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Sample records for foundry sand

  1. Foundry sand reclamation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A dry method of conditioning spent foundry sand is disclosed. After having sized the sand and removal of tramp metallic elements, the sand is subjected to a sequence of squeezing under a high-stress low kinetic energy system for a period of 5-30 minutes, and then propelled against a target with high-kinetic energy in the presence of a suction for several minutes. This sequence can be preferably repeated to increase the quality of the resulting product which should have 0.1% or less of fine particles, a pH of 6-9, a clay content and organic combustible content of substantially zero. The reclaimed sand will exhibit a density of at least 100 grams/biscuit when compacted for core making or molding

  2. Dilatometric Characterization of Foundry Sands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. B?uska

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this contribution is summary of physical – chemistry properties of usually used foundry silica and no – silica sands in Czech foundries. With the help of dilatometry analysis theoretical assumptions of influence of grain shape and size on dilatation value of sands were confirmed. Determined was the possibility of dilatometry analysis employment for preparing special (hybrid sands with lower and/or more linear character of dilatation.

  3. Alternate utilization of foundry sand waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Illinois Geological Survey data indicate that Illinois foundries purchase nearly 800,000 tons of silica sand each year for the production of molds and cores. This paper reports that once utilized, this sand becomes an expensive and difficult commodity to dispose. The volume and regulatory status requirements make it unattractive to landfill operators. Most foundries use an industrial grade of silica of very high purity for the production of molds and cores. Recent data from the Illinois Geological Survey record silica usage in excess of 30 million tons per year in the state. Construction usage of silica includes applications such as: cement, concrete products, asphalt, fill and others. Industrial usage includes: glass products, foundry molds and cores, oil well propant, inert carriers for fertilizers and others

  4. Biodegradable materials as foundry moulding sands binders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Major - Gabry?

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to show the possibility of using biodegradable materials as part of the composition of foundry moulding and core sand binders. Research shows that moulding sands with biodegradable materials selected as binders are not only less toxic but are also better suited to mechanical reclamation than moulding sands with phenol-furfuryl resin. The use of biodegradable materials as additives to typical synthetic resins can result in their decreased toxicity and improved ability to reclamation as well as in accelerated biodegradation of binding material leftovers of mechanical reclamation.

  5. Waste foundry sand: Environmental implication and characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Penkaitis

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of analyses using Scanning Electron Microscopy in field samples of waste foundry sand, as well as the results of granulometric, chemical and groundwater analyses. Field data allowed to characterize waste foundry sand and showed that there are elevated concentrations of metals in the groundwater (iron, manganese, boron and selenium, in addition to other potentially toxic elements (chromium, copper, cobalt, nickel, zinc, aluminum, iron, manganese, which are present in the waste and are considered not hazardous by current standards. Even if these elements are not considered hazardous, their concentrations above the permissible limit compromise the environmental quality of the site, posing risks to the local population, since they work in agriculture and use groundwater. Two different types of waste foundry sands were identified using granulometric analyses. Electron microscopy showed features related to morphological, chemical and mineralogical characteristics of grains that make up the waste. Quartz was the dominant mineral. Waste foundry sand is composed of two types of grains: a rounded grain with almost no incrustations formed during alloy production, and a second type of grain, which is not rounded, has incrustations, and always has several metals derived from alloys and associated with these incrustations. Chemical elements detected in groundwater with concentrations above the limits established by the regulatory bodies were found in wells located in the landfill area. Most of these elements show higher concentrations downstream, some of them with concentrations above the regulatory limit, and others show an increase in concentration upstream, indicating that the landfill may be impacting the local environment.

  6. Characterization of Beach/River Sand for Foundry Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsina Christopher BALA

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A detailed experimental investigation is been reported on the characterization of beach/river sand for foundry use. Bulk properties of the sand samples collected were evaluated. The experimental results were analyzed as per the American Foundry Society (AFS standard. The analyses show that samples from Ughelli River, Warri River and Ethiope River could be used effectively in the foundry. The sample from Lagos bar beach requires to be sieved properly to remove the coarse fractions in order to make it suitable for foundry use.

  7. Properties of Self-Compacting Concrete Incorporating Waste Foundry Sand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafat SIDDIQUE

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper demonstrates the possibilities of using waste foundry sand as partial replacement of sand in self-compacting concrete. Self-compacting concrete, as the name indicates, is a type of concrete that does not require external or internal compaction, because it becomes levelled and consolidated under its self-weight. Foundry sand is high quality silica sand used as a moulding material by ferrous and non-ferrous metal casting industries. It can be reused several times in foundries but, after a certain period, cannot be used further and becomes waste material, referred to as waste, used or spent foundry sand (WFS,UFS or SFS. This experimental investigation was performed to evaluate the strength and durability properties of SCC, in which natural sand was partial replaced with waste foundry sand (WFS. Natural sand was replaced with four percentage (0%, 10%, 15%, 20% of WFS by weight. Fresh properties of self-compacting concrete were studied. Compression test and splitting tensile strength test were carried out to evaluate the strength properties of concrete at the age of 7, 28, and 56 days. In case of durability properties, sulphate resistance was evaluated at the age of 7, 28 and 56 days and Rapid Chloride Permeability test was conducted at age of 28 days. Test results showed that there is increase in compressive strength, splitting tensile strength of self-compacting concrete by incorporating waste foundry sand (WFS as partial replacement by sand up to 15%. Resistance of concrete against sulphate attack and rapid chloride permeability were also improved for concrete mixes.

  8. Extraction of toxic and valuable metals from foundry sands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There were extracted valuable metals from foundry sands such as: gold, platinum, silver, cobalt, germanium, nickel and zinc among others, as well as highly toxic metals such as chromium, lead, vanadium and arsenic. The extraction efficiency was up to 100% in some cases. For this reason there were obtained two patents at the United States, patent number 5,356,601, in October 1994, given for the developed process and patent number 5,376,000, in December 1994, obtained for the equipment employed. Therefore, the preliminary parameters for the installation of a pilot plant have also been developed. (Author)

  9. Excess Foundry Sand Characterization and Experimental Investigation in Controlled Low-Strength Material and Hot-Mixing Asphalt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pauul J. Tikalsky

    2004-10-31

    This report provides technical data regarding the reuse of excess foundry sand. The report addresses three topics: (1) a statistically sound evaluation of the characterization of foundry sand, (2) a laboratory investigation to qualify excess foundry sand as a major component in controlled low-strength material (CLSM), and (3) the identification of the best methods for using foundry sand as a replacement for natural aggregates for construction purposes, specifically in asphalt paving materials. The survival analysis statistical technique was used to characterize foundry sand over a full spectrum of general chemical parameters, metallic elements, and organic compounds regarding bulk analysis and leachate characterization. Not limited to characterization and environmental impact, foundry sand was evaluated by factor analyses, which contributes to proper selection of factor and maximization of the reuse marketplace for foundry sand. Regarding the integration of foundry sand into CLSM, excavatable CLSM and structural CLSM containing different types of excess foundry sands were investigated through laboratory experiments. Foundry sand was approved to constitute a major component in CLSM. Regarding the integration of foundry sand into asphalt paving materials, the optimum asphalt content was determined for each mixture, as well as the bulk density, maximum density, asphalt absorption, and air voids at N{sub ini}, N{sub des}, and N{sub max}. It was found that foundry sands can be used as an aggregate in hot-mix asphalt production, but each sand should be evaluated individually. Foundry sands tend to lower the strength of mixtures and also may make them more susceptible to moisture damage. Finally, traditional anti-stripping additives may decrease the moisture sensitivity of a mixture containing foundry sand, but not to the level allowed by most highway agencies.

  10. Excess Foundry Sand Characterization and Experimental Investigation in Controlled Low-Strength Material and Hot-Mixing Asphalt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul J. Tikalsky, Hussain U. Bahia, An Deng and Thomas Snyder

    2004-10-15

    This report provides technical data regarding the reuse of excess foundry sand. The report addresses three topics: a statistically sound evaluation of the characterization of foundry sand, a laboratory investigation to qualify excess foundry sand as a major component in controlled low-strength material (CLSM), and the identification of the best methods for using foundry sand as a replacement for natural aggregates for construction purposes, specifically in asphalt paving materials. The survival analysis statistical technique was used to characterize foundry sand over a full spectrum of general chemical parameters, metallic elements, and organic compounds regarding bulk analysis and leachate characterization. Not limited to characterization and environmental impact, foundry sand was evaluated by factor analyses, which contributes to proper selection of factor and maximization of the reuse marketplace for foundry sand. Regarding the integration of foundry sand into CLSM, excavatable CLSM and structural CLSM containing different types of excess foundry sands were investigated through laboratory experiments. Foundry sand was approved to constitute a major component in CLSM. Regarding the integration of foundry sand into asphalt paving materials, the optimum asphalt content was determined for each mixture, as well as the bulk density, maximum density, asphalt absorption, and air voids at Nini, Ndes, and Nmax. It was found that foundry sands can be used as an aggregate in hot-mix asphalt production, but each sand should be evaluated individually. Foundry sands tend to lower the strength of mixtures and also may make them more susceptible to moisture damage. Finally, traditional anti-stripping additives may decrease the moisture sensitivity of a mixture containing foundry sand, but not to the level allowed by most highway agencies.

  11. Laboratory Testing of Foundry Sands as Bulking Agents for Porous Media Filters Used to Treat Agricultural Drainage Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allred, B. J.

    2008-12-01

    Foundry sands are industrial byproducts that may have potential application as bulking agents that when mixed with small amounts of more chemically reactive materials (i.e. sulfur modified iron, fly ash, etc.) can be used to produce porous media filters capable of removing contaminants from agricultural drainage waters. Foundry sand bulking agents are attractive primarily as a low cost means to maintain the hydraulic efficiency of a filter. Secondarily, the foundry sands themselves may have some capacity for removal of agricultural nutrients and pesticides from water. Consequently, a laboratory study was initiated to quantify hydraulic efficiency and agricultural contaminant removal abilities of six foundry sands. Of the six foundry sands tested, all were obtained in central Ohio, three from iron casting foundries, two from steel casting foundries, and one from an aluminum casting foundry. Hydraulic efficiencies of the foundry sands were assessed by measuring hydraulic conductivity with twice replicated falling-head permeability tests. Batch tests were employed to evaluate foundry sand potential to treat water containing nitrate and phosphate nutrients, along with the pesticide, atrazine. Five of the six foundry sand samples had measured hydraulic conductivity values from 7.6 x 10-3 cm/s to 3.8 x 10-2 cm/s, which is in the range of hydraulic conductivity values found for clean sand. The one foundry sand that was an exception had much lower measured hydraulic conductivity values of 2.75 x 10-5 cm/s and 5.76 x 10-5 cm/s. For the batch tests conducted, none of the nitrate was removed by any of the six foundry sands; however, conversely, almost all of the phosphate was removed by each foundry sand. Batch test atrazine removal results were much more varied. Compared with baseline batch tests, one foundry sand removed two thirds of the atrazine, one foundry sand removed about one half of the atrazine, three foundry sands removed about a third of the atrazine, and one foundry sand removed none of the atrazine. Overall, these laboratory results generally indicate that foundry sand bulking agents can be used to maintain the hydraulic efficiency of porous media filters used to treat agricultural drainage waters, and as an added benefit, the foundry sand bulking agents may even be able, by themselves, to remove some nutrient and pesticide contaminants.

  12. Problems of scientific and development research concerning the reclamation of used foundry sands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Da?ko

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In traditional technologies of casting moulds and core production on the basis of high-silica sands with binding agent addition, the reclamation consists mainly of a sand recovery and very seldom of a sand and bentonite recovery.Analysis of data from several countries indicates that from 600 to 1200 kg of fresh sand is used for 1 tonne of ferrous casting alloys. In Poland it is 1000 kg of sand for 1 tonne of castings [1]. Out of this amount approximately 20% of fresh sand is used for core production and the remaining amount for rebounding moulding sands. Analysis of data from 20 largest Polish foundries, performed in 2004 [2] indicates that approximately 50% of waste foundry sands is reclaimed while the rest is directed to dumping grounds. Taking into account all remaining foundries it can be estimated that approximately 250-350 000 tonnes of waste foundry sands are sent to dumping grounds annually.Important issue are costs of storage, which depend on the kind of wastes and on the ownership form of dump-sites (municipal dumpinggrounds, plant’s or own [belonging to the foundry] as well as on their relation to the costs of purchasing fresh sands. Average charges for storage of moulding sands wastes on storage yards in Europe are within the range: 12.5 to 61 Eu, which means from 85% to above 400% of purchasing costs of 1 tonne of fresh high-silica sand. The contractual price accepted for such sand in the BREF UE document [3] is 14.56 Eu. Problems of scientific and development research concerning the reclamation of used foundry sands can be systematised according to the research fields and the actual state of knowledge - based on the analysis of scientific papers.

  13. Application of a power quality analyser to the monitoring of sand preparation processes in foundry plants

    OpenAIRE

    Smyksy, K.; Wrona, R.; Zio??kowski, E.

    2011-01-01

    Process control plays a major role in supervision and identification of states, for example in monitoring of electric circuits power- supplying the foundry machines and devices, such as sand preparation processes, moulding technologies, melting, cleaning and finishing of castings. The monitoring and control equipment includes the power quality analysers. Testing is done using a Japanese analyser KEW 6319 (Kyoritsu) applied to monitoring of the sand preparation process in a foundry plant with ...

  14. Use of an integrated approach to characterize the physicochemical properties of foundry green sands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? Physicochemical properties of fresh, spent, and landfilled foundry green sands were determined. ? A phase composition model was postulated for each material based on thermogravimetric results. ? Sand from the landfill was determined to be composed of almost pure silica sand. ? Weathering is likely responsible for removing the coating materials from the green sands. ? Landfilled sands may be suitable for reuse within the foundry or beneficial use applications. - Abstract: A fresh green sand, spent green sand, and a weathered spent green sand (wSGS) from a foundry landfill were analyzed using diffractometry, electron microscopy, fluorometry, granulometry, spectrometry, and thermogravimetry (TG). Our objective was to understand how the physicochemical properties of the foundry green sands change from their original form after being subjected to the casting process, then after weathering at the landfill. A quantitative phase composition model was also postulated for each material based on the TG results and it was found to be the most reliable and informative quantitative data for this type of residue. The weathered sample, that remained in a landfill for two years, was found to be composed of almost pure sand. Because of the weathering process, it may be possible to use the wSGS as a virgin sand replacement in the regeneration system or in geotechnical applications where bentonite would affect the properties of the final product.final product.

  15. FOUNDRY SAND: UTILISATION AS A PARTIAL REPLACEMENT OF FINE AGGREGATE FOR ESTABLISHING SUSTAINABLE CONCRETE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amitkumar D. Raval*

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Foundry waste is one of the most active research areas that encompass a number ofdisciplinesincluding civil engineering andconstruction materials. They can stand close to the concept of green concrete which is in compatible with the environment. Foundry sand from casting industries is a waste material which is dumped extensively and in this study an attempt has been made to evaluate the usage of this waste material in concrete. The constant depletion of sand beds at all major sources of availability is a major concern and thus efforts are taken in order to replace sand in construction activities. In this study, effect of foundry sand as fine aggregate replacement on the compressive strengthof concrete with a M25mix proportioninvestigated at different limited curing periods (7 days, 14 daysand 28 days. The percentage of foundry sand used for replacement were 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% by weight of fine aggregate. Test showed impressive results, showing capability of foundry sand for being a component in concrete for imparting strength. Making concrete from recycled materials saves energy and conserves resources which lead to a safe sustainable environment.

  16. A new low-cost method of reclaiming mixed foundry waste sand based on wet-thermal composite reclamation

    OpenAIRE

    Fan Zitian; Liu Fuchu; Long Wei

    2014-01-01

    A lot of mixed clay-resin waste sand from large-scale iron foundries is discharged every day; so mixed waste sand reclamation in low cost and high quality has a great realistic significance. In the study to investigate the possibility of reusing two types of waste foundry sands, resin bonded sand and clay bonded sand which came from a Chinese casting factory, a new low-cost reclamation method of the mixed foundry waste sand based on the wet-thermal composite reclamation was proposed. The wast...

  17. Analysis of total metals in waste molding and core sands from ferrous and non-ferrous foundries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waste molding and core sands from the foundry industry have been successfully used around the world as byproducts in geotechnical and agricultural applications. Although waste foundry sands (WFSs) are generally not considered hazardous in nature, relevant data are not available in Argentina. This ...

  18. Effect of compost-, sand-, or gypsum-amended waste foundry sands on turfgrass yield and nutrient content

    Science.gov (United States)

    To prevent the 7-11 million metric tons of waste foundry sand (WFS) produced annually in the U.S. from entering landfills, current research is focused on the reuse of WFSs as soil amendments. The effects of different WFS-containing amendments on turfgrass growth and nutrient content were tested by ...

  19. The characterization and composition of bacterial communities in soils blended with spent foundry sand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spent foundry sands (SFSs) are a likely replacement for virgin aggregate used in manufactured soils, such as topsoils, potting soils, and landscaping mixes. While SFSs generally contain low concentrations of trace elements and xenobiotics, concerns about their impact upon environmental receptors ha...

  20. Synergy of Practical Knowledge of Molding Sands Reclamation in Heavy Casting Foundry of Iron Alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Ignaszak, Z.; J-b, Prunier

    2013-01-01

    The paper summarizes research realized by the author in laboratory and industrial conditions (foundries of cast steel and cast iron, castings up to 50 tons) on the effects of the chemically hardened molding sands regeneration using hard/soft rubbing in the dry reclamation. A reference was simultaneously made to advisability of application of the thermal regeneration in conditions, where chromite amount in the circulating (reclaimed) molding sand goes as high as above ten percent. An advisabil...

  1. Granulation process of foundry dusts originated from bentonite sand processing plants

    OpenAIRE

    Kamin?ska, J.; Dan?ko, J.

    2013-01-01

    The results of the investigation results of the granulation process of foundry dusts generated during the mechanical reclamation of spent sands with bentonite and also dusts from the sand processing plants are presented in the paper. The following parameters of the final product were determined: moisture content (W) and granules shatter test (Wz) performed directly after the granulation process and after 1, 3, 5, 10 and 30 days and nights of seasoning, water-resistant ability of granules afte...

  2. A new low-cost method of reclaiming mixed foundry waste sand based on wet-thermal composite reclamation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Zitian

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A lot of mixed clay-resin waste sand from large-scale iron foundries is discharged every day; so mixed waste sand reclamation in low cost and high quality has a great realistic significance. In the study to investigate the possibility of reusing two types of waste foundry sands, resin bonded sand and clay bonded sand which came from a Chinese casting factory, a new low-cost reclamation method of the mixed foundry waste sand based on the wet-thermal composite reclamation was proposed. The waste resin bonded sand was first reclaimed by a thermal method and the waste clay bonded sand was reclaimed by a wet method. Then, hot thermal reclaimed sand and the dehydrated wet reclaimed sand were mixed in certain proportions so that the hot thermal reclaimed sand dried the wet reclaimed sand leaving some water. The thermal reclamation efficiency of the waste resin bonded sand was researched at different heat levels. The optimized wet reclamation process of the waste clay bonded sand was achieved by investigating the effects of wet reclamation times, sand-water ratio and pH value on the reclaimed sand characteristics. The composite reclamation cost also was calculated. The research results showed that the properties of the mixed reclaimed sand can satisfy the application requirements of foundries; in which the temperature of the thermal reclamation waste resin bonded sand needs to be about 800 ?, the number of cycles of wet reclamation waste clay bonded sand should reach four to five, the optimal sand-water ratio of wet reclamation is around 1:1.5, and the pH value should be adjusted by adding acid. The mass ratio of hot thermal reclaimed sand to dehydrated wet reclaimed sand is about 1:2.5, and the composite reclaimed sand cost is around 100 yuan RMB per ton.

  3. Techno- Economical Study of Rigid Pavement by Using the Used Foundry Sand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vipul D. Prajapati1 , Nilay Joshi2 , Prof. Jayeshkumar Pitroda

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Indian road network of almost 3.5 million km comprising both paved and unpaved surfaces is the world’s second largest. Indian roads are presently constructed with not the right choice of material. The two major types of materials, bitumen and concrete are used in road construction in the country. A very small share of roads in the country is made of concrete. Though, it is superior on many counts as a medium for road buildings. The use of large amount of by-product materials as powder or fines not only avoids the requirement of landfills but also reduce the environmental problems. It is most essential to develop profitable building materials from used foundry sand. The innovative use of used foundry sand in concrete formulations as a fine aggregate replacement material was tested as an alternative to traditional concrete. The fine aggregate has been replaced by used foundry sand accordingly in the range of 0%, 10%, 30% & 50% by weight for M-20 grade concrete. Concrete mixtures were produced, tested and compared in terms of compressive and flexural strength with the conventional concrete. These tests were carried out to evaluate the mechanical properties for 7, 14 and 28 days. This research work is to investigate the behaviour of concrete while replacing used foundry sand in different proportion in concrete. This low cost concrete with good strength is used in rigid pavement for 3000 commercial vehicles per day (cvpd and Dry Lean Concrete (DLC 100mm thick for national highway to make it eco-friendly.

  4. Evaluation of the Effective Baking Conditions for Grade 3 Nigerian Acacia Species Bonded Foundry Sand Cores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuhu A. ademoh

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The most effective economical baking conditions w ere determined for foundry cores bonded with the grade 3 Nigerian acacia species exudates. Silica sand base cores bonded with the material were oven baked at temperatures ranging from 160 to 250ºC for varying periods oven cooled and then subjected to tensile strength tests to ascertain the best baking conditions for different alloy castings. The experimental core specimens were in accordance with foundry test standard, shaped like figure number eight. They were tested with standard universal strength machine equipped with attachment for gripping the cores and an instantaneous meter from which the test values were read. The result were compared with established standard foundry core property table which showed that the class V iron/steel cores are best made with 3% acacia bonded silica sand baked at 160ºC for 1 h. For magnesium cores, sand bonded with 4.5% acacia baked at 160ºC for 1-2 h was optimum. For class IV iron/steel cores 4.5% acacia bonded sand baked at 180ºC for 1 hour was optimal. Sand bonded with 4.5% grade 3 acacia baked at 200ºC for 1.0-2.0 h was optimum for copper, aluminium, classes II and III iron/steel cores. Sand bonded with 8.0-13.0% grade 3 N igerian acacia species baked at 200ºC for 1.5-2 h was found most effective for class I iron and steel cores.

  5. Synergy of Practical Knowledge of Molding Sands Reclamation in Heavy Casting Foundry of Iron Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Ignaszak

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper summarizes research realized by the author in laboratory and industrial conditions (foundries of cast steel and cast iron, castings up to 50 tons on the effects of the chemically hardened molding sands regeneration using hard/soft rubbing in the dry reclamation. A reference was simultaneously made to advisability of application of the thermal regeneration in conditions, where chromite amount in the circulating (reclaimed molding sand goes as high as above ten percent. An advisability of connecting standard and specialized methods of examination of the reclaimed sands and molding sands made using it was pointed out. A way of application of studies with the Hot Distortion Plus® method modified by the author for validation of modeling of the thermo-dynamic phenomena in the mold was shown.

  6. Applications of the systems theory to the designing of the sand preparation sub-system in foundry plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Wrona

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This study provides the basic principles for designing the functional structure of manufacturing systems and their components. The analysis of functional values is applied to create the technological and manufacturing model underlying the design of the foundry equipment with machine units and materials handling systems. Quoted examples illustrate the approved procedure to be applied to control the sand preparation process in a foundry.

  7. Granulation process of foundry dusts originated from bentonite sand processing plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kami?ska

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of the investigation results of the granulation process of foundry dusts generated during the mechanical reclamation of spent sands with bentonite and also dusts from the sand processing plants are presented in the paper. The following parameters of the final product were determined: moisture content (W and granules shatter test (Wz performed directly after the granulation process and after 1, 3, 5, 10 and 30 days and nights of seasoning, water-resistant ability of granules after 24 h of immersing in water, surface porosity ep and volumetric porosity ev. In addition the shatter test and water-resistant ability of granulated products dried at a temperature of 105°C was estimated.

  8. Design and production of a novel sand materials strength testing machine for foundry applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nwaogu, Ugochukwu Chibuzoh; Hansen, K. S.

    2012-01-01

    In the foundry, existing strength testing machines are used to measure only the maximum fracture strength of mould and core materials. With traditionally used methods, the loading history to ascertain deformation of the material is not available. In this paper, a novel moulding material strength testing machine was designed and built for both green sand and chemically-bonded sand materials. This machine measures and presents the loading response as a force-displacement profile from which the mechanical properties of the moulding materials can be deduced. The system was interfaced to a computer with a commercial PC based-control and data acquisition software. The testing conditions and operations are specified in the user interface and the data acquisition is made according to specifications. The force and displacements were calibrated to ensure consistency and reliability of the measurement data. The force was calibrated using an Amsler Hydraulic Press while the displacements were calibrated with and without loading using a displacement calibrator (Heidenhain Digitaler). The calibration results showed that the data obtained are stable and reliable and the machine can be used for the measurement of the strength of chemically-bonded sand materials.

  9. The foundry wastes. Storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work deals with the regulation relative to the management of foundry wastes, such as sands (which can be radioactive), non hazardous and hazardous wastes. Some examples of the reuse of these foundry wastes are given. (O.M.)

  10. Mechanical and toxicological evaluation of concrete artifacts containing waste foundry sand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastella, Miguel Angelo; Gislon, Edivelton Soratto; Pelisser, Fernando; Ricken, Cláudio; da Silva, Luciano; Angioletto, Elídio; Montedo, Oscar Rubem Klegues

    2014-08-01

    The creation of metal parts via casting uses molds that are generally made from sand and phenolic resin. The waste generated after the casting process is called waste foundry sand (WFS). Depending on the mold composition and the casting process, WFS can contain substances that prevent its direct emission to the environment. In Brazil, this waste is classified according to the Standard ABNT NBR 10004:2004 as a waste Class II (Non-Inert). The recycling of this waste is limited because its characteristics change significantly after use. Although the use (or reuse) of this byproduct in civil construction is a technically feasible alternative, its effects must be evaluated, especially from mechanical and environmental points of view. Thus, the objective of this study is to investigate the effect of the use of WFS in the manufacture of cement artifacts, such as masonry blocks for walls, structural masonry blocks, and paving blocks. Blocks containing different concentrations of WFS (up to 75% by weight) were produced and evaluated using compressive strength tests (35 MPa at 28 days) and toxicity tests on Daphnia magna, Allium cepa (onion root), and Eisenia foetida (earthworm). The results showed that there was not a considerable reduction in the compressive strength, with values of 35 ± 2 MPa at 28 days. The toxicity study with the material obtained from leaching did not significantly interfere with the development of D. magna and E. foetida, but the growth of the A. cepa species was reduced. The study showed that the use of this waste in the production of concrete blocks is feasible from both mechanical and environmental points of view. PMID:24582355

  11. New sol–gel refractory coatings on chemically-bonded sand cores for foundry applications to improve casting surface quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nwaogu, Ugochukwu Chibuzoh; Poulsen, T.

    2011-01-01

    Foundry refractory coatings protect bonded sand cores and moulds from producing defective castings during the casting process by providing a barrier between the core and the liquid metal. In this study, new sol–gel refractory coating on phenolic urethane cold box (PUCB) core was examined. The coating density, viscosity, moisture content and wet and dry weight of the coating were evaluated on cores that had been coated at three different dip-coating times. The coating coverage, surface appearance and depth of penetration into the cores were examined with a Stereomicroscope. Gray iron castings were produced with sol-gel coated and uncoated cores and the results were related to the coating properties. The casting results were also compared with castings made with cores coated with commercial alcohol-based and water-based foundry coatings. The analyses show that castings produced with sol–gel coated cores have better surface quality than those from uncoated cores and comparable surface quality with the commercialcoatings. Therefore, the new sol–gel coating has a potential application in the foundry industry for improving the surface finish of castings thereby reducing the cost of fettling in the foundry industry since the raw materials and technology are easily affordable.

  12. Potential for extraction of high quality foundry sands in the coal bed of field ''D'' at the Kolubarskiy coal basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivankovic, D.; Ceh, M.; Mihailovic, B.

    1980-01-01

    There are pure quartz sands in the soil of the coal bed ''D'' that is being worked by open-pit method. Industry in Yugoslavia is experiencing a deficit in foundry-type sand. Chemical analysis has shown that the sand is 79.3% SiO/sub 2/ and 12.3% organic substances in the form of coal materials. Granulometric analysis established that 18.6% is +0.5 mm and 80.7% are on the order of -0.5+0.06 mm. Laboratory and semi-industrial tests show potential for cleaning of sand and that required foundry-quality sand may be derived by screening and washing. Technological schemes for processing of sand, using simple technology and servicing equipment are discussed.

  13. Ocular effects of exposure to triethylamine in the sand core cold box of a foundry.

    OpenAIRE

    Reilly, M. J.; Rosenman, K. D.; Abrams, J. H.; Zhu, Z.; Tseng, C.; Hertzberg, V.; Rice, C.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To assess the acute and chronic ophthalmological effects of triethylamine exposure among foundry workers. METHODS--Ocular effects on people currently, previously, and never exposed to triethylamine in a foundry cold box were studied at two points in time. The initial phase included an ocular examination with a slit lamp to assess corneal health, a visual acuity test, and a questionnaire to assess vision symptoms. The follow up included measurements of corneal thickness with an ult...

  14. Measurement of elastic modulus and evaluation of viscoelasticity of foundry green sand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingchun XIANG

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Elastic modulus is an important physical parameter of molding sand; it is closely connected with molding sand's properties. Based on theories of rheology and molding sand microdeformation, elastic modulus of molding sand was measured and investigated using the intelligent molding sand multi-property tester developed by ourselves. The measuring principle was introduced. Effects of bentonite percentage and compactibility of the molding sand were experimentally studied. Furthermore, the essential viscoelastic nature of green sand was analyzed. It is considered that viscoelastic deformation of molding sand consists mainly of that of Kelvin Body of clay membrane, and elastic modulus of molding sand depends mainly on that of Kelvin Body which is the elastic component of clay membrane between sands. Elastic modulus can be adopted as one of the property parameters, and can be employed to evaluate viscoelastic properties of molding sand.

  15. The reclamation of used moulding and core sands as a part of research programme of the Foundry Research Institute in Cracow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Izdebska-Szanda

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a historical outline of studies carried out by the Foundry Research Institute in Cracow on technical and technological solutions regarding the development of a reclamation process of the used moulding and core sands with attention focused on the past twenty years. Various aspects that control studies of the sand reclamation, from the thermal process, through pneumatic reclamation, and with preferences focused on the application of a mechanical treatment of the used sand, were discussed. Particular emphasis was put on the vibration method.Examples of design solutions developed by the Foundry Research Institute in Cracow were described. They were implemented inindustrial practice both at home and abroad. Their versatility and effectiveness as satisfying BAT criteria was stressed.

  16. Reclamation for foundry sand and establishment of application system to ester hardening process; Imono suna saiseiho to ester koka process eno riyo system no kakuritsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shibuya, E. [Koei Co. Ltd., Saitama (Japan); Sekine, S.

    1998-10-25

    An ester hardening process and its compatibility with reclaimed sand were studied on reclamation and utilization of foundry sand. As a result, a system was established to utilize the foundry sand repeatedly. Sand reclaimed by using the ester hardening process based on the compaction type reclamation method assures the targeted ignition loss reduction rate. A possibility of sand re-utilization was verified at low cost under soft grinding condition, even if considerations are given on reclamation and recovery rate under the reduced ignition loss, and on change in the electric current load and particle size indexes. Application of the reclamation using this method was made on recovered sand having self-hardening property of nine and gas hardenability of one, where continuous operation of molding, casting and recovery is carried out. Reclamation and recovery rate with two-path reclamation treatment is 94.6%, and compression strength in test pieces showed 300 N/cm {sup 2} both in the self-hardening property and gas hardenability after a lapse of three hours. The properties of the reclaimed sand made in the study process were found superior to those of new sand before reclamation in molding properties (fluidity and filling performance). 6 refs., 20 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Application of design projects developed by Foundry Research Institute in Krakow in construction of integrated stand for processing and reclamation of moulding sands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Izdebska-Szanda

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the description of a new integrated system for processing and reclamation of moulding and core sands using the equipment developed by Foundry Research Institute in Krakow. The idea and operation of a complex stand, which allows for co-existence of three routes of material circulation, i.e. system sand, new sand and reclaim, with maximum utilisation of the existing equipment have been presented. Various aspects, economical and ecological, of the proposed design have been discussed.

  18. Harmless treatment of used foundry sands and dewatered municipal sludge by microwave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. F. Wang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A new method to treat four solid wastes of sodium silicate used sands, dewatered municipal sludge, clay sands sludge and waste polyethylene, was discussed. About wt/ 50 % sodium silicate used sands and wt/ 50 % dewatered sludge were mixed, and then cured by microwave with a certain thickness film of clay sands sludge and waste plastic of polyethylene in the surface. The results showed that the compression strength of granulation sample with the size of ? 50 × 50 mm was over 0,45 MPa. The waste plastic was the key factor for the durability, and curing temperature must be over melting temperature, so the thicker film could be coated in the surface of used sands and sludge.

  19. Effects of Moisture Content on the Foundry Properties of Yola Natural Sand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Aondona IHOM

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of moisture content of Yola natural sand has been studied. The moisture content was varied from 1 to 9%. The effect of the moisture content on the green compression strength, green permeability and bulk density was investigated. Particle size distribution of the natural sand, the grain fineness number, average grain size, grain shape and the clay content of the natural sand were also studied. 5% moisture gave the optimum green compression strength of 118.6KN/m2. The dry compression strength increased with moisture content, an optimum value of 4000KN/m2 was obtained at 9% moisture. The Yola natural sand had a grain fineness number of 88.05AFS, average grain size of 335.78 microns and a clay content of 26%. A sand mixture containing 5% moisture was prepared and used to produce a test casting with aluminium scraps, the test casting was sound.

  20. Polysialates binders preparation and their influence to shear strength of foundry sand mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Fridrich

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with polysialates water-glasses preparation. There were used various procedures with the goal to create inorganic polymer on silicon and aluminum base. The one composed of SiO2 and AlO4 tetrahedron chains. For the preparation was concentrated NaOH solution used together with metakaolinite in a way low-temperature synthesis in the presence of alkaline silicate: higher pressure and temperature (autoclave to direct making of alkaline silicate made of sand, NaOH with metakaolinite addition and by melting fritted glass together with metakaolinite and dissolution in autoclave. The dissolving effectivity was evaluated by the concentration of aluminum in alkaline silicate and by the influence to reduce strengths after heat exposition with this inorganic binder.

  1. Investigation into the origin of radioactivity in ceramic waste. Zircon sand in iron foundries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2002 a truck loaded with used car scrap triggered a radiation monitoring gate detector at a scrapyard. The material under suspicion turned out to be some ceramic waste material. The ceramic waste was used for many years to raise roads or pave yards and premises in the surroundings of Almelo, Netherlands, as was the case with the used car dump where the metal scrap came from. The ceramic material contains zircon sand, which has elevated concentrations of naturally occuring radionuclides. Therefore, using this waste in a surface soil layer may cause radiological exposures to the public. From measurements at the used car dump dose rates were determined up to ten times the background. From further research it was determined that part of the ceramic waste has concentrations above exemption level. From these measurements it was also concluded that the ceramic material is retaining radon and its decay products. From some calculations a maximum effective annual dose was estimated of about 1 mSv. This dose is determined mainly by external radiation and is for long lasting exposure on some large factory grounds. On the other hand, children might be playing in smaller yards or premises. Ingestion might play some role in that case. For this exposure path an annual dose of 0.12 mSv was calculated. For adults this is not an important exposure path. Inhalation doesn't seem to play an important role neither for adults nor for children

  2. The pneumatic conveying applications in foundry industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Homa

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents some issues connected to pneumatic conveying usage in foundry industry. The loose materials transportation (sand and moulding sand through consecutive production cycles were described. The powder injection into liquid metal, the bentonite into mixers and pneumatic used moulding sand reclamation applications were presented, too. The industrial setups, technological descriptions and some loose materials parameters were given, too.

  3. Thermal analysis of foundry bentonites

    OpenAIRE

    S. ?ymankowska-Kumon; Holtzer, M.; Grabowski, G

    2011-01-01

    The results of investigations of 3 calcium bentonites, activated by sodium carbonate, applied in the foundry industry as bindingmaterial for moulding sands are presented in the paper. Investigations were performed by the thermal analysis (TG) method. The occurrence of the dehydration and dehydroxylation process was confirmed in all tested bentonites.

  4. Foundry Coating Technology: A Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nwaogu, Ugochukwu Chibuzoh; Tiedje, Niels Skat

    2011-01-01

    The importance of foundry coating in improving the surface quality of castings cannot be over emphasized. The appli-cation of mould and core washes creates a high thermal integrity barrier between the metal and the mould resulting in the reduction of the thermal shock experienced by the sand system. These thermal shock leads to series of surface de-fects such as veining/finning, metal penetration, burn-on/in, scab, rat tail, erosion etc. The use of coatings reduces the tendency of occurrence of these defects. However, the understanding of the coating, its components, characteristics and mechanism of action is important. In this review, a detailed description of these topics and examples are provided where necessary. A potential area of research in foundry coating development, using sol-gel process is suggested. The application of sol-gel technology in the development of foundry coatings is a novel approach.

  5. Tekstil At?ksular?n?n Gideriminde At?k Döküm Kumlar?n?n Kullan?m? / Using of Waste Foundry Sands in Removal of Textile Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EL?F HAT?CE GÜRKAN

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Ülkelerin sanayile?mesi ile birlikte endüstriyel bazl? su kullan?m?n?n artmas? ve son y?llarda ortaya ç?kan küresel ?s?nma sorunu, yüzeysel ve yeralt? su kaynaklar?n?n tükenmesine sebep olmaktad?r. Endüstriyel at?ksular?n do?aya yapt??? etkiler önemli düzeyde, do?al dengeyi de?i?tirici ve baz? durumlarda geri dönülmez nitelikte olmaktad?r. Endüstrilerden kaynaklanan at?ksular, evsel at?ksulara göre kaynak, miktar ve karakter aç?s?ndan büyük farkl?l?klar gösterirler. Bu nedenle endüstri tesisinin ç?k?? sular?n?n do?al su ortamlar?n?n kirletmesini engelleyecek ?ekilde ar?t?lmas? gerekmektedir. Bu at?ksular?n ar?t?l?p geri kazan?lmas? ile hem su kaynaklar?n?n tüketimi hem de de?arj edilen ar?t?lm?? at?ksular?n miktar? azalt?lmakta ve çevresel etkileri en aza indirilebilmektedir. Ülkemizdeki en büyük endüstri dallar?ndan biri olan tekstil endüstrisi, çok su tüketilen, kullan?lan hammadde ve kimyasal maddelerin, gerçekle?tirilen i?lemlerin, her i?lem için uygulanan teknolojilerin çe?itlili?i nedeni ile farkl?l?k gösteren ve üretilen ürüne ba?l? at?k kayna?? olarak son derece de?i?ken yap?ya sahip bir endüstridir. Tekstil endüstrisi at?ksular?n?n en belirgin özelli?i, yüksek miktarda organik ve inorganik kimyasal içermesi ve yüksek toplam organik karbon (TOK, kimyasal oksijen ihtiyac? (KOI ve yo?un renk içeri?idir. Al?c? su kaynaklar?na verilen boyar maddeler organik yük olarak bu kirlili?in küçük bir k?sm?n? olu?turmaktad?r; ancak al?c? ortamda çok dü?ük konsantrasyonlarda boyar madde bulunmas? bile estetik aç?dan istenmeyen bir durumdur. Bu nedenle boyar madde içeren tekstil endüstrisi at?ksular?ndan renk giderim prosesleri ekolojik aç?dan önem kazanmaktad?r. Günümüzde boyar maddelerin giderimi büyük oranda fiziksel ve kimyasal yöntemlerle gerçekle?tirilmektedir. Bu çal??mada, at?k döküm kumlar?n?n, tekstil endüstrisi at?k sular?nda renk gideriminde adsorbent olarak kullan?lmas? amaçlanmaktad?r. Using of Waste Foundry Sands in Removal of Textile Wastewater Nowadays, the accelerating need of water due to usage of water in industralized countries and global warming is causing all water sources to be exhausted. The effects the industrial wastewater made to the nature are important level, changer of natural balance, and sometimes non returned position. By reusing the treated the wastewater, not only the consumption of natural water sources has been prevented, but also the amount of discharged treated wastewater and its effects to the environment has been decreased. The wastewater resulted from industries shows big differences according to the wastewater in houses in the conditions of resource, amount, and character. So output water of the industry establishment has to be purified to prevent not to dirty natural water places. Textile industry is one of the biggest industries of Turkey and it consumes Access amount of water. As there are several methods and technologies used in this sector due to the different raw materials and various chemicals, the wastewaters obtained vary related to the products produced. The most prominent feature of textile industry wastewater is contained high amounts of organic and inorganic chemicals, and high total organic carbon (TOC, chemical oxygen demand (COD and intense color. The discharge of dyes into the receiving waters constitutes only a small portion of water pollution. However the presence of very low concentrations of dyes in receiving waters is aesthetically undesirable. Therefore, treatment processes removing dyes from textile effluents have become important in order to conserve receiving waters. In this study is to investigate using the adsorpsion method of removal with waste foundry sands, which are used expecially dye nd textile industries and are an important polluting agent in the waste water dumped into the environment by these industries.

  6. Influence green sand system by core sand additions

    OpenAIRE

    S?pirutova?, N.; Ben?o, J.; Bedna?r?ova?, V.; Kr?i?z?, J.; Kandrna?l, M.

    2012-01-01

    Today, about two thirds of iron alloys casting (especially for graphitizing alloys of iron) are produced into green sand systems with usually organically bonded cores. Separation of core sands from the green sand mixture is very difficult, after pouring. The core sand concentration increase due to circulation of green sand mixture in a closed circulation system. Furthermore in some foundries, core sands have been adding to green sand systems as a replacement for new sands. The goal of this co...

  7. Influence of foundry dust on moulding mixtures quality

    OpenAIRE

    A. Pribulová; P. Futaš; A. Rosová; P. Demeter; D. Baricová

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to observe the effect of the addition of the dust from the moulding plant on the quality parameters of the moulding mixtures and determine tolerable content in the moulding mixture. Three types of moulding mixtures were used in experiments: mixture prepared from new quartz sand and bentonite, mixture which is recycled in the experimental foundry and mixture came from the small foundry. To these moulding mixture was added the dust from moulding plant in the rang...

  8. Process management in foundries

    OpenAIRE

    L. Wojtynek

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the nature of process management and the basic process analysis. A general model of process management in a foundry is showed. The essential activities of processing, systems and change management are described. There is also presented a problem of effectiveness, efficiency and processing improvement. The criteria, methods and techniques of process improvement are indicated. The importance of process approach to the improvement of foundry management system is underlined.

  9. Determination of thermal conductivity in foundry mould mixtures

    OpenAIRE

    G. Soleni?ki; Budi?, I.; D. Ciglar

    2010-01-01

    For a thorough understanding of the behaviour of foundry mould mixtures, a good knowledge of thermal properties of mould materials is needed. Laboratory determination of thermal conductivity of mould mixtures enables a better control over scabbing defects which are a major problem in green sand mould mixtures. A special instrument has been designed for that purpose and it is described in this work.

  10. Pneumatic reclamation devices applied in the conditions of Ostrowiec Foundry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Homa

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The scope of publication includes presentation of used sand reclamation system with the use of energy of compressed stream of air, whichshift reclaimed sand in pneumatic system. The solution, by incorporating into pneumatic installation an element which act as special disordered element causing controlled flow of two-phase flow to clean the surface layer of regenerated grains in a dry environment.The described reclamation equipment was installed and operated in the foundry "Ostrowiec".

  11. Influência do emprego de areia de fundição residual nas propriedades no estado fresco e endurecido de misturas cimentícias / Influence of foundry sand residues on the fresh and hardened properties of mortars produced with portland cement

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    W. R. L da, Silva; E., Tochetto; L. R., Prudêncio JR; A. L., Oliveira.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A areia de fundição residual (AFR) consiste em um resíduo arenoso proveniente dos moldes utilizados no processo de fundição de metais. O presente trabalho foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de avaliar a influência do uso da AFR nas propriedades concreto. Para tanto, utilizou-se cimento CPV-ARI RS, adit [...] ivo plastificante, AFR e areias fina, média natural e de britagem. As propriedades no estado fresco foram avaliadas através da determinação da consistência e teor de ar incorporado. No estado endurecido avaliou-se a resistência à compressão axial. Os resultados indicaram que o uso da AFR resulta no aumento do teor de ar incorporado, fissuração por reações expansivas e consequ?ente redução de resistência. Visando investigar a origem das tendências observadas, realizou-se um estudo complementar empregando AFR de diferentes composições. Todavia, independente da composição utilizada, os resultados indicaram tendência semelhante à observada anteriormente. Por fim, considerando os materiais empregados nesta pesquisa, conclui-se que a utilização da AFR em concreto é inadequada, pois prejudica não apenas a resistência mecânica, mas também a durabilidade do material. Abstract in english The foundry sand waste (FSW) derives from moulds used in the metallurgical industries. The present experimental study was developed to evaluate the influence of the use of FSW on concrete properties. The mixtures were produced with cement CPV-ARI-RS, water reducing admixture, FSW, natural and crushe [...] d aggregates. The properties on the fresh state were evaluated by means of flow table test and the determination of the incorporated air content. On the hardened state, compressive strength tests were performed. The initial results have shown that the use of FSW leads to an increase in the air content and cracking, caused by expansive reactions. As a result of that, a reduction in the compressive strength has been noticed. In order to define the origin of the presented trends, a complementary study was developed using FSW with different compositions. However, regardless the composition of the FSW, the obtained results presented trends which were similar to the ones previously observed. Finally, considering the materials herein used, the addition of FSW in concrete is considered inadequate since this leads to a decrease not only in the compressive strength, but also in the durability of the material.

  12. Foundry energy conservation workbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-31

    This report discusses methods for promoting energy conservation in foundries. Use of electric power, natural gas, and coke are evaluated. Waste heat recovery systems are considered. Energy consumption in the specific processes of electric melting, natural gas melting, heat treatments, ladle melting, and coke fuel melting is described. An example energy analysis is included. (GHH)

  13. JPL Innovation Foundry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, Brent; McCleese, Daniel

    2013-08-01

    Space science missions are increasingly challenged today: in ambition, by increasingly sophisticated hypotheses tested; in development, by the increasing complexity of advanced technologies; in budgeting, by the decline of flagship-class mission opportunities; in management, by expectations for breakthrough science despite a risk-averse programmatic climate; and in planning, by increasing competition for scarce resources. How are the space-science missions of tomorrow being formulated? The paper describes the JPL Innovation Foundry, created in 2011, to respond to this evolving context. The Foundry integrates methods, tools, and experts that span the mission concept lifecycle. Grounded in JPL's heritage of missions, flight instruments, mission proposals, and concept innovation, the Foundry seeks to provide continuity of support and cost-effective, on-call access to the right domain experts at the right time, as science definition teams and Principal Investigators mature mission ideas from "cocktail napkin" to PDR. The Foundry blends JPL capabilities in proposal development and concurrent engineering, including Team X, with new approaches for open-ended concept exploration in earlier, cost-constrained phases, and with ongoing research and technology projects. It applies complexity and cost models, project-formulation lessons learned, and strategy analyses appropriate to each level of concept maturity. The Foundry is organizationally integrated with JPL formulation program offices; staffed by JPL's line organizations for engineering, science, and costing; and overseen by senior Laboratory leaders to assure experienced coordination and review. Incubation of each concept is tailored depending on its maturity and proposal history, and its highest-leverage modeling and analysis needs.

  14. JPL Innovation Foundry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, Brent; McCleese, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Space science missions are increasingly challenged today: in ambition, by increasingly sophisticated hypotheses tested; in development, by the increasing complexity of advanced technologies; in budgeting, by the decline of flagship-class mission opportunities; in management, by expectations for breakthrough science despite a risk-averse programmatic climate; and in planning, by increasing competition for scarce resources. How are the space-science missions of tomorrow being formulated? The paper describes the JPL Innovation Foundry, created in 2011, to respond to this evolving context. The Foundry integrates methods, tools, and experts that span the mission concept lifecycle. Grounded in JPL's heritage of missions, flight instruments, mission proposals, and concept innovation, the Foundry seeks to provide continuity of support and cost-effective, on-call access to the right domain experts at the right time, as science definition teams and Principal Investigators mature mission ideas from "cocktail napkin" to PDR. The Foundry blends JPL capabilities in proposal development and concurrent engineering, including Team X, with new approaches for open-ended concept exploration in earlier, cost-constrained phases, and with ongoing research and technology projects. It applies complexity and cost models, projectformulation lessons learned, and strategy analyses appropriate to each level of concept maturity. The Foundry is organizationally integrated with JPL formulation program offices; staffed by JPL's line organizations for engineering, science, and costing; and overseen by senior Laboratory leaders to assure experienced coordination and review. Incubation of each concept is tailored depending on its maturity and proposal history, and its highest leverage modeling and analysis needs.

  15. Characterization and extraction of gold contained in foundry industrial wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gold was characterized and leached in foundry sands. These wastes are product among others of the automotive industry where they are used as molds material which are contaminated by diverse metals during the foundry. To fulfil the leaching process four coupled thermostat columns were used. To characterize the solid it was used the X-ray diffraction technique. For the qualitative analysis it was used the Activation analysis technique. Finally, for the study of liquors was used the Plasma diffraction spectroscopy (Icp-As) technique. The obtained results show that the process which was used the thermostat columns was more efficient, than the methods traditionally recommended. (Author)

  16. Influence of foundry dust on moulding mixtures quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Pribulová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper was to observe the effect of the addition of the dust from the moulding plant on the quality parameters of the moulding mixtures and determine tolerable content in the moulding mixture. Three types of moulding mixtures were used in experiments: mixture prepared from new quartz sand and bentonite, mixture which is recycled in the experimental foundry and mixture came from the small foundry. To these moulding mixture was added the dust from moulding plant in the range 0 – 10%. Influence of dust addition on the compression strength, splitting strength and permeability was observed in all three kinds of mixtures.

  17. Innovative developments in sand reclamation technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Dañko

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Proper sand management and efficient sand reclamation system are two main factors influencing economical and ecological side of modern foundry plant. It is well known fact that the production of 1 metric ton of casting from ferrous alloys generates circa 1 metric ton of waste [1], which due to containing certain amounts of harmful and dangerous compounds should undergo a reclamation – at least of the main component, which means a silica sand grains. The paper present problems of scientific and development research concerning the innovative reclamation technologies of used foundry sands such as: mechanical-cryogenic reclamation and innovative thermal reclamation.

  18. Determination of thermal conductivity in foundry mould mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Soleni?ki

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available For a thorough understanding of the behaviour of foundry mould mixtures, a good knowledge of thermal properties of mould materials is needed. Laboratory determination of thermal conductivity of mould mixtures enables a better control over scabbing defects which are a major problem in green sand mould mixtures. A special instrument has been designed for that purpose and it is described in this work.

  19. Influence green sand system by core sand additions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Špirutová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, about two thirds of iron alloys casting (especially for graphitizing alloys of iron are produced into green sand systems with usually organically bonded cores. Separation of core sands from the green sand mixture is very difficult, after pouring. The core sand concentration increase due to circulation of green sand mixture in a closed circulation system. Furthermore in some foundries, core sands have been adding to green sand systems as a replacement for new sands. The goal of this contribution is: “How the green sand systems are influenced by core sands?”This effect is considered by determination of selected technological properties and degree of green sand system re-bonding. From the studies, which have been published yet, there is not consistent opinion on influence of core sand dilution on green sand system properties. In order to simulation of the effect of core sands on the technological properties of green sands, there were applied the most common used technologies of cores production, which are based on bonding with phenolic resin. Core sand concentration added to green sand system, was up to 50 %. Influence of core sand dilution on basic properties of green sand systems was determined by evaluation of basic industrial properties: moisture, green compression strength and splitting strength, wet tensile strength, mixture stability against staling and physical-chemistry properties (pH, conductivity, and loss of ignition. Ratio of active betonite by Methylene blue test was also determined.

  20. Technologies for decreasing the tap temperature to save energy in steel foundries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Siddhartha

    Steel foundries are one of the most energy intensive industries. The increasing concerns over volatile energy cost and carbon dioxide emission have pushed foundries to improve efficiency and hence decrease electrical energy consumption. Statistical analysis of industrial survey data was combined with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling to investigate the best industrial practices and opportunities to improve energy efficiency. Reducing tap temperature was identified as one of the important ways of reducing energy consumption. Steel foundries typically tap at 1650-1800°C (3000-3300°F) which is 100-250°C (150-450°F) higher than the pouring temperature. The steel temperature is elevated to compensate for the temperature loss associated with tapping, holding and transporting the liquid steel from the furnace to the pouring floor. Based on experimental investigations and CFD modeling of heat losses during holding in the ladle for different foundry practices, a spreadsheet calculator has been developed to calculate the optimum tap temperature for the specific foundry practices which will eliminate unnecessary superheating. The calculated results were compared and validated with industrial measurements. Improving the lining refractory is one significant way of reducing heat losses during holding of the steel in ladle. Silica sand linings are being used in steel foundries as an inexpensive and convenient material for short holding times and small volumes. The possibilities of improvements of silica sand linings by the addition of lower density cenospheres (hollow spheres), a byproduct of coal fired power plants, was studied through property measurements and laboratory trials.

  1. UK silica sand resources for fracking

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, Clive

    2013-01-01

    UK silica sand resources for fracking Clive Mitchell, Industrial Minerals Specialist, British Geological Survey, Keyworth, Nottingham, NG12 5GG Email: cjmi@bgs.ac.uk Silica sand is high purity quartz sand that is mainly used for glass production, as foundry sand, in horticulture, leisure and other industrial uses. One specialist use is as a ‘proppant’ to enhance oil and gas recovery. This presentation will focus on this application, particularly for shale gas recovery where it i...

  2. Foundry Wastes Reuse and Recycling in Concrete Production

    OpenAIRE

    Silvia Fiore; Zanetti, Maria C.  .

    2007-01-01

    The industrial process of a cast iron foundry plant located in the North of Italy was analyzed in order to determine the amount and kind of produced wastes. The main fractions are core and moulding sands, muds and powders from dust abatement plants, furnace and ladle slags, and exhaust lime, making about 750-800 t/d of residues for a production of about 800 t/d of globular and grey cast iron. All wastes were sampled and characterized by means of particle-size distribution and chemical analyse...

  3. Possibilities of utilizing 3DP technology for foundry mould making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Budzik

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Possibilities of application of three-dimensional printing (3DP technology for making casting prototypes are discussed. Three-dimensional printing enables making of foundry moulds for elements of complex shapes. The mould presented in the paper was printed with the use of Z510 Spectrum unit in the Car Technology Sp. z o.o. (Ltd. Co. in Kraków. The basic material for printing foundry moulds is the ZCast 501 powder. This powder is a mixture of traditional molding sand, gypsum and supplementary ingredients. The mould is made in ZCast technology, and it enables casting of zinc, magnesium and aluminum alloys at max. pouring temperature of 1100°C. The paper describes research on the possibility to utilize a standard ZP14 powder for building a rotor blade casting moulds. The research has showed that the ZP14 powder may serve for printing foundry moulds, which should then be subjected to thermo-chemical treatment. Application of the basic ZPrint system powder permits a reduction in mould manufacturing costs.

  4. Determination of electrical properties of materials used in microwaveheating of foundry moulds and cores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Opyd

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The environment-friendly and cost efficient microwave heating of moulding and core sands opens possibilities to use plastics and wood for structures of foundry instrumentation, where transparency to microwaves is the main requirement. Presented are results of a preliminary research on determining possibilities to use selected materials in microwave field. From the viewpoint of specificity of this process, the basic parameter is ability to absorb or transmit microwave radiation. Determined were the following electrical properties: tangent of dielectric loss angle and permittivity of selected materials. The materials were classified according to their transparency to electromagnetic radiation in order to choose the ones suitable for tooling applied in foundry processes.

  5. The radiological aspects of zircon sand use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zircon sand containing radioactivity is being used in the zirconium extraction process, metal casting, and in the ceramic and refractory industries. The sand is being widely distributed as weight in ordinary tape dispensers. Use of the sand by foundries and the zirconium industry has resulted in the accumulation of large volumes of low-level radioactive waste. Radium-226 concentration in typical zircon sand was measured as 90 +- 3 pCi/g. Radon emanation from zircon sand was estimated as 2 pCi/m2 sec. (author)

  6. Web based foundry knowledge base

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Stawowy

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The main assumptions and functions of proposed Foundry Knowledge Base (FKB are presented in this paper. FKB is a framework forinformation exchange of casting products and manufacturing methods. We use CMS (Content Management System to develope andmaintain our web-based system. The CastML – XML dialect developed by authors for description of casting products and processes – isused as a tool for information interchange between ours and outside systems, while SQL is used to store and edit knowledge rules and alsoto solve the basic selection problems in the rule-based module. Besides the standard functions (companies data, news, events, forums and media kit, our website contains a number of nonstandard functions; the intelligent search module based on expert system is the main advantage of our solution. FKB is to be a social portal which content will be developed by foundry community.

  7. Fluidity of Aluminium Foundry Alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Di Sabatino, Marisa

    2005-01-01

    The fluidity of an alloy plays a key role for the foundry and transport industries as it affects the quality and soundness of the cast products. Particularly, fluidity influences the reject rates, hence casting costs and the production of thinwalled, hence light components. Fluidity is a complex technological property and depends on many parameters. However, many aspects of this subject are still not fully understood. The motivation of the research presented in this doctoral thesis was, there...

  8. Biopolimers – structure, properties and applicability in the foundry industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Grabowska

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available A review of literature data concerning physicochemical properties and possibilities of practical utilisation of the most important natural biopolymers (proteins, celluloses, starch, chitozan are presented in the paper. Biopolymers being renewable natural polymers characterised by several required physicochemical properties (adhesivity, activity, no toxicity, biodegradability constitute more and more interesting processing raw material for various industrial utilisations including environment friendly binding agents for moulding sands. Protein and starch compositions are used as binding agents for moulding and core sands in the foundry industry. Preliminary tests – performed within own research - of modification and utilisation of biopolymers as binding agents for moulding sands are promising from many aspects: technological (adequate properties of moulding sands, ecological (no toxicity, biodegradability and economic (low price. Starch from the polysaccharide group seems to be especially interesting since it is abundant, easily obtainable, biodegradable and the cheapest polymer. At its actual low price and the possibility of using agricultural wastes in the production, problem of utilising starch in many industry branches can become significant, especially in Poland.

  9. Health and safety at work in foundry companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Wojtynek

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the identification and analysis of threats in the environment of the foundry at individual stages of the casts manufacturing process. A generalized model of the foundry was created in the system presentation including harmful and dangerous factors in the foundry technical workplace. This model can refer to an iron foundry and cast steel and small non-ferrous foundries, to modern foundries, with automatic moulding lines and to chill and pressure foundries where machines execute the majority of essential operations.

  10. APPLICATION OF ADDITIVELY MANUFACTURED POLYMER COMPOSITE PROTOTYPES IN FOUNDRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wies?aw Kuczko

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a method, developed by the authors, for manufacturing polymer composites with the matrix manufactured in a layered manner (via 3D printing – Fused Deposition Modeling out of a thermoplastic material. As an example of practical application of this method, functional prototypes are presented, which were used as elements of foundry tooling – patterns for sand molding. In case of manufacturing prototype castings or short series of products, foundries usually cooperate with modeling studios, which produce patterns by conventional, subtractive manufacturing technologies. If patterns have complex shapes, this results in high manufacturing costs and significantly longer time of tooling preparation. The method proposed by the authors allows manufacturing functional prototypes in a short time thanks to utilizing capabilities of additive manufacturing (3D printing technology. Thanks to using two types of materials simultaneously (ABS combined with chemically hardened resins, the produced prototypes are capable of carrying increased loads. Moreover, the method developed by the authors is characterized by manufacturing costs lower than in the basic technology of Fused Deposition Modeling. During the presented studies, the pattern was produced as a polymer composite and it was used to prepare a mold and a set of metal castings.

  11. Evaluation of Reclamability of Molding Sands with New Inorganic Binders

    OpenAIRE

    Izdebska-szanda, I.; Balin?ski, A.; Angrecki, M.

    2012-01-01

    One of the purposes of the application of chemically modified inorganic binders is to improve knocking out properties and the related reclamability with previously used in foundry inorganic binder (water glass), which allowing the use of ecological binders for casting non- ferrous metals. Good knocking out properties of the sands is directly related to the waste sands reclamability, which is a necessary condition of effective waste management. Reclamation of moulding and core sands is a funda...

  12. Wastes Characterisation from Foundry Activities on European Level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work presents The results of the eco toxicological characterisation of 22 defined wastes from steel foundry activities. The wastes have been selected from three processes, steel mill (smelting). sand casting and cleaning and finishing of steel products,with the common characteristics of represent an important industrial activity in the area and generated the wastes considered in this study. The eco toxicological characterisation obtained applying the Spanish regulations on hazardous waste is compared to the hazardous attributions considered by the European Union in order to characterise a waste as hazardous (non hazardous). The results allow to conclude that a acceptable concordance between both methodologies is reached and remark the need to split the broad generic types of wastes given by the Spanish regulation (Eco toxic / non eco toxic) into clearly identifiable specific types of waste

  13. Evaluation of electromagnetic absorbing capacity of materials in foundry industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Nowak

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, a research on determining the standing wave ratio as a measure of electromagnetic absorbing capacity of moulding materials is presented. Preliminary tests performed using a microwave strip line showed that high-silica, chromite and magnesite moulding sands are characterised by low absorbing capacity of microwaves. It was demonstrated that microwave absorbing capacity is significantly affected by chemical compounds included in the examined substrates. It was found that use of a microwave strip line permits precise determining characteristic microwave absorbing capacities of various moulding materials and thus their suitability for microwave drying/hardening of moulds and cores or for other foundry processes. Such a microwave drier can be applied for identifying mass components and for determining e.g. base granularity by means of precisely determined reflection ratios |?| and positions of minimum signal values.

  14. Research and application of enterprise resource planning system for foundry enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Jianxin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available PPDB issues - four aspects of current management issues of foundry enterprises are discussed in this paper, including Production Management, Process Control, Duration Monitoring and Business Intelligence Data Analysis. Also a whole Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP solution for foundry enterprises is proposed. The solution contains many models, four of which are used to solve the PPDB issues. These are called SPDB models, which separately are the Single-piece management model (based on casting lifecycle, Process management model (based on task-driven technology, Duration monitoring model (based on surplus period, and Business intelligence data analysis model (based on data mining. An ERP system for foundry enterprises, named HZERP, was researched and developed, and applied to a sand casting company of single piece and small batch production. Qualitatively and quantitatively comparing the application effect before and after implementing the HZERP system, the result demonstrated that the foundry ERP system based on the SPDB models can help metal casting enterprises achieve the single-piece management, better regulate the production processes, improve production and delivery management, shorten the production cycle, reduce costs, and speed up the capital turnover to a large extent.

  15. The Properties of Moulding Sand with Halloysite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cholewa

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Until now, the mould sand in general use in the foundry industry are based on bentonite, which resulted from the fact that a good recognition properties and phenomena associated with this material. Come to know and normalized content of montmorillonite and carbonates and their important role in the construction of bentonite, and mass properties of the participation of compressive strength or scatter. Halloysite is widely used in industry and beyond them. However, little is known about its use in the foundry in Poland and abroad. This article presents preliminary research conducted at the Foundry Department of Silesian University of Technology on this material. Will raise the question of the representation of this two materials, which contains information connected with history and formation of materials, their structure and chemical composition. In the research, the results of compressive strength tests in wet masses of quartz matrix, where as a binder is used halloysite and bentonite in different proportions.

  16. Method of the Moulding Sands Binding Power Assessment in Two-Layer Moulds Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Holtzer, M.; D.Dro?y?ski; A. Bobrowski; J. Makselon

    2014-01-01

    More and more foundry plants applying moulding sands with water-glass or its substitutes for obtaining the high-quality casting surface at the smallest costs, consider the possibility of implementing two-layer moulds, in which e.g. the facing sand is a sand with an organic binder (no-bake type) and the backing sand is a sand with inorganic binder. Both kinds of sands must have the same chemical reaction. The most often applied system is the moulding sand on the water-glass or geopolymer bases...

  17. The human role in a progressive trend of foundry automation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Misztal

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available An increasing competition in the foundry market focuses on more efficient methods of production. High quality and efficiency requirements, but also rising labor costs, will make the foundry production largely automated. Currently,molding on automatic lines accounts for 40 % of the foundry production in Poland. The article discusses organizational,technical and ergonomic implications of automation in production processes and presents the results of research carried out in this field in Polish foundries.

  18. Investigations of reclamation ability of used moulding sand with water glass binder and used sand with CO2 hardened alkaline resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Da?ko

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction of modern moulding sands with the organic and unorganic binders requires the use of reclamation carried out in order to reuseof used sands. Used sands depending on the type of binding material are characterized by different susceptibility to the recoveryprocesses. Presented research is aimed at determining reclaimability of selected used sands, which are often used in the Polish foundryindustry. This applies to the used moulding sand with water glass binder hardener by esters (ethylene glycol diacetate - technology floster S and used moulding sand with Carbophen 5692 resin, hardened by CO2 as a representative for this type of resins used in foundry.

  19. AIR TOXIC EMISSIONS FROM IRON FOUNDRIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper presents uncontrolled air toxic emission factors for different process operations in a gray iron foundry. he emission factors are based on the results of on-site test measurements available in the literature. he emission factors are presented for organic and inorganic c...

  20. The Properties of Moulding Sand with Halloysite

    OpenAIRE

    Cholewa, M.; Kozakiewicz, ?.

    2012-01-01

    Until now, the mould sand in general use in the foundry industry are based on bentonite, which resulted from the fact that a good recognition properties and phenomena associated with this material. Come to know and normalized content of montmorillonite and carbonates and their important role in the construction of bentonite, and mass properties of the participation of compressive strength or scatter. Halloysite is widely used in industry and beyond them. However, little is known about its use...

  1. Foundry waste recycling in moulding operations and in the ceramic industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanetti, M.C.; Fiore, S. [Polytechnic Turin, Turin (Italy)

    2003-06-01

    An industrial treatment was performed by the Sasil plant of Brusnengo (Biella, Northern Italy), to consider the reclamation of bentonite bonded moulding sands obtained from the Teksid Italia S.p.A. cast iron foundry plant in Crescentino (Vercelli, Northern Italy). An evaluation of the fine particles produced by the wet-mechanical regeneration treatment was made with the purpose of proposing their recycling as binding agents in moulding operations in the cast iron foundry and for the production of tiles in the ceramic industry. The premixed product sold by bentonite suppliers (35% coal dust and 65% bentonite, 0.15 Euro/kg) could be made from the recovered fine fraction below 0.025 mm, with the addition of active clay and coal dust, thus obtaining a product that will have physico-chemical properties similar to those of calcic bentonite. The improvements due to the addition of the fine particles to the usually employed clay for tile production were also underlined from the results of several baking tests. The recovery and recycling of sands and fine particles obtained from the reclamation of bentonite moulding sands will lead to a saving of raw materials and landfill space, with economic and environmental advantages.

  2. Foundry waste recycling in moulding operations and in the ceramic industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanetti, Maria Chiara; Fiore, Silvia

    2003-06-01

    An industrial treatment was performed by the Sasil plant of Brusnengo (Biella, Northern Italy), which is part of the Gruppo Minerali S.p.A. (Novara, Northern Italy), to consider the reclamation of bentonite bonded moulding sands obtained from the Teksid Italia S.p.A. cast iron foundry plant in Crescentino (Vercelli, Northern Italy). An evaluation of the fine particles produced by the wet-mechanical regeneration treatment was made with the purpose of proposing their recycling as binding agents in moulding operations in the cast iron foundry and for the production of tiles in the ceramic industry. The pre-mixed product sold by bentonite suppliers (35% coal dust and 65% bentonite, 0.15 Euro/kg) could be made from the recovered fine fraction below 0.025 mm with the addition of active clay and coal dust, thus obtaining a product that will have physico-chemical properties similar to those of calcic bentonite. The improvements due to the addition of the fine particles to the usually employed clay for tile production were also underlined from the results of several baking tests. The recovery and recycling of sands and fine particles obtained from the reclamation of bentonite moulding sands will lead to a saving of raw materials and landfill space, with economic and environmental advantages. PMID:12870643

  3. Optimizing the Moulding Properties of Recycled Ilaro Silica Sand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davies Oladayo FOLORUNSO

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Effect of varying binders (bentonite and dextrin and water on the properties of recycled foundry sand made from silica sand mined from Ilaro Silica sand deposit in Ogun State Nigeria and have been used in several cycles for production of cast iron was examined. The used sand was washed in hot water, dried and the sieved for grain distribution. Varying bentonite and dextrin contents were added together with water to portions of the silica sand and thoroughly mixed. The moulding sand properties (permeability, green strength, compatibility, shatter index and moisture content of the recycled foundry sand were determined. It was observed that the recycled Ilaro sand (after several cycle of usage has grain Fineness Index (GFI of 50 and that it can still be reused by minimum addition of binders. It was concluded that the optimum green strength and permeability for the recycled sand was achieved when 12g of bentonite, 8g of dextrin and 12cm3 of water were added to 200g of recycled sand.

  4. Influence of dust addition from cast iron production on bentonite sand mixture properties

    OpenAIRE

    Gengel?, P.; Pribulova?, A.

    2010-01-01

    In cast iron foundry operations like melting, casting, feetling, casts cleaning and grinding of a high amount of dusts are produced. Threekinds of dusts from different parts of cast iron foundry were analysed; chemical analyses, granulometric analyses and microscopic analyseswere carried out. The bentonite sand mixtures with different portion of dusts were prepared. Technological properties of prepared sandmixtures (compression strength, shearing strength and permeability) were measured.

  5. Influence of dust addition from cast iron production on bentonite sand mixture properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Genge?

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In cast iron foundry operations like melting, casting, feetling, casts cleaning and grinding of a high amount of dusts are produced. Threekinds of dusts from different parts of cast iron foundry were analysed; chemical analyses, granulometric analyses and microscopic analyseswere carried out. The bentonite sand mixtures with different portion of dusts were prepared. Technological properties of prepared sandmixtures (compression strength, shearing strength and permeability were measured.

  6. Failure effects and resolution of modes: a novel FMEA treatise for finalizing mould designs in foundries

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    T.A., Selvan; C., Jegadheesan; P., Ashoka Varthanan; K.M., Senthilkumar.

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel strategy to finalize the mould design of a specific cast component through the failure analysis using case study data of a foundry. Traditional failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) is one of the effective tools for prioritizing the possible failure modes by calculating [...] the Risk priority Number (RPN) of a process/design. But in foundries, prioritizing the failures through the traditional FMEA produces unmatched results when RPN values are identical during preproduction trials. Hence it is very difficult to finalize moulds design of a specific cast component using traditional FMEA approach. This research paper addresses an alternate FMEA approach named FEAROM (Failure Effects And Resolution of Modes) to resolve the difficulty in finalizing the mould designs. Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) is used for validating the results obtained using FEAROM method. The results presented are based on an experimental study carried out for a specific component in a foundry using the sand casting method. It is found that proposed FEAROM model matches well in practice and produces quality castings.

  7. Characterization and extraction of gold contained in foundry industrial wastes; Caracterizacion y extraccion de oro contenido en matrices de desechos industriales de fundicion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vite T, J.; Vite T, M.; Diaz C, A.; Carreno de Leon, C. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Depto. de Estudios del Ambiente, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    Gold was characterized and leached in foundry sands. These wastes are product among others of the automotive industry where they are used as molds material which are contaminated by diverse metals during the foundry. To fulfil the leaching process four coupled thermostat columns were used. To characterize the solid it was used the X-ray diffraction technique. For the qualitative analysis it was used the Activation analysis technique. Finally, for the study of liquors was used the Plasma diffraction spectroscopy (Icp-As) technique. The obtained results show that the process which was used the thermostat columns was more efficient, than the methods traditionally recommended. (Author)

  8. Thermal reclamation of the used moulding sands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. ?ucarz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of the research on the used moulding sands subjected to mechanical and thermal reclamation at different stages of the process in the foundry. The research on thermal treatment was carried out in an experimental thermal reclamation appliance. The effects of the process were evaluated with the use of a range of criteria, e.g. loss in roasting, sieve analysis, strength, the acidic reaction (pH. The performed investigations indicate that the thermal reclamation, of spent moulding sands knocked-out from the mould supplying reclaimed materials of the proper quality, can fully substitute the mechanical reclamation.

  9. Improving electrical efficiency in the foundry industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the current economic climate, it is essential for industry to minimize costs wherever possible. This is particularly important in the foundry industry that is being subjected to competitive pressure from offshore suppliers and by suppliers of competing materials. This paper reports that foundries must continuously strive to lower operating costs wherever possible. In many respects, the utility industry is no different. The situation facing utilities over the past several years has resulted in its transition from a producer and supplier of energy to that of a more customer oriented service company. In many cases, utilities have formed departments dedicated to providing assistance to their customers in the application of electricity to their business. At the same time, the need for energy conservation has become widespread in North America as energy demand increases, environmental concerns increase and the cost of providing new power plants become formidable

  10. Environmental favourable foundries through maintenance activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Saniuk

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Maintenance today contributes to the aim of sustainable development in society, including environmental and energy saving, safety and economical aspects. The main purpose of the paper is to present the role of maintenance in the realization of sustainable developing practices in a foundry industry. Maintenance offers numerous opportunities to reduce the influence of foundry processes on the natural environment and utilize resources more efficiently. Maintenance activities can help to reduce losses and thereby improve the efficiency of the processes used in the production of resources (e.g. raw materials, energy, etc., especially in areas such as: the choice of an appropriate strategy for the maintenance of machinery and equipment (e.g. reactive, preventive, proactive; inventory management of spare parts; lubrication management and management of technology media.

  11. Monitoring of the supply system of electrical foundry equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Zió?kowski

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The article presents examples of recording the instantaneous values voltages, currents and power in electrical power systems foundry.Recorded measurements of the instantaneous values allow to make an analysis of transients at the time of turning on the foundry device.The author on the bases of the measurements results in power systems selected foundry mixers, describes examples of analysis andevaluation of transients when switching these devices.

  12. Small Scale Foundries in Ghana: The challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Emmanuel GIKUNOO; Anthony ANDREWS

    2011-01-01

    Small Scale Foundries (SSFs) have been in existence for several years in Ghana. The industry has created several jobs for the people of Ghana and has minimized the burden on government to find ways of disposing scrap metals generated within the country. While scrap metals are still being exported, the quantity exported has decreased as a result of recycling by foundrymen in producing various parts. The government of Ghana has not paid special attention to this industry. Nevertheless, individu...

  13. Commercial negotiations in the foundry engineering

    OpenAIRE

    L. Wojtynek

    2008-01-01

    The article presents the process of commercial negotiations paying attention to the negotiation itself as well as to its basic elements. The specificity of the Polish foundries’ main negotiation partners from The European Union, who are the deliverers of diverse casting range, was specified. The most important cultural factors, which determine the process of negotiations conducted by the representatives of various cultural groups, were analysed. The understanding of cultural differences and...

  14. Foundry Wastes Reuse and Recycling in Concrete Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Fiore

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The industrial process of a cast iron foundry plant located in the North of Italy was analyzed in order to determine the amount and kind of produced wastes. The main fractions are core and moulding sands, muds and powders from dust abatement plants, furnace and ladle slags, and exhaust lime, making about 750-800 t/d of residues for a production of about 800 t/d of globular and grey cast iron. All wastes were sampled and characterized by means of particle-size distribution and chemical analyses to evaluate the best reuse and recycling solutions. On the grounds of the gathered results, the residues may be divided in three categories according to the particle-size dimensions: below 0.1 mm, between 0.1 and 0.6 mm and above 0.6 mm. The fraction above 0.6 mm, mainly made of metallic iron, may be reused in the furnaces. The fraction between 0.1 mm and 0.6 mm may be reused in cores production, after a regeneration treatment. The fraction between 0.1 and 0.025 mm may be recycled as raw material for the concrete industry, and the below 0.025 mm fraction may be reused in green moulding operations. An economic evaluation of the proposed reuse and recycling solutions was performed.

  15. Mystery Sand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciencenter

    2012-01-01

    In this activity, learners play with surprising sand that doesn’t get wet! Learners explore how water behaves differently when it comes in contact with "magic sand" and regular sand. Learners learn about the hydrophobic properties of "magic sand." Use this activity to talk about how many materials behave differently at the nanoscale.

  16. Investigating the reclamability of moulding sand with new, ecological inorganic binders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Izdebska-Szanda

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of investigations, which make a fragment of the broad-scale studies carried out as a part of the statutory activity on optimising the foundry sand technology using new, modified, inorganic binders.The results of investigations regarding the effect of multiple reclamation on the technological properties of foundry sands with inorganic binders were presented in a concise manner. The reclaim sand were introduced to moulding sands prepared with the new, modified, inorganic binders bonded by the chemical reaction or by blowing with gaseous CO2.Attention was focussed on the effect of multiple reclamation on the residual strength and bench life properties of moulding sands prepared with the new types of inorganic binders.

  17. Casting Ductile Iron in Layer Moulds Made from Ecological Sands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R?czka

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The article contains the results of tests performed under the target project in Hardtop Foundry Charsznica.The objective of the tests and studies was to develop a technology of making high-quality ductile iron castings, combined witheffective means of environmental protection. The studies presented in this article related to castings weighing from 1 to 300 kg made from ductile iron of grades 400-15 and 500-7, using two-layer moulds, where the facing and core sand was the sand with an alkaline organic binder, while backing sand was the sand with an inorganic geopolymer binder.A simplified method of sand reclamation was applied with possible reuse of the reclaim as an addition to the backing sand. The castiron spheroidising treatment and inoculation were selected taking into account the specific conditions of Hardtop Foundry. A pilot batch of castings was made, testing the gating and feeding systems and using exothermic sleeves on risers. The study confirmed the validity of the adopted concept of making ductile iron castings in layer moulds, while maintaining the content of sand with an organic binder at a level of maximum 15%.

  18. Hybrid foundry patterns of bevel gears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budzik G.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Possibilities of making hybrid foundry patterns of bevel gears for investment casting process are presented. Rapid prototyping of gears with complex tooth forms is possible with the use of modern methods. One of such methods is the stereo-lithography, where a pattern is obtained as a result of resin curing with laser beam. Patterns of that type are applicable in precision casting. Removing of stereo-lithographic pattern from foundry mould requires use of high temperatures. Resin burning would generate significant amounts of harmful gases. In case of a solid stereo-lithographic pattern, the pressure created during gas burning may cause the mould to crack. A gas volume reduction may be achieved by using patterns of honeycomb structure. However, this technique causes a significant worsening of accuracy of stereo-lithographic patterns in respect of their dimensions and shape. In cooperation with WSK PZL Rzeszów, the Machine Design Department of Rzeszow University of Technology carried out research on the design of hybrid stereo-lithographic patterns. Hybrid pattern consists of a section made by stereo-lithographic process and a section made of casting wax. The latter material is used for stereo-lithographic pattern filling and for mould gating system. The hybrid pattern process consists of two stages: wax melting and then the burn-out of stereolithographic pattern. Use of hybrid patterns reduces the costs of production of stereolithographic patterns. High dimensional accuracy remains preserved in this process.

  19. Development tendencies of moulding and core sands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislaw M. Dobosz1

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Further development of the technology for making moulding and core sands will be strictly limited by tough requirements due to protection of the natural environment. These tendencies are becoming more and more tense, so that we will reach a point when even processes, that from technological point of view fulfill high requirements of the foundry industry, must be replaced by more ecologically-friendly solutions. Hence, technologies using synthetic resins as binding materials will be limited. This paper presents some predictable development tendencies of moulding and core sands. The increasing role of inorganic substances will be noticed, including silicate binders with significantly improved properties, such as improved knock-out property or higher reclamation strength. Other interesting solutions might also be moulding sands bonded by geo-polymers and phosphate binders or salts and also binders based on degradable biopolymers. These tendencies and the usefulness of these binders are put forward in this paper.

  20. Method of the Moulding Sands Binding Power Assessment in Two-Layer Moulds Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Holtzer

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available More and more foundry plants applying moulding sands with water-glass or its substitutes for obtaining the high-quality casting surface at the smallest costs, consider the possibility of implementing two-layer moulds, in which e.g. the facing sand is a sand with an organic binder (no-bake type and the backing sand is a sand with inorganic binder. Both kinds of sands must have the same chemical reaction. The most often applied system is the moulding sand on the water-glass or geopolymer bases - as the backing sand and the moulding sand from the group of self-hardening sands with a resol resin - as the facing sand. Investigations were performed for the system: moulding sand with inorganic GEOPOL binder or moulding sand with water glass (as a backing sand and moulding sand, no-bake type, with a resol resin originated from various producers: Rezolit AM, Estrofen, Avenol NB 700 (as a facing sand. The LUZ apparatus, produced by Multiserw Morek, was adapted for investigations. A special partition with cuts was mounted in the attachment for making test specimens for measuring the tensile strength. This partition allowed a simultaneous compaction of two kinds of moulding sands. After 24 hours of hardening the highest values were obtained for the system: Geopol binder - Avenol resin.

  1. Study of exposure to radiation in a lost wax foundry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Lost wax casting is an ancient method for making metal pieces. At the beginning of the process, the required metal piece is made in wax. After that, the wax model is covered with a silicaceous shell. When the silicaceous shell is finished, the wax is melted and replaced by liquid metal. As soon as the metal is cool the silicaceous shell is broken away. Finally a finishing process is made, and the piece is ready for utilization. The silicaceous shell is prepared with zircon sands containing varying concentrations of natural radionuclides: 238U, 232Th and 235U together with their progenies. For that reason it is very convenient to assess the dose to workers, considering the tasks they perform and the exposure time during these activities over a year. The first part of the study focuses on identifying the situations and areas where workers are exposed to radiation. The exposure pathways are: inhalation of dust, ingestion of dust, inhalation of radon, skin contamination and external irradiation. In a plant where this process is implemented the areas where workers are exposed are: the store, the shell building area, the foundry area, the shell or mold breaking area, and the waste area, including the areas close to the store. In these areas, workers are exposed while they work at their different tasks. The second part of the study deals with dose assessment. In most of the areas, external irradiation is the dominant pathway, and iirradiation is the dominant pathway, and in order to assess doses a Monte-Carlo simulation using MCNP-4C code has been performed. The photon fluxes thus obtained are multiplied by the conversion factor of flux to kerma for air, by conversion factor to Effective Dose by kerma unit, and by the number of emitted photons per disintegration of parent nuclide. The application of this methodology to a given mill has produced the following results: Individual doses received by workers by area have a mean value of 5.9 ?Sv/y and a standard deviation of 7.7 ?Sv/y with an upper limit of 20.3 ?Sv/y and a lower limit of 0.2 ?Sv/y. The corresponding collective dose is 232.8 ?Sv/y and the distribution of dose by task being as follows: 1) Maintenance: carrying the zircon sands from lorry to store (0.039 ?Sv/y), placing the zircon sand pallet on the shelf (0.012 ?Sv/y), exposure while the pallet is on the shelf (2.8 ?Sv/y), taking the pallet off the shelf (0.022 ?Sv/y), taking the pallet to the mold preparation area (0.39 ?Sv/y). The total collective dose associated to this task is 3.263 ?Sv/y 2) Shell Making: shell preparation (58.2 ?Sv/y), shell cover (big trays) (76 ?Sv/y), shell cover (small trays) (9 ?Sv/y), exposures to molds (5.6?Sv/y), loading the pieces on the wagon (2.1?Sv/y), taking the wagon to the foundry area (7.4 ?Sv/y), taking the residues to the waste area (2.2 ?Sv/y), putting the pieces into the wax removing kiln (1.4 ?Sv/y). The total collective dose of this task is 161.91 ?Sv/y 3) Mold preparation (35.2 ?Sv/y) 4) Shell removal: waste material removal (0.4 ?Sv/y), and moving the cart from the foundry area (0.6 ?Sv/y) 5) Finishing (28.6 ?Sv/y) 6) Waste (0.00034 ?Sv) Workers in shell making are the most exposed, but the value of the collective dose is less than 1 mSv/y. Comparing with the levels of the graphical representation of the classification system, we can conclude that the processes 'do not need to consider regulation'. (author)

  2. Study of exposure to radiation in a lost wax foundry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Lost wax casting is an old method for making metal pieces. At the beginning of the process, the required metal piece is made in wax. After that, the wax model is covered with a siliceous shell. When the siliceous shell is finished, the wax is melted, replacing the wax by liquid metal. In the moment when the metal is cool the siliceous shell is broken away. Finally some finishing process is made, and the piece is just prepared for its utilization. The siliceous shell is prepared with zircon sands containing varying concentrations of natural radionuclides: 238U, 232Th and 235U together with their progenies. For that reason it is very convenient to assess the dose to workers, considering the tasks they perform and the exposure time in these activities during a year. The first part of the study is centred in identifying the situations and areas where workers are exposed to radiation. The exposure pathways are: inhalation of dust, ingestion of dust, inhalation of radon, skin contamination and external irradiation. In a plant where this process is implemented the areas where workers are exposed are: the store, the shell building area, the foundry area, the shell or mould breaking area, and the waste area, including those areas close to the store too. In those sections, workers are exposed while they work in different tasks. The second part of the study deals with dose assessment. In most of the areas, external irradiation is the df the areas, external irradiation is the dominant pathway, and in order to assess doses a Monte-Carlo simulation using MCNP-4C code has been performed. Photons fluxes so obtained are multiplied by the conversion factor of Flux to Kerma for air, by conversion factor to Effective Dose by kerma unit, and by the number of emitted photons per disintegration of parent nuclide. The application of this methodology to given mill has obtained the following results: Individual doses by area received by workers have a mean value of 5.9 ?Sv/y and a standard deviation of 7.7 ?Sv/y with an upper limit of 20.3 ?Sv/y and a lower limit of 0.2 ?Sv/y. The corresponding collective dose is 232.8 ?Sv/y and being the distribution of dose by task as follows: - Maintenance: Carrying the zircon sands from lorry to store (0.039 ?Sv/y), putting the zircon sand pallet on the shelf (0.012 ?Sv/y), while the pallet is on the shelf (2.8 ?Sv/y), taking the pallet off the shelf (0.022 ?Sv/y), taking the pallet to mould preparation area (0.39 ?Sv/y). The total collective dose making that task is 3.263 ?Sv/y. - Shell Making: shell preparation (58.2 ?Sv/y), shell cover (big trays) (76 ?Sv/y), shell cover (small trays) (9 ?Sv/y), exposures to moulds (5.6?Sv/y), loading the pieces on the wagon (2.1?Sv/y), taking the wagon to foundry area (7.4 ?Sv/y), taking the residues to waste area (2.2 ?Sv/y), putting the pieces into the take wax removing kiln (1.4 ?Sv/y). The total collective dose making that task is 161.91 ?Sv/y. - Mould preparation (35.2 ?Sv/y). - Shell removal: waste material removal (0.4 ?Sv/y), and moving the cart from foundry area (0.6 ?Sv/y). - Finishing (28.6 ?Sv/y). - Waste (0.00034 ?Sv). And here it can be seen that those workers working on the shell making are the most exposed ones, but the value of collective dose is less than 1 mSv/y. Comparing with the levels of the graphical representation of the classification system, it can conclude that the processes 'do not need to consider regulation'. (author)

  3. Properties of sodium silicate bonded sand hardened by microwave heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Zitian

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The sodium silicate bonded sand hardened by microwave heating has many advantages, such as low sodium silicate adding quantity, fast hardening speed, high room temperature strength, good collapsibility and certain surface stability. However, it has big moisture absorbability in the air, which would lead to the compression strength and the surface stability of the sand molds being sharply reduced. In this study, the moisture absorbability of the sodium silicate bonded sand hardened by microwave heating in ifferent humidity conditions and the effect factors were investigated. Meanwhile, the reasons for the big moisture absorbability of the sand were analyzed. Some measures to overcome the problems of high moisture absorbability, bad surface stability and sharply reducing strength in the air were discussed. The results of this study establish the foundation of green and clean foundry technology based on the microwave heating hardening sodium silicate sand process.

  4. Using sol-gel component as additive to foundry coatings to improve casting quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nwaogu, Ugochukwu Chibuzoh; Poulsen, T.

    2012-01-01

    The improvement of foundry coatings to enhance performance is important. This paper investigates the effect of using sol?gel component as an additive to foundry coatings applied on chemically bonded sand cores. Three parameters at three levels each were investigated using Taguchi experimental parameter design. The effects of the sol?gel component on viscosity, density, °Baumé, core coverage and permeability are shown. Numerical simulations were used to predict defect areas. The thermal profiles of the core materials during casting were determined, and the surface quality of the castings was evaluated. The results show that the surface quality of castings obtained by adding the sol?gel component to the coatings for cold box cores has no significant difference from castings produced with coatings without sol?gel component. On the other hand, the addition of the sol?gel component in coatings for furan cores showed significant improvement on the surface quality of the castings compared to that obtained without sol?gel component.

  5. The effect of mechanical reclamation on the wear of silica sand grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ?ucarz, M.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The wear effect of silica sands is usually joined with many foundry processes during the fresh sand preparation. The significant effect of silica grains destruction by means of crushing, abrasion and attrition is caused by most of mechanical reclamation treatments, which leads to a higher sand consumption. The experimental reclaimer was equipped with two different peripheral rings, which enabled both impact and impact-free way of the reclamation treatment of silica grains. In each case the duration of treatment and the rotational speed as well as the number of reclamation cycles were changed and effects were checked by multiple sieve analyses of the sand.

  6. Ion traps fabricated in a CMOS foundry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehta, K. K.; Ram, R. J. [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Eltony, A. M.; Chuang, I. L. [Center for Ultracold Atoms, Research Laboratory of Electronics and Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Bruzewicz, C. D.; Sage, J. M., E-mail: jsage@ll.mit.edu; Chiaverini, J., E-mail: john.chiaverini@ll.mit.edu [Lincoln Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Lexington, Massachusetts 02420 (United States)

    2014-07-28

    We demonstrate trapping in a surface-electrode ion trap fabricated in a 90-nm CMOS (complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor) foundry process utilizing the top metal layer of the process for the trap electrodes. The process includes doped active regions and metal interconnect layers, allowing for co-fabrication of standard CMOS circuitry as well as devices for optical control and measurement. With one of the interconnect layers defining a ground plane between the trap electrode layer and the p-type doped silicon substrate, ion loading is robust and trapping is stable. We measure a motional heating rate comparable to those seen in surface-electrode traps of similar size. This demonstration of scalable quantum computing hardware utilizing a commercial CMOS process opens the door to integration and co-fabrication of electronics and photonics for large-scale quantum processing in trapped-ion arrays.

  7. Ion traps fabricated in a CMOS foundry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We demonstrate trapping in a surface-electrode ion trap fabricated in a 90-nm CMOS (complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor) foundry process utilizing the top metal layer of the process for the trap electrodes. The process includes doped active regions and metal interconnect layers, allowing for co-fabrication of standard CMOS circuitry as well as devices for optical control and measurement. With one of the interconnect layers defining a ground plane between the trap electrode layer and the p-type doped silicon substrate, ion loading is robust and trapping is stable. We measure a motional heating rate comparable to those seen in surface-electrode traps of similar size. This demonstration of scalable quantum computing hardware utilizing a commercial CMOS process opens the door to integration and co-fabrication of electronics and photonics for large-scale quantum processing in trapped-ion arrays.

  8. Ion traps fabricated in a CMOS foundry

    CERN Document Server

    Mehta, K K; Bruzewicz, C D; Chuang, I L; Ram, R J; Sage, J M; Chiaverini, J

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate trapping in a surface-electrode ion trap fabricated in a 90-nm CMOS (complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor) foundry process utilizing the top metal layer of the process for the trap electrodes. The process includes doped active regions and metal interconnect layers, allowing for co-fabrication of standard CMOS circuitry as well as devices for optical control and measurement. With one of the interconnect layers defining a ground plane between the trap electrode layer and the p-type doped silicon substrate, ion loading is robust and trapping is stable. We measure a motional heating rate comparable to those seen in surface-electrode traps of similar size. This is the first demonstration of scalable quantum computing hardware, in any modality, utilizing a commercial CMOS process, and it opens the door to integration and co-fabrication of electronics and photonics for large-scale quantum processing in trapped-ion arrays.

  9. Ion traps fabricated in a CMOS foundry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, K. K.; Eltony, A. M.; Bruzewicz, C. D.; Chuang, I. L.; Ram, R. J.; Sage, J. M.; Chiaverini, J.

    2014-07-01

    We demonstrate trapping in a surface-electrode ion trap fabricated in a 90-nm CMOS (complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor) foundry process utilizing the top metal layer of the process for the trap electrodes. The process includes doped active regions and metal interconnect layers, allowing for co-fabrication of standard CMOS circuitry as well as devices for optical control and measurement. With one of the interconnect layers defining a ground plane between the trap electrode layer and the p-type doped silicon substrate, ion loading is robust and trapping is stable. We measure a motional heating rate comparable to those seen in surface-electrode traps of similar size. This demonstration of scalable quantum computing hardware utilizing a commercial CMOS process opens the door to integration and co-fabrication of electronics and photonics for large-scale quantum processing in trapped-ion arrays.

  10. XML Model of Planning System in Foundry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Stawowy

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary enterprises (including those manufacturing iron castings have at their disposal advanced computer resources for the management of production processes. The disadvantage of these solutions is an incoherent language for writing production planning and scheduling problems. The lack of the standard for data exchange and model description makes the work on designing, development and implementation difficult. Various dialects of XML language, among others for production planning purposes, which may change this situation have been developed for the last several years. The paper describes a PSLX language, which can be viewed first of all as an ontology and communication protocol inside and outside of the Advanced Planning and Scheduling (APS system, as well as an XML standard for production planning and scheduling. This language has been then used to develop a model of planning system in a foundry. The model consists of customer’s order model, resources model and scheduling model.

  11. Rebounding process of moulding sands-thermal degradation of bentonite binding qualities

    OpenAIRE

    Dan?ko, R.

    2010-01-01

    Problems related to a gradual degradation of binding qualities of montmorillonite, the main component of foundry bentonites, are presented in the paper. This degradation is caused by high temperatures originated from liquid metal influencing moulding sands. Laboratory measurements of an active binding agent content in classic moulding sands prepared with two types of bentonite and subjected to a controlled heating to high temperatures – were performed. These laboratory examinations were com...

  12. Evaluation by PIXE external beam-of the leaching efficiency for a thermo stated column for the sand treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this paper was to measure the leaching efficiency for a thermo stated column designed to extract metals in muds originated by foundry process. The results obtained were useful to contemplate different alternatives helping to solve the problem of stocking enormous volumes of polluted sand produced by industries. Samples of residual sands and muds (treated sands) coming from an engine factory and from a thermo stated column respectively, were irradiated using an external beam of 3.55 MeV energy protons. From the quantitative analysis PIXE (Proton Induced X-ray Emission), it was possible to establish the level of pollution in sands due to the foundry processes and to evaluate the leaching efficiency of the output liquid phase from the thermo stated column. For polluted sands, certain cases were observed for which the efficiency was not enough to decrease the level of pollution in, e.g., Cu, Zn, Br and Pb. (Author)

  13. Evaluation by PIXE external beam of the leaching efficiency for a thermo stated column for the sand treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this paper was to measure the leaching efficiency for a thermo stated column designed to extract metals in muds originated by foundry processes. The results obtained were useful to contemplate different alternatives helping to solve the problem of stocking enormous volumes of polluted sand produced by industries. Samples of residual sands and muds (treated sands) coming from an engine factory and from a thermo stated column respectively, were irradiated using an external beam of 3.55 MeV energy protons. From the quantitative analysis PIXE (Proton Induced X-ray Emission), it was possible to establish the level of pollution in sands due to the foundry processes and to evaluate the leaching efficiency of the output liquid phase from the thermo stated column. For polluted sands, certain cases were observed for which the efficiency was not enough to decrease the level of pollution in e.g., Cu, Zn, Br y Pb. (Author)

  14. Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene, a PAH biomarker in foundry workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Omland, O; Sherson, D

    1996-01-01

    Exposure to PAH in foundry workers has been studied by urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (HPU) levels, quantitatively measured by reversed phase HPLC. Seventy male foundry workers and 68 matched controls were investigated. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure was defined by 17 breathing zone hygienic samples, consisting of 16 selected PAH compounds. Mean total PAH concentration (SD) was 10.40 (4.04) mu g/m3. A multiple regression model of tobacco consumption, age, airborne PAH-exposure and foundry work on log HPU showed a significant correlation, p <0.001, r2 = 0.69. Only foundry work (p <0.0001) and airborne PAH exposure (p = 0.0478) contributed significantly to the model. These data suggest that HPU is a sensitive biomarker for low-dose PAH exposure.

  15. Guide to energy efficiency opportunities in Canadian foundries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    In Canada, the foundry sector employs about 15000 people and most of the companies are members of the Canadian Foundry Association (CFA). The CFA is committed to reducing its greenhouse gas emissions and is therefore looking for energy savings which, in addition to reducing emissions, would help the industry save costs and improve its competitiveness. The aim of this document is to provide operators with a guide to improving energy efficiency in their foundries. The report provides guidance on carrying out energy audits, gathering energy saving ideas, prioritizing projects, and charting the course of improved energy performance. Many different energy saving ideas for many kinds of operation are presented in this guidebook as a help to operators in finding where they could improve their energy efficiency; references to energy saving methods from all over the world are provided. This guidebook is a useful tool for helping foundry operators improve energy efficiency in their operations.

  16. Logic Foundry: Rapid Prototyping for FPGA-Based DSP Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Gary Spivey; Bhattacharyya, Shuvra S.; Kazuo Nakajima

    2003-01-01

    We introduce the Logic Foundry, a system for the rapid creation and integration of FPGA-based digital signal processing systems. Recognizing that some of the greatest challenges in creating FPGA-based systems occur in the integration of the various components, we have proposed a system that targets the following four areas of integration: design flow integration, component integration, platform integration, and software integration. Using the Logic Foundry, a system can be easily specified, ...

  17. Iron removal from wastewater generated in foundry industry

    OpenAIRE

    Murovec, Nika

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, industrial wastewater significantly contaminates our environment. There are many technologies for cleaning these waters. When we are constructing a new treatment plant we must take into consideration the existing standards and laws of the Republic of Slovenia. The company where I did my research is specialised in foundry industry and it is the manufacturer of the components for automotive and motorcycle industry. Wastewaters in the foundry are cleaned with ultrafiltration treatment ...

  18. Casting Ductile Iron in Layer Moulds Made from Ecological Sands

    OpenAIRE

    M. R?czka; K. Gandurski; B. Isendorf

    2012-01-01

    The article contains the results of tests performed under the target project in Hardtop Foundry Charsznica.The objective of the tests and studies was to develop a technology of making high-quality ductile iron castings, combined witheffective means of environmental protection. The studies presented in this article related to castings weighing from 1 to 300 kg made from ductile iron of grades 400-15 and 500-7, using two-layer moulds, where the facing and core sand was the sand with an alkaline...

  19. Sand Dunes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enright, Rachel

    Most will agree that nothing is more relaxing that lying or walking on a beach. While unwinding, have you ever wondered what caused those big mounds of sand that you crossed to get there? This topic in depth addresses this issue, featuring Web sites that discuss sand dune processes and formations. Some of the Web sites also discuss research, mining, and protection activities taking place in areas with sand dune.The Environment Bay of Plenty in New Zealand has an online brochure (1) dealing with the coastal processes that form sand dunes and beaches. From this site, users can obtain a general understanding of how dunes change with time. Ted Brambleby developed the second site (2) for the Marine Education Society of Australasia, Inc. This site gives a great overview of the functions and formations of dunes as well as describing their unique beauty and strategies on how to care for the dunes. Produced by Nova Scotia Museum of Natural History, the third site (3) is an online pamphlet discussing the physical features and locations of sand dunes in Nova Scotia. Visitors can also read about the ecosystem supported by these dynamic features. The forth site (4), created by John Mangimeli for the National Park Service, is a review of the scientific research completed throughout the years dealing with the geology of sand dunes. Visitors will find a more in-depth discussion about sand movement, sand accumulation, and sand dune features. The fifth site is a scientific paper (5 ) written by R.L. Van Dam, et al. Studying the long term evolution of the Parengarenga Sandspit, these researchers used ground penetrating radar (GPR) "to (1) explore the possibilities for mapping lateral continuity of the coffee rock, (2) study the sedimentary architecture and stratigraphy of the solitary dunes, and (3) reconstruct the wind regime on the sandspit." The next two sites discuss the threats to sand dunes and activities taking place to protect them. The Lake Michigan Federation addresses the issues of mining (6). Visitors can learn about alternatives to mining dune sand and the ecological values of dunes. The Department of Environmental Quality in Michigan created a site (7) that provides users with statistical information dealing with the amount of sand harvested, the regulations of mining, and maps of critical dune areas. After learning about the formation, processes, threats, and protections efforts; the last site (8), created by Eva Hornecker with the University of Bremen, will allow users to get a real sense of the beauty of the sand dunes. The site features a collage of spectacular images of the Great Sand Dunes in the San Luis Valley.

  20. Evaluation of Reclamability of Molding Sands with New Inorganic Binders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Izdebska-Szanda

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the purposes of the application of chemically modified inorganic binders is to improve knocking out properties and the related reclamability with previously used in foundry inorganic binder (water glass, which allowing the use of ecological binders for casting non- ferrous metals. Good knocking out properties of the sands is directly related to the waste sands reclamability, which is a necessary condition of effective waste management. Reclamation of moulding and core sands is a fundamental and effective way to manage waste on site at the foundry, in accordance with the Environmental Guidelines. Therefore, studies of reclamation of waste moulding and core sands with new types of inorganic binders (developed within the framework of the project were carried out. These studies allowed to determine the degree of recovery of useful, material, what the reclaimed sand is, and the degree of its use in the production process. The article presents these results of investigation. They are a part of broader research programme executed under the project POIG.01.01.02-00- 015/09 "Advanced materials and technologies".

  1. Examination and analysis of influence of compaction degree on dielectricproperties of moulding sand components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Nowak

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, presented are results of a research on influence of compaction degree on dielectric properties of components of moulding sands. During recent years, intensive research works on possibilities of using microwave heating in foundry technique are carried-out. However, introduction of such innovative, environment-friendly and efficient heating processes to foundry technologies is accompanied by a shortage of basic knowledge about behaviour of components of moulding sands in microwave field. In this case, of particular importance becomes knowledge of electrical properties of components of moulding and core sands, i.e. their permittivity ?r and dielectric loss factor tg? that characterise efficiency of absorbing electromagnetic radiation and thus prove effectiveness of the heating process.

  2. Investigations of physicochemical properties of dusts generated in mechanical reclamation process of spent moulding sands with alkaline resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Da?ko

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical reclamation processes of spent moulding sands generate large amounts of post-reclamation dusts mainly containing rubbed spent binding agents and quartz dusts. The amount of post-reclamation dusts, depending in the reclamation system efficiency and the reclaim dedusting system, can reach 5%-10% in relation to the total reclaimed spent moulding sand. The proper utilization of such material is a big problem facing foundries these days. This study presents the results of investigations of physicochemical properties of post- reclamation dusts. All tested dusts originated from various Polish cast steel plants applying the mechanical reclamation process of moulding sands with alkaline resins, obtained from different producers. Different dusts, delivered from foundries, were tested to determine their chemical composition, granular characterization, physicochemical and energetic properties. Presented results confirmed assumptions that it is possible to utilize dusts generated during mechanical reclamation of used sands with organic resins as a source of energy.

  3. Investigations of the Influence of the Matrix Recycling on Properties of the Moulding Sand with Geopol 618 Binder

    OpenAIRE

    Kami?ska, J

    2013-01-01

    Self-hardening moulding sands with water-glass hardened by liquid esters are applied in several foundry plants for making moulds for the production of heavy iron and steel castings. The main good point of this process is a low cost of sands. However, on account of a lowsusceptibility of this moulding sand for the matrix reclamation the fraction of sands originated from the reclamation is limited.The investigations presented in this work were aimed at the determination of the addition of the r...

  4. The AHP method used in assessment of foundry enterprise position

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Szymszal

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Complex assessment of activity of a selected foundry enterprise based on a modern AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process method has beenpresented. Having defined the areas of analysis, which include: marketing (products, distribution channels, sales organisation and client concentration, personnel (skills, managerial abilities, organisation climate, effectiveness of incentives, personnel fluctuations, production (availability of raw materials, technical level of production, effective use of production capacities, organisation and management (foundry structure, organisation culture, management performance, the analysis was made using the weighted sum of evaluations. The second step consisted in a comparative assessment of Foundry position using Saaty’s scale modified by Weber and the AHP method with examinationof a hierarchy structure involving the main (parent problem and its direct evolution into sub-problems. The assessment of Foundryposition made by AHP enables introducing changes and/or innovations which are expected to improve the overall productioneffectiveness.

  5. Rationalization of foundry processes on the basis of simulation experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kukla

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of research obtained on the basis of simulation experiment, whose aim was to analyze the performance of cast iron foundry. A simulation model of automobile industry foundry was made. The course of the following processes was analyzedin a computer model: preparation of liquid cast iron, forming and filling the moulds, cooling and stamping the castings, cleaning andfinishing treatment. The sheets of multi-criterion evaluation were prepared, where criteria and variants were assessed by meansof subjective point evaluation and fuzzy character evaluation. The paper presents an analysis example of finishing activities of castings realized in foundry on traditional machines and efficient presses and in cooperation. On the basis of reports from a simulation experiment information was achieved related to activities’ duration, load of accessible resources, the problems of storage and transport, bottle necks in the system and appearing queues in from of workplaces. The research used a universal modelling and simulation packet for productionsystems - ARENA.

  6. Reduced energy consumption for melting in foundries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skov-Hansen, S.

    2007-09-15

    By improving the gating technology in traditional gating systems it is possible to reduce the amount of metal to be re-melted, and hence reduce the energy consumption for melting in foundries. Traditional gating systems are known for a straight tapered down runner a well base and 90 deg. bends in the runner system. In the streamlined gating systems there are no sharp changes in direction and a large effort is done to confine and control the flow of the molten metal during mould filling. Experiments in real production lines have proven that using streamlined gating systems improves yield by decreasing the poured weight compared to traditional layouts. In a layout for casting of valve housings in a vertically parted mould the weight of the gating system was reduced by 1,1kg which is a 20% weight reduction for the gating system. In a layout for horizontally parted moulds the weight of the gating system has been reduced by 3,7kg which is a weight reduction of 60% for the gating system. The experiments casting valve housings in ductile iron also proved that it is possible to lower the pouring temperature from 1400 deg. C to 1300 deg. C without the risk of cold runs. Glass plate fronted moulds have been used to study the flow of melt during mould filling. These experiments have also been used for studying the flow pattern when ceramic filters are used. The thorough study of the use of filters revealed that the metal passing through the filter is divided into a number of small jets. This proves that filters do not have the claimed positive effect on the flow of metal. The volumes necessary on either side of the filter is not filled till a backpressure is build up and results in formation of pressure shocks when backfilled. These pressure shocks result in more turbulence inside the casting than the same gating system with no filter. Not using filters can mean a reduction in poured weight of 0,6kg. To examine if the experiments using glass plate fronted moulds give representative results of how the melt flows in a real mould a series of experiments have been conducted using the xray facilities at the Metallurgy and Materials department at the University of Birmingham. The results proved that the glass plate do not have any large effect on the flow pattern during mould filling. It was also found that using fan gates only 1mm thick holds back slag and in this way works as a filter. A complete set of guidelines for designing streamlined gating systems have been made in this project. Using these guidelines and combining standard geometries and the presented spreadsheet makes it possible for foundries to use streamlined gating systems in praxis. (au)

  7. Foundry microfabrication of deformable mirrors for adaptive optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, William Donald

    1998-10-01

    Microelectromechanical Systems (or MEMS) is a rapidly emerging field of research in which batch fabrication processes, similar to those of the integrated circuit industry, are used to construct miniature devices with moving parts. MEMS devices are particularly well suited to optical applications, where microscopic deflections can produce macroscopic results. Although existing MEMS foundry processes have not been optimized for optical applications, the use of foundry microfabrication offers a substantial cost advantage for prototype system development through low volume production. In this dissertation research effort, foundry MEMS processes are used to fabricate low-cost deformable mirror systems (MEM-DMs) for adaptive optics. The challenges and design trades associated with fabrication of continuous and segmented deformable mirrors in foundry processes are examined in detail. The importance of controlling micromirror surface figure is experimentally demonstrated, and post-foundry metallization techniques are shown to improve the optical performance of foundry fabricated piston micromirror arrays. Beam steering and optical aberration correction experiments, with and without using a lenslet array to improve optical characteristics, conclusively demonstrate the potential of low-cost MEM-DMs. The prototype MEM-DM systems are approximately 1/500th the cost of conventionally manufactured deformable mirrors. Optical experiment results show good agreement with theory. The development of an innovative direct digital control scheme further reduces adaptive optic system cost by eliminating the digital to analog converter typically required for each controlled element. In addition to the MEM-DMs demonstrated, other MEMS devices are shown. Two dimensional arrays of thermally actuated piston micromirrors are designed and tested. The thermally actuated devices offer greater deflections for operation at longer optical wavelengths. A variety of tilting and beam steering mirrors are demonstrated, including two- axes steering mirrors which are self-assembled using metal stress cantilevers. Other MEMS devices examined include pressure gauges, test structures, electrostatic scratch drive actuated rotors, and a new type of electrostatic cantilever motor with lateral motion output.

  8. FMEA: Methodology, Design and Implementation in a Foundry

    OpenAIRE

    AWADHESH KUMAR,; M.P. POONIA,; UPENDER PANDEL,; A.S. JETHOO

    2011-01-01

    Failure Mode And Effect Analysis (FMEA) is a technique to identify and prioritize potential failures of a process. This paper reports the description of FMEA methodology & its implementation in a foundry. It is used as a tool to assure products quality & as a mean to improve operational performance of the process. The work was developed in an Indian foundry, in co-operation with part of the internal staff chosen as FMEA team members & was focused on the study of core making process. The probl...

  9. Logic Foundry: Rapid Prototyping for FPGA-Based DSP Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhattacharyya Shuvra S

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce the Logic Foundry, a system for the rapid creation and integration of FPGA-based digital signal processing systems. Recognizing that some of the greatest challenges in creating FPGA-based systems occur in the integration of the various components, we have proposed a system that targets the following four areas of integration: design flow integration, component integration, platform integration, and software integration. Using the Logic Foundry, a system can be easily specified, and then automatically constructed and integrated with system level software.

  10. Manganese exposure in foundry furnacemen and scrap recycling workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lander, F; Kristiansen, J

    1999-01-01

    Cast iron products are alloyed with small quantities of manganese, and foundry furnacemen are potentially exposed to manganese during tapping and handling of smelts. Manganese is a neurotoxic substance that accumulates in the central nervous system, where it may cause a neurological disorder that bears many similarities to Parkinson's disease. The aim of the study was to investigate the sources and levels of manganese exposure in foundry furnacemen by a combined measuring of blood-manganese (B-Mn) and manganese in ambient air (air-Mn).

  11. Assessment of harmfulness of green sand with additions of dust from dry dedusting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Holtzer

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Recently, in the literature about the problems cause to the environment by foundry industry, attention has been paid to the presence and harmful effect of aromatic hydrocarbons: benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and isomers of xylenes (BTEX and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs. The growing interest in these pollutants of the environment is a result of their biological activity; some of them are characterized by mutagenic and carcinogenic action. In foundries these hydrocarbons are emitted during the contact between mould or core sands and liquid metal.This article discusses the results of the studies made on the elution rate of some harmful compounds include polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs (Table 3 and 4 from waste mould sand with bentonite and coal dust M1 (mixture Kormix 75 and this one with addition of dust from dry dedusting of sand M2 preparing station (partial replacement of bentonite and emission of BTEX gases from this moulds poured with molten cast iron. From the results given in these tables it follows that both mould sands are characterized by low values of the concentration of investigation substances and haven’t negative influence for environment during casting or management in other means. Tests were done according to the methodology developed at Faculty of Foundry Engineering University of Science and Technology in Cracow.

  12. Using lean methodologies for economically and environmentally sustainable foundries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Torielli

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Lean manufacturing is often seen as a set of tools that reduce the total cost and improve the quality of manufactured products. The lean management philosophy is one which targets waste reduction in every facet of the manufacturing business; however, only recently have studies linked lean management philosophies with improving environmental sustainability. These studies suggest that lean manufacturing is more than a set of lean tools that can optimize manufacturing efficiencies; it is a process and mindset that needs to be integrated into daily manufacturing systems to achieve sustainability. The foundry industry, as well as manufacturing in general, has significant challenges in the current regulatory and political climate with developing an economically and environmentally sustainable business model. Lean manufacturing has proven itself as a model for both economic sustainability and environmental stewardship. Several recent studies have shown that both lean and green techniques and “zero-waste” policies also lead to reductions in overall cost. While these strategies have been examined for general manufacturing, they have not been investigated in detail for the foundry industry. This paper will review the current literature and describe how lean and green can provide a relevant framework for environmentally and economically sustainable foundries. Examples of lean and green technologies and techniques which can be applied to foundries in a global context will be described.

  13. The AHP method used in assessment of foundry enterprise position

    OpenAIRE

    Szymszal, J.; Pia?tkowski, J.; Mikuszewski, T.; Klis?, J.

    2008-01-01

    Complex assessment of activity of a selected foundry enterprise based on a modern AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process) method has beenpresented. Having defined the areas of analysis, which include: marketing (products, distribution channels, sales organisation and client concentration), personnel (skills, managerial abilities, organisation climate, effectiveness of incentives, personnel fluctuations), production (availability of raw materials, technical level of production, effective use of produ...

  14. Reduction in Energy Consumption & Variability in Steel Foundry Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank Peters

    2005-05-04

    This project worked to improve the efficiency of the steel casting industry by reducing the variability that occurs because of process and product variation. The project focused on the post shakeout operations since roughly half of the production costs are in this area. These improvements will reduce the amount of variability, making it easier to manage the operation and improve the competitiveness. The reduction in variability will also reduce the need for many rework operations, which will result in a direct reduction of energy usage, particularly by the reduction of repeated heat treatment operations. Further energy savings will be realized from the reduction of scrap and reduced handling. Field studies were conducted at ten steel foundries that represented the U.S. steel casting industry, for a total of over 100 weeks of production observation. These studies quantified the amount of variability, and looked toward determining the source. A focus of the data collected was the grinding operations since this is a major effort in the cleaning room, and it represents the overall casting quality. The grinding was divided into two categories, expected and unexpected. Expected grinding is that in which the location of the effort is known prior to making the casting, such as smoothing parting lines, gates, and riser contacts. Unexpected grinding, which was approximately 80% of the effort, was done to improve the surfaces at weld repair locations, to rectify burnt on sand, and other surface anomalies at random locations. Unexpected grinding represents about 80% of the grinding effort. By quantifying this effort, the project raised awareness within the industry and the industry is continuing to make improvements. The field studies showed that the amount of variation of grinding operations (normalized because of the diverse set of parts studied) was very consistent across the industry. The field studies identified several specific sources that individually contributed to large process variation. This indicates the need for ongoing monitoring of the process and system to quantify the effort being expended. A system to measure the grinding effort was investigated but did not prove to be successful. A weld wire counting system was shown to be very successful in tracking casting quality by monitoring the quantity of weld wire being expended on a per casting basis. Further use of such systems is highly recommended. The field studies showed that the visual inspection process for the casting surface was a potentially large source of process variation. Measurement system analysis studies were conducted at three steel casting producers. The tests measured the consistency of the inspectors in identifying the same surface anomalies. The repeatability (variation of the same operator inspecting the same casting) was found to be relatively consistent across the companies at about 60-70%. However, this is still are very large amount of variation. Reproducibility (variation of different operators inspecting the same casting) was worse, ranging between 20 to 80% at the three locations. This large amount of variation shows that there is a great opportunity for improvement. Falsely identifying anomalies for reworking will cause increased expense and energy consumption. This is particularly true if a weld repair and repeated heat treatment is required. However, not identifying an anomaly could also result in future rework processing, a customer return, or scrap. To help alleviate this problem, casting surface comparator plates were developed and distributed to the industry. These plates are very inexpensive which enables them to be provided to all those involved with casting surface quality, such as operators, inspectors, sales, and management.

  15. ANN modelling for the determination of moulding sand matrix grain size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Jakubski

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the modern methods of the production optimisation are artificial neural networks. Neural networks are gaining broader and broader application in the foundry industry, among others for controlling melting processes in cupolas and in arc furnaces, for designing castings and supply systems, for controlling moulding sand processing, for predicting properties of cast alloys or selecting parameters of pressure castings. An attempt to apply neural networks for controlling the quality of bentonite moulding sands is presented in this paper. This is the assessment method of sands suitability by means of detecting correlations between their individual parameters. The presented investigations were obtained by using the Statistica 9.0 program. The aim of the investigations was to select the neural network suitable for prediction the moulding sand matrix grain size on the basis of the determined sand properties such as: permeability, compactibility, and compressive strength.

  16. FMEA: Methodology, Design and Implementation in a Foundry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AWADHESH KUMAR,

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Failure Mode And Effect Analysis (FMEA is a technique to identify and prioritize potential failures of a process. This paper reports the description of FMEA methodology & its implementation in a foundry. It is used as a tool to assure products quality & as a mean to improve operational performance of the process. The work was developed in an Indian foundry, in co-operation with part of the internal staff chosen as FMEA team members & was focused on the study of core making process. The problems identified in the various steps of core making process contributing for high rejection are studied & analyzed in terms of RPN to prioritize the attention for each of the problem. The monetary loss due to core rejection is considered as measure of risk.

  17. Energy conservation and emissions reduction strategies in foundry industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yuanyuan

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Current energy conservation and emissions reduction strategies in iron and steel industry were reviewed. Since foundry industry is one of the major source of energy consumption and pollution emission (especially CO2, issues concerning energy-saving and emission-reduction have been raised by governments and the industry. Specialists from around the world carried out multidimensional analyses and evaluation on the potentials in energy conservation and emissions reduction in iron and steel industry, and proposed various kinds of analyzing models. The primary measures mainly focus on the targeted policies formulation and also on clean and high-efficient technologies development. The differences and similarities in energy conservation and emission reduction in foundry industry between China and other countries were discussed, while, the future development trend was also pointed out.

  18. Energy conservation and emissions reduction strategies in foundry industry

    OpenAIRE

    Li Yuanyuan; Chen Weiping; Huang Dan

    2010-01-01

    Current energy conservation and emissions reduction strategies in iron and steel industry were reviewed. Since foundry industry is one of the major source of energy consumption and pollution emission (especially CO2), issues concerning energy-saving and emission-reduction have been raised by governments and the industry. Specialists from around the world carried out multidimensional analyses and evaluation on the potentials in energy conservation and emissions reduction in iron and steel indu...

  19. Foundry Technologies Focused on Environmental and Ecological Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roizin, Ya.; Lisiansky, M.; Pikhay, E.

    Solutions allowing fabrication of remote control systems with integrated sensors (motes) were introduced as a part of CMOS foundry production platform and verified on silicon. The integrated features include sensors employing principles previously verified in the development of ultra-low power consuming non-volatile memories (C-Flash, MRAM) and components allowing low-power energy harvesting (low voltage rectifiers, high -voltage solar cells). The developed systems are discussed with emphasis on their environmental and security applications.

  20. The management of production value stream factors in a foundry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Borkowski

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Connection of two value streams: production and human resources were proposed as a new approach to the production process. To assess the factors of production value streams the elements of the top of the Toyota's house as well as fourth and sixth Toyota's managing principles were used. On the basis of the feedback from respondents –the foundry workers, there can be determined the validity of series of decisive factors' importance that equalizes the work load and requires the standardization.

  1. The management of production value stream factors in a foundry

    OpenAIRE

    Borkowski, S.; Knop, K.

    2010-01-01

    Connection of two value streams: production and human resources were proposed as a new approach to the production process. To assess the factors of production value streams the elements of the top of the Toyota's house as well as fourth and sixth Toyota's managing principles were used. On the basis of the feedback from respondents –the foundry workers, there can be determined the validity of series of decisive factors' importance that equalizes the work load and requires the standardization.

  2. How to solve complex problems in foundry plants - future of casting simulation -

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnaka, I.

    2015-06-01

    Although the computer simulation of casting has progressed dramatically over the last decades, there are still many challenges and problems. This paper discusses how to solve complex engineering problems in foundry plants and what we should do in the future, in particular, for casting simulation. First, problem solving procedures including application of computer simulation are demonstrated and various difficulties are pointed-out exemplifying mainly porosity defects in sand castings of spheroidal graphite cast irons. Next, looking back conventional scientific and engineering research to understand casting phenomena, challenges and problems are discussed from problem solving view point, followed by discussion on the issues we should challenge such as how to integrate huge amount of dispersed knowledge in various disciplines, differentiation of science-oriented and engineering-oriented models, professional ethics, how to handle fluctuating materials, initial and boundary conditions, error accumulation, simulation codes as black-box, etc. Finally some suggestions are made on how to challenge the issues such as promotion of research on the simulation based on the science- oriented model and publication of reliable data of casting phenomena in complicated-shaped castings including reconsideration of the evaluation system.

  3. Techno- Economical Study of Rigid Pavement by Using the Used Foundry Sand

    OpenAIRE

    Vipul D Prajapati, Nilay Joshi

    2013-01-01

    Indian road network of almost 3.5 million km comprising both paved and unpaved surfaces is the world’s second largest. Indian roads are presently constructed with not the right choice of material. The two major types of materials, bitumen and concrete are used in road construction in the country. A very small share of roads in the country is made of concrete. Though, it is superior on many counts as a medium for road buildings. The use of large amount of by-product materials as powder or fi...

  4. Tar sand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLendon, T.R.; Bartke, T.C.

    1990-01-01

    Research on tar sand is briefly discussed. The research program supported by the US Department of Energy (DOE) includes a variety of surface extraction schemes. The University of Utah has process development units (PDU) employing fluidized bed, hot, water-assisted, and fluidized-bed/heat-pipe, coupled combustor technology. Considerable process variable test data have been gathered on these systems: (1) a rotary kiln unit has been built recently; (2) solvent extraction processing is being examined; and (3) an advanced hydrogenation upgrading scheme (hydropyrolysis) has been developed. The University of Arkansas, in collaboration with Diversified Petroleum, Inc., has been working on a fatty acid, solvent extraction process. Oleic acid is the solvent/surfactant. Solvent is recovered by adjusting processing fluid concentrations to separate without expensive operations. Western Research Institute has a PDU-scale scheme called the Recycle Oil Pyrolysis and Extraction (ROPE) process, which combines solvent (hot recycle bitumen) and pyrolytic extraction. 14 refs., 19 figs.

  5. Quality management as a tool forming foundry competitive capacity in the process of market globalisation

    OpenAIRE

    L. Wojtynek

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the analysis and identification of the key factors influencing the competitiveness of the foundry in the process of market globalisation. The main attention is paid to the quality management as an important tool used for the formation of the foundry's competitive capacity.

  6. Characterization of Coated Sand Cores from Two Different Binder Systems for Grey Iron Castings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nwaogu, Ugochukwu Chibuzoh; Tiedje, Niels Skat

    Expansion defects on the surface of the castings include sand burn-in, metal penetration and/or veining, finning or scab. Veining or finning and metal penetration are of interest. These defects are associated with silica sand and result from the penetration of liquid metal into cracks formed during differential expansion of the core during heating. The rapid expansion of silica sand up to 600 oC and especially at 573 oC, where the ? – ? phase transformation occurs, is the cause of stresses in the core system. These stresses cause crack formation and metal melt flows into these cracks causing finning or veining and metal penetration defects. The use of refractory coatings on cores is fundamental to obtaining acceptable casting surface quality and is used on resin bonded cores in production foundries. In this study new sol gel-coated sand cores made from coldbox and furan binder systems were investigated for their casting properties.

  7. The Condition of Silica Sand Grains Surface Subjected to Reclamation Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ?ucarz, M.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of investigations are concerned on evaluation of new silica sand grains surface condition after mechanical reclamation treatment as well as on the conditions of reclaimed sand grains surface subjected to thermal and thermo-mechanical reclamation processes. The purpose of research was to answer the question how the applied methods have influenced the surface condition of reclaimed sand grains which was tested by means of bending strength determination of sand samples prepared with resin binder and reclaimed sand. The immediate aim of the research was to explain the mechanism of impurities cleaning on the sand grains surface after thermal reclamation, when the sand is used several times in preparation of a foundry mixture, and to determine what effect these impurities may have on the technological properties of the ready sand mixture. The task of the additionally applied mechanical reclamation was to remove the accumulated inorganic compounds from the sand grains surface and confirm if further improvement of the reclaim quality is possible.

  8. Granulation of After Reclamation Dusts from the Mixed Sands Technology: Water Glass – Resolit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kami?ska

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A technology of sands with water glass hardened by liquid esters is a cheap and ecologic method of producing moulding sands. Due to these advantages, this technology is still very important in several foundry plants for production of heavy iron and steel castings. Reclamation of the mixed moulding and core sands generates significant amounts of dusts, which require further treatments for their reuse. The results of investigations of a pressureless granulation of dusts generated in the dry mechanical reclamation process of the mixture consisting in app. 90 % of moulding sands from the Floster S technology and in 10 % of core sands with phenolic resin resol type, are presented in the hereby paper. Investigations were aimed at obtaining granulates of the determined dimensional and strength parameters. Granules were formed from the mixture of dusts consisting of 75 mass% of dusts after the reclamation of sands mixture and of 25 mass% of dusts from bentonite sands processing plant. Wetted dusts from bentonite sands were used as a binding agent allowing the granulation of after reclamation dusts originated from the mixed sands technology.

  9. Control of rebonding sand mixing as a condition for optimisation of the sand feeding system in the casting line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fedoryszyn

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to ensure the effective operation of the casting line, synthetic sand containing bentonite has to be fed in a precisely controlled quality and quantity. The required quantity is ensured by mixing stations outfitted with turbine mixers. The quality of sand mix, defined by its technological parameters, depends on the available measurement and control equipment and the system controlling the mixers’ operation. These issues are investigated at the Department of Foundry Engineering AGH-UST in collaboration with the PPP Technical Company in Now Sól (Poland, a major manufacturer of turbine mixers.This study outlines the scope and results of research work aimed to improve the control equipment to enhance the performance of turbine mixers.

  10. Emission of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs and benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX from the furan moulding sands with addition of the reclaim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Holtzer

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the results of decomposition of a moulding sand with furfuryl resin also on a quartz matrix and with additions of a reclaimed material, under industrial conditions, are presented. Investigations of the gases emission in the test foundry plant were performed according to the original method developed in the Faculty of Foundry Engineering, AGH UST. The dependence of the emitted PAHs and BTEX group substances and ignition losses on the reclaim fraction in a moulding sand are of a linear character of a very high correlation coefficient R2. On the bases of the derived equations, it is possible to determine the amount of the emitted hazardous substances from the moulding sand containing the known fraction of the reclaim.

  11. Creating Sand Dunes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    This experiment demonstrates the formation and movement of sand dunes. Students will simulate the effects of wind using a hair dryer on bare sand, then add stones and grass to observe how the effects are changed. They should be able to explain how sand dunes are formed, what circumstances effect the movement or formation of sand dunes, and relate this information to soil conservation.

  12. Investigations of the Influence of the Matrix Recycling on Properties of the Moulding Sand with Geopol 618 Binder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kami?ska

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Self-hardening moulding sands with water-glass hardened by liquid esters are applied in several foundry plants for making moulds for the production of heavy iron and steel castings. The main good point of this process is a low cost of sands. However, on account of a lowsusceptibility of this moulding sand for the matrix reclamation the fraction of sands originated from the reclamation is limited.The investigations presented in this work were aimed at the determination of the addition of the reclaimed material, obtained in the dry mechanical reclamation, on properties of the moulding sand with the Geopol 618 binder, which is water-glass modified by polymers and hardened by esters.

  13. Sand Castle Saturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.

    2005-01-01

    In this activity about saturation (page 1 of PDF), learners will build a series of sand castle towers using a 16 oz cup. Learners begin with completely dry sand and then add a ¼ cup of water to the sand for each successive tower, each time measuring the height and width of the resulting sand mound until they make a tower that maintains the shape of the cup. Relates to the linked video, DragonflyTV: Sand Dunes.

  14. Use of Solid Waste (Foundry Slag) Mortar and Bamboo Reinforcement in Seismic Analysis for Single Storey Masonry Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, S.; Husain, A.; Ghani, F.; Alam, M. N.

    2013-11-01

    The conversion of large amount of solid waste (foundry slag) into alternate source of building material will contribute not only as a solution to growing waste problem, but also it will conserve the natural resources of other building material and thereby reduce the cost of construction. The present work makes an effort to safe and economic use of recycle mortar (1:6) as a supplementary material. Conventional and recycled twelve prisms were casted with varying percentage of solid waste (foundry slag) added (0, 10, 20, 30 %) replacing cement by weight and tested under compression testing machine. As the replacement is increasing, the strength is decreasing. 10 % replacement curve is very closed to 0 % whereas 20 % is farther and 30 % is farthest. 20 % replacement was chosen for dynamic testing as its strength is within permissible limit as per IS code. A 1:4 scale single storey brick model with half size brick was fabricated on shake table in the lab for dynamic testing using pure friction isolation system (coarse sand as friction material µ = 0.34). Pure friction isolation technique can be adopted economically in developing countries where low-rise building prevails due to their low cost. The superstructure was separated from the foundation at plinth level, so as to permit sliding of superstructure during severe earthquake. The observed values of acceleration and displacement responses compare fairly with the analytical values of the analytical model. It also concluded that 20 % replacement of cement by solid waste (foundry slag) could be safely adopted without endangering the safety of the masonry structures under seismic load.To have an idea that how much energy is dissipated through this isolation, the same model with fixed base was tested and results were compared with the isolated free sliding model and it has been observed that more than 60 % energy is dissipated through this pure friction isolation technique. In case of base isolation, no visible cracks were observed up to the table force of 4.25 kN (1,300 rpm), whereas for fixed base failure started at 800 rpm.To strengthen the fixed base model, bamboo reinforcement were used for economical point of view. Another model of same dimension with same mortar ratio was fabricated on the shake table with bamboo reinforcement as plinth band and lintel band. In addition another four round bamboo bars of 3 mm diameter were placed at each of the four corners of the model. The building model was tested and found very encouraging and surprising results. The model failure started at 1,600 rpm, which means that this model is surviving the double force in comparison with the non-bamboo reinforcement.

  15. DataFoundry: Warehousing techniques for dynamic environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Critchlow, T.; Fidelis, K.; Ganesh, M.; Musick, R.; Slezak, T., LLNL

    1998-01-29

    Data warehouses and data marts have been successfully applied to a multitude of commercial business applications as tools for integrating and providing access to data located across an enterprise. Although the need for this capability is as vital in the scientific world as in the business domain, working warehouses in our community are scarce. A primary technical reason for this is that our understanding of the concepts being explored in an evolving scientific domain change constantly, leading to rapid changes in the data representation. When any database providing information to a warehouse changes its format, the warehouse must be updated to reflect these changes, or it will not function properly. The cost of maintaining a warehouse using traditional techniques in this environment is prohibitive. This paper describes ideas for dramatically reducing the amount of work that must be done to keep a warehouse up to date in a dynamic, scientific environment. The ideas are being applied in a prototype warehouse called DataFoundry. DataFoundry, currently in use by structural biologists at LLNL, will eventually support scientists at the Department of Energy`s Joint Genome Institute.

  16. Reducing exposures during the pouring operations of a brass foundry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonds, M A; Gressel, M G; O'Brien, D M; Clark, N J

    1993-05-01

    The focus of this exposure assessment and control technology study was a brass foundry and the lead exposures of workers involved in the transportation and pouring of metal. Controls in place at the foundry included ventilation systems at the furnace and along the continuous and stationary pouring lines. Real-time measurements were made to determine which tasks were the primary exposure sources, and a hand-held aerosol monitor was used to measure real-time aerosol exposures (as a surrogate for lead) in the workers' breathing zones. Data were collected over two 30-min sampling periods while worker activities were monitored using a video camera. Analysis of the data showed that the greatest aerosol exposures occurred during the transportation of an unventilated, full ladle, resulting in an average concentration of at least twice that of the other tasks. The study concluded that the addition of exhaust ventilation such as a moveable hood and duct system during the ladle transport and pouring tasks, and the implementation of a side draft hood at the pigging area, could result in a reduction of worker exposure to aerosols during the continuous pouring operation by up to 40%. The controls and techniques suggested in this study could be applied to pouring operations throughout the industry to reduce worker exposure to metal fumes. PMID:8498361

  17. Selected parameters of moulding sands for designing quality control systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Jakubski

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the modern methods of production optimisation are artificial neural networks. Neural networks owe their popularity to the fact thatthey are convenient tools, which can be utilised in a wide scope of problems. They are capable of reflecting complex functions. Especiallytheir non-linearity should be emphasised. They are gaining wider and wider application in the foundry industry, among others, to controlmelting processes in cupolas and arc furnaces, designing castings and supply systems, control of moulding sands treatments, prediction ofproperties of cast alloys as well as selecting die casting.An attempt of the application neural networks to the quality control of moulding sands with bentonite is presented in the paper. This isa method of assessing the suitability of moulding sands by finding correlations in between individual parameters, by means of artificialneural network systems. The presented investigations were performed with the application of the Statistica 8.0 program.The investigations were aimed at the selection of the proper kind of a neural network for prediction a sand moistness on the bases ofcertain moulding sand properties such as: permeability, compactibility and friability. These parameters – determined as sand moistness functions - were introduced as initial parameters.Application of the Statistica program allowed for an automatic selection of the most suitable network for the reflection of dependencies and interactions existing among the proposed parameters. The best results were obtained for unidirectional multi-layer perception network (MLP. The neural network sensitivity to individual moulding sand parameters was determined, which allowed to reject not important parameters when constructing the network.

  18. Evolutionary based system for production scheduling in foundry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Stawowy

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a development of a capable-to-promise system for companies that operate under the hybrid make-to-order and maketo-stock strategy in a lot-sizing and flowshop environment. Proposed system simultaneously considers planning and scheduling processesin order to achieve the optimality. Optimisation engine is based on an advanced evolutionary algorithm. Information available in ERPsystem from different production units and stages, the optimization module, and customer requests are integrated via Internet using XMLlanguage as a data exchange standard.The details on key elements of the system and a software architecture are given. Practical application of the system is illustrated on the example of production scheduling for an iron castings foundry.

  19. Advanced laser mask repair in the current wafer foundry environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Tod; Yi, Daniel; LeClaire, Jeff; White, Roy; Bozak, Ron; Archuletta, Mike

    2010-09-01

    Contrary to the prior assumptions of its technical demise, deep UV (DUV) femtosecond pulsed laser repair of photomasks is continuing to mature and improve as a technology. Similar to the optical enhancements that allow for 193 nm wavelength light to continue being used down to the 32, or even in some cases 22 nm, node, the process regimes for this type of laser repair continue to expand as new processes are discovered. This work reviews the qualification of repair performance for production at a major wafer foundry site. In addition advances are shown in the area of through-pellicle repair (TRP) process development. These advances include the preferential (versus surrounding reference mask structures) removal of soft defects and the capability to remove or manipulate particles on top of a flat absorber region with no detectable removal of the absorber. These developments will further demonstrate the progressive decoupling of the laser repair spot size from the minimum technology node for laser repair.

  20. Exploring Products: Nano Sand

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-16

    In this activity, learners explore how water behaves differently when it comes in contact with "nano sand" and regular sand. Learners learn about the hydrophobic properties of "nano sand." Use this activity to talk about how many materials behave differently at the nanoscale.

  1. Electromagnet Gripping in Iron Foundry Automation Part I: Principles and Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhythm Suren Wadhwa

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Robot grippers are employed to position and retain parts in automated assembly operations. This paper presents an overview of electromagnet part handling framework in an iron foundry and an equivalent electromagnet circuit model. The manner in which this whole concept of automated gripping system operates will be discussed in this paper. The material handling system uses machine vision system coupled with conveyor motion and Ethernet communication strategy to assist the material handling system for transporting the foundry parts. The paper provides an overview of the electromagnet principles at play. The electromagnet interaction with the part is the key issue in the robust handling of this automated foundry system. This paper helps in the realization of the concept of automation in an iron foundry, in which the number of published studies is very limited.

  2. Investigations of the Quality of the Reclaim of Spent Moulding Sands with Organic Binders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Da?ko

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Modern investigation methods and equipment for the quality estimation of the moulding sands matrices with organic binders, in theircirculation process, are presented in the paper. These methods, utilising the special equipment combined with the authors investigationmethods developed in the Faculty of Foundry Engineering, AGH the University of Science and Technology, allow for the better estimationof the matrix quality. Moulding sands systems with organic binders require an in-depth approach to factors deciding on the matrixtechnological suitability as well as on their environmental impact. Into modern methods allowing for the better assessment of the matrixquality belongs the grain size analysis of the reclaimed material performed by means of the laser diffraction and also the estimation of the moulding sand gas evolution rate and identification of the emitted gases and their BTEX group gases content, since they are specially hazardous from the point of view of the Occupational Safety and Health.

  3. Evaluation and Verification of Time and Costs of Production Activities in Foundry Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Kukla, S.

    2007-01-01

    This work presents the possibility of using technology of modelling and simulation of productive systems in the management of cast iron production by means of automated foundry lines to maximize assembly line structure. The computer model of foundry has been planed and conducted in order to compile the schedule of cast production. The variants of solution have been estimated talking into account time limitations imposed by clients and the criterion for prime costs appointed on the basis of th...

  4. Historical cohort study of a New Zealand foundry and heavy engineering plant

    OpenAIRE

    Firth, H. M.; Elwood, J M; Cox, B.; Herbison, G P

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the mortality of workers who had been exposed to asbestos, machining fluids and foundry work in a foundry and heavy engineering plant in the railway rolling stock manufacturing industry in New Zealand. METHODS: Historical cohort study design. RESULTS: For the total workforce of 3522 men employed between 1945 and 1991, follow up was 90% of person-years to 31 December 1991. Significantly increased standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) were found for all causes of...

  5. The influence of microwave curing time and water glass kind on the properties of molding sands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Granat

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This work presents results of research on the influence of microwave heating time on the process of hardening of water glass molding sands. Essential influence of this drying process on basic properties such as: compression, bending and tensile strength as well as permeability and wear resistance, has been found. It has been proved, that all the investigated sorts of sodium water glass could be used as binding material of molding sands intended for curing with the microwave process heating. It has been found, while analyzing the results of property studies of microwave heated molding sands with 2.5% addition of water glass, that all available on the market kinds of this binding agent (including the most frequently used in foundry 145 and 149 kinds after microwave heating guarantee very good compression, bending and tensile strength as well as permeability and wear resistance. Moreover, it has been determined that the optimal curing time of molding sands containing various kinds of water glass is 240 seconds. After this time, all basic properties of molding sands are stable. The use of microwave curing of water glass molding sands results in a significant decrease of hardening process time, full stabilization of molding sands as well as much lower energy consumption.

  6. Replacement of Natural Sand with Efficient Alternatives: Recent Advances in Concrete Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anzar Hamid Mir

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Concrete is the most undisputable material being used in infrastructure development throughout the world. It is a globally accepted construction material in all types of Civil Engineering structures. Natural sand is a prime material used for the preparation of concrete and also plays an important role in Mix Design. Now a day?s river erosion and other environmental issues have led to the scarcity of river sand. The reduction in the sources of natural sand and the requirement for reduction in the cost of concrete production has resulted in the increased need to find new alternative materials to replace river sand so that excess river erosion is prevented and high strength concrete is obtained at lower cost. Partial or full replacement of natural sand by the other alternative materials like quarry dust, foundry sand and others are being researched from past two decades, in view of conserving the ecological balance. This paper summarizes conclusions of experiments conducted for the properties like strength, durability etc. It was observed the results have shown positive changes and improvement in mechanical properties of the conventional concrete due to the addition or replacement of fine sand with efficient alternatives.

  7. Active binder content as a factor of the control system of the moulding sand quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Jakubski

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the modern methods of the production optimisation are artificial neural networks. Neural networks are gaining broader and broaderapplication in the foundry industry, among others for controlling melting processes in cupolas and in arc furnaces, for designing castingsand supply systems, for controlling moulding sand processing, for predicting properties of cast alloys or selecting parameters of pressurecastings. An attempt to apply neural networks for controlling the quality of bentonite moulding sands is presented in this paper. This is theassessment method of sands suitability by means of detecting correlations between their individual parameters. The presentedinvestigations were obtained by using the Statistica 9.0 program. The presented investigations were aimed at the selection of the neuralnetwork able to predict the active bentonite content in the moulding sand on the basis of this sand properties such as: permeability,compactibility and the compressive strength. An application of the Statistica program allowed to select automatically the type of networkproper for the representation of dependencies occurring in between the proposed moulding sand parameters. The most advantageousconditions were obtained for the uni-directional multi-layer perception (MLP network. Knowledge of the neural network sensitivity to individual moulding sand parameters, allowed to eliminate not essential ones.

  8. System and process for the abatement of casting pollution, reclaiming resin bonded sand, and/or recovering a low BTU fuel from castings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffer, Karl D. (121 Governor Dr., Scotia, NY 12302)

    1984-07-03

    Air is caused to flow through the resin bonded mold to aid combustion of the resin binder to form a low BTU gas fuel. Casting heat is recovered for use in a waste heat boiler or other heat abstraction equipment. Foundry air pollution is reduced, the burned portion of the molding sand is recovered for immediate reuse and savings in fuel and other energy is achieved.

  9. Oil sands and petrochemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was conducted to evaluate new feedstocks from Alberta's vast oil sands resources to supplement natural gas liquids. The long-term competitiveness of Alberta's petrochemical industry can be increased by having both gas and oil feedstock options. Several schemes were evaluated to help Alberta develop synergies for its oil sands and petrochemical industries through cost effective integration of oil sands, upgrading, refining and petrochemical development. It was shown that phased integration of oil sands and petrochemical developments is technically and economically feasible to co-produce high grade fuels and petrochemicals. Alberta has the potential to become a world-scale energy and petrochemical producer. Alberta's oil sands facilities are potentially capable of supporting new world-scale plants producing ethylene, propylene, benzene, para-xylene, and other high-value-added derivatives. The products can be produced by integrating existing and new oil sands upgrading plants, refineries and petrochemical plants. tabs., figs

  10. Signalling a foundry mould filling degree with infrared sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bogdan

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available A contactless method of measuring a foundry mould filling degree in course of its pouring with liquid metal is suggested. The concept is based on infrared radiation of molten metal appearing in venting and flow-off holes. As the detector, an infrared channel receiving diode is applied. Three solutions were tested. In the first solution, the diode is placed at the calculated distance from the radiation source, in a housing that suppresses the scattered signal. The housing contains the electronics, while power supply and control signals are delivered by conductors. A diode actuation threshold is established in order to obtain high resolution and repeatability of the results. On the output, a miniature relay transmits the signal to the control system. In the second solution, the measuring system is supplied with a battery and the signal in transmitted through a plastic optical fibre. In the third solution, the optical fibre serves as an energy carrier. The optical system focuses the infrared radiation and introduces the energy to the optical fibre. On the other end of the fibre, a phototransistor amplifies the signal, forms it and transmits to the control system. Some experiments were carried out. Their results permitted noting disadvantages and advantages of individual solutions. It was evidenced that the measurement results obtained using the infrared radiation are independent on a constructional design. The solutions utilising optical fibres proved to be more useful in industrial conditions. Targets and further directions of research works using transceivers for wireless data transmission are presented.

  11. ???????????? ??????? Information Behavior of the Semiconductor Foundry Industry Engineers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ping Shih

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????This article takes semiconductor foundry industry engineers as research subjects, and tries to understand their information behavior. This article employs the questionnaire and in-depth interview as the research methodology. There are four primary findings: (1 the information need of an engineer lies in enhancing self’s working-ability and solve problems encountered in daily job; (2 the primary information sources of engineers are documents and interpersonal relationships, and the most difficult problems in seeking information are information overload and too little relevant and professional information; (3 quality and accessibility is the main factor when engineers seek information; whether the information fit demands or not and the information accuracy are the primary points when engineers evaluate information; the main purpose of engineers using information is to work more efficiently and to achieve the goal or mission in a timely manner; (4 the engineers’ educational backgrounds, professional titles, and job functions have significant influences on a few activities of information behavior.

  12. The influence of microwave heating and water glass kind on the properties of molding sands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Granat

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This work presents rcsults of research on thc influcncc of microwave heating time on the process of hardening of warcr glass moldingsands. Essential influence of this drying process on basic properties such as: cornprcssion, bcnding mind tcnsitc strcng~h as well aspcrrneabili~y and war resistance, has bccn found. It has bccn proved, that at1 thc investigated sorts of sodium water glass could be uscd asbinding material of molding sands intended for curing with the microwave process healing. It has bccn found, while analyzing the rcsultsof property studics or microwavc heated molding sands with 2.5% addition of water glass, that aIl available on the markct kinds of thisbinding agent (inctuding the most frequently uscd in foundry 145 and 149 kinds after microwave heating guarantee very goodcompression, bending and tensile strength as well as permeability and wcar resistance. Moroovcr, it has bccn dctcrmined that the optimalcuring powcr of molding sands containing various kinds of water gIass is 560 W. AII values exceeding this rcsult in stabilization of basicpropcrtics of molding sands. The use of microwave curing of water glass molding sands results in a significant decrease of hardeningprocess time. full stabilization of molding sands as well as much lower energy consumption.

  13. Analysis of effectiveness of used sands reclamation treatment – in various technological devices

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    R. Da?ko

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of effectiveness of spent sands reclamation treatment performed in technological devices of various intensity of dry reclamation – during which used binding material is being removed from grain surfaces – is presented in the paper. Variety of reclamation influences was considered via the realization of the so called elementary operations such as: rubbing, grinding and crushing [1-5], which are realised mainly in dry mechanical reclamation devices but also appear in other technological devices for sand preparation.The model rotor reclaimer and two types of mixers used for preparing initial foundry sands with resin U 404 and hardener 100 T3 of the Hüttenes-Albertus Company were applied for tests.The theoretical model for assessing the effectiveness of reclamation treatment developed by the author [3, 4], was experimentally verified [5, 7], with the application of standard testing procedures. The model can be considered a new tool enabling the selection of optimal reclamation times for the given used sand at the assumed intensity of silica sand matrix recovery. Sand mixture of a proper composition fulfilled needed technological properties after total hardening was used as charge material in experiments. The reclamation treatment consisted of mechanical and mechanical-cryogenic reclamation performed within a wide range of times and conditions influencing the treatment intensity.

  14. Problems of bentonite rebonding of synthetic system sands in turbine mixers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fedoryszyn

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Turbine (rotor mixers are widely used in foundries for bentonite rebonding of synthetic system sands. They form basic equipment in modern sand processing plants. Their major advantage is the short time of the rebond mixing cycle.Until now, no complete theoretical description of the process of mixing in turbine mixers has been offered. Neither does it seem reasonable to try to adapt the theoretical backgrounds of the mixing process carried out in mixers of other types, for example, rooler mixers [1], to the description of operation of the turbine mixers. Truly one can risk the statement that the individual fundamental operations of mixing in rooler mixers, like kneading, grinding, mixing and thinning, are also performed in turbine mixers. Yet, even if so, in turbine mixers these processes are proceeding at a rate and intensity different than in the roller mixers. The fact should also be recalled that the theoretical backgrounds usually relate to the preparation of sand mixtures from new components, and this considerably restricts the field of application of these descriptions when referred to rebond mixing of the system sand. The fundamentals of the process of the synthetic sand rebonding with bentonite require determination and description of operations, like disaggregation, even distribution of binder and water within the entire volume of the rebonded sand batch, sand grains coating, binder activation and aeration.This study presents the scope of research on the sand rebonding process carried out in turbine mixers. The aim has been to determine the range and specific values of the designing and operating parameters to get optimum properties of the rebonded sand as well as energy input in the process.

  15. Simulating the deformation of dies in the foundry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabod, A.; Longa, Y.; Dracon, J. M.; Chailler, K.; Hairy, P.; Da Silva, A.

    2012-07-01

    Digital simulation (QuikCAST, ProCAST) is already used extensively when designing metallic dies for founding, in particular to design filling and gating systems. Simulation of the steady-state temperature cycles of dies has also been mastered. With large castings, the temperature gradient induced between the moulding surface and the rear surfaces of the die leads to deformations that may be large enough to measure, and incompatible with the required dimensional accuracy. The temperature gradient also creates thermal fatigue stresses that cause crazing of the die surface. In the study conducted by CTIF, aimed at measuring tooling deformations, various ways of measuring displacements at high temperatures (with and without contact) were investigated in order to evaluate their capabilities and limitations. An experimental device was designed - a test bench combining a metallic die having a simple geometry, in which an aluminium part could be cast, and instrumentation (temperature and displacement sensors). The deformations of the die were measured during first cycles of temperature homogenization. Concurrently, thermomechanical calculations were carried out on the same geometry using PROCAST. The calculation results are well correlated with the experimental measurements and validate the tools and the calculation methods. This thermomechanical approach makes it possible to optimize die design in the foundry and to predict high-temperature deformations as early as the design stage. Knowledge of these deformations makes it possible in turn to anticipate the geometrical and dimensional variations undergone by the castings themselves and so to improve their accuracy. The designer can act on the temperature of the die or the design of the casting, or create a die in which the expected thermal deformation is reversed so as to produce a casting having the correct dimensions. In short, thermomechanical simulation can be applied to this problem to achieve a better understanding of the phenomena and to test solutions in advance.

  16. Simulating the deformation of dies in the foundry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Digital simulation (QuikCAST, ProCAST) is already used extensively when designing metallic dies for founding, in particular to design filling and gating systems. Simulation of the steady-state temperature cycles of dies has also been mastered. With large castings, the temperature gradient induced between the moulding surface and the rear surfaces of the die leads to deformations that may be large enough to measure, and incompatible with the required dimensional accuracy. The temperature gradient also creates thermal fatigue stresses that cause crazing of the die surface. In the study conducted by CTIF, aimed at measuring tooling deformations, various ways of measuring displacements at high temperatures (with and without contact) were investigated in order to evaluate their capabilities and limitations. An experimental device was designed - a test bench combining a metallic die having a simple geometry, in which an aluminium part could be cast, and instrumentation (temperature and displacement sensors). The deformations of the die were measured during first cycles of temperature homogenization. Concurrently, thermomechanical calculations were carried out on the same geometry using PROCAST. The calculation results are well correlated with the experimental measurements and validate the tools and the calculation methods. This thermomechanical approach makes it possible to optimize die design in the foundry and to predict high-temperature deformations as early as the desigerature deformations as early as the design stage. Knowledge of these deformations makes it possible in turn to anticipate the geometrical and dimensional variations undergone by the castings themselves and so to improve their accuracy. The designer can act on the temperature of the die or the design of the casting, or create a die in which the expected thermal deformation is reversed so as to produce a casting having the correct dimensions. In short, thermomechanical simulation can be applied to this problem to achieve a better understanding of the phenomena and to test solutions in advance.

  17. Determination of application possibilities of microwave heating in the curing process of water glass molding sands with fluid esters. Part 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Granat

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This article, constituting continuation of the subject discussed in the first part, presents results of the experimental trial of water glass molding sands’ curing method modification with application of fluid esters and innovative microwave heating. The research objective was to determine possibilities of microwave application for curing of water glass molding sands prepared with addition of hardening agents sold under the trade name of Mach. After initial chemical curing molding sands, prepared with addition of the above mentioned hardeners, have been heated with microwaves in order to determine their influence on changes of basic technological and strength parameters of the sands, and indirectly on the quality of quartz grains binding. Studies aimed at determination of water content changes in the sands have also been undertaken. As our studies demonstrated, microwave heating allows for quick reduction of water content, thus resulting in improvement of strength parameters such as bending and tensile strength. Application of the combined methods of ester curing and innovative microwave heating facilitates production of high quality foundry moulds and cores, while simultaneously improving mould and core preparation procedures at the foundries and as a result reduces their time to an indispensable minimum.

  18. Determination of dimethylethylamine in air samples from iron foundries by isotachophoresis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, L.; Sollenberg, J.; Uggla, C.

    1985-08-01

    A method for the determination of dimethylethylamine in workroom air has been developed. Static gas standards of the amine in air were used to evaluate different sampling techniques. The analysis was performed by isotachophoresis. The sampling equipment of choice was midget impinger flasks of glass or polystyrene containing 10 ml of hydrochloric acid (50 mmol/l). The method was used in a field study of three different iron foundries where air samples were taken. The dimethylethylamine concentration found was in the range 0.5-155 mg//sup 3/. No pretreatment of the samples was necessary, and no interfering substances from the air in the foundries affected the analysis.

  19. MODELS AND METHODS OF CONTROL SYSTEMS OF ECOLOGICAL SAFETY OF FOUNDRY MANUFACTURE ?????? ? ?????? ?????? ?????????? ????????????? ????????????? ????????? ????????????

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manohin V. J.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The given developments are devoted to modeling of control systems by ecological safety of foundry manufacture. In a working zone of foundry shops except for a dust the significant amount of polluting substances is allocated. The most unsuccessful sites from a position of allocation of a dust are chambers and lattices. The experimental analysis shows, that in structure of a dust the weight maintenance of fractions with a diameter up to 20 microns reaches 43,8 % on weight. The given dust is most dangerous to health of the working personnel and creates problems when clearing the air

  20. Database for foundry engineers – simulationDB – a modern database storing simulation results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Malinowski

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: of this paper The main aim of this paper is to build specific database system for collecting, analysing and searching simulation results.Design/methodology/approach: It was prepared using client-server architecture. Then was prepared GUI - Graphical User Interface.Findings: New database system for foundry was discovered.Practical implications: System development is in progress and practical implication will be hold in one of iron foundry in next year.Originality/value: The original value of this paper is innovative database system for storing and analysing simulation results.

  1. Influence of water-glass grade and quantity on residual strength of microwave-hardened moulding sands. Part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Stachowicz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a research on influence of dielectric drying process on mechanical properties of water-glass containing moulding sands. Examined were moulding sands containing additions of 1.5 and 2.5 % of hydrated sodium silicate grades 145, 149 and 150, most oftenused in foundry practice. Standard, cylindrical specimens for mechanical testing were held at temperatur es from 100 to 1200 °C for 30 minutes and next cooled-down to ambient temperature. Then their residual strength was determined. Comparison of the obtained resultswith literature data indicates that dielectric drying is favourable for reduction of residual strength of used water-glass moulding sands, and thus improves their knock-out properties.

  2. Petrochemicals from oil sands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The petrochemical industry in Alberta developed rapidly during the 1980s and 1990s. However, projected diminishing gas production from the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin has raised concerns about the future growth of the industry in Alberta. A joint industry/government study has been conducted to evaluate new feedstocks from Alberta's vast oil sands resources to supplement natural gas liquids. Having both gas and oil sands feedstock options should increase the long-term competitiveness of Alberta's petrochemical industry.This paper presents a framework for evaluating and optimizing schemes for helping Alberta develop synergies for its oil sands and petrochemical industries through cost effective integration of oil sands, upgrading, refining and petrochemical development from 2005 to 2020. The paper places emphasis on specific locations and market conditions. It demonstrates that phased integration of oil sands and petrochemical developments is technically and economically feasible to co-produce high grade fuels and petrochemicals, assuming a new pipeline is built between Edmonton and Vancouver. Alberta has the potential to become a world-scale energy and petrochemical cluster. Alberta's oil sands facilities are potentially capable of supporting new world-scale plants producing ethylene, propylene, benzene, para-xylene, and other high-value-added derivatives. The products can be produced by integrating existing and new oil sands upgrading plants, refineries and petsands upgrading plants, refineries and petrochemical plants within the next 5 to 10 years. 3 refs., 2 tabs., 7 figs

  3. Rebounding process of moulding sands-thermal degradation of bentonite binding qualities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Da?ko

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problems related to a gradual degradation of binding qualities of montmorillonite, the main component of foundry bentonites, are presented in the paper. This degradation is caused by high temperatures originated from liquid metal influencing moulding sands. Laboratory measurements of an active binding agent content in classic moulding sands prepared with two types of bentonite and subjected to a controlled heating to high temperatures – were performed. These laboratory examinations were compared to industrial tests, in which a temperature distribution was being determined in several places in the thickness of the casting ingot mould for 24 hours from the moment of pouring liquid metal. On the basis of the performed examinations, the method allowing to determine optimal additions in the rebounding process of the tested bentonites was developed.

  4. Influence of moulding sands grain size on the effectiveness of quality control systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Jakubski

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the modern methods of the production optimisation are artificial neural networks. Neural networks owe their popularity to the fact that they constitute convenient tools, which can be applied in an extremely broad research scope. This is caused by their ability to represent complex functions. Their non-linearity should be specially emphasised. Neural networks are gaining broader and broaderapplication in the foundry industry, among others for controlling melting processes in cupolas and in arc furnaces, for designing castings and supply systems, for controlling moulding sand processing, for predicting properties of cast alloys or selecting parameters of pressure castings. An attempt to apply neural networks for controlling the quality of bentonite moulding sands is presented in this paper. This is the assessment method of sands suitability by means of detecting correlations between their individual parameters. The presented investigations were obtained by using the Statistica 9.0 program.The aim of the investigations was to select the neural network suitable for prediction the moulding sand moisture on the basis of thedetermined sand properties such as: permeability, compactibility, friability and compressive strength in dependence on the matrix grainsize.

  5. Reduction of Energy Consumption and GHGs Emission in Conventional Sand Casting Process by Application of a New CRIMSON Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojun DAI

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available

    In conventional foundry, engineers generally consider the quality of casting part as the most essential issue and regard the energy consumption and Green House Gas (GHGs emission as the auxiliary ones. This usually causes large amount of energy consumption as a result of the inefficient casting processes used and increases the production costs and environmental pollution. This paper presents the new CRIMSON process where its facility and melting process were compared with conventional melt furnaces and aluminium alloy melting process. An actual case was investigated to reveal quantitatively how the conventional foundry wastes energy and increases GHGs emission, and what the improvement of energy efficiency and the GHGs emission reduction can be achieved using the new CRIMSON process. The results of this investigation will help the foundry engineer recognize the importance of energy saving and environmental protection and show how to utilise this new process to reduce production costs and carbon footprint without decreasing the quality of the cast part.

    Key words: Energy consumption; GHGs emission; Furnace; Aluminium; Sanding casting; Melting; CRIMSON

  6. Bituminous sands : tax issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper examined some of the tax issues associated with the production of bitumen or synthetic crude oil from oil sands. The oil sands deposits in Alberta are gaining more attention as the supplies of conventional oil in Canada decline. The oil sands reserves located in the Athabasca, Cold Lake and Peace River areas contain about 2.5 trillion barrels of highly viscous hydrocarbons called bitumen, of which nearly 315 billion barrels are recoverable with current technology. The extraction method varies for each geographic area, and even within zones and reservoirs. The two most common extraction methods are surface mining and in-situ extraction such as cyclic steam stimulation (CSS); low pressure steam flood; pressure cycle steam drive; steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD); hot water flooding; and, fire flood. This paper also discussed the following general tax issues: bituminous sands definition; bituminous sands leases and Canadian development expense versus Canadian oil and gas property expense (COGPE); Canadian exploration expense (CEE) for surface mining versus in-situ methods; additional capital cost allowance; and, scientific research and experimental development (SR and ED). 15 refs

  7. Oil sands tax expenditures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The oil sands are a strategic Canadian resource for which federal and provincial governments provide financial incentives to develop and exploit. This report describes the Oil Sands Tax Expenditure Model (OSTEM) developed to estimate the size of the federal income tax expenditure attributed to the oil sands industry. Tax expenditures are tax concessions which are used as alternatives to direct government spending for achieving government policy objectives. The OSTEM was developed within the business Income Tax Division of Canada's Department of Finance. Data inputs for the model were obtained from oil sands developers and Natural Resources Canada. OSTEM calculates annual revenues, royalties and federal taxes at project levels using project-level projections of capital investment, operating expenses and production. OSTEM calculates tax expenditures by comparing taxes paid under different tax regimes. The model also estimates the foregone revenue as a percentage of capital investment. Total tax expenditures associated with investment in the oil sands are projected to total $820 million for the period from 1986 to 2030, representing 4.6 per cent of the total investment. 10 refs., 2 tabs., 7 figs

  8. Criteria for an advanced assessment of quality of moulding sands with organic binders and reclamation process products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Da?ko

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Reclamation of used moulding and core sands has been defined as a treatment of waste moulding refractory materials, enabling a recovery of at least one of the components having properties similar to those of the fresh component, and reuse for production of casting moulds and cores. However, at present, there is a lack of a reclaimed material assessment index, which could be applied to each type of moulding sand and reclaim. Modern investigation methods and equipment for the estimation of the quality of the moulding sands matrices with organic binders, in their circulation process, are presented in this paper. These methods, utilizing the special equipment combined with the author’s investigation methods developed in the Faculty of Foundry Engineering, AGH - University of Science and Technology, allow the better estimation of the matrix quality both in an aspect of its application as a fresh sand substitute in the preparation of moulding sands, and also with regard to the environmental protection. The most important criteria for the technological assessment of the reclaimed materials and the quality of sands with organic binders are presented in this paper.

  9. Design process optimization, virtual prototyping of manufacturing, and foundry-portable DFM (Invited Paper)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, James; Progler, Christopher; Chatila, Ahmad; Bruggeman, Bert; Heins, Mitchell; Pack, Robert; Boksha, Victor

    2005-05-01

    We consider modern design for manufacturing (DFM) as a manifestation of IC industry re-integration and intensive cost management dynamics. In that regard DFM is somewhat different from so-called design for yield (DFY) which essentially focuses on productivity (yield) management (that is not to say that DFM and DFY do not have significant overlaps and interactions). We clearly see the shaping of a new "full-chip DFM" infrastructure on the background of the "back to basics" design-manufacturing re-integration dynamics. In the presented work we are focusing on required DFM-efficiencies in a "foundry-fabless" link. Concepts of "virtual prototyping of manufacturing", "design process optimization", and "foundry-portable DFM" models are explored. Both senior management of the industry and leading design groups finally realize the need for a radical change of design styles. Some of the DFM super-goals are to isolate designers from process details and to make designs foundry portable. It requires qualification of designs at different foundries. In their turn, foundries specified and are implementing a set of DFM rules: "action-required", "recommended", and "guidelines" while asking designers to provide netlist and testing information. Also, we observe strong signs of innovation coming back to the mask industry. Powerful solutions are emerging and shaping up toward mask-centered IP as a business. While it seems that pure-play foundries have found their place for now in the "IDM+" model (supporting manufacturing capacity of IDMs) it is not obvious how sustainable the model is. Wafer as a production unit is not sufficient anymore; foundries are being asked by large customers to price products in terms of good die. It brings back the notion of the old ASIC business model where the foundry is responsible for dealing with both random and systematic yield issues for a given design. One scenario of future development would be that some of the leading foundries might eventually transform themselves into IDMs. Another visible trend: some of the manufacturing capacities started to diversify business by providing services for new emerging markets (for example, new energy and medicine applications). Finally it is very unclear what"s going to happen to fabless players. We continue building on the "Think SPICE again!" methodology introduced last year and expanding on previous platforms' discussion. Model expression of DFM, most probably, will be supplied by the equipment suppliers and yield management community. Actual content for a design intent model will be provided by manufacturing. Much like SPICE it describes the behavior and not what the actual measurement in manufacturing is. When the model is available and populated, a design automation solution can be created that will allow a designer to extract, analyze, simulate, and optimize the circuit prior to handoff to manufacturing.

  10. FINAL REPORT: Reduction in Energy Consumption and Variability in Steel Foundry Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    F. Peters

    2005-05-24

    This project worked to improve the efficiency of the steel casting industry by reducing the variability that occurs because of process and product variation. The project focused on the post shakeout operations since roughly half of the production costs are in this area. These improvements will reduce the amount of variability, making it easier to manage the operation and improve the competitiveness. The reduction in variability will also reduce the need for many rework operations, which will result in a direct reduction of energy usage, particularly by the reduction of repeated heat treatment operations. Further energy savings will be realized from the reduction of scrap and reduced handling. Field studies were conducted at ten steel foundries that represented the U.S. steel casting industry, for a total of over 100 weeks of production observation. These studies quantified the amount of variability, and looked toward determining the source. A focus of the data collected was the grinding operations since this is a major effort in the cleaning room, and it represents the overall casting quality. The grinding was divided into two categories, expected and unexpected. Expected grinding is that in which the location of the effort is known prior to making the casting, such as smoothing parting lines, gates, and riser contacts. Unexpected grinding, which was approximately 80% of the effort, was done to improve the surfaces at weld repair locations, to rectify burnt on sand, and other surface anomalies at random locations. Unexpected grinding represents about 80% of the grinding effort. By quantifying this effort, the project raised awareness within the industry and the industry is continuing to make improvements. The field studies showed that the amount of variation of grinding operations (normalized because of the diverse set of parts studied) was very consistent across the industry. The field studies identified several specific sources that individually contributed to large process variation. This indicates the need for ongoing monitoring of the process and system to quantify the effort being expended. A system to measure the grinding effort was investigated but did not prove to be successful. A weld wire counting system was shown to be very successful in tracking casting quality by monitoring the quantity of weld wire being expended on a per casting basis. Further use of such systems is highly recommended. The field studies showed that the visual inspection process for the casting surface was a potentially large source of process variation. Measurement system analysis studies were conducted at three steel casting producers. The tests measured the consistency of the inspectors in identifying the same surface anomalies. The repeatability (variation of the same operator inspecting the same casting) was found to be relatively consistent across the companies at about 60-70%. However, this is still are very large amount of variation. Reproducibility (variation of different operators inspecting the same casting) was worse, ranging between 20 to 80% at the three locations. This large amount of variation shows that there is a great opportunity for improvement. Falsely identifying anomalies for reworking will cause increased expense and energy consumption. This is particularly true if a weld repair and repeated heat treatment is required. However, not identifying an anomaly could also result in future rework processing, a customer return, or scrap. To help alleviate this problem, casting surface comparator plates were developed and distributed to the industry. These plates are very inexpensive which enables them to be provided to all those involved with casting surface quality, such as operators, inspectors, sales, and management.

  11. UK Frac Sand Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, C. J.

    2015-01-01

    Although still just a glimmer in the gas man’s eye, the prospect of shale hydrocarbon (oil and gas) development in the UK has many companies thinking about the industrial minerals it will require. Chief amongst these is silica sand which is used as a ‘proppant’ in the hydraulic fracturing, or ‘fracking’, of shales to help release the gas. The UK has large resources of sand and sandstone, of which only a small proportion have the necessary technical properties that classify them as ?...

  12. Hydrogen porosity in Al-Si foundry alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhtar, Shahid

    2010-01-15

    Aluminium alloys based on the aluminium-silicon system are popular for automotive and aerospace applications, thanks to their high strength to weight ratio, excellent castability, and corrosion resistance. Microporosity is widely acknowledged to affect both static and dynamic properties of structural aluminium alloy castings. Formation of microporosity is a complex phenomenon and depends upon various factors but mainly hydrogen content and melt cleanliness, i.e., oxide films and inclusions. In the past few decades numerous studies on microporosity formation have been reported. However, several aspects of this subject are not fully understood. The motivation of this doctoral thesis has been to improve the knowledge of porosity formation and its affect of the mechanical properties of the cast products. This study aimed at understanding the effect of hydrogen and defects on microporosity of aluminium-silicon based castings. A literature review of the theories of porosity formation, and previously reported results on the factors affecting the microporosity formation in aluminium alloys is reported briefly in order to establish a basis of the present study. The research presented in this thesis is divided in five phases. In the first phase, lab scale directional solidification experiments were carried out with an A 356 alloy. Six hydrogen levels from 0.48 to 0.07 mL/100 g melt were reached by various up-gassing and de-gassing treatments of the melt. The melt quality was assessed by porous disc filtration apparatus (PoDFA) and reduced pressure test (RPT) methods. Microporosity distribution in the castings was characterized by the Archmedian method, image analysis and X-ray radiography. The results show that the porosity distribution is strongly dependent on the cooling rate and hydrogen content in the presence of the oxide films type defects. In the next phase, casting experiments with an A356 melt were carried by using a step mould die and castings were produced with and without filtration. The experiments were divided into series I and series II. In the first series 70 kg of the A356 ingots were melted in an electric resistance furnace. Three hydrogen levels namely 0.1, 0.2, and 0.4 mL/100 g melt were reached first by Ar-degassing, and up-gassing with Ar-10 % H2 and Ar-water vapour mixture, respectively. In the second series of experiments similar procedure was applied to another melt but in the reverse order. The castings were characterized in terms of microporosity and mechanical properties distribution. In addition high pressure die casting of an A380 alloy was carried out with different processing parameters like plunger speed, commutation point between first and second phase and pouring temperature. The results shows that tensile properties in both gravity and high pressure die castings were affected by the amount and distribution of casting defects. A series of casting experiments were carried out with the same type of step mould and with two hydrogen levels, namely 0.1 and 0.2 mL/100 g melt, in the third phase of the project. The main focus of these trials was to carefully control the variables during melt preparation, casting and solidification and keep the variations at minimum. Experiments were performed in two different days in order to check the reproducibility of the measurements. For the low gas level (0.1 mL/100 g melt) higher porosity levels are observed in the thinnest step, while the trend is opposite with the medium gas level (0.2 mL/100 g melt) castings. The data obtained form these trials where casting variables were controlled in a reproducible way form a basis for evaluating the results of simulated microporosity distributions using recent modelling approaches. The reproducibility of the step mould used was calculated to be 10-15 %. In the fourth phase, a study in an automotive casting plant was targeted to address the problem of high rejection rate of a cylinder head casting made from an A354 alloy. In the foundry, the castings under investigation were usually made from the mixture of A 354 alloys fro

  13. Replies to Challenges in the Field of Air Pollution Control in Foundry Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Margraf, R.

    2012-01-01

    The solution of applications for air pollution control in foundries for iron and non-ferrous metals may not only be understood as theobservance of requested emission limit values at the stack outlet. An effective environmental protection already starts with the greatest possible capture of pollutants at the source with at the same time minimisation of the volume flow necessary for this. Independent of this, the downstream installed filtration system has to realise a degree of separation of de...

  14. The analysis of the wax foundry models fabrication process for the CPX3000 device

    OpenAIRE

    Budzik, G.; Kozik, B.; Bernaczek, J.; Wieczorowski, M.; Tutak, M.

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents possibilities of creating wax founding models by means of CPX3000 device. The device is used for Rapid Prototypingof models made of foundry wax in an incremental process. The paper also presents problems connected with choosing technologicalparameters for incremental shaping which influence the accuracy of created models. Issues connected with post-processing are alsodescribed. This process is of great importance for obtaining geometrically correct models. The analysis of p...

  15. In-depth Evaluation of Energy Management Practices in a Swedish Iron Foundry

    OpenAIRE

    Rahimi Ardkapan, Siamak; Rahimi, Maral

    2010-01-01

    Energy efficiency in industry is became important issue in this century considering cost of energy, energy crisis in the world and environmental issue of using energy sources. To solve this problem energy management can be successful tools due to it positive impact on reduction of energy use and also reduction of energy use environmental impacts. The aim of this thesis is to present results of a successful energy managing practices in a Swedish iron foundry and explain the possibilities to im...

  16. COMBINED EFFECTS OF HEAT STRESS AND SHIFT WORK ON PHYSIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS IN FOUNDRY WORKERS

    OpenAIRE

    P Nassiri; M Taheri; F. Golbabaie; Mohammadzadeh, M

    1990-01-01

    In order to investigate the combined effects of shift work and heat stress on the physiological parameters, such as heart rate (HR) and body temperature (BT), a hot-dry working environment was investigated for 53 workers in foundry workshops. In this study Wet Bulb Globe Temperature index (WBGT) was measured and along with that simultaneously heart rate and oral temperature were checked in 3 shifts. The results indicated that the physiological responses of workers changed whenever the shift c...

  17. Properties of made by different methods of RP impeller foundry patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Budzik, G.

    2007-01-01

    This article presents the tests of properties of foundry patterns of turbocharger turbine impeller. Impellers prototypes were predestinated for casting by method losing patterns. There were carried out tests of these prototypes made by different methods of Rapid Prototyping (RP). Two impeller were made by growth methods: stereolitography (SLA) and three dimensional printing (3DP). One prototype was made by the method of Vacuum Casting as a wax casting. Tests were executed in the Department of...

  18. Occupational exposure to volatile nitrosamines in foundries using the Ashland core-making process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ducos, P.; Gaudin, R.; Maire, C.; Mavelle, T.; Bouchikhi, B.; Derby, G.

    1988-10-01

    Eight foundries using the Ashland process for the production of cores were surveyed to assess the occupational exposure to carcinogenic volatile nitrosamines. Personal and area samples were collected by means of artifact-free cartridges during the core-making and the molding/casting/shake-out operations. Analyses were carried out with gas chromatography/Hall detector and gas chromatography/TEA (thermal energy analyzer) for validation. The core-making workshops had the highest concentration for at least two nitrosamines, N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) and N-nitrosoethylmethylamine (NEMA), but the levels of NDMA never exceeded 0.35 microgram/m3 with an arithmetic mean between 0.23 and 0.02 microgram/m3. In a number of samplings, two other peaks, both on TEA and Hall detector, could not be identified. The foundries per se (molding/casting/shake-out) had lower nitrosamine levels (CNDMAmax = 0.15 microgram/m3, CNDMA less than 0.03 microgram/m3). For the first time NEMA was identified as an industrial contaminant in foundries but its concentration was always lower than that of NDMA. The nitrosamines found were presumably produced from dimethylethylamine (DMEA). Industries producing or using tertiary or secondary amines should be controlled for their possible nitrosamine contamination.

  19. Evaluation and Verification of Time and Costs of Production Activities in Foundry Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kukla

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the possibility of using technology of modelling and simulation of productive systems in the management of cast iron production by means of automated foundry lines to maximize assembly line structure. The computer model of foundry has been planed and conducted in order to compile the schedule of cast production. The variants of solution have been estimated talking into account time limitations imposed by clients and the criterion for prime costs appointed on the basis of the ZAR by means of aided detailed calculation according to planes of their formation. In the research, problem connected with exploitation of automatic foundry lines have been taken into consideration. Moreover, the analysis of line work stoppage has been conducted and construction of schedule of the planned service of line device has been undertaken on the basis of the knowledge of timetables of correct work of these devices. Furthermore, the operational database has been prepared so as to assemble and process data about the damaged and other line work stoppage. It should be noted that the database will give the possibility of working out the schedule of planned service. The problems has been presented by using the pocket for modelling and the simulation of productive systems – ARENA

  20. Magic Sand: Nanosurfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanoscle Informal Science Education Network

    2014-06-18

    This is an activity/demo in which learners are exposed to the difference bewteen hydrophobic surfaces (water repelling) and hydrophilic surfaces (water loving). This activity also demonstrates how changing the size of material to nanoscale changes its behavior at the macroscale. The instructions assume that Magic Sand is performed as a demonstration, but it works great a a hands-on activity as well.

  1. Moving sand dunes

    OpenAIRE

    Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

    2011-01-01

    In several desert areas, the slow motion of sand dunes can be a challenge for modern human activities and a threat for the survival of ancient places or archaeological sites. However, several methods exist for surveying the dune fields and estimate their migration rate. Among these methods, the use of satellite images, in particular of those freely available on the World Wide Web, is a convenient resource for the planning of future human settlements and activities.

  2. Oil sands supply outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In March 2004, The Canadian Energy Research Institute released a report on the expected future supply from Alberta's oil sands. The report indicates that the future for the already well-established oil sands industry is promising, particularly given the outlook for oil prices. The challenges facing the industry include higher industry supply costs and the need for innovative commercial and technological solutions to address the risks of irregularities and changes in crude oil prices. In 2003, the industry produced 874 thousand barrels per day of synthetic crude oil and unprocessed crude bitumen. This represents 35 per cent of Canada's total oil production. Current production capacity has increased to 1.0 million barrels per day (mbpd) due to new projects. This number may increase to 3.5 mbpd by 2017. Some new projects may be deferred due to the higher raw bitumen and synthetic crude oil supply costs. This presentation provided supply costs for a range of oil sands recovery technologies and production projections under various business scenarios. tabs., figs

  3. Determination of application possibilities of microwave heating in the curing process of water glass molding sands with fluid esters. Part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Granat

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents results of the experimental trial of combination of the chemical method of water glass molding sands’ curing, used in foundry industry, with an innovative microwave heating. The research objective was to indicate at new areas of microwave energy application. The sands prepared, according to recommendations for curing technology, with the use of ethylene glycol diacetate, have been subject to microwave influence. The attempt at determination of microwave influence on qualitative changes of the binding bridges created during the curing process concerned such parameters as: bending and tensile strength, permeability as well as wear resistance. Moreover,we also determined the influence of microwave curing on the phenomena accompanying the process as well as bond stability (storage time of the prepared molding and core sands. It has been found, basing on the result analysis, that the innovative microwave heating might constitute a very good supplementation of the ester curing method. The advantages of the combined chemical and microwave gelation process include, among others, improvement of the described resistance and technological parameters as well as significant decrease of preparation time of foundry moulds and cores. The subject discussed in this article will be continued in its second part.

  4. Compressive behavior of fine sand.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Bradley E. (Air Force Research Laboratory, Eglin, FL); Kabir, Md. E. (Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN); Song, Bo; Chen, Wayne (Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN)

    2010-04-01

    The compressive mechanical response of fine sand is experimentally investigated. The strain rate, initial density, stress state, and moisture level are systematically varied. A Kolsky bar was modified to obtain uniaxial and triaxial compressive response at high strain rates. A controlled loading pulse allows the specimen to acquire stress equilibrium and constant strain-rates. The results show that the compressive response of the fine sand is not sensitive to strain rate under the loading conditions in this study, but significantly dependent on the moisture content, initial density and lateral confinement. Partially saturated sand is more compliant than dry sand. Similar trends were reported in the quasi-static regime for experiments conducted at comparable specimen conditions. The sand becomes stiffer as initial density and/or confinement pressure increases. The sand particle size become smaller after hydrostatic pressure and further smaller after dynamic axial loading.

  5. A family of sand automata

    CERN Document Server

    Faulkner, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    We study some dynamical properties of a family of two-dimensional cellular automata: those that arise from an underlying one dimensional sand automaton whose local rule is obtained using a latin square. We identify a simple sand automaton G whose local rule is algebraic, and classify this automaton as having equicontinuity points, but not being equicontinuous. We also show it is not surjective. We generalise some of these results to a wider class of sand automata.

  6. Oil sands development update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A detailed review and update of oil sands development in Alberta are provided covering every aspect of the production and economic aspects of the industry. It is pointed out that at present oil sands account for 28 per cent of Canadian crude oil production, expected to reach 50 per cent by 2005. Based on recent announcements, a total of 26 billion dollars worth of projects are in progress or planned; 20 billion dollars worth of this development is in the Athabasca area, the remainder in Cold Lake and other areas. The current update envisages up to 1,800,000 barrels per day by 2008, creating 47,000 new jobs and total government revenues through direct and indirect taxes of 118 billion dollars. Provinces other than Alberta also benefit from these development, since 60 per cent of all employment and income created by oil sands production is in other parts of Canada. Up to 60 per cent of the expansion is for goods and services and of this, 50 to 55 per cent will be purchased from Canadian sources. The remaining 40 per cent of the new investment is for engineering and construction of which 95 per cent is Canadian content. Aboriginal workforce by common consent of existing operators matches regional representation (about 13 per cent), and new developers are expected to match these standards. Planned or ongoing development in environmental protection through improved technologies and optimization, energy efficiency and improved tailings management, and active support of flexngs management, and active support of flexibility mechanisms such as emission credits trading, joint implementation and carbon sinks are very high on the industry's agenda. The importance of offsets are discussed extensively along with key considerations for international negotiations, as well as further research of other options such as sequestration, environmentally benign disposal of waste, and enhanced voluntary action

  7. Imperial Sand Dunes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Bureau of Land Management presents the current news, projects, and the geologic and cultural history of the Imperial Sand Dunes at this website. Users can easily search through an abundance of remarkable images of dunes as well as other Californian landscapes. The website offers links to the current rules, regulations, and management plans. Individuals, who will be traveling to the area, can find the weather forecast, an events calendar, and information on volunteering. Visitors can locate archives of Federal Register Notices as well as news releases.

  8. Foundry industries: environmental aspects and environmental condition indicators; Industrias de fundicion: aspectos ambientales e indicadores de condicion ambiental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sosa, B. s.; Banda-Noriega, R. B.; Guerrero, E. M.

    2013-03-01

    Nowadays, environmental indicators are widely used as effective tools to assist decision-making in both public and private sectors. The lack of literature and research about local and regional Environmental Condition Indicators (ECI), the poor knowledge regarding solid waste generation, effluents and gas emissions from foundry industries, and their particular location in the urban area of Tandil, Argentina are the main reasons for this investigation, aiming to develop a set a of ECI to provide information about the environment in relation to the foundry industry. The study involves all the foundries located in the city between March and April 2010. The set of ECI developed includes 9 indicators for air, 5 for soil and 1 for water. Specific methodology was used for each indicator. (Author) 31 refs.

  9. Estimation and characterization of PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like PCBs from Chinese iron foundries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Pu; Zheng, Minghui; Liu, Guorui; Liu, Wenbin; Xiao, Ke

    2011-01-01

    The iron foundry industry is considered to be a potential source of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). This study investigated the emission factors and total emission amounts of PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) from iron foundries in China. The concentrations and the World Health Organization toxicity equivalents (WHO-TEQs) are presented and the congener profiles are discussed in this paper. In the present work, 26 fly ash samples were collected and tested to quantify the PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs generated by 14 plants of different scales, and five stack gas samples were collected from two (named as EFG and LFG) of those plants. The emission levels of PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs indicated that hot-air cupolas had lower emissions than cold-air cupolas. When iron ore lump and sinter were used as raw material, the emission factors were about 250ng TEQt(-1) of product. However, if the raw material was scrap, the emission factors varied owing to the different contents of organic materials in the raw materials. It was found that the mean WHO-TEQ values of PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs were 144 and 34.2pgNm(-3) in stack gas and 20.0 and 1.58pgg(-1) in fly ash. In multiple tests, it was estimated that the mean emission factors of PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs were 365 and 10.9ng WHO-TEQt(-1) released to residue and 2719 and 555ng TEQt(-1) released to air. The total emission amounts of PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs from Chinese iron foundries with cupola furnaces released to residue and air were 16.8 and 146g WHO-TEQ in 2008, respectively. PMID:21075413

  10. Studies on the Executionof Models Used in Iron Foundry From Epoxidic Resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinca - Ionel Lupinca

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The epoxidic resins are materials frequently used in the execution of the models used in iron foundry. This materials can replace casily wood or aluminium in the execution of the models needed in series productions, having better resistance properties and the high dimensional precision. The properties of these resins are obtained from the completion of the epoxibifunctional molecules with supplements. This paper establishes the result of mixing the two components, as well as the supplements used to improve the mechanic and the technological properties.

  11. Drying of water based foundry coatings: Innovative test, process design and optimization methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Muoio, Giovanni Luca

    2015-01-01

    This work has been carried out in in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the award of the degree of Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) at the Technical University of Denmark. Associate Professor Niels Skat Tiedje has been the university supervisor from March 2012 to February 2015. Casting Technology Director Bjørn Budolph Johansen has been the company supervisor from March 2012 to June 2014. In this Industrial PhD Thesis we present the main results of several tests and simulations carried out from 2011 to 2014 at Global Castings A/S (former Vestas Wind Systems A/S) and at the Technical University of Denmark with the overall aim to optimize the drying process of water based foundry coatings. Drying of foundry coatings is a relatively new process in the foundry industry that followed the introduction of water as a solvent. In order to avoid moisture related quality problems and reach production capacity goals there is a need to understand how to design, control and optimize drying processes. The main focus of this project was on the critical parameters and properties to be controlled in production in order to achieve a stable and predictable drying process. We propose for each of these parameters simple methods for testing both at laboratory and production scale so that material characterization and model validation can be carried out also for materials different from the ones considered in this study. Additionally, we present the application of calculation methods and advanced simulation tools on real industrial cases. These tools have been developed in order to simulate and optimize the drying process and reduce drying time and power consumption as well as production process design time and cost of expensive drying equipment. Results show that test methods from other industries can be used or adapted to better control drying processes of water based foundry coatings. Critical drying process related properties were obtained in the several laboratory tests performed and calculation and simulation methods were developed. Additionally, examples of improvement on full scale industrial production line are shown.

  12. Gas flow through a multilayer ceramic mould in lost wax foundry process

    OpenAIRE

    Matysiak, H.; Haratym, R.; Klabczyk, M.

    2009-01-01

    The paper deals with the issues of permeability testing of ceramic moulds used in lost wax foundry process. The main issue in thetesting is to provide proper specimens of ceramic moulds (CM). The moulds have to be repeatable and must be free of internal defects ofmicrocrack type that are formed mainly during the removal of patterns from CM in the course of heat treatment.Moreover, the process of forming ceramic moulds must be similar to the general industrial process of CM moulds making regar...

  13. COMBINED EFFECTS OF HEAT STRESS AND SHIFT WORK ON PHYSIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS IN FOUNDRY WORKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.Nassiri

    1990-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the combined effects of shift work and heat stress on the physiological parameters, such as heart rate (HR and body temperature (BT, a hot-dry working environment was investigated for 53 workers in foundry workshops. In this study Wet Bulb Globe Temperature index (WBGT was measured and along with that simultaneously heart rate and oral temperature were checked in 3 shifts. The results indicated that the physiological responses of workers changed whenever the shift changed and the responses were increased by a corresponding increase in heat stress, index.

  14. Proposal for the award of a blanket purchase contract for the supply of foundry services for semiconductor technologies

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    This document concerns the award of a blanket purchase contract for the supply of foundry services for semiconductor technologies. The Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of a blanket purchase contract with IBM SWITZERLAND (CH), the lowest bidder complying with the specification, for the supply of foundry services for semiconductor technologies for a period of four years, for a total amount not exceeding 4 000 000 US dollars, not subject to revision. At the present rate of exchange, the total amount of the blanket purchase contract is equivalent to approximately 5 000 000 Swiss francs. CERN's financial contribution will not exceed 1 000 000 Swiss francs.

  15. Qualidade Superficial de Peças de Alumínio Fundidas em Molde de Areia / Surface Quality of Sand Aluminum Pieces Cost

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Juan C. Campos, Rubio; Túlio Hallak, Panzera; Wagner Alves, Nogueira.

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho consiste basicamente na análise das características físico-químicas de areia-base para fundição e sua influência na qualidade das peças fundidas. Foram coletados cinco diferentes tipos de areia-base, ambas com o mesmo tratamento mineral. A caracterização das areias-base foi reali [...] zada através dos seguintes ensaios de laboratório: distribuição granulométrica, argila AFS, umidade, permeabilidade base, expansão ao choque térmico, perda ao fogo, temperatura de sinterização, teor de finos, caracterização visual e análise química. Foram confeccionados dois modelos diferentes. O primeiro com o formato em espiral, com o objetivo de investigar a fluidez do metal em função das características das diferentes areias-base. O segundo, uma placa escalonada, que permite identificar a qualidade do acabamento superficial da peça fundida para diferentes espessuras. O metal utilizado no processo de fundição foi o alumínio. A partir dos resultados encontrados no ensaio tecnológico, observou-se uma correlação com os resultados de laboratório, verificando que uma correta análise das características identificadas no laboratório permite prever o comportamento da areia-base e seu resultado final observado na peça fundida. Abstract in english The present work consists to analyze the physical and chemical characteristics of sands used to foundry and its influence in the quality of the melted pieces. Five different types of sand were collected, both with the same mineral treatment. The characterization of the sand was carried out through t [...] he following laboratory tests: grain size distribution (sieving), AFS clay content, water content, permeability, thermal expansion, loss on ignition, sinter point, fine contents meshes and chemical composition. The optical microscope was used in order to identify the geometry of the grains of sand. Two different models were made. The first one with a spiral shape was made to investigate the flow’s capacity of the metal with respect the different characteristics of the sands. The second model which is a plate with different thickness was made to investigate the quality of the surface finishing of the melted pieces. The metal used in the foundry process was the aluminum. It was observed a significant correlation between the laboratory and technological results, which means that it is possible to preview the quality of melted pieces from the characteristics of the sand grains.

  16. Replies to Challenges in the Field of Air Pollution Control in Foundry Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Margraf

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The solution of applications for air pollution control in foundries for iron and non-ferrous metals may not only be understood as theobservance of requested emission limit values at the stack outlet. An effective environmental protection already starts with the greatest possible capture of pollutants at the source with at the same time minimisation of the volume flow necessary for this. Independent of this, the downstream installed filtration system has to realise a degree of separation of definitely above 99%.Furthermore, when selecting the filter construction, attention has to be paid to a high availability. An even temporarily productionwithout filter will more and more no longer be accepted by residents and authorities. Incidents at the filter lead to a shutdown of the whole production.Additional measures for heat recovery while preparing concepts for filtration plants help to reduce the energy consumption and servefor a sustained conservation of environment.A consequent consideration of the items above is also condition for the fact that environmental protection in foundries remainsaffordable. The lecture deals with the subjects above from the point of view of a plant constructor.

  17. Sand swimming lizard: sandfish

    CERN Document Server

    Maladen, Ryan D; Kamor, Adam; Goldman, Daniel I

    2009-01-01

    We use high-speed x-ray imaging to reveal how a small (~10cm) desert dwelling lizard, the sandfish (Scincus scincus), swims within a granular medium [1]. On the surface, the lizard uses a standard diagonal gait, but once below the surface, the organism no longer uses limbs for propulsion. Instead it propagates a large amplitude single period sinusoidal traveling wave down its body and tail to propel itself at speeds up to ~1.5 body-length/sec. Motivated by these experiments we study a numerical model of the sandfish as it swims within a validated soft sphere Molecular Dynamics granular media simulation. We use this model as a tool to understand dynamics like flow fields and forces generated as the animal swims within the granular media. [1] Maladen, R.D. and Ding, Y. and Li, C. and Goldman, D.I., Undulatory Swimming in Sand: Subsurface Locomotion of the Sandfish Lizard, Science, 325, 314, 2009

  18. Value-Chain Dynamics of the West Point Foundry, 1817-1911: A Historical Case Analysis in Marketing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkus, Ed, Jr.

    2013-01-01

    This case provides the opportunity for students to explore marketing and value/supply-chain dynamics in a unique historical context. The West Point Foundry (WPF), located in Cold Spring, New York, was one of the most important manufacturing ventures in the United States from 1817 to 1911. The case outlines the supply-chain details of the WPF as…

  19. Reclaimability of the spent sand mixture – sand with bentonite – sand with furfuryl resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Da?ko

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction of new binding materials and new technologies of their hardening in casting moulds and cores production requires theapplication of reclamation methods adequate to their properties as well as special devices realizing tasks. The spent sands circulationsystem containing the same kind of moulding and core sands is optimal from the point of view of the expected reclamation results.However, in the face of a significant variability of applied technologies and related to them various reclamation methods, the need - of theobtained reclamation products assessment on the grounds of systematic criteria and uniform bases – arises, with a tendency of indicatingwhich criteria are the most important for the given sand system. The reclaimability results of the mixture of the spent moulding sand withGeko S bentonite and the spent core sand with the Kaltharz 404U resin hardened by acidic hardener 100 T3, are presented in the paper.Investigations were performed with regard to the estimation of an influence of core sands additions (10 –25% on the reclaimed materialquality. Dusts and clay content in the reclaim, its chemical reaction (pH and ignition loss were estimated. The verification of the reclaiminstrumental assessment was performed on the basis of the technological properties estimation of moulding sand with bentonite, where the reclaimed material was used as a matrix.

  20. Minimal Model for Sand Dunes

    OpenAIRE

    Kroy, Klaus; Sauermann, Gerd; Herrmann, Hans J.

    2001-01-01

    We propose a minimal model for aeolian sand dunes. It combines an analytical description of the turbulent wind velocity field above the dune with a continuum saltation model that allows for saturation transients in the sand flux. The model provides a qualitative understanding of important features of real dunes, such as their longitudinal shape and aspect ratio, the formation of a slip face, the breaking of scale invariance, and the existence of a minimum dune size.

  1. Industrial hygiene appraisal of triethylamine and dimethylethylamine exposure limits in the foundry industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, D.W. Jr.; Selchan, D.F.

    1988-12-01

    For nearly two decades, triethylamine and dimethylethylamine have been used as catalysts for phenolic urethane cold box binders in the foundry industry. During that time there have been reports of employees experiencing visual disturbances as a result of exposure to these amines. Some of these accounts have reported visual disturbances occurring at exposure levels below present limits. This study was conducted to define visual effects experienced by employees and to determine ambient concentrations at which effects were occurring. Study results suggest that present exposure limits may not be adequate to prevent the occurrence of visual disturbances. Suggested exposure guidelines have been developed which, it is believed, will prevent the occurrence of these unwanted effects.

  2. Models and Algorithms for Production Planning and Scheduling in Foundries – Current State and Development Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Stawowy

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Mathematical programming, constraint programming and computational intelligence techniques, presented in the literature in the field of operations research and production management, are generally inadequate for planning real-life production process. These methods are in fact dedicated to solving the standard problems such as shop floor scheduling or lot-sizing, or their simple combinations such as scheduling with batching. Whereas many real-world production planning problems require the simultaneous solution of several problems (in addition to task scheduling and lot-sizing, the problems such as cutting, workforce scheduling, packing and transport issues, including the problems that are difficult to structure. The article presents examples and classification of production planning and scheduling systems in the foundry industry described in the literature, and also outlines the possible development directions of models and algorithms used in such systems.

  3. The analysis of the wax foundry models fabrication process for the CPX3000 device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Budzik

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents possibilities of creating wax founding models by means of CPX3000 device. The device is used for Rapid Prototypingof models made of foundry wax in an incremental process. The paper also presents problems connected with choosing technologicalparameters for incremental shaping which influence the accuracy of created models. Issues connected with post-processing are alsodescribed. This process is of great importance for obtaining geometrically correct models. The analysis of parameters of cleaning models from supporting material is also presented. At present CPX3000 printer is the first used in Poland device by 3D Systems firm for creating wax models. The printer is at The Faculty of Mechanical Engineering at Rzeszów University of Technology.

  4. The effect of main alloying elements on the physical properties of Al–Si foundry alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study we describe the effect of the main alloying elements Si, Cu and Ni on the thermal properties of hypoeutectic and near-eutectic Al–Si foundry alloys. By means of systematic variations of the chemical composition, the influence of the amount of ‘second phases’ on the thermal conductivity, thermal expansion coefficient, and thermal shock resistance is evaluated. Thermodynamic calculations predicting the phase formation in multi-component Al–Si cast alloys were carried out and verified using SEM, EDX and XRD analysis. The experimentally obtained data are discussed on a systematic basis of thermodynamic calculations and compared to theoretical models for the thermal conductivity and thermal expansion of heterogeneous solids.

  5. Elimination of permanent deformation of travelling cranes box girders operating in foundry shops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    St. Wolny

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The serious problem in travelling cranes maintenance, crane supporting beams and other carrying elements of material handling facilities in foundry shops is phenomenon of permanent deformations. There are known many ways to eliminate these deformations like mechanical compression by tension members however a disadvantage of such methods is work consuming process of railways rectification. One of technological methods relies on application of shrinkage of compression plates welded with box girder. Regeneration with the use of such method can be executed for the travelling cranes box girders but also with travelling crane support beams that have permanent deformations in both vertical or horizontal planes. In this paper different variants of such process execution are presented, depending on the kind and dimension of the permanent deformation.

  6. Reclaimability of the spent sand mixture – sand with bentonite – sand with furfuryl resin

    OpenAIRE

    Dan?ko, J.; Dan?ko, R.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction of new binding materials and new technologies of their hardening in casting moulds and cores production requires theapplication of reclamation methods adequate to their properties as well as special devices realizing tasks. The spent sands circulationsystem containing the same kind of moulding and core sands is optimal from the point of view of the expected reclamation results.However, in the face of a significant variability of applied technologies and related to them various re...

  7. Beyond barriers – A case study on driving forces for improved energy efficiency in the foundry industries in Finland, France, Germany, Italy, Poland, Spain, and Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Results are based on a questionnaire in the European foundry industry. • The energy efficiency potential is assed to be 7.5% of the total energy use. • Most important drivers to and barriers for energy efficiency are financial followed by organizational. • EPC is used among 23% of the foundries, third party financing among 12%. • Large energy management improvement potentials are uncovered. - Abstract: Energy management plays an important role in the transformation of industrial energy systems towards improved energy efficiency and increased sustainability. This paper aims to study driving forces for improved energy efficiency in some European energy-intensive foundry industries. The investigation has been conducted as a multiple case study involving 65 foundries located in Finland, France, Germany, Italy, Poland, Spain, and Sweden. The most relevant perceived driving forces were found to be financially related, followed by organizational driving forces. Nevertheless, some differences can be appreciated according to the firm’s size and country. Almost half of the studied foundries lack a long-term energy strategy, about one-fourth stated that they have used Energy Performance Contracting (EPC), and only approximately one in ten foundries have used Third Party Financing (TPF). Among the studied foundries, three out of five have conducted an energy audit. On average, the energy saving potential according to the respondents is stated to be 7.5%. In conclusion, energy management in the European foundry industry, despite increasing energy prices and extensive energy policy actions taken by the EU, still seems to have great improvement potential, calling for future research and policy actions in the field

  8. Oil sands tailings management project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Oil sands leadership initiative (OSLI) works with the Government of Alberta on the development of the oil sands industry, considering environmental, economical and social aspects. Water management was identified as one of most important areas to focus on. Alberta WaterSMART was requested to support the development and the management of projects resulting from the work done or underway in this field. The development of a regional water management solution stood out as the most interesting solution to obtain significant results. In the Athabasca Region, oil sands producers work independently on their water sourcing and disposal with particular attention to fresh water conservation and economics. The Athabasca River represents a source for mines and distant saline aquifers are the target of steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) operators. As part of a four-phase project aiming to study the environmental and economic footprint (EEF) benefit of alternatives for Athabasca oil sands production water supply and disposal, the purpose of the tailings water management project was to identify tailings treatment technologies that are ready to be implemented, and to design and evaluate solutions in order to improve regional oil sands production water sourcing and disposal. Alternatives were evaluated based on their total EEF, applying a lifecycle assessment methodology with a particular attention on the quantification of important performance indicators. 25 refs., 8 tabs., 40 ormance indicators. 25 refs., 8 tabs., 40 figs.

  9. Preliminary Research on Granulation Process of Dust Waste from Reclamation Process of Moulding Sands with Furan Resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kami?ska

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The results of investigations of the granulation process of foundry dusts generated in the dry mechanical reclamation process of usedsands, where furan resins were binders are presented in the paper. Investigations concerned producing of granules of the determineddimensions and strength parameters.Granules were formed from the dusts mixture consisting in 50 mass% of dusts obtained after the reclamation of the furane sands and in50 mass % of dusts from sands with bentonite. Dusts from the bentonite sands with water were used as a binder allowing the granulation of after reclamation dusts from the furane sands.The following parameters of the ready final product were determined: moisture content (W, shatter test of granules (Wz performeddirectly after the granulation process and after 1, 3, 5, 10 days and nights of seasoning, water-resistance of granules after 24 hours of being immersed in water, surface porosity ep and volumetric porosity ev. In addition the shatter test and water-resistance of granulate dried at a temperature of 105oC were determined.Investigations were performed at the bowl angle of inclination 45o, for three rotational speeds of the bowl being: 10, 15, 20 rpm.For the speed of 10 rpm the granulation tests of dusts mixture after the preliminary mixing in the roller mixer and with the addition ofwater-glass in the amount of 2% in relation to the amount of dust were carried out.The obtained results indicate that the granulator allows to obtain granules from dusts originated from the reclamations of mouldingsands with the furane resin with an addition of dusts from the bentonite sands processing plants.

  10. Dry reusing and wet reclaiming of used sodium silicate sand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zitian FAN

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Based on the characteristics of used sodium silicate sand and the different use requirements for recycled sand, "dry reusing and wet reclaiming of used sodium silicate sand" is considered as the most suitable technique for the used sand. When the recycled sand is used as support sand, the used sand is only reused by dry process including breaking, screening, dust-removal, etc., and it is not necessary that the used sand is reclaimed with strongly rubbing and scraping method, but when the recycled sand is used as facing sand (or single sand, the used sand must be reclaimed by wet method for higher removal rate of the residual binders. The characteristics and the properties of the dry reused sand are compared with the wet reclaimed sand after combining the different use requirements of support sand and facing sand (or single sand, and above the most adaptive scheme has also been validated.

  11. Impact to groundwater resources by landfill foundry industries waste in Tandil, Buenos Aires, Argentina. A preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Tandil city, in Buenos Aires province, Argentina, the foundry industry is one of the most important production lines. The waste generated by these industries has historically been disposed as fill material in pit quarries and brick works of the likelihood that some of his constituents leach contacting the underground water resources. The aim of this paper is to present the preliminaries results hydrochemical and hydrodynamic study conducted in a landfill of waste foundry industries. The work is around developing a disposal site with the measurement of groundwater levels and taking water samples along an annual hydrological cycle (November 2007 - November 2008). The hydrodynamic analysis shows that the groundwater flow is from the west from a rocky area where high variance across the study area. Hydrochemistry in relation to concentrations of nitrate and electrical conductivity vary significantly upstream and downstream of the landfill. (Author) 9 refs.

  12. Respiratory cancer and air pollution from iron foundries in a Scottish town: an epidemiological and environmental study.

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, G. H.; Williams, F. L.; Lloyd, O. L.

    1987-01-01

    A geographical association between respiratory cancer and air pollution from steel foundries has been shown previously in Scotland and elsewhere. In the present study the iron-founding town of Kirkintilloch was found to have standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) for respiratory cancer in 1959-63, 1964-8, and 1969-73 that were unexceptional in comparison with Scotland. Nevertheless, when SMRs were calculated for respiratory cancer for the period 1966-76 in five zones of the town arranged, a pri...

  13. Characterization of sand lenses embedded in tills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessler, Timo Christian; Klint, K.E.S.

    2012-01-01

    Tills dominate large parts of the superficial sediments on the Northern hemisphere. These glacial diamictons are extremely heterogeneous and riddled with fractures and lenses of sand or gravel. The frequency and geometry of sand lenses within tills are strongly linked to glaciodynamic processes occurring in various glacial environments. This study specifically focuses on the appearance and spatial distribution of sand lenses in tills. It introduces a methodology on how to measure and characterize sand lenses in the field with regard to size, shape and degree of deformation. A set of geometric parameters is defined to allow characterization of sand lenses. The proposed classification scheme uses a stringent terminology to distinguish several types of sand lenses based on the geometry. It includes sand layers, sand sheets, sand bodies, sand pockets and sand stringers. The methodology has been applied at the Kallerup field site in the Eastern part of Denmark. The site offers exposures in a number of till types that underwent different levels of glaciotectonic deformation. Sand lenses show high spatial variability and only weak uniformity in terms of extent and shape. Secondly, the genesis of the various types of sand lenses is discussed, primarily in relation to the depositional and glaciotectonic processes they underwent. Detailed characterization of sand lenses facilitates such interpretations. Finally, the observations are linked to a more general overview of the distribution of sand lenses in various glacial environments. Due to the complex and mutable appearance of sand lenses, geometric descriptions can reveal the deformation history and even give indications on the palaeo-glaciological conditions during the deposition of the surrounding tills. This information can support the understanding of till genesis and further inform till classifications. In this regard, structural heterogeneity such as sand lenses can supplement traditional directional element analysis to identify till types and may be used as a noveltool in till investigations.

  14. Eastern Scheldt Sand, Baskarp Sand No. 15 : part 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, A. T; Madsen, E. B.

    1998-01-01

    The present data report contains data from 13 drained triaxial tests, performed on two different sand types in the Soil Mechanics Laboratory at Aalborg University in March, 1997. Two tests have been performed on Baskarp Sand No. 15, which has already ken extensively tested in the Soil Mechanics Laboratory. The remaining 11 triaxial tests have ben performed on Eastern Scheldt Sand, which is a material not yet investigated at the Soil Mechanics Laboratory. In the first pari of this data report, the characteristics of the two sand types in question will be presented. Next, a description of the features of the Danish triaxial apparatus will be given, and the performed test series will be outlined. Furthermore, selected results from the performed triaxial tests will be given in the shape of a number of tables. In the next part of the report, the procedure for execution of the triaxial tests will described. In this connection, the procedure for preparation of the soil specimens will be presented, and the actual performance of the tests will be briefly outlined. Finally, the procedure for processing of the measurements from the laboratory in order to obtain usable data will be described. The final part of the report is dedicated to a presentation of the individual triaxial tests. Here, the details of the individual tests are given, and the resulting relevant stress-strain curves and volumetric strain curves are presented.

  15. Effect of water glass modification with nanoparticles of zinc oxide on selected physical and chemical properties of binder and mechanical properties of sand mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kmita

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an attempt was made to use the ZnO nanoparticles as a modifier of foundry binder - water glass. The modifier was a colloidal suspension of the ZnO zinc oxide nanoparticles in propanol. A thermal method to obtain metal oxide nanoparticles was adopted. The modifier was product of the thermal decomposition of the basic zinc carbonate ([ZnCO3]2•[Zn(OH2]3, and was introduced into the water glass in an amount of 1 and 3 wt%. To determine the interfacial reactions taking place in a quartz - modified water glass system, the binder wettability of the quartz grains was measured. The effect of water glass modification on the mechanical properties of moulding sands was verified by testing the tensile strength Rm u of moulding sands with the modified binders. Water glass modification with the colloidal solution of ZnO nanoparticles in propanol confirmed the effect of modifier on the water glass wettability of sand grains and on the mechanical properties of the sand mixtures with this additive.

  16. A lithography aware design optimization using foundry-certified models and hotspot detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karklin, L.; Arkhipov, A.; Blakely, D.; Dingenen, M.; Mehrotra, A.; Watson, B.; Zelnik, C.; Cote, M.; Hurat, P.

    2007-10-01

    An automated litho-aware design migration solution has been implemented to enable designers to port existing IP layouts (custom, library, and block) to nanometer technologies while optimizing layout printability and silicon yield. With rapidly shrinking technology nodes, the industry consolidation toward fabless or fab-lite manufacturing, demand for second-sourcing and dramatic increase in cost of IP development, the automation of "vertical" (between nodes) and 'horizontal" (between chip manufacturers) migration becomes a very important task. The challenge comes from the fact that even within the same technology node design and process-induced rules deviate substantially among different IDMs and foundries, which leads to costly, error-prone and time consuming design modifications. At the same time, fast and reliable adjustments to design and ability to switch between processes and chip manufacturers could represent significant improvement to TTM, and respectively improving ROI. Using conservative rules (or restricted design rules) is not always a viable option because of the area, performance and yield penalties. The difficulty of migration is augmented by the fact that design rules are not sufficient to guaranty good printability, maximum process window and high yield. Model-based detection of lithography-induced systematic yield-limiting defects (a.k.a. hotspots) is becoming a vital part of the design-for-manufacturing flow for advanced technology nodes at 65nm and below. Driven by customer demand, a collaborative effort between EDA vendors provides a complete design-for-manufacturing migration solution that allows sub-65 nanometer designers to comprehensively address the impact of manufacturing variations on design yield and performance during layout migration. First, the physical hard IP is migrated from its existing 90nm process to a more advanced 65 and 45 nm processes, resulting in an area-optimized DRC-clean 65nm design retaining the original hierarchy to facilitate further editing and design verification the original hierarchy is maintained. Then, the design manufacturability is checked using a model-based hotspot detection solution, applying foundry-certified models. Along with hotspots, it is also critical for the hotspot detection tool to generate directives on how to modify the layout to fix hotspots and prevent creation of new hotspots. Several alternative fixing guidelines, ranked by amount of design perturbation, are generated to provide focus and maximum flexibility to the correction tool. The correction tool reads hotspot locations, severities along with the fixing guidelines, identifies area to be fixed and converts the fixing guidelines into geometry constraints. Correction is then done on each area while respecting design rules, managing ripple effects through multiple layers and maintaining the hierarchy. When all the corrections are completed areas that have been affected are identified to allow these to be incrementally checked by the lithography verification tool (LPC) and re-assembled. In case new or residual hotspots are detected, this fix-verify flow iterates over to converge on a DRC and lithography-compliant design. Usually no more than three iterations are needed to output hotspot-free, DRC and Lithocompliant design. We present the results of this fully automated lithography-aware migration flow on layout IPs ranging from 65 nm to 45 nm design and migrated across foundries. Results show substantial layout quality improvements, reduced design sensitivity to process variability by eliminating hotspots. Run-time and hotspot fixing performance are shown.

  17. Combining optimisation and simulation in an energy systems analysis of a Swedish iron foundry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To face global competition, and also reduce environmental and climate impact, industry-wide changes are needed, especially regarding energy use, which is closely related to global warming. Energy efficiency is therefore an essential task for the future as it has a significant impact on both business profits and the environment. For the analysis of possible changes in industrial production processes, and to choose what changes should be made, various modelling tools can be used as a decision support. This paper uses two types of energy analysis tool: Discrete Event Simulation (DES) and Energy Systems Optimisation (ESO). The aim of this study is to describe how a DES and an ESO tool can be combined. A comprehensive five-step approach is proposed for reducing system costs and making a more robust production system. A case study representing a new investment in part of a Swedish iron foundry is also included to illustrate the method's use. The method described in this paper is based on the use of the DES program QUEST and the ESO tool reMIND. The method combination itself is generic, i.e. other similar programs can be used as well with some adjustments and adaptations. The results from the case study show that when different boundary conditions are used the result obtained from the simulation tools is not optimum, in other words, the result shows only a feasible solution and not the best way to run the factory. It is therefore important to use the optimisation tool in such cases in order to obtain the optimum operating strategy. By using the optimisation tool a substantial amount of resources can be saved. The results also show that the combination of optimisation and simulation tools is useful to provide very detailed information about how the system works and to predict system behaviour as well as to minimise the system cost. -- Highlights: ? This study describes how a simulation and an optimisation tool can be combined. ? A case study representing a new investment in part of a foundry is included to illustrate the method's use. ? Combination of the optimization and simulation tools provides detailed information about how the system works. ? By using the optimization and simulation tools a substantial amount of resources can be saved.

  18. Effects of pipe orientation on sand transportation

    OpenAIRE

    Osho, Adeyemi Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Sand transport in hilly terrain geometry is different and complex to understand compared to horizontal pipeline, due to the influence of the geometry that greatly affect multiphase flow and sand behaviour at the dip. The overall aim of this research work is to use experimental method to investigate the effects of multiphase flow behaviour on sand transport in a dip configuration. Experimental work was carried out to understand the complex dynamic mechanisms that exist during sand multipha...

  19. Baskarp Sand No. 15 : data report 9401

    OpenAIRE

    Ibsen, Lars Bo; Bødker, Lars Bødker

    2011-01-01

    The Soil Mechanics Laboratory has started performing tests with a new sand, Baskarp No 15. Baskarp No 15 is a graded sand from Sweden. The shapes of the largest grains are round, while the small grains have sharp edges. The main part of of Baskarp No 15 is quarts, but it also contains feldspar and biotit. Mainly the sand will be used for tests concerning the development og the theory of building up pore pressure in sand, L. B. Ibsen 1993.

  20. Mapping marine sand and gravel

    OpenAIRE

    Bide, Tom; Mankelow, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Aggregates – sands and gravels – are essential for building and maintaining our houses and infrastructure, so we need to be sure we have a reliable supply. Tom Bide and Joseph Mankelow explain how geological mapping is taking us in the right direction.

  1. Properties of made by different methods of RP impeller foundry patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Budzik

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the tests of properties of foundry patterns of turbocharger turbine impeller. Impellers prototypes were predestinated for casting by method losing patterns. There were carried out tests of these prototypes made by different methods of Rapid Prototyping (RP. Two impeller were made by growth methods: stereolitography (SLA and three dimensional printing (3DP. One prototype was made by the method of Vacuum Casting as a wax casting. Tests were executed in the Department of Machine Design of Rzeszow University of Technology in cooperation with WSK PZL Rzeszow and Car Technology Krakow. First impeller was carried out by method of stereolitography on SLA 250 plant. That pattern was also used to carry out silicon matrix for casting of wax pattern. Next pattern was printed by three dimensional printer Z510 from the powder ZP14. Good removability of the pattern from the mould is particularly essential for impellers of small turbines with blades of small thickness of their section. All pattern were tested on their removability from the ceramic mould. The best melting properties had the wax pattern. Patterns made from resin SL5170 (SLA and powder ZP14 (3DP were removed in the process of burning but about 1% of soot was left in the mould.

  2. Influence of Some Trace Elements on Solidification Path and Microstructure of Al-Si Foundry Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Thomas Hartmut; Schaffer, Paul Louis; Arnberg, Lars

    2013-08-01

    In the present study, Ca, Ni, V, and Zn were added to a high purity binary Al-7wt pct Si and commercial purity A356 foundry alloy in the nominal range of 50 to 600 ppm in order to study their effect on the solidification path and the resultant microstructure. Thermal analysis was used to assess nucleation and growth of the various phases. It was found that Ca and Ni additions suppress characteristic temperatures associated with nucleation and growth of the eutectic by up to 4 and 1.5 K, respectively. Additionally, Ca was observed to modify the eutectic Si and a concentration as low as 39 ppm Ca was sufficient to precipitate the geometrically unfavored polyhedral Al2Si2Ca phase. Furthermore, Ni addition resulted in the formation of two intermetallic phases when the Ni concentration exceeded 300 ppm. These phases have been quantified as Al3Ni and Al9FeNi by SEM-EDS. V and Zn had no apparent effect on the cooling curve and the microstructure. Even though it could be shown that V accumulates preferably in ?-Al5FeSi particles, V concentrations of 600 ppm were too low to have any influence on the phase's morphology.

  3. Modeling of the influence of coarsening on viscoplastic behavior of a 319 foundry aluminum alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Both metallurgical and mechanical behaviors of a 319 foundry aluminum alloy have been modeled by means of a multiscale approach. The nano-scale, represented by the coarsening of Al2Cu precipitates, has been modeled according to the Lifshitz–Slyozov–Wagner (LSW) law in a range of temperature going from 23 °C to 300 °C up to 1000 h aging time. Results were then compared to transmission electron microscope (TEM) observations and are in good agreement with the experimental measurements. The model allows us to know the critical radius, the volume fraction and the number of particles per ?m3 in a ?-phase representative volume element (RVE). The increase in yield stress generated by the interaction of dislocations with precipitates, lattice and solid solution, is modeled on the microscale. The yield stress becomes thus a function of the precipitation state, and is time/temperature dependent. These two models were then combined into a mechanical macroscale model in order to represent the Low Cycle Fatigue (LCF) behavior of the material. An elasto-viscoplastic law has been used and all the material parameters were experimentally determined with LCF stress/strain loops for the first cycle and for the mechanical steady state. The simulation results are in good agreement with the experiments.

  4. Use of technical and economic analysis in production of liquid metal in foundries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Kafka

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper in its introduction describes main principles of technical and economic analysis the application of which leads to determination of potential costs savings and subsequently to costs reduction. The application of the method is illustrated by an example of production of three types of steel grades for cast steel produced in five tons electric arc furnace. With the aid of the calculation model, incomplete costs of selective complex of the melts were determined (30 melts within the first phase and 260 in the second one. Incomplete costs and selected physical indicators (e.g. melting time, electrical energy consumption etc. were subsequently compiled with the aid of statistical analysis. After that, the individual selective complexes were compared with each other (according to melters; first and second melt on the shift; melting with one or more charge basket; days in a week. The detailed analysis of these outcomes resulted in many particular recommendations how to reduce the costs in the foundry. The final recommendation for the melting shop is a proposal to introduce continuous monitoring of costs.

  5. Sand dunes as migrating strings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guignier, L; Niiya, H; Nishimori, H; Lague, D; Valance, A

    2013-05-01

    We develop a reduced complexity model for three-dimensional sand dunes, based on a simplified description of the longitudinal and lateral sand transport. The spatiotemporal evolution of a dune migrating over a nonerodible bed under unidirectional wind is reduced to the dynamics of its crest line, providing a simple framework for the investigation of three-dimensional dunes, such as barchan and transverse dunes. Within this model, we derive analytical solutions for barchan dunes and investigate the stability of a rectilinear transverse dune against lateral fluctuations. We show, in particular, that the latter is unstable only if the lateral transport on the dune slip face prevails over that on the upwind face. We also predict the wavelength and the characteristic time that control the subsequent evolution of an unstable transverse dune into a wavy ridge and the ultimate fragmentation into barchan dunes. PMID:23767529

  6. Experimental investigation on trap stagnant effect and sand flux in aeolian sand transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new isokinetic vertical sand trap is designed in this work, and the new trap has an advantage that airflows in all sampling tubes at different height can simultaneously approach the isokinetic state. The stagnant effect and vertical sand mass flux are experimentally investigated in a wind tunnel. Compared with the traditional passive sand trap, the new design greatly reduces the stagnant effect, and has higher efficiency at different heights and wind speeds. The results obtained in this Letter also show the stagnant effect of the sand trap not only changes the total efficiency of the sand collection, but also the distribution of the vertical sand flux. The new isokinetic sand trap has good performance and can be applied to study the sand flux in aeolian sand transport

  7. Formation of Craters in Sand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanissra Boonyaleepun

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The diameter of craters formed by spheres of varying mass dropped into sand at low speed was studied. The relationship between the diameter of the crater formed and the kinetic energy of the projectile at impact was found to be of the same general form as that for planetary meteor craters. The relationship is shown to be a power law with exponent 0.17.

  8. Biological Clogging of Sand Columns

    OpenAIRE

    Katsutoshi Seki

    2013-01-01

    Increased microbial activity leads to biological clogging (or bioclogging), i.e., the pore space is clogged by microbes and saturated hydraulic conductivity of porous media decreases. A series of column experiments were carried out to study the bioclogging of sand columns. Hydraulic conductivity remained unchanged when a sterilizing agent was applied; however, it decreased when a glucose solution was applied. In most cases, bioclogging proceeded from the inlet of the solution; but, in some c...

  9. Impact Behavior of A356 Foundry Alloys in the Presence of Trace Elements Ni and V

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casari, Daniele; Ludwig, Thomas H.; Merlin, Mattia; Arnberg, Lars; Garagnani, Gian Luca

    2015-02-01

    In the present work, the impact behavior of unmodified A356 alloys with the addition of Ni or V in as-cast and T6 heat-treated conditions was assessed. Charpy V-notched specimens obtained from sand and permanent mold casting showed low total absorbed energy average values ( W t alloys due to the locally finer microstructure. Concurrent mechanisms related to the chemical composition, solidification conditions and heat treatment were found to control the impact properties of the alloys. While the trace element Ni exerted only minor effects on the impact toughness of the A356 alloy, V had a strong influence: (i) V-containing sand cast alloys absorbed slightly higher impact energies compared to the corresponding A356 base alloys; (ii) in the permanent mold cast alloys, V in solid solution led to a considerable loss of ductility, which in turn decreased the total absorbed energy.

  10. Emission of organic compounds from mould and core binders used for casting iron, aluminium and bronze in sand moulds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tiedje, Niels Skat; Crepaz, Rudolf

    2010-01-01

    Emissions from mould and core sand binders commonly used in the foundry industry have been investigated. Degradation of three different types of binders was investigated: Furfuryl alcohol (FA), phenolic urethane (PU) and resol-CO2 (RC). In each group of binders at least two different binder compositions were tested. A test method that provides uniform test conditions is described. The method can be used as general test method to analyse off gasses from binders. Moulds containing a standard size casting were produced and the amount and type of organic compounds resulting from thermal degradation of binders was monitored when cast iron, bronze and aluminium was poured in the moulds. Binder degradation was measured by collecting off gasses in a specially designed ventilation hood at a constant flow rate. Samples were taken from the ventilation system and analysed for hydrocarbons and CO content. It is shown how off gasses vary with time after pouring and shake out. Also the composition of off-gasses is analysed and shown. It is further shown how the composition of off-gasses varies between different types of binders and with varying composition of the binders as well as function of the thermal load on the moulding sand.

  11. Monitoring of heavy metal particle emission in the exhaust duct of a foundry using LIBS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutouquet, C; Gallou, G; Le Bihan, O; Sirven, J B; Dermigny, A; Torralba, B; Frejafon, E

    2014-09-01

    Heavy metals have long been known to be detrimental to human health and the environment. Their emission is mainly considered to occur via the atmospheric route. Most of airborne heavy metals are of anthropogenic origin and produced through combustion processes at industrial sites such as incinerators and foundries. Current regulations impose threshold limits on heavy metal emissions. The reference method currently implemented for quantitative measurements at exhaust stacks consists of on-site sampling of heavy metals on filters for the particulate phase (the most prominent and only fraction considered in this study) prior to subsequent laboratory analysis. Results are therefore known only a few days after sampling. Stiffer regulations require the development of adapted tools allowing automatic, on-site or even in-situ measurements with temporal resolutions. The Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) technique was deemed as a potential candidate to meet these requirements. On site experiments were run by melting copper bars and monitoring emission of this element in an exhaust duct at a pilot-scale furnace in a French research center dedicated to metal casting. Two approaches designated as indirect and direct analysis were broached in these experiments. The former corresponds to filter enrichment prior to subsequent LIBS interrogation whereas the latter entails laser focusing right through the aerosol for detection. On-site calibration curves were built and compared with those obtained at laboratory scale in order to investigate possible matrix and analyte effects. Eventually, the obtained results in terms of detection limits and quantitative temporal monitoring of copper emission clearly emphasize the potentialities of the direct LIBS measurements. PMID:24913859

  12. Evaluation of Synthetic Gypsum Recovered via Wet Flue-Gas Desulfurization from Electric Power Plants for Use in Foundries

    OpenAIRE

    Biernacki, R.; Haratym, R.; Kwapisz, J.

    2012-01-01

    This article investigates possible use of waste gypsum (synthetic), recovered via flue-gas desulfurization from coal-fired electric powerplants, in foundries. Energy sector, which in Eastern Europe is mostly composed from coal-fired electric power plants, is one of the largestproducers of sulfur dioxide (SO2).In order to protect the environment and reduce the amount of pollution flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) is used to remove SO2 fromexhaust flue gases of fossil-fuel power plants. As a resul...

  13. The mutagenicity of emissions from eight binder systems used in steel foundries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser-Farrell, C; Sheldrake, C; McCalla, D R; Gibson, E S; Kerr, A A; Lockington, J N

    1986-09-01

    Emissions generated when molten steel was poured into sand molds fabricated with eight different binder systems were collected separately and tested for mutagenic activity using the Ames Salmonella assay. The sampling device consisted of an initial 8 X 10 in. glass fiber filter in a custom fabricated apparatus through which air was drawn using a Hi-Vol motor and fan. A portion of the airstream, which passed this filter, was in turn passed through a smaller glass fiber filter and then into two glass impingers filled with ice-cold methanol. All the binder systems generated material, which induced mutations in the absence of added S-9 extract, and in all emissions a higher level of activity was found when S-9 was added. In the presence of S-9, the shell-core system produced by far the most mutagenic activity followed by the oil-clay-cereal system. The green sand, furan and Kold Set systems produced much lower levels while the two reclaimed sand systems and sodium silicate system were intermediate. PMID:3532748

  14. Liquefaction of sand under low confining pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaoli, Yang; Sandven, Rolf; Grande, Lars

    2003-10-01

    Undrained behaviour of sand under low cell pressure was studied in static and cyclic triaxial tests. It was found that very loose sand liquefies under static loading with the relative density being a key parameter for the undrained behaviour of sand. In cyclic triaxial tests, pore water pressures built up during the cyclic loading and exceeded the confining cell pressure. this process was accompanied by a large sudden increase in axial deformation. The necessary number of cycles to obtain liquefaction was related to the confining cell pressure, the amplitude of cyclic loading and the relative density of sand. In addition, the patterns of pore water pressure response are different from those of sand samples with different relative densities. The test results are very useful for expounding scour mechanism around coastal structures since they relate to the low stress behaviour of the sand.

  15. Crest line minimal model for sand dune

    OpenAIRE

    Guignier, Lucie; Valance, Alexandre; Lague, Dimitri

    2013-01-01

    In desert, complex patterns of dunes form. Under unidirectional wind, transverse rectilinear dunes or crescent shaped dunes called barchan dunes can appear, depending on the amount of sediment available. Most rectilinear transverse sand dunes are observed to fragment, for example at White Sands (New Mexico, United States of America) or Walvis Bay (Namibia). We develop a reduced complexity model to investigate the morphodynamics of sand dunes migrating over a non-erodible bed under unidirectio...

  16. Biomass development in slow sand filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, L C; Su, M F J; Graham, N J D; Smith, S R

    2002-11-01

    Microbial biomass development in the sand and schmutzdecke layer was determined in two full-scale slow sand filters, operated with and without a light excluding cover. A standard chloroform fumigation-extraction technique was adapted to routinely measure microbial biomass concentrations in the sand beds. Sand was sampled to a depth of 10 cm and schmutzdecke was also collected at the same random positions on the uncovered filter. Interstitial microbial biomass in the uncovered sand bed increased with time and decreased with sampling depth. There was a small accumulation of sand biomass with time in the covered filter, but no relationship was apparent between biomass concentration and depth in this filter. Schmutzdecke did not develop on the covered filter and was spatially highly variable in the uncovered condition compared to the consistent patterns observed in interstitial biomass production. It is speculated that microbial biomass in the sand of uncovered filters is largely related to carbon inputs from photosynthetic activity in the schmutzdecke and involves mechanisms that spatially distribute carbon substrate from the schmutzdecke to the sand. However, total organic carbon and dissolved organic carbon removals were similar in both filters suggesting that relatively small biomass populations in covered filters are sufficient to remove residual labile carbon during advanced water treatment and little further advantage to water purification and organic carbon removal is gained by the increased production of biomass in uncovered slow sand filter beds. PMID:12418657

  17. Sand Failure Mechanism and Sanding Parameters in Niger Delta Oil Reservoirs

    OpenAIRE

    Sunday Isehunwa,; Andrew Farotade

    2010-01-01

    Sand production is a major issue during oil and gas production from unconsolidated reservoirs. In predicting the onset of sand production, it is important to accurately determine the failure mechanism and the contributing parameters. The aim of this study was to determine sand failure mechanism in the Niger-Delta, identify themajor contributing parameters and evaluate their effects on sanding.Completion and production data from 78 strings completed on 22 reservoirs in a Niger Delta oil Field ...

  18. Nuclear energy for oil sands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1980, Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, working with a number of Alberta-based companies, assessed the technical and economic feasibility of using a CANDU nuclear reactor to raise the production steam for the recovery of bitumen. The study followed several years of analysis which identified oil sands projects as the most appropriate single users of thermal energy of the amount and quality available from reactors. Over the life of an oil sands project a steam supply system based on a nuclear reactor is expected to offer a substantial cost advantage (25 - 50%) over the alternative system based on coal as the make-up fuel. Steam from natural gas is marginally more expensive than that from coal because the cost of natural gas is expected to escalate at a rate higher than inflation. For shallow deposits (150 - 250 metres) using intermediate pressure steam, the commercially proven Pressurized Heavy Water (PHW) reactor is most suitable. For deeper deposits (250 - 650 metres), the PHW reactor can provide the higher pressure steam using a compressor, but only with a reduction in thermal efficiency that substantially reduces its cost advantage. The CANDU Organic Cooled Reactor (OCR), however, can provide the high presure steam required with the large cost advantage. The economic benefit of nuclear steam supply systems, a saving of $2-4 per barrel of product, is large enough to justify a more detailed study

  19. Nuclear energy for oil sands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In working partnership with a number of Alberta-based companies an AECL (Atomic Energy of Canada Limited) study team assessed the technical and economic feasibility of using a nuclear reactor to raise the production steam for the recovery of bitumen. Technically sound concepts have been identified for using CANDU reactors for the in-situ recovery of bitumen from oil sands. Over the life of an oil sands project a steam supply system based on a nuclear reactor is expected to offer a substantial cost advantage (25 - 50 %) over the alternative system based on coal as the make-up fuel. Steam from natural gas is marginally more expensive than that from coal because the cost of natural gas is expected to escalate at a rate higher than inflation. For shallow deposits (150 -250 metres) using intermediate pressure steam, the commercially proven Pressurized Heavy Water (PHW) reactor is most suitable. For deeper deposits (250 - 650 metres), the PHW reactor can provide the higher pressure steam using a compressor, but only with a reduction in thermal efficiency that substantially reduces its cost advantage. The CANDU Organic Cooled Reactor (OCR), however, can provide a high pressure steam required with the large cost advantage. The economic benefit offered by nuclear steam supply systems, a saving of $2-4 per barrel of product, is large enough to justify the commitment of a more detailed study

  20. Introduction to Exploring Sand and Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Early Childhood Today, 2006

    2006-01-01

    What happens when children pour water through a funnel? They begin to understand science and math concepts such as flow, force, gravity, and volume. What happens when children mold sand to create a tunnel? They develop skills in areas such as problem solving and predicting. They also gain knowledge about absorption and the properties of sand and…

  1. DRINKING WATER TREATMENT USING SLOW SAND FILTRATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent re-interest in slow sand filtration was brought about by the needs for small communities to install treatment technologies that are effective, less costly, and easier to operate and maintain than the more sophisticated rapid sand filters. These simpler technologies for sma...

  2. Japan's involvement in oil sands development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to Japanese national policy, exploration and development by Japanese companies in overseas countries are promoted in order to ensure stable oil supplies. Japan Canada Oil Sands Limited (JACOS), part of the JAPEX group, was established during the 1978 world oil crisis to explore and develop Canadian oil sand resources in accordance with Japan's national policy. The JAPEX group, including JACOS, has invested $123 million in oil sands projects in Alberta. JAPEX's first involvement in oil sands was in the Primrose Project operated by Norcen in the Cold Lake area. Five years of cyclic steam stimulation pilot tests did not produce sufficiently good results to justify further operation. The second involvement was the PCEJ Project, a joint effort by four companies that are participating in a bitumen recovery test project in the Athabasca Deposit. JACOS holds 2,452 km2 of oil sands leases in Alberta. Tests conducted since 1978 in the PCEJ Project include multiwell steam injection pilot tests, some of which showed promise. JACOS is also participating in steam assisted gravity drainage projects and in federal/provincial research programs. Obstacles identified in developing Alberta oil sands are the lack of a bitumen pipeline to Edmonton and the insufficient length of oil sands leases (currently 10 years), given the difficulties of oil sand development. 10 figs

  3. Sand Failure Mechanism and Sanding Parameters in Niger Delta Oil Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunday Isehunwa,

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Sand production is a major issue during oil and gas production from unconsolidated reservoirs. In predicting the onset of sand production, it is important to accurately determine the failure mechanism and the contributing parameters. The aim of this study was to determine sand failure mechanism in the Niger-Delta, identify themajor contributing parameters and evaluate their effects on sanding.Completion and production data from 78 strings completed on 22 reservoirs in a Niger Delta oil Field were evaluated. Sand failure mechanisms and contributing parameters were identified and compared with published profiles. The results showed that cohesive stress is the predominant sand failure mechanism. Water cut, bean size and gas oil ratio (GOR impact sand production in the Niger Delta.

  4. Developing new markets for oil sands products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a review by Purvin and Gertz of western Canadian crude oil supply. This energy consulting firm provides advise to the energy sector. It suggests that oil sands production will surpass declining conventional production. Oil sands supply includes bitumen, synthetic crude oil (SCO), and diluent. It is forecasted that oil sands will increase from 42 per cent of western supply in 2002 to 78 per cent in 2015. The potential of Alberta's oil sands was discussed along with a recent study of refined products and petrochemicals from bitumen. Upgrading, refining and petrochemical case studies were presented. The author examined if a Canadian oil sands upgrading project with high capital costs can be competitive with competing projects in the United States and internationally. In addition to supply and demand issues, the presentation examined infrastructure capability and market potential in the United States. The economic potential and risks of preferred business cases compared to upgrading to SCO were also evaluated. 15 figs

  5. Strength measurement of impulse compacted moulding sand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Mikulczy?ski

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of impulse compaction process shows that during compaction process moulding sand is subject to deformation and changes oftotal pressure, measured inside compacted moulding sand, represent fading sinusoid. Measured pressure values in stationary states (aftercompaction process are equal to the sum of squeezing pressure pc and the pressure resulting from compacting the sandmix pu, whichexpresses the obtained strength. Therefore experimental research of moulding sands were conducted. Strength factor Rc and pressure puvalues were determined as a function of densening degree ?. Analysis of presented results proves that pu pressure resulting fromcompacting of the moulding sand expresses compressive strength factor Rc. This confirms that developed methodology permits strengthmeasurements of moulding sand in the mould. Moreover as it is possible to determine pu values with simulation research of developedmathematical model of impulse process it is possible to determine compressive strength factor.

  6. Dry reusing and wet reclaiming of used sodium silicate sand

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Zitian; Huang, Naiyu; Wang, Huafang

    2005-01-01

    Based on the characteristics of used sodium silicate sand and the different use requirements for recycled sand, "dry reusing and wet reclaiming of used sodium silicate sand" is considered as the most suitable technique for the used sand. When the recycled sand is used as support sand, the used sand is only reused by dry process including breaking, screening, dust-removal, etc., and it is not necessary that the used sand is reclaimed with strongly rubbing and scraping method, but when the recy...

  7. Investigación sobre industrias de fundición taiwanesas y de China Continental, a través de análisis espectral / Investigating taiwanese and Mainland China foundry industries by spectral analysis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Vivian, Tam; Khoa, Le.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Un creciente número de inversionistas taiwaneses se encuentran capitalizando en la industria de la fundición de China Continental. Este artículo examina el desarrollo actual, las dificultades y los riesgos enfrentados por la industria de la fundición taiwanesa en China y en Taiwán. Se han realizado [...] encuestas telefónicas y entrevistas formales. Una innovadora metodología de investigación - análisis espectral - es empleada para el análisis de identificación del factor o factores predominantes para el desarrollo de las industrias de la fundición en Taiwán y China Continental. A partir de los resultados de las encuestas, se ha determinado que las compañías de fundición taiwanesas enfrentan una multitud de temas administrativos, tanto en China como en Taiwán. Es necesario implementar estrategias prácticas a la brevedad, con el fin de aliviar los potenciales riesgos administrativos y promover operaciones comerciales fluidas. Se recomienda proporcionar suficientes flujos de caja y comprender las diferencias culturales entre los dos países, así como fomentar la atención hacia los taiwaneses cuando éstos inician sus actividades comerciales dentro de la industria de la fundición en China. Abstract in english Increasing numbers of Taiwan investors are investing in Mainland China foundry industry. This paper examines the existing development, difficulties and risk encountered for Taiwanese foundry industry in Mainland China and Taiwan. Telephone surveys and structured interviews are conducted with 50 foun [...] dry companies of 100% response rate. A novel research methodology, spectral analysis, is used for the analysis in identifying dominant factor(s) in the development of Taiwanese and Mainland China foundry industries. From the survey results, it is found that Taiwanese foundry companies tackle a multitude of management issues in both Mainland China and Taiwan; practical strategies must be implemented early to alleviate potential management risks and to promote smooth business operations. Providing enough cash flow and understanding cultural differences between two countries are suggested and encouraged to be concerned for Taiwanese when establishing their business in Mainland China foundry industry.

  8. Shock response of dry sand.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinhart, William Dodd; Thornhill, Tom Finley, III (,; ); Chhabildas, Lalit C.. (..); Vogler, Tracy John; Brown, Justin L.

    2007-08-01

    The dynamic compaction of sand was investigated experimentally and computationally to stresses of 1.8 GPa. Experiments have been performed in the powder's partial compaction regime at impact velocities of approximately 0.25, 0.5, and 0.75 km/s. The experiments utilized multiple velocity interferometry probes on the rear surface of a stepped target for an accurate measurement of shock velocity, and an impedance matching technique was used to deduce the shock Hugoniot state. Wave profiles were further examined for estimates of reshock states. Experimental results were used to fit parameters to the P-Lambda model for porous materials. For simple 1-D simulations, the P-Lambda model seems to capture some of the physics behind the compaction process very well, typically predicting the Hugoniot state to within 3%.

  9. Optimization as investment decision support in a Swedish medium-sized iron foundry - A move beyond traditional energy auditing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to increased globalisation, industries are facing greater competition that is pressing companies into decreasing their expenses in order to increase their profits. As regards Swedish industry, it has been faced with substantial increases in energy prices in recent years. Barriers to energy efficiency such as imperfect information inhibit investments in energy efficiency measures, energy audits being one means of reducing barriers and overcoming imperfect information. However, an evaluation of such energy audits in Sweden reveals that it is chiefly low-cost measures that are undertaken as a result of an audit. Moreover, these audits often tend to focus on support processes such as ventilation, lighting, air compressors etc., while measures impacting production processes are often not as extensively covered, which underlines the need for further support in addition to energy audits. Decision support is practised in a variety of different disciplines such as optimization and simulation and the aim of this paper is to explore whether investment decision support practices may be used successfully towards small and medium-sized manufacturers in Sweden when complex production-related investment decisions are taken. The optimization results from the different cases, involving a foundry's investment in a new melting unit, indicate that with no electricity price fluctuations over the day, the investment seems sound as it lowers the overall energy costs. However, with fluctuoverall energy costs. However, with fluctuating electricity prices, there are no large differences in energy costs between the option of retaining the existing five melting furnaces at the foundry and investing in a twin furnace and removing the holding furnaces - which was the initial investment plan for the foundry in the study. It would not have been possible to achieve this outcome without the use of investment decision support such as MIND. One of the main conclusions in this paper is that investment decision support, when strategic investment decisions are to be taken, may be a means of emphasising energy efficiency for energy-intensive SMEs beyond the level of traditional energy auditing

  10. Optimization as investment decision support in a Swedish medium-sized iron foundry - A move beyond traditional energy auditing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to increased globalisation, industries are facing greater competition that is pressing companies into decreasing their expenses in order to increase their profits. As regards Swedish industry, it has been faced with substantial increases in energy prices in recent years. Barriers to energy efficiency such as imperfect information inhibit investments in energy efficiency measures, energy audits being one means of reducing barriers and overcoming imperfect information. However, an evaluation of such energy audits in Sweden reveals that it is chiefly low-cost measures that are undertaken as a result of an audit. Moreover, these audits often tend to focus on support processes such as ventilation, lighting, air compressors etc., while measures impacting production processes are often not as extensively covered, which underlines the need for further support in addition to energy audits. Decision support is practised in a variety of different disciplines such as optimization and simulation and the aim of this paper is to explore whether investment decision support practices may be used successfully towards small and medium-sized manufacturers in Sweden when complex production-related investment decisions are taken. The optimization results from the different cases, involving a foundry's investment in a new melting unit, indicate that with no electricity price fluctuations over the day, the investment seems sound as it lowers the overall energy costs. However, with fluctuoverall energy costs. However, with fluctuating electricity prices, there are no large differences in energy costs between the option of retaining the existing five melting furnaces at the foundry and investing in a twin furnace and removing the holding furnaces - which was the initial investment plan for the foundry in the study. It would not have been possible to achieve this outcome without the use of investment decision support such as MIND. One of the main conclusions in this paper is that investment decision support, when strategic investment decisions are to be taken, may be a means of emphasising energy efficiency for energy-intensive SMEs beyond the level of traditional energy auditing. (author)

  11. Calculation of the store house worker dose in a lost wax foundry using MCNP-4C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lost wax casting is an industrial process which permits the transmutation into metal of models made in wax. The wax model is covered with a siliceous shell of the required thickness and once this shell is built the set is heated and wax melted. Liquid metal is then cast into the shell replacing the wax. When the metal is cool, the shell is broken away in order to recover the metallic piece. In this process zircon sands are used for the preparation of the siliceous shell. These sands have varying concentrations of natural radionuclides: 238U, 232Th and 235U together with their progenics. The zircon sand is distributed in bags of 50 kg, and 30 bags are on a pallet, weighing 1,500 kg. The pallets with the bags have dimensions 80 cm x 120 cm x 80 cm, and constitute the radiation source in this case. The only pathway of exposure to workers in the store house is external radiation. In this case there is no dust because the bags are closed and covered by plastic, the store house has a good ventilation rate and so radon accumulation is not possible. The workers do not touch with their hands the bags and consequently skin contamination will not take place. In this study all situations of external irradiation to the workers have been considered; transportation of the pallets from vehicle to store house, lifting the pallets to the shelf, resting of the stock on the shelf, getting down the pallets, and carrying the pallets to production area. Usinrying the pallets to production area. Using MCNP-4C exposure situations have been simulated, considering that the source has a homogeneous composition, the minimum stock in the store house is constituted by 7 pallets, and the several distances between pallets and workers when they are at work. The photons flux obtained by MCNP-4C is multiplied by the conversion factor of Flux to Kerma for air by conversion factor to Effective Dose by Kerma unit, and by the number of emitted photons. Those conversion factors are obtained of ICRP 74 table 1 and table 17 respectively. This is the way to obtain a function giving dose rate around the source. (authors)

  12. Lund Sand No 0 : part 1

    OpenAIRE

    Ibsen, Lars Bo; Jakobsen, Finn Rosendal

    1996-01-01

    During the last 15 years the Geotechnical Engineering Group (GEG) at Aalborg University has performed triaxial tests with a sand called Lund No 0. Lund No 0 is a graded sand from a gravel pit near Horsens in Denmark. For the classification of the sand the following tests have been performed: Sieve test, Grain density, ds, Maximum, emax, and minimum, emin, void ratio. The strength parameters of Lund No 0 are detennined by some drained and undrained triaxial tests in the Danish Triaxial Cell. T...

  13. Monolithic silicon photonics in a sub-100nm SOI CMOS microprocessor foundry: progress from devices to systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popovi?, Miloš A.; Wade, Mark T.; Orcutt, Jason S.; Shainline, Jeffrey M.; Sun, Chen; Georgas, Michael; Moss, Benjamin; Kumar, Rajesh; Alloatti, Luca; Pavanello, Fabio; Chen, Yu-Hsin; Nammari, Kareem; Notaros, Jelena; Atabaki, Amir; Leu, Jonathan; Stojanovi?, Vladimir; Ram, Rajeev J.

    2015-02-01

    We review recent progress of an effort led by the Stojanovi? (UC Berkeley), Ram (MIT) and Popovi? (CU Boulder) research groups to enable the design of photonic devices, and complete on-chip electro-optic systems and interfaces, directly in standard microelectronics CMOS processes in a microprocessor foundry, with no in-foundry process modifications. This approach allows tight and large-scale monolithic integration of silicon photonics with state-of-the-art (sub-100nm-node) microelectronics, here a 45nm SOI CMOS process. It enables natural scale-up to manufacturing, and rapid advances in device design due to process repeatability. The initial driver application was addressing the processor-to-memory communication energy bottleneck. Device results include 5Gbps modulators based on an interleaved junction that take advantage of the high resolution of the sub-100nm CMOS process. We demonstrate operation at 5fJ/bit with 1.5dB insertion loss and 8dB extinction ratio. We also demonstrate the first infrared detectors in a zero-change CMOS process, using absorption in transistor source/drain SiGe stressors. Subsystems described include the first monolithically integrated electronic-photonic transmitter on chip (modulator+driver) with 20-70fJ/bit wall plug energy/bit (2-3.5Gbps), to our knowledge the lowest transmitter energy demonstrated to date. We also demonstrate native-process infrared receivers at 220fJ/bit (5Gbps). These are encouraging signs for the prospects of monolithic electronics-photonics integration. Beyond processor-to-memory interconnects, our approach to photonics as a "More-than- Moore" technology inside advanced CMOS promises to enable VLSI electronic-photonic chip platforms tailored to a vast array of emerging applications, from optical and acoustic sensing, high-speed signal processing, RF and optical metrology and clocks, through to analog computation and quantum technology.

  14. The kinetics of activation and deactivation in the process of water ozonising used for advanced oxidation of the dust waste from moulding sands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bali?ski

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Adding coal dust and organic carriers of the lustrous carbon to bentonite-bonded moulding sands in amounts justified by thetechnological regime and the use of cores and protective coatings based on organic compounds create serious threats to the environment.During thermal destruction of the individual components of moulding and core sands, some toxic organic compounds are emitted. They formthe majority of the Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAPs, and include mainly compounds like benzene, toluene, xylene, naphtalene, hexane,acetaldehyde, acrolein, aniline, cresol and cumene, their polycyclic derivatives, phenol, formaldehyde, and other similar matters. In thusformed dust waste, the amount of which constitutes about 20% of all the waste from foundries using traditional moulding and core sands, there are still full-value materials which can undergo total recycling, providing the HAPs are partially or totally removed from them. The article discusses some problems of the advanced oxidation of selected toxic chemical compounds present in bentonite-bonded moulding sands due to the effect of high temperature. The results of the investigations of the kinetics of the process of maximum water saturation with ozone (acting as an oxidiser and of the kinetics of the natural process of ozone decomposition to diatomic oxygen were presented. It has been stated that the maximum time of water saturation with ozone using an OZOMATIC OSC-MODULAR 4HC ozone generator and a 1m3 capacity tank with water is 60 minutes. After 30 minute break in the ozonising process, the ozone concentration in water decreases by 40 to 50%. To obtain maximum ozone concentration in water during the next ozonising cycle, it is necessary to have the ozone-generating device running for the next 30 minutes. The stabilisation of ozone concentration in water takes place only after the third ozonising cycle, when it reaches nearly 80%of the maximum value obtained after the first process cycle

  15. Pragmatics of reclaimed sand quality assessment recovered nowadays from various used sand systems

    OpenAIRE

    Dan?ko, J.; Holtzer, M.; Dan?ko, R.

    2010-01-01

    The assessment of the reclamation degree of used sands is not a simple, clearly defined issue. The great variety of technologies ofmoulding and core sands, based on the organic and inorganic binders does not allow the use of a single, universal index assessing thedegree of reclamation. The article presents the problems of research relating to selection of proper criteria for assessing the degree ofreclamation process of used moulding and core sands deriving from different technologies. The mo...

  16. Modeling the response of shoreface-connected sand ridges to sand extraction on an inner shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nnafie, A.; de Swart, H. E.; Calvete, D.; Garnier, R.

    2014-05-01

    Shoreface-connected sand ridges are rhythmic bedforms that occur on many storm-dominated inner shelves. The ridges span several kilometers, are a few meters high, and they evolve on a timescale of centuries. A process-based model is used to gain a fundamental insight into the response of these ridges to extraction of sand. Different scenarios of sand extraction (depth, location, and geometry of the extraction area; multiple sand extractions) are imposed. For each scenario, the response timescale as well as the characteristics of the new equilibrium state are determined. Results show that ridges partially restore after extraction, i.e., the disturbed bathymetry recovers on decadal timescales. However, in the end, the ridge original sand volume is not recovered. Initially, most sand that accomplishes the infill of the pit originates from the area upstream of the extraction, as well as from the areas surrounding the pit. The contribution of the latter strongly decreases in the subsequent time period. Depending on the location of the pit, additional sand sources contribute: First, if the pit is located close to the downstream trough, the pit gains sand by reduction of sand transport from the ridge to this trough. Second, if the pit is located close to the adjacent outer shelf, the ridge recovery is stronger due to an import of sand from that area. Furthermore, pits that are located close to the nearshore zone have a weak recovery, deeper pits have longer recovery timescales, wide and shallow pits recover most sand, while multiple sand pits slow down the recovery process.

  17. Retrieval of sand density from hyperspectral BRDF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, Charles M.; Abelev, Andrei; Philpot, William; Doctor, Katarina Z.; Montes, Marcos J.; Fusina, Robert; Li, Rong-Rong; van Roggen, Elena

    2014-06-01

    In past work, we have shown that density effects in hyperspectral bi-directional reflectance function (BRDF) data are consistent in laboratory goniometer data, field goniometer measurements with the NRL Goniometer for Portable Hyperspectral Earth Reflectance (GOPHER), and airborne CASI-1500 hyperspectral imagery. Density effects in granular materials have been described in radiative transfer models and are known, for example, to influence both the overall level of reflectance as well as the size of specific characteristics such as the width of the opposition effect in the BRDF. However, in mineralogically complex sands, such as coastal sands, the relative change in reflectance with density depends on the composite nature of the sand. This paper examines the use of laboratory and field hyperspectral goniometer data and their utility for retrieving sand density from airborne hyperspectral imagery. We focus on limitations of current models to describe density effects in BRDF data acquired in the field, laboratory setting, and from airborne systems.

  18. Oil sands technology roadmap : unlocking the opportunity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flint, L. [Alberta Chamber of Resources, Edmonton, AB (Canada). Oil Sands Task Force

    2004-07-01

    This presentation reviewed the opportunities facing the Canadian oil sand industry with reference to a roadmap which identifies the internal and external challenges that the industry must address to achieve a daily oil sand production target of 5 million barrels by 2030, and this in an economical, environmental and socially responsible manner. The key challenges facing the industry include: long term development for Canadian society; mining-based bitumen extraction; in-situ bitumen production; sustainable development; and, greenhouse gas emissions. New technological developments have already reduced supply costs and increased the economic viability of oil sands development. Sustainable development of Canada's oil sands will require energy self-sufficiency, reduced greenhouse gas emissions, water conservation, and an effort by all stakeholders to improve environmental and social performance while securing economic gains. tabs., figs.

  19. Controlling sand production during downhole emulsification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamaluddin, A.K.M. [Noranda Research Centre, Pointe Claire, PQ (Canada); Nazarko, T.W. [Norcen Energy Resources Limited (Canada)

    1995-09-01

    Experiments were carried out using a physical model to emulate the downhole-emulsification conditions in the presence of produced sand. Five commercially available emulsifiers were tested for their ability to reduce pressure drop in the flow line by forming low-viscosity oil-in-water emulsions while retaining sand within the oil phase. Results showed that the Rexol 25/10 chemical had strong retention and moderate pressure-reduction characteristics. To attain the optimum conditions of pressure reduction and sand retention, the emulsion viscosity should be around 900 mPa.s. The Rexol 25/10 chemical was also field tested in a five-well downhole-emulsification project. Four out of the five wells tested showed an increase in both productivity and surface sand cut. 28 refs., 4 tabs., 7 figs.

  20. Phenolic removal processes in biological sand filters, sand columns and microcosms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welz, P J; Ramond, J-B; Cowan, D A; Burton, S G

    2012-09-01

    This study evaluated the removal processes involved in the removal of the phenolic component of winery wastewater in biological sand filters, sand columns and sand microcosms. It was found that at low influent phenolic concentrations, complete organic removal was accomplished, but at high concentrations, there was incomplete substrate removal and an accumulation of potentially toxic metabolites, including catechol. The sand provided a suitable substrate for the treatment of phenolic-laden waste, and both biotic (48%) and abiotic (52%) removal mechanisms effected the removal of model phenolics. Prior acclimation of microbial communities increased the biodegradation rate of phenolic acids significantly. PMID:22728790

  1. Pragmatics of reclaimed sand quality assessment recovered nowadays from various used sand systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Da?ko

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of the reclamation degree of used sands is not a simple, clearly defined issue. The great variety of technologies ofmoulding and core sands, based on the organic and inorganic binders does not allow the use of a single, universal index assessing thedegree of reclamation. The article presents the problems of research relating to selection of proper criteria for assessing the degree ofreclamation process of used moulding and core sands deriving from different technologies. The most often applied in practice types ofused sands and the most adequate in practice methods of assessing the degrees of their reclamation were characterized.

  2. Sand Production Analysis for Depleted Reservoir

    OpenAIRE

    ZHONG Rubing

    2014-01-01

    For most oilfields, the later development stage will be after long time production, and pore pressure is seriously depleted. The in situ stress of reservoir will be affected, and the stress state will be changed, so that to cause sand production. Based on Hooke’s law, the theoretical formula of two horizontal stress changes is obtained, and the stress distribution is established. The model of critical down-hole pressure for sand production in depleted reservoir is established. Based on the ...

  3. Coagulation in clarifier with micro-sand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As water treatment play key role in power generation at thermal and nuclear power station. This article is devoted to determine effectiveness of water clarifier with use of micro-sand at Thermal power stations. Efficiency of coagulation with application of aluminum sulphate and flocculants is experimentally detected. Presented the result of the tests of clarifier with micro-sand and given conclusion on these results. (author)

  4. Analytical mesoscale modeling of aeolian sand transport

    OpenAIRE

    La?mmel, Marc; Meiwald, Anne; Kroy, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    We analyze the mesoscale structure of aeolian sand transport, based on a recently developed two-species continuum model. The calculated sand flux and important average characteristics of the grain trajectories are found to be in remarkable agreement with field and wind-tunnel data. We conclude that the essential mesoscale physics is insensitive to unresolved details on smaller scales and well captured by the coarse-grained analytical model, thus providing a sound basis for p...

  5. Laboratory evaluation of selected tar sand asphalts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Button, J.W.; Epps, J.A.; Gallaway, B.M.

    1980-12-01

    Three tar sand asphalts of similar grades prepared from one syncrude by three different refining methods were characterized by tests commonly used to specify paving asphalts together with certain special tests. Asphalt-aggregate mixtures were prepared using these asphalts and tested in the laboratory to determine strength stiffness stability, tensile properties, temperature effects and water susceptibility. Comparison of the tar sand asphalt properties to conventional petroleum asphalt properties reveal no striking differences.

  6. Studies on various characteristics of concrete structures using crushed sand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the recent advances of construction industry, the demands for concrete, hence for aggregate, are rising. The sand as such is in extreme shortage due to the exhaustion of river sand. Under the situation, the recent trends are for the use of crushed sand, i.e. the artificial sand obtained by crushing rocks, which have advantages of stabilized quality and adequate supplies. In building of nuclear power plants requiring large amounts of concrete, the usage of crushed sand is now unavoidable. The following are described : the situation of aggregate in Kyushu. production method of crushed sand and the quality standards, rocks used for crushed stone and sand and the properties, quality survey on crushed sand and the basic tests, characteristic tests of crushed-stone and -sand mixed concrete, the application of crushed sand in structures of the Sendai Nuclear Power Station. (Mori, K.)

  7. Acoustic properties of coral sands, Waikiki, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, S. S.; Tao, C.; Prasad, M.; Wilkens, R. H.; Frazer, L. N.

    2004-05-01

    An in situ experimental study of variations of compressional wave speed and attenuation with depth in natural coral sands has been made offshore of Oahu, Hawaii. In situ data were collected at a center frequency of 7.5 kHz. Compressional wave speed averages around 1620 m/s and attenuation (expressed as Qp-1, the reciprocal of the quality factor) decreases from 0.04 at the seafloor to 0.01 at 2 m depth. Very little change in compressional wave speed is seen to 9 m below the seafloor. Coral sand sound speeds are lower than those reported elsewhere for quartz sand. Waveforms recorded over the upper 9 m below the seafloor exhibit virtually no peak broadening, suggesting that scattering contributes little to the in situ attenuation. The relationship of attenuation to frequency in the coral sands agrees with Hamilton's observations of attenuation in other sediments, although the coral sand attenuation is slightly higher than in other sediments. The coral sand relationship between attenuation and porosity also agrees with Hamilton's when the volume of intraparticle voids is deducted from the total porosity.

  8. Provenance and recycling of Arabian desert sand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garzanti, Eduardo; Vermeesch, Pieter; Andò, Sergio; Vezzoli, Giovanni; Valagussa, Manuel; Allen, Kate; Kadi, Khalid A.; Al-Juboury, Ali I. A.

    2013-05-01

    This study seeks to determine the ultimate origin of aeolian sand in Arabian deserts by high-resolution petrographic and heavy-mineral techniques combined with zircon U-Pb geochronology. Point-counting is used here as the sole method by which unbiased volume percentages of heavy minerals can be obtained. A comprehensive analysis of river and wadi sands from the Red Sea to the Bitlis-Zagros orogen allowed us to characterize all potential sediment sources, and thus to quantitatively constrain provenance of Arabian dune fields. Two main types of aeolian sand can be distinguished. Quartzose sands with very poor heavy-mineral suites including zircon occupy most of the region comprising the Great Nafud and Rub' al-Khali Sand Seas, and are largely recycled from thick Lower Palaeozoic quartzarenites with very minor first-cycle contributions from Precambrian basement, Mesozoic carbonate rocks, or Neogene basalts. Instead, carbonaticlastic sands with richer lithic and heavy-mineral populations characterize coastal dunes bordering the Arabian Gulf from the Jafurah Sand Sea of Saudi Arabia to the United Arab Emirates. The similarity with detritus carried by the axial Tigris-Euphrates system and by transverse rivers draining carbonate rocks of the Zagros indicates that Arabian coastal dunes largely consist of far-travelled sand, deposited on the exposed floor of the Gulf during Pleistocene lowstands and blown inland by dominant Shamal northerly winds. A dataset of detrital zircon U-Pb ages measured on twelve dune samples and two Lower Palaeozoic sandstones yielded fourteen identical age spectra. The age distributions all show a major Neoproterozoic peak corresponding to the Pan-African magmatic and tectonic events by which the Arabian Shield was assembled, with minor late Palaeoproterozoic and Neoarchean peaks. A similar U-Pb signature characterizes also Jafurah dune sands, suggesting that zircons are dominantly derived from interior Arabia, possibly deflated from the Wadi al-Batin fossil alluvial fan or even from Mesozoic sandstones of the Arabian margin accreted to the Cenozoic Zagros orogen. Due to extensive recycling and the fact that zircon is so resistant to weathering and erosion, the U-Pb age signatures are much less powerful a tracer of sedimentary provenance than framework petrography and heavy minerals. Actualistic provenance studies of dune fields at subcontinental scale shed light on the generation and homogenization of aeolian sand, and allow us to trace complex pathways of multistep sediment transport, thus providing crucial independent information for accurate palaeogeographic and palaeoclimatic reconstructions.

  9. Influence of wall thickness of spheroidal cast iron, manufactured in the foundry METAL-ODLEW Sp.J., on its graphite shape index and ultrasonic control index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Or?owicz

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the results of ultrasonic evaluation of the microstructure of spheroidal cast iron manufactured under production condi-tions at the foundry of Metal Odlew Sp.J. Evaluation of ultrasonic control index sensitiveness to changes of graphite shape index Ss of spheroidal cast iron (type 500-7, utilized modelled stepped castings. The relationship was determined between the shape index of graphite precipitation Ss and the velocity of longitudinal ultrasonic wave cL.

  10. Influence of wall thickness of spheroidal cast iron, manufactured in the foundry METAL-ODLEW Sp.J., on its graphite shape index and ultrasonic control index

    OpenAIRE

    W. Or?owicz; M. Tupaj; M. Mróz; Guzik, E.; J. Nykiel; A. Zaj?c; B. Piotrowski

    2009-01-01

    This work presents the results of ultrasonic evaluation of the microstructure of spheroidal cast iron manufactured under production condi-tions at the foundry of Metal Odlew Sp.J. Evaluation of ultrasonic control index sensitiveness to changes of graphite shape index Ss of spheroidal cast iron (type 500-7), utilized modelled stepped castings. The relationship was determined between the shape index of graphite precipitation Ss and the velocity of longitudinal ultrasonic wave cL.

  11. Correlation between work process-related exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and urinary levels of alpha-naphthol, beta-naphthylamine and 1-hydroxypyrene in iron foundry workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Åse Marie; Omland, Øyvind

    1994-01-01

    In two Danish iron foundries the concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in 24 personal air samples of workers employed in selected processes, i.e. melters, melted iron transporters, casters, machine molders, hand molders, shake-out workers and finishing workers, were measured and correlated to levels of 1-hydroxypyrene, alpha-naphthol and beta-naphthylamine in the urine of exposed workers. The highest total airborne PAH concentrations (sum of 15 selected PAH compounds: 9.6-11.2 micrograms/m3) were associated with casting, machine molding, and shake-out. The highest concentrations of the sum of six selected airborne carcinogenic PAH compounds were found for melting, casting and machine and hand molding. As seen in other working environments involving low-level PAH exposure, the content of naphthalene was high, in general exceeding 85% of the total content of PAH compounds. The present study demonstrates that 1-hydroxypyrene is a useful and direct biomarker of low-dose occupational exposure to PAH compounds. Molding and casting had the highest pyrene levels in iron foundries. Furthermore, the data shows that levels of beta-naphthylamine in urine are significantly elevated in iron foundry workers. Hand molders, finishing workers and truck drivers tended to have the highest levels. Concerning alpha-naphthol the highest concentrations were measured in urine from casters and shake-out workers. With regard to epidemiologic studies demonstrating that molders and casters have a higher risk of lung cancer, the present study suggests that the elevated risk may be due to exposure to carcinogenic PAH compounds in iron foundries, particularly in some high-risk work processes, e.g. casting and molding. In addition, the present study suggests that biological monitoring of 1-hydroxypyrene and beta-naphthylamine may be used to estimate the individual exposure, which seems to be correlated with exposure during individual work processes.

  12. South America and a Few Grains of Sand. Part 1: Beach Sands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Paul Edwin

    1986-01-01

    Continental geology and tectonics are explored through this study of modern beach sands of South America. This report assesses how well petrographic studies of sandstones can recreate continental geography. Data on the petrography of 218 modern South American beach sands are presented and analyzed. The five major mineral associations of light…

  13. Nuclear energy in the oils sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arsenault, J.E.

    2014-09-15

    The major Canadian oil sands are located in Alberta and Saskatchewan, with most production from the strata along the Athabasca River in Alberta. The economically recoverable oil sands reserves are estimated to be 168 billion barrels which at a current production rate of 1.8 million barrels per day (2012), are projected to last a very long time. Canada has been blessed with vast energy resources which make it potentially energy-independent and able to provide significant exports but there are concerns that their development cannot be managed in a wholly acceptable manner. Comparable concerns have been applied to nuclear energy in the past and in recent times to the oil sands. The technologies associated with these energy sources have always been controversial because they are at the confluence of economics and politics where finding a balance between risk and reward is difficult. So it should be no surprise that when these technologies get linked together in certain proposals their prospect for success is doubly difficult. The possible use of nuclear energy for production of oil from the oil sands dates back to the late 1950s, when an experiment to mine the oil by detonating an underground nuclear device was proposed. It was predicted that the heat and pressure released from such a device would create a large cavern into which oil would flow, and from where it would be pumped to the surface. Almost at the same time, oil sands research using conventional sources of energy had culminated with the development of practical refining processes, essentially those still in use today. These methods require large amounts of heat energy in the form of hot water and steam. In this century nuclear energy was proposed as the source for the heat required by the oil sands production processes. To date neither of these nuclear proposals for oil sands projects have been successful, because the economic and political balance could not be struck. (author)

  14. The Effect of use the Silica Sand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahla N. Helal

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This research includes study the effects of use the silica sand at different rates and comparison some characteristics with other concrete mixture contains ordinary sand to investigate the effect on some mechanical properties of concrete such as compressive strength, density absorption and flexural strength after (3, 7, 14 and 28 days for four mixtures.  , the ordinary sand was replaced by the (Silica Sand at different rates ( 25%, 50%, 75%, 100%. Sodium Silicate solution at percentage of cement ratio(water to cement ratio is decreased on same ratio added to the Ideal silica sand mixture  to study the effect of addition of some additives on concrete. The study showed that the  best results of mixture was when  replaced (75% of the ordinary sand by silica sand , then study some mechanical properties of mixtures such as compressive strength, density absorption and flexural strength after (3, 7, 14 and 28 days .                             The study showed the optimum percentage of sodium silicate was (1.75%. The study showed that the best result of Density was (2493Kg/m3 after (28 days, and the increment ratio in Density was (2.95%, and the large value in compressive strength was (85.76 MPa which was (42.9% after (28 days. The study showed also that the best results of absorption were (0.77 after (28 days, and the decrement ratio in Absorption was (33.8%. The study showed that the best result of flexural strength was (8.02 MPa after (28 days, and the maximum increment ratio in Flexural Strength was (150.6% after (28 days.                                                                   

  15. Nuclear energy in the oils sands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The major Canadian oil sands are located in Alberta and Saskatchewan, with most production from the strata along the Athabasca River in Alberta. The economically recoverable oil sands reserves are estimated to be 168 billion barrels which at a current production rate of 1.8 million barrels per day (2012), are projected to last a very long time. Canada has been blessed with vast energy resources which make it potentially energy-independent and able to provide significant exports but there are concerns that their development cannot be managed in a wholly acceptable manner. Comparable concerns have been applied to nuclear energy in the past and in recent times to the oil sands. The technologies associated with these energy sources have always been controversial because they are at the confluence of economics and politics where finding a balance between risk and reward is difficult. So it should be no surprise that when these technologies get linked together in certain proposals their prospect for success is doubly difficult. The possible use of nuclear energy for production of oil from the oil sands dates back to the late 1950s, when an experiment to mine the oil by detonating an underground nuclear device was proposed. It was predicted that the heat and pressure released from such a device would create a large cavern into which oil would flow, and from where it would be pumped to the surface. Almost at the same time, oil sands research using conventional sources of energy had culminated with the development of practical refining processes, essentially those still in use today. These methods require large amounts of heat energy in the form of hot water and steam. In this century nuclear energy was proposed as the source for the heat required by the oil sands production processes. To date neither of these nuclear proposals for oil sands projects have been successful, because the economic and political balance could not be struck. (author)

  16. AN INTRODUCTION TO RAPID CASTING: DEVELOPMENT AND INVESTIGATION OF PROCESS CHAINS FOR SAND CASTING OF FUNCTIONAL PROTOTYPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Dimitrov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: This paper discusses the results obtained from studies on different Rapid Tooling process chains in order to improve the design and manufacture of foundry equipment that is used for sand casting of prototypes in final material. These prototypes are intended for functional and pre-production tests of vehicles. The Three Dimensional Printing process is used as core technology. Subsequently, while considering aspects such as time, cost, quality (accuracy and surface roughness, and tool life, a framework is presented for the evaluation and selection of the most suitable process chain in accordance with specific requirements. This research builds on an in-depth characterisation of the accuracy and repeatability of a 3D printing process.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Hierdie artikel bespreek die resultate wat verkry is tydens studies op verskillende Snel-Gereedskapvervaardigingproseskettings wat ondersoek is teneinde die ontwerp en vervaardiging van sandgietgereedskap, om prototipes in finale materiaal te vervaardig, te verbeter. Die prototipes is bestem vir gebruik in funksionele- en voorproduksietoetse van voertuie. Die sogenaamde Driedimensionele Drukproses (3DP is as kerntegnologie aangewend. Gevolglik, na oorweging van aspekte soos tyd, koste, kwaliteit (akkuraatheid en oppervlakafwerking, en gereedskapleeftyd, is ’n raamwerk ontwikkel vir die evaluering en seleksie van die mees geskikte prosesketting met inagname van spesifieke vereistes. Hierdie navorsing bou op ’n diepgaande karakterisering van die akkuraatheids- en herhaalbaarheidsvermoë van ’n 3D drukproses.

  17. Alpha spectrometric characterization of process-related particle size distributions from active particle sampling at the Los Alamos National Laboratory uranium foundry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plionis, Alexander A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Peterson, Dominic S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tandon, Lav [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lamont, Stephen P [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Uranium particles within the respirable size range pose a significant hazard to the health and safety of workers. Significant differences in the deposition and incorporation patterns of aerosols within the respirable range can be identified and integrated into sophisticated health physics models. Data characterizing the uranium particle size distribution resulting from specific foundry-related processes are needed. Using personal air sampling cascade impactors, particles collected from several foundry processes were sorted by activity median aerodynamic diameter onto various Marple substrates. After an initial gravimetric assessment of each impactor stage, the substrates were analyzed by alpha spectrometry to determine the uranium content of each stage. Alpha spectrometry provides rapid nondestructive isotopic data that can distinguish process uranium from natural sources and the degree of uranium contribution to the total accumulated particle load. In addition, the particle size bins utilized by the impactors provide adequate resolution to determine if a process particle size distribution is: lognormal, bimodal, or trimodal. Data on process uranium particle size values and distributions facilitate the development of more sophisticated and accurate models for internal dosimetry, resulting in an improved understanding of foundry worker health and safety.

  18. Sistema de apoio à decisão para programação da produção em fundições de mercado Decision support system for production scheduling in steel casting foundries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Florence Teixeira Junior

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho tem por objetivo propor um sistema de apoio à decisão (SAD para elaboração da programação da produção em fundições que trabalham com produtos personalizados sob encomenda, também conhecidas como fundições de mercado. Para isto, o ambiente produtivo das fundições de mercado é estruturado por meio do sistema de controle da produção conhecido como PBC, sendo propostas, também, três modelagens decisórias viáveis para o processo de programar a produção: um modelo de programação inteira binária, um modelo heurístico clássico de busca em árvore, conhecido como beam search e um modelo meta-heurístico baseado em algoritmos genéticos. Este trabalho apresenta ainda os resultados experimentais obtidos com a aplicação dos modelos decisórios e a análise da adequação do SAD proposto em fundições de mercado representativas do interior do Estado de São Paulo.This work proposes a Decision Support System (DSS for production scheduling in steel casting foundries. To this end, the productive environment of these foundries is organized by means of a production control system known as Period Batch Control (PBC. Three viable decision models for production scheduling are proposed: a binary integer programming model, a model based on classical approximation methods, specifically the method known as beam search, and a model based on a meta-heuristic known as genetic algorithm. Also presented here are the experimental results obtained from the application of the three models and an analysis of the fitness of the proposal for eight representative steel casting foundries in the state of São Paulo, Brazil.

  19. Heavy mineral concentration from oil sand tailings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chachula, F.; Erasmus, N. [Titanium Corp. Inc., Regina, SK (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    This presentation described a unique technique to recover heavy minerals contained in the froth treatment tailings produced by oil sand mining extraction operations in Fort McMurray, Alberta. In an effort to process waste material into valuable products, Titanium Corporation is developing technology to recover heavy minerals, primarily zircon, and a portion of bitumen contained in the final stage of bitumen processing. The process technology is being developed to apply to all mined oil sands operations in the Fort McMurray region. In 2004, Titanium Corporation commissioned a pilot research facility at the Saskatchewan Research Council to test dry oil sands tailings. In 2005, a bulk sampling pilot plant was connected to the fresh oil sands tailings pipeline on-site in Fort McMurray, where washed sands containing heavy minerals were processed at a pilot facility. The mineral content in both deposited tailings and fresh pipeline tailings was assessed. Analysis of fresh tailings on a daily basis identified a constant proportion of zircon and higher levels of associated bitumen compared with the material in the deposited tailings. The process flow sheet design was then modified to remove bitumen from the heavy minerals and concentrate the minerals. A newly modified flotation process was shown to be a viable processing route to recover the heavy minerals from froth treatment tailings. 8 refs., 9 tabs., 12 figs.

  20. Mitigating in situ oil sands carbon costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theriault, D.J.; Peterson, J. [Laricina Energy Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Heinrichs, H. [Canadian Chemical Technology Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2008-10-15

    Carbon capture and sequestration is a complex problem with a variety of dimensions that need to be considered. The political, social, and regulatory pressures are forcing carbon costs on the oil sands industry in an effort to reduce the carbon footprint of oil sands operations. This paper reviewed the political, social, and regulatory pressures and obligations for the in-situ oil sands industry. It presented the views and insights of Laricina Energy on the carbon challenge. It also described the initiatives that Laricina Energy is taking to manage these imperatives and outlined the challenges the industry is facing. The purpose of the paper was to encourage dialogue and collaboration by the oil sands industry. The paper also described the dimensions of the carbon problem and how the industry can contribute to a solution. Last, the paper reviewed the parameters of carbon dioxide or greenhouse gas containment and storage issues. It was concluded that the regulatory and policy requirements need to be clarified so that industry understands the new business landscape as well as the requirements that influence the economics of in-situ oil sands development. 7 refs., 7 figs.

  1. Cleaning oil sands drilling waste in Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikic, N.; Nilsen, C.; Markabi, M. [Mi SWACO, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    The waste generated from steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) wells is brought to the surface and separated by shale shakers. The waste can include drilling fluids and sand contaminated with bitumen. This paper described a new technology developed to treat waste using the addition of hot water and various mixing and separation technologies to reduce the viscosity of the bitumen and separate it from the sand. The bitumen-contaminated drill cuttings were mixed with hot water to form a slurry that was then separated through the G-force created by a hydrocyclone. A secondary separation was then conducted in an elutriation column to remove residual contaminants from the sand. The flow rate of the process was controlled by the fine solids composition of the cuttings, the temperature of the cleaning process, and the performance of the individual components. Laboratory tests conducted to tests the method showed that the sand particles produced using the method were clean enough to be safely disposed in the environment. A pilot study will be conducted to test the sand cleaning technology at a commercial scale. 6 refs., 3 figs.

  2. Thermoluminescent dosimetric properties of Descalvado sand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sand samples proceeding from Descalvado, Sao Paulo, were studied with regard to their dosimetric properties using the thermoluminescence technique (TL) for high doses. These sand samples present steady physical and chemical characteristics to the end items, and they are used in the glass industry and for casting. The TL curves of the samples were obtained after an irradiation at the Gamma-Cell system (60 Co), of IPEN. The glow curves present two peaks at 80 C and 220 C approximately. Calibration curves were obtained for doses between 50 Gy and 5 kGy. The results indicate that the sand samples can be used for high-doses dosimetry in several areas of applications of ionizing radiation. (Author)

  3. Creating fluid injectivity in tar sands formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegemeier, George Leo; Beer, Gary Lee; Zhang, Etuan

    2012-06-05

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. Methods for treating a tar sands may include heating a portion of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from one or more heaters located in the portion. The heat may be controlled to increase the permeability of at least part of the portion to create an injection zone in the portion with an average permeability sufficient to allow injection of a fluid through the injection zone. A drive fluid and/or an oxidizing fluid may be provided into the injection zone. At least some hydrocarbons including mobilized hydrocarbons are produced from the portion.

  4. Oil sand synfuel production using nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The importance of oil sand as a primary energy carrier is illustrated. The oil sand mining project 'synfuel' in Fort McMurray, Alberta, Canada, is described. On the basis of a layout of an In-situ-process different possibilities of introducing nuclear energy to the process are described. This leads to an increase of the product yield, leading finally to a doubling of the energy output compared to the reference layout. The introduction of nuclear energy contributes to the reduction of emissions, in particular to the emission of carbon dioxide in the conversion process. (orig.)

  5. Gamma Ray Shielding from Saudi White Sand

    OpenAIRE

    Okla, Al-horayess; Omar, Al-dayel; Jameel, Hefne; Turki, Al-ajyan; Ali, Bagazi

    2010-01-01

    This study is a comparison of gamma ray linear attenuation coefficient of two typs of shielding materials made of Saudi white and red sand. Each shield was consisted of one part of cement two parts of sand in addi-tion to water. Different thicknesses were tested. The concentrations of all elements in each shield material were determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS). The results obtained from the ICP-MS were used in MCNP4B (Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Computer ...

  6. Sand control systems used in completing wells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Wittenberger

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Expandable Tubular Technology is transforming the face of well completion and construction. This technology provides: a substantially higher hydrocarbon production rates from the reservoir, a reduced well drilling and construction costs, new possibilities for previously unreachable or uneconomic reservoirs, and step a change towards the single diameter well. ESS (Expandable Sand Screen has an unrivalled performance worldwide for delivering a reliable sand control in a wide range of applications. Well costs typically cut by over 20 %, and the productivity increases up to 70 %.

  7. Evaluation of Synthetic Gypsum Recovered via Wet Flue-Gas Desulfurization from Electric Power Plants for Use in Foundries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Biernacki

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates possible use of waste gypsum (synthetic, recovered via flue-gas desulfurization from coal-fired electric powerplants, in foundries. Energy sector, which in Eastern Europe is mostly composed from coal-fired electric power plants, is one of the largestproducers of sulfur dioxide (SO2.In order to protect the environment and reduce the amount of pollution flue-gas desulfurization (FGD is used to remove SO2 fromexhaust flue gases of fossil-fuel power plants. As a result of this process gypsum waste is produced that can be used in practicalapplications.Strength and permeability tests have been made and also in-depth analysis of energy consumption of production process to investigateways of preparing the synthetic gypsum for casting moulds application. This paper also assesses the chemical composition, strength andpermeability of moulds made with synthetic gypsum, in comparison with moulds made with traditional GoldStar XL gypsum and withceramic molds. Moreover examination of structure of synthetic gypsum, the investigations on derivatograph and calculations of energyconsumption during production process of synthetic gypsum in wet flue-gas desulfurization were made.After analysis of gathered data it’s possible to conclude that synthetic gypsum can be used as a material for casting mould. There is nosignificant decrease in key properties, and on the other hand there is many additional benefits including low energy consumption,decreased cost, and decreased environmental impact.

  8. Health-hazard evaluation report HETA 85-482-1730, HETA 86-116-1730, Winters Industry Foundry, Canton, Ohio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephenson, R.L.; Albrecht, W.N.

    1986-09-01

    An assessment was made of possible exposure to the catalyst dimethylethylamine (DMEA) at the Winters Industry Foundry in Canton, Ohio, in response to a request from the Molders and Allied Workers Union, Local 154. Symptoms of vision disturbances consisting of blurred, foggy, or halovision had been reported by workers at the facility along with headaches and stomach pain. Long-term personal breathing-zone air samples were taken during the core-manufacturing processes and revealed the following airborne concentrations: DMEA, nondetectable to 29 mg/cum; respirable free silica, nondetectable to 1144 micrograms/cu m; methylene chloride, nondetectable to 4.7 mg/cu m; perchloroethylene, 2.2 to 6.4 mg/cu m; 1,1,1-trichloroethane, 451 to 764 mg/cu m; and total reactive isocyanate groups, nondetectable to 144 microg/cu m. No airborne concentrations of ammonia or nitrosamines were detected. Over 90% of the employees experienced at least one symptom or effect which was consistent with DMEA exposure. The authors conclude that a health hazard exists with regard to exposure to free silica. The authors recommend that concentrations of DMEA be kept as low as possible, although there are at present no regulations concerning safe levels of this chemical in the workplace.

  9. Declining metal levels at Foundry Cove (Hudson River, New York): Response to localized dredging of contaminated sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study examines the effectiveness of remediating a well-recognized case of heavy metal pollution at Foundry Cove (FC), Hudson River, New York. This tidal freshwater marsh was polluted with battery-factory wastes (1953-1979) and dredged in 1994-1995. Eight years after remediation, dissolved and particulate metals (Cd, Co, Cu, Pb, Ni, and Ag) were found to be lower than levels in the lower Hudson near New York City. Levels of metals (Co, Ni, Cd) on suspended particles were comparatively high. Concentrations of surface sediment Cd throughout the marsh system remain high, but have decreased both in the dredged and undredged areas: Cd was 2.4-230 mg/kg dw of sediment in 2005 vs. 109-1500 mg/kg in the same area in 1983. The rate of tidal export of Cd from FC has decreased by >300-fold, suggesting that dredging successfully stemmed a major source of Cd to the Hudson River. - Dredging of a hotspot of metal-contaminated sediment is associated with a recognizable local and river-wide decline in cadmium in the Hudson River, New York

  10. CFD Study for the Optimization of the Drying Process of Foundry Moulds used in the Production of Wind Turbine Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Luca Di Muoio

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to drive down the cost of wind turbine cast components, the optimization of each production step is necessary. In particular, foundry moulds used for the production of cast components undergo a process of drying needed to avoid quality problems in the final parts. In order to reduce drying times forced convection by the use of fans is needed. In this work we perform Computational Fluid Dynamic studies with the aim to optimize the drying process for mould geometries typically used for the production of wind turbine components. Representative geometries are modelled in a 3D software, imported in a fluid flow solver and complete NavierStokes equations coupled with energy transport equations are solved. Velocity profiles from shop floor measurements are used as boundary conditions for the problem. Finally surface heat exchange coefficients are determined and results analyzed. Results show that it is possible to use this methodology to optimize the drying process, and determine areas of the moulds that are more difficult to dry than others. Optimal fan arrangement for typical geometries are also provided.

  11. Isotope fractionation due to evaporation from sand dunes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dune sand moisture isotope data and results from laboratory sand column experiments are reported. The evaporation process and the mechanisms producing the isotope fractionation depth profiles observed are discussed. (author)

  12. Geology Fieldnotes: White Sands National Monument, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    The White Sands National Monument site contains park geology information, maps, related links, and visitor information. The park geology section discusses the park's geologic history, the formation of the gypsum sand dunes, and the four types of dunes found at the White Sands National Monument: dome, barchan, transverse, and parabolic. The park maps section includes a map of the White Sands National Monument and the surrounding area, showing the location of each type of dune.

  13. Quality stabilisation of synthetic sand containing bentonite in process lines

    OpenAIRE

    Fedoryszyn, A.

    2010-01-01

    Stabilisation of sand quality requires the monitoring and control of sand moisture contents and its other parameters at each stage of sandprocessing, i.e. during the preparation of return sand mix and rebonding processes. Stabilisation of sand quality necessitates the use of reliable control equipment and evaluation procedures. This study outlines the scope and results of research work aimed to improve the control equipment to enhance the performance of turbine mixers. The paper reviews the m...

  14. SPECIFIC RESISTANCE AND SPECIFIC INTENSITY OF BELT SANDING OF WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boleslaw Porankiewicz

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines and discusses the specific belt sanding resistance K (N·cm-2 and specific belt sanding intensity SI (g·cm-2·min-1, for wood of Pinus sylvestris L., Picea abies L., Quercus robra L., Acer pseudoplatanus L., Alnus glutinosa Gaertn., and Populus Nigra L., by different sanding pressure pS, different sanding grit NG number, and different wood grain angles Phi(v.

  15. Animals Between the Sand Grains - Meiofauna

    Science.gov (United States)

    UCLA Marine Science Center

    In this lab activity, students will observe the minute animals that live between sand grains. The activity includes a list of materials, procedures, and discussion question. It is supplemented with reference images and a list of species and their phyla, including Gastrotrichicha, Crustacea/Ostracoda, Crustacea/Copepoda/Harpacticoidea, Nematoda, Turbellaria, Nemertina, Archiannelida, Polychaeta, and Oligochaeta.

  16. Compaction tests on quartz sand - bentonite mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report the results are presented of compaction tests on quartz sand - bentonite mixtures. The selected quartz sand exhibited a steep grading curve in the range 1 to 1.5 mm. The bentonites used were those previously investigated, i.e. the Na-bentonite MX-80 and the Ca-bentonite Montigel. The mixtures were statically compacted in a compaction mould. Altogether about 80 tests were carried out, in which the bentonite content was varied between roughly 20 and 50 % of the weight of sand and the compacting pressure was between 80 and 320 MN/m2. The tests showed that the pressures required to reach a given dry density of the bentonite filling the pores of the sand's grain structure were 10 to 20 times greater than those required for specimens of bentonite alone. It was also observed that the mixtures with MX-80 were easier to compact than those with Montigel. On the other hand, it was found that the specimens with MX-80 were more brittle, especially at low compacting pressures. Mixtures with 35 to 45 % Montigel compacted at pressures in the range 160 - 240 MN/m2 resulted in homogeneous, compact specimens with bentonite dry densities of about 1.5 Mg/m3. (author)

  17. René Sand (Belgium, President 1946 – 1953

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The extraordinary significance of the life and work of René Sand lies in his central position as a mediator, promoter and coordinator of social work on an increasingly international level during the interwar-period and it can hardly be overestimated.

  18. Geomechanical properties of lime stabilized clayey sands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clayey sands that have low plasticity, low compressibility and high strength under loads, are suitable as a base material for any engineering construction projects as well as for roads and building construction. Decrease of plasticity and compressibility as well as increase in strength of these materials can be obtained by many different methods. Of these methods, lime stabilization is a common, applicable, and easy to use approach that can improve geomechanical and geotechnical properties of clayey sand fills. In this study some important geomechanical properties and geotechnical properties of clayey sands including compressive strength, CBR and elastic plastic behavior are investigated. A range of gradations representative of those gradations found in situ in the north of Iran were selected for testing and samples were artificially rebuilt in the laboratory. The mixes were then stabilized with hydrated lime and cured. Different mechanical tests were performed on mature materials. The stress-strain behavior of lime-stabilized mixes was plotted and a parabolic function was used to estimate the trend of stress-strain behavior. The data show that there is a correlation among the results of uniaxial load test, tensile strength, and CBR of the tested specimens. Also, results of the unconfined compression test and the indirect tensile strength test show that an increase in clay content up to a certain percent, in the clay-sand fills, tends to increase the strength of the ms, tends to increase the strength of the materials in compression as well as in tension. (author)

  19. Plutonium transport through porous media (silicate sand)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fraction of mobile Pu species for filtration of Pu solutions through silicate rock depends on the preparation method, the pH, the thickness of the filtering layer, and the solution composition. The fraction of mobile Pu species is 2-20% for filtration of solutions containing 2.3·10-8-8.6·10-7 M Pu and 0.05 M NH4NO3 through a layer of quartz sand 4.5 cm in height with an average grain size of 310-290 ?m. The minimal values are observed for solutions in which hydrolysis and polymerization of Pu hydroxy complexes are most extensive. Plutonium is weakly retained by a layer of quartz sand from solutions containing humic substances. This is due to the binding of Pu to finely dispersed colloidal soil particles that pass through the quartz sand with an average grain size of 310-290 ?m. Washing the layer of quartz sand containing Pu with various solutions at pH 6-7.7 does not substantially mobilize the Pu

  20. Radiation safety in Australia's mineral sands industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This brochure is part of a training package aiming to explain in simple terms what radiation is, how it affects people's lives and how, in the specific case of the mineral sand industry, the risk of ill-effects from low-level radioactivity could be effectively guarded against by simple and easily followed safety precautions. ills

  1. Market opportunities and challenges for oil sands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of Alberta bitumen as a clean fuel depends on upgrading, transportation, and refining processes. Forecasts show that oil sands production, which includes synthetic crude oil (SCO), will surpass declining conventional production from the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin. The challenges facing the oils sands processing industry include: crude oil prices which affect the producer's market; market expansion options; diluent availability/cost; supply cost competitiveness; and, regional processing. The common market issues include light/heavy crude prices, oil sands crude qualities, prices of oil sands crudes, pipeline infrastructure, and competitive supplies. The issues facing the refiners are: refining margins, security of crude supply, refined product quality, and competitive product supply. It was noted that Alberta must retain or increase its share of the Midwest market. The market expansion options were reviewed for both downstream (refining) and upstream (upgrading) operations. New pipeline capacity is needed to reach more distant markets such as Southern Midwest, Washington, and California. The market is nearly saturated for Canada's heavy oil supply. More upgrading will be required as bitumen production increases. Market growth is still possible for Canada's SCO but according to forecasts, the market could also become saturated. To increase demand and allow supplies to grow, SCO prices may fall below light crude prices. It was noted that a balance must be aces. It was noted that a balance must be achieved in order for producers to increase production and for refiner/upgraders to expand their conversion capacity. 13 figs

  2. Sand cleaning. Statfjord C field test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dannstroem, Henrik

    2006-07-01

    Summary of the presentation: Demonstrated ability to achieve discharge quality for oil wetted sand by means of condensate washing. Associated water quality well below discharge requirements. Overall condensate consumption to achieve cleaning of 1 week of accumulated jetting solids approximately 1 m3, of which 20 - 30% reclaimed (author) (tk)

  3. New Method for Estimation of Aeolian Sand Transport Rate Using Ceramic Sand Flux Sensor (UD-101

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiko Udo

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a new method for the estimation of aeolian sand transport rate was developed; the method employs a ceramic sand flux sensor (UD-101. UD-101 detects wind-blown sand impacting on its surface. The method was devised by considering the results of wind tunnel experiments that were performed using a vertical sediment trap and the UD-101. Field measurements to evaluate the estimation accuracy during the prevalence of unsteady winds were performed on a flat backshore. The results showed that aeolian sand transport rates estimated using the developed method were of the same order as those estimated using the existing method for high transport rates, i.e., for transport rates greater than 0.01 kg m–1 s–1.

  4. Mineral processing of heavy mineral sands from Malawi and Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, C. J.

    1992-01-01

    Processing of heavy mineral sands involves many techniques including gravity, magnetic and electrostatic separation. As part of a laboratory programme to develop effective mineral processing techniques, two mineral sands from Malawi and Malaysia were processed using the standard techniques, with emphasis placed on the Carpco electrostatic separator. These sands were initially characterised mineralogically by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron microprobe analysis (EPMA...

  5. Well completion process for formations with unconsolidated sands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, David K. (Kingwood, TX); Mondragon, III, Julius J. (Redondo Beach, CA); Hara, Philip Scott (Monterey Park, CA)

    2003-04-29

    A method for consolidating sand around a well, involving injecting hot water or steam through well casing perforations in to create a cement-like area around the perforation of sufficient rigidity to prevent sand from flowing into and obstructing the well. The cement area has several wormholes that provide fluid passageways between the well and the formation, while still inhibiting sand inflow.

  6. Drag reduction using superhydrophobic sanded Teflon surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Dong; Daniello, Robert J.; Rothstein, Jonathan P.

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, a series of experiments are presented which demonstrate drag reduction for the laminar flow of water through microchannels using superhydrophobic surfaces with random surface microstructure. These superhydrophobic surfaces were fabricated with a simple, inexpensive technique of sanding polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) with sandpaper having grit sizes between 120- and 600-grit. A microfluidic device was used to measure the pressure drop as a function of the flow rate to determine the drag reduction and slip length of each surface. A maximum pressure drop reduction of 27 % and a maximum apparent slip length of b = 20 ?m were obtained for the superhydrophobic surfaces created by sanding PTFE with a 240-grit sandpaper. The pressure drop reduction and slip length were found to increase with increasing mean particle size of the sandpaper up to 240-grit. Beyond that grit size, increasing the pitch of the surface roughness was found to cause the interface to transition from the Cassie-Baxter state to the Wenzel state. This transition was observed both as an increase in the contact angle hysteresis and simultaneously as a reduction in the pressure drop reduction. For these randomly rough surfaces, a correlation between the slip length and the contact angle hysteresis was found. The surfaces with the smallest contact angle hysteresis were found to also have the largest slip length. Finally, a number of sanding protocols were tested by sanding preferentially along the flow direction, across the flow direction and with a random circular pattern. In all cases, sanding in the flow direction was found to produce the largest pressure drop reduction.

  7. Imaging of Acoustic Waves in Sand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deason, Vance Albert; Telschow, Kenneth Louis; Watson, Scott Marshall

    2003-08-01

    There is considerable interest in detecting objects such as landmines shallowly buried in loose earth or sand. Various techniques involving microwave, acoustic, thermal and magnetic sensors have been used to detect such objects. Acoustic and microwave sensors have shown promise, especially if used together. In most cases, the sensor package is scanned over an area to eventually build up an image or map of anomalies. We are proposing an alternate, acoustic method that directly provides an image of acoustic waves in sand or soil, and their interaction with buried objects. The INEEL Laser Ultrasonic Camera utilizes dynamic holography within photorefractive recording materials. This permits one to image and demodulate acoustic waves on surfaces in real time, without scanning. A video image is produced where intensity is directly and linearly proportional to surface motion. Both specular and diffusely reflecting surfaces can be accomodated and surface motion as small as 0.1 nm can be quantitatively detected. This system was used to directly image acoustic surface waves in sand as well as in solid objects. Waves as frequencies of 16 kHz were generated using modified acoustic speakers. These waves were directed through sand toward partially buried objects. The sand container was not on a vibration isolation table, but sat on the lab floor. Interaction of wavefronts with buried objects showed reflection, diffraction and interference effects that could provide clues to location and characteristics of buried objects. Although results are preliminary, success in this effort suggests that this method could be applied to detection of buried landmines or other near-surface items such as pipes and tanks.

  8. FLUIDIZATION BEHAVIOR OF WOOD/SAND MIXTURES

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Bram J, Ramakers; Ronny, de Ridder; Piet J.A.M, Kerkhof.

    Full Text Available In conversion of biomass to secondary energy carriers, several routes are possible, such as gasification, combustion and pyrolysis. In many of these processes it is necessary or advantageous to dry the biomass before further processing. For wooden biomass, fluidized bed drying in superheated steam i [...] s a promising option. Given the difficulty to fluidize wood particles alone, it is very common to fluidize these kinds of particles with sand. This also gives better defined fluidization behavior. Especially when the wood particles come in various size and shape (i.e. from sawdust to chopped wood), this gives a more reliable scale-up. Also heat transfer to the wood particles may benefit from the use of sand. However, not much is known about fluidization behavior in pressurized steam of binary mixtures with large particle size ratio and large particle density ratio. Therefore minimum fluidization velocity and bed porosity of wood/sand mixtures in air have been experimentally determined and compared to correlations known from literature. The experimental values show a clear trend, but correlations from literature appear not to be very accurate. So more experiments have to be done to find a correlation that gives more accurate predictions in case of the specific particles used in this work. From segregation experiments could be found that, to keep the wood/sand bed well-mixed, finer sand (0.1-0.5 mm) with maximum 10 weight-% wood should be used, and the superficial gas velocity should be at least 3-4 times the minimum fluidization velocity

  9. FLUIDIZATION BEHAVIOR OF WOOD/SAND MIXTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bram J Ramakers

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In conversion of biomass to secondary energy carriers, several routes are possible, such as gasification, combustion and pyrolysis. In many of these processes it is necessary or advantageous to dry the biomass before further processing. For wooden biomass, fluidized bed drying in superheated steam is a promising option. Given the difficulty to fluidize wood particles alone, it is very common to fluidize these kinds of particles with sand. This also gives better defined fluidization behavior. Especially when the wood particles come in various size and shape (i.e. from sawdust to chopped wood, this gives a more reliable scale-up. Also heat transfer to the wood particles may benefit from the use of sand. However, not much is known about fluidization behavior in pressurized steam of binary mixtures with large particle size ratio and large particle density ratio. Therefore minimum fluidization velocity and bed porosity of wood/sand mixtures in air have been experimentally determined and compared to correlations known from literature. The experimental values show a clear trend, but correlations from literature appear not to be very accurate. So more experiments have to be done to find a correlation that gives more accurate predictions in case of the specific particles used in this work. From segregation experiments could be found that, to keep the wood/sand bed well-mixed, finer sand (0.1-0.5 mm with maximum 10 weight-% wood should be used, and the superficial gas velocity should be at least 3-4 times the minimum fluidization velocity

  10. Investigation of the sand sea with the tallest dunes on Earth: China's Badain Jaran Sand Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Zhibao; Qian, Guangqiang; Lv, Ping; Hu, Guangyin

    2013-05-01

    China's Badain Jaran Sand Sea features the tallest dunes on Earth and a unique mega-dune-lake landscape. It had been explored little until the 1990s, though early scientific explorations surrounding the sand sea had begun by the early 20th century. Heated debates now focus on the desert environment, and particularly how the mega-dunes and desert lakes develop and evolve. This paper reviews the status of these debates and summarizes the supporting evidences. The environmental research mainly concerns formation and evolution of the sand sea, and its relationship with climate change. The proposed formation time ranges from the Early Pleistocene to the Holocene. Opinions vary about climate change on different time scales. The reconstructed climate change history is shorter than the sand sea's history, with the longest record extending to the Late Pleistocene. The mega-dune research focuses on sediments, dune morphology, and formation processes. It remains unclear whether the mega-dunes result primarily from wind action, control by the underlying topography, or groundwater maintenance. The sources of lake water are also debated, but there are four main hypotheses: atmospheric precipitation, groundwater from nearby areas, precipitation and snowmelt in remote areas such as the Qilian Mountains and the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, or paleowater that formed during past periods of wet climate. We believe that the sand sea deserves further study in terms of its dune geomorphology, evolution, and hydrology, and their responses to climate change. Meteorological and hydrological observations and monitoring in the sand sea are particularly necessary.

  11. Optimization of Partially Replacement of Natural Sand & Ordinary Portland cement By M-Sand and Lime stone powder

    OpenAIRE

    A. Jayaraman

    2014-01-01

    A study is conduct to determine the engineering properties viz. Compressive Strength, tensile strength and water absorption capacity of the partially replacement of river sand and ordinary Portland cement . In recent days the demand for river sand is increasing due to its lesser availability. Hence the practice of partially replacing river sand with M-Sand and ordinary Portland cement with lime stone powder is taking a tremendous growth. It is also inferred from the literature...

  12. Reducing the Rejection Rate by Removing the Impurities from Sand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikhil Poulose

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The actual reason behind impurities in sand can be found out by analysing the quality of sand used for moulding and also the various moulding variables.These factors are then cross checked with the standards priscribed in the British Cast Iron Research Assosiation hand books.In the industry there are two processes conventional moulding process and green sand process.In the conventional moulding process major defects are found.The major defects are shrinkage,blow hole,sand inclusion,sand fusion.these are the major defects found in the conventional moulding.

  13. The physics of wind-blown sand and dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transport of sand and dust by wind is a potent erosional force, creates sand dunes and ripples, and loads the atmosphere with suspended dust aerosols. This paper presents an extensive review of the physics of wind-blown sand and dust on Earth and Mars. Specifically, we review the physics of aeolian saltation, the formation and development of sand dunes and ripples, the physics of dust aerosol emission, the weather phenomena that trigger dust storms, and the lifting of dust by dust devils and other small-scale vortices. We also discuss the physics of wind-blown sand and dune formation on Venus and Titan. (review article)

  14. The physics of wind-blown sand and dust

    CERN Document Server

    Kok, Jasper F; Michaels, Timothy I; Karam, Diana Bou

    2012-01-01

    The transport of dust and sand by wind is a potent erosional force, creates sand dunes and ripples, and loads the atmosphere with suspended dust aerosols. This article presents an extensive review of the physics of wind-blown sand and dust on Earth and Mars. Specifically, we review the physics of aeolian saltation, the formation and development of sand dunes and ripples, the physics of dust aerosol emission, the weather phenomena that trigger dust storms, and the lifting of dust by dust devils and other small-scale vortices. We also discuss the physics of wind-blown sand and dune formation on Venus and Titan.

  15. Sistema de apoio à decisão para programação da produção em fundições de mercado / Decision support system for production scheduling in steel casting foundries

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rodolfo Florence, Teixeira Junior; Flavio Cesar Faria, Fernandes; Neocles Alves, Pereira.

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho tem por objetivo propor um sistema de apoio à decisão (SAD) para elaboração da programação da produção em fundições que trabalham com produtos personalizados sob encomenda, também conhecidas como fundições de mercado. Para isto, o ambiente produtivo das fundições de mercado é estrutura [...] do por meio do sistema de controle da produção conhecido como PBC, sendo propostas, também, três modelagens decisórias viáveis para o processo de programar a produção: um modelo de programação inteira binária, um modelo heurístico clássico de busca em árvore, conhecido como beam search e um modelo meta-heurístico baseado em algoritmos genéticos. Este trabalho apresenta ainda os resultados experimentais obtidos com a aplicação dos modelos decisórios e a análise da adequação do SAD proposto em fundições de mercado representativas do interior do Estado de São Paulo. Abstract in english This work proposes a Decision Support System (DSS) for production scheduling in steel casting foundries. To this end, the productive environment of these foundries is organized by means of a production control system known as Period Batch Control (PBC). Three viable decision models for production sc [...] heduling are proposed: a binary integer programming model, a model based on classical approximation methods, specifically the method known as beam search, and a model based on a meta-heuristic known as genetic algorithm. Also presented here are the experimental results obtained from the application of the three models and an analysis of the fitness of the proposal for eight representative steel casting foundries in the state of São Paulo, Brazil.

  16. Analysis of Wind-blown Sand Movement over Transverse Dunes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hong; Huang, Ning; Zhu, Yuanjian

    2014-12-01

    Wind-blown sand movement often occurs in a very complicated desert environment where sand dunes and ripples are the basic forms. However, most current studies on the theoretic and numerical models of wind-blown sand movement only consider ideal conditions such as steady wind velocity, flat sand surface, etc. In fact, the windward slope gradient plays a great role in the lift-off and sand particle saltation. In this paper, we propose a numerical model for the coupling effect between wind flow and saltating sand particles to simulate wind-blown sand movement over the slope surface and use the SIMPLE algorithm to calculate wind flow and simulate sands transport by tracking sand particle trajectories. We furthermore compare the result of numerical simulation with wind tunnel experiments. These results prove that sand particles have obvious effect on wind flow, especially that over the leeward slope. This study is a preliminary study on windblown sand movement in a complex terrain, and is of significance in the control of dust storms and land desertification.

  17. Analysis of wind-blown sand movement over transverse dunes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hong; Huang, Ning; Zhu, Yuanjian

    2014-01-01

    Wind-blown sand movement often occurs in a very complicated desert environment where sand dunes and ripples are the basic forms. However, most current studies on the theoretic and numerical models of wind-blown sand movement only consider ideal conditions such as steady wind velocity, flat sand surface, etc. In fact, the windward slope gradient plays a great role in the lift-off and sand particle saltation. In this paper, we propose a numerical model for the coupling effect between wind flow and saltating sand particles to simulate wind-blown sand movement over the slope surface and use the SIMPLE algorithm to calculate wind flow and simulate sands transport by tracking sand particle trajectories. We furthermore compare the result of numerical simulation with wind tunnel experiments. These results prove that sand particles have obvious effect on wind flow, especially that over the leeward slope. This study is a preliminary study on windblown sand movement in a complex terrain, and is of significance in the control of dust storms and land desertification. PMID:25434372

  18. Longshore sediment transport at Golden Sands (Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hristo Nikolov

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of studies on the qualitative and quantitative features of the littoral drift at Golden Sands (Bulgaria, carried out jointly by Polish and Bulgarian researchers. The mathematical modelling of physical coastal processes took wave transformation (wave diffraction and refraction; the effects of shoaling and wave breaking and longshore sediment transport into account. The computations were carried out for the mean statistical annual wave climate, determined on the basis of IO BAS wave data, simulated using the WAM method from long-term Black Sea wind data. The results of sediment transport computations clearly show that its direction off the Golden Sands shore is from north to south.

  19. Stratified chaos in a sand pile formation

    CERN Document Server

    Poortinga, Ate; Ritsema, Coen J

    2014-01-01

    Sand pile formation is often used to describe stratified chaos in dynamic systems due to self-emergent and scale invariant behaviour. Cellular automata (Bak-Tang-Wiesenfeld model) are often used to describe chaotic behaviour, as simulating physical interactions between individual particles is computationally demanding. In this study, we use a state-of-the-art parallel implementation of the discrete element method on the graphical processing unit to simulate sand pile formation. Interactions between individual grains were simulated using a contact model in an Euler integration scheme. Results show non-linear self-emergent behaviour which is in good agreement with experimental results, theoretical work and self organized criticality (SOC) approaches. Moreover, it was found that the fully deterministic model, where the position and forces on every individual particle can be determined every iteration has a brown noise signal in the x and y direction, where the signal is the z direction is closer to a white noise...

  20. Bison and the oil sands industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The feasibility of raising bison on land reclaimed after disturbance by oil sands development was explored. A five-year research program by Syncrude Canada and the Fort McKay First Nations found that forage productivity and carrying capacity for bison was comparable to that of grassland elsewhere in Alberta. Weight gains typical for ranched bison and calving rates of 90 per cent, a value typical of ranched bison, were observed. Analysis indicated that a 1000 hectare bison ranch on reclaimed land has a net present value that compares favorably with a similar area supporting commercial forest. If approved by Alberta Environmental Protection, the study will be expanded as a pilot commercial venture to explore commercial viability as a business venture by the Fort McKay First Nations. Assuming that the project will proceed as planned, measures will be also implemented to resolve various regulatory issues associated with commercial bison production in the oil sands area

  1. Oil sands market and transportation solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation outlined the immense potential of the western Canadian oil sands reserves. Recoverable reserves have been estimated at 180 billion barrels, with production forecasts estimated at 5 million barrels per day by 2030. Resource development is occurring at a time when the world's largest oil importer is increasing supplies through concern for security of supply. The second and third largest oil importers in the world are experiencing economic and energy demand growth. These factors underscore the motivation for rapid growth of the Western Canadian Oil Sands reserves. One of the challenges that must be addressed is to ensure that incremental markets for the increased production are accessed. Another challenge is to ensure adequate infrastructure in terms of pipeline capacity to ensure deliverability of the product. tabs., figs

  2. FLUIDIZATION BEHAVIOR OF WOOD/SAND MIXTURES

    OpenAIRE

    Bram J Ramakers; Ronny de Ridder; Piet J.A.M Kerkhof

    2004-01-01

    In conversion of biomass to secondary energy carriers, several routes are possible, such as gasification, combustion and pyrolysis. In many of these processes it is necessary or advantageous to dry the biomass before further processing. For wooden biomass, fluidized bed drying in superheated steam is a promising option. Given the difficulty to fluidize wood particles alone, it is very common to fluidize these kinds of particles with sand. This also gives better defined fluidization behavior. ...

  3. Purification of Stormwater Using Sand Filter

    OpenAIRE

    Abdel Majid Nassar; Kamel Hajjaj

    2013-01-01

    Rain water is an important source to feed the groundwater aquifer, whether directly or by harvesting and recharging. The importance of purification is for reducing the risk of pollutants from recharging runoff rainwater. The use of sand filter as a technique considered not expensive and commonly used for removing contaminants from water and wastewater treatment industries. The methodology used laboratory testing, by designing and constructing pilot plant to experiment t...

  4. Sand transport, erosion and granular electrification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merrison, J.P.

    2012-01-01

    The transport of granular materials by wind has a major impact on our environment through sand/soil erosion and the generation and transport of atmospheric dust aerosols. Terrestrially the transport of dust involves billions of tons of material every year, influencing the global climate and impacting directly upon human health. Research in aeolian transport involves the inter-related fields of fluid dynamics, granular materials and electrification/electrostatics which are in themselves diverse and complex. This review only touches upon this intricacy, but aims to overview the latest work which is expanding our current understanding and outline the areas of advancement needed in the future. Presentation is made of current models for wind driven detachment/entrainment and the transport rates of sand and dust, including the effects of contact induced grain electrification. This ubiquitous phenomenon can affect grain transport through the generation of intense electric fields and processes of electrostatic assembly. Importantly the transport of sand is characterized by saltation, which is known to be an active process for erosion and therefore a source for dust and sand formation. Using novel erosion simulation techniques the link between grain transport rates and erosion rates has been quantified. Furthermore this can be linked to production rates for dust and has been associated with chemical and mineral alteration through a process of mechanical activation of fractured surfaces. This work has implications for the evolution of all terrestrial-like planetary surfaces. Studies in non-terrestrial environments force researchers to be less empirical, ultimately leading to a deeper understanding of these processes.

  5. Adding value to Alberta's oil sands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper addressed some of the challenges facing Alberta's oil sand industry with particular reference to diluent availability. Oil sand production in Alberta is currently greater than conventional oil production. In 2003, production of bitumen and synthetic crude oil was close to one million BPD, while conventional oil production was 630,000 BPD. Alberta's bitumen production is expected to triple by the year 2030, if all new projects currently planned take place as scheduled. The need for additional bitumen and synthetic crude oil markets, as well as additional upgrading/refining capacity, has prompted several studies to evaluate new markets and product options, including the production of a wide range of refined products and petrochemical feedstocks, from bitumen. This paper reviewed the results of these studies, and discussed the feasibility of adding value to Alberta's oil sands. Interest in evaluating bitumen for producing petrochemicals stems from the dwindling supply of feedstock for Alberta's ethane-based petrochemical industry. Two industry/government studies evaluated different process schemes for integrating oil sands, refining and petrochemical operations and convert heavy gas oils into both refined products and petrochemicals. Since market demand for fuels and refined products exceeds that for petrochemicals, the performance characteristics of the heavy oil conversion processes are important to optimize the volume ratios of the products to meet market vme ratios of the products to meet market volume demands. The authors reviewed different heavy oil processing technologies focusing on olefin to fuel product ratios and flexibility to change these ratios. The review includes conventional non-catalytic thermal (steam) cracking, as well as catalytic processes. These technologies are at different stages of commercial development for production of fuels and olefins, and must be evaluated and adapted to meet Alberta's aromatic bitumen-derived heavy gas oils. 8 refs., 3 tabs., 8 figs

  6. Biogenic crust dynamics on sand dunes

    OpenAIRE

    Kinast, Shai; Meron, Ehud; Yizhaq, Hezi; Ashkenazy, Yosef

    2012-01-01

    Sand dunes are often covered by vegetation and biogenic crusts. Despite their significant role in dune stabilization, biogenic crusts have rarely been considered in studies of dune dynamics. Using a simple model, we study the existence and stability ranges of different dune-cover states along gradients of rainfall and wind power. Two ranges of alternative stable states are identified: fixed crusted dunes and fixed vegetated dunes at low wind power, and fixed vegetated dunes ...

  7. Growing markets to sustain oil sands development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The utilization of Alberta bitumen for the clean fuels market depends on upgrading, transportation, and refining processes. Forecasts show that oil sands production, which includes synthetic crude oil (SCO), will surpass declining conventional production in Western Canada. Several issues pose a challenge to the oil sands processing industry. The producers' market is affected by crude oil prices, market expansion options, diluent availability/cost, supply cost competitiveness, and regional processing. The common market issues include light/heavy crude prices, oil sands crude qualities, prices of oil sands crudes, pipeline infrastructure, and competitive supplies. The issues facing the refiners are: refining margins, security of crude supply, refined product quality, and competitive product supply. A brief review of markets for Canadian crude oil, including synthetic crude, was provided. The share of the Midwest market by Alberta must be retained and increased. The market expansion options were reviewed for both downstream (refining) and upstream (upgrading) operations. To reach more distant markets such as Southern Midwest, Washington, and California, new pipeline capacity would be required. The market is nearly saturated for Canada's heavy oil supply. More upgrading will be required as bitumen production increases. Market growth is still possible for Canada's SCO but according to forecasts, the market could also become saturated. To increase demand and allow supplies ed. To increase demand and allow supplies to grow, SCO prices may fall below light crude prices. It was noted that a balance must be achieved in order for producers to increase production and for refiner/upgraders to expand their conversion capacity. tabs., figs

  8. Tension Tests On Bored Piles In Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    KrabbenhØft, Sven; Clausen, Johan

    2006-01-01

    De borede pæles længde lå i intervallet 2 m til 6 m og havde alle en diameter på 140 mm. Pælenes brudbæreevne i træk blev målt og last-flytningskurver bestemt. Undersøgelserne har vist en udtalt forskel mellem bæreevnerne i sand bestemt ved forskellige projekteringsmetoder. Metoderne foreslået af Fleming et al. (1992) og Reese & O'Neil (1988) synes at give de bedste overénstemmelser med de eksperimentielt bestemte værdier.

  9. Guide to preparing SAND reports. Revised

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Locke, T.K. [ed.

    1996-04-01

    This guide contains basic information needed to produce a SAND report. Its guidelines reflect DOE regulation and Sandia policy. The guide includes basic writing instructions in an annotated sample report; guidance for organization, format, and layout of reports produced by line organizations; and information about conference papers, journal articles, and brochures. The appendixes contain sections on Sandia`s preferred usage, equations, references, copyrights and permissions, and publishing terms.

  10. Insight conference reports : Western Canada oil sands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This conference presented issues of concern to the Canadian oil sands industry. Focal points included supply and the potential for market growth as well as opportunities and challenges faced by the industry in the current market. Various projects were discussed, including the Northern Lights and Fort Hill projects. Reserves and resource booking procedures were examined, as well as issues concerning the streamlining of regulatory barriers and various approaches to the Kyoto Protocol and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Oil sands portfolios were reviewed as well as issues concerning the recovery of titanium and zircon, the economics of Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) options and innovations in technology and sub-surface risk assessment for in-situ projects. Transportation initiatives were examined as well as pipeline issues and storage infrastructure development. Issues concerning financing as well as the economic environment of the oil sands industry were also discussed. The conference featured 20 presentations, of which 5 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. tabs, figs

  11. New production techniques for alberta oil sands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrigy, M A

    1986-12-19

    Low world oil prices represent a serious threat to expanded commercial development of the Canadian oil sands in the near term, as they do to all of the higher cost alternatives to crude oil such as oil shales and coal liquefaction. Nonetheless, research and field testing of new technology for production of oil from oil sands are being pursued by industry and government in Alberta. New production technology is being developed in Canada to produce synthetic oil from the vast resources of bitumen trapped in the oil sands and bituminous carbonates of northern Alberta. This technology includes improved methods of mining, extraction, and upgrading of bitumen from near-surface deposits as well as new drilling and production techniques for thermal production of bitumen from the more deeply buried reservoirs. Of particular interest are the cluster drilling methods designed to reduce surface disturbance and the techniques for horizontal drilling of wells from underground tunnels to increase the contact of injection fluids with the reservoir. PMID:17816505

  12. The bituminous sands : a Canadian mirage?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper examined the controversy about the potential role of a significant increase in Canadian oil sands production in order to bridge the upcoming gap between the world's increasing energy demand and the total recoverable oil supply. The paper presented the actual potential of different scenarios and considered the prediction cost forecasts. A brief overview of environmental impacts and the real return on investments were also provided. Environmental impacts that were considered included land degradation; water contamination; ecosystem damage; and air pollution. Nuclear energy was also presented as a possible solution. The paper demonstrated that even in a very optimistic scenario, Canada's oil sands accelerated production has a negligible effect on the aforementioned gap, has a considerable impact on environment that has yet to be accounted for. Energy ratios that were presented included energy return on energy investment; energy available on energy used; and energy payback. It was concluded that enhanced recovery techniques are clearly needed for future sustainable exploitation of these bituminous sands. 32 refs., 1 fig

  13. Recycled sand in lime-based mortars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanidou, M; Anastasiou, E; Georgiadis Filikas, K

    2014-12-01

    The increasing awareness of the society about safe guarding heritage buildings and at the same time protecting the environment promotes strategies of combining principles of restoration with environmentally friendly materials and techniques. Along these lines, an experimental program was carried out in order to investigate the possibility of producing repair, lime-based mortars used in historic buildings incorporating secondary materials. The alternative material tested was recycled fine aggregates originating from mixed construction and demolition waste. Extensive tests on the raw materials have been performed and mortar mixtures were produced using different binding systems with natural, standard and recycled sand in order to compare their mechanical, physical and microstructure properties. The study reveals the improved behavior of lime mortars, even at early ages, due to the reaction of lime with the Al and Si constituents of the fine recycled sand. The role of the recycled sand was more beneficial in lime mortars rather than the lime-pozzolan or lime-pozzolan-cement mortars as a decrease in their performance was recorded in the latter cases due to the mortars' structure. PMID:25266158

  14. Policy Analysis of the Canadian Oil Sands Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2013-09-01

    For those who support U.S. oil sands development, the Canadian oil sands industry is often identified as a model the U.S. might emulate, yielding financial and energy security benefits. For opponents of domestic oil sands development, the Canadian oil sands experience illustrates the risks that opponents of development believe should deter domestic policymakers from incenting U.S. oil sands development. This report does not seek to evaluate the particular underpinnings of either side of this policy argument, but rather attempts to delve into the question of whether the Canadian experience has relevance as a foundational model for U.S. oil sands development. More specifically, this report seeks to assess whether and how the Canadian oil sands experience might be predictive or instructive in the context of fashioning a framework for a U.S. oil sands industry. In evaluating the implications of these underpinnings for a prospective U.S. oil sands industry, this report concentrates on prospective development of the oil sands deposits found in Utah.

  15. Comparison of the TSI Model 8520 and Grimm Series 1.108 portable aerosol instruments used to monitor particulate matter in an iron foundry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yu-Hsiang

    2008-03-01

    This study uses two real-time dust monitors, the TSI Model 8520 DustTrak and Grimm Series 1.108 Aerosol Spectrometer, to determine PM(10) and PM(2.5) levels simultaneously in an iron foundry. The SA Model 241 Dichotomous Sampler was used as a reference gravimetric method for comparing the measurement results obtained by these direct-reading instruments. The response to PM levels from DustTrak is higher than that of the Aerosol Spectrometer. The DustTrak provides an overestimation PM levels, and PM levels measured by an Aerosol Spectrometer are lower than actual concentrations. Calibration factors of the DustTrak and Aerosol Spectrometer are 0.74 and 1.33, respectively, when used to measure particulate matter at an iron foundry. Based on measurement results, the DustTrak provides a lower overestimation of PM(10) levels than PM(2.5) levels; that is, the response of the DustTrak increases as particle size decreases. In addition, measurement results suggest that the Aerosol Spectrometer provides precise measurements of PM(10) and PM(2.5), and measurement accuracy compared with the reference gravimetric method can be improved through a calibration factor. PMID:18188737

  16. Proposal to negotiate an amendment to an existing blanket contract for the supply of foundry services in quarter-micron CMOS technology for the LHC experiments

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    This document concerns the proposal to negotiate an amendment to an existing blanket contract for the supply of foundry services in quarter-micron CMOS technology for the LHC experiments. For the reasons explained in this document, the Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of an amendment to the blanket contract for the supply of foundry services in quarter-micron CMOS technology with the company IBM TECHNOLOGY GROUP (CH), formerly IBM ITALIA (IT), for an extension of the period of validity from five to eight years and for an amount exceeding the previously authorised amount of 8 500 000 US dollars by up to 6 500 000 US dollars, not subject to revision, bringing the total contract amount to a maximum amount of 15 000 000 US dollars, not subject to revision. At the present rate of exchange, the total amended amount of the blanket contract is equivalent to approximately 19 800 000 Swiss francs. This requirement will be financed by the collaborating institutes of the LHC experiments and by CER...

  17. Adsorption of L-amino Acids on Sea Sand

    OpenAIRE

    Zaia Dimas A. M.; Vieira Heberth J.; Zaia Cássia T. B. V.

    2002-01-01

    A study of adsorption of L-alanine, L-tyrosine, L-glutamic acid, and L-lysine on sea sand was carried out. Only L-lysine showed adsorption on sea sand, probably due to the presence of the positively charged R group. Our results raise some doubts as to whether sand was important for the pre-concentration of amino acids prior to peptide condensation on the Pre-Biotic Earth.

  18. Adsorption of L-amino Acids on Sea Sand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaia Dimas A. M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A study of adsorption of L-alanine, L-tyrosine, L-glutamic acid, and L-lysine on sea sand was carried out. Only L-lysine showed adsorption on sea sand, probably due to the presence of the positively charged R group. Our results raise some doubts as to whether sand was important for the pre-concentration of amino acids prior to peptide condensation on the Pre-Biotic Earth.

  19. Predictive hydrogeochemical modelling of bauxite residue sand in field conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Wissmeier, Laurin; Barry, David Andrew; Phillips, Ian R.

    2011-01-01

    The suitability of residue sand (the coarse fraction remaining from Bayer´s process of bauxite refining) for constructing the surface cover of closed bauxite residue storage areas was investigated. Specifically, its properties as a medium for plant growth are of interest to ensure residue sand can support a sustainable ecosystem following site closure. The geochemical evolution of the residue sand under field conditions, its plant nutrient status and soil moisture retention were studied by i...

  20. The effects of psammophilous plants on sand dune dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Bel, Golan; Ashkenazy, Yosef

    2013-01-01

    Psammophilous plants are special plants that flourish in sand moving environments. There are two main mechanisms by which the wind affects these plants: (i) sand drift exposes roots and covers branches--the exposed roots turn into new plants and the covered branches turn into new roots; both mechanisms result in an enhanced growth rate of the psammophilous plant cover of the dunes; (ii) strong winds, often associated with sand movement, tear branches and seed them in nearby ...

  1. Quality of the reclamation sand and the casting surface structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hosadyna

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is discussing the issue of the graphite degradation emission in the surface layer of a nodular iron casting. A di ffusion of sulphur from moulding sand to the surface of the casting is a cause of this occurrence. Examinations present the influence of the quality of the reclamation sand of furan no-bake sand to the arrangement and the size of the degenerate graphite zone.

  2. Sand-Fly Saliva-Leishmania-Man: The Trigger Trio

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Fabiano; Carvalho, Augusto M.; de Oliveira, Camila I.

    2013-01-01

    Leishmaniases are worldwide diseases transmitted to the vertebrate host by the bite of an infected sand-fly. Sand-fly biting and parasite inoculation are accompanied by the injection of salivary molecules, whose immunomodulatory properties are actively being studied. This mini review focuses on how the interactions between sand-fly saliva and the immune system may shape the outcome of infection, given its immunomodulatory properties, in experimental models and in the endemic area. Additionall...

  3. Microwave Absorption by Used Moulding and Core Sands

    OpenAIRE

    Nowak, D.; Stachowicz, M.; Granat, K.; Pigiel, M.

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents measurement results of standing wave ratio to be used as an efficiency indicator of microwave absorption by usedmoulding and core sands chosen for the microwave utilization process. The absorption measurements were made using a prototype stand of microwave slot line. Examined were five used moulding and core sands. It was demonstrated that the microwave absorptionmeasurements can make grounds for actual microwave utilization of moulding and core sands.

  4. Possibilities of preparation asphalt concrete by oil sands of Kazakhstan

    OpenAIRE

    Erbol Tileuberdi; Yerdos Ongarbayev; Behrendt, F.; Schneider, I.; Yerzhan Imanbayev; Tuleutayev, B.; Yerlan Doszhanov; Zulkhair Mansurov

    2012-01-01

    In the paper physicochemical properties of oil sands of Munayli-Mola deposits and efficient ways to use them for preparing asphalt concrete were represented. For determination of organic part of oil sands the extraction methods were used in Soxhlet apparatus by variety of solvents. It has been established 16 wt.% content of natural bitumen in oil sands, which compared with results of ash content determination. According to results of experiment, the natural bitumen is heavy oil and its charac...

  5. Numerical simulation of a new sand trap flushing system

    OpenAIRE

    Daneshvari, Milad; Münch, Cécile; De Cesare, Giovanni

    2012-01-01

    Typical sand trap flushing systems, such as Büchi and Dufour, require water volumes up to six times the deposited sediment volume for efficient flushing. Furthermore, complete sediment removal particularly in Dufour sand traps can only be realized with drawdown flushing, resulting in operation time and water loss. The objective of the described research project is to improve the flushing system of an existing Dufour sand trap. Numerical simulations, performed with two software packages ANSYS ...

  6. Experimental Study on Superfine Sand Concrete Mixed by Double Mixing Technology

    OpenAIRE

    yuqing zhao

    2013-01-01

    Traditional concept thought that medium sand and fine sand can be used to mix concrete, superfine sand can not used to mix concrete. This makes the source of superfine sand limited. With the shortage of medium sand and fine sand, it is imperative to exploit the resource of superfine sand. Superfine sand concrete is mixed by means of Double-doped Technology-ultra-fine fly ash and super plasticizer. Primary factor influencing superfine sand concrete strength is studied by orthogonal test, the o...

  7. Radiometric Characterization of Sand in Northeast Sinai

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thirty-eight locations covering an area of 350 km2 in northeast Sinai were investigated by gamma-ray spectroscopy using a 50% HPGe detector. The limits of area are Al-Arish North, El-Hasana South, El-Oga East, and El- Gifgafa West. The range of activity concentrations of 238U, 234Th, 226Ra, 232Th and 40K are 0.6-35.2, 3.9-22.6, 4.7-29.6, 4.7-23.9, and 108-295 Bq/kg for sands, respectively. 137Cs in the region ranged from 0.1-8.0 Bq/kg. No major difference between the studied area and that previously investigated in the costal area in North Sinai. Reliable correlations (R2 = 0.8-0.9) among 238U, 234Th, and 226Ra isotopes was obtained. On the other hand, low correlation (R2 = 0.6-0.7) was obtained from the analysis of the isotopes of 238U-seies and 232Th. No evidence of correlation between the concentrations of radioisotopes and pH contents, TOM, and grain size were found. The soil-plant transfer factor are 226Ra and 232Th, 40K, and 137Cs, respectively. The wild vegetations collected from the studied area have average concentrations of 1.9, 1.4, 1.3, 254, and 0.3 for 234Th, 226Ra, 232Th, 40K, and 137Cs, respectively. The average concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K in water samples collected from five wells are 0.02, 0.02, and 1.1 Bq/l, respectively. The average absorbed dose rate for the sand samples were calculated to be 19.4 n Gy h-1. The Raeq activities of the sands are lower than the recommended maximum value of 370 Bq kg-1 criterion limit of Raeq activity for building materials

  8. Western Gas Sands Project status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atkinson, C.H.

    1978-09-30

    The status of government sponsored projects undertaken to increase gas production from low-permeability gas sands of the western United States during August 1978 is summarized. Background information is given in the September 1977 Status Report, NVO/0655-100. One of the largest massive Hydraulic Fracture (MHF) treatment to date was performed on Gas Producing Enterprises Well No. CIGE 2-29. C.H. Atkinson, Western Gas Sands Project (WGSP) Manager and D.C. Bleakly, CER Corporation were observers. Oriented coring operations on the Mitchell Energy well, Muse-Duke No. 1 were observed by Atkinson and Bleakly near Mexia, Texas. The Fourth Annual Department of Energy Symposium on Enhanced Oil and Gas Recovery and Improved Drilling Methods was held on August 29-31, 1978 in Tulsa, Oklahoma. The USGS continued geological and geophysical studies in the four primary study areas. Low-level oblique photography of Tertiary and Cretaceous rocks exposed in the Rock Springs Uplift area was completed, and core from the J.C. Paine well in Montana was sampled for petrograhic analysis. Bartlesville Energy Technology Center continued work on the improved pressure coring system and anticipates completion of the project by September 30, 1978. Preliminary work began on the Parametric Analysis of MHF Test Data, an Engineering Study of Western Gas Sands, by Intercomp. The National Laboratories, funded by DOE are continuing their work in the area of research and development. The emphasis is on instrumentation systems, rock mechanics, mathematical modeling, and data analysis. The Mitchell Energy well, Muse Duke No. 1, has reached total depth and was logged on August 31, 1978. The DOE well test facility was moved from the RB-MHF 3 well in Colorado to Vernal, Utah for trailer modifications and checkout.

  9. Mars Rover Curiosity Traverses of Sand Ripples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, N.; Arvidson, R. E.; Zhou, F.; Heverly, M.; Maimone, M.; Hartman, F.; Bellutta, P.; Iagnemma, K.; Senatore, C.

    2014-12-01

    Martian sand ripples present a challenge for rover mobility, with drives over ripples often characterized by high wheel sinkage and slippage that can lead to incipient embedding. Since landing in Gale Crater, Curiosity has traversed multiple sand ripples, including the transverse aeolian ridge (TAR) straddling Dingo Gap on sols 533 and 535. On sol 672, Curiosity crossed backward over a series of sand ripples before ending its drive after high motor currents initiated visual odometry (VO) processing, which detected 77% slip, well in excess of the imposed 60% slip limit. At the end of the drive, the right front wheel was deeply embedded at the base of a ripple flank with >20 cm sinkage and the rear wheels were near a ripple crest. As Curiosity continues its approach to Mount Sharp it will have to cross multiple ripples, and thus it is important to understand Curiosity's performance on sol 672 and over similar ripples. To this end the sol 672 drive was simulated in ARTEMIS (Adams-Based Rover Terramechanics Interaction Simulator), a software tool consisting of realistic rover mechanical models, a wheel-terrain interaction module for deformable and non-deformable surfaces, and realistic terrain models. ARTEMIS results, Dumont Dunes tests performed in the Mojave Desert using the Scarecrow test rover, and single wheel tests performed at MIT indicate that the high slip encountered on sol 672 likely occurred due to a combination of rover attack angle, ripple geometry, and soil properties. When ripple wavelength approaches vehicle length, the rover can reach orientations in which the leading wheels carry minimal normal loads and the trailing wheels sink deeply, resulting in high slippage and insufficient thrust to propel the rover over ripples. Even on relatively benign (i.e. low tilt) terrains, local morphology can impose high sinkage, thus impeding rover motion. Work is underway to quantify Curiosity's drive performance over various ripple geometries to retrieve soil properties and to generate better driving practices across ripples.

  10. AEROSOL FILTRATION USING QUARTZ SAND FILTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas H. Sulaymon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The cement industry is the major source of cement dust which contains heavy metals like nickel, cobalt, lead, chromium, arsenic and hazardous substances like dioxins and furans. Exposure to these substances can cause health problems to human, animals and vegetation. A continuous pilot scale quartz sand filter was constructed and uses to study the effect of important design parameters (temperature, pre-loaded dust on the collector, diameter of the filter, bed depth, collector size and superficial velocity on its performance for cleaning of cement dust from air. Initial penetration and initial pressure drop (after 180s were measured and compared for different variables used in this study. The dirty bed was cleaned by means of reverse air flow when the pressure drop across the filter rises to 20 cmH2O. A macroscopic model describes the filter clogging was used to predict the effluent histories based on initial collection efficiency (η0exp which was determined from experimental data. A removal efficiency of more than 99% was obtained. The results show that 0.4% of cement dust still adheres on the quartz sand bed after 5 min of cleaning cycle. The presence of 0.4% of pre-load dust on the quartz sand filter enhanced the efficiency and low initial penetration, moderate initial pressure drop was obtained. At given Empty Bed Contact Time (EBCT, with different filter diameters 30 and 15 cm, a sharp decrease in initial penetration from 0.41-0.03 was obtained respectively. A nonlinear relationship between penetration and temperature was found. The initial penetration can be reduced by using smaller filter diameter, small collector size and collector with pre-load dust with 0.4%. The experiment that operates at a filter diameter of 15 cm and temperature of 25°C represent the minimum penetration among all the experiments.

  11. Santa Barbara Littoral Cell CRSMP Offshore Sand Sources 2009

    California Department of Resources — Offshore sand sources exist at four known locations and potentially other yet to be explored regions within the nearshore coastal shelf. Significant reserves of...

  12. Quality stabilisation of synthetic sand containing bentonite in process lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fedoryszyn

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Stabilisation of sand quality requires the monitoring and control of sand moisture contents and its other parameters at each stage of sandprocessing, i.e. during the preparation of return sand mix and rebonding processes. Stabilisation of sand quality necessitates the use of reliable control equipment and evaluation procedures. This study outlines the scope and results of research work aimed to improve the control equipment to enhance the performance of turbine mixers. The paper reviews the measurement and control systems and equipment available from domestic manufactures and the evaluationprocedures based on the principles of statistic process control.

  13. Reuse of waste cutting sand at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) examined the waste stream from a water jet cutting operation, to evaluate the possible reuse of waste garnet sand. The sand is a cutting agent used to shape a variety of materials, including metals. Nearly 70,000 pounds of waste sand is generated annually by the cutting operation. The Environmental Protection Department evaluated two potential reuses for the spent garnet sand: backfill in utility trenches; and as a concrete constituent. In both applications, garnet waste would replace the sand formerly purchased by LLNL for these purposes. Findings supported the reuse of waste garnet sand in concrete, but disqualified its proposed application as trench backfill. Waste sand stabilized in a concrete matrix appeared to present no metals-leaching hazard; however, unconsolidated sand in trenches could potentially leach metals in concentrations high enough to threaten ground water quality. A technical report submitted to the San Francisco Bay Regional Water Quality Control Board was reviewed and accepted by that body. Reuse of waste garnet cutting sand as a constituent in concrete poured to form walkways and patios at LLNL was approved

  14. Numerical modeling of wind-blown sand on Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, HaoJie; Bo, TianLi; Zheng, XiaoJing

    2014-09-01

    Recent observation results show that sand ripples and dunes are movable like those on Earth under current Martian climate. And the aeolian process on Mars therefore is re-attracting the eyes of scientific researchers in different fields. In this paper, the spatial and temporal evolution of wind-blown sand on Mars is simulated by the large-eddy simulation method. The simulations are conducted under the conditions of both friction wind speed higher and lower than the "fluid threshold", respectively. The fluid entrainment of the sand particles, the processes among saltation sand particles and sand bed, and the negative feedback of sand movement to flow field are considered. Our results show that the "overshoot" phenomenon also exists in the evolution of wind-blown sand on Mars both temporally and spatially; impact entrainment affects the sand transport rate on Mars when the wind speed is smaller or larger than the fluid threshold; and both the average saltation length and height are one order of magnitudes larger than those on Earth. Eventually, the formulas describing the sand transport rate, average saltation length and height on Mars are given, respectively. PMID:25236498

  15. A field experiment on beach growth in sand-dikes:

    OpenAIRE

    Visser, P. J.; Vrijling, J. K.; Verhagen, H. J.

    1990-01-01

    The set-up and results of a field experiment on sand-dike breach erosion are described, It is found that the breaching process for the 2.2 m high sand-dike is similar to that in Visser's (1988) laboratory experiments with a 0.6 m high sand-dike. Confrontation of Visser's (1988) breach erosion model with the field data shows reasonable agreement for the first stages of the breaching process. As yet the model is not applicable to the final phase of the sand-dike breach erosion. If applied th...

  16. Tour of Park Geology: Sand Dunes

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Park Geology site provides links to tours of individual National Parks, Monuments, and Recreation Areas with sand dunes. Where appropriate for each park, links are provided to maps, photographs, geologic research, related links, visitor information, and teacher features (resources for teaching geology with National Park examples). The list includes places such as Death Valley and Mojave National Preserve, along with less well-known areas such as the Pictured Rocks National Lakeshore in Michigan and the Wright Brothers National Memorial in North Carolina.

  17. Biogenic crust dynamics on sand dunes

    CERN Document Server

    Kinast, Shai; Yizhaq, Hezi; Ashkenazy, Yosef

    2012-01-01

    Sand dunes are often covered by vegetation and biogenic crusts. Despite their significant role in dune stabilization, biogenic crusts have rarely been considered in studies of dune dynamics. Using a simple model, we study the existence and stability ranges of different dune-cover states along gradients of rainfall and wind power. Two ranges of alternative stable states are identified: fixed crusted dunes and fixed vegetated dunes at low wind power, and fixed vegetated dunes and active dunes at high wind power. These results suggest a cross-over between two different forms of desertification.

  18. The physics of Aeolian sand transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valance, Alexandre; Rasmussen, Keld Romer

    2015-01-01

    We give a synthetic overview of the state of art of the physics of sand Aeolian transport. We first present the main ideas developed by Bagnold in the middle of the last century. We then review the recent experimental and theoretical advances made in the field and emphasize that the particle flow rate does not exhibit a cubic dependence with the air friction speed, as predicted by Bagnold, but a quadratic one. Finally, we list important open issues that remain. (C) 2015 Academie des sciences. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. X-ray Analysis of Sand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dexter Perkins

    This is an x-ray diffraction analysis of six sand samples and comparison with hand specimens. Students look at each of the six samples under the binocular microscope and note such useful properties as number of minerals, cleavage/fracture, color, shape, grain size, roundness, and degree of sorting. Then they grind up small amounts of each sample and mount them on glass slides for X-ray. Students write all sample descriptions and X-ray analysis results in their lab notebook. Then they identify the minerals in each sample, determine where they are from, and write a report summarizing all results.

  20. Sphere impact and penetration into wet sand

    KAUST Repository

    Marston, J. O.

    2012-08-07

    We present experimental results for the penetration of a solid sphere when released onto wet sand. We show, by measuring the final penetration depth, that the cohesion induced by the water can result in either a deeper or shallower penetration for a given release height compared to dry granular material. Thus the presence of water can either lubricate or stiffen the granular material. By assuming the shear rate is proportional to the impact velocity and using the depth-averaged stopping force in calculating the shear stress, we derive effective viscosities for the wet granular materials.

  1. REMOVAL OF ARSENIC FROM SAND FILTRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Parag Dalal

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of removal of arsenic from ground water using iron oxide and sand filtration is been found and the outcome says they are one of the best natural technique. The arsenic is removed with Single, Double and Triple filters with efficiency of 70-58%, 83-90% and 88-96% respectively. The higher is the percentage of arsenic in ground water the lower will be the efficiency. This study also concludes that the life of ferric oxide disk is about 16-17 months which indicates it as a low cost process.

  2. Oblique second-order sand transport pathways on an intertidal sand flat in a natural tidal inlet system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernstsen, Verner Brandbyge; Lefebvre, Alice

    2013-01-01

    A detailed digital elevation model (DEM) of an intertidal sand flat in the Knudedyb tidal inlet in the Danish Wadden Sea, derived from high-resolution Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR) data, reveals a large elongated bedform field with complex bedform morphologies and drainage channel networks. This indicates distinct second-order sand transport pathways oblique to the main tidal transport pathways. A conceptual model for the development of the bedforms and channels is presented, which comprises hypotheses of the hydrodynamic forcing of the different second-order sand transport pathways. During flood tide, sand is transported along ESE-oriented pathways across the intertidal flat towards the inner tidal basin. During the late stages of ebb tide, sand is transported in drainage channels (WSWoriented) from the intertidal flat towards the inlet channel. During storm events with winds from SW, wave-generated currents transport sand along a NE-oriented transport pathway from the inlet channel towards the intertidal flat.

  3. Removal of microcystins by slow sand filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grützmacher, Gesche; Böttcher, Gabriele; Chorus, Ingrid; Bartel, Hartmut

    2002-01-01

    To assess the elimination potential of slow sand filters for cyanobacterial hepatotoxins (microcystins), two full-scale experiments were conducted using the German Federal Environment Agency's experimental field in Berlin, Germany. One experiment was carried out with dissolved microcystins extracted from a cyanobacterial bloom on one of Berlin's lakes, dosed as short-term, single-pulse application. The other experiment simulated natural conditions more closely, with a longer-term exposure of the filter to living cyanobacterial cells (collected from the same lake) so that most toxins were initially contained inside the cells. The microcystins were detected by ELISA and HPLC/photodiode array detector and subsequently identified by MALDI-TOF MS. The experiment with dissolved microcystins yielded very high elimination rates (>95%) inside the filter bed attributed to biodegradation, whereas retardation by adsorption was low. The obtained half-lives for the microcystins detected by ELISA were about 1 h. The second experiment, which was with mostly cell-bound microcystins, showed similar results during the first days after application of cyanobacteria (elimination >85%). As the population declined in late autumn, the proportion of extracellular to cell-bound microcystins increased. At the same time the elimination rates declined to values slow sand filtration is an effective treatment for eliminating microcystins from drinking water. PMID:12203961

  4. TESTING OF TMR SAND MANTIS FINAL REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krementz, D; William Daugherty, W

    2007-06-12

    Screening tests of Sand Mantis candidate materials selected for erosion resistance have been completed. The results of this testing identified that over a relatively short period of operation (<1 hour), measurable erosion will occur in each of the candidate zoom tube materials given equal operating exposure. Additionally, this testing has shown that erosion of the rubber discharge hose directly downstream of the vehicle could be expected to limit the service life of the discharge hose. On the basis of these test results, SRNL recommends the following; {lg_bullet} redesign of critical system components (e.g., zoom tube, discharge hose) should be conducted to improve system characteristics relative to erosion and capitalize on the results of this testing, {lg_bullet} continued efforts to deploy the Sand Mantis should include testing to better define and optimize operating parameters, and gain an understanding of system dynamics, {lg_bullet} discontinue wear testing with the selected materials pending redesign of critical system components (1st recommendation) and inclusion of other candidate materials. The final selection of additional candidate materials should be made following design changes, but might include a Stellite alloy or zirconia.

  5. Enabling technologies for oil sands development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of oil sands production and expansion possibilities in Alberta were presented. The enabling technologies for oil sands projects include mining (bucketwheels, draglines, trucks, shovels conveyors, slurry hydrotransport); extraction (conditioning tumblers, pipelines, tanks, hot water, caustic, cold water, frothers); froth cleaning (centrifuges, solvent treatment); tailings (tailings ponds, consolidated tailings); and upgrading (coking, hydrotreating for SCO, hydrocracking and multiple products). The enabling technologies for in situ production include cyclic steam stimulation for vertical wells, steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) for dual horizontal wells, and cold production with wormholes. This paper described the recovery potentials of each of these processes. It also discussed the role of government and industry in research and cooperative research involving both the private and public sectors. Examples of each of these were described such as SAGD, the OSLO cold water extraction process, The consolidated tailings (CT) project, the low energy extraction process (slurry production, hydrotransport, pipeline conditioning and warm water extraction), and research in fine tailings, to demonstrate that although objectives may differ, government and industry research objectives are complementary

  6. Microstructural characterization of a Canadian oil sand

    CERN Document Server

    Dinh, Hong Doan; Nauroy, Jean-François; Tang, Anh-Minh; Souhail, Youssef; 10.1139/T2012-072

    2013-01-01

    The microstructure of oil sand samples extracted at a depth of 75 m from the estuarine Middle McMurray formation (Alberta, Canada) has been investigated by using high resolution 3D X-Ray microtomography ($\\mu$CT) and Cryo Scanning Electron Microscopy (CryoSEM). $\\mu$CT images evidenced some dense areas composed of highly angular grains surrounded by fluids that are separated by larger pores full of gas. 3D Image analysis provided in dense areas porosity values compatible with in-situ log data and macroscopic laboratory determinations, showing that they are representative of intact states. $\\mu$CT hence provided some information on the morphology of the cracks and disturbance created by gas expansion. The CryoSEM technique, in which the sample is freeze fractured within the SEM chamber prior to observation, provided pictures in which the (frozen) bitumen clearly appears between the sand grains. No evidence of the existence of a thin connate water layer between grains and the bitumen, frequently mentioned in th...

  7. Ilmenite Mineral's Recovery from Beach Sand Tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mineral ilmenite is the major source of rutile for industrial use and is of interest to paint and fertiliser industries. Enormous unutilised tailing dams lie on the eastern coast of the South Africa. Although covered by a simulation of the original indigenous vegetation, these tailings are still ilmenite bearing and of economic value. Tailings emanating from beach sand mineral slimes dams of the Kwazulu-Natal area (South Africa) have been processed. Screening, flotation, spiral concentration and magnetic separation methods were used either separately or successively. The present work sheds light on alternative routes for the extraction of the ilmenite, from these tailings. It moreover points out the usefulness of the Moessbauer spectroscopy in the mineral processing product monitoring. Tailings from the beach sands were used in the present study after the economic industrial minerals zirconia, ilmenite and rutile had been extracted in previous mining operations. About 61% natural ilmenite recovery was observed in the flotation concentrate of a Humphrey Spiral concentrate while a 62% recovery of hematite was found in the flotation tailings. The combination of screening, spiral concentration and magnetic separation, and flotation yielded a product with the highest ilmenite and hematite concentration being 71% and 19%, respectively. A natural ilmenite mineral, containing 87% ilmenite and 13% hematite, could be produced and extracted from the tailings of the flotationtracted from the tailings of the flotation process, collected subsequently to the spiral concentration and the initial screening.

  8. Relationships between sand and water quality at recreational beaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Matthew C; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M; Piggot, Alan M; Klaus, James S; Zhang, Yifan

    2011-12-15

    Enterococci are used to assess the risk of negative human health impacts from recreational waters. Studies have shown sustained populations of enterococci within sediments of beaches but comprehensive surveys of multiple tidal zones on beaches in a regional area and their relationship to beach management decisions are limited. We sampled three tidal zones on eight South Florida beaches in Miami-Dade and Broward counties and found that enterococci were ubiquitous within South Florida beach sands although their levels varied greatly both among the beaches and between the supratidal, intertidal and subtidal zones. The supratidal sands consistently had significantly higher (p zones. Levels of enterococci within the subtidal sand correlated with the average level of enterococci in the water (CFU/100mL) for the season during which samples were collected (r(s) = 0.73). The average sand enterococci content over all the zones on each beach correlated with the average water enterococci levels of the year prior to sand samplings (r(s) = 0.64) as well as the average water enterococci levels for the month after sand samplings (r(s) = 0.54). Results indicate a connection between levels of enterococci in beach water and sands throughout South Florida's beaches and suggest that the sands are one of the predominant reservoirs of enterococci impacting beach water quality. As a result, beaches with lower levels of enterococci in the sand had fewer exceedences relative to beaches with higher levels of sand enterococci. More research should focus on evaluating beach sand quality as a means to predict and regulate marine recreational water quality. PMID:22071324

  9. Geomechanical behaviour of Grand Rapids Formation oil sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chalaturnyk, R.J.; Scott, J.D. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    A test program was conducted to study geomechanical properties of the Cold Lake Lower Grand Rapids Formation oil sands which have similar mineralogy and geologic history as the Clearwater Formation where the geomechanical behaviour of the oil sands is much different from that of Athabasca McMurray Formation oil sands. The geology and mineralogy of the Cold Lake oil sands were reviewed along with stress-strain behaviour of both sands and oil sands following different stress paths, with particular attention to the geomechanical behaviour of the oil sands in the low effective stress range which occurs during in situ field bitumen recovery processes. During laboratory tests, the triaxial shear test effective confining stress level varied from 0.1 MPa to 9.5 MPa. The isotropic bulk compressibility of the oil sands was expressed as a power function of effective confining stress. It varied greatly with a small change in the effective confining stress in the low effective stress range below a boundary stress of about 2.0 MPa. The study showed that grain crushing has a large impact on the stress-strain-volume change behaviour of the oil sands. An effective confining stress of 3.0 MPa was found to be the break-down stress beyond which grain crushing is a dominant mechanism in shear. It was concluded that the failure criteria of the oil sands is stress path dependent and cannot be represented by a single failure envelope. It appears that the failure mechanism in shear may be controlled by the magnitude of grain crushing. The shear strength of the oil sands may also increase with fines content.

  10. Ergonomic Improvements for Foundries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank Peters; Patrick Patterson

    2002-06-18

    The goal of this project was to make improvements to the production systems of the steel casting industry through ergonomic improvements. Because of the wide variety of products, the wide range of product sizes, and the relatively small quantities of any particular product, manual operations remain a vital part of the production systems of the steel casting companies. Ergonomic improvements will assist the operators to more efficiently and consistently produce quality products.

  11. 76 FR 68503 - Ungulate Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, Great Sand Dunes National Park and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-04

    ...Environmental Impact Statement, Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve, CO AGENCY...the Ungulate Management Plan, Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve...the Ungulate Management Plan, Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve,...

  12. Environmental impact of some trace elements emission from the work environment of Atbara Cement Factory and Atbara Railway Foundry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work was performed to evaluate the chemical pollution level by some trace elements at the work environment of Atbara Cement Factory (ACF) and Atbara Railway Foundry (ARF). Samples of soil and air were collected from the two sites study, ACF and ARF. To assess the environmental impact of these industrial complexes, the samples were collected from sites expected to be free from industrial emission to serve as control. Plant samples were also collected from (ACF) and the control site. The samples were analyzed and the concentrations of K, Na, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zu and Pb were determined using three analytical techniques: Atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS), X-ray fluorescence (X RF), and flame emission photometry (FEP). Soil samples were chemically fractionated using separation methods and the solutions were analyzed using AAS methods and FEP to determine the chemical form of the elements. The quality of the data was achieved through the analysis of certified reference materials. The results of this study were compared with previous literature. The data were treated by calculating enrichment factor and statistically by multivariate analysis such as, principle component analysis and cluster analysis. The findings of the study were concluded as follows. The effect of emission from both sites is very clear when the concentrations of the studied trace elements in soil and air samples are compared with the respective concentrations at the control site. Higher values of these elements are found at ARF and slightly high at ACF. The elements which can be attributed to industrial emission are noticeably higher at ARF, for example Cu is forty times as higher as compared to the control site. While Zn is slightly high and Pb is very high. The same remarks are further confirmed by enrichment factor calculation. For soil samples enrichment factor was obtained for two groups of elements, the enriched group includes the elements Pb, Cu and Zn which have enrichment factors higher in ARF than in (ACF), the non enriched group includes K, Na, Fe, and Mn. For air samples the elements Mn, Cu, Zn, and Pb are enriched at ARF and ACF. The elements K and Fe are non-enriched in the two sites. These findings were also consolidated by the application of factor analysis. For soil samples factor analysis led to two sources for elements: soil material for the elements Na, K, Fe and Mn, and industrial source for the elements Cu, Zn and Pb. As for air samples there are two main groupings of sources. Group one was comprised of industrial emission of K, Cu, Zn, Mn and Pb. The second group of sources contained Mn and Fe which are associated with resuspension of soil dust. Some elements were associated with more than one factor indicating that there were more than one source. Therefore, the particulate in air at ARF and ACF sites are dominated by an industrial emission and soil dispersion of the crustal elements. As for data of plant samples which were collected from ACF and control site, the concentration ratios (CR) for the elements were calculated. Plants at ACF show a comparatively high CR than at the control site in the most of investigated elements. All these findings point clearly to the presence of environmental chemical pollution by the elements Na, K, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn and Pb as the a result of emission from ACF and ARF. Finally in view of findings of this study, the investigator concluded with some recommendation as follow: Technical measures such as dust separation must be applied at ACF. Protective clothing for workers must be found at ACF and ARF to protect from chemical pollution. Worker at ACF and ARF must be given medical care. It is important to rehabilitate the base of ARF so as to reduce this contamination with the polluting elements.(Author)

  13. Sand abrasion injury and biomass partitioning in cotton seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millions of acres of crops are exposed to wind blown sand abrasion injury each year and in many instances the damage is thought to be sufficiently severe to require replanting. The goal of this study was to determine the effects of wind blown sand abrasion duration on cotton seedlings. Seedlings of ...

  14. Microwaves energy in curing process of water glass molding sands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Granat K.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the results of investigation of microwave heating on hardening process of water glass molding sands. Essential influence of this heating process on basic properties such as: compression, bending and tensile strength as well as permeability and abrasion resistance has been found. It has been proved, that all investigated sorts of sodium water glass with a module between 2.0 and 3.3 can be used as a binder of molding sands in microwave curing process. It has been found during analysis of research results of sands with 2.5 % water glass addition that they are practically the same as in case of identical molding sands dried for 120 minutes at the temperature of 110°C, used for comparative purposes. Application of microwave curing of molding sands with water glass, however, guarantees reduction of hardening time (from 120 to 4 minutes as well as significant reduction of energy consumption. Attempts of two stage hardening of the investigated water glass molding sands have also been carried out, that is after an initial hardening during a classical CO2 process (identical sands have also been tested for comparison after CO2 blowing process and additional microwave heating. It has been found that application of this kind of treatment for curing sands with 2.5 % sodium water glass content and module from 2.0 up to 3.3 results in the improvement of properties in comparison to classical CO2 process.

  15. Sand transport in urbanized beaches - models and reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The general objective is to quantify the wind transport of sand in the urbanized beaches. The specific objectives include testing and calibration of the wind velocity as well as the classification of the beaches according to the magnitude and the direction of sand transport

  16. Reovirus removal and inactivation by slow-rate sand filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, L K; Sims, R C; Barnett, B B

    1984-10-01

    Laboratory column studies were conducted at the Utah Water Research Laboratory, Logan, Utah, to evaluate reovirus removal from drinking water supplies by slow-rate sand filtration (SSF). Columns, constructed to simulate a full-scale SSF field operation, were inoculated with reovirus at ca. 1,000-times-greater concentrations than those typically found in domestic sewage. Reovirus removal and inactivation were investigated as functions of filter maturity and other filter sand characteristics. Reovirus removal studies demonstrated that the SSF process is capable of reducing reovirus in influent water by a minimum of 4 log concentration units under certain conditions of water quality, flow rate, and sand bed construction. Infectious reovirus was not detected in effluent samples from any of the sand beds studied, after inoculation of the SSF columns; therefore, removal efficiencies were not affected significantly by characteristics, including age, of the two filter sands evaluated. Studies conducted with radioactively labeled reovirus demonstrated that reovirus removed from influent water was distributed throughout the entire length of the filter beds. Concentrations of reovirus in the filter sands decreased with increasing bed depth. The greatest removal occurred in the top few centimeters of all sand beds. No infectious reovirus could be detected in clean or mature sand bed media, indicating that reoviruses were inactivated in the filter. PMID:6508290

  17. Thermal Conductivity of Compacted Bentonite and Bentonite-Sand Mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the Kyungju bentonite which is considered as a candidate material for the buffer and backfill in the high-level waste repository, the thermal conductivities of compacted bentonite and a bentonite-sand mixture were measured. The thermal conductivities of the compacted bentonite with a dry density of 1.2 to 1.8 Mg/m3and the bentonite-sand mixture with a dry density of 1.6 and 1.8 Mg/m3 were measured within the gravimetric water content range of 10wt% to 20wt% and the sand fraction range of 10 to 30wt%. The thermal conductivity of compacted bentonite and a bentonite-sand mixture increases with increasing dry density and sand weight fraction in the case of constant water weight fraction, and increases with increasing water weight fraction and sand weight fraction in the case of constant dry density. The empirical correlations to describe the thermal conductivity of compacted bentonite and a bentonite-sand mixture as a function of water fraction at each dry density were suggested. These correlations can predict the thermal conductivities of bentonite and a bentonite-sand mixture with a difference below 10%.

  18. Some investigations of sea sands from the Black Sea coastline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sands from the coastline of Bourgas Bay, Black Sea, were studied by means of Moessbauer spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy and gamma-spectrometry. Samples of the residue after magnetic separation contained quartz, carbonates, biotite, brookite and silicate minerals. Radionuclides, such as uranium, thorium, potassium, etc., were detected in all sand samples. (author)

  19. Providing floating capabilities in latest-generation sand screens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowen, E.G.; Coronado, M.P. [Society of Petroleum Engineers, Richardson, TX (United States)]|[Baker Hughes, Houston, TX (United States)

    2008-10-15

    Alternative production methods are needed for the massive reserves located in the bitumen region of Canada's tar sands. The area has over 100 installations of sand screens/slotted liners in both injection and production legs using steam-assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) technology. Multiple wells must be drilled from a single pad because of the sensitive nature of the environment. With significant depths of these wells, a floating sand screen provides assurance that the sand screen will reach the desired depth. Paraffin is generally used to plug the flow access of the screen during installation. This paper discussed a new technology that has been developed to allow for sand screen installations without relying on paraffin wax to withstand differential pressure. The new technology uses a hydro-mechanical valving system incorporated into the screen design to temporarily close off the screen while being run in the hole. The paper described how the technology could provide a reliable, time-saving solution for SAGD installations when floating sand control screens are needed. The paper discussed current technology and its limitations, sand screen installation, screen design for floating applications, and additional applications. It was concluded that this technology solution provides a unique alternative to the methods currently used to install sand screens with SAGD technology in the fast growing Canadian market for bitumen recovery. 2 refs., 5 figs.

  20. Constitutive Soil Properties for Unwashed Sand and Kennedy Space Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Michael A.; Chitty, Daniel E.; Gildea, Martin L.; T'Kindt, Casey M.

    2008-01-01

    Accurate soil models are required for numerical simulations of land landings for the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle. This report provides constitutive material models for one soil, unwashed sand, from NASA Langley's gantry drop test facility and three soils from Kennedy Space Center (KSC). The four soil models are based on mechanical and compressive behavior observed during geotechnical laboratory testing of remolded soil samples. The test specimens were reconstituted to measured in situ density and moisture content. Tests included: triaxial compression, hydrostatic compression, and uniaxial strain. A fit to the triaxial test results defines the strength envelope. Hydrostatic and uniaxial tests define the compressibility. The constitutive properties are presented in the format of LS-DYNA Material Model 5: Soil and Foam. However, the laboratory test data provided can be used to construct other material models. The four soil models are intended to be specific to the soil conditions discussed in the report. The unwashed sand model represents clayey sand at high density. The KSC models represent three distinct coastal sand conditions: low density dry sand, high density in-situ moisture sand, and high density flooded sand. It is possible to approximate other sands with these models, but the results would be unverified without geotechnical tests to confirm similar soil behavior.

  1. SLOW SAND FILTER MAINTENANCE COSTS AND EFFECTS ON WATER QUALITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was conducted to determine how slow sand filter effluent quality is affected by scraping and to quantify the labor required to operate and maintain a slow sand filter. The data were obtained by monitoring scraping and other maintenance operations at six full-size slow san...

  2. Heat-treatment of metal parts facilitated by sand embedment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briscoe, C. C.; Kelley, R. C.

    1966-01-01

    Embedding metal parts of complex shape in sand contained in a steel box prevents strains and warping during heat treatment. The sand not only provides a simple, inexpensive support for the parts but also ensures more uniform distribution of heat to the parts.

  3. A High Resolution Look at Black Sand Particles from Sand Dunes of Saudi Arabia Using Electron Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, M. M.; Aburizaiza, O. S.; Siddique, A.; Hershey, D. L.; Guerrieri, D. A.; Qurashi, J.; Abbass, M.; Blake, D. R.; Khwaja, H. A.

    2013-12-01

    Particulate air pollution is a problem of health concern. The microscopic make-up of different varieties of sand particles found and collected at a sand dune site in Badr, Saudi Arabia has been determined. Primary emphasis is given to the use of multiple high resolution electron microscopy (viz., Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy Dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM/EDS) and Laser Scanning Microscopy (LSM)) to study the morphologies, emission source types, size, and elemental composition of the particles, and to evaluate the presence of ';coatings or contaminants' adsorbed or carried on by the black sand particles. White sand contains natural coarse particles associated with wind-blown releases from crustal surfaces, weathering of an igneous/metamorphic rock source, and volcanic activities. Silicates (alumino-silicates) and quartz (clear, milky, rose) dominate white sand and rest appears to contain calcite, olivine, feldspar, and magnetite. Black sand particles exhibit very different morphologies and microstructures (surface roughness) compared with white sand and volcanic ash. Morphological analyses have shown that the black sand contain ultrafine particles. Black sand is strongly magnetic, which indicates the mineral magnetite (strongly magnetic) or elemental iron. Iron, C, O, Ti, Si, V, and S particles dominate the black sand. Natural and anthropogenic sources have been implicated for the observed particles. Analysis revealed that the surface of white sand particles is mainly covered with the fine particles. It is known that emissions from combustion contain carbon soot and other contaminants that are easily absorbed by soil particles during a long-range transport.

  4. Holocene transgression recorded by sand composition in the mesotidal Galician coastline (NW Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Arribas Mocoroa, Jose?; Alonso Milla?n, A?ngela; Page?s Valcarlos, Jose? Luis; Gonza?lez Acebro?n, Laura

    2010-01-01

    This study confirms several inferences regarding Holocene coastal dynamics and climate through a petrographic modal analysis of 60 Holocene sand samples recovered in seven sites along the NW coast of the Iberian Peninsula. Fluvial sand can be discriminated from more mature intertidal and aeolian sand according to texture and composition. Fluvial sand contains soil products and coastal sand has significant bioclasts. Quartzofeldspathic sand appears in the western area (produced by the erosion ...

  5. The diffusion of sulphur from moulding sand to cast and methods of its elimination

    OpenAIRE

    M. Hosadyna; St. M. Dobosz; Jelinek, P.

    2009-01-01

    The care of high quality castings requires taking into account the possible negative influence of decomposition products of moulding and core sands on the structure of castings produced. Such products are emitted both from the sands of I generation, meaning sands bound by bentonite, especially those containing carbon forming additives, as well as from the sands of II generation, meaning the sands with the binding materials or even the sands without any binders, such as the forms produced by u...

  6. Big picture thinking in oil sands tailings disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boswell, J. [Thurber Engineering Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This PowerPoint presentation discussed methods of disposing oil sands tailings. Oil sands operators are currently challenged by a variety of legislative and environmental factors concerning the creation and disposal of oil sands tailings. The media has focused on the negative ecological impact of oil sands production, and technical issues are reducing the effect of some mitigation processes. Operators must learn to manage the interface between tailings production and removal, the environment, and public opinion. The successful management of oil sand tailings will include procedures designed to improve reclamation processes, understand environmental laws and regulations, and ensure that the cumulative impacts of tailings are mitigated. Geotechnical investigations, engineering designs and various auditing procedures can be used to develop tailings management plans. Environmental screening and impact assessments can be used to develop sustainable solutions. Public participation and environmental mediation is needed to integrate the public, environmental and technical tailings management strategies. Operators must ensure public accountability for all stakeholders. tabs., figs.

  7. New Look at the Process of Reclamation of Moulding Sands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Dobosz

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new perspective on the issue of reclamation of moulding and core sands. Taking as a premise that thereclamation process must remain on the surface of grains some not separated binding materials rests, it should be chosen the propermoulding sand’s composition that will be least harmful for the reclaim quality. There are two different moulding and core sands taken into examinations. The researches prove that a small correction of their compositions (hardener type improves the quality of the received reclaims. Carried out in this article studies have shown that such an approach to the problem of reclamation of the moulding and core sands is needed and reasonable.

  8. The effects of psammophilous plants on sand dune dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Bel, Golan

    2013-01-01

    Psammophilous plants are special plants that flourish in sand moving environments. There are two main mechanisms by which the wind affects these plants: (i) sand drift exposes roots and covers branches--the exposed roots turn into new plants and the covered branches turn into new roots; both mechanisms result in an enhanced growth rate of the psammophilous plant cover of the dunes; (ii) strong winds, often associated with sand movement, tear branches and seed them in nearby locations, resulting in new plants and an enhanced growth rate of the psammophilous plant cover of the dunes. Despite their important role in dune dynamics, to our knowledge, psammophilous plants have never been incorporated into mathematical models of sand dunes. Here, we attempt to model the effects of these plants on sand dune dynamics. We construct a set of three ordinary differential equations for the fractions of surface cover of regular vegetation, biogenic soil crust and psammophilous plants. The latter reach their optimal growth u...

  9. Sand control screen solution in heavy oil reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pei, B.L. [China Petroleum Univ., Beijing (China)

    2010-07-01

    Liners, screens, and gravel packs are commonly used to prevent sand production in heavy oil recovery processes. This paper evaluated sand control screens and methods used in heavy oil reservoir applications. Sand control methods included slotted liners, wire-wrapped screens and precise punched slot (PPS) screens. The screens were evaluated in relation to their performance under pressure, cost, manufacturing process, and sand control ability. The results of an experiment conducted to compare the pressure performance of slotted liner and PPS screens were also presented. Results of the study indicated that PPS screens performed better than slotted liners under applied loads. It was concluded that PPS screens are lower in cost and provide a higher level of sand control than other screens. 5 refs., 2 tabs., 14 figs.

  10. Investigations of reclamation ability of used moulding sand with water glass binder and used sand with CO2 hardened alkaline resin

    OpenAIRE

    R. Da?ko

    2010-01-01

    Introduction of modern moulding sands with the organic and unorganic binders requires the use of reclamation carried out in order to reuseof used sands. Used sands depending on the type of binding material are characterized by different susceptibility to the recoveryprocesses. Presented research is aimed at determining reclaimability of selected used sands, which are often used in the Polish foundryindustry. This applies to the used moulding sand with water glass binder hardener by esters (et...

  11. Otimização da programação de cargas de forno em uma fábrica de fundição em aço-inox Optimizing the scheduling of furnace loadings in a inox-steel foundry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raida de Jesus Silva

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho apresenta-se uma abordagem para otimizar a programação de cargas de forno em fundições de mercado de pequeno porte. Tal abordagem consiste, basicamente, em definir a programação dos fornos para produzir uma carteira de pedidos composta de diversas peças em ligas metálicas variadas, de maneira a maximizar a produtividade (ou a margem de contribuição ao lucro e satisfazer prazos de entrega e restrições de processo. O procedimento proposto é baseado na teoria dos problemas de corte e empacotamento; ele combina uma heurística construtiva gulosa com o clássico problema da mochila. Para validá-lo, um estudo de caso foi realizado numa fundição em aço-inox localizada em São Carlos, SP. Os resultados da simulação de duas semanas de produção da empresa mostraram que o procedimento é capaz de produzir soluções melhores do que as utilizadas pela empresa.This study presents an approach to optimize the scheduling of furnace loadings in small size foundries. The approach consists of determining a furnace scheduling to produce all ordered items in such a way as to maximize productivity (or profit contribution and satisfy due dates and process restraints. It is based on the theory of cutting and packing problems; it combines a greedy constructive heuristic and the classical knapsack problem. To validate the approach, a case study was developed in a inox-steel foundry located in São Carlos, SP. The results obtained simulating two weeks of the company production showed that the procedure is able to generate better solutions than the ones used by the company.

  12. Otimização da programação de cargas de forno em uma fábrica de fundição em aço-inox / Optimizing the scheduling of furnace loadings in a inox-steel foundry

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Raida de Jesus, Silva; Reinaldo, Morabito.

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho apresenta-se uma abordagem para otimizar a programação de cargas de forno em fundições de mercado de pequeno porte. Tal abordagem consiste, basicamente, em definir a programação dos fornos para produzir uma carteira de pedidos composta de diversas peças em ligas metálicas variadas, de [...] maneira a maximizar a produtividade (ou a margem de contribuição ao lucro) e satisfazer prazos de entrega e restrições de processo. O procedimento proposto é baseado na teoria dos problemas de corte e empacotamento; ele combina uma heurística construtiva gulosa com o clássico problema da mochila. Para validá-lo, um estudo de caso foi realizado numa fundição em aço-inox localizada em São Carlos, SP. Os resultados da simulação de duas semanas de produção da empresa mostraram que o procedimento é capaz de produzir soluções melhores do que as utilizadas pela empresa. Abstract in english This study presents an approach to optimize the scheduling of furnace loadings in small size foundries. The approach consists of determining a furnace scheduling to produce all ordered items in such a way as to maximize productivity (or profit contribution) and satisfy due dates and process restrain [...] ts. It is based on the theory of cutting and packing problems; it combines a greedy constructive heuristic and the classical knapsack problem. To validate the approach, a case study was developed in a inox-steel foundry located in São Carlos, SP. The results obtained simulating two weeks of the company production showed that the procedure is able to generate better solutions than the ones used by the company.

  13. Effects of oil sands sediments on fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parrott, J.; Colavecchia, M.; Hewitt, L.; Sherry, J.; Headley, J. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Turcotte, D.; Liber, K. [Saskatchewan Univ., Regina, SK (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This paper described a collaborative project organized by Natural Resources Canada (NRCan) Panel of Energy Research and Development (PERD) with researchers from Environment Canada and the University of Saskatchewan. The 4-year study was conducted to assess the toxicity of oil sands sediments and river waters, and reclamation ponds and sediments on laboratory-raised fish. Three sediments from rivers were evaluated for their potential to cause adverse impacts on fathead minnow eggs and larvae for a period of 18 days. The study monitored hatching, larval survival, development, and growth. Naphthenic acids (NA), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and metals were measured in the sediments to determine if the compounds can be correlated with observed toxicity. The study will also assess walleye eggs exposed to sediments, and in situ fish exposures. Toxicity identification and evaluation (TIE) studies will be conducted to isolate the fractions that may affect fish development and growth.

  14. Cobalt speciation and mobility in glacial sand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The migration behaviour of cobalt in a sand-groundwater system has been studied. Batch sorption, column and diffusion experiments all showed that more than one cobalt species were present and that interconversion occurred between them. In a column experiment cobalt complexed with natural (probably fulvic) material contained in the groundwater dissociated with a first order rate constant of 1.8 x 10-4 sec-1. This suggested that in a field tracer test in the Drigg borehole array very little cobalt would reach the first sampling point. Experiments with the Co-EDTA, however, showed that although some dissociation occurred the Co-EDTA complexes were sufficiently stable for field use. Sectioning a column through which a pulse of Co-EDTA had passed produced a complicated distribution of sorbed cobalt which was tentatively interpreted as being due to the movement of two retarded (possibly colloidal) species

  15. Great Sand Dunes National Monument and Preserve

    Science.gov (United States)

    This National Park Service website describes the natural resources of this park such as plants, mammals and birds (with species lists); endemic or rare species; geology; hydrology; and wind (eolian) systems. These natural resources include a high mountain valley holding the tallest dunes in North America and flanked by some of the highest peaks in the Rocky Mountains; unique wind-powered geologic systems; insects physically adapted to life in the sand and found nowhere else; alpine lakes and tundra; disappearing ponds; and interdunal wetlands. There is information on hiking and camping in the park and planning a visit; cultural history of the park area including that of ancient Americans; and a photo gallery.

  16. Development of Stresses in Cohesionless Poured Sand

    CERN Document Server

    Cates, M E; Bouchaud, J P; Claudin, P

    1998-01-01

    The pressure distribution beneath a conical sandpile, created by pouring sand from a point source onto a rough rigid support, shows a pronounced minimum below the apex (`the dip'). Recent work of the authors has attempted to explain this phenomenon by invoking local rules for stress propagation that depend on the local geometry, and hence on the construction history, of the medium. We discuss the fundamental difference between such approaches, which lead to hyperbolic differential equations, and elastoplastic models, for which the equations are elliptic within any elastic zones present .... This displacement field appears to be either ill-defined, or defined relative to a reference state whose physical existence is in doubt. Insofar as their predictions depend on physical factors unknown and outside experimental control, such elastoplastic models predict that the observations should be intrinsically irreproducible .... Our hyperbolic models are based instead on a physical picture of the material, in which (a)...

  17. From the moon to the oil sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giang, Vivian

    2011-06-15

    Land reclamation is one of the big issues of the oil sands industry and it is now among its research priorities. In 1969, Dr. W. David Carrier III was working for the NASA when he predicted lunar soil density; in 1973 he left to work as an engineer and more than 20 years later he created his own firm Argila Enterprises Inc. where he works on the reclamation of tailings fields. Carrier is now working on a way to accelerate dewatering by draining the water off, waiting a year, and cutting deeper and repeating it this until the soil is dense enough to be reclaimed. The main concerns of this method are to get a manageable volume of tailings and to reduce the volume of water stored. Carrier is now putting his capacity to predict the density of the soil versus its depth in the tailings ponds business.

  18. Beneficiation of zircon sand in South Africa

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    S., Lubbe; R., Munsami; D., Fourie.

    Full Text Available South Africa and Australia are the biggest suppliers of zircon sand to the international zirconium industry. However neither South Africa nor Australia is well known for zircon beneficiation. Geratech Zirconium Beneficiation Ltd (GZB) continued with additional research on sodium hydroxide (NaOH) cra [...] cking of zircon sand during 2002-2003. In 2003 GZB started extracting zirconium from zircon sand by means of NaOH cracking on a commercial scale. Experience has shown that temperature profile and atmospheric control inside the furnace is crucial for the beneficiation of zircon sand. Silica carryover to zirconium chemicals could result if a high temperature is used. Once the sodium silicate is extracted from the sodium zirconate and dissolved in hydrochloric acid, two distinct routes can be followed to precipitate various zirconium chemicals. The most common route is to precipitate zirconium oxychloride crystals (ZOC), with subsequent purification from all contaminants (crystal route). Less known is the process (liquid route) that involves the direct precipitation of zirconium basic sulphate (ZBS). This route will yield a less pure product, with contaminants such as silica and titanium. An important factor in this route is the prevention of silica gel formation, which could hamper final product filtration. For applications like paint drying (zirconium octoate) or antiperspirants (zirconium hydroxychloride) low levels of contaminants have no effect on the final product. The advantage of the liquid route is fewer production stages compared to the crystal route. The disadvantage of the liquid route is that the market for the products will be significantly smaller. The optimum solution could be a plant design that could cater for both routes. Another example of an application of zirconium chemicals is the use of ammonium zirconium carbonate (AZC) in the paper industry. Zirconium basic carbonate (ZBC) is dissolved in ammonium carbonate to produce AZC solution. AZC is used mainly in European countries in the paper industry. For example, carton boxes were initially produced with formaldehyde as the binder, however, it has now been replaced with AZC since formaldehyde is considered toxic. AZC reacts with the cellulose fibres in the paper to act as the binder. The resulting product is not toxic, and printing ink dries very quickly due to the porous paper structure. Other applications of zirconium chemicals involve the use of acid zirconium sulphate tetrahydrate (AZST), zirconium orthosulphate (ZOS), potassium zirconium carbonate (KZC), and zirconium hydrous oxide (ZHO). Fluoride-based zirconium chemicals like zirconium tetra-fluoride (ZrF4) and hexafluoro-zirconic acid (H2ZrF6) are used in the aluminium industry. Zirconium oxide (ZrO2) can be produced from any of the abovementioned precipitated chemicals via a high-temperature decomposition process. The physical properties of such oxides can differ tremendously, depending on the final application. The fired density of sanitaryware is typically 5.8 g/cm3, compared to milling media at >6.1 g/cm3. The required fired density is achieved by controlling the precipitation and decomposition conditions for these two oxides. The same applies to stabilized and mixed oxides, for example where zirconium oxide acts as an oxygen carrier in fuel cells.

  19. Direct Production of Silicones From Sand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larry N. Lewis; F.J. Schattenmann: J.P. Lemmon

    2001-09-30

    Silicon, in the form of silica and silicates, is the second most abundant element in the earth's crust. However the synthesis of silicones (scheme 1) and almost all organosilicon chemistry is only accessible through elemental silicon. Silicon dioxide (sand or quartz) is converted to chemical-grade elemental silicon in an energy intensive reduction process, a result of the exceptional thermodynamic stability of silica. Then, the silicon is reacted with methyl chloride to give a mixture of methylchlorosilanes catalyzed by cooper containing a variety of tract metals such as tin, zinc etc. The so-called direct process was first discovered at GE in 1940. The methylchlorosilanes are distilled to purify and separate the major reaction components, the most important of which is dimethyldichlorosilane. Polymerization of dimethyldichlorosilane by controlled hydrolysis results in the formation of silicone polymers. Worldwide, the silicones industry produces about 1.3 billion pounds of the basic silicon polymer, polydimethylsiloxane.

  20. Sand waves, bars, and wind-blown sands of the Rio Orinoco, Venezuela and Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordin, Carl F.; Perez-Hernandez, David

    1989-01-01

    During March 1982, a reconnaissance study was carried out along a reach of the Rio Orinoco between Puerto Ayacucho and Ciudad Bolivar. This was the low-flow season. Samples of bed material and suspended sediments were collected, sonic records of the bed were obtained at several locations, and the exposed bars and sand waves were studied at four locations. Sounding records were obtained at two of these locations during June and November when flow covered the bars, and additional studies were made on the ground at some of these same sites during March 1983. The bed of the river is mostly sand with small quantities, about 5 percent by weight on average, of gravel. Suspended- sediment concentrations were low, ranging between 20 milligrams per liter above Rio Apure to almost 40 milligrams per liter below its confluence with the Rio Orinoco. The annual sediment load is estimated to be 240x10 6 megagrams per year. During the dry season, 35 percent or more of the bed is exposed in the form of large bars composed of many sand waves. Trade winds blow upriver and there is substantial upriver transport of river sediments by the wind. If the bars contain very coarse sands and fine gravel, deflation forms a lag deposit that armors the bar surface and prevents further erosion. Theoretical calculations show that the lower limit for the fraction of the bed that needs to be covered with nonmoving particles to prevent further erosion and the smallest size of the armor particles depend only on wind speed. Calculations of bed-material transport were made for a typical wide and narrow section of the river; the annual load, excluding the wash load, is about 30 x 10 6 megagrams per year. A new definition for wash load is proposed; it is material that can be suspended as soon as its motion is initiated. For the Rio Orinoco, this is material finer than 0.1 millimeters.

  1. The Geodiversity in Drift Sand Landscapes of The Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Ancker, Hanneke; Jungerius, Pieter Dirk; Riksen, Michel

    2015-04-01

    The authors carried out detailed field studies of more than twelve drift sand landscapes in The Netherlands. The objective of these studies was to restore Natura-2000 values by restoring the wind activity. Active drift sands occur almost exclusively in The Netherlands, Natura 2000 habitat 2330 'Inland dunes with open Corynephorus and Agrostis grasslands', for which reason our country is largely responsible for this European landscape. Active drift sands had almost disappeared for two reasons: first, the stabilization of the drift sands by air pollution, mainly nitrogen, which stimulates the growth of algae and grasses that initiate soil formation, and second, by the growth of forests surrounding the sands, which decreases the wind force. The restoration studies revealed differences in the geodiversity between and within the drift sand areas. Whereas the drift sands on geological and soil maps show as almost homogenous areas, they have in fact highly variable geo-conditions of which examples will be given. These geodiversity aspects concern differences in geomorphological structure, origin, sediments and age of the drift sands. Differences in wind and water erosion, trampling and soil formation add to the geodiversity within the drift sand areas. Especially in the primary stages of succession the differences in geodiversity are relevant for the Natura-2000 values. We discerned three main types of active sands. Firstly, the impressive drift sands with large parabolic dune structures, often consisting of series of interlocking parabolic dunes. They developed from the northeast towards the southwest, against the direction of the dominant wind, and must have taken centuries to develop. Small parts of these systems are still active, other parts show different degrees of soil formation. Their origin is still unclear but probably dates from medieval times (Heidinga, 1985, Jungerius & Riksen, 2008). Second are the drift sand areas with irregular hills from 0.5 to about 2 metres high. They are common near villages. They originated through sand blown from fallow agricultural fields and local overgrazing. They vary in age from prehistoric to modern time and are now mostly planted with forests. Third are the linear drift sand areas with one to three metre high ridges that align old roads and originated through dust whirled up by horses and carriages over many centuries. They also occurs within drift sands of the first system. In the re-stabilization of reactivated drift sands, differences in geodiversity on a still more detailed scale are important (Ancker, Jungerius et al. 2013). Even a small change in slope can cause primary dunes to develop and stop wind erosion. Gradually the geodiversity aspects are recognized as relevant for the management of active and fossil drift sands, and also is becoming a management issue in itself. An important future research issue is the completion of the Drift Sand Atlas, a project that describes the geodiversity aspects of all drift sand areas of The Netherlands. This project has been retarded by lack of means. Knowledge of the geodiversity also is important for correct sampling of C14 and luminescence data. Other future research includes the processes that caused the formation of 'randwallen' (rim walls), rates of water and wind erosion and soil formation and links between flora, fauna and Natura 2000 species. References

  2. Have the northwest Negev dunefield sands reddened since their deposition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roskin, Joel; Tsoar, Haim; Blumberg, Dan G.; Porat, Naomi; Rozensten, Ofer

    2010-05-01

    Sand grain coating redness has been extensively both in coastal and inland desert dunes. In Israel, sand redness has been quantified by calculating a spectral redness index (RI) using single RGB bands (RI= R2/(B*G3)) from reflectance spectroscopy. The RI values have been correlated to ferric oxide mass that was dissolved from sand grain coatings (Ben Dor et al., 2006; Tsoar et al., 2008). Five main requirements have been proposed to enhance sand grain reddening: iron source from the weathering of iron-bearing minerals originating from parent rock or aeolian dust, minimum moisture content, oxidizing interstitial conditions, sediment stability and time. Thus, as many researches have suggested, when the source factors and climatic conditions are homogenous, redder sands indicate increased maturity. The northwest Negev dunefield has been classified by Tsoar et al. (2008) into 3 incursion units based upon contouring a grid of RI values for surface sand samples. The central incursion unit has been suggested to be younger due to relatively lower RI values that decrease to the east. This work tests the relationship between RI values and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) ages of aeolian sand sampled from the near surface down to dune substrate throughout the NW Negev dunefield. Room-dried sand samples were measured in the laboratory with an ASD FieldSpec spectrometer and RI was calculated. Dune sections have been found to usually have similar RI values throughout their vertical profile despite OSL ages ranging between recent and Late Pleistocene. Along a W-E transect, RI values also tend to be similar. The central (Haluzza) part of the dunefield exhibits significantly lower RI values than RI of sands south of the Qeren Ridge. Dune base OSL ages possibly representing burial/stabilization of an initial incursion are slightly more mature in the south and may be evidence of the earliest dune incursion into the Negev. Thus the increased redness may be attributed to an older sand source but not to reddening in situ with time. Remotely sensed RI calculated from Landsat TM 5 (30 m pixel) RGB bands of bare Sinai sands also portrays the spatial RI difference between the central and southern sands. To summarize, we find no direct connection between dune sand deposition age and sand grain coating redness in the Negev dunes. It seems that stable aeolian sand and dune sections in the Negev have not reddened since their deposition. Sand grain coating redness was probably inherited during an earlier diagenetic stage in an environment different than today's. References Ben-Dor, E., Levin, N., Singer, A., Karnieli, A., Braun, O. & Kidron, G.J., 2006. Quantitative mapping of the soil rubification process on sand dunes using an airborne hyperspectral sensor. Geoderma, 131:1-21. Tsoar, H., Wenkart, R. & Blumberg, D.G., 2008. Formation and geomorphology of the north-western Negev sand dunes. In (Breckle, S.W., Yair, A.& Veste, M.) eds., Arid dunes ecosystems: The Nizzana sands in the Negev Desert. Springer pub. 475 pp.

  3. Two-Phase Abrasion in Eolian Transport of Gypsum Sand, White Sands NM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, S.; Jerolmack, D. J.; Miller, K. L.

    2014-12-01

    Downstream rounding of grains is consistently observed in natural sediment transport settings. A recent theory put forth by Domokos et al. (2014) attributes particle rounding and size reduction to a geometric curvature-driven abrasion process. This process occurs in two phases, in which irregularly shaped or angular particles round to convex shapes with negligible change in axis dimension, then slowly reduce in particle diameter. Miller et al (in review) establish the existence of two-phase abrasion in the natural setting of a fluvial gravel stream. This study examines field samples from White Sands, NM to investigate the presence of two-phase abrasion in a different, non-idealized natural environment - a high-energy, eolian gypsum dunefield. Analysis of grain shapes from White Sands confirms the two-phase abrasion process, dependent upon mode of sediment transport. We find that large sand grains carried in saltation bed load transport exhibit shape change indicative of two-phase abrasion, while smaller particles carried in suspension do not. We observe rapid shape change in bed load particles approaching a convex shape, followed by slower reduction in grain axis dimensions. Confirmation of this process in a natural, non-idealized setting establishes two-phase abrasion as a general application for bed load transport.

  4. Experimental Study on Superfine Sand Concrete Mixed by Double Mixing Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    yuqing zhao

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Traditional concept thought that medium sand and fine sand can be used to mix concrete, superfine sand can not used to mix concrete. This makes the source of superfine sand limited. With the shortage of medium sand and fine sand, it is imperative to exploit the resource of superfine sand. Superfine sand concrete is mixed by means of Double-doped Technology-ultra-fine fly ash and super plasticizer. Primary factor influencing superfine sand concrete strength is studied by orthogonal test, the optimal mixture ratio is found. The results indicated that the primary factors are water-binder ratio and sand ratio. At the same time, the workability and strength of superfine sand concrete mixed by optimal mixture ratio can satisfy the quality request of general engineering. It is proved that the double-doped technology is feasible, which can be used to conduct engineering construction.

  5. The technique of sand control with expandable screens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, P. [Petrochina, Liaohe (China). Liaohe Oilfield Co.

    2009-07-01

    Sand production in heavy oil reservoirs can limit the normal production of oil wells. In this study, expandable screens were used as a sand control mechanism by filtering the sand as it entered the wellbore. The screen systems consists of an expandable outer housing, an expandable base pipe and a filtering layer. The screen expands radially through an expandable cone and presses into the casing well. Axial tension is used to shrink the screens radially through a fishing anchor in order to remove them from the well. The lack of a sand ring between the screen and the casing increases the flow area of the oil and reduces flow resistance caused by fine silt blockages. A series of laboratory experiments were conducted to study the expansion and shrinkage properties of the screens. A field test conducted at a well located in the Liaohe oilfield in China demonstrated that good sand control results can be obtained without the need for pump checking. It was concluded that the sand control method is easy to use and provides good sand control results in large open flow areas. 2 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs.

  6. Evaluation of wettability of binders used in moulding sands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hutera B.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Binders used in moulding sand have the differential properties. One of the main parameters influencing on moulding sand properties is wettability of the sand grain by binding material. In the article some problems concerned with wettability evaluation have been presented and the importance of this parameter for quantity description of process occurring in system: binder- sand grain has been mentioned. The procedure of wetting angle measurement and operation of prototype apparatus for wettability investigation of different binders used in moulding sand have been described, as well as the results of wetting angle measurement for different binders at different conditions. The addition of little amount of proper diluent to binder results in the state of equilibrium reached almost immediately. Such addition can also reduce the value of equilibrium contact angle. The uniform distribution of binder on the surface of the sand grains and reducing of the required mixing time can be obtained. It has also a positive effect on the moulding sand strength.

  7. Canada's toxic tar sands : the most destructive project on earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document addressed the environmental problems associated with tar sands development in Alberta, with particular reference to toxicity problems associated with global warming and the impending destruction of the boreal forest. The authors cautioned that the tar sand projects are highly destructive, leaving downstream toxics equivalent to that of a massive slow motion oil spill that has the potential to poison people. Negligent oversights by the government regarding the impact of tar sands development were also discussed, with reference to toxics on site; toxics downwind; and toxics down the pipe. The report also provided information on the future of tar sands development and global warming in Canada. It included a discussion of reverse alchemy; Canada's failed climate politics; a tar sands tax; and taking responsibility. Last, the report addressed toxic enforcement, including the Fisheries Act; Canadian Environmental Protection Act; Canadian Environmental Assessment Act; and Alberta law. It was concluded that while it is a stretch to believe the tar sands can truly be sustainable, there is a great deal that can be done to clean it up. The authors recommended that new tar sands approvals should wait until certain reform elements are implemented, such as passing a real carbon cap; using dry tailings; requiring wildlife offsets; cleaning up refineries and upgraders; ensuring Aboriginal control and benefit; and having regulation and independent monitoring. 104 refs., on and independent monitoring. 104 refs., 6 figs

  8. Geosynthetic Reinforcement of Sand-Mat Layer above Soft Ground

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Beom Park

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the bearing capacity of soft ground for the purpose of getting trafficability of construction vehicles, the reinforcement of geosynthetics for sand-mat layers on soft ground has often been used. As the strength of the geosynthetics increases, and the sand-mat system becomes stronger, the bearing capacity of sand-mat systems will be increased. The depths of geosynthetics, reinforced in sand-mat layers, were varied with respect to the width of footing. The tensile strengths of geosynthetics were also varied to evaluate the effect of reinforcement on the bearing capacity of soft ground. The dispersion angles, with varying sand-mat thicknesses, were also determined in consideration of the tensile strength of geosynthetics and the depths of reinforcement installations. The bearing capacity ratios, with the variation of footing width and reinforced embedment depth, were determined for the geosynthetics-only, reinforced soft ground, 1-layer sand-mat system and 2-layer sand-mat system against the non-reinforced soft ground. From the test results of various models, a principle that better explains the concept of geosynthetic reinforcement has been found. On the basis of this principle, a new bearing capacity equation for practical use in the design of geosynthetically reinforced soft ground has been proposed by modifying Yamanouchi’s equation.

  9. The effects of psammophilous plants on sand dune dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bel, Golan; Ashkenazy, Yosef

    2014-07-01

    Mathematical models of sand dune dynamics have considered different types of sand dune cover. However, despite the important role of psammophilous plants (plants that flourish in moving-sand environments) in dune dynamics, the incorporation of their effects into mathematical models of sand dunes remains a challenging task. Here we propose a nonlinear physical model for the role of psammophilous plants in the stabilization and destabilization of sand dunes. There are two main mechanisms by which the wind affects these plants: (i) sand drift results in the burial and exposure of plants, a process that is known to result in an enhanced growth rate, and (ii) strong winds remove shoots and rhizomes and seed them in nearby locations, enhancing their growth rate. Our model describes the temporal evolution of the fractions of surface cover of regular vegetation, biogenic soil crust, and psammophilous plants. The latter reach their optimal growth under either (i) specific sand drift or (ii) specific wind power. The model exhibits complex bifurcation diagrams and dynamics, which explain observed phenomena, and it predicts new dune stabilization scenarios. Depending on the climatological conditions, it is possible to obtain one, two, or, predicted here for the first time, three stable dune states. Our model shows that the development of the different cover types depends on the precipitation rate and the wind power and that the psammophilous plants are not always the first to grow and stabilize the dunes.

  10. Oil sands economic impacts Canada : CERI report : backgrounder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oil sands production now accounts for 1 out of every 2 barrels of supply in Western Canada. It is anticipated that Alberta's oil sands sector will experience significant growth over the next few decades. This paper provided an outline of the challenges and economic impacts resulting from oil sands development in Canada. Alberta's oil sands reserves are estimated at 175 billion barrels that are deemed economically recoverable using current technology. At current production levels, reserves will sustain production of 2.5 million barrels per day for the next 200 years. A study by the Canadian Energy Research Institute (CERI) has forecast $100 billion in investment for the 2000-2020 period. Numerous companies hold leases and are planning new projects. A number of recent advances in oil sands technology are expected to further reduce costs as development matures. A royalty and tax regime that provides long-term fiscal certainty is a key factor that supports current oil sands growth forecasts. The CERI study has indicated that economic spinoffs from oil sands development relate to employment generated outside of Alberta, and that the largest percentage of government revenue accrues to the federal government. However, development may be constrained because the pace of growth in the sector may exceed underlying infrastructure related to roads, housing and municipal services. An adequate workforce of qualified trades and technical and professional people is also crucial. Severprofessional people is also crucial. Several pipeline projects have been proposed to deliver oil sands crudes to new markets over the next decade. It was concluded that the billions of dollars invested in oil sands in Alberta will contribute to the economic prosperity of the entire country. 11 figs

  11. Controls on the abruptness of gravel-sand transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venditti, J. G.; Church, M. A.; Lamb, M. P.; Domarad, N.; Rennie, C. D.

    2014-12-01

    As gravel-bedded rivers fine downstream, they characteristically exhibit an abrupt transition from gravel- to sand-bed. This is the only abrupt transition in grain-size that occurs in the fluvial system and has attracted considerable attention. A number of competing theories have been proposed to account for the abruptness of the transition, including base-level control, attrition of ~10mm gravel to produce sand, and sediment sorting processes. The prevailing theory for the emergence of abrupt transitions is size selective sorting of bimodal sediment wherein gravel deposits due to downstream declining shear stress, fining the bedload until a sand-bed emerges. We explored this hypothesis by examining grain-size, shear stress, gravel mobility and sand suspension thresholds through the gravel-sand transition (GST) of the Fraser River, British Columbia. The Fraser GST is an arrested gravel wedge with patches of gravel downstream of the wedge forming a diffuse extension. There is an abrupt change in bed slope through the transition that leads to an abrupt change in shear stress. The GST, bed-slope change and backwater caused by the ocean are all coincident spatially, which enhances the sharpness of the GST. Interestingly, the bimodal reach of the river occurs downstream of the GST and exhibits no downstream gradients in shear stress, suspended sediment flux, gravel mobility or sand suspension thresholds. This calls into question the prevailing theory for the emergence of an abrupt GST by size selective sorting. We provide evidence, both empirical and theoretical, that suggests the emergence of an abrupt GST is caused by rapid deposition of sand when fine gravel deposits. We argue that the emergence of gravel-sand transitions is a consequence of gravel-bedded rivers adopting a steeper slope than sand-bedded rivers. The abruptness arises because the bed slope required to convey the gravel load fixes the distal location of a terminal gravel wedge, and once the river has lost the capacity to carry the gravel mixture, the river adopts the lower slope required to pass the sand load. Progressive downstream fining of a gravel-sand mixture is not a necessary condition for the emergence of a gravel-sand transition.

  12. Water-air properties in peat, sand and their mixtures

    OpenAIRE

    Rovdan E.; Bieganowski A.; Witkowska-Walczak B.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the investigations of water-air relations in peat, sand and their mixture. It was stated that the addition of sand into peat radically changes its water-air characteristics, i.e., causes a considerable decrease of water amount bound in the mixture with different potentials and at the same time the increase of the soil air content. The analysis of ODR and Eh values lets us state that the addition up to 60% of sand into peat does not cause a significant improv...

  13. Differences and commonalities impregnation of dry and wet sand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maujuda ?UZAFFAROVA

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to research new methods of physic-chemical methods of preventing deflation to protect railways and highways from such phenomena as exogenous sand drifts. In particular, first studied the possibility of using binders in sand wet state. Results can significantly extend the scope of the method, and identified with particular impregnation maintaining stability requirements protective cover reduces both the concentration previously recommended binders, and their costs, thereby securing implementation in practice of shifting sands resource-saving technology.

  14. The apparent surface roughness of moving sand transported by wind

    CERN Document Server

    Pähtz, Thomas; Herrmann, Hans J

    2014-01-01

    We present a comprehensive analytical model of aeolian sand transport in saltation. It quantifies the momentum transfer from the wind to the transported sand by providing expressions for the thickness of the saltation layer and the apparent surface roughness. These expressions are for the first time entirely derived from basic physical principles. The model further predicts the sand transport rate (mass flux) and the impact threshold shear velocity. We show that the model predictions are in very good agreement with experiments and numerical state of the art simulations of aeolian saltation.

  15. Oil sands: Strategies for future development - An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Alberta Chamber of Resources developed a Task Force in 1993 to promote oil sands development, and to identify and publicize the social and economic benefits of oil sands operations. Formation, mission of the National Task Force, impediments and opportunities for development were summarized. Attributes of oil sands, benefits of their development, impediments to development, strategic development and potential growth scenarios were discussed. Cooperation between government and industry was deemed essential. Recommendations included development of a bitumen pipeline network, provision of incentives to encourage development, encouragement of risk and reward sharing between bitumen producers and up graders, and diversification of products and by-products. 7 figs., 12 refs

  16. DCS of Syrtis Major Sand Migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Released August 2, 2004 This image shows two representations of the same infra-red image of craters and lava flow features in Syrtis Major. On the left is a grayscale image showing surface temperature, and on the right is a false-color composite made from 3 individual THEMIS bands. The false-color image is colorized using a technique called decorrelation stretch (DCS), which emphasizes the spectral differences between the bands to highlight compositional variations. The prominent rim of the large crater at the top of the image is blocking migrating sand from entering the crater. This produces a very distinct compositional boundary between the pink/magenta basaltic sand and the green dust covering the crater rim and floor. Many of the smaller craters in this region have dust trails behind them, indicating the prevailing wind direction. At the top of the image, the prevailing wind direction is to the northwest, while at the bottom of the image, the prevailing winds have shifted towards the southwest. Image information: IR instrument. Latitude 9.2, Longitude 68.4 East (291.6 West). 100 meter/pixel resolution. Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  17. Evaluation of an Innovative Sand Filter for Small System Drinking Water Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Results of evaluation of an innovative sand filter that uses the concepts of both slow and rapid sand filtration are presented in this article. The system uses a low-cost ?Drum Sand Filter? (DSF) that consists of a 55-gallon drum filled with layers of sand of varying size. A low-...

  18. Depleted-uranium recovery from and cleaning of target sands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This patent describes a method of removing uranium and its oxidation products from target sands and consists of: (a) providing a container means which can be heated; (b) adding uranium-containing target sands to the container; (c) adding a salt mixture comprising at least 70 weight percent of a salt selected from the group consisting of nitrates of magnesium, calcium, potassium, sodium, and lithium to the container; (d) heating the target sands and the salt mixture together to fuse the salt to convert the uranium to uranium oxidation products; (e) adding water to dissolve the salt component into aqueous solution and removing the aqueous solution; (f) adding nitric acid to dissolve the uranium oxidation products into aqueous nitric acid solution; and (g) rinsing the target sands with water washing out the dissolved uranium oxidation products

  19. Annual report : 1935-'36 : Sand Lake Migratory Waterfowl Refuge

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report covers activities on Sand Lake Migratory Waterfowl Refuge during the 1936 fiscal year. This annual narrative report covers activities...

  20. Annual report : 1936-'37 : Sand Lake Migratory Waterfowl Refuge

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report covers activities on Sand Lake Migratory Waterfowl Refuge during the 1937 fiscal year. This annual narrative report covers activities...

  1. DEGRADATION AND MIGRATION OF VINCLOZOLIN IN SAND AND SOIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    The migration of the dicarboximide fungicide vinclozolin and its principal degradation products through porous media was experimentally determined by simulating pesticide applications to a 23-30 mesh Ottawa sand and a North Carolina Piedmont, aquic hapludult soil in laboratory ...

  2. The role of aluminum in slow sand filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber-Shirk, Monroe L; Chan, Kwok Loon

    2007-03-01

    Engineering enhancement of slow sand filtration has been an enigma in large part because the mechanisms responsible for particle removal have not been well characterized. The presumed role of biological processes in the filter ripening process nearly precluded the possibility of enhancing filter performance since interventions to enhance biological activity would have required decreasing the quality of the influent water. In previous work, we documented that an acid soluble polymer controls filter performance. The new understanding that particle removal is controlled in large part by physical chemical mechanisms has expanded the possibilities of engineering slow sand filter performance. Herein, we explore the role of naturally occurring aluminum as a ripening agent for slow sand filters and the possibility of using a low dose of alum to improve filter performance or to ripen slow sand filters. PMID:17276479

  3. Adsorption of dyes using different types of sand: A review

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Olugbenga Solomon, Bello; Isah Adewale, Bello; Kayode Adesina, Adegoke.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The threat posed by increasing amount of dyes on daily basis, especially on our ecosystem, has brought a serious search for more efficient low-cost adsorbents. Sand is mixed with cement and water to make concrete, used in the manufacture of brick, glass and other materials, and it can also be used a [...] s a medium for the filtration of water. Sand, which is ubiquitous, has been used as an adsorbent because of its enormous availability in the local environment. This review reveals that further research must be conducted to bring to the fore the expansive laboratory, industrial and environmental usage of sand materials as dye adsorbents. Consequently, the usage of different types of sand in the field of adsorption science represents a viable and powerful tool, resulting into the superior improvement in pollution control and environmental preservation.

  4. Assessment of sand encroachment in Kuwait using GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Helal, Anwar B.; Al-Awadhi, Jasem M.

    2006-04-01

    Assessment of sand encroachment in Kuwait using Geographical Information System (GIS) technology has been formulated as a Multi-Criteria Decision Making problem. The Delphi method and Analytical Hierarchy Process were adopted as evaluating techniques, in which experts’ judgments were analyzed for objectively estimating and weighting control factors. Seven triggering factors, depicted in the form of maps, were identified and ordered according to their priority. These factors are (1) wind energy; (2) surface sediment; (3) vegetation density; (4) land use; (5) drainage density; (6) topographic change and (7) vegetation type. The factor maps were digitized, converted to raster data and overlaid to determine their possible spatial relationships. Applying a susceptibility model, a map of sand encroachment susceptibility in Kuwait was developed. The map showed that the areas of very high and high sand encroachment susceptibility are located within the main corridor of sand pathway that coincides with the northwesterly dominant wind direction.

  5. Calvatia sculpta, a striking puffball occurring on Brazilian sand dunes

    OpenAIRE

    Goulart Baseia, Iuri; Diego Calonge, Francisco

    2008-01-01

    This North American species was discovered for the first time in South America, growing on sand dunes associated with native tree roots. A description comments, illustration of the basidome and SEM-photo of the spores are given.

  6. Documenting the global impacts of beach sand mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, R.; Griffith, A.

    2009-04-01

    For centuries, beach sand has been mined for use as aggregate in concrete, for heavy minerals, and for construction fill. The global extent and impact of this phenomenon has gone relatively unnoticed by academics, NGOs, and major news sources. Most reports of sand mining activities are found at the very local scale (if the mining is ever documented at all). Yet, sand mining in many localities has resulted in the complete destruction of beach (and related) ecosystems along with severe impacts to coastal protection and tourism. The Program for the Study of Developed Shorelines at Western Carolina University and Beachcare.org have initiated the construction of a global database of beach sand mining activities. The database is being built through a combination of site visits and through the data mining of media resources, peer reviewed papers, and reports from private and governmental entities. Currently, we have documented sand mining in 35 countries on 6 continents representing the removal of millions of cubic meters of sand. Problems extend from Asia where critical infrastructure has been disrupted by sand mining to the Caribbean where policy reform has swiftly followed a highly publicized theft of sand. The Program for the Study of Developed Shorelines recently observed extensive sand mining in Morocco at the regional scale. Tens of kilometers of beach have been stripped of sand and the mining continues southward reducing hope of a thriving tourism-based economy. Problems caused by beach sand mining include: destruction of natural beaches and the ecosystems they protect (e.g. dunes, wetlands), habitat loss for globally important species (e.g. turtles, shorebirds), destruction of nearshore marine ecosystems, increased shoreline erosion rates, reduced protection from storms, tsunamis, and wave events, and economic losses through tourist abandonment and loss of coastal aesthetics. The threats posed by sand mining are made even more critical given the prospect of a significant rise in global sea level over the coming decades. Most governments recognize the local impacts of sand mining and mining activities are illegal in many localities. However, enforcement of these protections has been problematic and there has been little pressure to stop the practice from local or international environmental groups. In many cases, addressing the issue of sand mining requires addressing the local issues that allow it to persist. This includes poverty, corruption, and unregulated development. In areas where beach sand mining significantly supports the local economy, care needs to be given that local workers are given alternative means of income, and builders are provided an affordable substitute for the sand (e.g. crushed rock). Regardless, it is time for both academics and NGOs to address the cumulative environmental impacts of the direct destruction of the world's beaches through mining activities.

  7. The oil sands: A new energy vision for Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canada's oil sands deposits were considered to offer huge potential for wealth generation and enduring social benefits. This report showed that putting in action the plan developed by the National Task Force on Oil Sands Strategies would help unlock this potential and realize the benefits; the forecast called for a doubling or tripling of oil sands production over the next 25 years. The plan should also predicted an increase in investments in oil sands since the fiscal regime would be stable and the product would be in increasing demand. New capital investment should generate significant environmental, social and economic benefits. The real outcome would be increased national prosperity, since further growth in investment would translate into thousands of skilled jobs across Canada, expansion of government revenues, and improvements to Canada's trade balance. 1 ill

  8. 76 FR 78168 - Importation of Chinese Sand Pears From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-16

    ...allow the importation of Chinese sand pears (Pyrus pyrifolia) from China into the United States...allow for the importation of both Ya pears (Pyrus bretschneideri) and fragrant pears (Pyrus sp. nr. communis) from China. The...

  9. 77 FR 75007 - Importation of Sand Pears From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-19

    ...regulations to allow the importation of sand pears (Pyrus pyrifolia) from China into the United States...allow for the importation of both Ya pears (Pyrus bretschneideri) and fragrant pears (Pyrus sp. nr. communis) from China. The...

  10. Possibilities of preparation asphalt concrete by oil sands of Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erbol Tileuberdi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the paper physicochemical properties of oil sands of Munayli-Mola deposits and efficient ways to use them for preparing asphalt concrete were represented. For determination of organic part of oil sands the extraction methods were used in Soxhlet apparatus by variety of solvents. It has been established 16 wt.% content of natural bitumen in oil sands, which compared with results of ash content determination. According to results of experiment, the natural bitumen is heavy oil and its characteristics close to characteristics of paving bitumen. The optimum content of oil sands in asphalt mix are 28 and 47 mass %, the mixes prepared under these conditions satisfy standard requirements of the Republic of Kazakhstan on the asphalt mixture ST RK 1225-2003.

  11. Sand with small rocks habitat at the Mojave desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katie Hale (California State University, Fullerton; Student, Biological Sciences)

    2007-01-06

    The loose sand of this habitat lacks moisture but is sufficient for drought tolerant plant growth. The small rocks provide shade and shelter for small lizards or insects. The shrubs provide shade and shelter for larger desert organisms.

  12. Appraisal of the tight sands potential of the Sand Wash and Great Divide Basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The volume of future tight gas reserve additions is difficult to estimate because of uncertainties in the characterization and extent of the resource and the performance and cost-effectiveness of stimulation and production technologies. Ongoing R ampersand D by industry and government aims to reduce the risks and costs of producing these tight resources, increase the certainty of knowledge of their geologic characteristics and extent, and increase the efficiency of production technologies. Some basins expected to contain large volumes of tight gas are being evaluated as to their potential contribution to domestic gas supplies. This report describes the results of one such appraisal. This analysis addresses the tight portions of the Eastern Greater Green River Basin (Sand Wash and Great Divide Subbasins in Northwestern Colorado and Southwestern Wyoming, respectively), with respect to estimated gas-in-place, technical recovery, and potential reserves. Geological data were compiled from public and proprietary sources. The study estimated gas-in-place in significant (greater than 10 feet net sand thickness) tight sand intervals for six distinct vertical and 21 areal units of analysis. These units of analysis represent tight gas potential outside current areas of development. For each unit of analysis, a ''typical'' well was modeled to represent the costs, recovery and economics of near-term drilling prospects in that unit. Technically recoverable gas was calculated using reservoir properties and assumptions about current formation evaluation and extraction technology performance. Basin-specific capital and operating costs were incorporated along with taxes, royalties and current regulations to estimate the minimum required wellhead gas price required to make the typical well in each of unit of analysis economic

  13. Estrés Térmico en Trabajadores Expuestos al Área de Fundición en una Empresa Metalmecánica, Mariara: 2004-2005 / Heat stress in workers exposed to a foundries in a metal-mechanic company, Mariara 2004-2005

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Dunia Inés, Camacho Fagúndez.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigación tiene como objetivo evaluar el riesgo de estrés térmico en trabajadores expuestos al área de fundición en una Empresa Metalmecánica. El estudio realizado es de tipo transversal, descriptivo de campo. El universo estuvo integrado por veinte trabajadores y la muestra representada po [...] r ocho trabajadores del área de fundición. El análisis e interpretación de los datos se realizó a través de medida de tendencia central, desviación estándar y correlación de pearson. En conclusión, en el área de fundición existe disconfort térmico; no obstante, los trabajadores se encuentran aclimatados en dicha área. Se recomienda establecer programa preventivo de ambiente térmico. Abstract in english This research aims to assess the risk of heat stress in workers exposed to foundries in Metal-mechanic Company. The study is cross-sectional, field descriptive. The universe consisted of twenty workers and the sample represented by eight workers from the foundry. The analysis and interpretation of t [...] he data was performed using the measure of central tendency, standard deviation and Pearson correlation. In conclusion, in the foundry there is heat discomfort; however, workers are acclimated in this area. It is recommended to establish thermal environment preventive program.

  14. DFM in practice: results of a three way partnership between a leading fabless design house, foundry, and EDA company to implement alternating-phase shift mask (Alt-PSM) on a 90-nm FPGA chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chun-Chi; Shieh, Ming-Feng; Liu, Erick; Lin, Benjamin; Lin, Henry; Chacko, Manoj; Li, Xiaoyang; Lei, Wen-Kang; Ho, Jonathan; Wu, Xin

    2005-05-01

    At the sub 90nm nodes, resolution enhancement techniques (RETs) such as optical proximity correction (OPC), phase-shifting masks (PSM), sub-resolution assist features (SRAF) have become essential steps in the post-physical verification 'Mask Synthesis' process and a key component of design for manufacturing (DFM). Several studies have been conducted and the results have been published on the implication and application of the different types of RETs on mask printability and costs. More specifically, double-exposure-based, dark-field, alternating PSM (Alt-PSM) technology has received lot of attention with respect to the mask manufacturing challenges and its implementation into a production flow, despite its yield and critical dimension (CD) control superiority. Implementation of Alt-PSM generally requires phase compliance rules and proper phase topology in the layout and this has been successful for the technology node with these rules implemented. However, this may not be true for a matured, production process technology, in this case 90 nm. Especially, in the foundry-fabless business model where the foundry provides a standard set of design rules to its customers for a given process technology, and where not all the foundry customers require Alt-PSM in their tapeout flow. What follows is an in-depth review of the DFM challenges to each partner faced, its effect on the tapeout flow, and how design, manufacturing, and EDA teams worked together to resolve phase conflicts, tapeout the chip, and finally verify the silicon results in production.

  15. Development competence of an iron/steel foundry in the field of tension between material selection and production technology for engine components; Entwicklungskompetenz einer Eisen-/Stahlgiesserei im Spannungsfeld von Werkstoffauswahl und Fertigungstechnologie fuer Motorenbauteile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, R. [Eisenwerk Bruehl GmbH, Bruehl (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    If we had to summarize all aspects of the combustion engine subject, engine development is - from the viewpoint of an iron and steel foundry specialist - mainly controlled by environmental protection (CO{sub 2}) and saving energy (raw material shortage). We will always consider today's development targets, which are based on fuel reduction and power increase. To focus on development today means to focus on emission sources, on exhaust treatment and on a medium term change to alternative driving systems. Implementing these targets will always be in the focus and solutions will have to be found in the automotive industry on a continuous basis. Some of the initial phases are directly linked to the foundry and their production technology and casting material. Being foundry specialists we have to adjust our efforts for new strategies to these requirements. ERW group together with Eisenwerk Bruehl GmbH and Eisenwerk Hasenclever are going to show their methodology with the help of three examples for developing material- / production technology in CGI with vermicular-type graphite, ADI - austempered ductile iron and cast steel. (orig.)

  16. Athabasca oil sands produce quality gasoline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yui, S. [Syncrude Canada Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Edmonton Research Centre; Ng, S.H. [Natural Resources Canada, Devon, AB (Canada). CANMET Energy Upgrading Program

    2010-07-01

    The technologies used to produce Syncrude's sweet blend (SSB) synthetic crude oil are always being optimized. Studies have demonstrated that bitumens can be upgraded to produce high quality gasoline. This power point presentation discussed a pilot study conducted to determine the performance of 10 vacuum gas oils (VGOs) and their performance with a typical commercial equilibrium catalyst under varying temperature regimes. VGOs were compared in relation to their density, sulphur content, and hydrocarbon precursor types. Gasoline precursors included mono-aromatics and saturates. Gasoline quality was determined by measuring sulphur content and determine octane numbers. The study demonstrated that sulphur and nitrogen content is feed dependent. Gasoline yields were increased by reducing total nitrogen (TN) as well as by increasing gasoline precursors. Hydrocracker bottoms produced the highest gasoline yields. The octane numbers of oil sands-derived gasoline are the same as numbers derived from typical Alberta light crude blends. The hydrocracking and hydrotreating processes increase gasoline yields with low sulphur and high octane numbers. Hydrotreated virgin and LC-finer VGOs produce gasoline yields that are similar to conventional crude VGOs. tabs., figs.

  17. Uranium migration in sand soil - controlled experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Study of Uranium migration in porous media such as sandy soil is essential to evaluate the potential contamination of groundwater situated in the vicinity of radionuclide waste disposal sites and nuclear facilities. At first, the infiltration of uranium solution through local sandy soil focuses on the influence of solution pH and the grain size ranges of the sandy soil on adsorption and leaching values. Solutions with three pH levels of 0.5, 3.6 and 9 were allowed to infiltrate through columns filled with sand of three grain size fractions: 63-125 ?m 125-250 ?m and 250-500 ?m. The pH level was found to be a more important variable than grain size. In alkaline solution colloids were produced, which are more mobile between the pores, so uranium was found at deeper layer. The second experiment involved leaching of uranium from the solid material. After the equivalent of 7,000 mm of rainfall had percolated through the column, only 1/3 of the uranium had been leached. This result indicates that only negligible leaching occurs in arid and semi-arid zones. (author)

  18. The extraction of bitumen from western tar sands. Annual report, July 1990--July 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oblad, A.G.; Bunger, J.W.; Deo, M.D.; Hanson, F.V.; Miller, J.D.; Seader, J.D.

    1992-04-01

    Contents of this report include the following: executive summary; characterization of the native bitumen from the Whiterocks oil sand deposit; influence of carboxylic acid content on bitumen viscosity; water based oil sand separation technology; extraction of bitumen from western oil sands by an energy-efficient thermal method; large- diameter fluidized bed reactor studies; rotary kiln pyrolysis of oil sand; catalytic upgrading of bitumen and bitumen derived liquids; ebullieted bed hydrotreating and hydrocracking; super critical fluid extraction; bitumen upgrading; 232 references; Appendix A--Whiterocks tar sand deposit bibliography; Appendix B--Asphalt Ridge tar sand deposit bibliography; and Appendix C--University of Utah tar sands bibliography.

  19. Threshold Considerations and Wetland Reclamation in Alberta's Mineable Oil Sands

    OpenAIRE

    Lee Foote

    2012-01-01

    Oil sand extraction in Alberta, Canada is a multibillion dollar industry operating over 143 km² of open pit mining and 4600 km² of other bitumen strata in northern boreal forests. Oil production contributes to Canada-wide GDP, creates socio-cultural problems, provides energy exports and employment, and carries environmental risks regarding long-term reclamation uncertainties. Of particular concern are the implications for wetlands and water supply management. Mining of oil sands is very att...

  20. Harmfulness of moulding sands with bentonite and lustrous carbon carriers

    OpenAIRE

    Holtzer, M.; Grabowska, B.; Z?ymankowska-kumon, S.; Kwas?niewska-kro?likowska, D.; Dan?ko, R.; Solarski, W.; Bobrowski, A.

    2012-01-01

    Procedures have been developed to determine the volume, rate and composition (particularly BTEX: benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes and PAHs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons)) of gas evolution from moulds and cores prepared with various binders as a means of harmfulness of moulding sands. The rate of gas evolution from green sands with four different lustrous carbon carrier and BTEX content were determined. The gas evolution rates are highest in the range of about 20 to 30 s after co...

  1. Numerical Modeling of Flow in a Horizontal Sand Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Mossad

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Horizontal sand filters may offer some advantage over vertical sand filters as they could be used for in-line treatment of wastewaters. Horizontal pipelines of tens and if not hundreds of meters length, filled with ordinary sand or permeable reactive media such as activated carbon or natural zeolite or iron filings, may be used to remove impurities from mine drainage waters, sewer and storm waters. Approach: However, in reality, in industrial-scale applications, the sand filled horizontal structures are almost always avoided due to the fact that water seeks out the path of least resistance. Once such a path is created, the vast majority of the water channels towards the least resistance zone and very small percentage of the water will go through the sand. Results: This study, applying numerical modeling using FLUENT software, which is based on the integral control volume approach, explores a number of geometries to identify a design that helps the inlet water to sweep the entire sand with the least channeling. The Navier Stokes equations for laminar and incompressible flow through porous media (i.e., the sand including the viscous resistance were solved. Retention time of a fluid with properties similar to water, called tracer, were also estimated using Eulerian unsteady two phase flow analysis. Conclusion: The results of the models showed that the geometries involving a pipe with spiral protrusions or plate (baffles inside, would be partially successful in drawing the water away from the channeling zone and moving it through the sand, however the geometry with the spiral protrusions uses much less power than the one with the baffles.

  2. Geology Fieldnotes: Great Sand Dunes National Monument Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    This article describes the geology of Great Sand Dunes National Monument. The monument is in southern Colorado and contains North America's tallest dunes, which rise over 750 feet high against the Sangre de Cristo Mountains. Great Sand Dunes, containing 30 square miles of dunes, became a national monument in 1932. Features include links to maps, photographs and visitor information as well as a selection of links to related topics.

  3. Radioecology of temperate coastal sand dunes: A synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Wood, M. D.; Beresford, N. A.; Barnett, C.L; Copplestone, D

    2011-01-01

    Temperate coastal sand dunes are amongst the most dynamic landscapes on earth, their evolution being mediated by both climatic and environmental conditions. Formed at the interface between terrestrial and aquatic environments, these biodiversity-rich ecosystems are a valuable resource that deliver a range ecosystem services (the benefits people derive from ecosystems). Sand dune ecosystem services include agricultural products, storm protection through coastal defence, river water purificat...

  4. Western tight gas sands advanced logging workshop proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jennings, J B; Carroll, Jr, H B [eds.

    1982-04-01

    An advanced logging research program is one major aspect of the Western Tight Sands Program. Purpose of this workshop is to help BETC define critical logging needs for tight gas sands and to allow free interchange of ideas on all aspects of the current logging research program. Sixteen papers and abstracts are included together with discussions. Separate abstracts have been prepared for the 12 papers. (DLC)

  5. Guided wave attenuation in pipes buried in sand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leinov, Eli; Cawley, Peter; Lowe, Michael JS

    2015-03-01

    Long-range ultrasonic guided wave testing of pipelines is used routinely for detection of corrosion defects in a variety of industries, e.g. petrochemical and energy. When the method is applied to pipelines that are buried in soil, test ranges tend to be significantly compromised compared to those achieved for pipelines above ground because of the attenuation of the guided wave, due to energy leaking into the embedding soil. The attenuation characteristics of guided wave propagation in a pipe buried in sand are investigated using a full scale experimental rig. The apparatus consists of an 8"-diameter, 6-meters long steel pipe embedded over 3 meters in a rectangular container filled with sand and fitted with an air-bladder for the application of overburden pressure. Measurements of the attenuation of the T(0,1) and L(0,2) guided wave modes over a range of sand conditions, including loose, compacted, water saturated and drained, are presented. Attenuation values are found to be in the range of 1-5.5 dB/m. The application of overburden pressure modifies the compaction of the sand and increases the attenuation. The attenuation decreases in the fully water-saturated sand, while it increases in drained sand to values comparable with those obtained for the compacted sand. The attenuation behavior of the torsional guided wave mode is found not to be captured by a uniform soil model; comparison with predictions obtained with the Disperse software suggest that this is likely to be due to a layer of sand adhering to the surface of the pipe.

  6. Sustainable water management in Alberta's oil sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byers, Bill; Usher, Robyn; Roach, Andrea [CH2M HILL, Englewood, CO (United States); Lambert, Gord; Kotecha, Prit [Suncor Energy Inc., Calgary (Canada)

    2012-07-01

    The Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers forecast published in 2011 predicts that oil production from oil sands will increase by 50% in the next 3 years and double by 2020. This rate of growth will result in significant pressure on water resources; water use per barrel of oil sands production is comparable to other energy resources - about 2.5 barrels of fresh water per barrel of oil produced are used by mining operations and 0.5 barrels by in-situ operations. Suncor Energy Inc. (Suncor) was the first company to develop the oil sands in northern Alberta and holds one of the largest oil sands positions in Canada. In 2010, Suncor announced plans to increase production to more than 1 million barrels of oil equivalent per day by 2020, which it plans to achieve through oil sands production growth of approximately 10% per year. Because water supply and potential impacts to water quality are critical to its future growth, in 2010-2011 Suncor conducted a risk assessment to identify water-related business risks related to its northern Alberta operations. The assessment identified more than 20 high level business risks in strategic water risk areas including water supply, water reuse, storm water management, groundwater, waste management and river water return. The risk assessment results prompted development of a strategic roadmap to guide water stewardship across Suncor's regional operations. The roadmap describes goals, objectives, and specific activities for each of six key water risk areas, and informs prioritization and selection of prospective water management activities. Suncor is not only exploring water within its own boundaries, but is also collaborating with other oil sands producers to explore ways of integrating its water systems through industry consortia; Suncor is a member of the Oil Sands Leadership Initiative and of the recently formed Canadian Oil Sands Innovation Alliance, among others. (author)

  7. Monitoring of rapid sand filters using an acoustic imaging technique:

    OpenAIRE

    Allouche, N.; Simons,D.G.; Rietveld, L. C.

    2012-01-01

    A novel instrument is developed to acoustically image sand filters used for water treatment and monitor their performance. The instrument consists of an omnidirectional transmitter that generates a chirp with a frequency range between 10 and 110 kHz, and an array of hydrophones. The instrument was extensively tested in a lab before being deployed in an industrial rapid sand filter, made available by a Dutch drinking water company. This filter was monitored over a period of 10 days. We perform...

  8. Experimental Study of the Mechanical Behavior of Loose Sand in Oedometric Stress Path

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eyad Seifeddin

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Very loose sand is defined as sand whose state is significantly looser than its critical state. In fact, the detailed stress –strain behavior of very loose sands have received almost no attention in the geotechnical literature. So, this paper is intended as a step towards the study of the behavior of very loose sands. In order to study experimentally the behavior of dry and wet loose sand on oedometric path under low stresses and with high values of voids ratio, we have realized several oedometer tests on different types of sand (such as : Hostun sand RF, sand 70-270 and Ziani sand, for which we have used different water contents. As a result of this work, several values of the characteristics of materials studied have been obtained and which permit to make some observations and conclusions concerning the behavior of loose sand.

  9. Evaluating sand and clay models: do rheological differences matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenstadt, Gloria; Sims, Darrell

    2005-08-01

    Dry sand and wet clay are the most frequently used materials for physical modeling of brittle deformation. We present a series of experiments that shows when the two materials can be used interchangeably, document the differences in deformation patterns and discuss how best to evaluate and apply results of physical models. Extension and shortening produce similar large-scale deformation patterns in dry sand and wet clay models, indicating that the two materials can be used interchangeably for analysis of gross deformation geometries. There are subtle deformation features that are significantly different: (1) fault propagation and fault linkage; (2) fault width, spacing and displacement; (3) extent of deformation zone; and (4) amount of folding vs. faulting. These differences are primarily due to the lower cohesion of sand and its larger grain size. If these features are of interest, the best practice would be to repeat the experiments with more than one material to ensure that rheological differences are not biasing results. Dry sand and wet clay produce very different results in inversion models; almost all faults are reactivated in wet clay, and few, if any, are significantly reactivated in sand models. Fault reactivation is attributed to high fluid pressure along the fault zone in the wet clay, a situation that may be analogous to many rocks. Sand inversion models may be best applied to areas where most faults experience little to no reactivation, while clay models best fit areas where most pre-existing normal faults are reactivated.

  10. Simultaneous nitrification-denitrification in slow sand filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakhla, George; Farooq, Shaukat

    2003-01-31

    While the ability of slow sand filters to remove total suspended solids (SS), turbidity, and organics from wastewaters is well known, this study has demonstrated that they can also achieve simultaneous nitrification-denitrification, producing effluent total Kjedahl nitrogen (TKN) and total nitrogen (TN) concentrations as low as 0.6 and 1.5mg/l, respectively, utilizing particulate and slowly biodegradable COD in the process. The impact of filtration rates in the range of 0.15-0.38m/h, filter depth of 0.5-1.5m, and sand size 0.3-0.5mm on nitrogen removal processes at temperatures of 10-39 degrees C was assessed. Nitrification efficiency, denitrification efficiency, and total nitrogen removal efficiency correlated well with filtration rate and sand size only, with all three parameters inversely proportional to the square root of the aforementioned two process variables. Nitrification exhibited the most sensitivity to filtration rate and sand size. The filters produced effluent with turbidities of 0.1-0.5 NTU, SS concentrations of 3-6mg/l in the fine sand and 6-9mg/l in the coarse sand. Effluent BOD(5) and COD concentrations were mostly in the 0.8-2.6 and 15-34mg/l range, respectively. PMID:12493214

  11. Simulation of barchan dynamics with inter-dune sand streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A group of barchans, crescent sand dunes, exhibit a characteristic flying-geese pattern in deserts on Earth and Mars. This pattern implies that an indirect interaction between barchans, mediated by an inter-dune sand stream, which is released from one barchan's horns and caught by another barchan, plays an important role in the dynamics of barchan fields. We used numerical simulations of a recently proposed cell model to investigate the effects of inter-dune sand streams on barchan fields. We found that a sand stream from a point source moves a downstream barchan laterally until the head of the barchan is finally situated behind the stream. This final configuration was shown to be stable by a linear stability analysis. These results indicate that flying-geese patterns are formed by the lateral motion of barchans mediated by inter-dune sand streams. By using simulations we also found a barchan mono-corridor generation effect, which is another effect of sand streams from point sources.

  12. Petrophysical Evaluation Of Radioactive Sands In The Niger Delta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wire line logging tools responses in the Niger Delta are often affected by the presence of several radioactive minerals. The interpretation of hydrocarbon bearing radioactive sands using conventional approaches has resulted in underestimation of hydrocarbon resources. To gain more insight into the problem of radioactive hydrocarbon bearing formations in the Niger Delta, a project was carried out within Shell to study the structure, mineralogy and pore geometry associated with radioactive sand typical of the Niger Delta, and develop evaluation techniques for improved recognition of radioactive sands. The nature of radioactive sands encountered in the Niger Delta is now better understood and an automated identification procedure based on wire line logs using neural networks has been developed. Radioactive sands are sometimes laminae are masked by those of the shale laminae thereby leading to low resistivity readings despite the presence of appreciable amounts of producible hydrocarbons. The structural configuration of radioactive sands has necessitated the development of of an evaluation package for thin bedded shaly sandstone reservoirs. The application of the evaluation package indicates significant increases in hydrocarbon volumes when compared to conventional evaluation. approaches

  13. Sanding dust from nanoparticle-containing paints: Physical characterisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increasing use of nanoparticles in different industrial applications has raised a new potential health risk to the workers as well as to the consumers. This study investigates the particle size distributions of sanding dust released from paints produced with and without engineered nanoparticles. Dust emissions from sanding painted plates were found to consist of five size modes; three modes under 1 ?m and two modes around 1 and 2 ?m. We observed that the sander was the only source of particles smaller than 50 nm and they dominated the number concentration spectra. Mass and surface area spectra were dominated by the 1 and 2 ?m modes. Addition of nanoparticles caused only minor changes in the geometric mean diameters of the particle modes generated during sanding of two paints doped with 17 nm TiO2 and 95 nm Carbon Black nanoparticles as compared to the size modes generated during sanding a conventional reference paint. However, the number concentrations in the different size modes varied considerably in between the two NP-doped paints and the reference paint. Therefore, from a physical point of view, there may be a difference in the exposure risk during sanding surfaces covered with nanoparticle-based paints as compared to sanding conventional paints.

  14. Shear Band Formation in Plane Strain Experiments of Sand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshibli, Khalid A.; Sture, Stein

    2000-01-01

    A series of biaxial (plane strain) experiments were conducted on three sands under low (15 kPa) and high (100 kPa) confining pressure conditions to investigate the effects of specimen density, confining pressure, and sand grain size and shape on the constitutive and stability behavior of granular materials. The three sands used in the experiments were fine-, medium-, and coarse-grained uniform silica sands with rounded, subangular, and angular grains, respectively. Specimen deformation was readily monitored and analyzed with the help of a grid pattern imprinted on the latex membrane. The overall stress-strain behavior is strongly dependent on the specimen density, confining pressure, sand grain texture, and the resulting failure mode(s). That became evident in different degrees of softening responses at various axial strains. The relationship between the constitutive behavior and the specimens' modes of instability is presented. The failure in all specimens was characterized by two distinct and opposite shear bands. It was found that the measured dilatancy angles increase as the sand grains' angularities and sizes increase. The measured shear band inclination angles are also presented and compared with classical Coulomb and Roscoe solutions.

  15. Planejamento e Programação da Produção numa Fundição Cativa Automatizada de Grande Porte / Lot sizing and Scheduling in a Large Automated Foundry

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Silvio Alexandre de, Araujo; Marcos Nereu, Arenales.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho consiste num estudo de caso em uma fundição cativa de grande porte, a qual tem três linhas de moldagem e dois conjuntos de fornos. As linhas de moldagem produzem diferentes tipos de itens com demandas conhecidas e que devem ser feitos com diferentes ligas produzidas pelos fornos. Em ca [...] da período, a programação da produção nessa fundição envolve dois níveis importantes de decisão que estão inter-relacionados: 1) qual liga deve ser produzida no forno em cada período, e 2) a quantidade de cada item a ser produzida em cada máquina de moldagem. Inicialmente, o processo produtivo é descrito e então um modelo matemático de otimização inteira mista é proposto o qual considera o dimensionamento de lotes para os itens e a programação da capacidade dos fornos. Um pacote comercial foi utilizado para a obtenção dos resultados computacionais. Foi feita uma simulação de 5 dias de trabalho e os resultados obtidos a partir da solução do modelo foram comparados com os resultados obtidos na prática pela indústria, mostrando expressivos ganhos de produtividade e redução de atrasos na entrega dos pedidos. Abstract in english This work consists of a case study in a large foundry, which has three molding lines and two sets of furnaces. The molding lines produce different types of items, which must be made of different alloys produced by the furnaces. In each period, the production programming in this foundry has two impor [...] tant levels of decision making which are linked: 1) which alloys should be produced in the furnace in each period and 2) the quantity of each item to be produced in each molding machine. Initially, the productive process is described and then a mixed integer programming optimization model is proposed in which the lot-sizing of the items and the capacity programming of the furnaces are considered. A commercial package/software was utilized to obtain the computational results. A simulation lasting 5 working days was carried out and the computational results obtained from the model solution were compared with the ones obtained by the company, showing a significant increase in the productivity and reduction concerning delays of the delivery deadline.

  16. The role of maximum wind speed in sand-transporting events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, LianYou; Yang, YanYan; Shi, PeiJun; Zhang, GuoMing; Qu, ZhiQiang

    2015-06-01

    A sand-transporting event is the minimum unit of aeolian sand transport process. To understand the role of maximum wind speed in such sand-transporting events, wind speeds were measured at a height of 2 m above the ground in the arid (Menggen) and semi-arid (Taibus Banner) regions in north China during 2009 and 2011. The sand transport flux of each sand-transporting event was calculated based on theoretical equations. Then, the relationships between the maximum wind speed and the average wind speed, the duration and sand transport flux of sand-transporting events were analyzed. It was found that the maximum wind speed was proportional to the average wind speed of sand-transporting events, with a linear model fit, and was also significantly correlated with the duration of sand-transporting events with a power model fit. The maximum wind speed was also positively correlated with sand transport flux of sand-transporting events according to a power model. The maximum wind speed could therefore represent both wind speed and the duration of sand-transporting events, and play a decisive role in the sand transport process of these events. The sand transport flux of sand-transporting events can be predicted rapidly and conveniently by monitoring maximum wind speed.

  17. Prediction of sand particle trajectories and sand erosion damage on helicopter rotor blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Bong Gun

    Therefore, in this dissertation, accurate and time-efficient methodologies were developed for performing sand particle tracking and predicting sand erosion damage on actual helicopter rotor blades under realistic hover and vertical lift conditions. In this dissertation, first, injection (release) conditions of solid particles with new injection parameter, sand particle mass flow rate (SPmFR), were specified to deal with the effect of non-uniform and unsteady flow conditions surrounding at each injection point from which solid particles are released. The SPmFR defines the number of solid particles released from the same injection position per unit time. Secondly, a general definition of erosion rate, "mass or volume loss from the metal surface due to the impact of a unit "mass" of solid particles" was also modified by multiplying with SPmFR in order to solve the limitation for predicting erosion damage on actual helicopter rotor blade. Next, a suitable empirical particle rebound model and an erosion damage model for spherical sand particles with diameters ranging from 10 microm to 500 microm impacting on the material Ti-6A1-4V, the material of helicopter rotor blade, were developed. Finally, C++ language based codes in the form of User Defined Functions (UDFs) were developed and implemented into the commercially available multi-dimensional viscous flow solver ANSYS-FLUENT in order to develop and integrate with the general purpose flow solver, ANSYS-FLUENT, for a specific Lagrangian particle trajectory computing algorithm and rebound and erosion quantification purposes. In the erosion simulation, a reasonably accurate fluid flow solution is necessary. In order to validate the numerical results obtained in this dissertation, computations for flow-only around 2D RAE2822 airfoil and 3D rotating rotor blade (NACA0012) without any sand particle were performed. In the comparison of these results with experimental results, it is found that the flow solutions are in good agreement with the experimental data. Next, second computational validation for flow around the SC1095 airfoil for various turbulence models were performed in order to select a suitable turbulence model. These results concluded that numerical results with k -- o SST model have a reasonably best accuracy. Relative inflow conditions to the blade section of helicopter rotor blades are highly dependent upon rotor blade geometric conditions and helicopter rotor operational conditions. Therefore, in this dissertation, 3D erosion simulations for four different rotating blades with uniform airfoil profile (SC1095) were performed in order to understand the details of erosion mechanism. These results indicate that erosion patterns including maximum erosion rate position and the extent of erosion damaged area on the blade section were highly dependent upon a spanwise twist distribution. It is found that the magnitude of erosion damage on the blade section is affected by not a spanwise twist but a swept tip. Next, in this dissertation, UH-60A helicopter rotor blades rotating in the computational domain for various collective pitch angles and climb velocities were simulated. These results indicate that overall erosion characteristics for helicopter rotor blades can be considered to be not dependent upon these operational parameters though there is a little difference in the magnitude of erosion damage and the maximum erosion rate position. These results concluded that a hover condition can be chosen as a reference operational condition for predicting erosion characteristics or for investigating erosion reduction methods. The final phase of this research is a generalization for particle trajectories and erosion characteristics on 3D helicopter rotor blades in order to reduce very expensive erosion computational cost. The generalized results show that aerodynamic and erosion characteristics for a 3D rotor blade can be predicted by using the 2D airfoil results for corresponding relative inflow angle of attack with coefficient for inflow velocity magnitude and

  18. Dimensionamento de lotes e programação do forno numa fundição de pequeno porte / Lot-sizing and furnace sheduling in a small foundry

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Silvio Alexandre de, Araujo; Marcos Nereu, Arenales; Alistair Richard, Clark.

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho trata de um problema prático de dimensionamento e seqüenciamento de lotes em uma fundição. Existem dois níveis de decisão inter-relacionados: programação do forno, em que um tipo de liga é escolhido para ser produzido em cada período, e planejamento das máquinas de moldagem, que especi [...] fica a quantidade de cada item deve ser produzida em cada período, isto é, dimensionamento dos lotes. Um modelo de programação inteira mista é proposto e um método de solução baseado em busca local é desenvolvido. O planejamento da produção é feito usando a técnica de horizonte rolante, em que somente a programação para os períodos imediatos é implementada. Os resultados dos testes computacionais são analisados e comparados com os resultados obtidos utilizando um pacote comercial. Abstract in english This article discusses a practical lot-sizing and scheduling problem in a foundry, involving two interrelated decision levels: furnace scheduling - in which a type of alloy is selected for production in each period, and molding machine planning - which specifies the quantity of each item to be manuf [...] actured in each period, i.e., lot-sizing. A mixed integer programming (MIP) model is proposed for this problem and a solution method is developed based on local search. The production is planned using the rolling horizon technique, whereby only immediate-period schedules are implemented. The results of the computational tests are analyzed and compared with those obtained using a commercial package.

  19. Load Dependence of Ultrasonic Velocities for Sand and Sand/Clay Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toffelmier, D. A.; Dufrane, W. L.; Aracne-Ruddle, C. M.; Bonner, B. P.; Berge, P. A.; Viani, B. E.; Knauss, K. G.

    2001-12-01

    Ultrasonic velocities increase rapidly when a load is first applied to a granular material, as contact area and coordination number of grain contacts increase. Porosity, grain size, grain shape, and mineralogy all play a role in determining this nonlinear response. We adapted the ultrasonic pulse transmission method to measure compressional (P) and shear (S) wave velocities at ultrasonic frequencies (100-500 kHz) for lightly loaded artificial soils (to 0.1 MPa maximum). Samples were fabricated from Ottawa sand mixed with a swelling clay (Gonzales County, Texas, Ca-montmorillonite). The clay was equilibrated with 100% RH air to control water content. The clay made up 1, 3, 5, 10% of the samples by mass. Clay particles were examined using the Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) in order to determine grain size and morphology. AFM images showed platy morphology and a broad distribution of grain size. Our measurements show that the sample of pure sand (Ottawa F-50) shows a cubic relationship between stress and compressional wave velocity. Pure sand follows the Hertz contact theory incorporating grain roughness. The samples with Ca-montmorillonite had properties that were very different and unexpected. The compressional wave velocities for these samples are nearly independent of pressure below 0.1 MPa. Even the sample with 1% clay does not have the strong nonlinear behavior shown by the Hertz contact theory. The compressional wave velocity was highest in the 1% clay sample (708 m/s at 0.07MPa), the 10% clay sample had a slightly lower velocity (700 m/s at 0.07MPa), and the 3% clay sample had a much lower velocity (478 m/s at 0.07MPa). This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract number W-7405-ENG-48 and supported specifically by the Environmental Management Science Program of the Office of Environmental Management and the Office of Science. >http://www.llnl.gov/ees/esd/expgeoph/Berge/EMSP/

  20. Experimental assessment of the liquefaction resistance of calcareous biogenous sands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandoval Eimar

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available

    ABSTRACT

    Liquefaction is a phenomenon in which soils, typically sands, suddenly loose a substantial amount of their shear strength and stiffness, this often triggered by large-magnitude earthquakes. Most liquefaction research has focused on silicate-based sands and not on other sand types, such as calcareous biogenous sands Calcareous sands are usually composed of skeletal or non-skeletal remains of marine organisms, with unique characteristics in terms of their mineralogy surface roughness, particle shape, crushability, and intraparticle porosity. The unique characteristics of calcareous sands suggest that their geotechnical engineering behaviour can be substantially different compared to that of terrigenous sands, including their behaviour under seismic loading, which have not been very well studied

    This paper presents the results of an experimental programme aimed at studying the cyclic liquefaction resistance of uncemented calcareous biogenous sands retrieved from south-western Puerto Rico Evaluation of liquefaction potential involved a comprehensive set of isotropically consolidated undrained cyclic triaxial tests on reconstituted samples of this calcareous sand. The programme also included tests on Ottawa terrigenous silica sand samples prepared and tested in similar conditions for comparison purposes.

    In general, the experimental results showed that Cabo Rojo calcareous sands had higher liquefaction resistance compared to Ottawa silica sands tested under similar conditions. Important differences between calcareous and silica sands regarding pore pressure generation characteristics and axial strain accumulation were also observed


    RESUMEN

    La licuación es un fenómeno en el cual los suelos, típicamente arenas, pierden una cantidad importante de su rigidez y resistencia al esfuerzo cortante, generalmente por causa de sismos de gran magnitud . La mayoría de investigaciones sobre licuación se han enfocado en arenas terrígenas con base de sílice o cuarzo, y no sobre otro tipo de arenas, como las arenas calcáreas biogénicas . Las arenas calcáreas están usualmente compuestas por residuos de organismos marinos esqueléticos y no esqueléticos, con características específicas en términos de su mineralogía, rugosidad superficial, forma de partículas, susceptibilidad al rompimiento y porosidad interna de los granos Las características particulares de las arenas calcáreas, hacen suponer que su comportamiento ingenieril geotécnico puede ser considerablemente diferente comparado con el de arenas terrígenas, incluyendo su comportamiento bajo carga sísmica, el cual no ha sido estudiado en detalle

    Este artículo presenta los resultados de un programa experimental desarrollado con el fin de estudiar la resistencia a licuación cíclica de una arena calcárea biogénica no cementada, extraída del suroeste de Puerto Rico La evaluación del potencial de licuación incluyó una extensa cantidad de ensayos triaxiales cíclicos no drenados consolidados isotrópicamente, sobre muestras no cementadas de esta arena calcárea Para fines de comparación, el programa también incluyó ensayos sobre la arena terrígena de Ottawa bajo condiciones de prueba similares

    En general, los resultados experimentales mostraron que las arenas calcáreas de Cabo Rojo tuvieron mayor resistencia a licuación, comparada con las arenas de Ottawa para condiciones de prueba similares También se obse

  1. Experimental assessment of the liquefaction resistance of calcareous biogenous sands

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Eimar A, Sandoval; Miguel A, Pando.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available La licuación es un fenómeno en el cual los suelos, típicamente arenas, pierden una cantidad importante de su rigidez y resistencia al esfuerzo cortante, generalmente por causa de sismos de gran magnitud . La mayoría de investigaciones sobre licuación se han enfocado en arenas terrígenas con base de [...] sílice o cuarzo, y no sobre otro tipo de arenas, como las arenas calcáreas biogénicas . Las arenas calcáreas están usualmente compuestas por residuos de organismos marinos esqueléticos y no esqueléticos, con características específicas en términos de su mineralogía, rugosidad superficial, forma de partículas, susceptibilidad al rompimiento y porosidad interna de los granos Las características particulares de las arenas calcáreas, hacen suponer que su comportamiento ingenieril geotécnico puede ser considerablemente diferente comparado con el de arenas terrígenas, incluyendo su comportamiento bajo carga sísmica, el cual no ha sido estudiado en detalle Este artículo presenta los resultados de un programa experimental desarrollado con el fin de estudiar la resistencia a licuación cíclica de una arena calcárea biogénica no cementada, extraída del suroeste de Puerto Rico La evaluación del potencial de licuación incluyó una extensa cantidad de ensayos triaxiales cíclicos no drenados consolidados isotrópicamente, sobre muestras no cementadas de esta arena calcárea Para fines de comparación, el programa también incluyó ensayos sobre la arena terrígena de Ottawa bajo condiciones de prueba similares En general, los resultados experimentales mostraron que las arenas calcáreas de Cabo Rojo tuvieron mayor resistencia a licuación, comparada con las arenas de Ottawa para condiciones de prueba similares También se observaron diferencias importantes en cuanto a las características de generación de presiones de poros y acumulación de deformaciones axiales Abstract in english Liquefaction is a phenomenon in which soils, typically sands, suddenly loose a substantial amount of their shear strength and stiffness, this often triggered by large-magnitude earthquakes. Most liquefaction research has focused on silicate-based sands and not on other sand types, such as calcareous [...] biogenous sands Calcareous sands are usually composed of skeletal or non-skeletal remains of marine organisms, with unique characteristics in terms of their mineralogy surface roughness, particle shape, crushability, and intraparticle porosity. The unique characteristics of calcareous sands suggest that their geotechnical engineering behaviour can be substantially different compared to that of terrigenous sands, including their behaviour under seismic loading, which have not been very well studied This paper presents the results of an experimental programme aimed at studying the cyclic liquefaction resistance of uncemented calcareous biogenous sands retrieved from south-western Puerto Rico Evaluation of liquefaction potential involved a comprehensive set of isotropically consolidated undrained cyclic triaxial tests on reconstituted samples of this calcareous sand. The programme also included tests on Ottawa terrigenous silica sand samples prepared and tested in similar conditions for comparison purposes. In general, the experimental results showed that Cabo Rojo calcareous sands had higher liquefaction resistance compared to Ottawa silica sands tested under similar conditions. Important differences between calcareous and silica sands regarding pore pressure generation characteristics and axial strain accumulation were also observed

  2. Stratigraphic information from impulse radar profiling over unconsolidated sands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field experiments to study the process of hydrodynamic dispersion in porous media required detailed geological and hydrogeological information in the area of Twin Lake at Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories. Continuous cores of overburden material were recovered from 25 boreholes in the 0.2-km2 study area. Sedimentological analyses revealed a sequence of aeolian sands overlying fluvial sands, generally deposited directly onto an irregular bedrock topography. To improve stratigraphic correlations between boreholes, an impulse radar survey was carried out in 1982 March, yielding continuous records of radar reflections along 5.4 km of line. The radar signal was operated at a centre frequency of 100 MHz, providing 0.5 to 1 m resolution of the depth of reflectors. A two-layer velocity model, with the velocity change at the water table, was selected based on the results of wide-angle reflection and refraction soundings. Impulse radar profiling provided excellent resolution of the bedrock surface lying 0 to 30+ m below grade. Several contacts between overburden strata could be identified and correlated with the borehole logs. There was good resolution of a metre-thick, slightly silty sand stratum lying 2 to 5 m below grade. Radar reflections could often be correlated with the contact between aeolian and fluvial sands, a zone of heavy, mineral-enriched sand 5 to 7 m below surface. Faint, near-horizontal reflections from within the fluvial sand could not be consistentl the fluvial sand could not be consistently correlated with changes from fine-medium to medium sands observed in core samples. Impulse radar has provided accurate and unique information on the stratigraphy of a sand aquifer. The continuous profiles of reflector locations were obtained rapidly and allowed confident correlation of features observed in the boreholes. The resolution of some of the overburden structures could not have been provided by any other geophysical technique. In fact, the detection of such overburden features (most probably minor changes in porosity) requires that a limited number of detailed borehole logs be available to fully interpret the impulse radar results

  3. 2D Mesoscale Simulations of Projectile Penetration into Sand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teeter, R. D.; Dwivedi, S. K.; Felice, C. W.; Gupta, Y. M.

    2007-06-01

    Physical Phenomena governing projectile instabilities during penetration of granular media (e.g. sand) are not well understood. To gain insight into projectile -- granular media interactions, 2-D mesoscale simulations were performed to examine projectile penetration into sand targets with explicit representation of sand grains and representative porosities. The computational procedure used to generate a mesoscale representation of a sand target is presented with emphasis on an energy minimization technique for grain placement and modified Voronoi tessellations to enforce desired grain size and geometry. Simulated sand targets are shown to reproduce grain size distributions and porosities as large as 30% in close agreement with input parameters. Further, initial results from 2D mesoscale simulations, using the ISP-TROTP code, of normal impact of ogive shaped impactors at 0.5 km/s, 1.0 km/s, and 1.5 km/s impact velocities show that heterogeneous deformation in a frictionless granular media can cause deviation of projectile motion from normal direction indicating projectile instability during penetration. Efforts to achieve an improved description of granular media are underway. Work supported by DOE and AFOSR.

  4. Oil sands technology roadmap : unlocking the potential. Final ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flint, L. [Alberta Chamber of Resources, Edmonton, AB (Canada)] (ed.)

    2004-01-30

    The opportunities facing the Canadian oil sand industry were reviewed. This roadmap identifies the internal and external challenges that the industry must address to achieve, by 2030, a daily oil sand production target of 5 million barrels in an economical, environmental and socially responsible manner. Input for this technology roadmap came from three recent workshops held in Fort McMurray, Edmonton, and Calgary. This roadmap concentrates on: key challenges facing the industry; long term development for Canadian society; mining-based bitumen extraction; in-situ bitumen production; sustainable development on the ground; upgrading in a dynamic market; energy and hydrogen; air emissions; and, supporting science. Canada's recoverable oil sands reserves are 175 billion barrels of recoverable oil by known technology. This is comparable to crude reserves in Venezuela and Saudi Arabia. Technology could unlock even larger volumes. New technological developments have already reduced supply costs and increased the economic viability of oil sands development. Sustainable development of Canada's oil sands will require energy self-sufficiency, reduced greenhouse gas emissions, water conservation, and an effort by all stakeholders to improve environmental and social performance while securing economic gains. refs., tabs., figs.

  5. Biodegradation of MIB and geosmin with slow sand filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Shu-Ting; Lin, Tsair-Fuh; Wang, Gen-Shuh

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the biodegradation of MIB (2-methylisoborneol) and geosmin (trans-1,10-dimethyl-trans- 9-decalol) in simulated slow sand filtration (SSF) columns and in batch reactors. The results showed that both MIB and geosmin were biodegradable in the two systems. In batch experiments, the overall removals for MIB and geosmin were 50% and 78%, respectively, after 7 days of contact time. Volatilization loss plays an important role for geosmin in batch systems. Simulated SSF column studies also showed that more than 50% of geosmin and MIB were degraded by the microbial on the sand surface of a slow sand filter. With a filtration rate of 5 m/day, the simulated SSF degraded MIB from 48% to 69% and geosmin from 87% to 96%. The rapid biodegradation of MIB and geosmin in SSF column tests was attributed to the use of filter sands from the SSF unit in the Kinmen water treatment plant, where the microbial had been acclimated to both MIB and geosmin. The results also showed that more than 70% of the geosmin was removed in the top portion of the filter ( approximately 10 cm); while the removal of MIB occurred throughout the entire column depth. The results of this study demonstrated that slow flow through preacclimated sand was effective for control of MIB and geosmin in drinking water. PMID:20473805

  6. Physical Characterizations of Sands and Their Influence in Fall Velocity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Gabriel

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancun beach is one of the most important tourist resorts on the Mexican coast, and is of prime importance to the local and national economies. As a result of the intense use of the beach and the unavailability of sand reserves, the extreme weather events that occur in the region (hurricanes have permanently damaged the beach. Over the last two decades several strong hurricanes severely weakened the system, but hurricane Wilma, October 2005, caused devastating erosion to the beach. After Wilma, an emergency nourishment project was implemented pumping a volume of 2.7 million m3 of sand onto the beach. Clearly, the sand used for the nourishment has a different shape factor, diameter distribution and density property compared to the native sand. The main goal of this paper is to characterize and compare the fall velocities of sand samples taken in and around Cancun. The settling velocities obtained for several samples were compared with the empirical formulations proposed by various authors. The influence of several parameters measured in the laboratory is discussed and a new formulation is presented.

  7. The extraction of bitumen from western oil sands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The University of Utah tar sand research and development program is concerned with research and development on Utah is extensive oil sands deposits. The program has been intended to develop a scientific and technological base required for eventual commercial recovery of the heavy oils from oil sands and processing these oils to produce synthetic crude oil and other products such as asphalt. The overall program is based on mining the oil sand, processing the mined sand to recover the heavy oils and upgrading them to products. Multiple deposits are being investigated since it is believed that a large scale (approximately 20,000 bbl/day) plant would require the use of resources from more than one deposit. The tasks or projects in the program are organized according to the following classification: Recovery technologies which includes thermal recovery methods, water extraction methods, and solvent extraction methods; upgrading and processing technologies which covers hydrotreating, hydrocracking, and hydropyrolysis; solvent extraction; production of specialty products; and environmental aspects of the production and processing technologies. These tasks are covered in this report

  8. Saskatchewan's place in the Canadian oil sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schramm, L.L. [Saskatchewan Research Council, Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Kramers, J.W. [Owl Ventures Inc., Edmonton, AB (Canada); Isaacs, E.E. [Alberta Energy Research Inst., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    This paper provided a detailed description of the oil sands geology and physical properties and highlighted some of the novel recovery technologies that are being developed for shallow in-situ reservoirs in Alberta and Saskatchewan. Canada's oil sands are well known around the world, with Alberta's mined and in-situ oil sands reservoirs being well developed with mature commercial technologies. Shallow in-situ oil sands located in both Saskatchewan and Alberta will be the next frontier in Canadian petroleum development. Shallow reservoirs will need to be developed with new environmentally sound in-situ technologies that will reduce the use of steam and fresh water, and also reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Research and development programs are currently underway to develop and demonstrate such new technologies. It was concluded that innovation has been the key to developing the immense and complex technology oil contained in Canada's heavy oil reservoirs and also in its shallow and deep in-situ oil sands reservoirs. Promising technologies include the solvent vapour extraction and hybrid thermal solvent extraction processes that are being developed and demonstrated in large-scale three-dimensional scaled physical models and associated numerical simulation models. Electrical heating and gravity stable combustion are other examples of technologies that could play a significant role in developing these resources. 88 refs., 3 tabs., 8 figs.

  9. Wildlife movement corridor alteration from oil sands mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duane, C.B. [Canadian Natural Resources Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    This presentation discussed the direct and indirect impacts of habitat loss, disturbance and potential interactions with oil sand mine operations. In particular, it addressed the issue of how disturbances from existing and proposed oil sands development in northern Alberta's boreal forest influences the movement of wildlife and examined how species, such as moose, with a wide dispersal pattern deal with the loss of habitat through disturbance. Pre- and post disturbance measurements can be used to evaluate the effect on wildlife movement and the role of riparian corridors in the boreal forest in response to the development of oil sand mines. The presentation discussed how intra-species displacement patterns, such as predator-prey relationships, are affected. It also examined how noise, lighting, and tree clearing influences movements of wildlife. In order to determine the future mining impacts from the Horizon Oil Sands Project, the authors evaluated other disturbances such as gravel pits in order to compare and refine mine planning. In addition, data shared from similar studies of existing oil sands mine operations were analyzed to evaluate the direct impacts. Assessment methods of disturbance impacts include habitat suitability modeling; least cost energy pathway modeling; wildlife species composition and habitat preferences; relative abundance; habitat fragmentation; species winter movement; summer activity monitoring; and, traditional environmental knowledge. It was noted that the influence of disturbance on movement in river corridors is inconclusive using current regional studies. tabs., figs.

  10. Geophysics comes of age in oil sands development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauman, P. [WorleyParsons Komex, Calgary, AB (Canada); Birch, R.; Parker, D.; Andrews, B. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Dept. of Geology and Geophysics

    2008-07-01

    This paper discussed geophysical techniques developed for oil sands exploration and production applications in Alberta's oil sands region. Geophysical methods are playing an important role in mine planning, tailings containment, water supply, and land reclamation activities. Geophysics techniques are used to estimate the volume of muskeg that needs to be stripped and stored for future reclamation activities as well as to site muskeg piles and delineate the thickness of clay Clearwater formations overlying Cretaceous oil-bearing sands. 2-D electrical resistivity mapping is used to map river-connected deep bedrock Pleistocene paleovalleys in the region. Geophysical studies are also used to investigate the interiors of dikes and berms as well as to monitor salt migration within tailings piles. Sonic and density logs are used to create synthetic seismograms for mapping the Devonian surface in the region. The new applications included the calculation of bitumen saturation from surface sands and shales; muskeg thickness mapping; and non-intrusive monitoring of leachate plumes. Geophysical techniques included 2-D electrical resistivity imaging; transient electromagnetic (EM) technologies; ground penetrating radar; and high-resolution seismic reflections. Polarization, surface nuclear magnetic resonance and push-probe sensing techniques were also discussed. Techniques were discussed in relation to Alberta's Athabasca oil sands deposits. 4 refs.

  11. Freeze-thaw dewatering to reclaim oil sands oil sands fine tails to a dry landscape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeze-thaw dewatering design concepts for oil sands fine tails were described. Design models were presented, based on recent laboratory and field data that quantitatively outlined the volume separation and strength development associated with thin layered freeze-thaw dewatering strategies. The design calculations using these models predict that reclamation of the fine tails to a dry landscape was viable. For existing operations, it was shown that it was possible to freeze more tails than would thaw. A volume separation approaching 70% was estimated after five cycles of yearly placing, freezing and thawing. A prototype field freezing experiment was described and showed a 60% volume separation after one freeze-thaw cycle. 12 refs., 19 figs

  12. Reclamation of alkaline spent moulding sands of organic and inorganic type and their mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Da?ko

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction of modern moulding sands with organic and inorganic binders requires the reclamation treatments in order to be able to reuse the matrices of spent sands. The spent sands, depending on the applied binding agent, are characterised by various abilities of the matrix reclamation. The results of investigations of the reclamation of spent moulding sands with the Rudal binder and spent sands with the Rezolit binder in the system of uniform sands and of mixed ones, are presented in the paper. Investigations were performed by means of the special experimental stands designed and built in the AGH University of Science and Technology, AGH, in Krakow.

  13. Factors influencing selection of effective reclamation techniques and assessment methods of the reclaimed material quality

    OpenAIRE

    Dan?ko, J.; Holtzer, M.; Dan?ko, R.

    2007-01-01

    The paper dealt with such problems of scientific and development research concerning the reclamation of used foundry sands as: management of used sands generated in foundry production, recommendation of selection of effective reclamation techniques and assessment methods of the reclaimed material quality, identification methods and an environmental impact assessment of spent sands from foundry technologies, moulding and core sands of an increased reclamability and a decreased harmfulness for ...

  14. Factors influencing selection of effective reclamation techniques and assessment methods of the reclaimed material quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Da?ko

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper dealt with such problems of scientific and development research concerning the reclamation of used foundry sands as: management of used sands generated in foundry production, recommendation of selection of effective reclamation techniques and assessment methods of the reclaimed material quality, identification methods and an environmental impact assessment of spent sands from foundry technologies, moulding and core sands of an increased reclamability and a decreased harmfulness for environment.

  15. Accelerated deployment of oil sand process and environmental technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, C.A. [SGS Canada, Mississauga, ON (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    There has been some hesitation in the Canadian oil sands industry to embrace promising new recovery processes because of operational, maintenance, and environmental shortcomings. An organization called Sags has set out to increase the probability for successful implementation of new technologies by establishing the first fully integrated third party pilot extraction facility that can evaluate continuous water or solvent-based oil sand separation processes. The pilot facility reduces technical and commercial risks and acts as a link between bench and commercial scale tests, making it much more likely that promising new process and environmental technologies will make it into the field. This paper presented reasons why commercial deployment of new technological solutions is not done faster in terms of risk assessment. The paper also addressed the risk mitigation strategy in the high risk game of new technology commercialization. It was concluded that the oil sand industry, with its long history of innovation, still has several significant challenges ahead. 2 refs., 3 figs.

  16. Geotechnical properties of oil-contaminated Kuwaiti sand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Large quantities of oil-contaminated sands resulted from exploded oil wells, burning oil fires, the destruction of oil storage tanks, and the formation of oil lakes in Kuwait at the end of the Gulf War. An extensive laboratory testing program was carried out to determine the geotechnical characteristics of this material. Testing included basic properties, compaction and permeability tests, and triaxial and consolidation tests on clean and contaminated sand at the same relative density. Contaminated specimens were prepared by mixing the sand with oil in the amount of 6% by weight or less to match field conditions. The influence of the type of oil, and relative density was also investigated by direct shear tests. The results indicated a small reduction in strength and permeability and an increase in compressibility due to contamination. The preferred method of disposal of this material is to use it as a stabilizing material for other projects such as road construction

  17. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF SAND AND CHITOSAN AS DUAL FILTER MEDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MADHUKAR M

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nuisance due to suspended and colloidal particles causing turbidity has become widespread, severe problem due to urban population and industrial activities. The consequences of turbidity are presence of microorganisms,reduction of dissolved oxygen, etc. Consumption of such water is known to cause water borne diseases.Available water treatment methods for the removal of turbidity and pathogens are coagulation, filtration and disinfection. The common filter media used are sand, activated carbon etc. Chitosan has been used as acoagulant aid and adsorbent. Chitosan when used as a filter media causes the colloidal particles to bind together and is subsequently removed during the process. The column studies using Chitosan in combination with conventional sand filter was carried out in a borosilicate glass column. Chitosan was placed on top of sand layerand constant down flow pattern of 100mL/min was followed. Dual filter media was effective in the reducing turbidity by 93%.

  18. Buckling behavior of partially embedded reinforced concrete piles in sand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Senthil Kumar

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to unify the structural and geotechnical aspects of the partially embedded slender reinforced concrete pile-soil system together, specifically under eccentric loading, where eccentricity is inevitable in actual practice. Seven reinforced concrete specimens partially embedded in sand as foundation medium were tested with the various critical combinations of unsupported length, loading eccentricity and coefficient of horizontal subgrade modulus of the sand medium. In this study, a simple approach to predict the buckling capacity of an eccentrically loaded partially embedded reinforced concrete pile in sand is formulated using the conventional Davisson and Robinson method combined with the ACI’s flexural stiffness equation of the slender reinforced concrete column and also, introducing a reduction factor to account eccentricity. Comparison was also made between the theoretical predictions and the test results.

  19. Forces encountered by a sphere during impact into sand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joubaud, Sylvain; Homan, Tess; Gasteuil, Y.; Lohse, Detlef; van der Meer, Devaraj

    2014-12-01

    We describe direct measurements of the acceleration of an object impacting on a loosely packed granular bed under various pressures, using an instrumented sphere. The sphere acts as a noninvasive probe that measures and continuously transmits the acceleration as it penetrates into the sand, using a radio signal. The time-resolved acceleration of the sphere reveals the detailed dynamics during the impact that cannot be resolved from the position information alone. Because of the unobstructed penetration, we see a downward acceleration of the sphere at the moment the air cavity collapses. The compressibility of the sand bed is observed through the oscillatory behavior of the acceleration curve for various ambient pressures; it shows the influence of interstitial air on the compaction of the sand as a function of time.

  20. Adsorption of L-amino Acids on Sea Sand

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Dimas A. M., Zaia; Heberth J., Vieira; Cássia T. B. V., Zaia.

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um estudo da adsorção de L-alanina, L-tirosina, L-ácido glutâmico e L-lisina em areia do mar. Somente L-lisina adsorveu na areia do mar, provavelmente devido à sua cadeia lateral que é positivamente carregada. Portanto, estes resultados apontam dúvidas sobre a importância de areia para [...] a pré-concentração de aminoácidos antes condensação de peptídeos na Terra primitiva. Abstract in english A study of adsorption of L-alanine, L-tyrosine, L-glutamic acid, and L-lysine on sea sand was carried out. Only L-lysine showed adsorption on sea sand, probably due to the presence of the positively charged R group. Our results raise some doubts as to whether sand was important for the pre-concentra [...] tion of amino acids prior to peptide condensation on the Pre-Biotic Earth.