing of the melted pieces. The metal used in the foundry process was the aluminum. It was observed a significant correlation between the laboratory and technological results, which means that it is possible to preview the quality of melted pieces from the characteristics of the sand grains.

Rubio, Juan C. Campos; Panzera, Túlio Hallak; Nogueira, Wagner Alves

2006-01-01

338

Characterization and preparation of fluorescent sand tracer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Results on a laboratory scale study on the preparation of fluorescence sand tracer for sediment transport study are presented. Two aspects were emphasized in this study namely the physical properties of sand and the preparation of the fluorescent sand. The physical properties studied were component of sand, grain size distribution, and grain shape or form of the sand. The most common component of sand is quartz. This quartz sand contains small amount of feldspar, calcareous material, iron ore, and volcanic glass. Carbonates grains or particles such as brachiopods, gastropods, mollusk and small pieces of coral can be found in the sand sample. Based on the observation, the shape or form of the sand grains can be classified as a very angular with low sphericity. The materials that used in this experiment were beach sand, Rhodamine , Araldite CY 45, hardener Hy 48, toluene and ethyl alcohol. In order to produce the fluorescent sand, three solutions were prepared at certain proportion i.e. solution A (Whodamine + ethyl alcohol + toluene), solution B (Araldite + ethyl alcohol + toluene) and solution C (Hardener + ethyl alcohol + toluene). These three solutions were mixed together with sand and blended slowly until the surface of the sand grain dried. Fluorescent monitor and cabinet viewer were used to measure the intensity of fluorescent sand. Experimental results show that various intensity of fluorescent sand can be obtained depending on the proportion of the solutions. (Author)

2004-01-01

339

Oil sands tailings management project  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Oil sands leadership initiative (OSLI) works with the Government of Alberta on the development of the oil sands industry, considering environmental, economical and social aspects. Water management was identified as one of most important areas to focus on. Alberta WaterSMART was requested to support the development and the management of projects resulting from the work done or underway in this field. The development of a regional water management solution stood out as the most interesting solution to obtain significant results. In the Athabasca Region, oil sands producers work independently on their water sourcing and disposal with particular attention to fresh water conservation and economics. The Athabasca River represents a source for mines and distant saline aquifers are the target of steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) operators. As part of a four-phase project aiming to study the environmental and economic footprint (EEF) benefit of alternatives for Athabasca oil sands production water supply and disposal, the purpose of the tailings water management project was to identify tailings treatment technologies that are ready to be implemented, and to design and evaluate solutions in order to improve regional oil sands production water sourcing and disposal. Alternatives were evaluated based on their total EEF, applying a lifecycle assessment methodology with a particular attention on the quantification of important performance indicators. 25 refs., 8 tabs., 40 figs.

2010-01-01

340

Oil sands tailings management project  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Oil sands leadership initiative (OSLI) works with the Government of Alberta on the development of the oil sands industry, considering environmental, economical and social aspects. Water management was identified as one of most important areas to focus on. Alberta WaterSMART was requested to support the development and the management of projects resulting from the work done or underway in this field. The development of a regional water management solution stood out as the most interesting solution to obtain significant results. In the Athabasca Region, oil sands producers work independently on their water sourcing and disposal with particular attention to fresh water conservation and economics. The Athabasca River represents a source for mines and distant saline aquifers are the target of steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) operators. As part of a four-phase project aiming to study the environmental and economic footprint (EEF) benefit of alternatives for Athabasca oil sands production water supply and disposal, the purpose of the tailings water management project was to identify tailings treatment technologies that are ready to be implemented, and to design and evaluate solutions in order to improve regional oil sands production water sourcing and disposal. Alternatives were evaluated based on their total EEF, applying a lifecycle assessment methodology with a particular attention on the quantification of important performance indicators. 25 refs., 8 tabs., 40 figs.

Godwalt, C. [Alberta WaterSMART, Calgary, AB (Canada); Kotecha, P. [Suncor Energy Inc, Calgary, AB (Canada); Aumann, C. [Alberta Innovates - Technology Futures, Alberta Governement, AB (Canada)

2010-11-15

 
 
 
 
341

Design process optimization, virtual prototyping of manufacturing, and foundry-portable DFM (Invited Paper)  

Science.gov (United States)

We consider modern design for manufacturing (DFM) as a manifestation of IC industry re-integration and intensive cost management dynamics. In that regard DFM is somewhat different from so-called design for yield (DFY) which essentially focuses on productivity (yield) management (that is not to say that DFM and DFY do not have significant overlaps and interactions). We clearly see the shaping of a new "full-chip DFM" infrastructure on the background of the "back to basics" design-manufacturing re-integration dynamics. In the presented work we are focusing on required DFM-efficiencies in a "foundry-fabless" link. Concepts of "virtual prototyping of manufacturing", "design process optimization", and "foundry-portable DFM" models are explored. Both senior management of the industry and leading design groups finally realize the need for a radical change of design styles. Some of the DFM super-goals are to isolate designers from process details and to make designs foundry portable. It requires qualification of designs at different foundries. In their turn, foundries specified and are implementing a set of DFM rules: "action-required", "recommended", and "guidelines" while asking designers to provide netlist and testing information. Also, we observe strong signs of innovation coming back to the mask industry. Powerful solutions are emerging and shaping up toward mask-centered IP as a business. While it seems that pure-play foundries have found their place for now in the "IDM+" model (supporting manufacturing capacity of IDMs) it is not obvious how sustainable the model is. Wafer as a production unit is not sufficient anymore; foundries are being asked by large customers to price products in terms of good die. It brings back the notion of the old ASIC business model where the foundry is responsible for dealing with both random and systematic yield issues for a given design. One scenario of future development would be that some of the leading foundries might eventually transform themselves into IDMs. Another visible trend: some of the manufacturing capacities started to diversify business by providing services for new emerging markets (for example, new energy and medicine applications). Finally it is very unclear what"s going to happen to fabless players. We continue building on the "Think SPICE again!" methodology introduced last year and expanding on previous platforms' discussion. Model expression of DFM, most probably, will be supplied by the equipment suppliers and yield management community. Actual content for a design intent model will be provided by manufacturing. Much like SPICE it describes the behavior and not what the actual measurement in manufacturing is. When the model is available and populated, a design automation solution can be created that will allow a designer to extract, analyze, simulate, and optimize the circuit prior to handoff to manufacturing.

Hogan, James; Progler, Christopher; Chatila, Ahmad; Bruggeman, Bert; Heins, Mitchell; Pack, Robert; Boksha, Victor

2005-05-01

342

Competition in the foundry industry - a strategic approach; A busca da competitividade na industria de fundicao, uma bordagem estrategica  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The foundry industry is presently facing deep changes such as: foundries share holding control, opening to foreign investments, customs restriction reduction, worldwide competition, new investments in Brazil, profound changes in the supply procedures. This work analyses the factors which have meaning impact in the competition increase for facing this reality. Using tools provided by business strategic planning, the problem can be approached in a effective manner 9 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

Conceicao, Paulo Varella [Mineracao Jundu S.A., Descalvado, SP (Brazil)

1996-12-31

343

A new evaluation method for coking coal for foundry coke manufacturing in terms of hydrogen transfer ability of coal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A new evaluation method for coking coals has been proposed for foundry coke manufacturing. The distribution of optical textures in coke was evaluated by an automatic image analysis system. Hydrogen donor and acceptor abilities of coals and pitch were also measured. The extent of the development of anisotropic texture in the coke correlates closely to hydrogen transfer ability of coal and pitch mixture. The hydrogen transfer ability in the raw material is one of the most important parameters for foundry coke manufacturing.

Nakamura, K. (Torishima Plants, Osaka Gas Co. Ltd., 5-11-151 Torishima, Konohana-ku, Osaka 554 (JP)); Yokono, T.; Sanada, Y. (Hokkaido Univ., N13 W8 Kita-ku, Sapporo 060 (JP))

1990-01-01

344

Laboratory testing of Syncrude sand  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The effects of sample reconstituting technique and stress path on the static undrained behaviour of Syncrude tailings sand were evaluated. Test procedures (consolidation and undrained shear) developed for installation and thawing of undisturbed Syncrude sand specimens retrieved after in-situ ground freezing were also described, and their success was evaluated. Deformations during thawing were monitored to serve as an index of possible disturbance on account of the freeze-thaw cycle. Significant differences in the undrained response of Syncrude sand were observed with each variation in the the method of specimen reconstitution. In consequence of these variations, it was found to be essential to duplicate in-situ density and fabric during laboratory reconstitution to ensure the applicability of the laboratory results in the field. The undrained response was also shown to be strongly dependent on the stress path during loading. Strongest deformation was observed in triaxial compression, the weakest in triaxial extension.5 figs., 19 refs.

Vaid, Y.P.; Uthayakumar, M.; Sivathayalan, S. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Robertson, P.K.; Hofman, B. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Civil Engineering

1995-12-31

345

Tar sand units dissolved, formed  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Mobil Oil Corporation has notified the State of Utah that all of the working interest owners to the PR Spring Tar Sands Unit wish to terminate the Unit Agreement. Such action is allowable under the terms of the agreement. The Nutter Ranch Tar Sand Unit Agreement, Carbon County, Utah was approved on September 10, 1986 by the Bureau of Land Management. This unit encompasses 41,908 acres in which applications to convert certain Federal oil and gas leases to combined hydrocarbon leases are pending and the unit is effective when the conversion applications are concluded.

1986-12-01

346

VACLAIM, a method to remove pollution, reclaim Nobake moldsand, convert binder waste into fuel, and recover casting heat in foundry molds during casting  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The development program was carried out at the Experimental Foundry at the Abex Research Center, Mahwah, NJ. Objectives were met and data collected to design VACLAIM systems. Feasibility was established and several configurations of equipment used with success. The experiments included test and commercial castings. VACLAIM reduces foundry energy needs, materials, investment costs, operating costs, and improves foundry atmospheres and casting quality in a single step. The system is expected to be installed in 60 or more foundries in the next ten years to save up to $27 million per year in investment and processing costs.

Scheffer, K.D.

1983-06-21

347

[Occupational risk for development of respiratory diseases in foundry shop workers at machinery industries].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The paper provides the results of assessment of prior and posterior occupational risks and those of questionnaire analysis in foundry shop workers from machinery enterprises. According to the data of attestation of job places, the working conditions of major foundry occupations were ascertained to correspond to class 3, grades 1 to 3. The prior risk for occupational respiratory diseases (RD) was defined as moderate whereas the posterior risk was high. According to the results of a questionnaire survey, more than half of the workers sought medical advice for bronchopulmonary pathology. Determination of whether there is, in terms of the etiological share, a cause-and-effect relationship between RDs and working conditions has shown that the occupation was highly responsible, which suggests that harmful industrial factors make a considerable contribution to the development of RDs in the workers of the enterprises under study.

Khamitova RIa; Loskutov DV

2012-01-01

348

Development of method for identification of compounds emitted during thermal degradation of binders used in foundry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of the research was to develop a method for identification of compounds emitted during thermal degradation of binders used in foundry. Research were performed with the use of Certified Reference Materials mixtures of semi-volatiles compounds with furfuryl alcohol and aldehyde. Furfuryl-urea resin samples were also used. Station for thermal degradation of materials used in foundry was designed and made. Thermal degradation process conditions and gas chromatograph coupled with high resolution mass spectrometry operating conditions were established. Organic compounds emitted during degradation were identified. The paper briefly represents the range of study and the results obtained for furfuryl-urea resin thermal degradation. Significant information about volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds emitted in different temperatures is also discussed.

M. Kubecki; M. Holtzer; B. Grabowska; A. Bobrowski

2011-01-01

349

Avalanche statistics of sand heaps  

CERN Multimedia

Large scale computer simulations are presented to investigate the avalanche statistics of sand piles using molecular dynamics. We could show that different methods of measurement lead to contradicting conclusions, presumably due to avalanches not reaching the end of the experimental table.

Buchholtz, V; Buchholtz, Volkhard; Poeschel, Thorsten

1996-01-01

350

Sand consolidation method employing latex  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A method is described of treating a subterranean, unconsolidated sand and petroleum containing formation penetrated by at least one well, which is in fluid communication with at least a portion of the unconsolidated sand containing subterranean formation. This forms a flexible, permeable barrier around the well which restrains the movement of sand particles into the well while permitting the passage of formation fluids including petroleum there through. The method comprises: a. forming a predetermined quantity of a treating fluid comprising a water external phase emulsion having as its dispersed or discontinuous phase, a predetermined amount of an oil-insoluble rubber. The emulsion also contains a predetermined quantity of a material which hydrolyzes at reservoir temperature to form an acid; b. injecting the treating fluid into the formation to be consolidated; and c. leaving the fluid undisturbed in the formation for a predetermined period of time sufficient to allow the emulsion to break so the oil insoluble rubber coats the sand grains, forming a competent permeable barrier around the wellbore.

Friedman, R.H.

1987-03-17

351

Monitoring of power demand of foundry machinery, using the example of paddle mixers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study outlines the basic features of a newly-designed computer-supported system for monitoring and recording the instantaneous power consumption, used to control the operating parameters of foundry machinery. Explored are potential applications of the module for fast recording of instantaneous currents and voltages in a triple phase power supply system in a paddle mixer. Further research areas are indicated, to extend the system and the range of its potential applications.

R. Wrona; E. Zió?kowski; K. Smyksy

2008-01-01

352

Uniaxial and triaxial compression test series on two types of foundry stone  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Uniaxial and triaxial compression experiments were performed on ten cylindrical samples of foundry stone. All of the test samples were nominally 50.8 mm in diameter, with a 2:1 length to diameter ratio. The experiments were run on room dry samples in compression, at room temperature, four confining pressures, and a nominal axial displacement rate of 10-4 mm/s. 3 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs

1985-01-01

353

[Blood lead levels in children and environmental legacy of a lead foundry in Brazil].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To determine the blood lead levels in children living near an inactive lead foundry in the city of Santo Amaro da Purificação, state of Bahia, in September of 1998; and to identify factors associated with differences in these levels. METHODS: Cross-sectional study with children between 1 and 4 years of age living within 1 km of the lead foundry. Mothers or guardians of 47 children answered a questionnaire concerning ingestion of clay, soil, plaster and/or other materials (pica), and other relevant epidemiological aspects. The concentration of lead in blood was determined by atomic absorption espectrophotometry. RESULTS: The mean blood lead level was 17.1 +/- 7.3 micro g/dL. Blood lead levels were approximately 5 micro g/dl greater among children with pica, regardless of age, visible presence of scum surrounding the home, employment status of the father, family history of lead poisoning, and malnutrition. CONCLUSIONS: The environmental legacy of the lead foundry, which was shut down in 1993, continues to represent a relevant risk factor for increased blood lead levels in children, especially those presenting pica.

Carvalho FM; Silvany Neto AM; Tavares TM; Costa AC; Chaves Cd; Nascimento LD; Reis Mde A

2003-01-01

354

Saving energy in the foundry by using computer simulation of solidification  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Shrinkage during the solidification phase of casting is a major contributor to defects in the finished casting. However, predicting where and how much shrinkage there is going to be in the solidified metal has evolved over the years into the skill, one might almost say art, of methoding. At this stage in the cycle the methods engineer's experience and knowledge comes to the forefront. A good methods engineer can keep a foundry profitable, an exceptional method's engineer can make the business a star. However, mistakes can be extremely costly. This latter point has had the effect of making the majority of foundry methods engineers fairly conservative in their approach. Solidification simulation software can therefore have the effect of freeing up the restrictions on the foundry methods engineer enabling him to be more adventurous without the risk of costing the company an excessive amount of money. The program which is described here, is a sophisticated CAD/CAM system which simulates the casting solidification processes and predicts where shrinkage and associated defects are likely to occur. It can be used to test design and production methods of casting shapes, thus minimising the need for expensive sampling procedures. The program runs on an IBM compatible Personal Computer and results can often be obtained within minutes. (author)

Jolly, M. (Foseco International Ltd., Birmingham (United Kingdom))

1993-04-23

355

Pre-engineering assessment of Enersolve project at the Stanton Pipes Foundry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Hatch Associates were retained to provide a pre-evaluation of the potential for increasing the efficiency of oil and gas utilization in foundries. The plant chosen produces ductile cast iron pressure pipes for water distribution systems. Approximately 62% of losses are through the flue gases. A central recuperator to pre-heat combustion air and improve controls would have a total installed cost of $276,100 and annual operating savings of $132,900 with a resultant payback of 2.1 years. Improvements to the combustion control, and an exhaust gas system for regulating furnace pressure would cost about $210,00 with a payback of 2.0 years. This option is an alternative to the recuperator option. Another alternative is a regenerative burner system which would have a total cost of $461,300 and a payback of 3.0 years. A brief survey was conducted of the potential for application of these energy conservation measures to other Canadian foundries. A demonstration project to illustrate the benefits of waste heat recovery will be vital in encouraging other foundries to use waste heat recovery in reducing energy costs.

1985-04-30

356

Dravo tar sand extraction process and its applicability to Kentucky tar sand  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A process for solvent extraction of oil from tar sands has been developed. The process concept has been successfully tested on Kentucky tar sand in a pilot plant capable of processing 200 tons per day of tar sand. The Dravo process is described. Some of the elements which distinguish it from other solvent extraction processes for tar sand are detailed.

Benson, L.B.; Tis, D.J.

1985-02-01

357

Reconnaissance Sand Inventory: Off Leeward Oahu.  

Science.gov (United States)

The southern and western coasts of Oahu have been surveyed for shallow-water sand bodies, using a seismic reflection technique. Sand bodies discovered and mapped in water depths of between 60 and 300 feet contain about 370 million cubic yards of sand. Sam...

J. F. Campbell W. T. Coulbourn R. Moberly B. R. Rosendahl

1970-01-01

358

Treating tar sands formations with karsted zones  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. The tar sands formation may have one or more karsted zones. Methods may include providing heat from one or more heaters to one or more karsted zones of the tar sands formation to mobilize fluids in the formation. At least some of the mobilized fluids may be produced from the formation.

Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Karanikas, John Michael (Houston, TX)

2010-03-09

359

AOSTRA oil sands 2000: Energy, environment, enterprise  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Oil Sands 2000 Conference organized by Albert Oil Sands Technology and Research Authority (AOSTRA) focused on oil sands and heavy oils development with major emphasis on upgrading technology in the areas of recovery and site assessment. The environmental impacts of these developments were also presented. Separate abstracts have been prepared for 25 papers.

1990-01-01

360

Chvorinov’s rule and determination of coefficient of heat accumulation of moulds with non-quartz base sands  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Application of the „Chvorinov’s rule“ for calculation of the total time of casting solidification made also possible to determine chilling effect of foundry moulds (coefficient of heat accumulation of the mould, bf) with use of mixtures with new kinds of non-quartz base sands (Magnesite, Chromite, Olivine, Dunite, Kerphalit). Processes by several authors (G. Halbart, A. I. Vejnik, G. A. Anisovich) were used for mathematical treatment of measurement results and determination of bf. The highest values were achieved for magnesite moulds followed by chromite ones; the lowest values, approximately half-ones, represented the Dunite moulds. At the same time the results made possible to determine „the Chvorinov’s mean solidification constants“ (k) that are in direct proportional dependence on bf and indirect proportional to solidification time (?1).

P. Jelínek; T. Elbel

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Preliminary Research on Granulation Process of Dust Waste from Reclamation Process of Moulding Sands with Furan Resin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The results of investigations of the granulation process of foundry dusts generated in the dry mechanical reclamation process of usedsands, where furan resins were binders are presented in the paper. Investigations concerned producing of granules of the determineddimensions and strength parameters.Granules were formed from the dusts mixture consisting in 50 mass% of dusts obtained after the reclamation of the furane sands and in50 mass % of dusts from sands with bentonite. Dusts from the bentonite sands with water were used as a binder allowing the granulation of after reclamation dusts from the furane sands.The following parameters of the ready final product were determined: moisture content (W), shatter test of granules (Wz) performeddirectly after the granulation process and after 1, 3, 5, 10 days and nights of seasoning, water-resistance of granules after 24 hours of being immersed in water, surface porosity ep and volumetric porosity ev. In addition the shatter test and water-resistance of granulate dried at a temperature of 105oC were determined.Investigations were performed at the bowl angle of inclination 45o, for three rotational speeds of the bowl being: 10, 15, 20 rpm.For the speed of 10 rpm the granulation tests of dusts mixture after the preliminary mixing in the roller mixer and with the addition ofwater-glass in the amount of 2% in relation to the amount of dust were carried out.The obtained results indicate that the granulator allows to obtain granules from dusts originated from the reclamations of mouldingsands with the furane resin with an addition of dusts from the bentonite sands processing plants.

J. Kami?ska; J. Da?ko

2012-01-01

362

Testing sand used in hydraulic fracturing operations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Recommended practices for testing sand used in hydraulic fracturing operations are outlined as developed by the Task Group on Evaluation of Hydraulic Fracturing Sand under the API Subcommittee on Evaluation of Well Completion Materials. The tests recommended were developed to improve the quality of frac sand delivered to the well site, and are for use in evaluating certain physical properties of sand used in hydraulic fracturing operations. The tests suggested enable users to compare physical characteristics of various sands and to select materials most useful for such applications. Parameters to be tested include turbidity, clay and soft particle content, crush resistance, and mineralogic analysis.

1983-03-01

363

The oil sands tailing research facility  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The oil sands are composed of bitumen, sand silts, clays and water. Suncor Energy, Syncrude Canada Ltd. and Albian Sands are currently operating 3 oil sand mining and extraction facilities in the area. The Oil Sands Tailings Research Facility (OSTRF) was created to develop new research needed to develop the next generation of environmentally superior tailings disposal options. The OSTRF student based research facility conducts exploratory research on dewatering oil sands tailings from bitumen, separation techniques and tailings restoration. The facility conducts innovative research to develop cost effective environmentally superior tailings, and evaluates innovative tailings technology at the pilot scale and field scale levels. The research themes at OSTRF include tailings production; engineered tailings; water; interdependency; energy; instrumentation; regional impacts/development; and byproducts contained in tailings. This presentation provided information on the status of research schedules as well as funding provided by the federal and provincial governments and the oil sand industry. 6 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs.

Beier, N.; Sego, D. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Geotechnical Centre

2007-07-01

364

A compact topology for sand automata  

CERN Multimedia

In this paper, we exhibit a strong relation between the sand automata configuration space and the cellular automata configuration space. This relation induces a compact topology for sand automata, and a new context in which sand automata are homeomorphic to cellular automata acting on a specific subshift. We show that the existing topological results for sand automata, including the Hedlund-like representation theorem, still hold. In this context, we give a characterization of the cellular automata which are sand automata, and study some dynamical behaviors such as equicontinuity. Furthermore, we deal with the nilpotency. We show that the classical definition is not meaningful for sand automata. Then, we introduce a suitable new notion of nilpotency for sand automata. Finally, we prove that this simple dynamical behavior is undecidable.

Dennunzio, Alberto; Masson, Benoît

2008-01-01

365

Sea sand for reactive barriers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Some phosphates have the property to suck in radioactive metals in solution, what it is taken in advance to make reactive barriers which are placed in the nuclear waste repositories. In an effort for contributing to the study of this type of materials, it has been obtained the zirconium silicate (ZrSiO4) and the alpha zirconium hydrogen phosphate (Zr(HPO4) 2H2O) starting from sea sand in an easy and economic way. (Author)

2002-01-01

366

Air-sand heat exchanger  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper summarizes research activities that analyse the thermodynamic behaviour of an Air / Sand Heat Exchanger, developed by Solar-Institut Juelich (SIJ) and the German Aerospace Centre (DLR). A numerical 3-D model, new results and a model validation of this particular cross-flow heat exchanger are presented. Simulation results were obtained for sand with 1-2 mm grain size. The simulation was validated with operational results of a new 15 kW prototype unit. Ansys, including Ansys-CFX, is used as modelling and simulation platform. The bulk material is modelled by a porous solid medium without structural dynamic interaction between fluid and solid phase. For pressure drop calculations, Ergun's model for bulk material is used. The model parameters were validated and fitted with measured values of a separate pressure drop test rig. The validation was done with quartz sand. To determine the suitability of available granular products for this application, tests have been conducted regarding the thermomechanical properties as well as their attrition behaviour and abrasion on various wall materials.

Baumann, Torsten; Zunft, Stefan [German Aerospace Center (DLR), Stuttgart (Germany); Boura, Cristiano; Eckstein, Julian; Felinks, Jan; Goettsche, Joachim; Hoffschmidt, Bernhard; Schmitz, Stefan [FH Aachen, Juelich (Germany). Solar-Inst. Juelich

2011-07-01

367

High-temperature sand consolidation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A sand consolidation system has been developed that is stable to wellbore temperatures of 700/sup 0/F (371/sup 0/C). Two improvements in technique have contributed to this development. First, a controlled quantity of catalyst is absorbed on the sand. Consequently, consolidation occurs only on or very near the sand grains, resulting in a high-permeability consolidation. Second, the reaction is driven to completion by avoiding, insofar as possible, the adverse effect of water. The resin used for the consolidation is a very viscous derivative of furfuryl alcohol that requires a diluent to make it injectable. The diulent used to reduce viscosity is a hydrolyzable ester. The diluted fluid, which is sill more viscous than water, displaces much of the water present in the pore space. During the catalyzed consolidation, water produced by the polymerization is removed by reaction with the diluent (hydrolysis of the ester). The high-molecular-weight polymeric consolidation is better able to resist the high temperatures encountered in steam-displacement producing wells. Adaptation of the technology has been made so that the process can also be used in low-temperature wells. Because of the catalysis method, long shelf life is guaranteed for the consolidating formation.

Friedman, R.H.; Suries, B.W.; Kleke, D.E.

1987-05-01

368

Mortality among a cohort of United Kingdom steel foundry workers with special reference to cancers of the stomach and lung, 1946-90.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OBJECTIVE--The aim was to describe cause specific mortality among steel foundry workers and to determine if any part of the experience may be due to occupation. DESIGN--Historical prospective cohort study. SETTING--Nine steel foundries in England and one in Scotland. SUBJECTS--10,438 male production...

Sorahan, T; Faux, A M; Cooke, M A

369

Respiratory symptoms and lung function in foundry workers using the hot box method: a 4-year follow-up.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To perform follow-up of lung function and respiratory and ocular symptoms in foundry workers exposed to monoisocyanates using the Hot Box method. METHODS: Four years after an initial assessment, 25 foundry workers and 55 referents completed a questionnaire and were assessed by spirometry pre- and postshift. Exposure to isocyanic acid, methyl isocyanate, and formaldehyde was measured. RESULTS: Exposure levels were reduced by 50% at follow-up. A high prevalence of nasal and ocular symptoms remained in both groups, but lower airway symptoms had decreased. Lung function preshift was lower for the exposed group, but lung function over shift was unaffected. CONCLUSIONS: The high prevalence of nasal symptoms and the small reduction of forced expiratory volume in 1 second preshift in exposed foundry workers at follow-up may indicate a prolonged influence of previous exposure in the working environment despite reduced exposure levels at follow-up.

Löfstedt H; Westberg H; Seldén AI; Bryngelsson IL; Svartengren M

2011-12-01

370

Health assessment for A. Y. McDonald Foundry, Dubuque, Iowa, Region 7. CERCLIS No. IAD005103882. Preliminary report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The A. Y. McDonald Foundry site is listed on the National Priorities List. The site, located in the industrial section of Dubuque, was a brass and iron foundry operated from 1896 until 1983. Environmental contamination consists of all soil on-site and in ground water. Concentrations up to 8200 ppm in soil have been documented. Ground water contamination is reported to exceed the National Interim Primary Drinking Water Standard (actual levels not given). The site is considered to be of potential public health concern because of the risk to human health caused by the possibility of exposure to hazardous substances via inhalation exposure to foundry waste, and because of the potential impact on the Mississippi River and local aquifers if the waste is allowed to migrate off-site. The small particle size of the material from air-cleaning equipment makes inhalation a particularly important pathway.

1988-11-14

371

Foundry industries: environmental aspects and environmental condition indicators; Industrias de fundicion: aspectos ambientales e indicadores de condicion ambiental  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Nowadays, environmental indicators are widely used as effective tools to assist decision-making in both public and private sectors. The lack of literature and research about local and regional Environmental Condition Indicators (ECI), the poor knowledge regarding solid waste generation, effluents and gas emissions from foundry industries, and their particular location in the urban area of Tandil, Argentina are the main reasons for this investigation, aiming to develop a set a of ECI to provide information about the environment in relation to the foundry industry. The study involves all the foundries located in the city between March and April 2010. The set of ECI developed includes 9 indicators for air, 5 for soil and 1 for water. Specific methodology was used for each indicator. (Author) 31 refs.

Sosa, B. s.; Banda-Noriega, R. B.; Guerrero, E. M.

2013-03-01

372

Estimation and characterization of PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like PCBs from Chinese iron foundries.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The iron foundry industry is considered to be a potential source of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). This study investigated the emission factors and total emission amounts of PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) from iron foundries in China. The concentrations and the World Health Organization toxicity equivalents (WHO-TEQs) are presented and the congener profiles are discussed in this paper. In the present work, 26 fly ash samples were collected and tested to quantify the PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs generated by 14 plants of different scales, and five stack gas samples were collected from two (named as EFG and LFG) of those plants. The emission levels of PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs indicated that hot-air cupolas had lower emissions than cold-air cupolas. When iron ore lump and sinter were used as raw material, the emission factors were about 250ng TEQt(-1) of product. However, if the raw material was scrap, the emission factors varied owing to the different contents of organic materials in the raw materials. It was found that the mean WHO-TEQ values of PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs were 144 and 34.2pgNm(-3) in stack gas and 20.0 and 1.58pgg(-1) in fly ash. In multiple tests, it was estimated that the mean emission factors of PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs were 365 and 10.9ng WHO-TEQt(-1) released to residue and 2719 and 555ng TEQt(-1) released to air. The total emission amounts of PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs from Chinese iron foundries with cupola furnaces released to residue and air were 16.8 and 146g WHO-TEQ in 2008, respectively.

Lv P; Zheng M; Liu G; Liu W; Xiao K

2011-01-01

373

On vibration hazards of chipping-hammer operators in an iron foundry. Part 2. Results of the hygienic control  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We previously reported that the working and health conditions of vibrating tool operators in an iron foundry were investigated in 1975 and vibration hazards were observed to occur frequently in workers operating chipping-hammers powered by compressed air. After that, we instituted medical treatment for the afflicted workers and improvement of working conditions in the foundry, and have performed annual medical examinations for four years. In this paper, the course of hygienic control and the change in the medical findings of twenty-four chipping-hammer operators are reported.

Harada, N.; Matsumoto, T.; Yamada, S.; Kobayashi, F.

1982-01-01

374

Proposal for the award of a blanket purchase contract for the supply of foundry services for semiconductor technologies  

CERN Document Server

This document concerns the award of a blanket purchase contract for the supply of foundry services for semiconductor technologies. The Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of a blanket purchase contract with IBM SWITZERLAND (CH), the lowest bidder complying with the specification, for the supply of foundry services for semiconductor technologies for a period of four years, for a total amount not exceeding 4 000 000 US dollars, not subject to revision. At the present rate of exchange, the total amount of the blanket purchase contract is equivalent to approximately 5 000 000 Swiss francs. CERN's financial contribution will not exceed 1 000 000 Swiss francs.

2006-01-01

375

Shaking a Box of Sand  

CERN Multimedia

We present a simple model of a vibrated box of sand, and discuss its dynamics in terms of two parameters reflecting static and dynamic disorder respectively. The fluidised, intermediate and frozen (`glassy') dynamical regimes are extensively probed by analysing the response of the packing fraction to steady, as well as cyclic, shaking, and indicators of the onset of a `glass transition' are analysed. In the `glassy' regime, our model is exactly solvable, and allows for the qualitative description of ageing phenomena in terms of two characteristic lengths; predictions are also made about the influence of grain shape anisotropy on ageing behaviour.

Stadler, P F; Luck, J M; Stadler, Peter F.; Mehta, Anita; Luck, Jean-Marc

2001-01-01

376

Severe sand aspiration: a case report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We report here on a case of sand aspiration in a 32-year-old man who had been accidentally buried in the deep pile of sand for four hours. Chest radiograph showed bilateral fluffy consolidations and nodular lesions with a typical 'sand bronchogram' in both lower lung zones, and these findings were more clearly visualized on the HRCT. The patient recovered completely with conservative treatment that included mechanical ventilation and postural drainage.

Kim, Ho Kyun; Jung, Kyung Jae [School of Medicine, Catholic University of Daegu, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

2006-03-15

377

Titanium casting in zircon sand mould  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The use of a zircon sand mold for titanium casting is described. Zircon sand with 15 percent zirconia and a sodium silicate binder were utilized for making the mold in this experiment. The metal-mold reaction is examined in terms of the gating and risering systems. An example in which a night vision instrument is cast is presented. It is noted that zircon sand is an effective molding material for casting titanium. 7 references.

Mukherji, D.; Saha, R.L.; Chakravorty, C.R.

1985-12-01

378

Sands of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sands collected at 24 locations along the crest of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge between 57 degrees S and 38 degrees N consist predominantly of olivine, diopsidic augite, hypersthene, enstatite, amphibole, quartz, plagioclase, and volcanic glass, suggesting an olivine tholeiitic source. Eight cores contain relatively pure mineral sands; three of these cores reflect local volcanic activity. In 16 cores the manganese-coated mineral grains are mixed in a current-winnowed foraminiferal sand or ooze. PMID:17741921

Fox, P J; Heezen, B C

1965-09-17

379

Sands of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Sands collected at 24 locations along the crest of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge between 57 degrees S and 38 degrees N consist predominantly of olivine, diopsidic augite, hypersthene, enstatite, amphibole, quartz, plagioclase, and volcanic glass, suggesting an olivine tholeiitic source. Eight cores contain relatively pure mineral sands; three of these cores reflect local volcanic activity. In 16 cores the manganese-coated mineral grains are mixed in a current-winnowed foraminiferal sand or ooze.

Fox PJ; Heezen BC

1965-09-01

380

Gas flow through a multilayer ceramic mould in lost wax foundry process  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper deals with the issues of permeability testing of ceramic moulds used in lost wax foundry process. The main issue in thetesting is to provide proper specimens of ceramic moulds (CM). The moulds have to be repeatable and must be free of internal defects ofmicrocrack type that are formed mainly during the removal of patterns from CM in the course of heat treatment.Moreover, the process of forming ceramic moulds must be similar to the general industrial process of CM moulds making regardingtheir anisotropic structure. The permeability parameter reflecting gas flow through multilayer ceramic moulds was also examined withattention to the investment casting shape accuracy.

H. Matysiak; R. Haratym; M. Klabczyk

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
381

Open foundry platform for high-performance electronic-photonic integration.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper presents photonic devices with 3 dB/cm waveguide loss fabricated in an existing commercial electronic 45 nm SOI-CMOS foundry process. By utilizing existing front-end fabrication processes the photonic devices are monolithically integrated with electronics in the same physical device layer as transistors achieving 4 ps logic stage delay, without degradation in transistor performance. We demonstrate an 8-channel optical microring-resonator filter bank and optical modulators, both controlled by integrated digital circuits. By developing a device design methodology that requires zero process infrastructure changes, a widely available platform for high-performance photonic-electronic integrated circuits is enabled.

Orcutt JS; Moss B; Sun C; Leu J; Georgas M; Shainline J; Zgraggen E; Li H; Sun J; Weaver M; Uroševi? S; Popovi? M; Ram RJ; Stojanovi? V

2012-05-01

382

Open foundry platform for high-performance electronic-photonic integration.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents photonic devices with 3 dB/cm waveguide loss fabricated in an existing commercial electronic 45 nm SOI-CMOS foundry process. By utilizing existing front-end fabrication processes the photonic devices are monolithically integrated with electronics in the same physical device layer as transistors achieving 4 ps logic stage delay, without degradation in transistor performance. We demonstrate an 8-channel optical microring-resonator filter bank and optical modulators, both controlled by integrated digital circuits. By developing a device design methodology that requires zero process infrastructure changes, a widely available platform for high-performance photonic-electronic integrated circuits is enabled. PMID:22714212

Orcutt, Jason S; Moss, Benjamin; Sun, Chen; Leu, Jonathan; Georgas, Michael; Shainline, Jeffrey; Zgraggen, Eugen; Li, Hanqing; Sun, Jie; Weaver, Matthew; Uroševi?, Stevan; Popovi?, Miloš; Ram, Rajeev J; Stojanovi?, Vladimir

2012-05-21

383

100% foundry compatible packaging and full wafer release and die separation technique for surface micromachined devices  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A completely foundry compatible chip-scale package for surface micromachines has been successfully demonstrated. A pyrex (Corning 7740) glass cover is placed over the released surface micromachined die and anodically bonded to a planarized polysilicon bonding ring. Electrical feedthroughs for the surface micromachine pass underneath the polysilicon sealing ring. The package has been found to be hermetic with a leak rate of less than 5 x 10{sup {minus}8} atm cm{sup {minus}3}/s. This technology has applications in the areas of hermetic encapsulation and wafer level release and die separation.

OLIVER,ANDREW D.; MATZKE,CAROLYN M.

2000-04-06

384

The truly great Canadian oil sands  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An historical overview and an update of the Canadian oil sands development in northern Alberta is provided. Oil sands mining and recovery began thirty-five years ago by Suncor, then known as the Great Canadian Oil Sands Company, later joined by Syncrude and most recently by Albian Sands Energy Inc. Total cost of the Albian multi-billion dollar venture is shared by Athabasca Oil Sands Project (AOSP) owners Shell Canada (60 per cent) Chevron Canada (20 per cent) and Western Oil Sands (20 per cent). The AOSP project includes the Muskeg River Mine, 75 km north of Fort McMurray and the Scotford Upgrader next to Shell's refinery at Fort Saskatchewan, near Edmonton. There are also several commercial partner facilities associated with AOSP, including a $600-million corridor pipeline to carry bitumen to the upgrader and diluent to the mine; a $37-million natural gas pipeline to the mine site; and two cogeneration plants, one at each of the mine and the upgrader. The oil sands contain as much as 1.7 trillion barrels of bitumen, of which 174 to as much as 315 billion barrels are estimated to be recoverable. At present, 31 per cent of Canada's 2.1 million bbl/day of oil consumption is produced form the oil sands; this figure is expected to rise to 50 per cent within the next decade. Construction details and the extraction technology to be employed at the Albian Sands development are highlighted.

Scales, M.

2002-10-01

385

Extraction of bitumen from oil sands  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Prior to the extraction of bitumen oils from oil sands the oil sands are treated with cold water at a temperature of less than 30 C to separate clay fines as a dispersion of clay in water, the remaining oil sands then being treated with water at a temperature exceeding 60 C to free the bitumen from the sand. The released bitumen is extracted from the hot aqueous slurry with kerosene. The cold water contains a deflocculant, such as sodium silicate, tetrasodium pyrophosphate, and sodium polyacrylate. 9 claims.

Robinson, L.F.; Porcari, G.

1980-10-22

386

Nuclear energy for oil sands  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 1980, Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, working with a number of Alberta-based companies, assessed the technical and economic feasibility of using a CANDU nuclear reactor to raise the production steam for the recovery of bitumen. The study followed several years of analysis which identified oil sands projects as the most appropriate single users of thermal energy of the amount and quality available from reactors. Over the life of an oil sands project a steam supply system based on a nuclear reactor is expected to offer a substantial cost advantage (25 - 50%) over the alternative system based on coal as the make-up fuel. Steam from natural gas is marginally more expensive than that from coal because the cost of natural gas is expected to escalate at a rate higher than inflation. For shallow deposits (150 - 250 metres) using intermediate pressure steam, the commercially proven Pressurized Heavy Water (PHW) reactor is most suitable. For deeper deposits (250 - 650 metres), the PHW reactor can provide the higher pressure steam using a compressor, but only with a reduction in thermal efficiency that substantially reduces its cost advantage. The CANDU Organic Cooled Reactor (OCR), however, can provide the high presure steam required with the large cost advantage. The economic benefit of nuclear steam supply systems, a saving of $2-4 per barrel of product, is large enough to justify a more detailed study

1982-01-01

387

[Spatial distribution patterns of dry sand layer on windward slope of dunes in Horqin Sand Land].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An observation was conducted on the thickness of dry sand layer on the windward slope of mobile and fixed dunes in west Horqin Sand Land, with the spatial distribution of the dry sand layer analyzed. Most of the dry sand layer had a thickness of 5-15 cm, and 92.0% and 98.6% of the mobile and fixed dunes had the dry sand layer with this thickness, respectively. Sand-fixing plants affected the thickness and the spatial distribution of the dry sand layer. There was an obvious spatial difference in the thickness of the dry sand layer on mobile dunes, being much thicker in the upper west areas while much thinner in the lower east areas. The thickness of the dry sand layer varied from 0 to 40 cm, with an average of 9.58 +/- 3.95 cm, and the CV was 41%. The variogram of the spatial distribution of dry sand layer on mobile dunes was expressed as spherical model, with a moderate spatial correlation. In contrast, the thickness of dry sand layer on fixed dunes showed obvious homogeneity, and had less spatial difference. The thickness of the dry sand layer ranged from 0 to 20 cm, with an average of 10.91 +/- 1.70 cm, and the CV was only 16%.

Zong Q; Lamusa A; Luo YM; Niu CY; Chen XF; Wang HY

2012-04-01

388

[Spatial distribution patterns of dry sand layer on windward slope of dunes in Horqin Sand Land].  

Science.gov (United States)

An observation was conducted on the thickness of dry sand layer on the windward slope of mobile and fixed dunes in west Horqin Sand Land, with the spatial distribution of the dry sand layer analyzed. Most of the dry sand layer had a thickness of 5-15 cm, and 92.0% and 98.6% of the mobile and fixed dunes had the dry sand layer with this thickness, respectively. Sand-fixing plants affected the thickness and the spatial distribution of the dry sand layer. There was an obvious spatial difference in the thickness of the dry sand layer on mobile dunes, being much thicker in the upper west areas while much thinner in the lower east areas. The thickness of the dry sand layer varied from 0 to 40 cm, with an average of 9.58 +/- 3.95 cm, and the CV was 41%. The variogram of the spatial distribution of dry sand layer on mobile dunes was expressed as spherical model, with a moderate spatial correlation. In contrast, the thickness of dry sand layer on fixed dunes showed obvious homogeneity, and had less spatial difference. The thickness of the dry sand layer ranged from 0 to 20 cm, with an average of 10.91 +/- 1.70 cm, and the CV was only 16%. PMID:22803448

Zong, Qin; Lamusa, A; Luo, Yong-Ming; Niu, Cun-Yang; Chen, Xue-Feng; Wang, Hai-Yang

2012-04-01

389

Benefits of master alloy melt treatments in the aluminum foundry industry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The general benefits of the master alloy approach to foundry melt treatment in terms of environmental and technical advantages are reviewed. New data on the environmental impact of master alloy treatments compared with other addition methods are provided. It is shown that use of master alloy grain refiners and modifiers can significantly reduce emissions from the foundry, thus reducing the need for capital investment in extraction or fume treatment equipment. New application areas for melt treatment are described with reference to strontium in gravity and high pressure die castings. The results of controlled trials on high pressure die cast A380 and gravity die cast A319 alloys are presented. It is shown that strontium offers benefits in terms of the redistribution of gross porosity and improvements to the consistency of casting properties as measured using Weibull statistics. Strontium modifies the microstructure, particularly of thicker section castings, virtually removing gross porosity leading to improved mechanical properties and a reduction in the variability of castings.

Cook, R.; Cooper, P.S.; Kearns, M.A. [London and Scandinavian Metallurgical Co. Ltd., Rotherham (United Kingdom)

1996-10-01

390

Risk assessment in a foundry unit by energy trace and barrier analysis method (ETBA)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background and aimsAs a Development of Industrial process, human, environment,equipment, material and validity of system has been exposed to hazardous conditions. Regards of32.3 percent of occupations in industries, this study focused on risk assessment of foundry unit byenergy trace and barrier analysis (ETBA) method and presented approaches to control of accident.Methodsthe recent study is as a case study one to risk assessment in a foundry unit in Qazvinindustrial city in1387. In this study risks were founded by ETBA method and evaluated by MILSTD-882B. Data were collected by direct observations, interview with workers and supervisorand engineers, walking-talking through method, documents investigation of operationalprocessors, preventive maintenances, equipment technical properties, accidental and medicaldocuments. Finally ETBA worksheets completed.Findingstotally 154 risks has been found. 40 from total are been unacceptable risk, 68unfavorable and also 46 acceptable but with remediation action. Casting workshop had risks morethan other workshops (with 74 identified risks).Potential and heat energies were founded as mosthazardous energies, with respectively 51 and 38 risk cases.ConclusionThis study recommended to be done actions for identification and control risk,such as: safety training, occupation training, preventive maintenance, contract safety, safetycommunication and safety audit group.

V. Zaroushani; A. Safari Varriani; S.A. Ayati; A. Nikpey

2010-01-01

391

Optical coordinate scanners applied for the inspection of large scale housings produced in foundry technology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper presents possibilities of the dimensional and geometry measurement of the large scale casting details with a coordinate measuring technique. In particular, the analysis has been devoted to the measurement strategy in case of the measurement of large scale detail (larger than 1000 mm) made in foundry technology, with the 3D optical scanner. The attention was paid on the possibility created by the advanced software attached to the scanner for measurement data processing. Preparation to the geometrical accuracy analysis of the measured objects consisted of the identification of particular geometrical features based on the large number of probing points, as well as the creation of the coordinate systems derived from the best-fitting algorithms which calculate the inscribed or circumscribed geometrical elements. Analysis of accuracy in every probing point has been performed through the comparison of their coordinates with nominal values set by 3D model. Application of the 3D optical coordinate scanner with advanced measurement software for the manufacturing accuracy inspection is very useful in case of large scale details produced with foundry technologies and allows to carry out full accuracy analysis of the examined detail.

M. Grzelka; J. Chajda; G. Budzik; A. Gessner; M. Wieczorowski; R. Staniek; B. Gapi?ski; R. Koteras; P. Krasicki; L. Marciniak

2010-01-01

392

Tools and Strategies for Product Life Cycle Management ñ A Case Study in Foundry  

Science.gov (United States)

Advances in information and communication technology (ICT) have opened new possibilities of collaborations among the customers, suppliers, manufactures and partners to effectively tackle various business challenges. Product Life Cycle Management(PLM) has been a proven approach for Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) to increase their productivity, improve their product quality, speed up delivery, and increase their profit and to become more efficient. However, their Tier 2 and Tier 3 suppliers like foundry industries are still in their infancy without adopting PLM. Hence to enhance their understanding, the basic concepts, the tools and strategies for PLM are presented is this paper. By selecting and implementing appropriate PLM strategies in a small foundry, an attempt was also made to understand the immediate benefits of using PLM tools (commercial PLM software and digital manufacturing tools). This study indicated a reduction in lead time and improved utilization of organizational resources in the production of automobile impeller. These observations may be further extrapolated to other multiproduct, multi-discipline and multi-customer companies to realize the advantages of using PLM technology

Patil, Rajashekar; Kumar, S. Mohan; Abhilash, E.

2012-08-01

393

Fuel options for oil sands  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This presentation examined fuel options in relation to oil sands production. Options include steam and hydrogen (H2) for upgrading; natural gas by pipeline; bitumen; petroleum coke; and coal. Various cost drivers were also considered for each of the fuel options. It was noted that natural gas has high energy value but the capital cost is low, and that coke's energy value is very low but the capital cost is high. A chart forecasting energy prices was presented. The disposition of Western Canada's northern gas situation was presented. Issues concerning rail transportation for coal were considered. Environmental concerns were also examined. A chart of typical gas requirements for 75,000 B/D oil sands projects was presented. Issues concerning steam generation with gas and mining cogeneration with gas fuel and steam turbines were discussed, as well as cogeneration and H2 with gas fuels and steam turbines. Various technology and fuel utility options were examined, along with details of equipment and processes. Boiler technologies were reviewed by type as well as fuel and steam quality and pressure. Charts of cogeneration with gas turbine and circulation fluid bed boilers were presented. Gasification processes were reviewed and a supply cost basis was examined. Cost drivers were ranked according to energy, operating considerations and capital investment. Results indicated that fuel costs were significant for gas and coal. Capital costs and capital recovery charge was most significant with coal and gasification technology. Without capital recovery, cash costs favour the use of bitumen and coke. Gasification would need lower capital and lower capital recovery to compete with direct burning. It was concluded that direct burning of bitumen can compete with natural gas. With price volatility anticipated, dual fuel capability for bitumen and gas has merit. Petroleum coke can be produced or retrieved from stockpiles. Utility supply costs of direct burning of coke is marginally higher than the cost with gas. Direct burning of coal has a higher supply cost than other fuels. However, there will be additional costs for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for heavy fuels. Natural gas is likely to be the fuel of choice for oil sands production unless gas prices are much higher on a sustained basis. tabs., figs

2005-01-01

394

Shale and tar sands are going  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

General remarks about the processing of oil shale and oil sands in the production of synthetic fuel are followed by a description of the Colony Development Project for shale in Colorado and the Alsands Project for tar sands in Canada. Several types of processing technology are reviewed. 7 refs.

Wall, J.D.

1982-06-01

395

Japan's involvement in oil sands development  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

According to Japanese national policy, exploration and development by Japanese companies in overseas countries are promoted in order to ensure stable oil supplies. Japan Canada Oil Sands Limited (JACOS), part of the JAPEX group, was established during the 1978 world oil crisis to explore and develop Canadian oil sand resources in accordance with Japan's national policy. The JAPEX group, including JACOS, has invested $123 million in oil sands projects in Alberta. JAPEX's first involvement in oil sands was in the Primrose Project operated by Norcen in the Cold Lake area. Five years of cyclic steam stimulation pilot tests did not produce sufficiently good results to justify further operation. The second involvement was the PCEJ Project, a joint effort by four companies that are participating in a bitumen recovery test project in the Athabasca Deposit. JACOS holds 2,452 km2 of oil sands leases in Alberta. Tests conducted since 1978 in the PCEJ Project include multiwell steam injection pilot tests, some of which showed promise. JACOS is also participating in steam assisted gravity drainage projects and in federal/provincial research programs. Obstacles identified in developing Alberta oil sands are the lack of a bitumen pipeline to Edmonton and the insufficient length of oil sands leases (currently 10 years), given the difficulties of oil sand development. 10 figs.

396

Sand dunes on Mars and on Earth  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this work the dune model introduced by Sauermann et al. (2001) is extended and applied to investigate the formation of different dune shapes on Mars and on Earth as function of wind directionality and sand availability. The formation of sand dunes on Mars under the present atmospheric conditions ...

Ribeiro Parteli, Eric Josef

397

Oil sands: Our petroleum future conference  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] A conference was held to discuss oil sands technology. Papers were presented concerning oil sands mining, alternative technologies, environmental factors, economics, bitumen conversion and processing, bitumen uses, bitumen upgrading, fine tails formation, and fine tails disposal. Separate abstracts have been prepared for 64 papers from the conference

1993-01-01

398

Sand bath which operates fully automatically  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The sand bath which operates fully automatically is used in animal breeding - primarily for the breeding of chinchillas. The sand bath consists of a cylindrical container which is divided into 2 chambers (chamber "A" being a storage container for the bath sand and chamber "B" a bath space) and is provided with a slot in the longitudinal direction. The partition is provided, to the extent of about 1 DIVIDED 3, with a sieve. As a result of a rotation through 180 DEG , the sand falls from chamber "A" through the sieve into chamber "B". After a second rotation through 180 DEG , the sand falls back through the sieve into chamber "A". The dirt present (droppings and litter) remains in front of the sieve and then falls through the slot out of the container into the droppings tray standing on the floor of the cage. The sand bath is attached within the cage by means of suitable fittings. By connecting a plurality of sand baths via a chain wheel and chain, as many sand baths as desired can be driven simultaneously. The drive may be manual or by means of an electric motor.

BIHLMAYER HANS-DIETER

399

Nonlinear Dynamics of Aeolian Sand Ripples  

CERN Multimedia

We study the initial instability of flat sand surface and further nonlinear dynamics of wind ripples. The proposed continuous model of ripple formation allowed us to simulate the development of a typical asymmetric ripple shape and the evolution of sand ripple pattern. We suggest that this evolution occurs via ripple merger preceded by several soliton-like interaction of ripples.

Prigozhin, L

1999-01-01

400

The mechanics of fibre-reinforced sand  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Fibres can be an effective means of reinforcing soils. This paper presents data from laboratory triaxial tests on quartzitic sand reinforced with polypropylene fibres. By keeping the studied composite consistent throughout the study (host sand and fibre characteristics kept constant), it has been po...

Dos Santos, APS; Consoli, NC; Baudet, BA

 
 
 
 
401

Gamma Ray Shielding from Saudi White Sand  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study is a comparison of gamma ray linear attenuation coefficient of two typs of shielding materials made of Saudi white and red sand. Each shield was consisted of one part of cement two parts of sand in addi-tion to water. Different thicknesses were tested. The concentrations of all elements i...

Hefne JAMEEL; Al-Dayel OMAR; Al-horayess OKLA; Bagazi ALI; Al-Ajyan TURKI

402

A regional upgrader for Athabasca Oil Sands  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report summarizes the present status of Athabasca oil sands surface mineable projects, and outlines of a new concept which involves the establishment of a regional bitumen upgrader in Alberta as a common processing facility for accepting feedstock from a number of satellite bitumen production facilities. The concept decouples bitumen processing from bitumen production. The report also covers recent work on representative costs for oil sands development which point out the economic viability of oil sands projects. Finally, the potential effects of the proposed tax regulations on future oil sands projects are briefly presented. It is concluded that the two commercial mineable oil sands operations have been performing at high levels of productivity and efficiency. Oil sands projects are capital intensive, but new concepts, smaller scale and new technologies may significantly reduce the initial capital requirement. New oil sands projects incorporating some of the new concepts and technologies should be able to produce synthetic crude oil at a supply cost of $30/bbl or lower. The proposed tax regulations have a negative impact on oil sands developments. 1 fig., 2 tabs.

1987-09-01

403

Oil sands opportunities for midstream companies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The potential of Alberta's oil sands industry was reviewed. Oil sands production is expected to surpass declining conventional production. It was suggested that oil sands will increase from 42 per cent of Western supply in 2002 to 78 per cent in 2015. An inventory of major oil sands products and sources was presented and upgrading issues were examined. Oil sands products and market outlets were reviewed. Issues concerning the expansion of the value chain from resource to finished product were discussed. It was suggested that the U.S. will require more refined product imports in the future. Various market challenges facing the oil sands processing industries were discussed, including issues concerning producers, refiners and the common market. Potential refined products export markets were examined. Upgrading for both upstream and downstream refineries was discussed. A recent study completed for the Alberta Government and industry was reviewed. It was noted that pipeline changes or expansions need to be configured to accommodate refined products and that a large volume of exports to the Midwest or California markets would be based on pipeline availability. Issues concerning services to large oil sands projects were reviewed. It was concluded that there is significant growth in oil sands, with enormous capital requirements. There are many opportunities for mid streamers to take on smaller portions of large projects. refs., tabs., figs.

2004-01-01

404

2003/2004 STATISTICALLY VALID NONCOMPLIANCE RATE (SVNR) INSPECTIONS FOR THE FOUNDRY SECTOR IN EPA REGION 4  

Science.gov (United States)

The SVNR initiative involves the determination of a compliance rate for the foundry sector in EPA Region 4. A compliance rate is an estimate of the percentage of all the facilities in a population in compliance. The actual rate could be determined if all facilities were inspect...

405

Dust exposure and impairment of lung function at a small iron foundry in a rapidly developing country  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OBJECTIVES—A cross sectional prospective study was carried out among iron foundry workers (exposed) and soft drink bottling and supply company workers (unexposed) to assess their occupational exposure to ambient respiratory dust in their work environment and its effect on their lung function profile...

Gomes, J; Lloyd, O; Norman, N; Pahwa, P

406

Interaction of smoking, uptake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and cytochrome P450IA2 activity among foundry workers.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An increased lung cancer risk has been described among foundry workers. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and silica are possible aetiological factors. This study describes a urinary PAH metabolite, 1-hydroxypyrene (hpU), as well as the degree of cytochrome P450IA2 activity/induction as reflec...

Sherson, D; Sigsgaard, T; Overgaard, E; Loft, S; Poulsen, H E; Jongeneelen, F J

407

Emission of organic compounds from mould and core binders used for casting iron, aluminium and bronze in sand moulds  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Emissions from mould and core sand binders commonly used in the foundry industry have been investigated. Degradation of three different types of binders was investigated: Furfuryl alcohol (FA), phenolic urethane (PU) and resol-CO2 (RC). In each group of binders at least two different binder compositions were tested. A test method that provides uniform test conditions is described. The method can be used as general test method to analyse off gasses from binders. Moulds containing a standard size casting were produced and the amount and type of organic compounds resulting from thermal degradation of binders was monitored when cast iron, bronze and aluminium was poured in the moulds. Binder degradation was measured by collecting off gasses in a specially designed ventilation hood at a constant flow rate. Samples were taken from the ventilation system and analysed for hydrocarbons and CO content. It is shown how off gasses vary with time after pouring and shake out. Also the composition of off-gasses is analysed and shown. It is further shown how the composition of off-gasses varies between different types of binders and with varying composition of the binders as well as function of the thermal load on the moulding sand.

Tiedje, Niels Skat; Crepaz, Rudolf

2010-01-01

408

Earth-like sand fluxes on Mars.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Strong and sustained winds on Mars have been considered rare, on the basis of surface meteorology measurements and global circulation models, raising the question of whether the abundant dunes and evidence for wind erosion seen on the planet are a current process. Recent studies showed sand activity, but could not determine whether entire dunes were moving--implying large sand fluxes--or whether more localized and surficial changes had occurred. Here we present measurements of the migration rate of sand ripples and dune lee fronts at the Nili Patera dune field. We show that the dunes are near steady state, with their entire volumes composed of mobile sand. The dunes have unexpectedly high sand fluxes, similar, for example, to those in Victoria Valley, Antarctica, implying that rates of landscape modification on Mars and Earth are similar.

Bridges NT; Ayoub F; Avouac JP; Leprince S; Lucas A; Mattson S

2012-05-01

409

The behavior of gaseous iodine in sand  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radioactive iodine gas was passed through 10 different sands collected at rivers and hills. The relation between the amount of the loaded gas and the amount of adsorbed gas was determined at room temperature, 50 -- 600C, and 90 -- 1000C under humidity of 2 sand. This amount was about 1 -- 3 times as much as that of monomolecular membrane adsorption, 0.2 -- 0.3 ?g/cm2. The decrease of adsorption amount that accompanies the increase of humidity is attributable to the decrease of effective surface area of sand due to the presence of water. The transport of iodine in sand was studied by passing gaseous iodine through a glass tubing packed with sand. The distribution in the flow direction of iodine indicated that the ease of desorption depends upon the situation of adsorption. Easily desorbed case was named Henry type adsorption. Hardly desorbed case was named absorption type. Discussion is made on experimental results. (Fukutomi, T.)

1973-10-24

410

Developing new markets for oil sands products  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents a review by Purvin and Gertz of western Canadian crude oil supply. This energy consulting firm provides advise to the energy sector. It suggests that oil sands production will surpass declining conventional production. Oil sands supply includes bitumen, synthetic crude oil (SCO), and diluent. It is forecasted that oil sands will increase from 42 per cent of western supply in 2002 to 78 per cent in 2015. The potential of Alberta's oil sands was discussed along with a recent study of refined products and petrochemicals from bitumen. Upgrading, refining and petrochemical case studies were presented. The author examined if a Canadian oil sands upgrading project with high capital costs can be competitive with competing projects in the United States and internationally. In addition to supply and demand issues, the presentation examined infrastructure capability and market potential in the United States. The economic potential and risks of preferred business cases compared to upgrading to SCO were also evaluated. 15 figs.

2004-11-16

411

Shock response of dry sand.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The dynamic compaction of sand was investigated experimentally and computationally to stresses of 1.8 GPa. Experiments have been performed in the powder's partial compaction regime at impact velocities of approximately 0.25, 0.5, and 0.75 km/s. The experiments utilized multiple velocity interferometry probes on the rear surface of a stepped target for an accurate measurement of shock velocity, and an impedance matching technique was used to deduce the shock Hugoniot state. Wave profiles were further examined for estimates of reshock states. Experimental results were used to fit parameters to the P-Lambda model for porous materials. For simple 1-D simulations, the P-Lambda model seems to capture some of the physics behind the compaction process very well, typically predicting the Hugoniot state to within 3%.

Reinhart, William Dodd; Thornhill, Tom Finley, III (,; ); Chhabildas, Lalit C.. (..); Vogler, Tracy John; Brown, Justin L.

2007-08-01

412

Process for extracting oil from tar sands  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This patent describes a process for the extraction of oil and bitumen fractions from tar sands. It comprises: heating the tar sands within the range of about seventy degrees Fahrenheit (70{degrees} F.) to about one hundred fifty five degrees Fahrenheit (155{degrees} F.); mixing the mined tar sands with an aqueous solution of water soluble separation chemicals that induce separation of the oil and bitumen from the sand under such temperature conditions, the chemicals being such that they also induce separation of the oil and bitumen from the water and separation chemicals. The separation chemicals comprise an aqueous solution of an effective amount of water conditioner, wetting agents and a coupling agent selected from the group consisting of sulfonated fatty acid salts; holding the mined tar sands and the separation chemicals for a sufficient period of time under sufficient quiescent conditions that the oil and bitumen become substantially separated from the sands, the separated oil and bitumen floating on the water and the sand sinking in the water; segregation of the oil or bitumen fractions from the water and separation chemicals and retention of the fractions for use as a chemical resource.

Hall, J.B.; Russo, A.

1990-10-30

413

Influence of sand grain diameter and wind velocity on lift-off velocities of sand particles.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, the velocities of sand particles near the sand bed in the saltation cloud were measured in a wind tunnel through an improved experimental scheme of the Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) system. The influences of the diameter of sand particles in the saltation cloud and wind velocity on the probability distribution function (PDF) of lift-off velocities of sand particles were investigated. Results demonstrate that for the sand particles saltating above the sand bed with the mean grain diameter (d m = 0.3 mm), smaller and larger ones have the same velocity distribution, and wind velocity has no obvious influence on the distribution shape of the lift-off velocities, i.e., the PDFs of the horizontal and vertical lift-off velocities both follow a lognormal distribution, but the diameter of sand particles in the saltation cloud and wind velocity have an influence on the parameters of the PDF of horizontal and vertical lift-off velocities. Eventually, we present formulas to describe the PDF of lift-off velocities of sand particles with regard to the influence of wind velocity and the diameter of sand particles in the saltation cloud above the sand bed with d m = 0.3 mm. PMID:23695368

Bo, Tian-Li; Zheng, Xiao-Jing; Duan, Shao-Zhen; Liang, Yi-Rui

2013-05-24

414

Influence of sand grain diameter and wind velocity on lift-off velocities of sand particles.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this paper, the velocities of sand particles near the sand bed in the saltation cloud were measured in a wind tunnel through an improved experimental scheme of the Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) system. The influences of the diameter of sand particles in the saltation cloud and wind velocity on the probability distribution function (PDF) of lift-off velocities of sand particles were investigated. Results demonstrate that for the sand particles saltating above the sand bed with the mean grain diameter (d m = 0.3 mm), smaller and larger ones have the same velocity distribution, and wind velocity has no obvious influence on the distribution shape of the lift-off velocities, i.e., the PDFs of the horizontal and vertical lift-off velocities both follow a lognormal distribution, but the diameter of sand particles in the saltation cloud and wind velocity have an influence on the parameters of the PDF of horizontal and vertical lift-off velocities. Eventually, we present formulas to describe the PDF of lift-off velocities of sand particles with regard to the influence of wind velocity and the diameter of sand particles in the saltation cloud above the sand bed with d m = 0.3 mm.

Bo TL; Zheng XJ; Duan SZ; Liang YR

2013-05-01

415

Fecal indicators in sand, sand contact, and risk of enteric illness among beachgoers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Beach sand can harbor fecal indicator organisms and pathogens, but enteric illness risk associated with sand contact remains unclear. METHODS: In 2007, visitors at 2 recreational marine beaches were asked on the day of their visit about sand contact. Ten to 12 days later, participants answered questions about health symptoms since the visit. F+ coliphage, Enterococcus, Bacteroidales, fecal Bacteroides, and Clostridium spp. in wet sand were measured using culture and molecular methods. RESULTS: We analyzed 144 wet sand samples and completed 4999 interviews. Adjusted odds ratios (aORs) were computed, comparing those in the highest tertile of fecal indicator exposure with those who reported no sand contact. Among those digging in sand compared with those not digging in sand, a molecular measure of Enterococcus spp. (calibrator cell equivalents/g) in sand was positively associated with gastrointestinal (GI) illness (aOR = 2.0 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.2-3.2]) and diarrhea (2.4 [1.4-4.2]). Among those buried in sand, point estimates were greater for GI illness (3.3 [1.3-7.9]) and diarrhea (4.9 [1.8-13]). Positive associations were also observed for culture-based Enterococcus (colony-forming units/g) with GI illness (aOR digging = 1.7 [1.1-2.7]) and diarrhea (2.1 [1.3-3.4]). Associations were not found among nonswimmers with sand exposure. CONCLUSIONS: We observed a positive relationship between sand-contact activities and enteric illness as a function of concentrations of fecal microbial pollution in beach sand.

Heaney CD; Sams E; Dufour AP; Brenner KP; Haugland RA; Chern E; Wing S; Marshall S; Love DC; Serre M; Noble R; Wade TJ

2012-01-01

416

VACLAIM, A Method to Remove Pollution, Reclaim Nobake Moldsand, Convert Binder Waste into Fuel, and Recover Casting Heat in Foundry Molds During Casting.  

Science.gov (United States)

The development program was carried out at the Experimental Foundry at the Abex Research Center, Mahwah, NJ. Objectives were met and data collected to design VACLAIM systems. Feasibility was established and several configurations of equipment used with su...

K. D. Scheffer

1983-01-01

417

Developments in tar sands in 1981  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Activity in tar sands projects during 1981 continued at a very significant pace. The bulk of activity was in Canada, where 38 pilot projects were active, 2 commercial plants continued operations, 1 commercial scheme was canceled, and another was put into the twilight zone. Activity in the United States was low, whereas Venezuelan efforts reflect a firm commitment toward commercial development. The tenacious attitude of both industry and certain governments in the pursuit of tar sands development will keep the greater tar sands dream alive.

Wennekers, J.H.N.

1982-11-01

418

Enhancement of production from Lakhmani Tipam Sands  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Lakhmani Tipan Sands contain total commercially exploitable oil in amounts of 29.113 MMt. These sands can be subdivided into oil producing layers designated TS/sub 1/, TS/sub 2/, TS/sub 4/A, TS/sub 4/B, TS/sub 5/A, TS/sub 5/B, TC/sub 5/C, and TS/sub 6/. The present production rate is about 735 ton/day. An integrated development plan has been prepared to develop oil-bearing reservoirs in the Tipan sands. Seven pools have been identified. The additional capital investment required is projected.

Kumar, S.; Verma, S.K.; Shrivastava, V.K.

1983-02-01

419

Bibliography of publications dealing with tar sands  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To assist industry in the development of tar sands (oil sands), a compilation of technical reports, patents, journal articles and books has been prepared. The emphasis of this bibliography has been the US resource and its development. Also included are pertinent articles on non-domestic tar sand and related heavy oil resources and their development. The subjects include: geology and resource evaluation; chemical and physical properties; in-situ recovery; upgrading and refining; history; environmental; and miscellaneous (includes general survey papers; resource development, health and safety, economics, etc.).

1981-09-01

420

Riser and gating system design at the USIMINAS foundry; Metodo de dimensionamento de sistema de massalotes e canais na fundicao da USIMINAS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The design stage could be considered one of the most important steps of the production in a foundry process, affecting both yield and product quality. The systematization of methodology used in riser and gate design, within the operation conditions of the USIMINAS foundry, have allowed design optimization and reduced the service time. The risk and defects was eliminated and metallic yield was increased. (author). 4 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

Camey, Maria E.F.; Alvim, Marcos R. [USIMINAS, Ipatinga, MG (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas; Azevedo, Newton D. [USIMINAS, Ipatinga, MG (Brazil)

1991-12-31

 
 
 
 
421

Compressed Air System Retrofitting Project Improves Productivity at a Foundry. Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) Metal Casting BestPractices Project Case Study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This case study highlights International Truck and Engine Corporation's optimization project on the compressed air system that serves its foundry, Indianapolis Casting Corporation. Due to the project's implementation, the system's efficiency was greatly improved, allowing the foundry to operate with less compressor capacity, which resulted in reduced energy consumption, significant maintenance savings, and more reliable production.

2002-01-01

422

Virtual Factory as a Method of Foundry Design and Production Management  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper outlines the methodology of virtual design of a foundry plant as a system. The most important stage in the procedure involvesthe development of a model defined as a set of data about the system. Model development involves two stages: defining the model’sarchitecture and specifying the model data in the form of parameters and input-output relationships. The structure is understood asconfiguration of machines and transport units, representing the sub-systems and system components. As the main purpose of thesimulation procedure is to find the characteristics of the system’s behaviour, the merits of the iterative method involving analysis,synthesis and evaluation of results are fully explored.

A. Stawowy; R. Wrona; M. Brzezi?ski; E. Zió?kowski

2013-01-01

423

Elemental composition of dust in an iron foundry as determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] In the workplace of an iron foundry total and respirable suspended particulate matter was daily collected with a network of stationary filtration systems, with Andersen cascade impactors and with personal samplers. The performances of the different sampling systems are evaluated. All samples were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis. More than 30 elements were determined. The composition of the particulate samples is compared to that of the major emission sources. For visualising and interpretation of the data computer programs for contour plotting, classification and clustering of the elements can be divided in a number of groups, for which easily determined elements are proposed as indicator elements. The results allow an estimate of the impact of the major emission sources on the air quality in the entire workroom. Suggestions for representative sampling techniques and locations are made. (author) 8 refs.; 7 figs

1987-01-01

424

Elimination of permanent deformation of travelling cranes box girders operating in foundry shops  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The serious problem in travelling cranes maintenance, crane supporting beams and other carrying elements of material handling facilities in foundry shops is phenomenon of permanent deformations. There are known many ways to eliminate these deformations like mechanical compression by tension members however a disadvantage of such methods is work consuming process of railways rectification. One of technological methods relies on application of shrinkage of compression plates welded with box girder. Regeneration with the use of such method can be executed for the travelling cranes box girders but also with travelling crane support beams that have permanent deformations in both vertical or horizontal planes. In this paper different variants of such process execution are presented, depending on the kind and dimension of the permanent deformation.

St. Wolny; St. Dzik

2008-01-01

425

Comparison of selected tools for generation of knowledge for foundry production  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Two types of data mining tools, suitable for semi-automatic generation of knowledge in a form of logic rules, are presented in the paper: decision (classification) trees and rough sets theory algorithms. A comparative evaluation of rules obtained by these two methods, used for decision concerning application of feeders for grey iron castings, is performed. Data sets obtained as readouts form a semi-empirical nomograph of Holzmüller and Wlodawer were used for the testing. It was found that both methods lead to similar rules, which are also in agreement with the foundry practice. However, the decision trees were unable to provide some important and reliable rules, which were generated by the rough sets theory algorithm and they can also generate rules which are not supported by the training data.

M. Perzyk; A. Soroczy?ski

2008-01-01

426

Montmorillonite: A comparison of methods for its determination in foundry bentonites  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A comparison and estimation of usefulness of a quantitative analysis of montmorillonite in foundry bentonites, was the aim of this research. The investigations were made by means of three different techniques: methylene blue (MB) adsorption method, Cu(II)-triethylenetetramine complex (Cu(II)-TET) adsorption method, and infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) method. Tests were performed for 9 kinds of bentonites originated from various producers. The achieved results indicated that, the results obtained by the FTIR method were, in general, even 10% lower than the ones obtained by other methods. The best correlation with the data given by the producers were obtained for the Cu(II)-TET method. In addition, this method was characterised by the smallest value of standard deviations. A very essential advantage of the Cu(II)-TET method is a much shorter time needed for the analysis and its easier execution, which is important under production conditions.

M. Holtzer; A. Bobrowski; B. Grabowska

2011-01-01

427

The analysis of the wax foundry models fabrication process for the CPX3000 device  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper presents possibilities of creating wax founding models by means of CPX3000 device. The device is used for Rapid Prototypingof models made of foundry wax in an incremental process. The paper also presents problems connected with choosing technologicalparameters for incremental shaping which influence the accuracy of created models. Issues connected with post-processing are alsodescribed. This process is of great importance for obtaining geometrically correct models. The analysis of parameters of cleaning models from supporting material is also presented. At present CPX3000 printer is the first used in Poland device by 3D Systems firm for creating wax models. The printer is at The Faculty of Mechanical Engineering at Rzeszów University of Technology.

G. Budzik; B. Kozik; J. Bernaczek; M. Wieczorowski; M. Tutak

2011-01-01

428

Models and Algorithms for Production Planning and Scheduling in Foundries – Current State and Development Perspectives  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mathematical programming, constraint programming and computational intelligence techniques, presented in the literature in the field of operations research and production management, are generally inadequate for planning real-life production process. These methods are in fact dedicated to solving the standard problems such as shop floor scheduling or lot-sizing, or their simple combinations such as scheduling with batching. Whereas many real-world production planning problems require the simultaneous solution of several problems (in addition to task scheduling and lot-sizing, the problems such as cutting, workforce scheduling, packing and transport issues), including the problems that are difficult to structure. The article presents examples and classification of production planning and scheduling systems in the foundry industry described in the literature, and also outlines the possible development directions of models and algorithms used in such systems.

A. Stawowy; J. Duda

2012-01-01

429

The use of metallurgical coke as carburizing material in the foundry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The properties of metallurgical cokes obtained in a laboratory from pure coal and with additives (light atmospheric residue of oil distillation and coal tar pitch) after heat treatment to 1600{sup o}C were investigated. Changes in the basic characteristics (density, moisture, ash, metal and sulphur contents) were examined. Crystallographic parameters (crystallite size, L, and interlayer spacing, d(002)) and surface morphology were also determined. The results were compared to data on it commercial carburizing material used in foundries, known as 'Karbina'. The metallurgical coke produced by mixing coal and coal tar pitch is good for thermal conversion to a semigraphitic structure at higher temperatures (1600{sup o}C). Because of this and its physical-chemical characteristics the material is recommended it's a suitable carburizing material.

Radenovic, A.; Legin-Kolar, M. [University of Zagreb, Sisak (Croatia)

2008-07-15

430

Rigid sand body, method for producing the same, use thereof and method for producing grains of sand coated in wax  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention relates to a rigid sand body consisting of a plurality of sand grains adhering to one another and provided with a coating consisting of wax, wherein the sand body is abradable, as well as to a process for its preparation, which is characterized in that sand grains and wax are heated separately from one another at a temperature of 50-90 DEG C., the heated sand grains and the heated, liquid wax are added together and the composition obtained is allowed to cool for solidification. The sand bodies of the invention are particularly suitable as a sand scrub for skin massage or as a modelling or model component. The invention also relates to a process for producing discrete agglomerated sand grains provided with a coating having burls consisting of wax by abrading the sand body of the invention.; The resulting abration sand comprising sand grains surrounded by wax are very well suited as sliding and slipping bases.

BEERMANN NORBERT

431

Oil sands: resource, recovery, and industry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An overview of the oil sand industry is presented, including a description of resources and technologies used for producing petroleum substitutes. The focus of the work is on the status and potential of developments in Canada (primarily Alberta) and the US (primarily Alabama, California, Kentucky, New Mexico, Texas, and Utah). Reserves are estimated at 1000 billion bbl in Canada and 30 billion bbl in the US. Characteristics of oil sand are discussed with regard to viscosity range, saturation, bulk density, porosity, and permeability. Oil sand processing methods also are described, including in situ recovery. Commercial projects for recovery and research thereon are listed, concluding that the use of oil sands resources is necessary in the drive to achieve energy independence from conventional oil supplies. 19 references.

Cox, C.H.; Baughman, G.L.

1980-07-01

432

Sand consolidation methods using adsorbable catalysts  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Methods are provided for selectively consolidating sand grains within a subterranean formation. First an acidic zirconium salt catalyst, such as ZrOCl/sub 2/, Zr(SO/sub 4/)/sub 2/, or ZrCl/sub 4/, is injected into the subterranean formation, wherein the acidic salt catalyst is adsorbed to the surface of the sand grains. Next a polymerizable resin composition such as furfuryl alcohol oligomer is introduced into the well formation. Polymerization of the resin occurs upon exposure to the elevated well temperatures and contact with the acid salt catalyst adsorbed to the sand grains. The polymerized resin serves to consolidate the surfaces of the sand grains while retaining permeability through the pore spaces. An ester of a weak organic acid is included with the resin compositions to control the extent of a polymerization by consuming the water by-product formed during the polymerization reaction.

Friedman, R. H.

1985-04-23

433

SIFCON (Slurry Infiltrated Fiber Concrete) with Sand.  

Science.gov (United States)

This report documents the development of preliminary material properties for slurry infiltrated fiber concrete (SIFCON) using fine-grained sands. Included in the report are the test procedures, test results, SIFCON material costs and conclusion. Keywords:...

R. Mondragon

1988-01-01