WorldWideScience

Sample records for foundry sand

  1. Foundry sand reclamation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A dry method of conditioning spent foundry sand is disclosed. After having sized the sand and removal of tramp metallic elements, the sand is subjected to a sequence of squeezing under a high-stress low kinetic energy system for a period of 5-30 minutes, and then propelled against a target with high-kinetic energy in the presence of a suction for several minutes. This sequence can be preferably repeated to increase the quality of the resulting product which should have 0.1% or less of fine particles, a pH of 6-9, a clay content and organic combustible content of substantially zero. The reclaimed sand will exhibit a density of at least 100 grams/biscuit when compacted for core making or molding

  2. [Environmental toxicity of waste foundry sand].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hai-Feng; Wang, Yu-Jue; Wang, Jin-Lin; Huang, Tian-You; Xiong, Ying

    2013-03-01

    The metal leaching characteristics and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of five different types of waste foundry sands were analyzed with the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) and head space-gas chromatography (HS-GC). Microtox and soil dehydrogenase activity (DHA) tests were then used to evaluate the bio-effects of these waste sands. The results showed that due to the different metals poured and casting materials used to make the sand molds, there was significant difference among the five waste foundry sands in the compositions and concentrations of metal and organic pollutants. The concentrations of Fe in the leachates of iron and steel casting waste foundry sand exceeded the maximal allowable concentrations specified in the National Standard of Drinking Water Quality, whereas the As concentration in the leachate of aluminum casting waste foundry sand exceeded the standard. The five waste foundry sands had quite different compositions and levels of VOCs, which resulted in different levels of inhibition effects on the luminescent bacteria (30% and 95%). Additionally, the soil DHA tests suggested that metal pollutants in waste foundry sands may inhibit the soil microbial activity, whereas organics in the sands may slightly promote the microbial activity. The results of this study indicated that the waste foundry sands may pose considerable threat to the environment when improperly disposed. PMID:23745431

  3. Alternate utilization of foundry sand waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Illinois Geological Survey data indicate that Illinois foundries purchase nearly 800,000 tons of silica sand each year for the production of molds and cores. This paper reports that once utilized, this sand becomes an expensive and difficult commodity to dispose. The volume and regulatory status requirements make it unattractive to landfill operators. Most foundries use an industrial grade of silica of very high purity for the production of molds and cores. Recent data from the Illinois Geological Survey record silica usage in excess of 30 million tons per year in the state. Construction usage of silica includes applications such as: cement, concrete products, asphalt, fill and others. Industrial usage includes: glass products, foundry molds and cores, oil well propant, inert carriers for fertilizers and others

  4. Waste foundry sand: Environmental implication and characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Penkaitis

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of analyses using Scanning Electron Microscopy in field samples of waste foundry sand, as well as the results of granulometric, chemical and groundwater analyses. Field data allowed to characterize waste foundry sand and showed that there are elevated concentrations of metals in the groundwater (iron, manganese, boron and selenium, in addition to other potentially toxic elements (chromium, copper, cobalt, nickel, zinc, aluminum, iron, manganese, which are present in the waste and are considered not hazardous by current standards. Even if these elements are not considered hazardous, their concentrations above the permissible limit compromise the environmental quality of the site, posing risks to the local population, since they work in agriculture and use groundwater. Two different types of waste foundry sands were identified using granulometric analyses. Electron microscopy showed features related to morphological, chemical and mineralogical characteristics of grains that make up the waste. Quartz was the dominant mineral. Waste foundry sand is composed of two types of grains: a rounded grain with almost no incrustations formed during alloy production, and a second type of grain, which is not rounded, has incrustations, and always has several metals derived from alloys and associated with these incrustations. Chemical elements detected in groundwater with concentrations above the limits established by the regulatory bodies were found in wells located in the landfill area. Most of these elements show higher concentrations downstream, some of them with concentrations above the regulatory limit, and others show an increase in concentration upstream, indicating that the landfill may be impacting the local environment.

  5. Plant Availability of Metals in Waste Foundry Sands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foundries in the United States generate several million tons of waste sand each year. These sands are no longer suitable for metalcasting processes, and about 90% are discarded in landfills. However, the majority of these waste foundry sands (WFSs) qualify as non-hazardous industrial waste and the...

  6. An investigation of waste foundry sand in asphalt concrete mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakis, Recep; Koyuncu, Hakan; Demirbas, Ayhan

    2006-06-01

    A laboratory study regarding the reuse of waste foundry sand in asphalt concrete production by replacing a certain portion of aggregate with WFS was undertaken. The results showed that replacement of 10% aggregates with waste foundry sand was found to be the most suitable for asphalt concrete mixtures. Furthermore, the chemical and physical properties of waste foundry sand were analysed in the laboratory to determine the potential effect on the environment. The results indicated that the investigated waste foundry sand did not significantly affect the environment around the deposition PMID:16784170

  7. Properties of Self-Compacting Concrete Incorporating Waste Foundry Sand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafat SIDDIQUE

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper demonstrates the possibilities of using waste foundry sand as partial replacement of sand in self-compacting concrete. Self-compacting concrete, as the name indicates, is a type of concrete that does not require external or internal compaction, because it becomes levelled and consolidated under its self-weight. Foundry sand is high quality silica sand used as a moulding material by ferrous and non-ferrous metal casting industries. It can be reused several times in foundries but, after a certain period, cannot be used further and becomes waste material, referred to as waste, used or spent foundry sand (WFS,UFS or SFS. This experimental investigation was performed to evaluate the strength and durability properties of SCC, in which natural sand was partial replaced with waste foundry sand (WFS. Natural sand was replaced with four percentage (0%, 10%, 15%, 20% of WFS by weight. Fresh properties of self-compacting concrete were studied. Compression test and splitting tensile strength test were carried out to evaluate the strength properties of concrete at the age of 7, 28, and 56 days. In case of durability properties, sulphate resistance was evaluated at the age of 7, 28 and 56 days and Rapid Chloride Permeability test was conducted at age of 28 days. Test results showed that there is increase in compressive strength, splitting tensile strength of self-compacting concrete by incorporating waste foundry sand (WFS as partial replacement by sand up to 15%. Resistance of concrete against sulphate attack and rapid chloride permeability were also improved for concrete mixes.

  8. Microtox(TM) characterization of foundry sand residuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastian, K.C.; Alleman, J.E.

    1998-01-01

    Although foundry residuals, consisting mostly of waste Sands, represent a potentially attractive, high-volume resource for beneficial reuse applications (e.g. highway embankment construction), prospective end users are understandably concerned about unforeseen liabilities stemming from the use of these residuals. This paper, therefore, focuses on the innovative use of a microbial bioassay as a means of developing a characterization of environmental suitability extending beyond the analytical coverage already provided by mandated chemical-specific tests (i.e., TCLP, etc.). Microtox(TM) bioassays were conducted on leachates derived from residuals obtained at a wide range of facilities, including: 11 gray and ductile iron foundries plus one each steel and aluminum foundries. In addition, virgin sand samples were used to establish a relative 'natural' benchmark against which the waste foundry sands could then be compared in terms of their apparent quality. These bioassay tests were able to effectively 'fingerprint' those residuals whose bioassay behavior was comparable to that of virgin materials. In fact, the majority of gray and ductile iron foundry residuals tested during this reported study elicited Microtox(TM) response levels which fell within or below the virgin sand response range, consequently providing another quantifiable layer of Support for this industry's claim that their sands are 'cleaner than dirt.' However, negative Microtox(TM) responses beyond that of the virgin sands were observed with a number of foundry samples (i.e. four of the 11 gray or ductile iron sands plus both non-iron sands). Therefore, the latter results would suggest that these latter residuals be excluded from beneficial reuse for the immediate future, at least until the cause and nature of this negative response has been further identified.

  9. Geoenvironmental behavior of foundry sand amended mixtures for highway subbases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guney, Yucel; Aydilek, Ahmet H; Demirkan, M Melih

    2006-01-01

    The high cost of landfilling and the potential uses of waste foundry sands have prompted research into their beneficial reuse. Roadways have a high potential for large volume usage of the foundry sands. A laboratory testing program was conducted on soil-foundry sand mixtures amended with cement and lime to assess their applicability as highway subbase materials. The mixtures were compacted in the laboratory at a variety of moisture contents and compactive efforts and subjected to unconfined compression, California bearing ratio, and hydraulic conductivity tests. The environmental suitability of the prepared mixtures was evaluated by analyzing the effluent collected during hydraulic conductivity tests. Finally, required subbase thicknesses were calculated using the laboratory-based strength parameters. The results of the study show that the strength of a mixture is highly dependent on the curing period, compactive energy, lime or cement presence, and water content at compaction. The resistance of foundry sand-based specimens to winter conditions is generally better than that of a typical subbase reference material. Laboratory leaching tests indicated that if these mixtures later come in contact with water that has been discharged directly to the environment (e.g., drainage through asphalt pavement), the quality of water will not be affected. PMID:16111882

  10. METALS IN WASTE FOUNDRY SANDS: ASSESSMENT WITH EARTHWORMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    A total of 43 sets of waste sand were collected from ferrous and non-ferrous foundries in the eastern United States. The concentrations of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and 17 phenolics were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry after accelerated solvent extraction. Since t...

  11. Near Infrared Spectroscopic Analysis of Foundry Moulding and Core Sands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sands used by the foundry industry for metalcasting are coated with a variety of organic materials. During the casting process, the organic materials are thermally degraded, producing a wide variety of potentially harmful organic byproducts. Because there is great interest in beneficially using wa...

  12. Pyrolysis of Carbonaceous Foundry Sand Additives: Seacoal and Gilsonite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seacoal and gilsonite are used by the foundry industry as carbonaceous additives in green molding sands. In this study, pyrolysis was used to simulate the heating conditions that the carbonaceous additives would experience during metal casting. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to tent...

  13. SATURATED HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY OF SOILS BLENDED WITH WASTE FOUNDRY SANDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beneficial uses are being sought after for the large quantities of waste foundry sand (WFS) that are landfilled. Potential applications include their use in synthetic soils and incorporation into agricultural soils. In this laboratory study we investigated the saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks)...

  14. Glass matrix composite material prepared with waste foundry sand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Zhao-shu

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The technology of glass matrix of the composite material manufactured through a sintering process and using waste foundry sand and waste glass as the main raw materials was studied. The effects of technological factors on the performance of this material were studied. The results showed that this composite material is formed with glass as matrix, core particulate as strengthening material, it has the performance of glass and ceramics, and could be used to substitute for stone.

  15. Use of standardized procedures to evaluate metal leaching from waste foundry sands

    Science.gov (United States)

    As part of the casting process, foundries create sand molds and cores to produce ferrous and non-ferrous metal castings. After the process, a portion of the sand is discarded and becomes waste foundry sand (WFS). The aim of this study was to quantify metals (i.e. Ag, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn)...

  16. Pond Ash and Foundry Sand: Opportunities for Development of Eco-Friendly High Strength Concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Gaurav Kantibhai Patel; Prof. Jayeshkumar Pitroda2

    2014-01-01

    To produce low cost concrete by replacement of fine aggregate with pond ash and used foundry sand & also reduce disposal and pollution problems due to pond ash and used foundry sand. The innovative use of pond ash and used foundry sand in concrete formulations as a fine aggregate replacement material was tested as an alternative to traditional concrete. The fine aggregate has been replaced by used foundry sand accordingly in the range of 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% & 50% by weight and pond ash 20%...

  17. Extraction of toxic and valuable metals from foundry sands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There were extracted valuable metals from foundry sands such as: gold, platinum, silver, cobalt, germanium, nickel and zinc among others, as well as highly toxic metals such as chromium, lead, vanadium and arsenic. The extraction efficiency was up to 100% in some cases. For this reason there were obtained two patents at the United States, patent number 5,356,601, in October 1994, given for the developed process and patent number 5,376,000, in December 1994, obtained for the equipment employed. Therefore, the preliminary parameters for the installation of a pilot plant have also been developed. (Author)

  18. USING THE EARTHWORM, EISENIA FETIDA, TO ASSESS THE ECOTOXICITY OF WASTE FOUNDRY SANDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earthworms are often used to monitor the toxicity of contaminated soils. In this experiment, the earthworm, Eisenia fetida, was utilized to assess the ecotoxicity of waste foundry sands. Each year the U.S. foundry industry generates several million tons of waste sand that is no longer useful to pr...

  19. CHEMICAL AND MINERALOGICAL PROPERTIES OF IRON AND ALUMINUM WASTE GREEN FOUNDRY SANDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indiana ranks second in the nation in waste foundry sand production with one million tons annually disposed in landfills. As available landfill space and profit margins steadily decrease it becomes more important to find ways of diverting waste foundry sand away from landfills and identify benefici...

  20. COMPOSTING WASTE FOUNDRY SAND WITH LEAVES TO AMEND ADVERSE PHYSICAL PROPERTIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indiana ranks second in the nation in waste foundry sand production with one million tons annually disposed in landfills. As available landfill space and profit margins steadily decrease, it becomes more important to find ways of diverting waste foundry sand away from landfills and identify benefici...

  1. Re-usage of waste foundry sand in high-strength concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guney, Yucel; Sari, Yasin Dursun; Yalcin, Muhsin; Tuncan, Ahmet; Donmez, Senayi

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the potential re-use of waste foundry sand in high-strength concrete production was investigated. The natural fine sand is replaced with waste foundry sand (0%, 5%, 10%, and 15%). The findings from a series of test program has shown reduction in compressive and tensile strengths, and the elasticity modulus which is directly related to waste foundry inclusion in concrete. Nevertheless the concrete with 10% waste foundry sand exhibits almost similar results to that of the control one. The slump and the workability of the fresh concrete decreases with the increase of the waste foundry sand ratio. Although the freezing and thawing significantly reduces the mechanical and physical properties of the concrete. The obtained results satisfies the acceptable limits set by the American Concrete Institute (ACI). PMID:20219339

  2. Pond Ash and Foundry Sand: Opportunities for Development of Eco-Friendly High Strength Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Kantibhai Patel

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available To produce low cost concrete by replacement of fine aggregate with pond ash and used foundry sand & also reduce disposal and pollution problems due to pond ash and used foundry sand. The innovative use of pond ash and used foundry sand in concrete formulations as a fine aggregate replacement material was tested as an alternative to traditional concrete. The fine aggregate has been replaced by used foundry sand accordingly in the range of 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% & 50% by weight and pond ash 20% for M-20 grade and M-40 grade concrete. Concrete mixtures were produced, tested and compared in terms of workability and strength with the conventional concrete. These tests were carried out to evaluate the mechanical properties for 7, 14 and 28 days. As a result, the compressive strength increased up to 30% addition of used foundry sand and 20% pond ash.

  3. INSOLUBILIZATION METHOD OF THE FLUORINE IN WASTE FOUNDRY SAND AND THE PRODUCTION METHOD OF THE ROADBED MATERIAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukayama, Masamitu; Terazono, Katsuhiro; Koga, Yasuyuki

    We have studied how the fluorine-insoluble in the waste foundry sand (chromite sand) and production method of the roadbed material with insolubilized waste foundry sand. And we got following knowledges. (1) We found a minimum mixing rate to insolubilize of fluorine in the waste foundry sand by the ingenuity of mixing procedure. (2) Now we can insolubilize the waste foundry sand including comparatively high concentration fluorine (elution concentration: 20-70mg/l) by the mixing time difference of MgO and blast furnace cement. (3) In the verification test the roadbed material made from the insolubilized waste foundry sand satisfied reference value of environment safety.

  4. Excess foundry sand characterization and experimental investigation in controlled low-strength material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, An

    The objective of this dissertation is to provide support with technical data for the reuse of excess foundry sand. The dissertation addresses two topics: a statistical sound evaluation of the characterization of foundry waste streams, and a laboratory investigation to qualify excess foundry sand as a major component in controlled low-strength material (CLSM). The survival analysis statistical technique is developed for processing censored characterization data with significant confidence. Using this methodology, supported by abundant characterization datasets, foundry waste streams are characterized in full spectrum of general chemical parameters, metallic elements and organic compounds regarding bulk analysis and leachate characterization. Not limited to characterization and environmental impact, foundry waste streams are evaluated by factor analyses, which contributes to proper selection of factor and maximization of reuse marketplace of foundry waste streams. Excavatable CLSM and structural CLSM containing different types of excess foundry sands are investigated through laboratory experiments. Technical data regarding physical characteristics of excess foundry sands, design, behavior, performance and environmental impact of fresh and hardened CLSM are presented in details. Wide span of parameters are analyzed to evaluate the qualification of integrating excess foundry sands into CLSM.

  5. MID-INFRARED ANALYSIS OF FOUNDRY GREEN SANDS AND CHEMICALLY BONDED CORES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Each year the U.S. foundry industry landfills several million tons of molding sand known as green sand. Currently, there is great interest in using these waste green sands in general construction and agricultural applications. However, there is concern of organic contamination from the green sands...

  6. CAN WASTE FOUNDRY SANDS BE USED TO IMPROVE THE INFILTRATION RATE OF POORLY DRAINED SOILS?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Each year foundries in the United States generate several million tons of waste sand that can no longer be used to make metalcasting molds. The most common molding material is clay-coated sand, known as green sand. The majority of the waste sands, which are classified as non-hazardous industrial w...

  7. Excess Foundry Sand Characterization and Experimental Investigation in Controlled Low-Strength Material and Hot-Mixing Asphalt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul J. Tikalsky, Hussain U. Bahia, An Deng and Thomas Snyder

    2004-10-15

    This report provides technical data regarding the reuse of excess foundry sand. The report addresses three topics: a statistically sound evaluation of the characterization of foundry sand, a laboratory investigation to qualify excess foundry sand as a major component in controlled low-strength material (CLSM), and the identification of the best methods for using foundry sand as a replacement for natural aggregates for construction purposes, specifically in asphalt paving materials. The survival analysis statistical technique was used to characterize foundry sand over a full spectrum of general chemical parameters, metallic elements, and organic compounds regarding bulk analysis and leachate characterization. Not limited to characterization and environmental impact, foundry sand was evaluated by factor analyses, which contributes to proper selection of factor and maximization of the reuse marketplace for foundry sand. Regarding the integration of foundry sand into CLSM, excavatable CLSM and structural CLSM containing different types of excess foundry sands were investigated through laboratory experiments. Foundry sand was approved to constitute a major component in CLSM. Regarding the integration of foundry sand into asphalt paving materials, the optimum asphalt content was determined for each mixture, as well as the bulk density, maximum density, asphalt absorption, and air voids at Nini, Ndes, and Nmax. It was found that foundry sands can be used as an aggregate in hot-mix asphalt production, but each sand should be evaluated individually. Foundry sands tend to lower the strength of mixtures and also may make them more susceptible to moisture damage. Finally, traditional anti-stripping additives may decrease the moisture sensitivity of a mixture containing foundry sand, but not to the level allowed by most highway agencies.

  8. Excess Foundry Sand Characterization and Experimental Investigation in Controlled Low-Strength Material and Hot-Mixing Asphalt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pauul J. Tikalsky

    2004-10-31

    This report provides technical data regarding the reuse of excess foundry sand. The report addresses three topics: (1) a statistically sound evaluation of the characterization of foundry sand, (2) a laboratory investigation to qualify excess foundry sand as a major component in controlled low-strength material (CLSM), and (3) the identification of the best methods for using foundry sand as a replacement for natural aggregates for construction purposes, specifically in asphalt paving materials. The survival analysis statistical technique was used to characterize foundry sand over a full spectrum of general chemical parameters, metallic elements, and organic compounds regarding bulk analysis and leachate characterization. Not limited to characterization and environmental impact, foundry sand was evaluated by factor analyses, which contributes to proper selection of factor and maximization of the reuse marketplace for foundry sand. Regarding the integration of foundry sand into CLSM, excavatable CLSM and structural CLSM containing different types of excess foundry sands were investigated through laboratory experiments. Foundry sand was approved to constitute a major component in CLSM. Regarding the integration of foundry sand into asphalt paving materials, the optimum asphalt content was determined for each mixture, as well as the bulk density, maximum density, asphalt absorption, and air voids at N{sub ini}, N{sub des}, and N{sub max}. It was found that foundry sands can be used as an aggregate in hot-mix asphalt production, but each sand should be evaluated individually. Foundry sands tend to lower the strength of mixtures and also may make them more susceptible to moisture damage. Finally, traditional anti-stripping additives may decrease the moisture sensitivity of a mixture containing foundry sand, but not to the level allowed by most highway agencies.

  9. Amelioration of physical strength in waste foundry green sands for reuse as a soil amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    As available landfill space and profit margins steadily decrease, it becomes more important for U.S. foundries to find ways of diverting 8-12 million tons of waste foundry sand (WFS) away from landfills each year. A major drawback to the reuse of some WFSs as a soil amendment is their high soil str...

  10. Problems of scientific and development research concerning the reclamation of used foundry sands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Da?ko

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In traditional technologies of casting moulds and core production on the basis of high-silica sands with binding agent addition, the reclamation consists mainly of a sand recovery and very seldom of a sand and bentonite recovery.Analysis of data from several countries indicates that from 600 to 1200 kg of fresh sand is used for 1 tonne of ferrous casting alloys. In Poland it is 1000 kg of sand for 1 tonne of castings [1]. Out of this amount approximately 20% of fresh sand is used for core production and the remaining amount for rebounding moulding sands. Analysis of data from 20 largest Polish foundries, performed in 2004 [2] indicates that approximately 50% of waste foundry sands is reclaimed while the rest is directed to dumping grounds. Taking into account all remaining foundries it can be estimated that approximately 250-350 000 tonnes of waste foundry sands are sent to dumping grounds annually.Important issue are costs of storage, which depend on the kind of wastes and on the ownership form of dump-sites (municipal dumpinggrounds, plant’s or own [belonging to the foundry] as well as on their relation to the costs of purchasing fresh sands. Average charges for storage of moulding sands wastes on storage yards in Europe are within the range: 12.5 to 61 Eu, which means from 85% to above 400% of purchasing costs of 1 tonne of fresh high-silica sand. The contractual price accepted for such sand in the BREF UE document [3] is 14.56 Eu. Problems of scientific and development research concerning the reclamation of used foundry sands can be systematised according to the research fields and the actual state of knowledge - based on the analysis of scientific papers.

  11. Use of an integrated approach to characterize the physicochemical properties of foundry green sands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? Physicochemical properties of fresh, spent, and landfilled foundry green sands were determined. ? A phase composition model was postulated for each material based on thermogravimetric results. ? Sand from the landfill was determined to be composed of almost pure silica sand. ? Weathering is likely responsible for removing the coating materials from the green sands. ? Landfilled sands may be suitable for reuse within the foundry or beneficial use applications. - Abstract: A fresh green sand, spent green sand, and a weathered spent green sand (wSGS) from a foundry landfill were analyzed using diffractometry, electron microscopy, fluorometry, granulometry, spectrometry, and thermogravimetry (TG). Our objective was to understand how the physicochemical properties of the foundry green sands change from their original form after being subjected to the casting process, then after weathering at the landfill. A quantitative phase composition model was also postulated for each material based on the TG results and it was found to be the most reliable and informative quantitative data for this type of residue. The weathered sample, that remained in a landfill for two years, was found to be composed of almost pure sand. Because of the weathering process, it may be possible to use the wSGS as a virgin sand replacement in the regeneration system or in geotechnical applications where bentonite would affect the properties of the final product.final product.

  12. The characterization of trace metals and organics in spent foundry sands over a one-year period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millions of tons of spent sand, used to create metalcasting molds, are generated by the foundry industry each year in the United States. Not surprisingly, spent foundry sands (SFSs) are an excellent substitute for virgin sands that are currently used in manufactured soils and geotechnical applicati...

  13. Foundry sands as low-cost adsorbent material for Cr (VI) removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, I; Alvarez, J A; Villar, P; Pascual, A; Herrero, L

    2013-01-01

    The potential of foundry sands, industrial waste from the iron foundry industry, was evaluated for the removal of Cr (VI) using discontinuous assays. Chemical foundry sands are composed of fine silica sand, furanic resins as binder, chemical catalyst and residual iron particles. The influence ofpH, agitation rate and metal concentration on the removal process was investigated. Kinetic and equilibrium tests were conducted to determine Cr (VI) removal from aqueous solutions at a temperature range of 25-55 degrees C. Cr (VI) removal of 40-100% for a range of pH 6-1.6 was obtained. This removal was attributed to the presence of a large number of protonated silanol and aluminol groups. Cr (VI) adsorption in foundry sands follows a pseudo-second-order kinetic reaction (Ho model, r2 > 0.999) reaching kinetic constants of 0.341, 0.551, 0.775 and 0.920 g/mg h at 25, 35, 45 and 55 degrees C, respectively. The adsorption data were fitted to the Langmuir adsorption isotherm model (r > 0.99) obtaining adsorption capacities (q(max)) of 1.99, 2.40, 2.50, and 3.14 mg Cr (VI)/g sand at 25, 35, 45 and 55 degrees C, respectively. Calculated Gibbs free energy change (deltaG0), adsorption energy (E) and activation energy (E(a)) values indicate that a physisorption mechanism governs Cr (VI) adsorption process in foundry sands. PMID:24191460

  14. FOUNDRY SAND: UTILISATION AS A PARTIAL REPLACEMENT OF FINE AGGREGATE FOR ESTABLISHING SUSTAINABLE CONCRETE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amitkumar D. Raval*

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Foundry waste is one of the most active research areas that encompass a number ofdisciplinesincluding civil engineering andconstruction materials. They can stand close to the concept of green concrete which is in compatible with the environment. Foundry sand from casting industries is a waste material which is dumped extensively and in this study an attempt has been made to evaluate the usage of this waste material in concrete. The constant depletion of sand beds at all major sources of availability is a major concern and thus efforts are taken in order to replace sand in construction activities. In this study, effect of foundry sand as fine aggregate replacement on the compressive strengthof concrete with a M25mix proportioninvestigated at different limited curing periods (7 days, 14 daysand 28 days. The percentage of foundry sand used for replacement were 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% by weight of fine aggregate. Test showed impressive results, showing capability of foundry sand for being a component in concrete for imparting strength. Making concrete from recycled materials saves energy and conserves resources which lead to a safe sustainable environment.

  15. Concentrations of PCDD/PCDFs and PCBs in spent foundry sands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Approximately 10 million tons of spent foundry sand (SFS) are generated in the U.S. each year, and their beneficial use in agricultural and horticultural applications is being considered. Other studies have demonstrated that trace elements are low enough in sands from iron, steel, and aluminum foun...

  16. Evaluation of the Effective Baking Conditions for Grade 3 Nigerian Acacia Species Bonded Foundry Sand Cores

    OpenAIRE

    Ademoh, Nuhu A.; Abdullahi, A. T.

    2010-01-01

    The most effective economical baking conditions w ere determined for foundry cores bonded with the grade 3 Nigerian acacia species exudates. Silica sand base cores bonded with the material were oven baked at temperatures ranging from 160 to 250ºC for varying periods oven cooled and then subjected to tensile strength tests to ascertain the best baking conditions for different alloy castings. The experimental core specimens were in accordance with foundry test standard, shaped like figure numb...

  17. Application of Waste Foundry Sand for Evolution of Low-Cost Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pathariya Saraswati C1 , Rana Jaykrushna K2 , Shah Palas A3 , Mehta Jay G4 ,Assistant Prof. Patel Ankit N

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Generation of waste foundry sand as by product of metal casting industries causes environmental problems because of its improper disposal. Thus, its usage in building material, construction and in other fields is essential for reduction of environmental problems. This research is carried out to produce a low-cost and eco-friendly concrete. This paper demonstrates the use of waste foundry sand as a partial replacement by fine aggregate in concrete. An experimental investigation is carried out on a concrete containing waste foundry sand in the range of 0%, 20%, 40%, and 60% by weight for M-25 grade concrete(PPC. Material was produced, tested and compared with conventional concrete in terms of workability and strength. These tests were carried out on standard cube of 150*150*150* mm for 7, 14 and 28 days to determine the mechanical properties of concrete. Through experimental result we conclude that the compressive strength increases with increase in partial replacement of waste foundry sand and split tensile strength decreases with increases in percentage of waste foundry sand. The aim of this research is to know the behaviour and mechanical properties of concrete after addition of industrial waste in different proportion by tests like compressive strength and split tensile.

  18. Amelioration of physical strength in waste foundry green sands for reuse as a soil amendment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Koff, J P; Lee, B D; Dungan, R S

    2008-01-01

    To avoid increasing costs of landfill disposal, it has become increasingly important for U.S. foundries to identify beneficial reuses for the 8 to 12 million tons of waste foundry sand (WFS) generated annually. A major drawback to the reuse of some WFSs as a soil amendment is their high soil strength, under dry conditions, where root growth may be limited. Fifteen WFSs were analyzed for strength to rupture using lab-formed clods, exchangeable cations (Na, Mg, Ca), metal oxide concentration (Fe, Mn, Al, Si), cation exchange capacity (CEC), and % clay. Several WFS samples from gray iron foundries demonstrated high strength to rupture values (> 1.5 MPa), and could potentially restrict root growth in amended soils. The percentage of Na-bentonite exhibited a positive correlation (R(2) = 0.84) with strength to rupture values. When WFSs containing more Na-bentonite were saturated with 1 mol L(-1) Ca ions, strength values decreased by approximately 70%. Waste foundry sands containing less Na-bentonite were saturated with 1 mol L(-1) Na ions and exhibited a threefold increase in strength. Additions of gypsum (up to 9.6 g kg(-1) sand) to high strength waste foundry sands also caused decreases in strength. These results indicate that high strength WFSs have properties similar to hardsetting soils which are caused by high Na(+) clay content and can be ameliorated by the addition of Ca(2+). PMID:18948487

  19. Analysis of total metals in waste molding and core sands from ferrous and non-ferrous foundries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waste molding and core sands from the foundry industry have been successfully used around the world as byproducts in geotechnical and agricultural applications. Although waste foundry sands (WFSs) are generally not considered hazardous in nature, relevant data are not available in Argentina. This ...

  20. Technological behaviour and recycling potential of spent foundry sands in clay bricks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Santurde, R; Andrés, A; Viguri, J R; Raimondo, M; Guarini, G; Zanelli, C; Dondi, M

    2011-03-01

    The feasibility of recycling spent foundry sand in clay bricks was assessed in laboratory, pilot line and industrial trials, using naturally occurring sand as a reference. Raw materials were analyzed by X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffraction, particle size distribution, and leaching and combined to produce bodies containing up to 35% wt. sand. The extrusion, drying and firing behaviour (plasticity, drying sensitivity, mechanical strength, bulk density, water absorption, and shrinkage) were determined. The microstructure, phase composition, durability and leaching (EN 12457, granular materials, end-life step, European Waste Landfill Directive; NEN 7345, monolithic materials, use-life step, Dutch Building Material Decree) were evaluated for bricks manufactured at optimal firing temperature. These results demonstrate that spent foundry sand can be recycled in clay bricks. There are no relevant technological drawbacks, but the feasibility strongly depends on the properties of the raw materials. Spent foundry sand may be introduced into bricks up to 30% wt. Most of the hazardous elements from the spent foundry sand are inertized during firing and the concentrations of hazardous components in the leachates are below the standard threshold for inert waste category landfill excepting for chromium and lead; however, their environmental risk during their use-life step can be considered negligible. PMID:21129840

  1. Use of standardized procedures to evaluate metal leaching from waste foundry sands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel, Roberto E; Ippolito, James A; Porta, Atilio A; Banda Noriega, Roxana B; Dungan, Robert S

    2013-01-01

    As part of the casting process, foundries create sand molds and cores to hold the molten metal to specific dimensional tolerances. Although most of the waste foundry sands (WFSs) from this process are land filled, there is great interest in diverting them for use in agricultural and geotechnical applications. One potential limitation to their beneficial use is concern that the WFSs will leach high levels of trace metals. The aim of this study was to quantify Ag, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn in leaching extracts from 96 waste molding and core sands from ferrous and nonferrous foundries. The procedures used to assess leaching in the WFSs were the Extraction Procedure, the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure, and the American Society for Testing and Materials water extraction procedure. The metal extract concentrations were compared with those found in virgin silica sands and Argentinean and U.S. hazardous waste laws to determine if the WFSs met toxicity limits. Regardless of metal cast and sand binder type, the majority of the WFS extracts analyzed contained metal concentrations similar to those found in virgin sand extracts and were below levels considered hazardous. However, 4 of 28 sands that used alkyd urethane binder were deemed hazardous because Pb concentrations in these sands were found to exceed regulatory thresholds. Although other regulated metals, such as As, Hg, and Se, were not analyzed in the extracts, this dataset provides additional evidence that many WFSs have a low metal leaching potential. PMID:23673854

  2. An innovative tester system for measuring mechanical property of foundry molding sand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuxi XIE

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available A new intelligent tester system for measuring multiple mechanical properties of foundry molding sand is introduced and has been patented for the invention in China. The testing process can be simutaneosly controlled wth a build-in chip microcomputer communicating with a PC through a serial port. The testing system pplies dynamic testing technology. During the measurement for compression, relaxation, shearing and tensile processes of sand specimens, the corresponding characteristic curves and eight mechanical property parameters can be obtained in a short time, simply by consecutively testing on four sand specimens. The properties and parameters to be measurable by the tester include compressive strength, elastic modulus, plastic deformation threshold, springback potential, shear strength, shear deformation limit, toughness and tensile strength. These properties and parameters for sand specimens can be defined as the corresponding characteristic curves with precise physical meanings, carried out by the tester. Two of them, namely plastic deformation threshold and springback potential, as well as their testing methods, have been invented for the first time. The testing system applying advanced data measurement technology as well as performing excellent functions is an important breakthrough and creativity in foundry molding sand property testing field. The parameters acquired by the testing system are stable, accurate and reliable. The test data can be instantly diaplayed or printed out or stored in the PC. As evidence, many experimental data obtained by the tester practically from bth laboratory and foundry floor tests indicate that the testr system can be widely applied in foundry industry.

  3. Effect of compost-, sand-, or gypsum-amended waste foundry sands on turfgrass yield and nutrient content

    Science.gov (United States)

    To prevent the 7-11 million metric tons of waste foundry sand (WFS) produced annually in the U.S. from entering landfills, current research is focused on the reuse of WFSs as soil amendments. The effects of different WFS-containing amendments on turfgrass growth and nutrient content were tested by ...

  4. Waste Foundry Sand Soil Amendment to Reduce Atrazine Loading to Surface Runoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    A series of experiments was conducted to evaluate the potential for surface applied foundry sand (FS) waste material to reduce atrazine in runoff water from fields having atrazine-based weed management. In the first experiment, the ability of several FSs to remove atrazine from the water column was ...

  5. POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS AND PHENOLICS IN FERROUS AND NON-FERROUS WASTE FOUNDRY SANDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    A total of 43 sets of waste sand were collected from ferrous and non-ferrous foundries in the eastern United States. The concentration of organic compounds known as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and phenolics were determined. These compounds are known to be toxic to humans. Since there ...

  6. The Characterization of Total and Leachable Metals in Foundry Molding Sands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waste molding sands from the foundry industry have been successfully used as a component in manufactured soils, but concern over metal contamination must be addressed before many states will consider this beneficial use. Since there is little data available on this topic, the purpose of this study ...

  7. Metals in waste foundry sands and an evaluation of their leaching and transport to groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    While most waste molding foundry sands (WFSs) are not hazardous in nature, regulatory agencies are often reluctant to permit their beneficial use in agricultural and geotechnical applications due to concerns over metal leaching. The objective of this study was to quantify total and Toxicity Characte...

  8. The characterization and composition of bacterial communities in soils blended with spent foundry sand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spent foundry sands (SFSs) are a likely replacement for virgin aggregate used in manufactured soils, such as topsoils, potting soils, and landscaping mixes. While SFSs generally contain low concentrations of trace elements and xenobiotics, concerns about their impact upon environmental receptors ha...

  9. Granulation process of foundry dusts originated from bentonite sand processing plants

    OpenAIRE

    Kamin?ska, J.; Dan?ko, J.

    2013-01-01

    The results of the investigation results of the granulation process of foundry dusts generated during the mechanical reclamation of spent sands with bentonite and also dusts from the sand processing plants are presented in the paper. The following parameters of the final product were determined: moisture content (W) and granules shatter test (Wz) performed directly after the granulation process and after 1, 3, 5, 10 and 30 days and nights of seasoning, water-resistant ability of granules afte...

  10. Characterization of physical and chemical properties of spent foundry sands pertinent to beneficial use in manufactured soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Of 2,000 United States foundries, 93% produce ferrous or aluminum castings, generating 9.4 million tons of non-hazardous spent foundry sand (SFS) annually, of which only 28% is beneficially used. The U.S. EPA Resource Conservation Challenge identifies SFS as a priority material for beneficial use a...

  11. A new low-cost method of reclaiming mixed foundry waste sand based on wet-thermal composite reclamation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Zitian

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A lot of mixed clay-resin waste sand from large-scale iron foundries is discharged every day; so mixed waste sand reclamation in low cost and high quality has a great realistic significance. In the study to investigate the possibility of reusing two types of waste foundry sands, resin bonded sand and clay bonded sand which came from a Chinese casting factory, a new low-cost reclamation method of the mixed foundry waste sand based on the wet-thermal composite reclamation was proposed. The waste resin bonded sand was first reclaimed by a thermal method and the waste clay bonded sand was reclaimed by a wet method. Then, hot thermal reclaimed sand and the dehydrated wet reclaimed sand were mixed in certain proportions so that the hot thermal reclaimed sand dried the wet reclaimed sand leaving some water. The thermal reclamation efficiency of the waste resin bonded sand was researched at different heat levels. The optimized wet reclamation process of the waste clay bonded sand was achieved by investigating the effects of wet reclamation times, sand-water ratio and pH value on the reclaimed sand characteristics. The composite reclamation cost also was calculated. The research results showed that the properties of the mixed reclaimed sand can satisfy the application requirements of foundries; in which the temperature of the thermal reclamation waste resin bonded sand needs to be about 800 ?, the number of cycles of wet reclamation waste clay bonded sand should reach four to five, the optimal sand-water ratio of wet reclamation is around 1:1.5, and the pH value should be adjusted by adding acid. The mass ratio of hot thermal reclaimed sand to dehydrated wet reclaimed sand is about 1:2.5, and the composite reclaimed sand cost is around 100 yuan RMB per ton.

  12. Foundry performance in relation to the radiographic quality of aluminium alloy sand castings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article examines radiographic soundness and acceptance standards for aluminium alloy sand castings for aerospace and general engineering applications. A method is suggested by which foundries can evaluate their performance to provide evidence of capability with respect to radiographic quality; purchasers could use the same system to assess suppliers. The shortcomings of standards are briefly discussed in the light of an approach to radiographic acceptance on the horizon

  13. Techno- Economical Study of Rigid Pavement by Using the Used Foundry Sand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vipul D. Prajapati1 , Nilay Joshi2 , Prof. Jayeshkumar Pitroda

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Indian road network of almost 3.5 million km comprising both paved and unpaved surfaces is the world’s second largest. Indian roads are presently constructed with not the right choice of material. The two major types of materials, bitumen and concrete are used in road construction in the country. A very small share of roads in the country is made of concrete. Though, it is superior on many counts as a medium for road buildings. The use of large amount of by-product materials as powder or fines not only avoids the requirement of landfills but also reduce the environmental problems. It is most essential to develop profitable building materials from used foundry sand. The innovative use of used foundry sand in concrete formulations as a fine aggregate replacement material was tested as an alternative to traditional concrete. The fine aggregate has been replaced by used foundry sand accordingly in the range of 0%, 10%, 30% & 50% by weight for M-20 grade concrete. Concrete mixtures were produced, tested and compared in terms of compressive and flexural strength with the conventional concrete. These tests were carried out to evaluate the mechanical properties for 7, 14 and 28 days. This research work is to investigate the behaviour of concrete while replacing used foundry sand in different proportion in concrete. This low cost concrete with good strength is used in rigid pavement for 3000 commercial vehicles per day (cvpd and Dry Lean Concrete (DLC 100mm thick for national highway to make it eco-friendly.

  14. The regeneration of waste foundry sand and residue stabilization using coal refuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chong-Lyuck; Kim, Byoung-Gon; Yu, Youngchul

    2012-02-15

    The processes for recycling waste foundry sand are divided between regeneration and beneficial reuse, and the potential for regeneration is higher than that of reuse. In this study, two processes for the recycling and residue stabilization of waste foundry sands were considered. One is the dry mechanical process for recycling, and the other is the stabilization process for powdered residue. The dry mechanical process of regeneration consists of crushing, grinding, separation, and classification. To stabilize the residues that were generated through the regeneration process, powdered residues were pelletized by a high-shear pelletizer, and the surfaces of the pellets were subsequently coated with coal refuse powders that contained sodium silicate as a binder. Coated pellets were sintered by a self-propagating combustion method. The refractory index of the recycled sands, as measured by the Seger cone method, was over -34, and their SiO(2) contents of 94% was similar to that of green sand. The general conclusion that coal refuse and sodium silicate stabilize heavy metals better than other processes may lead to the development of a cost-effective solution for stabilizing heavy metals in residues. PMID:22197564

  15. Use of Spinach, Radish, and Perennial Ryegrass to Assess the Availability of Metals in Waste Foundry Sands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant uptake is a major pathway by which potentially toxic metals can enter the food chain. In this laboratory study we grew spinach, radish, and perennial ryegrass in sand blends containing 50% waste foundry sand (WFS) to assess the availability of Al, B, Ba, Be, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn,...

  16. Applications of the systems theory to the designing of the sand preparation sub-system in foundry plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Wrona

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This study provides the basic principles for designing the functional structure of manufacturing systems and their components. The analysis of functional values is applied to create the technological and manufacturing model underlying the design of the foundry equipment with machine units and materials handling systems. Quoted examples illustrate the approved procedure to be applied to control the sand preparation process in a foundry.

  17. Analysis of total metals in waste molding and core sands from ferrous and non-ferrous foundries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel, Roberto E; Ippolito, James A; Leytem, April B; Porta, Atilio A; Banda Noriega, Roxana B; Dungan, Robert S

    2012-11-15

    Waste molding and core sands from the foundry industry are successfully being used around the world in geotechnical and soil-related applications. Although waste foundry sands (WFSs) are generally not hazardous in nature, relevant data is currently not available in Argentina. This study aimed to quantify metals in waste molding and core sands from foundries using a variety of metal-binder combinations. Metal concentrations in WFSs were compared to those in virgin silica sands (VSSs), surface soils and soil guidance levels. A total analysis for Ag, Al, Ba, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Te, Tl, V, and Zn was conducted on 96 WFSs and 14 VSSs collected from 17 small and medium-sized foundries. The majority of WFSs analyzed, regardless of metal cast and binder type, contained metal concentrations similar to those found in VSSs and native soils. In several cases where alkyd urethane binder was used, Co and Pb concentrations were elevated in the waste sands. Elevated Cr, Mo, Ni, and Tl concentrations associated with VSSs should not be an issue since these metals are bound within the silica sand matrix. Because of the naturally low metal concentrations found in most WFSs examined in this study, they should not be considered hazardous waste, thus making them available for encapsulated and unencapsulated beneficial use applications. PMID:22738693

  18. Granulation process of foundry dusts originated from bentonite sand processing plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kami?ska

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of the investigation results of the granulation process of foundry dusts generated during the mechanical reclamation of spent sands with bentonite and also dusts from the sand processing plants are presented in the paper. The following parameters of the final product were determined: moisture content (W and granules shatter test (Wz performed directly after the granulation process and after 1, 3, 5, 10 and 30 days and nights of seasoning, water-resistant ability of granules after 24 h of immersing in water, surface porosity ep and volumetric porosity ev. In addition the shatter test and water-resistant ability of granulated products dried at a temperature of 105°C was estimated.

  19. The characterization of total and leachable metals in foundry molding sands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dungan, Robert S; Dees, Nikki H

    2009-01-01

    Waste molding sands from the foundry industry have been successfully used as a component in manufactured soils, but concern over metal contamination must be addressed before many states will consider this beneficial use. Since there is little data available on this topic, the purpose of this study was to characterize total and leachable metals from waste molding sands. A total elemental analysis for Ag, Al, As, B, Ba, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, V, and Zn was conducted on 36 clay-bonded and seven chemically bonded molding sands. Total metal concentrations in the molding sands were similar to those found in agricultural soils. The leaching of metals (i.e. Ag, As, Ba, Be, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Sb, and Zn) was assessed via the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP), synthetic precipitation leaching procedure (SPLP), and ASTM water leach test. Based on the TCLP data, none of the 43 molding sands would meet the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) characteristic for toxicity due to high Ag, As, Ba, Cd, Cr, and Pb. Compared to the TCLP results, the metal concentrations were generally lower in the SPLP and ASTM extracts, which is likely related to the buffering capacity of the extraction fluids. PMID:18194836

  20. Laboratory Testing of Foundry Sands as Bulking Agents for Porous Media Filters Used to Treat Agricultural Drainage Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foundry sands are industrial byproducts that may have potential application as bulking agents that when mixed with small amounts of more chemically reactive materials (i.e. sulfur modified iron, fly ash, etc.) can be used to produce porous media filters capable of removing contaminants from agricult...

  1. Design and production of a novel sand materials strength testing machine for foundry applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nwaogu, Ugochukwu Chibuzoh; Hansen, K. S.

    2012-01-01

    In the foundry, existing strength testing machines are used to measure only the maximum fracture strength of mould and core materials. With traditionally used methods, the loading history to ascertain deformation of the material is not available. In this paper, a novel moulding material strength testing machine was designed and built for both green sand and chemically-bonded sand materials. This machine measures and presents the loading response as a force-displacement profile from which the mechanical properties of the moulding materials can be deduced. The system was interfaced to a computer with a commercial PC based-control and data acquisition software. The testing conditions and operations are specified in the user interface and the data acquisition is made according to specifications. The force and displacements were calibrated to ensure consistency and reliability of the measurement data. The force was calibrated using an Amsler Hydraulic Press while the displacements were calibrated with and without loading using a displacement calibrator (Heidenhain Digitaler). The calibration results showed that the data obtained are stable and reliable and the machine can be used for the measurement of the strength of chemically-bonded sand materials.

  2. The foundry wastes. Storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work deals with the regulation relative to the management of foundry wastes, such as sands (which can be radioactive), non hazardous and hazardous wastes. Some examples of the reuse of these foundry wastes are given. (O.M.)

  3. Effect of compost-, sand-, or gypsum-amended waste foundry sands on turfgrass yield and nutrient content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Koff, J P; Lee, B D; Dungan, R S; Santini, J B

    2010-01-01

    To prevent the 7 to 11 million metric tons of waste foundry sand (WFS) produced annually in the USA from entering landfills, current research is focused on the reuse of WFSs as soil amendments. The effects of different WFS-containing amendments on turfgrass growth and nutrient content were tested by planting perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) and tall fescue (Schedonorus phoenix (Scop.) Holub) in different blends containing WFS. Blends of WFS were created with compost or acid-washed sand (AWS) at varying percent by volume with WFS or by amendment with gypsum (9.6 g gypsum kg(-1) WFS). Measurements of soil strength, shoot and root dry weight, plant surface coverage, and micronutrients (Al, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, B, Na) and macronutrients (N, P, K, S, Ca, Mg) were performed for each blend and compared with pure WFS and with a commercial potting media control. Results showed that strength was not a factor for any of the parameters studied, but the K/Na base saturation ratio of WFS:compost mixes was highly correlated with total shoot dry weight for perennial ryegrass (r = 0.995) and tall fescue (r = 0.94). This was further substantiated because total shoot dry weight was also correlated with shoot K/Na concentration of perennial ryegrass (r = 0.99) and tall fescue (r = 0.95). A compost blend containing 40% WFS was determined to be the optimal amendment for the reuse of WFS because it incorporated the greatest possible amount of WFS without major reduction in turfgrass growth. PMID:20048325

  4. Peat-assisted phytoremediation of waste foundry sands: plant growth, metal accumulation and fertility aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Fábio N; Sígolo, Joel B; Figueira, Antonio V

    2012-03-01

    We investigated the potential of peat additions to improve plant growth and fertility and to reduce plant metal uptake in waste foundry sands (WFS) landfills. The WFS contains 78211 mg kg(-1) and 371 mg kg(-1) concentrations of Cr and Ni, respectively, and varied metal concentrations. The experiment investigated the growth of Brassica juncea plants on fertilized WFS mixed with peat at concentrations of 0, 2.5, 5, and 10% (w/w). The highest peat treatment allowed substantial plant growth and increased Ni mass in shoots, which was positively correlated to shoot biomass increments. On a concentration basis, peat additions did not increase shoot Ni values, thus suggesting that plants grown on peat-treated WFS may not increase risks to human and ecological receptors. Chromium was below detection levels in shoots for all peat treatments. Peat-treated substrates also promoted increased CEC values and higher water holding capacity, therefore improving the WFS agronomical properties. These results indicate that peat can be used as an amendment to assist in the phytoremediation of WFS landfill areas. However, there was evidence for increased mobilization of Cr and Ni in the substrate solution which can pose a threat to local groundwater. PMID:22567709

  5. Geotechnical and leaching properties of flowable fill incorporating waste foundry sand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, An; Tikalsky, Paul J

    2008-11-01

    Waste foundry sand (WFS) can be converted into flowable fill for geotechnical applications. In this study, WFS samples were obtained from 17 independent metal casting facilities with different casting processes, thus representing a good range of WFS properties. The laboratory studies include physical, geotechnical and leaching properties of flowable fills consisting of WFS, cement, and fly ash mixed to different water contents. The main properties measured include WFS physical properties (density, particle gradation, grain shape, and fine content), WFS flowable fill geotechnical properties (unconfined compressive strength, hydraulic conductivity, setting time, and bleeding), and the fill's leaching properties (heavy metals and organics in the bleed water and the leachate extracted from hardened WFS flowable fills). The test results indicate that in terms of the physical properties, most of the data fall within narrow ranges, although data from the copper/aluminum-based WFS samples might fall beyond the ranges. Geotechnical properties of WFS flowable fills in both fresh and hardened phases were verified conforming to the features of specified flowable fills. Material leaching analyses indicate that the toxicity of WFS flowable fills is below regulated criteria. A mix formulation range originated from this study is proposed for the design of WFS made flowable fill. PMID:18082390

  6. New sol–gel refractory coatings on chemically-bonded sand cores for foundry applications to improve casting surface quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nwaogu, Ugochukwu Chibuzoh; Poulsen, T.

    2011-01-01

    Foundry refractory coatings protect bonded sand cores and moulds from producing defective castings during the casting process by providing a barrier between the core and the liquid metal. In this study, new sol–gel refractory coating on phenolic urethane cold box (PUCB) core was examined. The coating density, viscosity, moisture content and wet and dry weight of the coating were evaluated on cores that had been coated at three different dip-coating times. The coating coverage, surface appearance and depth of penetration into the cores were examined with a Stereomicroscope. Gray iron castings were produced with sol-gel coated and uncoated cores and the results were related to the coating properties. The casting results were also compared with castings made with cores coated with commercial alcohol-based and water-based foundry coatings. The analyses show that castings produced with sol–gel coated cores have better surface quality than those from uncoated cores and comparable surface quality with the commercialcoatings. Therefore, the new sol–gel coating has a potential application in the foundry industry for improving the surface finish of castings thereby reducing the cost of fettling in the foundry industry since the raw materials and technology are easily affordable.

  7. Mechanical and toxicological evaluation of concrete artifacts containing waste foundry sand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastella, Miguel Angelo; Gislon, Edivelton Soratto; Pelisser, Fernando; Ricken, Cláudio; da Silva, Luciano; Angioletto, Elídio; Montedo, Oscar Rubem Klegues

    2014-08-01

    The creation of metal parts via casting uses molds that are generally made from sand and phenolic resin. The waste generated after the casting process is called waste foundry sand (WFS). Depending on the mold composition and the casting process, WFS can contain substances that prevent its direct emission to the environment. In Brazil, this waste is classified according to the Standard ABNT NBR 10004:2004 as a waste Class II (Non-Inert). The recycling of this waste is limited because its characteristics change significantly after use. Although the use (or reuse) of this byproduct in civil construction is a technically feasible alternative, its effects must be evaluated, especially from mechanical and environmental points of view. Thus, the objective of this study is to investigate the effect of the use of WFS in the manufacture of cement artifacts, such as masonry blocks for walls, structural masonry blocks, and paving blocks. Blocks containing different concentrations of WFS (up to 75% by weight) were produced and evaluated using compressive strength tests (35 MPa at 28 days) and toxicity tests on Daphnia magna, Allium cepa (onion root), and Eisenia foetida (earthworm). The results showed that there was not a considerable reduction in the compressive strength, with values of 35 ± 2 MPa at 28 days. The toxicity study with the material obtained from leaching did not significantly interfere with the development of D. magna and E. foetida, but the growth of the A. cepa species was reduced. The study showed that the use of this waste in the production of concrete blocks is feasible from both mechanical and environmental points of view. PMID:24582355

  8. Industrial-hygiene report of radon daughters in foundries using zirconium sand as a molding agent, July 31, September 30-October 2, 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey of exposures to radon daughters in foundries using zirconium sand as a molding agent was conducted. The survey was prompted by a report that significant concentrations of uranium- and thorium-decay isotopes were found in zirconium sand. Area air and bulk samples were analyzed for radon-daughter activity in selected operations of five foundries that used zirconium sand as part of the molding aggregate or as a molding agent. One foundry was located in Ohio, the other four were in California. Maximum radon-daughter activity in the area samples ranged from not detectable to 0.023 working level (WL). The OSHA standards for radon-daughter activity is 0.33 WL. No results were available for the bulk samples due to difficulties with the analytical procedures. The author concludes that the measured levels of radon daughter activity in the foundries are extremely low. The potential for a radiological health hazard due to exposure from radon daughters in zirconium sand at this time is very low. Laboratory studies of zirconium sand and a gamma-radiation survey of foundries that use zirconium sand are recommended

  9. Measurement of elastic modulus and evaluation of viscoelasticity of foundry green sand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingchun XIANG

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Elastic modulus is an important physical parameter of molding sand; it is closely connected with molding sand's properties. Based on theories of rheology and molding sand microdeformation, elastic modulus of molding sand was measured and investigated using the intelligent molding sand multi-property tester developed by ourselves. The measuring principle was introduced. Effects of bentonite percentage and compactibility of the molding sand were experimentally studied. Furthermore, the essential viscoelastic nature of green sand was analyzed. It is considered that viscoelastic deformation of molding sand consists mainly of that of Kelvin Body of clay membrane, and elastic modulus of molding sand depends mainly on that of Kelvin Body which is the elastic component of clay membrane between sands. Elastic modulus can be adopted as one of the property parameters, and can be employed to evaluate viscoelastic properties of molding sand.

  10. Use of an integrated approach to characterize the physicochemical properties of foundry green sands

    Science.gov (United States)

    A fresh green sand, spent green sand, and a weathered spent green sand from a landfill were analyzed using diffractometry, electron microscopy, granulometry, spectrometry, and thermogravimetry. Our objective was to understand how the physicochemical properties of the green sands change from their o...

  11. Reclamation for foundry sand and establishment of application system to ester hardening process; Imono suna saiseiho to ester koka process eno riyo system no kakuritsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shibuya, E. [Koei Co. Ltd., Saitama (Japan); Sekine, S.

    1998-10-25

    An ester hardening process and its compatibility with reclaimed sand were studied on reclamation and utilization of foundry sand. As a result, a system was established to utilize the foundry sand repeatedly. Sand reclaimed by using the ester hardening process based on the compaction type reclamation method assures the targeted ignition loss reduction rate. A possibility of sand re-utilization was verified at low cost under soft grinding condition, even if considerations are given on reclamation and recovery rate under the reduced ignition loss, and on change in the electric current load and particle size indexes. Application of the reclamation using this method was made on recovered sand having self-hardening property of nine and gas hardenability of one, where continuous operation of molding, casting and recovery is carried out. Reclamation and recovery rate with two-path reclamation treatment is 94.6%, and compression strength in test pieces showed 300 N/cm {sup 2} both in the self-hardening property and gas hardenability after a lapse of three hours. The properties of the reclaimed sand made in the study process were found superior to those of new sand before reclamation in molding properties (fluidity and filling performance). 6 refs., 20 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Application of design projects developed by Foundry Research Institute in Krakow in construction of integrated stand for processing and reclamation of moulding sands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Izdebska-Szanda

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the description of a new integrated system for processing and reclamation of moulding and core sands using the equipment developed by Foundry Research Institute in Krakow. The idea and operation of a complex stand, which allows for co-existence of three routes of material circulation, i.e. system sand, new sand and reclaim, with maximum utilisation of the existing equipment have been presented. Various aspects, economical and ecological, of the proposed design have been discussed.

  13. Recycling of iron foundry sand and glass waste as raw material for production of whiteware.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragança, Saulo R; Vicenzi, Juliane; Guerino, Kareline; Bergmann, Carlos P

    2006-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the production feasibility of triaxial whiteware using sand from cast iron moulds as a raw material instead of silica, and recycled glass in place of feldspar. Formulations were prepared using sand, glass waste, and white-firing clay such that only 50% of the composition was virgin material (clay). The ceramic bodies were formed by pressing and fired at different temperatures (between 1100 and 1300 degrees C). Specimens were characterized in terms of green density prior to firing; and their flexural strength, linear shrinkage, and water absorption were measured after firing. The microstructure was determined by scanning electron microscopy. Possible environmental impacts of this recycling process were also evaluated, through solubility and leaching tests, according to Brazilian standards. Gaseous emissions during the firing process were also analysed. The results showed that it is possible to produce triaxial ceramics by using such alternative raw materials. PMID:16496871

  14. Polysialates binders preparation and their influence to shear strength of foundry sand mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Fridrich

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with polysialates water-glasses preparation. There were used various procedures with the goal to create inorganic polymer on silicon and aluminum base. The one composed of SiO2 and AlO4 tetrahedron chains. For the preparation was concentrated NaOH solution used together with metakaolinite in a way low-temperature synthesis in the presence of alkaline silicate: higher pressure and temperature (autoclave to direct making of alkaline silicate made of sand, NaOH with metakaolinite addition and by melting fritted glass together with metakaolinite and dissolution in autoclave. The dissolving effectivity was evaluated by the concentration of aluminum in alkaline silicate and by the influence to reduce strengths after heat exposition with this inorganic binder.

  15. Respiratory disease in foundry workers.

    OpenAIRE

    Low, I.; Mitchell, C.

    1985-01-01

    A survey was carried out in a steel foundry in Brisbane to evaluate the nature and frequency of respiratory symptoms and to assess ventilatory function. The foundry used many moulding processes including the Furane, Isocure, Shell, carbon dioxide, and oil sand systems. Nasal symptoms and wheeze were often reported, particularly by workers in the general foundry and core shop, and on a semiautomated line. By contrast, workers in the aftercast section not exposed to fumes or vapours from the va...

  16. Investigation into the origin of radioactivity in ceramic waste. Zircon sand in iron foundries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2002 a truck loaded with used car scrap triggered a radiation monitoring gate detector at a scrapyard. The material under suspicion turned out to be some ceramic waste material. The ceramic waste was used for many years to raise roads or pave yards and premises in the surroundings of Almelo, Netherlands, as was the case with the used car dump where the metal scrap came from. The ceramic material contains zircon sand, which has elevated concentrations of naturally occuring radionuclides. Therefore, using this waste in a surface soil layer may cause radiological exposures to the public. From measurements at the used car dump dose rates were determined up to ten times the background. From further research it was determined that part of the ceramic waste has concentrations above exemption level. From these measurements it was also concluded that the ceramic material is retaining radon and its decay products. From some calculations a maximum effective annual dose was estimated of about 1 mSv. This dose is determined mainly by external radiation and is for long lasting exposure on some large factory grounds. On the other hand, children might be playing in smaller yards or premises. Ingestion might play some role in that case. For this exposure path an annual dose of 0.12 mSv was calculated. For adults this is not an important exposure path. Inhalation doesn't seem to play an important role neither for adults nor for children

  17. The foundry wastes. Storage; Les dechets de fonderie. Stockage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duquet, B. [Centre Technique des Industries de la Fonderie (CTIF), 92 - Sevres (France)

    2007-03-15

    This work deals with the regulation relative to the management of foundry wastes, such as sands (which can be radioactive), non hazardous and hazardous wastes. Some examples of the reuse of these foundry wastes are given. (O.M.)

  18. CONTROLLING ODOROUS EMISSIONS FROM IRON FOUNDRIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report discusses the control of odorous emissions from iron foundries. he main process sources of odors in iron foundries are mold and core making, casting, and sand shakeout. he odors are usually caused by chemicals, which may be present as binders and other additives to the...

  19. The pneumatic conveying applications in foundry industry

    OpenAIRE

    Homa, D.; Janerka, K.; Szajnar, J.; Jezierski, J.

    2010-01-01

    The paper presents some issues connected to pneumatic conveying usage in foundry industry. The loose materials transportation (sand and moulding sand) through consecutive production cycles were described. The powder injection into liquid metal, the bentonite into mixers and pneumatic used moulding sand reclamation applications were presented, too. The industrial setups, technological descriptions and some loose materials parameters were given, too.

  20. The pneumatic conveying applications in foundry industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Homa

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents some issues connected to pneumatic conveying usage in foundry industry. The loose materials transportation (sand and moulding sand through consecutive production cycles were described. The powder injection into liquid metal, the bentonite into mixers and pneumatic used moulding sand reclamation applications were presented, too. The industrial setups, technological descriptions and some loose materials parameters were given, too.

  1. Thermal analysis of foundry bentonites

    OpenAIRE

    Z?ymankowska-kumon, S.; Holtzer, M.; Grabowski, G.

    2011-01-01

    The results of investigations of 3 calcium bentonites, activated by sodium carbonate, applied in the foundry industry as bindingmaterial for moulding sands are presented in the paper. Investigations were performed by the thermal analysis (TG) method. The occurrence of the dehydration and dehydroxylation process was confirmed in all tested bentonites.

  2. Foundry Coating Technology: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. C Nwaogu

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The importance of foundry coating in improving the surface quality of castings cannot be over emphasized. The application of mould and core washes creates a high thermal integrity barrier between the metal and the mould resulting in the reduction of the thermal shock experienced by the sand system. These thermal shock leads to series of surface defects such as veining/finning, metal penetration, burn-on/in, scab, rat tail, erosion etc. The use of coatings reduces the tendency of occurrence of these defects. However, the understanding of the coating, its components, characteristics and mechanism of action is important. In this review, a detailed description of these topics and examples are provided where necessary. A potential area of research in foundry coating development, using sol-gel process is suggested. The application of sol-gel technology in the development of foundry coatings is a novel approach.

  3. Foundry Coating Technology: A Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nwaogu, Ugochukwu Chibuzoh; Tiedje, Niels Skat

    2011-01-01

    The importance of foundry coating in improving the surface quality of castings cannot be over emphasized. The appli-cation of mould and core washes creates a high thermal integrity barrier between the metal and the mould resulting in the reduction of the thermal shock experienced by the sand system. These thermal shock leads to series of surface de-fects such as veining/finning, metal penetration, burn-on/in, scab, rat tail, erosion etc. The use of coatings reduces the tendency of occurrence of these defects. However, the understanding of the coating, its components, characteristics and mechanism of action is important. In this review, a detailed description of these topics and examples are provided where necessary. A potential area of research in foundry coating development, using sol-gel process is suggested. The application of sol-gel technology in the development of foundry coatings is a novel approach.

  4. Tekstil At?ksular?n?n Gideriminde At?k Döküm Kumlar?n?n Kullan?m? / Using of Waste Foundry Sands in Removal of Textile Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EL?F HAT?CE GÜRKAN

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Ülkelerin sanayile?mesi ile birlikte endüstriyel bazl? su kullan?m?n?n artmas? ve son y?llarda ortaya ç?kan küresel ?s?nma sorunu, yüzeysel ve yeralt? su kaynaklar?n?n tükenmesine sebep olmaktad?r. Endüstriyel at?ksular?n do?aya yapt??? etkiler önemli düzeyde, do?al dengeyi de?i?tirici ve baz? durumlarda geri dönülmez nitelikte olmaktad?r. Endüstrilerden kaynaklanan at?ksular, evsel at?ksulara göre kaynak, miktar ve karakter aç?s?ndan büyük farkl?l?klar gösterirler. Bu nedenle endüstri tesisinin ç?k?? sular?n?n do?al su ortamlar?n?n kirletmesini engelleyecek ?ekilde ar?t?lmas? gerekmektedir. Bu at?ksular?n ar?t?l?p geri kazan?lmas? ile hem su kaynaklar?n?n tüketimi hem de de?arj edilen ar?t?lm?? at?ksular?n miktar? azalt?lmakta ve çevresel etkileri en aza indirilebilmektedir. Ülkemizdeki en büyük endüstri dallar?ndan biri olan tekstil endüstrisi, çok su tüketilen, kullan?lan hammadde ve kimyasal maddelerin, gerçekle?tirilen i?lemlerin, her i?lem için uygulanan teknolojilerin çe?itlili?i nedeni ile farkl?l?k gösteren ve üretilen ürüne ba?l? at?k kayna?? olarak son derece de?i?ken yap?ya sahip bir endüstridir. Tekstil endüstrisi at?ksular?n?n en belirgin özelli?i, yüksek miktarda organik ve inorganik kimyasal içermesi ve yüksek toplam organik karbon (TOK, kimyasal oksijen ihtiyac? (KOI ve yo?un renk içeri?idir. Al?c? su kaynaklar?na verilen boyar maddeler organik yük olarak bu kirlili?in küçük bir k?sm?n? olu?turmaktad?r; ancak al?c? ortamda çok dü?ük konsantrasyonlarda boyar madde bulunmas? bile estetik aç?dan istenmeyen bir durumdur. Bu nedenle boyar madde içeren tekstil endüstrisi at?ksular?ndan renk giderim prosesleri ekolojik aç?dan önem kazanmaktad?r. Günümüzde boyar maddelerin giderimi büyük oranda fiziksel ve kimyasal yöntemlerle gerçekle?tirilmektedir. Bu çal??mada, at?k döküm kumlar?n?n, tekstil endüstrisi at?k sular?nda renk gideriminde adsorbent olarak kullan?lmas? amaçlanmaktad?r. Using of Waste Foundry Sands in Removal of Textile Wastewater Nowadays, the accelerating need of water due to usage of water in industralized countries and global warming is causing all water sources to be exhausted. The effects the industrial wastewater made to the nature are important level, changer of natural balance, and sometimes non returned position. By reusing the treated the wastewater, not only the consumption of natural water sources has been prevented, but also the amount of discharged treated wastewater and its effects to the environment has been decreased. The wastewater resulted from industries shows big differences according to the wastewater in houses in the conditions of resource, amount, and character. So output water of the industry establishment has to be purified to prevent not to dirty natural water places. Textile industry is one of the biggest industries of Turkey and it consumes Access amount of water. As there are several methods and technologies used in this sector due to the different raw materials and various chemicals, the wastewaters obtained vary related to the products produced. The most prominent feature of textile industry wastewater is contained high amounts of organic and inorganic chemicals, and high total organic carbon (TOC, chemical oxygen demand (COD and intense color. The discharge of dyes into the receiving waters constitutes only a small portion of water pollution. However the presence of very low concentrations of dyes in receiving waters is aesthetically undesirable. Therefore, treatment processes removing dyes from textile effluents have become important in order to conserve receiving waters. In this study is to investigate using the adsorpsion method of removal with waste foundry sands, which are used expecially dye nd textile industries and are an important polluting agent in the waste water dumped into the environment by these industries.

  5. Influence green sand system by core sand additions

    OpenAIRE

    S?pirutova?, N.; Ben?o, J.; Bedna?r?ova?, V.; Kr?i?z?, J.; Kandrna?l, M.

    2012-01-01

    Today, about two thirds of iron alloys casting (especially for graphitizing alloys of iron) are produced into green sand systems with usually organically bonded cores. Separation of core sands from the green sand mixture is very difficult, after pouring. The core sand concentration increase due to circulation of green sand mixture in a closed circulation system. Furthermore in some foundries, core sands have been adding to green sand systems as a replacement for new sands. The goal of this co...

  6. Foundry Coating Technology: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Nwaogu, U. C.; Tiedje, N. S.

    2011-01-01

    The importance of foundry coating in improving the surface quality of castings cannot be over emphasized. The appli-cation of mould and core washes creates a high thermal integrity barrier between the metal and the mould resulting in the reduction of the thermal shock experienced by the sand system. These thermal shock leads to series of surface de-fects such as veining/finning, metal penetration, burn-on/in, scab, rat tail, erosion etc. The use of coatings reduces the tendency of occurrence ...

  7. Foundry Industry Training Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Industrial Training Journal, 1974

    1974-01-01

    The Foundry Industry Training Committee has encouraged the foundry industry in developing systematic manpower training and development programs at all levels. Features developed include competitions as a technique of standard setting, recommendations for technician training, and a widely used manpower information system. (MW)

  8. Foundry energy conservation workbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    The foundry industry is a significant user of energy, and therefore, a natural candidate for efforts to save energy and improve efficiency by both governmental agencies and technical/trade associations. These efforts are designed to both improve the national energy position and improve the industry's efficiency and profitability. Increased energy cost and the reduced availability of fossil fuels at certain times have provided the incentive to curb waste and to utilize purchased energy wisely. Energy costs now approach and sometimes exceed 10% of the sales dollar of many foundries. Although energy use by foundries has gradually decreased on a per/ton basis in recent years, the foundry industry must continue to find ways to utilize energy more efficiently. This workbook provides ways to achieve this goal.

  9. UPGRADING FOUNDRY WASTEWATER TREATMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper summarizes findings of a 10-week pilot plant study of gray iron foundry wastewater treatment. Treatment technologies studied included lime softening, lime/soda ash softening, polymer addition, flocculation/sedimentation, and dual media filtration. Results indicate that ...

  10. Energy conservation in foundry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In any foundry, the cost of fuel in the form of coal, oil or electrical power, is about 10 to 15% of the cost of the product. Saving of the order of 30 to 50% can be achieved in energy by reducing consumption of fuel and increasing efficiency. This has been illustrated by describing 4 examples in foundry industry. In each case, saving in terms of rupees is also indicated. (N.B.)

  11. Influência do emprego de areia de fundição residual nas propriedades no estado fresco e endurecido de misturas cimentícias / Influence of foundry sand residues on the fresh and hardened properties of mortars produced with portland cement

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    W. R. L da, Silva; E., Tochetto; L. R., Prudêncio JR; A. L., Oliveira.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Languages: English, Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A areia de fundição residual (AFR) consiste em um resíduo arenoso proveniente dos moldes utilizados no processo de fundição de metais. O presente trabalho foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de avaliar a influência do uso da AFR nas propriedades concreto. Para tanto, utilizou-se cimento CPV-ARI RS, adit [...] ivo plastificante, AFR e areias fina, média natural e de britagem. As propriedades no estado fresco foram avaliadas através da determinação da consistência e teor de ar incorporado. No estado endurecido avaliou-se a resistência à compressão axial. Os resultados indicaram que o uso da AFR resulta no aumento do teor de ar incorporado, fissuração por reações expansivas e consequ?ente redução de resistência. Visando investigar a origem das tendências observadas, realizou-se um estudo complementar empregando AFR de diferentes composições. Todavia, independente da composição utilizada, os resultados indicaram tendência semelhante à observada anteriormente. Por fim, considerando os materiais empregados nesta pesquisa, conclui-se que a utilização da AFR em concreto é inadequada, pois prejudica não apenas a resistência mecânica, mas também a durabilidade do material. Abstract in english The foundry sand waste (FSW) derives from moulds used in the metallurgical industries. The present experimental study was developed to evaluate the influence of the use of FSW on concrete properties. The mixtures were produced with cement CPV-ARI-RS, water reducing admixture, FSW, natural and crushe [...] d aggregates. The properties on the fresh state were evaluated by means of flow table test and the determination of the incorporated air content. On the hardened state, compressive strength tests were performed. The initial results have shown that the use of FSW leads to an increase in the air content and cracking, caused by expansive reactions. As a result of that, a reduction in the compressive strength has been noticed. In order to define the origin of the presented trends, a complementary study was developed using FSW with different compositions. However, regardless the composition of the FSW, the obtained results presented trends which were similar to the ones previously observed. Finally, considering the materials herein used, the addition of FSW in concrete is considered inadequate since this leads to a decrease not only in the compressive strength, but also in the durability of the material.

  12. Foundry energy conservation workbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    This report discusses methods for promoting energy conservation in foundries. Use of electric power, natural gas, and coke are evaluated. Waste heat recovery systems are considered. Energy consumption in the specific processes of electric melting, natural gas melting, heat treatments, ladle melting, and coke fuel melting is described. An example energy analysis is included. (GHH)

  13. JPL Innovation Foundry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, Brent; McCleese, Daniel

    2013-08-01

    Space science missions are increasingly challenged today: in ambition, by increasingly sophisticated hypotheses tested; in development, by the increasing complexity of advanced technologies; in budgeting, by the decline of flagship-class mission opportunities; in management, by expectations for breakthrough science despite a risk-averse programmatic climate; and in planning, by increasing competition for scarce resources. How are the space-science missions of tomorrow being formulated? The paper describes the JPL Innovation Foundry, created in 2011, to respond to this evolving context. The Foundry integrates methods, tools, and experts that span the mission concept lifecycle. Grounded in JPL's heritage of missions, flight instruments, mission proposals, and concept innovation, the Foundry seeks to provide continuity of support and cost-effective, on-call access to the right domain experts at the right time, as science definition teams and Principal Investigators mature mission ideas from "cocktail napkin" to PDR. The Foundry blends JPL capabilities in proposal development and concurrent engineering, including Team X, with new approaches for open-ended concept exploration in earlier, cost-constrained phases, and with ongoing research and technology projects. It applies complexity and cost models, project-formulation lessons learned, and strategy analyses appropriate to each level of concept maturity. The Foundry is organizationally integrated with JPL formulation program offices; staffed by JPL's line organizations for engineering, science, and costing; and overseen by senior Laboratory leaders to assure experienced coordination and review. Incubation of each concept is tailored depending on its maturity and proposal history, and its highest-leverage modeling and analysis needs.

  14. National Metal Casting Research Institute final report. Volume 1, Sand reclamation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vondra, L.F.; Burningham, J.S. [University of Northern Iowa, Cedar Falls, IA (United States). Dept. of Industrial Technology

    1995-08-01

    A mobile thermal foundry sand reclamation unit was designed and constructed. This unit consisted of thermal and mechanical sand reclamation equipment installed on the bed of a 50 foot low-boy trailer. It was transported to a number of Midwest foundries for on-site demonstration of the sand reclamation process. This allowed participating foundries to have their own refuse sand (10-100 tons) processed and then reused in production for evaluation. The purpose for building the unit was to demonstrate to foundries through ``hands on`` experience that refuse sands can be reclaimed and successfully reused particularly in regard to product quality. Most of the participating foundries indicated a high level of satisfaction with the reclaimed sand. Laboratory testing of samples of the used sand, before and after processing by the demonstration unit, verified the usability of the reclaimed sand. One of the foundries participating was a brass foundry, the sand from this foundry contained lead and is classified as a hazardous material. After reclamation the sand was no longer hazardous and could also be reused in the foundry.

  15. Determination of thermal conductivity in foundry mould mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Soleni?ki

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available For a thorough understanding of the behaviour of foundry mould mixtures, a good knowledge of thermal properties of mould materials is needed. Laboratory determination of thermal conductivity of mould mixtures enables a better control over scabbing defects which are a major problem in green sand mould mixtures. A special instrument has been designed for that purpose and it is described in this work.

  16. Innovative developments in sand reclamation technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Dañko

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Proper sand management and efficient sand reclamation system are two main factors influencing economical and ecological side of modern foundry plant. It is well known fact that the production of 1 metric ton of casting from ferrous alloys generates circa 1 metric ton of waste [1], which due to containing certain amounts of harmful and dangerous compounds should undergo a reclamation – at least of the main component, which means a silica sand grains. The paper present problems of scientific and development research concerning the innovative reclamation technologies of used foundry sands such as: mechanical-cryogenic reclamation and innovative thermal reclamation.

  17. JPL Innovation Foundry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, Brent; McCleese, Daniel J.

    2012-01-01

    NASA supports the community of mission principal investigators by helping them ideate, mature, and propose concepts for new missions. As NASA's Federally Funded Research and Development Center (FFRDC), JPL is a primary resource for providing this service. The environmental context for the formulation lifecycle evolves continuously. Contemporary trends include: more competitors; more-complex mission ideas; scarcer formulation resources; and higher standards for technical evaluation. Derived requirements for formulation support include: stable, clear, reliable methods tailored for each stage of the formulation lifecycle; on-demand access to standout technical and programmatic subject-matter experts; optimized, outfitted facilities; smart access to learning embodied in a vast oeuvre of prior formulation work; hands-on method coaching. JPL has retooled its provision of integrated formulation lifecycle support to PIs, teams, and program offices in response to this need. This mission formulation enterprise is the JPL Innovation Foundry.

  18. Environmental behaviour of stabilised foundry sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coz, Alberto; Andrés, Ana; Soriano, Sonia; Irabien, Angel

    2004-06-18

    Environmental characterisation of foundry sludge (FS) and the stabilised/solidified (S/S) derived products has been performed according to the leaching behaviour. Portland cement and lime have been used as binders and foundry sand fines, activated carbon and black carbon have been used as additives in the S/S processes. The results of the characterisation show that the behaviour of the waste in acid media is mainly influenced by the inorganic components of the waste, while the organic matter only has an influence in the redox potential of the leachates. Due to the complexity of the waste, a computer modelling of equilibrium (MINTEQ) has been used in order to compare the experimental extractability with the simulated curves of the metallic species. The zinc content in the leachate is close related to the theoretical curves in the waste and all S/S products, while the rest of the metals do not show a coherent behaviour with the hydroxides evolution. The results of compliance testing allow to obtain the best S/S formulations using activated and black carbon as sorbents. The comparison between different leaching procedures leads to equivalent results depending only on the pH. PMID:15177750

  19. Influence green sand system by core sand additions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Špirutová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, about two thirds of iron alloys casting (especially for graphitizing alloys of iron are produced into green sand systems with usually organically bonded cores. Separation of core sands from the green sand mixture is very difficult, after pouring. The core sand concentration increase due to circulation of green sand mixture in a closed circulation system. Furthermore in some foundries, core sands have been adding to green sand systems as a replacement for new sands. The goal of this contribution is: “How the green sand systems are influenced by core sands?”This effect is considered by determination of selected technological properties and degree of green sand system re-bonding. From the studies, which have been published yet, there is not consistent opinion on influence of core sand dilution on green sand system properties. In order to simulation of the effect of core sands on the technological properties of green sands, there were applied the most common used technologies of cores production, which are based on bonding with phenolic resin. Core sand concentration added to green sand system, was up to 50 %. Influence of core sand dilution on basic properties of green sand systems was determined by evaluation of basic industrial properties: moisture, green compression strength and splitting strength, wet tensile strength, mixture stability against staling and physical-chemistry properties (pH, conductivity, and loss of ignition. Ratio of active betonite by Methylene blue test was also determined.

  20. Technologies for decreasing the tap temperature to save energy in steel foundries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Siddhartha

    Steel foundries are one of the most energy intensive industries. The increasing concerns over volatile energy cost and carbon dioxide emission have pushed foundries to improve efficiency and hence decrease electrical energy consumption. Statistical analysis of industrial survey data was combined with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling to investigate the best industrial practices and opportunities to improve energy efficiency. Reducing tap temperature was identified as one of the important ways of reducing energy consumption. Steel foundries typically tap at 1650-1800°C (3000-3300°F) which is 100-250°C (150-450°F) higher than the pouring temperature. The steel temperature is elevated to compensate for the temperature loss associated with tapping, holding and transporting the liquid steel from the furnace to the pouring floor. Based on experimental investigations and CFD modeling of heat losses during holding in the ladle for different foundry practices, a spreadsheet calculator has been developed to calculate the optimum tap temperature for the specific foundry practices which will eliminate unnecessary superheating. The calculated results were compared and validated with industrial measurements. Improving the lining refractory is one significant way of reducing heat losses during holding of the steel in ladle. Silica sand linings are being used in steel foundries as an inexpensive and convenient material for short holding times and small volumes. The possibilities of improvements of silica sand linings by the addition of lower density cenospheres (hollow spheres), a byproduct of coal fired power plants, was studied through property measurements and laboratory trials.

  1. Ecotoxicity assessment of stabilized/solidified foundry sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coz, Alberto; Andrés, Ana; Irabien, Angel

    2004-03-15

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the toxicity of the leachates from a foundry sludge and the derived products based on the stabilization/solidification (S/S) processes. Foundry sludge is an industrial hazardous waste containing inorganic and organic pollutants. The immobilization of the foundry waste has been performed using different S/S procedures based on cement or lime as binder agents and foundry sand fines, calcium-magnesium lignosulfonate, silica fume, activated carbon and black carbon as additives. The waste and stabilized/solidified derived products have been evaluated according to environmental considerations. The relation between the chemical composition and the ecotoxicity of the leachates has been studied in this paper. The ecotoxicity of the leachates has been related to the heavy metals and the organic pollutants by an empirical logarithmic linear expression. Different parameters of the logarithmic fitting have been obtained for the studied binder agents and additives allowing the establishment of a relationship between the S/S process and the ecotoxicity of the derived products. Results of this study have wide-ranging implications for immediate management strategies of waste with organic and inorganic pollutants in addition to application in long-term remediation efforts. PMID:15074704

  2. Optimizing the Moulding Properties of Recycled Ilaro Silica Sand

    OpenAIRE

    Folorunso, Davies Oladayo; Aribo, Sunday; Aramide, Fatai Olufemi

    2011-01-01

    Effect of varying binders (bentonite and dextrin) and water on the properties of recycled foundry sand made from silica sand mined from Ilaro Silica sand deposit in Ogun State Nigeria and have been used in several cycles for production of cast iron was examined. The used sand was washed in hot water, dried and the sieved for grain distribution. Varying bentonite and dextrin contents were added together with water to portions of the silica sand and thoroughly mixed. The moulding sand propertie...

  3. UK silica sand resources for fracking

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, Clive

    2013-01-01

    UK silica sand resources for fracking Clive Mitchell, Industrial Minerals Specialist, British Geological Survey, Keyworth, Nottingham, NG12 5GG Email: cjmi@bgs.ac.uk Silica sand is high purity quartz sand that is mainly used for glass production, as foundry sand, in horticulture, leisure and other industrial uses. One specialist use is as a ‘proppant’ to enhance oil and gas recovery. This presentation will focus on this application, particularly for shale gas recovery where it i...

  4. 77 FR 32998 - Foundry Coke From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-04

    ...No. 731-TA-891 (Second Review)] Foundry Coke From China Determination On the basis...revocation of the antidumping duty order on foundry coke from China would be likely to lead...Publication 4326 (May 2012), entitled Foundry Coke from China: Investigation No....

  5. Molecular Foundry, Berkeley, California (Revised)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlisle, N.

    2008-03-01

    This case study provides information on the Molecular Foundry, which incorporates Labs21 principles in its design and construction. The design includes many of the strategies researched at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory for energy efficient cleanroom and data centers. The result is an energy efficient high-performing sustainable laboratory.

  6. FUGITIVE EMISSIONS FROM IRON FOUNDRIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report describes the assessment of fugitive emissions of air pollutants discharged from process operations in iron foundries, and the need for the development of control technology for the most critical sources. Data indicates that the most significant fugitive emissions cont...

  7. MouldingSandDB – a modern database storing moulding sands properties research results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Jakubski

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The complexity of foundry processes requires the use of modern, advanced IT tools for optimization, storage and analysis of t echnicaldata. Properties of moulding and core sands that are collected in research laboratories, manufacturers, and finally in the foundries, are not in use later on. It seems important to create a database that will allow to use the results stored, along with the possibility of searching according to set criteria, adjusted to casting practice. This paper presents part of the database named „MouldingSandDB”, which allows to collect and search data for synthetic moulding sands.

  8. MouldingSandDB – a modern database storing moulding sands properties research results

    OpenAIRE

    Jakubski, J.; Malinowski, P.; Hajduk, M.

    2011-01-01

    The complexity of foundry processes requires the use of modern, advanced IT tools for optimization, storage and analysis of t echnicaldata. Properties of moulding and core sands that are collected in research laboratories, manufacturers, and finally in the foundries, are not in use later on. It seems important to create a database that will allow to use the results stored, along with the possibility of searching according to set criteria, adjusted to casting practice. This paper presents part...

  9. Determination of electrical properties of materials used in microwaveheating of foundry moulds and cores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Opyd

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The environment-friendly and cost efficient microwave heating of moulding and core sands opens possibilities to use plastics and wood for structures of foundry instrumentation, where transparency to microwaves is the main requirement. Presented are results of a preliminary research on determining possibilities to use selected materials in microwave field. From the viewpoint of specificity of this process, the basic parameter is ability to absorb or transmit microwave radiation. Determined were the following electrical properties: tangent of dielectric loss angle and permittivity of selected materials. The materials were classified according to their transparency to electromagnetic radiation in order to choose the ones suitable for tooling applied in foundry processes.

  10. Web based foundry knowledge base

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Stawowy

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The main assumptions and functions of proposed Foundry Knowledge Base (FKB are presented in this paper. FKB is a framework forinformation exchange of casting products and manufacturing methods. We use CMS (Content Management System to develope andmaintain our web-based system. The CastML – XML dialect developed by authors for description of casting products and processes – isused as a tool for information interchange between ours and outside systems, while SQL is used to store and edit knowledge rules and alsoto solve the basic selection problems in the rule-based module. Besides the standard functions (companies data, news, events, forums and media kit, our website contains a number of nonstandard functions; the intelligent search module based on expert system is the main advantage of our solution. FKB is to be a social portal which content will be developed by foundry community.

  11. Fluidity of Aluminium Foundry Alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Di Sabatino, Marisa

    2007-01-01

    The fluidity of an alloy plays a key role for the foundry and transport industries as it affects the quality and soundness of the cast products. Particularly, fluidity influences the reject rates, hence casting costs and the production of thinwalled, hence light components. Fluidity is a complex technological property and depends on many parameters. However, many aspects of this subject are still not fully understood. The motivation of the research presented in this doctoral thesis was, there...

  12. The radiological aspects of zircon sand use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zircon sand containing radioactivity is being used in the zirconium extraction process, metal casting, and in the ceramic and refractory industries. The sand is being widely distributed as weight in ordinary tape dispensers. Use of the sand by foundries and the zirconium industry has resulted in the accumulation of large volumes of low-level radioactive waste. Radium-226 concentration in typical zircon sand was measured as 90 +- 3 pCi/g. Radon emanation from zircon sand was estimated as 2 pCi/m2 sec. (author)

  13. FTIR analysis of bentonite in moulding sands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paluszkiewicz, C.; Holtzer, M.; Bobrowski, A.

    2008-05-01

    Bentonite is used in a wide range of applications. One of them is the foundry industry. The aim of this study was to investigate modification of moulding sands by dust which is generated during foundry process. Recycling of this dust is very important from ecological point of view. The samples of moulding sands were examined by Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Analysis of the bands due to the Si-O stretching vibrations allows to reveal the changes of active bentonite and silica sand, i.e. the main components of the moulding sands. FTIR results are compared with technological properties of the materials studied. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) methods have been used as the complementary measurement.

  14. Health and safety at work in foundry companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Wojtynek

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the identification and analysis of threats in the environment of the foundry at individual stages of the casts manufacturing process. A generalized model of the foundry was created in the system presentation including harmful and dangerous factors in the foundry technical workplace. This model can refer to an iron foundry and cast steel and small non-ferrous foundries, to modern foundries, with automatic moulding lines and to chill and pressure foundries where machines execute the majority of essential operations.

  15. Briquetted coke for the foundry: process detail

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorshkov, M.N.

    1979-07-01

    As distinct from BF coke, coke for the foundry must have a high impact strength, extremely low porosity, low reactivity and low sulphur content. Size is dependent on cupola size, but is always > 60 mm. High grade foundry coke produced in chamber ovens requires a charge composed mainly of fat coking coals and an extended coking period of at least 28h. Research is being undertaken in many European countries on a fast-route foundry coke process. Most of these projects are concerned with the use in the foundry of pre-heated briquettes of much lower porosity than conventional foundry cokes. The briquettes, however, have low structural strength due to shrinkage processes occurring in the fusible components. A series of regression equations which describe the manufacture of briquetted coke for foundry purposes based on an algorithm and programme developed at VUKhIN is described. The quality of the end coke is determined by charge composition, briquetting conditions and accompanying heat treatment. The binder and fat coal contents are also critical as these control the end porosity and thus acceptability for foundry use. Nomograms which illustrate the interaction between the various factors such as charge composition, briquetting conditions, and heating rate are included.

  16. Influence of the Changes of the Structure of Foundry Bentonites on Their Binding Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Z?ymankowska-kumon, Sylwia; Holtzer, Mariusz; Bobrowski, Artur; Olejnik, Ewa

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the effects of the examination of the structure of calcium bentonites, activated by sodium carbonate, applied in the foundry industry as a binding agent for moulding sands, subjected to the effects of high temperature, were presented. The examination was conducted with the use of the infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray analysis (XRD). In addition, the montmorillonite contents in the bentonite sample was determined with the use of the modern, Cu(II)-TET complex method and th...

  17. Examination and analysis of influence of compaction degree on dielectricproperties of moulding sand components

    OpenAIRE

    Nowak, D.; Granat, K.; Opyd, B.

    2015-01-01

    In the paper, presented are results of a research on influence of compaction degree on dielectric properties of components of moulding sands. During recent years, intensive research works on possibilities of using microwave heating in foundry technique are carried-out. However, introduction of such innovative, environment-friendly and efficient heating processes to foundry technologies is accompanied by a shortage of basic knowledge about behaviour of components of moulding sands in microwave...

  18. Restoration of an Argonne National Laboratory foundry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Environmental Management Operations Waste Management Department (WMD) at Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL-E) undertook the restoration of an unused foundry with the goal of restoring the area for general use. The foundry was used in the fabrication of reactor components for ANL's research and development programs; many of the items fabricated in the facility were radioactive, thereby contaminating the foundry equipment. The major challenges associated with the safe removal of the foundry equipment included the sheer size of the equipment, a limited overhead crane capability (4.5 tonnes), the minimization of radioactive and hazardous wastes, the cost-effective completion of the project, the hazardous and radioactive wastes present, and limited process knowledge (the facility was unused for man years)

  19. Advanced technology nodes, a foundry perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faul, Jürgen; Hoentschel, Jan; Wiatr, Maciej; Horstmann, Manfred

    2012-11-01

    Leading edge foundries need to fulfill a wide range of customer needs and have to deliver state-of-the-art performance processes. Therefore, an innovative but flexible modular technology set up is essential. This paper will show after a brief introduction of foundry challenges in general Global Foundries path towards the 28nm technology. Here, two key elements like high k metal gate process and embedded stressors are discussed. The article is concluded with an outlook on future device scaling from a leading edge foundry's perspective. This look ahead includes recent transistor architecture and process technology trends. More specifically, some challenges of the 20nm technology are discussed. This node will push planar transistor technology to its physical limits. Due to this, subsequent nodes will require substantial innovations in process architecture and device concepts. Two potential device paths are foreseen and compared, i.e. FinFet and ET-SOI-UTBB devices.

  20. Hybrid foundry patterns of bevel gears

    OpenAIRE

    Budzik G.; Markowski T.; Sobolak M.

    2007-01-01

    Possibilities of making hybrid foundry patterns of bevel gears for investment casting process are presented. Rapid prototyping of gears with complex tooth forms is possible with the use of modern methods. One of such methods is the stereo-lithography, where a pattern is obtained as a result of resin curing with laser beam. Patterns of that type are applicable in precision casting. Removing of stereo-lithographic pattern from foundry mould requires use of high temperatures. Resin burning would...

  1. Evaluation of Reclamability of Molding Sands with New Inorganic Binders

    OpenAIRE

    Izdebska-szanda, I.; Balin?ski, A.; Angrecki, M.

    2012-01-01

    One of the purposes of the application of chemically modified inorganic binders is to improve knocking out properties and the related reclamability with previously used in foundry inorganic binder (water glass), which allowing the use of ecological binders for casting non- ferrous metals. Good knocking out properties of the sands is directly related to the waste sands reclamability, which is a necessary condition of effective waste management. Reclamation of moulding and core sands is a funda...

  2. Wastes Characterisation from Foundry Activities on European Level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work presents The results of the eco toxicological characterisation of 22 defined wastes from steel foundry activities. The wastes have been selected from three processes, steel mill (smelting). sand casting and cleaning and finishing of steel products,with the common characteristics of represent an important industrial activity in the area and generated the wastes considered in this study. The eco toxicological characterisation obtained applying the Spanish regulations on hazardous waste is compared to the hazardous attributions considered by the European Union in order to characterise a waste as hazardous (non hazardous). The results allow to conclude that a acceptable concordance between both methodologies is reached and remark the need to split the broad generic types of wastes given by the Spanish regulation (Eco toxic / non eco toxic) into clearly identifiable specific types of waste

  3. Temperature influence on structural changes of foundry bentonites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtzer, Mariusz; Bobrowski, Artur; ?ymankowska-Kumon, Sylwia

    2011-10-01

    The results of investigations of three calcium bentonites, activated by sodium carbonate, applied in the foundry industry as binding material for moulding sands, subjected to the influence of high temperatures - are presented in the paper. Investigations were performed by the thermal analysis (TG) method, the infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) method and the modern Cu(II)-TET complex method (used for the determination of the montmorillonite content in bentonite samples). The occurrence of the dehydration process and two-stage dehydroxylation process was confirmed only for bentonite no. 2. This probably indicates that cis- and trans-isomers are present in the octahedric bentonite structure. Tests were performed at temperatures: 500, 550, 700, 900, 1000, 1100, 1200 °C.

  4. Radiometric measurement techniques in metallurgy and foundry technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The contributions contain informations concerning the present state and development of radiometric measurement techniques in metallurgy and foundry technology as well as their application to the solution of various problems. The development of isotope techniques is briefly described. Major applications of radiometric equipment in industrial measurement are presented together with the use of isotopes to monitor processes of industrial production. This is followed by a short description of numerous laboratory-scale applications. Another contribution deals with fundamental problems and methods of moisture measurement by neutrons. A complex moisture/density measurement device the practical applicability of which has been tested is described here. Possibilities for clay determination in used-up moulding materials are discussed in a further contribution. The clay content can be determined by real-time radiometric density measurement so that the necessary moisture or addition of fresh sand can be controlled. (orig.) With 20 figs., 9 tabs., 178 refs

  5. Evaluation of electromagnetic absorbing capacity of materials in foundry industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Nowak

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, a research on determining the standing wave ratio as a measure of electromagnetic absorbing capacity of moulding materials is presented. Preliminary tests performed using a microwave strip line showed that high-silica, chromite and magnesite moulding sands are characterised by low absorbing capacity of microwaves. It was demonstrated that microwave absorbing capacity is significantly affected by chemical compounds included in the examined substrates. It was found that use of a microwave strip line permits precise determining characteristic microwave absorbing capacities of various moulding materials and thus their suitability for microwave drying/hardening of moulds and cores or for other foundry processes. Such a microwave drier can be applied for identifying mass components and for determining e.g. base granularity by means of precisely determined reflection ratios |?| and positions of minimum signal values.

  6. Research and application of enterprise resource planning system for foundry enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Jianxin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available PPDB issues - four aspects of current management issues of foundry enterprises are discussed in this paper, including Production Management, Process Control, Duration Monitoring and Business Intelligence Data Analysis. Also a whole Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP solution for foundry enterprises is proposed. The solution contains many models, four of which are used to solve the PPDB issues. These are called SPDB models, which separately are the Single-piece management model (based on casting lifecycle, Process management model (based on task-driven technology, Duration monitoring model (based on surplus period, and Business intelligence data analysis model (based on data mining. An ERP system for foundry enterprises, named HZERP, was researched and developed, and applied to a sand casting company of single piece and small batch production. Qualitatively and quantitatively comparing the application effect before and after implementing the HZERP system, the result demonstrated that the foundry ERP system based on the SPDB models can help metal casting enterprises achieve the single-piece management, better regulate the production processes, improve production and delivery management, shorten the production cycle, reduce costs, and speed up the capital turnover to a large extent.

  7. The Properties of Moulding Sand with Halloysite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cholewa

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Until now, the mould sand in general use in the foundry industry are based on bentonite, which resulted from the fact that a good recognition properties and phenomena associated with this material. Come to know and normalized content of montmorillonite and carbonates and their important role in the construction of bentonite, and mass properties of the participation of compressive strength or scatter. Halloysite is widely used in industry and beyond them. However, little is known about its use in the foundry in Poland and abroad. This article presents preliminary research conducted at the Foundry Department of Silesian University of Technology on this material. Will raise the question of the representation of this two materials, which contains information connected with history and formation of materials, their structure and chemical composition. In the research, the results of compressive strength tests in wet masses of quartz matrix, where as a binder is used halloysite and bentonite in different proportions.

  8. Impact of foundry units on Coimbatore environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palanivel, M.; Elayaraja, T.; Ganeshmoorthy, D.; Jagadeeswaran, N.; Kalaiselvi, K. [PSG College of Arts and Science, Coimbatore (India). Department of Environmental Science

    2005-07-01

    Urbanization and industrialization lead to increases in automobile vehicular activities causing significant air pollution problems, which have implications for public health. In response to this issue, an air pollution study was undertaken to evaluate the impacts of foundry units on the urban environment in Coimbatore, India. Approximately 17 foundry units were randomly selected and studied for its air pollutants such as gaseous and suspended particulate matter using Central Pollution Control Board standard estimation methods. Gaseous index pollutants were monitored over a 24-hour period. The study concluded that even though air pollutants emitted from the foundries are within allowable limits, the industrial location and increase in number of units in Coimbatore may increase the total volume of pollution to the environment. The paper recommends separating industrial sector zones. 4 refs., 3 tabs.

  9. Method of the Moulding Sands Binding Power Assessment in Two-Layer Moulds Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Holtzer, M.; Droz?yn?ski, D.; Bobrowski, A.; Makselon, J.

    2014-01-01

    More and more foundry plants applying moulding sands with water-glass or its substitutes for obtaining the high-quality casting surface at the smallest costs, consider the possibility of implementing two-layer moulds, in which e.g. the facing sand is a sand with an organic binder (no-bake type) and the backing sand is a sand with inorganic binder. Both kinds of sands must have the same chemical reaction. The most often applied system is the moulding sand on the water-glass or geopolymer bases...

  10. Investigations of reclamation ability of used moulding sand with water glass binder and used sand with CO2 hardened alkaline resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Da?ko

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction of modern moulding sands with the organic and unorganic binders requires the use of reclamation carried out in order to reuseof used sands. Used sands depending on the type of binding material are characterized by different susceptibility to the recoveryprocesses. Presented research is aimed at determining reclaimability of selected used sands, which are often used in the Polish foundryindustry. This applies to the used moulding sand with water glass binder hardener by esters (ethylene glycol diacetate - technology floster S and used moulding sand with Carbophen 5692 resin, hardened by CO2 as a representative for this type of resins used in foundry.

  11. AIR TOXIC EMISSIONS FROM IRON FOUNDRIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper presents uncontrolled air toxic emission factors for different process operations in a gray iron foundry. he emission factors are based on the results of on-site test measurements available in the literature. he emission factors are presented for organic and inorganic c...

  12. Moisture content measurement of foundry raw materials with NZK 201 neutron moisture gage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possibility was studied of applying densimeters and moisture gages of the NZK 201 type in a foundry. The experiments were conducted in the measurement of pure quartz sands and sands with binding agents, such as sodium silicate and bentonite, within the moisture range of 0.5 to 6% water, and in the measurement of a fuel mixture consisting of ground anthracite and ground coke with a moisture content of more than 5%. The dependence was determined of the recorded pulse rates on the water content in quartz sands without binding agents. The measurements were carried out in a volume of 507 dm3 over a period of 3 mins. The accuracy of moisture determination within 0 to 1.5% water was 0.2 to 0.3%, for a higher water content 0.1 to 0.2%. The results of measurements in volumes of 38 and 25 dm3 are given in form of calibration curves. In the minimal volume of 25 dm3 an accuracy of +-0.2% could be obtained. Similar measurements were carried out in a mixture of sand with sodium silicate. The calibration curves for pure quartz sand and sand with sodium silicate are similar. A calibration curve could not be obtained in measurements of quartz sand with bentonite and of the fuel mixture of ground anthracite and ground coke owing to the unreproducibility of results. (J.B.)

  13. Mid-infrared spectroscopic analysis of chemically bound metalcasting sands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foundries around the world discard millions of tonnes of molding and core sand each year even though they can be beneficially used in manufactured soils and geotechnical applications. Despite their usefulness as an aggregate replacement, some environmental authorities are concerned over potential ne...

  14. The Properties of Moulding Sand with Halloysite

    OpenAIRE

    Cholewa, M.; Kozakiewicz, ?.

    2012-01-01

    Until now, the mould sand in general use in the foundry industry are based on bentonite, which resulted from the fact that a good recognition properties and phenomena associated with this material. Come to know and normalized content of montmorillonite and carbonates and their important role in the construction of bentonite, and mass properties of the participation of compressive strength or scatter. Halloysite is widely used in industry and beyond them. However, little is known about its use...

  15. Thermal reclamation of the used moulding sands

    OpenAIRE

    ?ucarz, M.

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents the results of the research on the used moulding sands subjected to mechanical and thermal reclamation at different stages of the process in the foundry. The research on thermal treatment was carried out in an experimental thermal reclamation appliance. The effects of the process were evaluated with the use of a range of criteria, e.g. loss in roasting, sieve analysis, strength, the acidic reaction (pH). The performed investigations indicate that the thermal reclamation, of...

  16. Foundry waste recycling in moulding operations and in the ceramic industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanetti, Maria Chiara; Fiore, Silvia

    2003-06-01

    An industrial treatment was performed by the Sasil plant of Brusnengo (Biella, Northern Italy), which is part of the Gruppo Minerali S.p.A. (Novara, Northern Italy), to consider the reclamation of bentonite bonded moulding sands obtained from the Teksid Italia S.p.A. cast iron foundry plant in Crescentino (Vercelli, Northern Italy). An evaluation of the fine particles produced by the wet-mechanical regeneration treatment was made with the purpose of proposing their recycling as binding agents in moulding operations in the cast iron foundry and for the production of tiles in the ceramic industry. The pre-mixed product sold by bentonite suppliers (35% coal dust and 65% bentonite, 0.15 Euro/kg) could be made from the recovered fine fraction below 0.025 mm with the addition of active clay and coal dust, thus obtaining a product that will have physico-chemical properties similar to those of calcic bentonite. The improvements due to the addition of the fine particles to the usually employed clay for tile production were also underlined from the results of several baking tests. The recovery and recycling of sands and fine particles obtained from the reclamation of bentonite moulding sands will lead to a saving of raw materials and landfill space, with economic and environmental advantages. PMID:12870643

  17. Foundry waste recycling in moulding operations and in the ceramic industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanetti, M.C.; Fiore, S. [Polytechnic Turin, Turin (Italy)

    2003-06-01

    An industrial treatment was performed by the Sasil plant of Brusnengo (Biella, Northern Italy), to consider the reclamation of bentonite bonded moulding sands obtained from the Teksid Italia S.p.A. cast iron foundry plant in Crescentino (Vercelli, Northern Italy). An evaluation of the fine particles produced by the wet-mechanical regeneration treatment was made with the purpose of proposing their recycling as binding agents in moulding operations in the cast iron foundry and for the production of tiles in the ceramic industry. The premixed product sold by bentonite suppliers (35% coal dust and 65% bentonite, 0.15 Euro/kg) could be made from the recovered fine fraction below 0.025 mm, with the addition of active clay and coal dust, thus obtaining a product that will have physico-chemical properties similar to those of calcic bentonite. The improvements due to the addition of the fine particles to the usually employed clay for tile production were also underlined from the results of several baking tests. The recovery and recycling of sands and fine particles obtained from the reclamation of bentonite moulding sands will lead to a saving of raw materials and landfill space, with economic and environmental advantages.

  18. Influence of dust addition from cast iron production on bentonite sand mixture properties

    OpenAIRE

    Gengel?, P.; Pribulova?, A.

    2010-01-01

    In cast iron foundry operations like melting, casting, feetling, casts cleaning and grinding of a high amount of dusts are produced. Threekinds of dusts from different parts of cast iron foundry were analysed; chemical analyses, granulometric analyses and microscopic analyseswere carried out. The bentonite sand mixtures with different portion of dusts were prepared. Technological properties of prepared sandmixtures (compression strength, shearing strength and permeability) were measured.

  19. Strength properties of moulding sands with chosen biopolymer binders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    St.M. Dobosz

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of primary researches of the IV generation moulding sands, in which as the binders are used differentbiodegradable materials. The bending and the tensile strength of the moulding sands with polylactide, poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid,polycaprolactone, polyhydroxybutyrate and cellulose acetate as binders were measured. The researches show that the best strengthproperties have the moulding sands with polylactide as binder. It was proved that the tested moulding sands’ strength properties are goodenough for foundry practice.

  20. Optimizing the Moulding Properties of Recycled Ilaro Silica Sand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davies Oladayo FOLORUNSO

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Effect of varying binders (bentonite and dextrin and water on the properties of recycled foundry sand made from silica sand mined from Ilaro Silica sand deposit in Ogun State Nigeria and have been used in several cycles for production of cast iron was examined. The used sand was washed in hot water, dried and the sieved for grain distribution. Varying bentonite and dextrin contents were added together with water to portions of the silica sand and thoroughly mixed. The moulding sand properties (permeability, green strength, compatibility, shatter index and moisture content of the recycled foundry sand were determined. It was observed that the recycled Ilaro sand (after several cycle of usage has grain Fineness Index (GFI of 50 and that it can still be reused by minimum addition of binders. It was concluded that the optimum green strength and permeability for the recycled sand was achieved when 12g of bentonite, 8g of dextrin and 12cm3 of water were added to 200g of recycled sand.

  1. Emission of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX) from the furan moulding sands with addition of the reclaim

    OpenAIRE

    Holtzer, M.; Bobrowski, A.; Dan?ko, R.; Kmita, A.; Z?ymankowska-kumon, S.; Kubecki, M.; Go?rny, M.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the results of decomposition of a moulding sand with furfuryl resin also on a quartz matrix and with additions of a reclaimed material, under industrial conditions, are presented. Investigations of the gases emission in the test foundry plant were performed according to the original method developed in the Faculty of Foundry Engineering, AGH UST. The dependence of the emitted PAHs and BTEX group substances and ignition losses on the reclaim fraction in a moulding sand are of a ...

  2. Failure effects and resolution of modes: a novel FMEA treatise for finalizing mould designs in foundries

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    T.A., Selvan; C., Jegadheesan; P., Ashoka Varthanan; K.M., Senthilkumar.

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel strategy to finalize the mould design of a specific cast component through the failure analysis using case study data of a foundry. Traditional failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) is one of the effective tools for prioritizing the possible failure modes by calculating [...] the Risk priority Number (RPN) of a process/design. But in foundries, prioritizing the failures through the traditional FMEA produces unmatched results when RPN values are identical during preproduction trials. Hence it is very difficult to finalize moulds design of a specific cast component using traditional FMEA approach. This research paper addresses an alternate FMEA approach named FEAROM (Failure Effects And Resolution of Modes) to resolve the difficulty in finalizing the mould designs. Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) is used for validating the results obtained using FEAROM method. The results presented are based on an experimental study carried out for a specific component in a foundry using the sand casting method. It is found that proposed FEAROM model matches well in practice and produces quality castings.

  3. Characterization and extraction of gold contained in foundry industrial wastes; Caracterizacion y extraccion de oro contenido en matrices de desechos industriales de fundicion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vite T, J.; Vite T, M.; Diaz C, A.; Carreno de Leon, C. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Depto. de Estudios del Ambiente, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    Gold was characterized and leached in foundry sands. These wastes are product among others of the automotive industry where they are used as molds material which are contaminated by diverse metals during the foundry. To fulfil the leaching process four coupled thermostat columns were used. To characterize the solid it was used the X-ray diffraction technique. For the qualitative analysis it was used the Activation analysis technique. Finally, for the study of liquors was used the Plasma diffraction spectroscopy (Icp-As) technique. The obtained results show that the process which was used the thermostat columns was more efficient, than the methods traditionally recommended. (Author)

  4. Influence of the organic compounds on the ecotoxicity in the treatment of foundry sludge and olive mill waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coz, Alberto; Mantzavinos, Dionisis; Karageorgos, Petros; Kalogerakis, Nikolas; Andrés, Ana; Viguri, Javier R; Irabien, Angel

    2006-01-01

    The study of the ecotoxicity in two industrial waste materials and the relationships with the organic parameters has been conducted. Foundry sludge and olive mill waste have been used as industrial waste materials with organic or mixed character. Stabilisation/solidification (S/S) and advanced oxidation (AOP) processes have been carried out in order to treat both foundry sludge and olive mill waste. Analysis of ecotoxicity, total organic carbon, COD and phenol index have been evaluated in the untreated waste and end-products. The results of the treated samples allow obtaining the best formulations in both processes. The best formulations in the immobilisation process have been obtained with Portland cement and black carbon, activated carbon or foundry sand ashes. In the AOP process, ozone concentrations above 35 mg/l and reaction times equal to 120 minutes have been the optimal variables. The relationships between the organic parameters and the ecotoxicity of the samples have been studied in this paper. Furthermore, the global organic parameters have been studied in relation to the phenolic compounds. Lineal and logarithmic expressions have been obtained between the total organic carbon and phenol index and the ecotoxicity of the samples related to the organic parameters, respectively. Ecotoxicity of the samples with Vibrio fischeri is recommended as a very promising biotest for the study of the characterisation and the evaluation of the treatment of organic and mixed character waste and total organic carbon is recommended as global organic parameter in the treatment of foundry sludge. PMID:17172203

  5. Improving electrical efficiency in the foundry industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the current economic climate, it is essential for industry to minimize costs wherever possible. This is particularly important in the foundry industry that is being subjected to competitive pressure from offshore suppliers and by suppliers of competing materials. This paper reports that foundries must continuously strive to lower operating costs wherever possible. In many respects, the utility industry is no different. The situation facing utilities over the past several years has resulted in its transition from a producer and supplier of energy to that of a more customer oriented service company. In many cases, utilities have formed departments dedicated to providing assistance to their customers in the application of electricity to their business. At the same time, the need for energy conservation has become widespread in North America as energy demand increases, environmental concerns increase and the cost of providing new power plants become formidable

  6. Monitoring of the supply system of electrical foundry equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Zió?kowski

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The article presents examples of recording the instantaneous values voltages, currents and power in electrical power systems foundry.Recorded measurements of the instantaneous values allow to make an analysis of transients at the time of turning on the foundry device.The author on the bases of the measurements results in power systems selected foundry mixers, describes examples of analysis andevaluation of transients when switching these devices.

  7. Small Scale Foundries in Ghana: The challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Gikunoo, Emmanuel; Andrews, Anthony

    2011-01-01

    Small Scale Foundries (SSFs) have been in existence for several years in Ghana. The industry has created several jobs for the people of Ghana and has minimized the burden on government to find ways of disposing scrap metals generated within the country. While scrap metals are still being exported, the quantity exported has decreased as a result of recycling by foundrymen in producing various parts. The government of Ghana has not paid special attention to this industry. Nevertheless, individu...

  8. Foundry Wastes Reuse and Recycling in Concrete Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Fiore

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The industrial process of a cast iron foundry plant located in the North of Italy was analyzed in order to determine the amount and kind of produced wastes. The main fractions are core and moulding sands, muds and powders from dust abatement plants, furnace and ladle slags, and exhaust lime, making about 750-800 t/d of residues for a production of about 800 t/d of globular and grey cast iron. All wastes were sampled and characterized by means of particle-size distribution and chemical analyses to evaluate the best reuse and recycling solutions. On the grounds of the gathered results, the residues may be divided in three categories according to the particle-size dimensions: below 0.1 mm, between 0.1 and 0.6 mm and above 0.6 mm. The fraction above 0.6 mm, mainly made of metallic iron, may be reused in the furnaces. The fraction between 0.1 mm and 0.6 mm may be reused in cores production, after a regeneration treatment. The fraction between 0.1 and 0.025 mm may be recycled as raw material for the concrete industry, and the below 0.025 mm fraction may be reused in green moulding operations. An economic evaluation of the proposed reuse and recycling solutions was performed.

  9. Influence of the Changes of the Structure of Foundry Bentonites on Their Binding Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia ?YMANKOWSKA-KUMON

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the effects of the examination of the structure of calcium bentonites, activated by sodium carbonate, applied in the foundry industry as a binding agent for moulding sands, subjected to the effects of high temperature, were presented. The examination was conducted with the use of the infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and X-ray analysis (XRD. In addition, the montmorillonite contents in the bentonite sample was determined with the use of the modern, Cu(II-TET complex method and the technological properties of moulding sands containing the examined bentonites, such as: compactability, permeability, compression strength were examined.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.18.1.1342

  10. Mystery Sand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciencenter

    2012-01-01

    In this activity, learners play with surprising sand that doesn’t get wet! Learners explore how water behaves differently when it comes in contact with "magic sand" and regular sand. Learners learn about the hydrophobic properties of "magic sand." Use this activity to talk about how many materials behave differently at the nanoscale.

  11. GRAY IRON FOUNDRY INDUSTRY PARTICULATE EMISSIONS: SOURCE CATEGORY REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of a study to develop particulate emission factors based on cutoff size for inhalable particles for the gray iron foundry industry. After a review of available information characterizing particulate emissions from gray iron foundries, the data were summar...

  12. Mutagenic material in air particles in a steel foundry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently published epidemiological reports indicate lung cancer mortality amongst foundry workers at DOFASCO, Ltd., was higher than found elsewhere in the plant or control populations. Presented are preliminary work on mutagen screening efforts and studies on the use of various sampling devices and on optimization of the assays, followed by data which show a diverse range of mutagenic compounds present in foundry air particulates

  13. Foundry. Trade and Industrial Education Trade Preparatory Training Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebraska State Dept. of Education, Lincoln. Div. of Vocational Education.

    One of a series of curriculum guides prepared for the metals occupations cluster of the construction/fabrication occupational group, this guide identifies the essentials of the foundry trade as recommended by the successful foundry operator. An instructional program based upon the implementation of the guide is expected to prepare a student to…

  14. Research on coke briquette production for foundry use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorshkov, M.N.

    1979-07-01

    As distinct from BF coke, coke for the foundry must have a high impact strength, extremely low porosity, low reactivity and low sulphur content. Size is dependent on cupola size, but is always >60 mm. High grade foundry coke produced in chamber ovens requires a charge composed mainly of fat coking coals and an extended coking period of at least 28h. Research is being undertaken in many European countries on a fast-route foundry coke process. Most of these projects are concerned with the use in the foundry of pre-heated briquettes of much lower porosity than conventional foundry cokes. The briquettes, however, have low structural strength due to shrinkage processes occurring in the fusible components.

  15. New EUROPRACTICE microsystem design and foundry services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomon, Patric R.; Beernaert, Dirk; Turner, Rob

    2000-08-01

    The microsystems market for MST is predicted to grow to 38 billion dollars by the year 2002, with systems containing these components generating even higher revenues and growth. One of the barriers to successful exploitation of this technology has been the lack of access to industrial foundries capable of producing certified microsystems devices in commercial quantities. To overcome this problem, the European Commission has started the EUROPRACTICE program in 1996 with the installation of manufacturing clusters and demonstration activities to provide access to microsystems foundry services for European small and medium sized companies (SMEs). Since 1996, there has been a shift form providing 'broad technology offers' and 'raising awareness fro microsystem capabilities' to 'direct support of design needs' and 'focused services' which allow SMEs to use even complex microsystems technologies to implement their products, The third phase of EUROPRACTICE has just been launched, and contains 5 Manufacturing Clusters, 12 Designs Houses, and 7 Competence Centers, each working in different application/technology areas. The EUROPRACTICE program will be presented together with a detail description of the capabilities of the participants and information on how to access their services.

  16. Small Scale Foundries in Ghana: The challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel GIKUNOO

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Small Scale Foundries (SSFs have been in existence for several years in Ghana. The industry has created several jobs for the people of Ghana and has minimized the burden on government to find ways of disposing scrap metals generated within the country. While scrap metals are still being exported, the quantity exported has decreased as a result of recycling by foundrymen in producing various parts. The government of Ghana has not paid special attention to this industry. Nevertheless, individuals and private investors are heavily involved in producing several thousands of tonnes of castings annually generating revenue for the government through taxation as well as helping with metal waste disposal. Metal cast products are sold both locally and internationally to neighbouring countries. The industry is however faced with numerous challenges. These include quality issues due to lack of technical know-how, access to funding from both government and private financial institutions and foundry waste management. To promote this industry, government and private financial institutions must be encouraged to come on board. Policies must be established and proper training programme developed to improve and promote this technology. This could go a long way in reducing the high unemployment rate in Ghana.

  17. Space Technology for the Iron Foundry

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) initiated development of a plasma melter intended to solve a major problem in the U.S. foundry industry. EPRI is a non-profit organization that manages research and development for some 600 electric utility member companies. For the plasma melter program, EPRI enlisted as co-sponsors Westinghouse Electric's Environmental Systems and Services Division, General Motors Corporation, and Modern Equipment Company, supplier of equipment and services to the foundry industry. General Motor's plasma melter, first in the U.S., is an advanced technology system designed to improve the efficiency of coke-burning cupolas that melt iron to produce automotive castings. The key elements are six Westinghouse plasma torches. Electrically-powered plasma torch creates an ionized gas that superheats air entering the cupola to 10,000 degrees Fahrenheit. That great heat, three times higher than that attainable by oil or natural gas systems, is the key to making iron cheaper, cleaner, and faster. System offers an environmental bonus in reduced cupola emissions. Plasma torches increase GM's electric bill at Defiance, but that cost is more than compensated by the savings in charge material. The EPRI-sponsored Center for Materials Production (CMP) is evaluating the potential of plasma cupola technology.

  18. Hybrid foundry patterns of bevel gears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budzik G.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Possibilities of making hybrid foundry patterns of bevel gears for investment casting process are presented. Rapid prototyping of gears with complex tooth forms is possible with the use of modern methods. One of such methods is the stereo-lithography, where a pattern is obtained as a result of resin curing with laser beam. Patterns of that type are applicable in precision casting. Removing of stereo-lithographic pattern from foundry mould requires use of high temperatures. Resin burning would generate significant amounts of harmful gases. In case of a solid stereo-lithographic pattern, the pressure created during gas burning may cause the mould to crack. A gas volume reduction may be achieved by using patterns of honeycomb structure. However, this technique causes a significant worsening of accuracy of stereo-lithographic patterns in respect of their dimensions and shape. In cooperation with WSK PZL Rzeszów, the Machine Design Department of Rzeszow University of Technology carried out research on the design of hybrid stereo-lithographic patterns. Hybrid pattern consists of a section made by stereo-lithographic process and a section made of casting wax. The latter material is used for stereo-lithographic pattern filling and for mould gating system. The hybrid pattern process consists of two stages: wax melting and then the burn-out of stereolithographic pattern. Use of hybrid patterns reduces the costs of production of stereolithographic patterns. High dimensional accuracy remains preserved in this process.

  19. Development tendencies of moulding and core sands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislaw M. Dobosz1

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Further development of the technology for making moulding and core sands will be strictly limited by tough requirements due to protection of the natural environment. These tendencies are becoming more and more tense, so that we will reach a point when even processes, that from technological point of view fulfill high requirements of the foundry industry, must be replaced by more ecologically-friendly solutions. Hence, technologies using synthetic resins as binding materials will be limited. This paper presents some predictable development tendencies of moulding and core sands. The increasing role of inorganic substances will be noticed, including silicate binders with significantly improved properties, such as improved knock-out property or higher reclamation strength. Other interesting solutions might also be moulding sands bonded by geo-polymers and phosphate binders or salts and also binders based on degradable biopolymers. These tendencies and the usefulness of these binders are put forward in this paper.

  20. Development and optimization of novel sensors for inline measurement of sand filling and compaction stages in lost foam casting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelan, Matthew J.; Janoyan, Kerop D.

    2005-05-01

    The lost foam casting (LFC), or expendable pattern casting, process is employed worldwide in foundries as an efficient casting technology that offers the advantages of consolidation of components, reduced machining, and recirculation of casting mold material. Currently, many foundries develop a schedule of sand raining flow rates and flask excitation accelerations for each specific pattern through an often-lengthy trial and error procedure. During casting, a single flask acceleration measurement is typically the only measurement by which the sand compaction is monitored. The current research focuses on developing an array of measurement tools to be used in measuring parameters critical to the sand compaction stage of the lost foam casting process to aid in the development of filling and vibration schedules as well as to provide additional inline measurements during foundry operation. In particular, the study focuses on the use of minimally intrusive transducers placed inline to provide direct feedback that can be then used in both passive and active process control.

  1. Discovering Sand and Sand Paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Eichinger

    2009-05-30

    This activity blends social studies and art with math and science. First, students will explore the visible characteristics of sand, and then they will make Navajo-style sand paintings with paper, glue, and colored sand. In the process, they will hone the

  2. Study of exposure to radiation in a lost wax foundry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Lost wax casting is an old method for making metal pieces. At the beginning of the process, the required metal piece is made in wax. After that, the wax model is covered with a siliceous shell. When the siliceous shell is finished, the wax is melted, replacing the wax by liquid metal. In the moment when the metal is cool the siliceous shell is broken away. Finally some finishing process is made, and the piece is just prepared for its utilization. The siliceous shell is prepared with zircon sands containing varying concentrations of natural radionuclides: 238U, 232Th and 235U together with their progenies. For that reason it is very convenient to assess the dose to workers, considering the tasks they perform and the exposure time in these activities during a year. The first part of the study is centred in identifying the situations and areas where workers are exposed to radiation. The exposure pathways are: inhalation of dust, ingestion of dust, inhalation of radon, skin contamination and external irradiation. In a plant where this process is implemented the areas where workers are exposed are: the store, the shell building area, the foundry area, the shell or mould breaking area, and the waste area, including those areas close to the store too. In those sections, workers are exposed while they work in different tasks. The second part of the study deals with dose assessment. In most of the areas, external irradiation is the df the areas, external irradiation is the dominant pathway, and in order to assess doses a Monte-Carlo simulation using MCNP-4C code has been performed. Photons fluxes so obtained are multiplied by the conversion factor of Flux to Kerma for air, by conversion factor to Effective Dose by kerma unit, and by the number of emitted photons per disintegration of parent nuclide. The application of this methodology to given mill has obtained the following results: Individual doses by area received by workers have a mean value of 5.9 ?Sv/y and a standard deviation of 7.7 ?Sv/y with an upper limit of 20.3 ?Sv/y and a lower limit of 0.2 ?Sv/y. The corresponding collective dose is 232.8 ?Sv/y and being the distribution of dose by task as follows: - Maintenance: Carrying the zircon sands from lorry to store (0.039 ?Sv/y), putting the zircon sand pallet on the shelf (0.012 ?Sv/y), while the pallet is on the shelf (2.8 ?Sv/y), taking the pallet off the shelf (0.022 ?Sv/y), taking the pallet to mould preparation area (0.39 ?Sv/y). The total collective dose making that task is 3.263 ?Sv/y. - Shell Making: shell preparation (58.2 ?Sv/y), shell cover (big trays) (76 ?Sv/y), shell cover (small trays) (9 ?Sv/y), exposures to moulds (5.6?Sv/y), loading the pieces on the wagon (2.1?Sv/y), taking the wagon to foundry area (7.4 ?Sv/y), taking the residues to waste area (2.2 ?Sv/y), putting the pieces into the take wax removing kiln (1.4 ?Sv/y). The total collective dose making that task is 161.91 ?Sv/y. - Mould preparation (35.2 ?Sv/y). - Shell removal: waste material removal (0.4 ?Sv/y), and moving the cart from foundry area (0.6 ?Sv/y). - Finishing (28.6 ?Sv/y). - Waste (0.00034 ?Sv). And here it can be seen that those workers working on the shell making are the most exposed ones, but the value of collective dose is less than 1 mSv/y. Comparing with the levels of the graphical representation of the classification system, it can conclude that the processes 'do not need to consider regulation'. (author)

  3. Study of exposure to radiation in a lost wax foundry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Lost wax casting is an ancient method for making metal pieces. At the beginning of the process, the required metal piece is made in wax. After that, the wax model is covered with a silicaceous shell. When the silicaceous shell is finished, the wax is melted and replaced by liquid metal. As soon as the metal is cool the silicaceous shell is broken away. Finally a finishing process is made, and the piece is ready for utilization. The silicaceous shell is prepared with zircon sands containing varying concentrations of natural radionuclides: 238U, 232Th and 235U together with their progenies. For that reason it is very convenient to assess the dose to workers, considering the tasks they perform and the exposure time during these activities over a year. The first part of the study focuses on identifying the situations and areas where workers are exposed to radiation. The exposure pathways are: inhalation of dust, ingestion of dust, inhalation of radon, skin contamination and external irradiation. In a plant where this process is implemented the areas where workers are exposed are: the store, the shell building area, the foundry area, the shell or mold breaking area, and the waste area, including the areas close to the store. In these areas, workers are exposed while they work at their different tasks. The second part of the study deals with dose assessment. In most of the areas, external irradiation is the dominant pathway, and iirradiation is the dominant pathway, and in order to assess doses a Monte-Carlo simulation using MCNP-4C code has been performed. The photon fluxes thus obtained are multiplied by the conversion factor of flux to kerma for air, by conversion factor to Effective Dose by kerma unit, and by the number of emitted photons per disintegration of parent nuclide. The application of this methodology to a given mill has produced the following results: Individual doses received by workers by area have a mean value of 5.9 ?Sv/y and a standard deviation of 7.7 ?Sv/y with an upper limit of 20.3 ?Sv/y and a lower limit of 0.2 ?Sv/y. The corresponding collective dose is 232.8 ?Sv/y and the distribution of dose by task being as follows: 1) Maintenance: carrying the zircon sands from lorry to store (0.039 ?Sv/y), placing the zircon sand pallet on the shelf (0.012 ?Sv/y), exposure while the pallet is on the shelf (2.8 ?Sv/y), taking the pallet off the shelf (0.022 ?Sv/y), taking the pallet to the mold preparation area (0.39 ?Sv/y). The total collective dose associated to this task is 3.263 ?Sv/y 2) Shell Making: shell preparation (58.2 ?Sv/y), shell cover (big trays) (76 ?Sv/y), shell cover (small trays) (9 ?Sv/y), exposures to molds (5.6?Sv/y), loading the pieces on the wagon (2.1?Sv/y), taking the wagon to the foundry area (7.4 ?Sv/y), taking the residues to the waste area (2.2 ?Sv/y), putting the pieces into the wax removing kiln (1.4 ?Sv/y). The total collective dose of this task is 161.91 ?Sv/y 3) Mold preparation (35.2 ?Sv/y) 4) Shell removal: waste material removal (0.4 ?Sv/y), and moving the cart from the foundry area (0.6 ?Sv/y) 5) Finishing (28.6 ?Sv/y) 6) Waste (0.00034 ?Sv) Workers in shell making are the most exposed, but the value of the collective dose is less than 1 mSv/y. Comparing with the levels of the graphical representation of the classification system, we can conclude that the processes 'do not need to consider regulation'. (author)

  4. Method of the Moulding Sands Binding Power Assessment in Two-Layer Moulds Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Holtzer

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available More and more foundry plants applying moulding sands with water-glass or its substitutes for obtaining the high-quality casting surface at the smallest costs, consider the possibility of implementing two-layer moulds, in which e.g. the facing sand is a sand with an organic binder (no-bake type and the backing sand is a sand with inorganic binder. Both kinds of sands must have the same chemical reaction. The most often applied system is the moulding sand on the water-glass or geopolymer bases - as the backing sand and the moulding sand from the group of self-hardening sands with a resol resin - as the facing sand. Investigations were performed for the system: moulding sand with inorganic GEOPOL binder or moulding sand with water glass (as a backing sand and moulding sand, no-bake type, with a resol resin originated from various producers: Rezolit AM, Estrofen, Avenol NB 700 (as a facing sand. The LUZ apparatus, produced by Multiserw Morek, was adapted for investigations. A special partition with cuts was mounted in the attachment for making test specimens for measuring the tensile strength. This partition allowed a simultaneous compaction of two kinds of moulding sands. After 24 hours of hardening the highest values were obtained for the system: Geopol binder - Avenol resin.

  5. Ion traps fabricated in a CMOS foundry

    CERN Document Server

    Mehta, K K; Bruzewicz, C D; Chuang, I L; Ram, R J; Sage, J M; Chiaverini, J

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate trapping in a surface-electrode ion trap fabricated in a 90-nm CMOS (complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor) foundry process utilizing the top metal layer of the process for the trap electrodes. The process includes doped active regions and metal interconnect layers, allowing for co-fabrication of standard CMOS circuitry as well as devices for optical control and measurement. With one of the interconnect layers defining a ground plane between the trap electrode layer and the p-type doped silicon substrate, ion loading is robust and trapping is stable. We measure a motional heating rate comparable to those seen in surface-electrode traps of similar size. This is the first demonstration of scalable quantum computing hardware, in any modality, utilizing a commercial CMOS process, and it opens the door to integration and co-fabrication of electronics and photonics for large-scale quantum processing in trapped-ion arrays.

  6. Ion traps fabricated in a CMOS foundry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehta, K. K.; Ram, R. J. [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Eltony, A. M.; Chuang, I. L. [Center for Ultracold Atoms, Research Laboratory of Electronics and Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Bruzewicz, C. D.; Sage, J. M., E-mail: jsage@ll.mit.edu; Chiaverini, J., E-mail: john.chiaverini@ll.mit.edu [Lincoln Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Lexington, Massachusetts 02420 (United States)

    2014-07-28

    We demonstrate trapping in a surface-electrode ion trap fabricated in a 90-nm CMOS (complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor) foundry process utilizing the top metal layer of the process for the trap electrodes. The process includes doped active regions and metal interconnect layers, allowing for co-fabrication of standard CMOS circuitry as well as devices for optical control and measurement. With one of the interconnect layers defining a ground plane between the trap electrode layer and the p-type doped silicon substrate, ion loading is robust and trapping is stable. We measure a motional heating rate comparable to those seen in surface-electrode traps of similar size. This demonstration of scalable quantum computing hardware utilizing a commercial CMOS process opens the door to integration and co-fabrication of electronics and photonics for large-scale quantum processing in trapped-ion arrays.

  7. Contamination at a small precious metals foundry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extensive contamination of foundry premises resulted from the accidental inclusion of a radioactive source, a strontium-90 compound probably incorporated in rolled silver foil, in a melt for reprocessing silver scrap. Most of this contamination was easily removed using an industrial vacuum cleaner, but some brickwork, concrete flooring, the furnace lining and waste flux bin had to be removed. Fortunately the strontium contamination from the melt was concentrated in the flux around the silver. It is recommended that every radioactive source should be permanently and recognisably marked if such incidents are to be avoided in future. The correct procedure for accounting for radioactive sources should also have been followed. Subsequent monitoring by the company of scrap metal led to the discovery of an empty depleted uranium radiography source container in a consignment of lead. (U.K.)

  8. Ion traps fabricated in a CMOS foundry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, K. K.; Eltony, A. M.; Bruzewicz, C. D.; Chuang, I. L.; Ram, R. J.; Sage, J. M.; Chiaverini, J.

    2014-07-01

    We demonstrate trapping in a surface-electrode ion trap fabricated in a 90-nm CMOS (complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor) foundry process utilizing the top metal layer of the process for the trap electrodes. The process includes doped active regions and metal interconnect layers, allowing for co-fabrication of standard CMOS circuitry as well as devices for optical control and measurement. With one of the interconnect layers defining a ground plane between the trap electrode layer and the p-type doped silicon substrate, ion loading is robust and trapping is stable. We measure a motional heating rate comparable to those seen in surface-electrode traps of similar size. This demonstration of scalable quantum computing hardware utilizing a commercial CMOS process opens the door to integration and co-fabrication of electronics and photonics for large-scale quantum processing in trapped-ion arrays.

  9. Maintenance system improvement in cast iron foundry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kukla

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The work presents the issue of technical equipment management in an iron foundry basing on the assumptions of the TPM system (Total Productive Maintenance. Exploitation analysis of automatic casting lines has been carried out and their work’s influence on the whole production system’s functioning has been researched. Within maintenance system improvement, implementation of autonomic service and planned lines’ review have been proposed in order to minimize the time of breakdown stoppages. The SMED method was used to optimize changeover time, and the OEE (Overall Equipment Effectiveness was applied to evaluate the level of resources usage before and after implementing changes. Further, the influence of the maintenance strategy of casting devices’ efficiency on own costs of casting manufac- ture was estimated.

  10. Using sol-gel component as additive to foundry coatings to improve casting quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nwaogu, Ugochukwu Chibuzoh; Poulsen, T.

    2012-01-01

    The improvement of foundry coatings to enhance performance is important. This paper investigates the effect of using sol?gel component as an additive to foundry coatings applied on chemically bonded sand cores. Three parameters at three levels each were investigated using Taguchi experimental parameter design. The effects of the sol?gel component on viscosity, density, °Baumé, core coverage and permeability are shown. Numerical simulations were used to predict defect areas. The thermal profiles of the core materials during casting were determined, and the surface quality of the castings was evaluated. The results show that the surface quality of castings obtained by adding the sol?gel component to the coatings for cold box cores has no significant difference from castings produced with coatings without sol?gel component. On the other hand, the addition of the sol?gel component in coatings for furan cores showed significant improvement on the surface quality of the castings compared to that obtained without sol?gel component.

  11. Properties of sodium silicate bonded sand hardened by microwave heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Zitian

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The sodium silicate bonded sand hardened by microwave heating has many advantages, such as low sodium silicate adding quantity, fast hardening speed, high room temperature strength, good collapsibility and certain surface stability. However, it has big moisture absorbability in the air, which would lead to the compression strength and the surface stability of the sand molds being sharply reduced. In this study, the moisture absorbability of the sodium silicate bonded sand hardened by microwave heating in ifferent humidity conditions and the effect factors were investigated. Meanwhile, the reasons for the big moisture absorbability of the sand were analyzed. Some measures to overcome the problems of high moisture absorbability, bad surface stability and sharply reducing strength in the air were discussed. The results of this study establish the foundation of green and clean foundry technology based on the microwave heating hardening sodium silicate sand process.

  12. Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene, a PAH biomarker in foundry workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Omland, Øyvind; Sherson, D

    1996-01-01

    Exposure to PAH in foundry workers has been studied by urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (HPU) levels, quantitatively measured by reversed phase HPLC. Seventy male foundry workers and 68 matched controls were investigated. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure was defined by 17 breathing zone hygienic samples, consisting of 16 selected PAH compounds. Mean total PAH concentration (SD) was 10.40 (4.04) mu g/m3. A multiple regression model of tobacco consumption, age, airborne PAH-exposure and foundry work on log HPU showed a significant correlation, p <0.001, r2 = 0.69. Only foundry work (p <0.0001) and airborne PAH exposure (p = 0.0478) contributed significantly to the model. These data suggest that HPU is a sensitive biomarker for low-dose PAH exposure.

  13. The restoration of an Argonne National Laboratory foundry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Environmental Management Operations' Waste Management Department (WMD) at Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL-E) undertook the restoration of an unused foundry with the goal of restoring the area for general use. The foundry was used in the fabrication of reactor components for ANL's research and development programs; many of the items fabricated in the facility were radioactive, thereby contaminating the foundry equipment. This paper very briefly describes the dismantling and decontamination of the facility. The major challenges associated with the safe removal of the foundry equipment included the sheer size of the equipment, a limited overhead crane capability (4.5 tonne), the minimization of radioactive and hazardous wastes, and the cost-effective completion of the project, the hazardous and radioactive wastes present, and limited process knowledge (the facility was unused for many years)

  14. Evaluation by PIXE external beam-of the leaching efficiency for a thermo stated column for the sand treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this paper was to measure the leaching efficiency for a thermo stated column designed to extract metals in muds originated by foundry process. The results obtained were useful to contemplate different alternatives helping to solve the problem of stocking enormous volumes of polluted sand produced by industries. Samples of residual sands and muds (treated sands) coming from an engine factory and from a thermo stated column respectively, were irradiated using an external beam of 3.55 MeV energy protons. From the quantitative analysis PIXE (Proton Induced X-ray Emission), it was possible to establish the level of pollution in sands due to the foundry processes and to evaluate the leaching efficiency of the output liquid phase from the thermo stated column. For polluted sands, certain cases were observed for which the efficiency was not enough to decrease the level of pollution in, e.g., Cu, Zn, Br and Pb. (Author)

  15. Evaluation by PIXE external beam of the leaching efficiency for a thermo stated column for the sand treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this paper was to measure the leaching efficiency for a thermo stated column designed to extract metals in muds originated by foundry processes. The results obtained were useful to contemplate different alternatives helping to solve the problem of stocking enormous volumes of polluted sand produced by industries. Samples of residual sands and muds (treated sands) coming from an engine factory and from a thermo stated column respectively, were irradiated using an external beam of 3.55 MeV energy protons. From the quantitative analysis PIXE (Proton Induced X-ray Emission), it was possible to establish the level of pollution in sands due to the foundry processes and to evaluate the leaching efficiency of the output liquid phase from the thermo stated column. For polluted sands, certain cases were observed for which the efficiency was not enough to decrease the level of pollution in e.g., Cu, Zn, Br y Pb. (Author)

  16. 77 FR 20788 - Foundry Coke Products From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Expedited Second...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-06

    ...International Trade Administration [A-570-862] Foundry Coke Products From the People's Republic of China...sunset'') review of the antidumping duty order on foundry coke products (``foundry coke'') from the People's Republic of...

  17. Sand Dunes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enright, Rachel

    Most will agree that nothing is more relaxing that lying or walking on a beach. While unwinding, have you ever wondered what caused those big mounds of sand that you crossed to get there? This topic in depth addresses this issue, featuring Web sites that discuss sand dune processes and formations. Some of the Web sites also discuss research, mining, and protection activities taking place in areas with sand dune.The Environment Bay of Plenty in New Zealand has an online brochure (1) dealing with the coastal processes that form sand dunes and beaches. From this site, users can obtain a general understanding of how dunes change with time. Ted Brambleby developed the second site (2) for the Marine Education Society of Australasia, Inc. This site gives a great overview of the functions and formations of dunes as well as describing their unique beauty and strategies on how to care for the dunes. Produced by Nova Scotia Museum of Natural History, the third site (3) is an online pamphlet discussing the physical features and locations of sand dunes in Nova Scotia. Visitors can also read about the ecosystem supported by these dynamic features. The forth site (4), created by John Mangimeli for the National Park Service, is a review of the scientific research completed throughout the years dealing with the geology of sand dunes. Visitors will find a more in-depth discussion about sand movement, sand accumulation, and sand dune features. The fifth site is a scientific paper (5 ) written by R.L. Van Dam, et al. Studying the long term evolution of the Parengarenga Sandspit, these researchers used ground penetrating radar (GPR) "to (1) explore the possibilities for mapping lateral continuity of the coffee rock, (2) study the sedimentary architecture and stratigraphy of the solitary dunes, and (3) reconstruct the wind regime on the sandspit." The next two sites discuss the threats to sand dunes and activities taking place to protect them. The Lake Michigan Federation addresses the issues of mining (6). Visitors can learn about alternatives to mining dune sand and the ecological values of dunes. The Department of Environmental Quality in Michigan created a site (7) that provides users with statistical information dealing with the amount of sand harvested, the regulations of mining, and maps of critical dune areas. After learning about the formation, processes, threats, and protections efforts; the last site (8), created by Eva Hornecker with the University of Bremen, will allow users to get a real sense of the beauty of the sand dunes. The site features a collage of spectacular images of the Great Sand Dunes in the San Luis Valley.

  18. Evaluation of Reclamability of Molding Sands with New Inorganic Binders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Izdebska-Szanda

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the purposes of the application of chemically modified inorganic binders is to improve knocking out properties and the related reclamability with previously used in foundry inorganic binder (water glass, which allowing the use of ecological binders for casting non- ferrous metals. Good knocking out properties of the sands is directly related to the waste sands reclamability, which is a necessary condition of effective waste management. Reclamation of moulding and core sands is a fundamental and effective way to manage waste on site at the foundry, in accordance with the Environmental Guidelines. Therefore, studies of reclamation of waste moulding and core sands with new types of inorganic binders (developed within the framework of the project were carried out. These studies allowed to determine the degree of recovery of useful, material, what the reclaimed sand is, and the degree of its use in the production process. The article presents these results of investigation. They are a part of broader research programme executed under the project POIG.01.01.02-00- 015/09 "Advanced materials and technologies".

  19. Secondary foundry alloy damage and particle fracture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The damage mechanisms of a hypoeutectic Al-Si-Cu foundry alloy, obtained through die casting, have been studied. Observations were made during tensile tests using a tensile test machine that was inserted into an scanning electron microscope. The microstructure features that are critical for damage were determined. The cleavage fracture of intermetallic particles was found to be the main process that limited the alloy ductility. Shrinkage cavities mainly play a role in the final fracture stage; the reduction in cross-section area induced by shrinkage cavities was assumed to be the main contribution of these defects to the fracture of the specimens. Attempts were made to determine the cleavage stress that initiated the fracture of the particles. Three-dimensional finite element computations were performed considering particular locations at the free surface of the observed fractured particles. The maximum principal stress was calculated for different locations of the particle with reference to the free surface. Different shapes and different elastic behaviour were studied. It was shown that the influence of a free surface on the stress level in a particle depends on its shape. The results were compared with those found in literature concerning the fracture strength of particles in Al alloys

  20. Biological monitoring of foundry workers exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sherson, D; Sabro, P

    1990-01-01

    This investigation describes benzo(a)pyrene (BP) serum protein adduct concentrations in 45 foundry workers and 45 matched non-occupationally exposed controls. High and low BP exposure groups were defined using breathing zone hygienic samples for both quartz and BP exposures. A newly developed enzyme linked immunosorbent assay detected benzo(a)pyrenediolepoxide-I binding to serum protein. Mean BP protein adduct concentrations (SD) for non-smoking (24.0 BP equivalents/100 micrograms protein (21.0] and smoking (28.0 (18.2] foundry workers were significantly higher than mean values for non-smoking (7.23 (8.72] and smoking (14.2 (24.4] controls. Foundry workers with high exposures to either quartz (28.4 (15.5] or BP (30.7 (19.3] had slightly raised mean adduct concentrations compared with foundry workers with low exposure for quartz (23.9 (23.1] or BP (24.5 (19.4). Highest mean adduct concentrations were found among a small group of workers with simultaneous high exposures to both quartz and BP (39.2 (6.5] suggesting an additive effect. These data support the ideas of a possible aetiological connection between an increased risk of lung cancer and BP exposure among foundry workers, and an additive effect between BP and quartz. Measurement of BP serum protein adduct concentrations appears to be a useful method by which groups exposed to BP may be biologically monitored.

  1. Moulding Sands with New InorganicBinders - Ecology Assessment in the Aspect of Work Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Szanda

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The development of economy and industry introducing new technologies and materials often means the increased threat of occurrenceof factors harmful to humans and environment. Workers employed in foundries as mould pourers are the group of high professional risk.Foundry moulding sands when poured with liquid metal are a source of the emission of harmful, toxic and carcinogenic (benzene,PAHs compounds.The paper presents the results of studies on the concentration of chemical compounds emitted in the process of casting aluminiumalloy and brass using moulding sands with the new inorganic binders. The specific values of the exposure indices were compared with thelimit values. This enabled an assessment of the impact of moulding sands on work environment. The obtained results were compared withthe values of contaminants emitted when pouring foundry moulds made from furan sands and bentonite sands with an addition of coaldust.Studies were carried out under the project POIG.01.01.02-00-015/09 "Advanced materials and technologies."

  2. 76 FR 74810 - Foundry Coke From China; Institution of a Five-Year Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    ...No. 731-TA-891 (Second Review)] Foundry Coke From China; Institution of a Five-Year...revocation of the antidumping duty order on foundry coke from China would be likely to lead...an antidumping duty order on imports of foundry coke from China (66 FR 48025)....

  3. 77 FR 15123 - Foundry Coke From China; Scheduling of an Expedited Five-Year Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-14

    ...No. 731-TA-891 (Second Review)] Foundry Coke From China; Scheduling of an Expedited...revocation of the antidumping duty order on foundry coke from China would be likely to lead...No. 731-TA-891 (Second Review) FOUNDRY COKE FROM CHINA Staff Assigned...

  4. 40 CFR 63.10900 - What parts of the General Provisions apply to my large foundry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...the General Provisions apply to my large foundry? 63.10900 Section 63.10900...Hazardous Air Pollutants for Iron and Steel Foundries Area Sources Requirements for New...Sources Classified As Large Iron and Steel Foundries § 63.10900 What parts of the...

  5. 40 CFR 63.7682 - What parts of my foundry does this subpart cover?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false What parts of my foundry does this subpart cover? 63.7682...Hazardous Air Pollutants for Iron and Steel Foundries What This Subpart Covers § 63.7682 What parts of my foundry does this subpart cover? (a)...

  6. The AHP method used in assessment of foundry enterprise position

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Szymszal

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Complex assessment of activity of a selected foundry enterprise based on a modern AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process method has beenpresented. Having defined the areas of analysis, which include: marketing (products, distribution channels, sales organisation and client concentration, personnel (skills, managerial abilities, organisation climate, effectiveness of incentives, personnel fluctuations, production (availability of raw materials, technical level of production, effective use of production capacities, organisation and management (foundry structure, organisation culture, management performance, the analysis was made using the weighted sum of evaluations. The second step consisted in a comparative assessment of Foundry position using Saaty’s scale modified by Weber and the AHP method with examinationof a hierarchy structure involving the main (parent problem and its direct evolution into sub-problems. The assessment of Foundryposition made by AHP enables introducing changes and/or innovations which are expected to improve the overall productioneffectiveness.

  7. Foundry industries: environmental aspects and environmental condition indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowadays, environmental indicators are widely used as effective tools to assist decision-making in both public and private sectors. The lack of literature and research about local and regional Environmental Condition Indicators (ECI), the poor knowledge regarding solid waste generation, effluents and gas emissions from foundry industries, and their particular location in the urban area of Tandil, Argentina are the main reasons for this investigation, aiming to develop a set a of ECI to provide information about the environment in relation to the foundry industry. The study involves all the foundries located in the city between March and April 2010. The set of ECI developed includes 9 indicators for air, 5 for soil and 1 for water. Specific methodology was used for each indicator. (Author) 31 refs.

  8. Manufacturing foundry alloys containing vanadium, niobium, titanium and rare earths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ways to obtain foundry and ferroalloys, containing rare and disseminated metals, are analysed. To extract the expensive metals (V, Nb, rare earths and Ti) out of ores during smelting, the reduction of the metal oxides in accordance with MeO+2C=MeC+CO reaction (where Me- V, Nb, Ti, rare earths) is used. Some additional techniques are used and new compositions of the foundry alloys, in which the activity of the reduced metals is decreased as a result of chemical compound formation, are developed to increase the extraction of the reduced metal. It is shown that the advantages of using the foundry alloys, containing V, Nb, Ti and rare earths expressed in the increase and stabilization of alloying metal assimilation and in their distribution in the bulk of the metal more uniformly

  9. Reduced energy consumption for melting in foundries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skov-Hansen, S.

    2007-09-15

    By improving the gating technology in traditional gating systems it is possible to reduce the amount of metal to be re-melted, and hence reduce the energy consumption for melting in foundries. Traditional gating systems are known for a straight tapered down runner a well base and 90 deg. bends in the runner system. In the streamlined gating systems there are no sharp changes in direction and a large effort is done to confine and control the flow of the molten metal during mould filling. Experiments in real production lines have proven that using streamlined gating systems improves yield by decreasing the poured weight compared to traditional layouts. In a layout for casting of valve housings in a vertically parted mould the weight of the gating system was reduced by 1,1kg which is a 20% weight reduction for the gating system. In a layout for horizontally parted moulds the weight of the gating system has been reduced by 3,7kg which is a weight reduction of 60% for the gating system. The experiments casting valve housings in ductile iron also proved that it is possible to lower the pouring temperature from 1400 deg. C to 1300 deg. C without the risk of cold runs. Glass plate fronted moulds have been used to study the flow of melt during mould filling. These experiments have also been used for studying the flow pattern when ceramic filters are used. The thorough study of the use of filters revealed that the metal passing through the filter is divided into a number of small jets. This proves that filters do not have the claimed positive effect on the flow of metal. The volumes necessary on either side of the filter is not filled till a backpressure is build up and results in formation of pressure shocks when backfilled. These pressure shocks result in more turbulence inside the casting than the same gating system with no filter. Not using filters can mean a reduction in poured weight of 0,6kg. To examine if the experiments using glass plate fronted moulds give representative results of how the melt flows in a real mould a series of experiments have been conducted using the xray facilities at the Metallurgy and Materials department at the University of Birmingham. The results proved that the glass plate do not have any large effect on the flow pattern during mould filling. It was also found that using fan gates only 1mm thick holds back slag and in this way works as a filter. A complete set of guidelines for designing streamlined gating systems have been made in this project. Using these guidelines and combining standard geometries and the presented spreadsheet makes it possible for foundries to use streamlined gating systems in praxis. (au)

  10. Logic Foundry: Rapid Prototyping for FPGA-Based DSP Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhattacharyya Shuvra S

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce the Logic Foundry, a system for the rapid creation and integration of FPGA-based digital signal processing systems. Recognizing that some of the greatest challenges in creating FPGA-based systems occur in the integration of the various components, we have proposed a system that targets the following four areas of integration: design flow integration, component integration, platform integration, and software integration. Using the Logic Foundry, a system can be easily specified, and then automatically constructed and integrated with system level software.

  11. Manganese exposure in foundry furnacemen and scrap recycling workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lander, F; Kristiansen, J

    1999-01-01

    Cast iron products are alloyed with small quantities of manganese, and foundry furnacemen are potentially exposed to manganese during tapping and handling of smelts. Manganese is a neurotoxic substance that accumulates in the central nervous system, where it may cause a neurological disorder that bears many similarities to Parkinson's disease. The aim of the study was to investigate the sources and levels of manganese exposure in foundry furnacemen by a combined measuring of blood-manganese (B-Mn) and manganese in ambient air (air-Mn).

  12. Preliminary Research on Granulation Process of Dust Waste from Reclamation Process of Moulding Sands with Furan Resin

    OpenAIRE

    Kamin?ska, J.; Dan?ko, J.

    2012-01-01

    The results of investigations of the granulation process of foundry dusts generated in the dry mechanical reclamation process of usedsands, where furan resins were binders are presented in the paper. Investigations concerned producing of granules of the determineddimensions and strength parameters.Granules were formed from the dusts mixture consisting in 50 mass% of dusts obtained after the reclamation of the furane sands and in50 mass % of dusts from sands with bentonite. Dusts from the bent...

  13. Optimization of a new animal glue binder system cured by CO2 for use in foundry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Weihua

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A new sand binder system cured by CO2 was prepared based on the animal bone glue. To overcome the disadvantages of animal glue such as agglomeration at room temperature, high energy consumption and low efficiency, an alkaline decomposition process was selected, and certain modifier was used to modify the performance of the animal glue binder. For the alkaline decomposition, NaOH was used as the catalyst with an addition of 4wt.% to the animal glue. A modifier was determined through the orthogonal experiment with a weight ratio of glycerin: glycol: dextrin: animal glue = 9:16:15:100, and the optimal modification reaction should be performed at 75 ? with a reaction time of 90 min. Ca(OH2 was used as a promoter; the optimal CO2 gas flux blowing into the sand was 0.7 m3·h-1 for a duration of 60 s under the experimental conditions. Results show that an original strength above 0.7 MPa and a final strength about 4.2 MPa can be achieved, which could meet the requirement of rapid moulding and core-making for foundry. The new binder was characterized and analyzed by means of IR, and the modification and CO2-cured mechanisms of this animal glue binder were also discussed.

  14. Toxicity characteristic leaching procedure and iron treatment of brass foundry waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Douglas S

    2003-01-15

    The Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) is used by the United States Environmental Protection Agency to determine if wastes contain extractable components subject to hazardous waste regulations. This paper examines the limitations of the TCLP and the way it is used by studying a particular example. Waste casting sand from brass foundries to which iron metal has been added passes the TCLP test but when placed in a landfill for several years may start to leach lead, copper, and zinc. Results of TCLP tests of waste sand alone and with the additives iron metal, zinc metal, hydrous ferric oxide, and hematite are reported. Three processes were studied: reduction by metallic iron, sorption by hydrous ferric oxide, and precipitation of hydroxides. Lead, copper, and zinc behave differently with respect to these three processes, and their measurement allows some deductions as to what is occurring in a TCLP test or a landfill. Iron addition does not result in long-term stabilization of a waste placed in the ground. The chemistry of a laboratory extraction can be very different from the chemistry of a waste placed in the environment. Wastes that are treated to pass the TCLP test, but are not permanently stabilized, are a threat to the environment. PMID:12564910

  15. Waste green sands as reactive media for groundwater contaminated with trichloroethylene (TCE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Taeyoon; Benson, Craig H; Eykholt, Gerald R

    2004-06-18

    Waste green sands are byproducts of the gray iron foundry industry that consist of sand, binding agents, organic carbon, and residual iron particles. Because of their potential sorptive and reactive properties, tests were conducted to determine the feasibility of using waste green sands as a low cost reactive medium for groundwater treatment. Batch and column tests were conducted to determine the reactivity, sorptive characteristics, and transport parameters for trichloroethylene (TCE) solutions in contact with green sands. Normalized rate constants for TCE degradation in the presence of iron particles extracted from green sands were found to be comparable to those for Peerless iron, a common medium used to treat groundwater. Rate constants and partition coefficients obtained from the batch tests were found to be comparable to those from the column tests. Analytical modeling shows that reactive barriers containing green sand potentially can be used to treat contaminated groundwater containing TCE at typical concentrations observed in the field. PMID:15177742

  16. Waste green sands as reactive media for the removal of zinc from water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Taeyoon; Park, Jae-woo; Lee, Jae-Ho

    2004-08-01

    Waste green sands are industrial byproducts of the gray iron foundry industry. These green sands are composed of fine silica sand, clay binder, organic carbon, and residual iron particles. Because of their potential sorptive and reactive properties, tests were performed to determine the feasibility of using green sands as a low cost reactive medium in permeable reactive barriers (PRBs). Serial batch kinetic tests and conventional batch sorption tests were conducted to determine the removal characteristics for zinc in aqueous solutions. Removal characteristics for zinc in the presence of green sands are comparable to those of Peerless iron, a common reactive medium used in PRBs. High removal capacities for zinc of green sands are attributed to clay, organic carbon, and residual iron particles, which are known sorptive media for heavy metals. Furthermore, high pH values in the presence of clay and residual iron particles enhanced sorption and precipitation of zinc. PMID:15212900

  17. Methods of the montmorillonite content determination in foundry bentonites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Holtzer

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents results of the measurements montmorillonite content in foundry bentonites and mixtures of bentonite – lustrous carbon carrier by three methods: spectrophotometric method with the use of methylene blue, spectrophotometric method with the use of Cu(II – triethylenotetramine (Cu-TET complex, infrared spectroscopic method (FTIR.

  18. SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS OF WASTES GENERATED BY GRAY IRON FOUNDRIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirty (30) wastes generated by 21 gray iron foundries in Pennsylvania and Michigan were sampled and analyzed. The samples were collected by Northrop Services, Inc., in accordance with strict chain-of-custody procedures, and sent to the Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory...

  19. Methods of the montmorillonite content determination in foundry bentonites

    OpenAIRE

    Holtzer, M.; Grabowska, B.; Bobrowski, A.; Z?ymankowska-kumon, S.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents results of the measurements montmorillonite content in foundry bentonites and mixtures of bentonite – lustrous carbon carrier by three methods: spectrophotometric method with the use of methylene blue, spectrophotometric method with the use of Cu(II) – triethylenotetramine (Cu-TET) complex, infrared spectroscopic method (FTIR).

  20. Assessment of harmfulness of green sand with additions of dust from dry dedusting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Holtzer

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Recently, in the literature about the problems cause to the environment by foundry industry, attention has been paid to the presence and harmful effect of aromatic hydrocarbons: benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and isomers of xylenes (BTEX and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs. The growing interest in these pollutants of the environment is a result of their biological activity; some of them are characterized by mutagenic and carcinogenic action. In foundries these hydrocarbons are emitted during the contact between mould or core sands and liquid metal.This article discusses the results of the studies made on the elution rate of some harmful compounds include polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs (Table 3 and 4 from waste mould sand with bentonite and coal dust M1 (mixture Kormix 75 and this one with addition of dust from dry dedusting of sand M2 preparing station (partial replacement of bentonite and emission of BTEX gases from this moulds poured with molten cast iron. From the results given in these tables it follows that both mould sands are characterized by low values of the concentration of investigation substances and haven’t negative influence for environment during casting or management in other means. Tests were done according to the methodology developed at Faculty of Foundry Engineering University of Science and Technology in Cracow.

  1. Reduction in Energy Consumption & Variability in Steel Foundry Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank Peters

    2005-05-04

    This project worked to improve the efficiency of the steel casting industry by reducing the variability that occurs because of process and product variation. The project focused on the post shakeout operations since roughly half of the production costs are in this area. These improvements will reduce the amount of variability, making it easier to manage the operation and improve the competitiveness. The reduction in variability will also reduce the need for many rework operations, which will result in a direct reduction of energy usage, particularly by the reduction of repeated heat treatment operations. Further energy savings will be realized from the reduction of scrap and reduced handling. Field studies were conducted at ten steel foundries that represented the U.S. steel casting industry, for a total of over 100 weeks of production observation. These studies quantified the amount of variability, and looked toward determining the source. A focus of the data collected was the grinding operations since this is a major effort in the cleaning room, and it represents the overall casting quality. The grinding was divided into two categories, expected and unexpected. Expected grinding is that in which the location of the effort is known prior to making the casting, such as smoothing parting lines, gates, and riser contacts. Unexpected grinding, which was approximately 80% of the effort, was done to improve the surfaces at weld repair locations, to rectify burnt on sand, and other surface anomalies at random locations. Unexpected grinding represents about 80% of the grinding effort. By quantifying this effort, the project raised awareness within the industry and the industry is continuing to make improvements. The field studies showed that the amount of variation of grinding operations (normalized because of the diverse set of parts studied) was very consistent across the industry. The field studies identified several specific sources that individually contributed to large process variation. This indicates the need for ongoing monitoring of the process and system to quantify the effort being expended. A system to measure the grinding effort was investigated but did not prove to be successful. A weld wire counting system was shown to be very successful in tracking casting quality by monitoring the quantity of weld wire being expended on a per casting basis. Further use of such systems is highly recommended. The field studies showed that the visual inspection process for the casting surface was a potentially large source of process variation. Measurement system analysis studies were conducted at three steel casting producers. The tests measured the consistency of the inspectors in identifying the same surface anomalies. The repeatability (variation of the same operator inspecting the same casting) was found to be relatively consistent across the companies at about 60-70%. However, this is still are very large amount of variation. Reproducibility (variation of different operators inspecting the same casting) was worse, ranging between 20 to 80% at the three locations. This large amount of variation shows that there is a great opportunity for improvement. Falsely identifying anomalies for reworking will cause increased expense and energy consumption. This is particularly true if a weld repair and repeated heat treatment is required. However, not identifying an anomaly could also result in future rework processing, a customer return, or scrap. To help alleviate this problem, casting surface comparator plates were developed and distributed to the industry. These plates are very inexpensive which enables them to be provided to all those involved with casting surface quality, such as operators, inspectors, sales, and management.

  2. Sonic sands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many desert sand dunes emit a loud sound with a characteristic tremolo around a well-defined frequency whenever sand is avalanching on their slip face. This phenomenon, called the 'song of dunes', has been successfully reproduced in the lab, on a smaller scale. In all cases, the spontaneous acoustic emission in air is due to a vibration of the sand, itself excited by a granular shear flow. This review presents a complete characterization of the phenomenon—frequency, amplitude, source shape, vibration modes, instability threshold—based on recent studies. The most prominent characteristics of acoustic propagation in weakly compressed granular media are then presented. Finally, this review describes the different mechanisms proposed to explain booming avalanches. Measurements performed to test these theories against data allow one to contrast explanations that must be rejected—sound resonating in a surface layer of the dune, for instance—with those that still need to be confirmed to reach a scientific consensus—amplification of guided elastic waves by friction, in particular.

  3. Shifting sands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The growing global competition for oil between the United States and China, and the potential role of Alberta's vast oil sands resources in the struggle between the two industrial giants to secure these and other potentially available oil supplies for themselves, are discussed. The principal argument made by the author is that for China and the United States oil is an instrument of foreign policy, the means by which to achieve or to maintain super-power status. In contrast, in Canada oil remains purely a commodity. The oil sands of Alberta are the largest hydrocarbon deposit in the world, holding some 1.6 trillion barrels of heavy crude. The oil sands have become the great White Hope of the world's petroleum supply, with intense interest in its development by both China and the United States. While Canadians are eager to cash in on the current high prices and growing shortage and are busy fighting over jurisdiction between the federal and the Alberta provincial government, there is no clear indications as to how Canada proposes to use the oil in broader trade negotiations with Washington, or China. Canadians are urged to become sensitized to the more distant future, raise their voices against the focus on short term benefits and refuse to allow themselves to become bystanders watching their energy heritage flowing south to the United States, and perhaps even east to China without efforts to maximize the potential benefits to Canadaanada

  4. Logistics of Materials Flow in an Iron Foundry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kukla

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The article presents issues related to creating and realizing added value by logistic processes and processing in a casting enterprise. It discusses possibilities of improving systems of casts production by evaluating labour intensity of casts manufacture and analyzing manufacturing prime costs. Operations with added value, processes indirectly creating added value and operations without added value have been specified. The problem was presented on the example of materials flow design in a foundry, where casts are manufactured in expendable moulds and using automated foundry lines. On the basis of the Pareto analysis, a group of casts was specified whose manufacture significantly influences the functioning of the whole enterprise. Finishing treatment operations have been particularly underlined, as they are performed away from the line and are among the most labour-consuming processes during casts production.

  5. Costs Models in Design and Manufacturing of Sand Casting Products

    CERN Document Server

    Perry, Nicolas; Bernard, Alain

    2010-01-01

    In the early phases of the product life cycle, the costs controls became a major decision tool in the competitiveness of the companies due to the world competition. After defining the problems related to this control difficulties, we will present an approach using a concept of cost entity related to the design and realization activities of the product. We will try to apply this approach to the fields of the sand casting foundry. This work will highlight the enterprise modelling difficulties (limits of a global cost modelling) and some specifics limitations of the tool used for this development. Finally we will discuss on the limits of a generic approach.

  6. The management of production value stream factors in a foundry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Borkowski

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Connection of two value streams: production and human resources were proposed as a new approach to the production process. To assess the factors of production value streams the elements of the top of the Toyota's house as well as fourth and sixth Toyota's managing principles were used. On the basis of the feedback from respondents –the foundry workers, there can be determined the validity of series of decisive factors' importance that equalizes the work load and requires the standardization.

  7. The management of production value stream factors in a foundry

    OpenAIRE

    Borkowski, S.; Knop, K.

    2010-01-01

    Connection of two value streams: production and human resources were proposed as a new approach to the production process. To assess the factors of production value streams the elements of the top of the Toyota's house as well as fourth and sixth Toyota's managing principles were used. On the basis of the feedback from respondents –the foundry workers, there can be determined the validity of series of decisive factors' importance that equalizes the work load and requires the standardization.

  8. Foundry Technologies Focused on Environmental and Ecological Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roizin, Ya.; Lisiansky, M.; Pikhay, E.

    Solutions allowing fabrication of remote control systems with integrated sensors (motes) were introduced as a part of CMOS foundry production platform and verified on silicon. The integrated features include sensors employing principles previously verified in the development of ultra-low power consuming non-volatile memories (C-Flash, MRAM) and components allowing low-power energy harvesting (low voltage rectifiers, high -voltage solar cells). The developed systems are discussed with emphasis on their environmental and security applications.

  9. Natural gas on its way into aluminium foundries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article deals with natural gas as a fuel for aluminium smelters. The traditional way of heating the smelters in Norway has been the use of oil-fired combustors or electric heaters. According to the article, the aluminium foundries increase the use of natural gas in the heating process. The cycle principle of regenerative combustion is discussed together with the combustion process of propane with air or oxygen. 3 figs

  10. Analysis of ferruginous bodies in bronchoalveolar lavage from foundry workers.

    OpenAIRE

    Dodson, R. F.; O Sullivan, M.; Corn, C. J.; Garcia, J. G.; Stocks, J. M.; Griffith, D. E.

    1993-01-01

    Classical ferruginous bodies in tissue samples are considered to be markers of past exposure to asbestos. Recent studies have shown that the presence of ferruginous bodies in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid correlates with past exposure to asbestos and offers a more sensitive reference than occupational history. Lavage samples from five subjects who had worked in foundries were evaluated by light microscopy for the presence of ferruginous bodies and by transmission electron microscopy for ...

  11. Total productive maintenance on example of automated foundry lines

    OpenAIRE

    Kukla, S.

    2009-01-01

    Within framework of the presented study one has performed analysis of stoppages in automatic foundry lines operation, and basing on assumptions from complex maintenance system has undertaken himself to develop a service maintenance schedule for machinery installed in the line. Moreover, one has presented general assumptions of TPM system operated in conditions of series and multi-series production of cast iron castings. One has constructed operational database and has elaborated a list of lin...

  12. Statistical and Visualization Data Mining Tools for Foundry Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Perzyk

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available In recent years a rapid development of a new, interdisciplinary knowledge area, called data mining, is observed. Its main task is extracting useful information from previously collected large amount of data. The main possibilities and potential applications of data mining in manufacturing industry are characterized. The main types of data mining techniques are briefly discussed, including statistical, artificial intelligence, data base and visualization tools. The statistical methods and visualization methods are presented in more detail, showing their general possibilities, advantages as well as characteristic examples of applications in foundry production. Results of the author’s research are presented, aimed at validation of selected statistical tools which can be easily and effectively used in manufacturing industry. A performance analysis of ANOVA and contingency tables based methods, dedicated for determination of the most significant process parameters as well as for detection of possible interactions among them, has been made. Several numerical tests have been performed using simulated data sets, with assumed hidden relationships as well some real data, related to the strength of ductile cast iron, collected in a foundry. It is concluded that the statistical methods offer relatively easy and fairly reliable tools for extraction of that type of knowledge about foundry manufacturing processes. However, further research is needed, aimed at explanation of some imperfections of the investigated tools as well assessment of their validity for more complex tasks.

  13. Study of radon and its progeny concentrations in an oil refinery and foundry environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LR-115 type II detectors were used to measure the radon concentrations in the dwellings of an oil refinery and in some foundries. The radon levels inside an oil refinery and foundries are found to be below the USEPA's remedial action levels of 150 Bq m-3. The radon concentrations in oil refinery were found to be higher in both outdoor and indoor environment, as compared to those found in normal background dwellings. The radon levels inside the foundries investigated are of the same order as measured in dwellings of the same city. The reported higher lung cancer rates in foundries may not be attributed to radon. (author)

  14. Ultrasonic testing of the hardening kinetics of epoxy resins used for foundry patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Zych

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The study presents the results of investigations on the hardening kinetics of modern pattern materials which, among others, include alsoepoxy resins. Tests were carried out using a new ultrasonic technique developed by the author of the present study. On the example of theEPO 999 resin, the run of the hardening process at temperatures of 10, 20 and 30oC was shown. This is the temperature range appliedduring production of foundry patterns. The time of the preliminary hardening amounted to 800 min at a temperature of 10oC, and to only180 min at a temperature of 30oC. Using ultrasonic technique, the effect of temperature on the modulus of elasticity Ed of the examinedresin was determined. The temperature has been observed to exert a linear effect on the value of the modulus Ed. When the resin pattern is preheated in the range of temperatures from 20 to 50oC, the value of the modulus Ed decreases by 30%. The drop in the value of themodulus Ed, as well as the resin hardness decreasing from 18 to 9,0HB at the increasing temperature reduce the applicability of thismaterial for patterns operating at high temperatures (moulding sands.

  15. The properties of sand-lime bricks manufactured with the use of waste moulding and core sands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Pytel

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper summarises the laboratory research data on potential applications of selected mould and core mix wastes and dusts fromregeneration processes as alternative or supplementary materials to be added to natural silica sands used in manufacturing of sand-limebricks. The rational behind this solution is the large silica content in used moulding and core mix, their matrices being high-quality natural silica sands. The research program shall involve obtaining the series of silicate sample products, press-formed and made from mixtures containing the waste materials discussed here. In the course of laboratory tests autoclaved materials shall be manufactured, including sand-lime bricks. Apart from conventional components: natural silica sand and quicklime, the prepared mixture shall contain pre-processed mould and core mix and dusts from regeneration processes, depending on the type of applied binder. The previously mentioned wastes from the foundry processes were introduced to the basic composition mix as substitutes for silica sand, ranging from 0-100 % (by weight. Potential applications of these wastes were explored using the comparative analysis, covering the basic functional parameters of two types of materials: the reference material made from conventional constituents and several experimental formulas containing additives, differing in qualitative and quantitative composition. Characteristics of thus obtained materials are supported by selected SEM+EDS test results.

  16. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Zzzzzz... - Applicability of General Provisions to Aluminum, Copper, and Other Nonferrous Foundries Area Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...Applicability of General Provisions to Aluminum, Copper, and Other Nonferrous Foundries...Area Source Standards for Aluminum, Copper, and Other Nonferrous Foundries...Applicability of General Provisions to Aluminum, Copper, and Other Nonferrous...

  17. Tar sand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLendon, T.R.; Bartke, T.C.

    1990-01-01

    Research on tar sand is briefly discussed. The research program supported by the US Department of Energy (DOE) includes a variety of surface extraction schemes. The University of Utah has process development units (PDU) employing fluidized bed, hot, water-assisted, and fluidized-bed/heat-pipe, coupled combustor technology. Considerable process variable test data have been gathered on these systems: (1) a rotary kiln unit has been built recently; (2) solvent extraction processing is being examined; and (3) an advanced hydrogenation upgrading scheme (hydropyrolysis) has been developed. The University of Arkansas, in collaboration with Diversified Petroleum, Inc., has been working on a fatty acid, solvent extraction process. Oleic acid is the solvent/surfactant. Solvent is recovered by adjusting processing fluid concentrations to separate without expensive operations. Western Research Institute has a PDU-scale scheme called the Recycle Oil Pyrolysis and Extraction (ROPE) process, which combines solvent (hot recycle bitumen) and pyrolytic extraction. 14 refs., 19 figs.

  18. Field performance measurements of half-facepiece respirators--foundry operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, W R; Zhuang, Z; Nelson, T

    1996-02-01

    A series of field studies was conducted to measure workplace protection factors (WPF) provided by elastomeric and disposable half-facepiece respirators against different particulate contaminants. The research protocol developed for the study has been described in a previous article. This article presents results from dust and fume exposures at three foundries. The major components of the airborne exposures in these foundries were zinc, lead, and silicon. The major components of the in-facepiece samples were zinc, chlorine, and lead. Significant differences were observed in ambient zinc and lead concentration levels among foundries; however, no significant difference was observed in the in-facepiece concentrations of these elements among foundries. Respirator performance varied within each foundry, but there was no difference in performance when pooling all foundry data. The 5th, 10th and 50th percentile estimates for the pooled foundry and respirator WPF data were about 9, 16, and 114 respectively. The infacepiece concentration data clearly indicate that dust-fume-mist (DFM) class half-facepiece respirators, when conscientiously used, worn, and maintained, in conjunction with other existing controls in these foundries, provided effective worker protection. PMID:8615325

  19. 77 FR 34012 - Foundry Coke Products From the People's Republic of China: Continuation of Antidumping Duty Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-08

    ...Trade Administration [A-570-862] Foundry Coke Products From the People's Republic...revocation of the antidumping duty order on foundry coke products from the People's Republic...review of the antidumping duty order on foundry coke products from the PRC,...

  20. Control of rebonding sand mixing as a condition for optimisation of the sand feeding system in the casting line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fedoryszyn

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to ensure the effective operation of the casting line, synthetic sand containing bentonite has to be fed in a precisely controlled quality and quantity. The required quantity is ensured by mixing stations outfitted with turbine mixers. The quality of sand mix, defined by its technological parameters, depends on the available measurement and control equipment and the system controlling the mixers’ operation. These issues are investigated at the Department of Foundry Engineering AGH-UST in collaboration with the PPP Technical Company in Now Sól (Poland, a major manufacturer of turbine mixers.This study outlines the scope and results of research work aimed to improve the control equipment to enhance the performance of turbine mixers.

  1. Granulation of After Reclamation Dusts from the Mixed Sands Technology: Water Glass – Resolit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kami?ska

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A technology of sands with water glass hardened by liquid esters is a cheap and ecologic method of producing moulding sands. Due to these advantages, this technology is still very important in several foundry plants for production of heavy iron and steel castings. Reclamation of the mixed moulding and core sands generates significant amounts of dusts, which require further treatments for their reuse. The results of investigations of a pressureless granulation of dusts generated in the dry mechanical reclamation process of the mixture consisting in app. 90 % of moulding sands from the Floster S technology and in 10 % of core sands with phenolic resin resol type, are presented in the hereby paper. Investigations were aimed at obtaining granulates of the determined dimensional and strength parameters. Granules were formed from the mixture of dusts consisting of 75 mass% of dusts after the reclamation of sands mixture and of 25 mass% of dusts from bentonite sands processing plant. Wetted dusts from bentonite sands were used as a binding agent allowing the granulation of after reclamation dusts originated from the mixed sands technology.

  2. Emission of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs and benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX from the furan moulding sands with addition of the reclaim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Holtzer

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the results of decomposition of a moulding sand with furfuryl resin also on a quartz matrix and with additions of a reclaimed material, under industrial conditions, are presented. Investigations of the gases emission in the test foundry plant were performed according to the original method developed in the Faculty of Foundry Engineering, AGH UST. The dependence of the emitted PAHs and BTEX group substances and ignition losses on the reclaim fraction in a moulding sand are of a linear character of a very high correlation coefficient R2. On the bases of the derived equations, it is possible to determine the amount of the emitted hazardous substances from the moulding sand containing the known fraction of the reclaim.

  3. Potential of modified iron-rich foundry waste for environmental applications: Fenton reaction and Cr(VI) reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Patrícia E F; Oliveira, Leandro D; Ardisson, José D; Lago, Rochel M

    2011-10-30

    A magnetic fraction (15%) from a waste of foundry sand (WFS), composed of sand, carbon, bentonite clay and iron (10%) was modified by thermal treatment at 400, 600 and 800°C under inert atmosphere. Mössbauer analyses showed that the thermal treatment increased the amount of Fe(3)O(4) from 25 to 55% by reduction of Fe(2)O(3) and highly dispersed Fe(3+) by the carbon present in the waste. The Fe(3)O(4) caused a significant increase on the activity of two important reactions with application in environmental remediation: the Fenton oxidation of indigo carmine dye with H(2)O(2) and the reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III). The magnetic fraction of WFS was also mixed with hematite (Fe(2)O(3)) and thermally treated at 400, 600 and 800°C. This treatment produced large amounts of surface Fe(3)O(4) and increased substantially the rate of Fenton reaction as well as Cr(VI) reduction. This reactivity combined with the presence of carbon (an adsorbent for organic contaminants), bentonite clay (an adsorbent for metallic contaminants) and the granulometry/packing/hydrodynamic features make WFS a promising material for use in reactive permeable barriers. PMID:21890267

  4. DataFoundry: information management for scientific data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Critchlow, T; Fidelis, K; Ganesh, M; Musick, R; Slezak, T

    2000-03-01

    Data warehouses and data marts have been successfully applied to a multitude of commercial business applications. They have proven to be invaluable tools by integrating information from distributed, heterogeneous sources and summarizing this data for use throughout the enterprise. Although the need for information dissemination is as vital in science as in business, working warehouses in this community are scarce because traditional warehousing techniques do not transfer to scientific environments. There are two primary reasons for this difficulty. First, schema integration is more difficult for scientific databases than for business sources, because of the complexity of the concepts and the associated relationships. While this difference has not yet been fully explored, it is an important consideration when determining how to integrate autonomous sources. Second, scientific data sources have highly dynamic data representations (schemata). When a data source participating in a warehouse changes its schema, both the mediator transferring data to the warehouse and the warehouse itself need to be updated to reflect these modifications. The cost of repeatedly performing these updates in a traditional warehouse, as is required in a dynamic environment, is prohibitive. This paper discusses these issues within the context of the DataFoundry project, an ongoing research effort at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. DataFoundry utilizes a unique integration strategy to identify corresponding instances while maintaining differences between data from different sources, and a novel architecture and an extensive meta-data infrastructure, which reduce the cost of maintaining a warehouse. PMID:10761774

  5. Total dose hardness of three commercial CMOS microelectronics foundries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors have measured the effects of total ionizing dose (TID) on CMOS FETs, ring oscillators and field-oxide transistor test structures fabricated at three different commercial foundries with four different processes. The foundries spanned a range of integration levels and included Hewlett-Packard (HP) 0.5 microm and 0.8 microm processes, an Orbit 1.2 microm process, and an AMI 1.6 microm process. They found that the highest tolerance to TID was for the HP 0.5 microm process, where the shift in NMOS threshold voltage was less than 40 mV at 300 krad. An examination of the dependence of the threshold voltage shift on gate oxide thickness indicated that oxides of the different commercial processes were of similar quality, and that the improvement in the total dose tolerance of the HP 0.5 microm technology is associated with the scaling of the gate oxide. Measurements on field-oxide transistors from the HP 0.5 microm process were shown not to invert for signal voltages at 300 krad, maintaining the integrity of the LOCOS isolation

  6. Total productive maintenance on example of automated foundry lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kukla

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Within framework of the presented study one has performed analysis of stoppages in automatic foundry lines operation, and basing on assumptions from complex maintenance system has undertaken himself to develop a service maintenance schedule for machinery installed in the line. Moreover, one has presented general assumptions of TPM system operated in conditions of series and multi-series production of cast iron castings. One has constructed operational database and has elaborated a list of line stoppage causes within a year. One has proposed a possibility of implementation of manufacturing systems modeling and simulating technique in management of production machinery operation in a foundry shop. Within framework of the simulation experiment one has developed schedules of production, schedules of maintenance and has forecasted indices of general productivity of the machinery for a various scenarios of events on example of casting line having in-series structure of operational reliability. In course of the study there was implemented ARENA universal software package to modeling and simulation of the manufacturing systems.

  7. Use of Solid Waste (Foundry Slag) Mortar and Bamboo Reinforcement in Seismic Analysis for Single Storey Masonry Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, S.; Husain, A.; Ghani, F.; Alam, M. N.

    2013-11-01

    The conversion of large amount of solid waste (foundry slag) into alternate source of building material will contribute not only as a solution to growing waste problem, but also it will conserve the natural resources of other building material and thereby reduce the cost of construction. The present work makes an effort to safe and economic use of recycle mortar (1:6) as a supplementary material. Conventional and recycled twelve prisms were casted with varying percentage of solid waste (foundry slag) added (0, 10, 20, 30 %) replacing cement by weight and tested under compression testing machine. As the replacement is increasing, the strength is decreasing. 10 % replacement curve is very closed to 0 % whereas 20 % is farther and 30 % is farthest. 20 % replacement was chosen for dynamic testing as its strength is within permissible limit as per IS code. A 1:4 scale single storey brick model with half size brick was fabricated on shake table in the lab for dynamic testing using pure friction isolation system (coarse sand as friction material µ = 0.34). Pure friction isolation technique can be adopted economically in developing countries where low-rise building prevails due to their low cost. The superstructure was separated from the foundation at plinth level, so as to permit sliding of superstructure during severe earthquake. The observed values of acceleration and displacement responses compare fairly with the analytical values of the analytical model. It also concluded that 20 % replacement of cement by solid waste (foundry slag) could be safely adopted without endangering the safety of the masonry structures under seismic load.To have an idea that how much energy is dissipated through this isolation, the same model with fixed base was tested and results were compared with the isolated free sliding model and it has been observed that more than 60 % energy is dissipated through this pure friction isolation technique. In case of base isolation, no visible cracks were observed up to the table force of 4.25 kN (1,300 rpm), whereas for fixed base failure started at 800 rpm.To strengthen the fixed base model, bamboo reinforcement were used for economical point of view. Another model of same dimension with same mortar ratio was fabricated on the shake table with bamboo reinforcement as plinth band and lintel band. In addition another four round bamboo bars of 3 mm diameter were placed at each of the four corners of the model. The building model was tested and found very encouraging and surprising results. The model failure started at 1,600 rpm, which means that this model is surviving the double force in comparison with the non-bamboo reinforcement.

  8. Investigations of the Influence of the Matrix Recycling on Properties of the Moulding Sand with Geopol 618 Binder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kami?ska

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Self-hardening moulding sands with water-glass hardened by liquid esters are applied in several foundry plants for making moulds for the production of heavy iron and steel castings. The main good point of this process is a low cost of sands. However, on account of a lowsusceptibility of this moulding sand for the matrix reclamation the fraction of sands originated from the reclamation is limited.The investigations presented in this work were aimed at the determination of the addition of the reclaimed material, obtained in the dry mechanical reclamation, on properties of the moulding sand with the Geopol 618 binder, which is water-glass modified by polymers and hardened by esters.

  9. Studies on the Renewability of Polymeric Binders for Foundry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Grabowska

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the results of studies of polymeric binders on the example of the new BioCo2 binder, including the problem of itsrenewability, are presented. The results of structural studies (FT-IR for the BioCo2 binder before and after crosslinking, and bendingstrength tests Rg u fresh and renewed cured molding sands with BioCo2 binder are discussed. The cross-linking binder and curring ofmoulding sand was carried out by physical agents (microwave radiation, temperature. On the basis of obtained results was shown that it is possible to restore the initial properties of the adhesive of BioCo2 binder. The initial properties of moulding sand can be achieved, after the cross-linking binders and after curing in the moulding sands with bioCo2 binder , by supplementing the moulding sand composition by the appropriate amount of water.

  10. Classification of foundry clients using business rules approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Stawowy

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the application of business rules approach for the classification of foundry clients taking into account t he economic and technological attributes. Business Rules Management (BRM systems allow non-technical business people to change the rules, analyze them for errors, and test and simulate them for impact analysis. Although BRM is focused on business processes improvement, it is possible to use this approach in technology management. The model of classification problem, and the knowledge base as a set of decision tables are presented in the paper.The results indicate that the proposed business rules tool REBIT, developed by AGH team as the project co-funded by the European Union, is feasible as a complete knowledge base and technology management method.

  11. Safety management system of subcontractors’ works in foundry companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R?czka

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Most companies use the services of subcontractors, either in their core business, or to support the work – e.g. maintenance. This poses the need for effective and systematic monitoring of the work of subcontractors, especially if they perform it on the premises of an enterprise. In some industries such as construction, energy, petrochemicals, metallurgy and foundry additional system requirements appear, particularly with regard to safety and the environment, a compliance with which is necessary to obtain an order. Often, conformity with these requirements must be confirmed with a certificate. The article presents examples of standardised special requirements, such as SCC /VCA, SCT / VCU, SQAS used for sub-contractors of construction work, maintenance, scaffolding etc. in the European Union member states.

  12. Beneficial Use Information Center (BUIC): Foundry By-products

    Science.gov (United States)

    The database on beneficial reuse of foundry by-products may be downloaded as a Microsoft Access (.mdb) file through the Beneficial Use Information Center of the University of Wisconsin-Madison. The database was designed "to identify (1) materials and applications where methods and specifications exist such that beneficial reuse can begin or be expanded immediately and (2) areas in need of further research." Data were assembled by the University of Wisconsin-Madison researchers from 98 projects in fourteen states and two locations in Canada. Applications described in the database are Structural/Base/Sub-base Fill, Flowable Fill, Concrete and Related Products, Asphalt, Soil Amendments, Portland Cement, Landfill Liners and Covers, and Other Applications such as pipe bedding, clay bricks, and landfill drainage layers.

  13. Kinetics of moisture absorption in mixtures for iron foundry

    CERN Document Server

    Cocina, E V; Rodríguez, R; Cocina, Ernesto Villar; Morales, Eduardo Valencia; Rodriguez, Romulo Gonzalez

    1999-01-01

    The moisture absorption in granulated materials used in foundry technologies is analyzed. The absorption process has a diffusive behavior mainly. A simple experimental technique, in which the wet weight increment was recorded as the experimental parameter and an analytic method with computing procedure to find the parameters characterizing the process was used. The determination of these parameters by traditional methods is a very difficult task so, very refined and expensive trials are needed. The fitting of the model permits to determine the diffusion coefficient and the moisture concentration in the separation surface between the sample and the environment. The concentration profiles are established for different times. Finally, the possibility of occurrence of superimposed diffusive processes in some materials is analyzed and the diffusion coefficient and the amount of moisture incorporated by each process are calculated.

  14. Laboratories for the 21st Century: Case Studies, Molecular Foundry, Berkeley, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-11-01

    This case study provides information on the Molecular Foundry, which incorporates Labs21 principles in its design and construction. The design includes many of the strategies researched at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory for energy efficient cleanroom and data centers.

  15. Ergonomic and work safety evaluation criteria of process excellence in the foundry industry

    OpenAIRE

    Butlewski, M.; Misztal, A.; Jasiulewicz-kaczmarek, M.; Janik, S.

    2014-01-01

    The article presents a concept of criteria assessment called the “process excellence” for ergonomics and work safety in enterprises of the foundry industry as well as points to the possibility of its application.

  16. Ergonomic and work safety evaluation criteria of process excellence in the foundry industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Butlewski

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a concept of criteria assessment called the “process excellence” for ergonomics and work safety in enterprises of the foundry industry as well as points to the possibility of its application.

  17. Closeout of IE Bulletin 80-21: valve parts supplied by Malcom Foundry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cracking of yokes in active valves in a safety-related system was discovered during pre-operational testing of the Residual Heat Removal System at Susquehanna 1. These defective yokes had been supplied to Anchor/Darling Valve Company by Malcolm Foundry Company, Inc. Because Malcolm Foundry had gone out of business, it was necessary to issue the Bulletin to utilities to determine directly whether Malcolm Foundry had provided parts to valve manufacturers other than Anchor/Darling. From results of the extensive survey of valve manufacturers generated by this Bulletin, it was determined that only Anchor/Darling had used Malcolm Foundry as a source of safety-related valve parts. On the basis of survey results and a search of Anchor/Darling records, it was found that only seven facilities had affected valves

  18. Development of method for identification of compounds emitted during thermal degradation of binders used in foundry

    OpenAIRE

    Bobrowski, A.; Grabowska, B.; Holtzer, M.; Kubecki, M.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the research was to develop a method for identification of compounds emitted during thermal degradation of binders used in foundry. Research were performed with the use of Certified Reference Materials mixtures of semi-volatiles compounds with furfuryl alcohol and aldehyde. Furfuryl-urea resin samples were also used. Station for thermal degradation of materials used in foundry was designed and made. Thermal degradation process conditions and gas chromatograph coupled with high reso...

  19. Specificity of SPC Procedures Application in Foundry in Aspect of Data Acquisition and Data Exploration

    OpenAIRE

    Ignaszak, Z.; Sika, R.

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents an analysis of SPC (Statistical Process Control) procedures usability in foundry engineering. The authors pay particular attention to the processes complexity and necessity of correct preparation of data acquisition procedures. Integration of SPC systems with existing IT solutions in area of aiding and assistance during the manufacturing process is important. For each particular foundry, methodology of selective SPC application needs to prepare for supervision and control o...

  20. Research and application of enterprise resource planning system for foundry enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou Jianxin; Ji Xiaoyuan; Liao Dunming

    2013-01-01

    PPDB issues - four aspects of current management issues of foundry enterprises are discussed in this paper, including Production Management, Process Control, Duration Monitoring and Business Intelligence Data Analysis. Also a whole Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) solution for foundry enterprises is proposed. The solution contains many models, four of which are used to solve the PPDB issues. These are called SPDB models, which separately are the Single-piece management model (based on casti...

  1. Hexachlorobenzene and octachlorostyrene in plasma of aluminium foundry workers using hexachloroethane for degassing.

    OpenAIRE

    Selde?n, A. I.; Nygren, Y.; Westberg, H. B.; Bodin, L. S.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To study the load of selected organochlorine compounds in the blood of aluminium foundry workers who use hexachloroethane as a degassing agent for aluminium and to measure some possible effects on internal organs. METHODS: Plasma from nine male aluminium foundry workers with past experience of use of hexachloroethane and 18 controls (two controls per exposed case) matched for residence, sex, age, and socioeconomic status was analysed for hexachlorobenzene (HCB), (P-HCB), and octac...

  2. Evaluation and Verification of Time and Costs of Production Activities in Foundry Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Kukla, S.

    2007-01-01

    This work presents the possibility of using technology of modelling and simulation of productive systems in the management of cast iron production by means of automated foundry lines to maximize assembly line structure. The computer model of foundry has been planed and conducted in order to compile the schedule of cast production. The variants of solution have been estimated talking into account time limitations imposed by clients and the criterion for prime costs appointed on the basis of th...

  3. Exploring Products: Nano Sand

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-16

    In this activity, learners explore how water behaves differently when it comes in contact with "nano sand" and regular sand. Learners learn about the hydrophobic properties of "nano sand." Use this activity to talk about how many materials behave differently at the nanoscale.

  4. Barriers to and drivers for energy efficiency in the Swedish foundry industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite the need for increased industrial energy efficiency, studies indicate that cost-efficient energy conservation measures are not always implemented, explained by the existence of barriers to energy efficiency. This paper investigates the existence of different barriers to and driving forces for the implementation of energy efficiency measures in the energy intensive Swedish foundry industry. The overall results from a questionnaire show that limited access to capital constitutes by far the largest barrier to energy efficiency according to the respondents. A comparison between group-owned and privately owned foundries shows that, except for limited access to capital, they face different high-ranked barriers. While barriers within group owned companies are more related to organizational problems, barriers within private foundries are more related to information problems. This study also found that energy consultants or other actors working with energy issues in foundries are of major importance in overcoming the largest barriers, as the foundries consider them trustworthy. They may thus help the foundries overcome organizational problems such as lack of sub-metering and lack of budget funds by quantifying potential energy efficiency investments. The two, by far, most important drivers were found to be people with real ambition and long-term energy strategies

  5. Active binder content as a factor of the control system of the moulding sand quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Jakubski

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the modern methods of the production optimisation are artificial neural networks. Neural networks are gaining broader and broaderapplication in the foundry industry, among others for controlling melting processes in cupolas and in arc furnaces, for designing castingsand supply systems, for controlling moulding sand processing, for predicting properties of cast alloys or selecting parameters of pressurecastings. An attempt to apply neural networks for controlling the quality of bentonite moulding sands is presented in this paper. This is theassessment method of sands suitability by means of detecting correlations between their individual parameters. The presentedinvestigations were obtained by using the Statistica 9.0 program. The presented investigations were aimed at the selection of the neuralnetwork able to predict the active bentonite content in the moulding sand on the basis of this sand properties such as: permeability,compactibility and the compressive strength. An application of the Statistica program allowed to select automatically the type of networkproper for the representation of dependencies occurring in between the proposed moulding sand parameters. The most advantageousconditions were obtained for the uni-directional multi-layer perception (MLP network. Knowledge of the neural network sensitivity to individual moulding sand parameters, allowed to eliminate not essential ones.

  6. The influence of microwave curing time and water glass kind on the properties of molding sands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Granat

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This work presents results of research on the influence of microwave heating time on the process of hardening of water glass molding sands. Essential influence of this drying process on basic properties such as: compression, bending and tensile strength as well as permeability and wear resistance, has been found. It has been proved, that all the investigated sorts of sodium water glass could be used as binding material of molding sands intended for curing with the microwave process heating. It has been found, while analyzing the results of property studies of microwave heated molding sands with 2.5% addition of water glass, that all available on the market kinds of this binding agent (including the most frequently used in foundry 145 and 149 kinds after microwave heating guarantee very good compression, bending and tensile strength as well as permeability and wear resistance. Moreover, it has been determined that the optimal curing time of molding sands containing various kinds of water glass is 240 seconds. After this time, all basic properties of molding sands are stable. The use of microwave curing of water glass molding sands results in a significant decrease of hardening process time, full stabilization of molding sands as well as much lower energy consumption.

  7. Replacement of Natural Sand with Efficient Alternatives: Recent Advances in Concrete Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anzar Hamid Mir

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Concrete is the most undisputable material being used in infrastructure development throughout the world. It is a globally accepted construction material in all types of Civil Engineering structures. Natural sand is a prime material used for the preparation of concrete and also plays an important role in Mix Design. Now a day?s river erosion and other environmental issues have led to the scarcity of river sand. The reduction in the sources of natural sand and the requirement for reduction in the cost of concrete production has resulted in the increased need to find new alternative materials to replace river sand so that excess river erosion is prevented and high strength concrete is obtained at lower cost. Partial or full replacement of natural sand by the other alternative materials like quarry dust, foundry sand and others are being researched from past two decades, in view of conserving the ecological balance. This paper summarizes conclusions of experiments conducted for the properties like strength, durability etc. It was observed the results have shown positive changes and improvement in mechanical properties of the conventional concrete due to the addition or replacement of fine sand with efficient alternatives.

  8. Cleanup under Airlock of an Old Uranium Foundry - 13273

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thuillier, Daniel; Houee, Jean-Marie [AREVA D and D BU, Paris La Defense (France); Chambon, Frederic [AREVA FEDERAL SERVICES, Columbia MD (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Since 2004, AREVA's subsidiary SICN has been conducting the cleanup and dismantling of an old uranium foundry located in the town of Annecy (France). The first operations consisted in the removal of the foundry's production equipment, producing more than 300 metric tons (MT) of waste. The second step consisted in performing the radiological characterization of the 1,600 m{sup 2} (17,200 ft{sup 2}) building, including underground trenches and galleries. The building was precisely inventoried, based on operations records and direct measurements. All sub-surfaces, which needed to be cleaned up were characterized, and a determination of the contamination migration was established, in particular with trenches and galleries. The wall thicknesses to be treated were empirically justified, knowing that the maximal migration depth inside concrete is 5 mm for a liquid transfer vector. All singularities such as cracks, anchoring points, etc. were spotted for a complete and systematic treatment. Building structures not laying directly on the soil, such as floor slabs, were not cleaned up but directly deconstructed and disposed of as waste. The facility was located within the town of Annecy. Therefore, in order to avoid the risk of dusts dispersion and public exposure during the building deconstruction and the soil treatment, a third of the building's surface was confined in a sliding airlock built from a metal structure capable of resisting to wind and snow, which are frequent in this area. This particular structure provided a static confinement over the half of the building which was covered and a dynamic confinement using a ventilation and high efficiency air filtration system, sized to provide 2.5 air changes per hour. The enclosure and its metallic structure is 33 m long (108 feet), 25 m wide (82 feet), and 13 m high (42 feet), for a volume of 10,000 m{sup 3} (353,000 ft{sup 3}). It was made up of a double skin envelope, allowing the recycling of its structure and outside envelope. After cleaning up and dismantling the first portion of the building, the enclosure was repositioned on the second and the last third of the building, by sliding it on support pads. Almost 7,000 m{sup 2} of concrete surface has been treated with no dust dispersion outside the enclosure. After treatment, all the remaining surfaces were controlled by an independent entity to verify their acceptability with regards to residual contamination (less than 0.4 Bq/cm{sup 2} (24 DPM) for alpha contamination and less than 1 Bq/g of total uranium). Approximately 1,900 MT of equipment and waste were generated in batches of 1m{sup 3}, in order to be staged on site, and then characterized and packaged in 20 foot containers for shipment to the final ANDRA repository. The package certification included the verification of the physical and chemical characteristics and the radiological characteristics (mass activity, dose rate, and residual outside surface contamination). Finally, after cleanup and dismantling of the foundry, a concrete slab was poured on the free surface as a clean base for implementation of new activities. (authors)

  9. Cleanup under Airlock of an Old Uranium Foundry - 13273

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 2004, AREVA's subsidiary SICN has been conducting the cleanup and dismantling of an old uranium foundry located in the town of Annecy (France). The first operations consisted in the removal of the foundry's production equipment, producing more than 300 metric tons (MT) of waste. The second step consisted in performing the radiological characterization of the 1,600 m2 (17,200 ft2) building, including underground trenches and galleries. The building was precisely inventoried, based on operations records and direct measurements. All sub-surfaces, which needed to be cleaned up were characterized, and a determination of the contamination migration was established, in particular with trenches and galleries. The wall thicknesses to be treated were empirically justified, knowing that the maximal migration depth inside concrete is 5 mm for a liquid transfer vector. All singularities such as cracks, anchoring points, etc. were spotted for a complete and systematic treatment. Building structures not laying directly on the soil, such as floor slabs, were not cleaned up but directly deconstructed and disposed of as waste. The facility was located within the town of Annecy. Therefore, in order to avoid the risk of dusts dispersion and public exposure during the building deconstruction and the soil treatment, a third of the building's surface was confined in a sliding airlock built from a metal structure capable of resisting to wind and snow, which are frequent in this area. This particular structure provided a static confinement over the half of the building which was covered and a dynamic confinement using a ventilation and high efficiency air filtration system, sized to provide 2.5 air changes per hour. The enclosure and its metallic structure is 33 m long (108 feet), 25 m wide (82 feet), and 13 m high (42 feet), for a volume of 10,000 m3 (353,000 ft3). It was made up of a double skin envelope, allowing the recycling of its structure and outside envelope. After cleaning up and dismantling the first portion of the building, the enclosure was repositioned on the second and the last third of the building, by sliding it on support pads. Almost 7,000 m2 of concrete surface has been treated with no dust dispersion outside the enclosure. After treatment, all the remaining surfaces were controlled by an independent entity to verify their acceptability with regards to residual contamination (less than 0.4 Bq/cm2 (24 DPM) for alpha contamination and less than 1 Bq/g of total uranium). Approximately 1,900 MT of equipment and waste were generated in batches of 1m3, in order to be staged on site, and then characterized and packaged in 20 foot containers for shipment to the final ANDRA repository. The package certification included the verification of the physical and chemical characteristics and the radiological characteristics (mass activity, dose rate, and residual outside surface contamination). Finally, after cleanup and dismantling of the foundry, a concrete slab was poured on the free surface as a clean base for implementation of new activities. (authors)

  10. New BioCo binders containing biopolymers for foundry industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Grabowska

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Possibilities of cross-linking of new polymer binders from the BioCo group, their hardening in moulding sands at the application of cross-linking agents both physical and chemical are presented. Their thermal stability was determined. It was proved, that moulding sands bound by the BioCo binders are characterised by the compression strength (Ruc of an order of 2 MPa, and the bending strength (Rug of 1 MPa, after 1 hour of a sample curing. The worked out BioCo binders are biodegradable and renewable in the part which was not completely burned. The investigated moulding sands with the BioCo binders are easily knocked out and have a good susceptibility for mechanical reclamation processes.

  11. Pre-SPC Math for Foundry Workers. A Lesson Developed for Robinson Foundry and Bodine-Robinson as Part of a National Workplace Literacy Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Bonnie

    Developed as part of a National Workplace Literacy Program, this lesson focuses on terms and mathematical operations associated with Statistical Process Control (SPC) in the foundry industry. With appropriate assistance and preparatory work, workers testing between grades 4 and 9 on the Test of Adult Basic Education Locator should be able to use…

  12. System and process for the abatement of casting pollution, reclaiming resin bonded sand, and/or recovering a low BTU fuel from castings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffer, Karl D. (121 Governor Dr., Scotia, NY 12302)

    1984-07-03

    Air is caused to flow through the resin bonded mold to aid combustion of the resin binder to form a low BTU gas fuel. Casting heat is recovered for use in a waste heat boiler or other heat abstraction equipment. Foundry air pollution is reduced, the burned portion of the molding sand is recovered for immediate reuse and savings in fuel and other energy is achieved.

  13. Studies on the Renewability of Polymeric Binders for Foundry

    OpenAIRE

    Grabowska, B.; Kaczmarska, K.; Bobrowski, A.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper the results of studies of polymeric binders on the example of the new BioCo2 binder, including the problem of itsrenewability, are presented. The results of structural studies (FT-IR) for the BioCo2 binder before and after crosslinking, and bendingstrength tests Rg u fresh and renewed cured molding sands with BioCo2 binder are discussed. The cross-linking binder and curring ofmoulding sand was carried out by physical agents (microwave radiation, temperature). On the basis of obt...

  14. New BioCo binders containing biopolymers for foundry industry

    OpenAIRE

    Grabowska, B.; Holtzer, M.; Dan?ko, R.; Go?rny, M.; Bobrowski, A.; Olejnik, E.

    2013-01-01

    Possibilities of cross-linking of new polymer binders from the BioCo group, their hardening in moulding sands at the application of cross-linking agents both physical and chemical are presented. Their thermal stability was determined. It was proved, that moulding sands bound by the BioCo binders are characterised by the compression strength (Ruc) of an order of 2 MPa, and the bending strength (Rug) of 1 MPa, after 1 hour of a sample curing. The worked out BioCo binders are biodegradable and r...

  15. Signalling a foundry mould filling degree with infrared sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bogdan

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available A contactless method of measuring a foundry mould filling degree in course of its pouring with liquid metal is suggested. The concept is based on infrared radiation of molten metal appearing in venting and flow-off holes. As the detector, an infrared channel receiving diode is applied. Three solutions were tested. In the first solution, the diode is placed at the calculated distance from the radiation source, in a housing that suppresses the scattered signal. The housing contains the electronics, while power supply and control signals are delivered by conductors. A diode actuation threshold is established in order to obtain high resolution and repeatability of the results. On the output, a miniature relay transmits the signal to the control system. In the second solution, the measuring system is supplied with a battery and the signal in transmitted through a plastic optical fibre. In the third solution, the optical fibre serves as an energy carrier. The optical system focuses the infrared radiation and introduces the energy to the optical fibre. On the other end of the fibre, a phototransistor amplifies the signal, forms it and transmits to the control system. Some experiments were carried out. Their results permitted noting disadvantages and advantages of individual solutions. It was evidenced that the measurement results obtained using the infrared radiation are independent on a constructional design. The solutions utilising optical fibres proved to be more useful in industrial conditions. Targets and further directions of research works using transceivers for wireless data transmission are presented.

  16. Simulation by the method of inverse cumulative distribution function applied in optimising of foundry plant production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Szymszal

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The study discusses application of computer simulation based on the method of inverse cumulative distribution function. The simulationrefers to an elementary static case, which can also be solved by physical experiment, consisting mainly in observations of foundryproduction in a selected foundry plant. For the simulation and forecasting of foundry production quality in selected cast iron grade, arandom number generator of Excel calculation sheet was chosen. Very wide potentials of this type of simulation when applied to theevaluation of foundry production quality were demonstrated, using a number generator of even distribution for generation of a variable ofan arbitrary distribution, especially of a preset empirical distribution, without any need of adjusting to this variable the smooth theoreticaldistributions.

  17. Simulating the deformation of dies in the foundry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Digital simulation (QuikCAST, ProCAST) is already used extensively when designing metallic dies for founding, in particular to design filling and gating systems. Simulation of the steady-state temperature cycles of dies has also been mastered. With large castings, the temperature gradient induced between the moulding surface and the rear surfaces of the die leads to deformations that may be large enough to measure, and incompatible with the required dimensional accuracy. The temperature gradient also creates thermal fatigue stresses that cause crazing of the die surface. In the study conducted by CTIF, aimed at measuring tooling deformations, various ways of measuring displacements at high temperatures (with and without contact) were investigated in order to evaluate their capabilities and limitations. An experimental device was designed - a test bench combining a metallic die having a simple geometry, in which an aluminium part could be cast, and instrumentation (temperature and displacement sensors). The deformations of the die were measured during first cycles of temperature homogenization. Concurrently, thermomechanical calculations were carried out on the same geometry using PROCAST. The calculation results are well correlated with the experimental measurements and validate the tools and the calculation methods. This thermomechanical approach makes it possible to optimize die design in the foundry and to predict high-temperature deformations as early as the desigerature deformations as early as the design stage. Knowledge of these deformations makes it possible in turn to anticipate the geometrical and dimensional variations undergone by the castings themselves and so to improve their accuracy. The designer can act on the temperature of the die or the design of the casting, or create a die in which the expected thermal deformation is reversed so as to produce a casting having the correct dimensions. In short, thermomechanical simulation can be applied to this problem to achieve a better understanding of the phenomena and to test solutions in advance.

  18. Simulating the deformation of dies in the foundry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabod, A.; Longa, Y.; Dracon, J. M.; Chailler, K.; Hairy, P.; Da Silva, A.

    2012-07-01

    Digital simulation (QuikCAST, ProCAST) is already used extensively when designing metallic dies for founding, in particular to design filling and gating systems. Simulation of the steady-state temperature cycles of dies has also been mastered. With large castings, the temperature gradient induced between the moulding surface and the rear surfaces of the die leads to deformations that may be large enough to measure, and incompatible with the required dimensional accuracy. The temperature gradient also creates thermal fatigue stresses that cause crazing of the die surface. In the study conducted by CTIF, aimed at measuring tooling deformations, various ways of measuring displacements at high temperatures (with and without contact) were investigated in order to evaluate their capabilities and limitations. An experimental device was designed - a test bench combining a metallic die having a simple geometry, in which an aluminium part could be cast, and instrumentation (temperature and displacement sensors). The deformations of the die were measured during first cycles of temperature homogenization. Concurrently, thermomechanical calculations were carried out on the same geometry using PROCAST. The calculation results are well correlated with the experimental measurements and validate the tools and the calculation methods. This thermomechanical approach makes it possible to optimize die design in the foundry and to predict high-temperature deformations as early as the design stage. Knowledge of these deformations makes it possible in turn to anticipate the geometrical and dimensional variations undergone by the castings themselves and so to improve their accuracy. The designer can act on the temperature of the die or the design of the casting, or create a die in which the expected thermal deformation is reversed so as to produce a casting having the correct dimensions. In short, thermomechanical simulation can be applied to this problem to achieve a better understanding of the phenomena and to test solutions in advance.

  19. Building technology platforms and foundries for photonic integrated circuits in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baets, R.; Dumon, P.; Bogaerts, W.; Chelnokov, A.; Fedeli, J.-M.; Vanholme, L.; Steyaert, D.

    2008-04-01

    Progress and take-up of photonic integration is hampered by a too large variety in devices and technologies. Generic integration platforms, which support a broad range of applications and can be made accessible through foundries, can deliver the cost reduction needed for a broader take-up. Silicon is ideally suited as such a generic integration platform and can support large-scale photonic integrated circuits. The ePIXnet Silicon Photonics Platform was set up to offer access to high-end silicon facilities for research and prototyping and to help establish photonic foundry processes on the longer term, bridging the gap between research and the market.

  20. MODELS AND METHODS OF CONTROL SYSTEMS OF ECOLOGICAL SAFETY OF FOUNDRY MANUFACTURE ?????? ? ?????? ?????? ?????????? ????????????? ????????????? ????????? ????????????

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manohin V. J.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The given developments are devoted to modeling of control systems by ecological safety of foundry manufacture. In a working zone of foundry shops except for a dust the significant amount of polluting substances is allocated. The most unsuccessful sites from a position of allocation of a dust are chambers and lattices. The experimental analysis shows, that in structure of a dust the weight maintenance of fractions with a diameter up to 20 microns reaches 43,8 % on weight. The given dust is most dangerous to health of the working personnel and creates problems when clearing the air

  1. Highly Unidirectional Uniform Optical Grating Couplers, Fabricated in Standard 45nm SOI-CMOS Foundry Process

    CERN Document Server

    Uroševi?, Stevan Lj

    2014-01-01

    This paper defines new structures of highly unidirectional uniform optical grating couplers which are all within constraints of the standard 45nm SOI-CMOS foundry process. Analysis in terms of unidirectivity and coupling efficiency is done. Maximum achieved unidirectivity (power radiation in one direction) is 98%. Unidirectional uniform gratings are fabricated in the standard 45nm SOI-CMOS foundry process. These gratings are measured and compared, using the new method of comparison, with typical bidirectional uniform gratings fabricated in the same process, in terms of coupling efficiency (in this case unidirectivity) with the standard singlemode fiber. For both types of gratings spectrum is given, measured with optical spectrum analyzer.

  2. Petrochemicals from oil sands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The petrochemical industry in Alberta developed rapidly during the 1980s and 1990s. However, projected diminishing gas production from the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin has raised concerns about the future growth of the industry in Alberta. A joint industry/government study has been conducted to evaluate new feedstocks from Alberta's vast oil sands resources to supplement natural gas liquids. Having both gas and oil sands feedstock options should increase the long-term competitiveness of Alberta's petrochemical industry.This paper presents a framework for evaluating and optimizing schemes for helping Alberta develop synergies for its oil sands and petrochemical industries through cost effective integration of oil sands, upgrading, refining and petrochemical development from 2005 to 2020. The paper places emphasis on specific locations and market conditions. It demonstrates that phased integration of oil sands and petrochemical developments is technically and economically feasible to co-produce high grade fuels and petrochemicals, assuming a new pipeline is built between Edmonton and Vancouver. Alberta has the potential to become a world-scale energy and petrochemical cluster. Alberta's oil sands facilities are potentially capable of supporting new world-scale plants producing ethylene, propylene, benzene, para-xylene, and other high-value-added derivatives. The products can be produced by integrating existing and new oil sands upgrading plants, refineries and petsands upgrading plants, refineries and petrochemical plants within the next 5 to 10 years. 3 refs., 2 tabs., 7 figs

  3. Chemical and radiometric determination of uranium and thorium in zircon sands and phosphorites after separation by extraction chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zircon sands, essentially composed of zircon, are materials widely used in zirconium extraction industry, in foundry sands, in refractories and ceramics; phosphorites are the starting material for the industrial production of phosphoric acid, fertilisers and plasters. Zircon sands and phosphorites contain sensible concentration of uranium, thorium and radium representing a potential radiation risk for the professionally exposed staff. The measurements by gamma spectrometry give often too high uranium contents if compared with those obtained by other methods because the members of uranium series are not always in radioactive equilibrium with the parents. Consequently it is useful to operate both by analytical and radiochemical techniques which permit the determination of the elementary thorium and uranium and also of their isotopic composition. The aim of the present work was to find out two different methods by Extraction Chromatography for the separation of uranium, thorium and radium before their radiometric determination by ZnS(Ag) alpha counting (Ra-226) and by alpha spectrometry (U, Th)

  4. Rebounding process of moulding sands-thermal degradation of bentonite binding qualities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Da?ko

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problems related to a gradual degradation of binding qualities of montmorillonite, the main component of foundry bentonites, are presented in the paper. This degradation is caused by high temperatures originated from liquid metal influencing moulding sands. Laboratory measurements of an active binding agent content in classic moulding sands prepared with two types of bentonite and subjected to a controlled heating to high temperatures – were performed. These laboratory examinations were compared to industrial tests, in which a temperature distribution was being determined in several places in the thickness of the casting ingot mould for 24 hours from the moment of pouring liquid metal. On the basis of the performed examinations, the method allowing to determine optimal additions in the rebounding process of the tested bentonites was developed.

  5. Risk assessment of chemicals in foundries: The International Chemical Toolkit pilot-project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Brazil, problems regarding protection from hazardous substances in small-sized enterprises are similar to those observed in many other countries. Looking for a simple tool to assess and control such exposures, FUNDACENTRO has started in 2005 a pilot-project to implement the International Chemical Control Toolkit. During the series of visits to foundries, it was observed that although many changes have occurred in foundry technology, occupational exposures to silica dust and metal fumes continue to occur, due to a lack of perception of occupational exposure in the work environment. After introducing the Chemical Toolkit concept to the foundry work group, it was possible to show that the activities undertaken to improve the management of chemicals, according to its concept, will support companies in fulfilling government legislations related to chemical management, occupational health and safety, and environmental impact. In the following meetings, the foundry work group and FUNDACENTRO research team will identify 'inadequate work situations'. Based on the Chemical Toolkit, improvement measures will be proposed. Afterwards, a survey will verify the efficency of those measures in the control of hazards and consequently on the management of chemicals. This step is now in course

  6. Identifying iron foundries as a new source of unintentional polychlorinated naphthalenes and characterizing their emission profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guorui; Lv, Pu; Jiang, Xiaoxu; Nie, Zhiqiang; Zheng, Minghui

    2014-11-18

    Iron foundries have been identified as dioxin sources in previous field investigations. Similar formation mechanisms between dioxins and unintentional polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) have led us to speculate that iron foundries are also potential PCN sources. In this study, PCNs in stack gas and fly ash samples representing atmospheric and residue emissions from 13 typical iron foundry plants were analyzed. The average emission factor of ?(2-8)PCNs to residue was calculated to be 61 ?g t(-1), with a range of 10-107 ?g t(-1). The emission factors of ?(2-8)PCNs to air in two case plants were 267 and 1472 ?g t(-1). The derived emission factors might be useful for estimating annual emissions and understanding the contribution of PCNs from iron foundries. The possible formation mechanisms of PCNs, based on the PCN profiles, are discussed. Successive reductions in the abundance of homologues were observed to occur with the increase in chlorine substituted numbers. Abundances of congeners containing more ?-position chlorines in the naphthalene skeleton were much higher than those of congeners containing more ?-position chlorines for penta-, hexa-, and hepta- homologues, which suggests that the ?-positions are favored for chlorination. Potential chlorination pathways from tetra- to octa- homologues are proposed. PMID:25313855

  7. APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 8: Industrialist's Manual No. 3, Rusty's Iron Foundry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

    The Industrialist's Manual No. 3, Rusty's Iron Foundry is part of a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise), a computerized college and professional level "real world" game simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties. The first two sections,…

  8. METRO-APEX Volume 13.1: Industrialist's Manual No. 3, Rusty's Iron Foundry. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    University of Southern California, Los Angeles. COMEX Research Project.

    The Industrialist's Manual No. 3 (Rusty's Iron Foundry) is one of a set of twenty-one manuals used in METRO-APEX 1974, a computerized college and professional level, computer-supported, role-play, simulation exercise of a community with "normal" problems. Stress is placed on environmental quality considerations. APEX 1974 is an expansion of…

  9. Design process optimization, virtual prototyping of manufacturing, and foundry-portable DFM (Invited Paper)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, James; Progler, Christopher; Chatila, Ahmad; Bruggeman, Bert; Heins, Mitchell; Pack, Robert; Boksha, Victor

    2005-05-01

    We consider modern design for manufacturing (DFM) as a manifestation of IC industry re-integration and intensive cost management dynamics. In that regard DFM is somewhat different from so-called design for yield (DFY) which essentially focuses on productivity (yield) management (that is not to say that DFM and DFY do not have significant overlaps and interactions). We clearly see the shaping of a new "full-chip DFM" infrastructure on the background of the "back to basics" design-manufacturing re-integration dynamics. In the presented work we are focusing on required DFM-efficiencies in a "foundry-fabless" link. Concepts of "virtual prototyping of manufacturing", "design process optimization", and "foundry-portable DFM" models are explored. Both senior management of the industry and leading design groups finally realize the need for a radical change of design styles. Some of the DFM super-goals are to isolate designers from process details and to make designs foundry portable. It requires qualification of designs at different foundries. In their turn, foundries specified and are implementing a set of DFM rules: "action-required", "recommended", and "guidelines" while asking designers to provide netlist and testing information. Also, we observe strong signs of innovation coming back to the mask industry. Powerful solutions are emerging and shaping up toward mask-centered IP as a business. While it seems that pure-play foundries have found their place for now in the "IDM+" model (supporting manufacturing capacity of IDMs) it is not obvious how sustainable the model is. Wafer as a production unit is not sufficient anymore; foundries are being asked by large customers to price products in terms of good die. It brings back the notion of the old ASIC business model where the foundry is responsible for dealing with both random and systematic yield issues for a given design. One scenario of future development would be that some of the leading foundries might eventually transform themselves into IDMs. Another visible trend: some of the manufacturing capacities started to diversify business by providing services for new emerging markets (for example, new energy and medicine applications). Finally it is very unclear what"s going to happen to fabless players. We continue building on the "Think SPICE again!" methodology introduced last year and expanding on previous platforms' discussion. Model expression of DFM, most probably, will be supplied by the equipment suppliers and yield management community. Actual content for a design intent model will be provided by manufacturing. Much like SPICE it describes the behavior and not what the actual measurement in manufacturing is. When the model is available and populated, a design automation solution can be created that will allow a designer to extract, analyze, simulate, and optimize the circuit prior to handoff to manufacturing.

  10. Oil sands tax expenditures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The oil sands are a strategic Canadian resource for which federal and provincial governments provide financial incentives to develop and exploit. This report describes the Oil Sands Tax Expenditure Model (OSTEM) developed to estimate the size of the federal income tax expenditure attributed to the oil sands industry. Tax expenditures are tax concessions which are used as alternatives to direct government spending for achieving government policy objectives. The OSTEM was developed within the business Income Tax Division of Canada's Department of Finance. Data inputs for the model were obtained from oil sands developers and Natural Resources Canada. OSTEM calculates annual revenues, royalties and federal taxes at project levels using project-level projections of capital investment, operating expenses and production. OSTEM calculates tax expenditures by comparing taxes paid under different tax regimes. The model also estimates the foregone revenue as a percentage of capital investment. Total tax expenditures associated with investment in the oil sands are projected to total $820 million for the period from 1986 to 2030, representing 4.6 per cent of the total investment. 10 refs., 2 tabs., 7 figs

  11. Bituminous sands : tax issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper examined some of the tax issues associated with the production of bitumen or synthetic crude oil from oil sands. The oil sands deposits in Alberta are gaining more attention as the supplies of conventional oil in Canada decline. The oil sands reserves located in the Athabasca, Cold Lake and Peace River areas contain about 2.5 trillion barrels of highly viscous hydrocarbons called bitumen, of which nearly 315 billion barrels are recoverable with current technology. The extraction method varies for each geographic area, and even within zones and reservoirs. The two most common extraction methods are surface mining and in-situ extraction such as cyclic steam stimulation (CSS); low pressure steam flood; pressure cycle steam drive; steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD); hot water flooding; and, fire flood. This paper also discussed the following general tax issues: bituminous sands definition; bituminous sands leases and Canadian development expense versus Canadian oil and gas property expense (COGPE); Canadian exploration expense (CEE) for surface mining versus in-situ methods; additional capital cost allowance; and, scientific research and experimental development (SR and ED). 15 refs

  12. FINAL REPORT: Reduction in Energy Consumption and Variability in Steel Foundry Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    F. Peters

    2005-05-24

    This project worked to improve the efficiency of the steel casting industry by reducing the variability that occurs because of process and product variation. The project focused on the post shakeout operations since roughly half of the production costs are in this area. These improvements will reduce the amount of variability, making it easier to manage the operation and improve the competitiveness. The reduction in variability will also reduce the need for many rework operations, which will result in a direct reduction of energy usage, particularly by the reduction of repeated heat treatment operations. Further energy savings will be realized from the reduction of scrap and reduced handling. Field studies were conducted at ten steel foundries that represented the U.S. steel casting industry, for a total of over 100 weeks of production observation. These studies quantified the amount of variability, and looked toward determining the source. A focus of the data collected was the grinding operations since this is a major effort in the cleaning room, and it represents the overall casting quality. The grinding was divided into two categories, expected and unexpected. Expected grinding is that in which the location of the effort is known prior to making the casting, such as smoothing parting lines, gates, and riser contacts. Unexpected grinding, which was approximately 80% of the effort, was done to improve the surfaces at weld repair locations, to rectify burnt on sand, and other surface anomalies at random locations. Unexpected grinding represents about 80% of the grinding effort. By quantifying this effort, the project raised awareness within the industry and the industry is continuing to make improvements. The field studies showed that the amount of variation of grinding operations (normalized because of the diverse set of parts studied) was very consistent across the industry. The field studies identified several specific sources that individually contributed to large process variation. This indicates the need for ongoing monitoring of the process and system to quantify the effort being expended. A system to measure the grinding effort was investigated but did not prove to be successful. A weld wire counting system was shown to be very successful in tracking casting quality by monitoring the quantity of weld wire being expended on a per casting basis. Further use of such systems is highly recommended. The field studies showed that the visual inspection process for the casting surface was a potentially large source of process variation. Measurement system analysis studies were conducted at three steel casting producers. The tests measured the consistency of the inspectors in identifying the same surface anomalies. The repeatability (variation of the same operator inspecting the same casting) was found to be relatively consistent across the companies at about 60-70%. However, this is still are very large amount of variation. Reproducibility (variation of different operators inspecting the same casting) was worse, ranging between 20 to 80% at the three locations. This large amount of variation shows that there is a great opportunity for improvement. Falsely identifying anomalies for reworking will cause increased expense and energy consumption. This is particularly true if a weld repair and repeated heat treatment is required. However, not identifying an anomaly could also result in future rework processing, a customer return, or scrap. To help alleviate this problem, casting surface comparator plates were developed and distributed to the industry. These plates are very inexpensive which enables them to be provided to all those involved with casting surface quality, such as operators, inspectors, sales, and management.

  13. Risk assessment related to manual handling on choosen work possition in foundry Alstom Power Sp. z o. o.

    OpenAIRE

    Kowal, G.

    2010-01-01

    Manual handling remains one of the different types of transport inside working place, although technological progress and modernorganization of work. Manual transport as a transport inside working place is related to foundry industry. According to polish lawregulations employer has to give consideration to manual handling in professional risk assessment and introduce actions for manualhandling reduction. In Foundry Elblag case there is found that in many processes manual handling are made by ...

  14. Criteria for an advanced assessment of quality of moulding sands with organic binders and reclamation process products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Da?ko

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Reclamation of used moulding and core sands has been defined as a treatment of waste moulding refractory materials, enabling a recovery of at least one of the components having properties similar to those of the fresh component, and reuse for production of casting moulds and cores. However, at present, there is a lack of a reclaimed material assessment index, which could be applied to each type of moulding sand and reclaim. Modern investigation methods and equipment for the estimation of the quality of the moulding sands matrices with organic binders, in their circulation process, are presented in this paper. These methods, utilizing the special equipment combined with the author’s investigation methods developed in the Faculty of Foundry Engineering, AGH - University of Science and Technology, allow the better estimation of the matrix quality both in an aspect of its application as a fresh sand substitute in the preparation of moulding sands, and also with regard to the environmental protection. The most important criteria for the technological assessment of the reclaimed materials and the quality of sands with organic binders are presented in this paper.

  15. Sand Dunes with Frost

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    9 May 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a suite of frost-covered sand dunes in the north polar region of Mars in early spring, 2004. The dunes indicate wind transport of sand from left to right (west to east). These landforms are located near 78.1oN, 220.8oW. This picture is illuminated by sunlight from the lower left and covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) across.

  16. Hydrogen porosity in Al-Si foundry alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhtar, Shahid

    2010-01-15

    Aluminium alloys based on the aluminium-silicon system are popular for automotive and aerospace applications, thanks to their high strength to weight ratio, excellent castability, and corrosion resistance. Microporosity is widely acknowledged to affect both static and dynamic properties of structural aluminium alloy castings. Formation of microporosity is a complex phenomenon and depends upon various factors but mainly hydrogen content and melt cleanliness, i.e., oxide films and inclusions. In the past few decades numerous studies on microporosity formation have been reported. However, several aspects of this subject are not fully understood. The motivation of this doctoral thesis has been to improve the knowledge of porosity formation and its affect of the mechanical properties of the cast products. This study aimed at understanding the effect of hydrogen and defects on microporosity of aluminium-silicon based castings. A literature review of the theories of porosity formation, and previously reported results on the factors affecting the microporosity formation in aluminium alloys is reported briefly in order to establish a basis of the present study. The research presented in this thesis is divided in five phases. In the first phase, lab scale directional solidification experiments were carried out with an A 356 alloy. Six hydrogen levels from 0.48 to 0.07 mL/100 g melt were reached by various up-gassing and de-gassing treatments of the melt. The melt quality was assessed by porous disc filtration apparatus (PoDFA) and reduced pressure test (RPT) methods. Microporosity distribution in the castings was characterized by the Archmedian method, image analysis and X-ray radiography. The results show that the porosity distribution is strongly dependent on the cooling rate and hydrogen content in the presence of the oxide films type defects. In the next phase, casting experiments with an A356 melt were carried by using a step mould die and castings were produced with and without filtration. The experiments were divided into series I and series II. In the first series 70 kg of the A356 ingots were melted in an electric resistance furnace. Three hydrogen levels namely 0.1, 0.2, and 0.4 mL/100 g melt were reached first by Ar-degassing, and up-gassing with Ar-10 % H2 and Ar-water vapour mixture, respectively. In the second series of experiments similar procedure was applied to another melt but in the reverse order. The castings were characterized in terms of microporosity and mechanical properties distribution. In addition high pressure die casting of an A380 alloy was carried out with different processing parameters like plunger speed, commutation point between first and second phase and pouring temperature. The results shows that tensile properties in both gravity and high pressure die castings were affected by the amount and distribution of casting defects. A series of casting experiments were carried out with the same type of step mould and with two hydrogen levels, namely 0.1 and 0.2 mL/100 g melt, in the third phase of the project. The main focus of these trials was to carefully control the variables during melt preparation, casting and solidification and keep the variations at minimum. Experiments were performed in two different days in order to check the reproducibility of the measurements. For the low gas level (0.1 mL/100 g melt) higher porosity levels are observed in the thinnest step, while the trend is opposite with the medium gas level (0.2 mL/100 g melt) castings. The data obtained form these trials where casting variables were controlled in a reproducible way form a basis for evaluating the results of simulated microporosity distributions using recent modelling approaches. The reproducibility of the step mould used was calculated to be 10-15 %. In the fourth phase, a study in an automotive casting plant was targeted to address the problem of high rejection rate of a cylinder head casting made from an A354 alloy. In the foundry, the castings under investigation were usually made from the mixture of A 354 alloys fro

  17. Development of method for identification of compounds emitted during thermal degradation of binders used in foundry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bobrowski

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to develop a method for identification of compounds emitted during thermal degradation of binders used in foundry. Research were performed with the use of Certified Reference Materials mixtures of semi-volatiles compounds with furfuryl alcohol and aldehyde. Furfuryl-urea resin samples were also used. Station for thermal degradation of materials used in foundry was designed and made. Thermal degradation process conditions and gas chromatograph coupled with high resolution mass spectrometry operating conditions were established. Organic compounds emitted during degradation were identified. The paper briefly represents the range of study and the results obtained for furfuryl-urea resin thermal degradation. Significant information about volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds emitted in different temperatures is also discussed.

  18. The Engineering of Sand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilkey, Orrin H.

    1989-01-01

    Discussed are beach replenishment, and hard structures in relation to the sand transportation system. Failures of current engineering practices and the resulting costs to the taxpayer are stressed. Equations and parameters used to make predictions of beach durability are criticized. (CW)

  19. The analysis of the wax foundry models fabrication process for the CPX3000 device

    OpenAIRE

    Budzik, G.; Kozik, B.; Bernaczek, J.; Wieczorowski, M.; Tutak, M.

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents possibilities of creating wax founding models by means of CPX3000 device. The device is used for Rapid Prototypingof models made of foundry wax in an incremental process. The paper also presents problems connected with choosing technologicalparameters for incremental shaping which influence the accuracy of created models. Issues connected with post-processing are alsodescribed. This process is of great importance for obtaining geometrically correct models. The analysis of p...

  20. Montmorillonite: A comparison of methods for its determination in foundry bentonites

    OpenAIRE

    Holtzer, M.; Bobrowski, A.; Grabowska, B.

    2011-01-01

    A comparison and estimation of usefulness of a quantitative analysis of montmorillonite in foundry bentonites, was the aim of this research. The investigations were made by means of three different techniques: methylene blue (MB) adsorption method, Cu(II)-triethylenetetramine complex (Cu(II)-TET) adsorption method, and infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) method. Tests were performed for 9 kinds of bentonites originated from various producers. The achieved results indicated that, the results obtained...

  1. Electromagnet Gripping in Iron Foundry Automation Part I: Principles and Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Rhythm Suren Wadhwa; Terje-Lien

    2011-01-01

    Robot grippers are employed to position and retain parts in automated assembly operations. This paper presents an overview of electromagnet part handling framework in an iron foundry and an equivalent electromagnet circuit model. The manner in which this whole concept of automated gripping system operates will be discussed in this paper. The material handling system uses machine vision system coupled with conveyor motion and Ethernet communication strategy to assist the material handling syst...

  2. In-depth Evaluation of Energy Management Practices in a Swedish Iron Foundry

    OpenAIRE

    Rahimi Ardkapan, Siamak; Rahimi, Maral

    2010-01-01

    Energy efficiency in industry is became important issue in this century considering cost of energy, energy crisis in the world and environmental issue of using energy sources. To solve this problem energy management can be successful tools due to it positive impact on reduction of energy use and also reduction of energy use environmental impacts. The aim of this thesis is to present results of a successful energy managing practices in a Swedish iron foundry and explain the possibilities to im...

  3. Optical coordinate scanners applied for the inspection of large scale housings produced in foundry technology

    OpenAIRE

    Grzelka, M.; Chajda, J.; Budzik, G.; Gessner, A.; Wieczorowski, M.; Staniek, R.; Gapin?ski, B.; Koteras, R.; Krasicki, P.; Marciniak, L.

    2010-01-01

    The paper presents possibilities of the dimensional and geometry measurement of the large scale casting details with a coordinate measuring technique. In particular, the analysis has been devoted to the measurement strategy in case of the measurement of large scale detail (larger than 1000 mm) made in foundry technology, with the 3D optical scanner. The attention was paid on the possibility created by the advanced software attached to the scanner for measurement data processing. Preparation t...

  4. Uniaxial and triaxial compression test series on two types of foundry stone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uniaxial and triaxial compression experiments were performed on ten cylindrical samples of foundry stone. All of the test samples were nominally 50.8 mm in diameter, with a 2:1 length to diameter ratio. The experiments were run on room dry samples in compression, at room temperature, four confining pressures, and a nominal axial displacement rate of 10-4 mm/s. 3 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs

  5. Evaluation and Verification of Time and Costs of Production Activities in Foundry Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kukla

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the possibility of using technology of modelling and simulation of productive systems in the management of cast iron production by means of automated foundry lines to maximize assembly line structure. The computer model of foundry has been planed and conducted in order to compile the schedule of cast production. The variants of solution have been estimated talking into account time limitations imposed by clients and the criterion for prime costs appointed on the basis of the ZAR by means of aided detailed calculation according to planes of their formation. In the research, problem connected with exploitation of automatic foundry lines have been taken into consideration. Moreover, the analysis of line work stoppage has been conducted and construction of schedule of the planned service of line device has been undertaken on the basis of the knowledge of timetables of correct work of these devices. Furthermore, the operational database has been prepared so as to assemble and process data about the damaged and other line work stoppage. It should be noted that the database will give the possibility of working out the schedule of planned service. The problems has been presented by using the pocket for modelling and the simulation of productive systems – ARENA

  6. Increased cytogenetic abnormalities in exfoliated oral mucosal cells of South Indian foundry workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singaravelu, Saranya Ramalingam; Sellappa, Sudha

    2015-02-01

    Biomonitoring offers a valuable tool to estimate the genetic risk as of exposure to genotoxic agents. Here, we intend to assess the potential cytogenetic damage related with occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by evaluating the genetic damages in exfoliated buccal epithelial cells of foundry workers via counting micronucleus (MNs) and other nuclear abnormalities (NAs). This was a cross-sectional study and all study subjects were male . Exfoliated buccal mucosal cells were obtained from 100 subjects involved in either foundry molding or melting processes, and 100 controls matched for sex, age, and smoking from the area of Coimbatore city, Southern India. For each individual, 2000 exfoliated buccal cells were analyzed. Significantly, there was a higher frequency of MN in the exposed workers than in the controls (P?foundry workers display increased levels of genotoxicity and these biomarker responses may be related to the increased cancer risk. These results conclude that the studied individuals are at a risk group and they require periodical biological monitoring and proper care which is essential for them. PMID:25205155

  7. Occupational exposure to volatile nitrosamines in foundries using the Ashland core-making process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ducos, P.; Gaudin, R.; Maire, C.; Mavelle, T.; Bouchikhi, B.; Derby, G.

    1988-10-01

    Eight foundries using the Ashland process for the production of cores were surveyed to assess the occupational exposure to carcinogenic volatile nitrosamines. Personal and area samples were collected by means of artifact-free cartridges during the core-making and the molding/casting/shake-out operations. Analyses were carried out with gas chromatography/Hall detector and gas chromatography/TEA (thermal energy analyzer) for validation. The core-making workshops had the highest concentration for at least two nitrosamines, N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) and N-nitrosoethylmethylamine (NEMA), but the levels of NDMA never exceeded 0.35 microgram/m3 with an arithmetic mean between 0.23 and 0.02 microgram/m3. In a number of samplings, two other peaks, both on TEA and Hall detector, could not be identified. The foundries per se (molding/casting/shake-out) had lower nitrosamine levels (CNDMAmax = 0.15 microgram/m3, CNDMA less than 0.03 microgram/m3). For the first time NEMA was identified as an industrial contaminant in foundries but its concentration was always lower than that of NDMA. The nitrosamines found were presumably produced from dimethylethylamine (DMEA). Industries producing or using tertiary or secondary amines should be controlled for their possible nitrosamine contamination.

  8. Sand hazards on tourist beaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heggie, Travis W

    2013-01-01

    Visiting the beach is a popular tourist activity worldwide. Unfortunately, the beach environment is abundant with hazards and potential danger to the unsuspecting tourist. While the traditional focus of beach safety has been water safety oriented, there is growing concern about the risks posed by the sand environment on beaches. This study reports on the death and near death experience of eight tourists in the collapse of sand holes, sand dunes, and sand tunnels. Each incident occurred suddenly and the complete burial in sand directly contributed to the victims injury or death in each case report. PMID:23290717

  9. Magic Sand: Nanosurfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanoscle Informal Science Education Network

    2014-06-18

    This is an activity/demo in which learners are exposed to the difference bewteen hydrophobic surfaces (water repelling) and hydrophilic surfaces (water loving). This activity also demonstrates how changing the size of material to nanoscale changes its behavior at the macroscale. The instructions assume that Magic Sand is performed as a demonstration, but it works great a a hands-on activity as well.

  10. Moving sand dunes

    CERN Document Server

    Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

    2011-01-01

    In several desert areas, the slow motion of sand dunes can be a challenge for modern human activities and a threat for the survival of ancient places or archaeological sites. However, several methods exist for surveying the dune fields and estimate their migration rate. Among these methods, the use of satellite images, in particular of those freely available on the World Wide Web, is a convenient resource for the planning of future human settlements and activities.

  11. Compressive behavior of fine sand.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Bradley E. (Air Force Research Laboratory, Eglin, FL); Kabir, Md. E. (Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN); Song, Bo; Chen, Wayne (Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN)

    2010-04-01

    The compressive mechanical response of fine sand is experimentally investigated. The strain rate, initial density, stress state, and moisture level are systematically varied. A Kolsky bar was modified to obtain uniaxial and triaxial compressive response at high strain rates. A controlled loading pulse allows the specimen to acquire stress equilibrium and constant strain-rates. The results show that the compressive response of the fine sand is not sensitive to strain rate under the loading conditions in this study, but significantly dependent on the moisture content, initial density and lateral confinement. Partially saturated sand is more compliant than dry sand. Similar trends were reported in the quasi-static regime for experiments conducted at comparable specimen conditions. The sand becomes stiffer as initial density and/or confinement pressure increases. The sand particle size become smaller after hydrostatic pressure and further smaller after dynamic axial loading.

  12. Oil sands development update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A detailed review and update of oil sands development in Alberta are provided covering every aspect of the production and economic aspects of the industry. It is pointed out that at present oil sands account for 28 per cent of Canadian crude oil production, expected to reach 50 per cent by 2005. Based on recent announcements, a total of 26 billion dollars worth of projects are in progress or planned; 20 billion dollars worth of this development is in the Athabasca area, the remainder in Cold Lake and other areas. The current update envisages up to 1,800,000 barrels per day by 2008, creating 47,000 new jobs and total government revenues through direct and indirect taxes of 118 billion dollars. Provinces other than Alberta also benefit from these development, since 60 per cent of all employment and income created by oil sands production is in other parts of Canada. Up to 60 per cent of the expansion is for goods and services and of this, 50 to 55 per cent will be purchased from Canadian sources. The remaining 40 per cent of the new investment is for engineering and construction of which 95 per cent is Canadian content. Aboriginal workforce by common consent of existing operators matches regional representation (about 13 per cent), and new developers are expected to match these standards. Planned or ongoing development in environmental protection through improved technologies and optimization, energy efficiency and improved tailings management, and active support of flexngs management, and active support of flexibility mechanisms such as emission credits trading, joint implementation and carbon sinks are very high on the industry's agenda. The importance of offsets are discussed extensively along with key considerations for international negotiations, as well as further research of other options such as sequestration, environmentally benign disposal of waste, and enhanced voluntary action

  13. Imperial Sand Dunes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Bureau of Land Management presents the current news, projects, and the geologic and cultural history of the Imperial Sand Dunes at this website. Users can easily search through an abundance of remarkable images of dunes as well as other Californian landscapes. The website offers links to the current rules, regulations, and management plans. Individuals, who will be traveling to the area, can find the weather forecast, an events calendar, and information on volunteering. Visitors can locate archives of Federal Register Notices as well as news releases.

  14. Fortune Cookie Sand Dunes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-432, 25 July 2003This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a field of small barchan sand dunes in the north polar region near 71.7oN, 51.3oW. Some of them are shaped like fortune cookies. The message these dunes provide: winds blow through this region from the lower right toward the upper left. The steep slip face slopes of these dunes, which point toward the upper left, indicate the wind direction. The scene is illuminated by sunlight from the upper right. The image is 3 km (1.9 mi) wide.

  15. Cost effectiveness of abatement options for emissions control in Egyptian iron foundries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabah, M.A. (CMRDI, Cairo (Egypt). Industrial Wastes Lab.)

    1999-01-01

    This study focuses on an evaluation of the cost effectiveness of abatement options for controlling emissions in existing iron foundries in Egypt. It is expected that such a study will enable decision by identifying concrete measures for abating total solid emissions (TSP). The structure of iron foundries in the country have been surveyed and the variant types of furnaces, the TSP emission level without any abatement options and data of the annual turnover of these foundries have been obtained. Possible market based instruments (MBI) options that might encourage these firms to seek the most efficient control measures have also been examined. Different abatement options such as updating burner design, switching heavy fuel oil to kerosene or natural gas, installing cleaning systems and/or updating the process technology were tested in terms of emission level and the overall turnover. The effect of installing different cleaning systems such as wet scrubbers and filter bags on the running cost of abating TSP was also investigated. Results obtained reveal that crucible (CrF) and short rotary (SRF) furnaces are the most numerous types of plants in Egypt. The concentration of TSP emissions exceeds the standards as specified in Law. Poor quality scrap input adversely affects the operation of the furnace, and impairs product quality and causes excessive TSP emissions. TSP emissions per ton of cast iron produced are relatively low for induction furnaces (EIFs), and very high in the dirtier technologies, particularly CrF and SRF. Cost analysis shows that the cost of abating one ton of TSP emitted amounts to 3000--5000 L.E and this cost represents a high percentage of turnover to plants abating emissions.

  16. Gas flow through a multilayer ceramic mould in lost wax foundry process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Matysiak

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the issues of permeability testing of ceramic moulds used in lost wax foundry process. The main issue in thetesting is to provide proper specimens of ceramic moulds (CM. The moulds have to be repeatable and must be free of internal defects ofmicrocrack type that are formed mainly during the removal of patterns from CM in the course of heat treatment.Moreover, the process of forming ceramic moulds must be similar to the general industrial process of CM moulds making regardingtheir anisotropic structure. The permeability parameter reflecting gas flow through multilayer ceramic moulds was also examined withattention to the investment casting shape accuracy.

  17. Gas flow through a multilayer ceramic mould in lost wax foundry process

    OpenAIRE

    Matysiak, H.; Haratym, R.; Klabczyk, M.

    2009-01-01

    The paper deals with the issues of permeability testing of ceramic moulds used in lost wax foundry process. The main issue in thetesting is to provide proper specimens of ceramic moulds (CM). The moulds have to be repeatable and must be free of internal defects ofmicrocrack type that are formed mainly during the removal of patterns from CM in the course of heat treatment.Moreover, the process of forming ceramic moulds must be similar to the general industrial process of CM moulds making regar...

  18. Interaction of smoking, uptake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and cytochrome P450IA2 activity among foundry workers.

    OpenAIRE

    Sherson, D.; Sigsgaard, T.; Overgaard, E.; Loft, S.; Poulsen, H. E.; Jongeneelen, F. J.

    1992-01-01

    An increased lung cancer risk has been described among foundry workers. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and silica are possible aetiological factors. This study describes a urinary PAH metabolite, 1-hydroxypyrene (hpU), as well as the degree of cytochrome P450IA2 activity/induction as reflected by the urinary caffeine ratio (IA2) in 45 foundry workers and 52 controls; IA2 was defined as the ratio of paraxanthine 7-demethylation products to a paraxanthine 8-hydroxylation product (1,7-d...

  19. Proposal for the award of a blanket purchase contract for the supply of foundry services for semiconductor technologies

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    This document concerns the award of a blanket purchase contract for the supply of foundry services for semiconductor technologies. The Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of a blanket purchase contract with IBM SWITZERLAND (CH), the lowest bidder complying with the specification, for the supply of foundry services for semiconductor technologies for a period of four years, for a total amount not exceeding 4 000 000 US dollars, not subject to revision. At the present rate of exchange, the total amount of the blanket purchase contract is equivalent to approximately 5 000 000 Swiss francs. CERN's financial contribution will not exceed 1 000 000 Swiss francs.

  20. Optical coordinate scanners applied for the inspection of large scale housings produced in foundry technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Grzelka

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents possibilities of the dimensional and geometry measurement of the large scale casting details with a coordinate measuring technique. In particular, the analysis has been devoted to the measurement strategy in case of the measurement of large scale detail (larger than 1000 mm made in foundry technology, with the 3D optical scanner. The attention was paid on the possibility created by the advanced software attached to the scanner for measurement data processing. Preparation to the geometrical accuracy analysis of the measured objects consisted of the identification of particular geometrical features based on the large number of probing points, as well as the creation of the coordinate systems derived from the best-fitting algorithms which calculate the inscribed or circumscribed geometrical elements. Analysis of accuracy in every probing point has been performed through the comparison of their coordinates with nominal values set by 3D model. Application of the 3D optical coordinate scanner with advanced measurement software for the manufacturing accuracy inspection is very useful in case of large scale details produced with foundry technologies and allows to carry out full accuracy analysis of the examined detail.

  1. Tools and Strategies for Product Life Cycle Management ñ A Case Study in Foundry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Rajashekar; Kumar, S. Mohan; Abhilash, E.

    2012-08-01

    Advances in information and communication technology (ICT) have opened new possibilities of collaborations among the customers, suppliers, manufactures and partners to effectively tackle various business challenges. Product Life Cycle Management(PLM) has been a proven approach for Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) to increase their productivity, improve their product quality, speed up delivery, and increase their profit and to become more efficient. However, their Tier 2 and Tier 3 suppliers like foundry industries are still in their infancy without adopting PLM. Hence to enhance their understanding, the basic concepts, the tools and strategies for PLM are presented is this paper. By selecting and implementing appropriate PLM strategies in a small foundry, an attempt was also made to understand the immediate benefits of using PLM tools (commercial PLM software and digital manufacturing tools). This study indicated a reduction in lead time and improved utilization of organizational resources in the production of automobile impeller. These observations may be further extrapolated to other multiproduct, multi-discipline and multi-customer companies to realize the advantages of using PLM technology

  2. Archaeology of Lisbon Old City: ceramic crucibles from pre-XVIIIth century metallurgical foundries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, M. O.; Silva, T. P.; Veiga, J. P.; Dias Diogo, A. M.; Trindade, L.

    During an emergency archaeological intervention conducted in downtown Lisbon (the Old City), ceramic foundry crucibles were collected in a layer of embankment debris used after the earthquake that destroyed the city in 1755. A chemical and phase-constitution study was undertaken to complement the dating and to ascertain the kind of foundries (metallurgical or glass-working) concerning two intact cup-shaped crucibles and a fragment displaying glassy outflows. Non-destructive methodologies were used - namely, laboratory techniques (X-ray fluorescence spectrometry and X-ray diffraction) combined with synchrotron-radiation-induced micro-fluorescence (SRXRF). Analytical results are presented and discussed. SRXRF analysis of the glassy outflow on the larger crucible revealed the presence of mercury and traces of gold, along with copper, suggesting that it might have been used to manipulate gold amalgams. A possible Islamic origin was disclosed for the smaller crucible as only tin was detected in the external outflow and further confirmed by minute cassiterite (SnO2) grains.

  3. Detection of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-DNA adducts in white blood cells of foundry workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, F P; Hemminki, K; Young, T L; Brenner, D; Kelly, G; Santella, R M

    1988-04-15

    Iron foundry workers, exposed to high levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), silica, and metal fumes and dusts, are at elevated risk of lung cancer. Benzo(a)pyrene and a number of structurally related PAHs are metabolically activated to diol epoxides (e.g., 7 beta,8 alpha-dihydroxy-9 alpha,10 alpha-epoxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydrobenzo(a) pyrene) which are mutagenic, carcinogenic in experimental animals, and form covalent adducts with DNA. The levels of these adducts were measured in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using a polyclonal anti-benzo(a)pyrene diol epoxide-I-DNA antibody which cross-reacts with DNA modified by diol epoxides of structurally related PAHs. DNA was analyzed from peripheral blood cells of 35 Finnish foundry workers and 10 controls. Workers were classified as having low (less than 0.05 micrograms/m3), medium (0.05-0.2 micrograms/m3), or high (greater than 0.2 micrograms/m3) exposure to benzo(a)pyrene (as an indicator of PAH). When adjustment was made for cigarette smoking and time since vacation, benzo(a)pyrene exposure was significantly related to adduct levels (P = 0.0001). Each of the three exposure groups had significantly elevated adduct levels compared to controls. Among the exposed workers, the low group differed significantly from the high and medium categories. This study supports the usefulness of monitoring adduct formation in a population occupationally exposed to carcinogens. PMID:3127049

  4. Replies to Challenges in the Field of Air Pollution Control in Foundry Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Margraf

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The solution of applications for air pollution control in foundries for iron and non-ferrous metals may not only be understood as theobservance of requested emission limit values at the stack outlet. An effective environmental protection already starts with the greatest possible capture of pollutants at the source with at the same time minimisation of the volume flow necessary for this. Independent of this, the downstream installed filtration system has to realise a degree of separation of definitely above 99%.Furthermore, when selecting the filter construction, attention has to be paid to a high availability. An even temporarily productionwithout filter will more and more no longer be accepted by residents and authorities. Incidents at the filter lead to a shutdown of the whole production.Additional measures for heat recovery while preparing concepts for filtration plants help to reduce the energy consumption and servefor a sustained conservation of environment.A consequent consideration of the items above is also condition for the fact that environmental protection in foundries remainsaffordable. The lecture deals with the subjects above from the point of view of a plant constructor.

  5. Atlas of Dutch drift sands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riksen, Michel; Jungerius, Pieter

    2013-04-01

    The Netherlands is well known for its aeolian landscapes. Frequent storms during the High Middle Ages (1000-1300 AD) reactivated Pleistocene coversands and river dunes and are responsible for the formation of the Holocene drift sands at a scale which is unique for Europe. A hypothesized relationship with farmer practices for making plaggensoils has recently been refuted, because drift sand formation began centuries earlier. The coastal dune belt with their parabolic dunes dates from the same period as the drift sand. An estimate of the extent of drift sands can be made from soil maps: drift sands are too young to show much profile development (Regosols). With this method Koster estimated the maximum extent of Holocene drift sands in the Netherlands to be about 800 km2 (Koster 2005). Laser altimetry allows a more precise estimate of the total surface affected by wind from the characteristic relief patterns produced by the Holocene wind, which is different from the smooth surface of cover sand deposits. Laser altimetry has been used before to investigate the mechanism of drift sand formation (Jungerius & Riksen 2010). Most of the surface affected by wind is not active anymore, but the tell-tale rough surface survived ages of different landuse. The total affected surface amounts to 825 km2. It is noteworthy that both methods give comparable results. We recorded a total number of 367 of affected areas of varying shapes, ranging in size from 1.6 ha to a large complex of drif sands of 7,119.5 ha. As is to be expected from their mode of origin, most occurrences are associated with cover sands, and with river dunes along the river Meuse and smaller rivers in other parts of the country. Particularly the final phases of cover sand and river dunes that show more relief as parabolic dunes were affected. There are also small aeolian deposits at the lee side blown from fallow agricultural fields but they are (sub)recent. Most of the relief is irregular, but the larger occurrences associated with push moraines show that drift sand occurs in elongated cells that are parallel to the prevailing SW wind. Their internal structure reflects the characteristic sequence of geomorphological processes: deflation dominant in the south-west, transport and accumulation towards the north east. Literature • Jungerius, P.D., Riksen, M.J.P.M., 2010. Contribution of laser altimetry images to the geomorphology of the Late Holocene inland drift sands of the European Sand Belt. Baltica 23, 1: 59-70. • Koster EA. 2005. Aeolian environments. In The physical Geography of Western Europe, Koster EA (ed). Oxford Regional Environments, Oxford University Press;139-160.

  6. 2010 oil sands performance report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    With the depletion of traditional energy resources and the rising demand for energy, oil sands have become an important energy resource for meeting energy needs. Oil sands are a mixture of water, sand, clay and bitumen which is recovered either through open pit mining or in situ drilling techniques. The bitumen is then converted into syncrude or sold to refineries for the production of gasoline, diesel or other products. Shell has oil sands operations in Alberta and the aim of this report is to present its 2010 performance in terms of CO2, water, tailings, land, and reclamation and engagement. This document covers several of Shell's operations in the Muskeg River and Jackpine mines, Scotford upgrader, Peace River, Orion, Seal, Cliffdale and Chipmunk. It provides useful information on Shell's oil sands performance to governments, environmental groups, First Nations, local communities and the public.

  7. Sand swimming lizard: sandfish

    CERN Document Server

    Maladen, Ryan D; Kamor, Adam; Goldman, Daniel I

    2009-01-01

    We use high-speed x-ray imaging to reveal how a small (~10cm) desert dwelling lizard, the sandfish (Scincus scincus), swims within a granular medium [1]. On the surface, the lizard uses a standard diagonal gait, but once below the surface, the organism no longer uses limbs for propulsion. Instead it propagates a large amplitude single period sinusoidal traveling wave down its body and tail to propel itself at speeds up to ~1.5 body-length/sec. Motivated by these experiments we study a numerical model of the sandfish as it swims within a validated soft sphere Molecular Dynamics granular media simulation. We use this model as a tool to understand dynamics like flow fields and forces generated as the animal swims within the granular media. [1] Maladen, R.D. and Ding, Y. and Li, C. and Goldman, D.I., Undulatory Swimming in Sand: Subsurface Locomotion of the Sandfish Lizard, Science, 325, 314, 2009

  8. Qualidade Superficial de Peças de Alumínio Fundidas em Molde de Areia / Surface Quality of Sand Aluminum Pieces Cost

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Juan C. Campos, Rubio; Túlio Hallak, Panzera; Wagner Alves, Nogueira.

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho consiste basicamente na análise das características físico-químicas de areia-base para fundição e sua influência na qualidade das peças fundidas. Foram coletados cinco diferentes tipos de areia-base, ambas com o mesmo tratamento mineral. A caracterização das areias-base foi reali [...] zada através dos seguintes ensaios de laboratório: distribuição granulométrica, argila AFS, umidade, permeabilidade base, expansão ao choque térmico, perda ao fogo, temperatura de sinterização, teor de finos, caracterização visual e análise química. Foram confeccionados dois modelos diferentes. O primeiro com o formato em espiral, com o objetivo de investigar a fluidez do metal em função das características das diferentes areias-base. O segundo, uma placa escalonada, que permite identificar a qualidade do acabamento superficial da peça fundida para diferentes espessuras. O metal utilizado no processo de fundição foi o alumínio. A partir dos resultados encontrados no ensaio tecnológico, observou-se uma correlação com os resultados de laboratório, verificando que uma correta análise das características identificadas no laboratório permite prever o comportamento da areia-base e seu resultado final observado na peça fundida. Abstract in english The present work consists to analyze the physical and chemical characteristics of sands used to foundry and its influence in the quality of the melted pieces. Five different types of sand were collected, both with the same mineral treatment. The characterization of the sand was carried out through t [...] he following laboratory tests: grain size distribution (sieving), AFS clay content, water content, permeability, thermal expansion, loss on ignition, sinter point, fine contents meshes and chemical composition. The optical microscope was used in order to identify the geometry of the grains of sand. Two different models were made. The first one with a spiral shape was made to investigate the flow’s capacity of the metal with respect the different characteristics of the sands. The second model which is a plate with different thickness was made to investigate the quality of the surface finishing of the melted pieces. The metal used in the foundry process was the aluminum. It was observed a significant correlation between the laboratory and technological results, which means that it is possible to preview the quality of melted pieces from the characteristics of the sand grains.

  9. Value-Chain Dynamics of the West Point Foundry, 1817-1911: A Historical Case Analysis in Marketing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkus, Ed, Jr.

    2013-01-01

    This case provides the opportunity for students to explore marketing and value/supply-chain dynamics in a unique historical context. The West Point Foundry (WPF), located in Cold Spring, New York, was one of the most important manufacturing ventures in the United States from 1817 to 1911. The case outlines the supply-chain details of the WPF as…

  10. 2003/2004 STATISTICALLY VALID NONCOMPLIANCE RATE (SVNR) INSPECTIONS FOR THE FOUNDRY SECTOR IN EPA REGION 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    The SVNR initiative involves the determination of a compliance rate for the foundry sector in EPA Region 4. A compliance rate is an estimate of the percentage of all the facilities in a population in compliance. The actual rate could be determined if all facilities were inspect...

  11. Direct Chlorination of Zircon Sand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It was investigated the direct chlorination of zircon sand in a unit chlorination equipment. The process was in semi batch. The product gas was scrubbed in aqueous NaOH. It was search the influence of time, ratio of reactant and size of particle sand to the concentration of Zr and Si in the product. From these research it was found that as the times, ratio of reactant increased, the concentration of Zr increased, but the concentration of Si decreased, while as grain size of zircon sand decreased the concentration of Zr decreased, but the concentration of Si increased. (author)

  12. Reclaimability of the spent sand mixture – sand with bentonite – sand with furfuryl resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Da?ko

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction of new binding materials and new technologies of their hardening in casting moulds and cores production requires theapplication of reclamation methods adequate to their properties as well as special devices realizing tasks. The spent sands circulationsystem containing the same kind of moulding and core sands is optimal from the point of view of the expected reclamation results.However, in the face of a significant variability of applied technologies and related to them various reclamation methods, the need - of theobtained reclamation products assessment on the grounds of systematic criteria and uniform bases – arises, with a tendency of indicatingwhich criteria are the most important for the given sand system. The reclaimability results of the mixture of the spent moulding sand withGeko S bentonite and the spent core sand with the Kaltharz 404U resin hardened by acidic hardener 100 T3, are presented in the paper.Investigations were performed with regard to the estimation of an influence of core sands additions (10 –25% on the reclaimed materialquality. Dusts and clay content in the reclaim, its chemical reaction (pH and ignition loss were estimated. The verification of the reclaiminstrumental assessment was performed on the basis of the technological properties estimation of moulding sand with bentonite, where the reclaimed material was used as a matrix.

  13. Downhole sand filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agalarov, D.M.; Aliev, N.I.; Aliev, R.M.; Aliev, Sh.N.; Guseynov, V.G.; Kurbanov, M.A.

    1981-01-01

    A downhole sand filter is proposed consisting of two concentrically placed branch pipes. The space between the two pipes is filled with a metallic bead. The outside pipe is composed of a diamagnetic material. Operational filter cleaning is made possible with a mechanical packer that is placed in the upper section of the inside branch pipe. Magnets with the same diameter as the branch pipe are placed so that their magnetic fields radiate away from the filter axis. These magnets are deployed in both the upper and lower annular spaces between the branch pipes and the two sleeves. Gasket seals are used between the sleeves and the perforated inside branch pipe. One of the sleeves is connected directly to the branch pipe. Ringed magnets are situated upon the spring-loaded upper face of the other sleeve. The inside branch pipe is also made of a dimagnetic material. Radial channels connect the sleeves, the inside branch pipe, and the filter chamber to the space between the sleeve and the inside branch pipe.

  14. Minimal Model for Sand Dunes

    OpenAIRE

    Kroy, Klaus; Sauermann, Gerd; Herrmann, Hans J.

    2001-01-01

    We propose a minimal model for aeolian sand dunes. It combines an analytical description of the turbulent wind velocity field above the dune with a continuum saltation model that allows for saturation transients in the sand flux. The model provides a qualitative understanding of important features of real dunes, such as their longitudinal shape and aspect ratio, the formation of a slip face, the breaking of scale invariance, and the existence of a minimum dune size.

  15. Montmorillonite: A comparison of methods for its determination in foundry bentonites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Holtzer

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A comparison and estimation of usefulness of a quantitative analysis of montmorillonite in foundry bentonites, was the aim of this research. The investigations were made by means of three different techniques: methylene blue (MB adsorption method, Cu(II-triethylenetetramine complex (Cu(II-TET adsorption method, and infrared spectroscopy (FTIR method. Tests were performed for 9 kinds of bentonites originated from various producers. The achieved results indicated that, the results obtained by the FTIR method were, in general, even 10% lower than the ones obtained by other methods. The best correlation with the data given by the producers were obtained for the Cu(II-TET method. In addition, this method was characterised by the smallest value of standard deviations. A very essential advantage of the Cu(II-TET method is a much shorter time needed for the analysis and its easier execution, which is important under production conditions.

  16. Models and Algorithms for Production Planning and Scheduling in Foundries – Current State and Development Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Stawowy

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Mathematical programming, constraint programming and computational intelligence techniques, presented in the literature in the field of operations research and production management, are generally inadequate for planning real-life production process. These methods are in fact dedicated to solving the standard problems such as shop floor scheduling or lot-sizing, or their simple combinations such as scheduling with batching. Whereas many real-world production planning problems require the simultaneous solution of several problems (in addition to task scheduling and lot-sizing, the problems such as cutting, workforce scheduling, packing and transport issues, including the problems that are difficult to structure. The article presents examples and classification of production planning and scheduling systems in the foundry industry described in the literature, and also outlines the possible development directions of models and algorithms used in such systems.

  17. Psychological test performance in foundry workers exposed to low levels of manganese

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iregren, A. (National Institute of Occupational Health, Solna (Sweden))

    1990-11-01

    A sample of 30 manganese-exposed foundry workers from two Swedish plants were examined with a partly computerized psychological test battery, comprised of 10 performance tests. Performance of the manganese-exposed workers was compared to that of a matched control group of 60 workers. Matching criteria were age, geographical area, type of work, and the results on a test of verbal comprehension. Performance of the exposed workers was inferior to that of the control group on tests of simple reaction time, digit span, and finger tapping. No correlations were found between performance and the present manganese exposure levels or the number of years employed in manganese work. The results seem to indicate that the present exposure standards for manganese, in Sweden 2.5 mg/m3 and in most other countries 5 mg/m3, are not sufficient to protect workers from negative effects on performance capacity.

  18. The effect of main alloying elements on the physical properties of Al–Si foundry alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study we describe the effect of the main alloying elements Si, Cu and Ni on the thermal properties of hypoeutectic and near-eutectic Al–Si foundry alloys. By means of systematic variations of the chemical composition, the influence of the amount of ‘second phases’ on the thermal conductivity, thermal expansion coefficient, and thermal shock resistance is evaluated. Thermodynamic calculations predicting the phase formation in multi-component Al–Si cast alloys were carried out and verified using SEM, EDX and XRD analysis. The experimentally obtained data are discussed on a systematic basis of thermodynamic calculations and compared to theoretical models for the thermal conductivity and thermal expansion of heterogeneous solids.

  19. Elemental composition of dust in an iron foundry as determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the workplace of an iron foundry total and respirable suspended particulate matter was daily collected with a network of stationary filtration systems, with Andersen cascade impactors and with personal samplers. The performances of the different sampling systems are evaluated. All samples were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis. More than 30 elements were determined. The composition of the particulate samples is compared to that of the major emission sources. For visualising and interpretation of the data computer programs for contour plotting, classification and clustering of the elements can be divided in a number of groups, for which easily determined elements are proposed as indicator elements. The results allow an estimate of the impact of the major emission sources on the air quality in the entire workroom. Suggestions for representative sampling techniques and locations are made. (author) 8 refs.; 7 figs

  20. The effect of main alloying elements on the physical properties of Al-Si foundry alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stadler, F. [Institute of Nonferrous Metallurgy, Montanuniversitaet Leoben, Franz-Josef-Strasse 18, A-8700 Leoben (Austria); Antrekowitsch, H., E-mail: helmut.antrekowitsch@unileoben.ac.at [Institute of Nonferrous Metallurgy, Montanuniversitaet Leoben, Franz-Josef-Strasse 18, A-8700 Leoben (Austria); Fragner, W. [AMAG Casting GmbH, Postfach 32, A-5282 Ranshofen (Austria); Kaufmann, H. [AMAG Austria Metall AG, Postfach 32, A-5282 Ranshofen (Austria); Pinatel, E.R. [Dipartimento di Chimica and NIS, Universita degli Studi di Torino, via Giuria 7/9, Torino 10125 (Italy); Uggowitzer, P.J. [Laboratory of Metal Physics and Technology, Department of Materials, ETH Zurich, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2013-01-10

    In this study we describe the effect of the main alloying elements Si, Cu and Ni on the thermal properties of hypoeutectic and near-eutectic Al-Si foundry alloys. By means of systematic variations of the chemical composition, the influence of the amount of 'second phases' on the thermal conductivity, thermal expansion coefficient, and thermal shock resistance is evaluated. Thermodynamic calculations predicting the phase formation in multi-component Al-Si cast alloys were carried out and verified using SEM, EDX and XRD analysis. The experimentally obtained data are discussed on a systematic basis of thermodynamic calculations and compared to theoretical models for the thermal conductivity and thermal expansion of heterogeneous solids.

  1. Elimination of permanent deformation of travelling cranes box girders operating in foundry shops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    St. Wolny

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The serious problem in travelling cranes maintenance, crane supporting beams and other carrying elements of material handling facilities in foundry shops is phenomenon of permanent deformations. There are known many ways to eliminate these deformations like mechanical compression by tension members however a disadvantage of such methods is work consuming process of railways rectification. One of technological methods relies on application of shrinkage of compression plates welded with box girder. Regeneration with the use of such method can be executed for the travelling cranes box girders but also with travelling crane support beams that have permanent deformations in both vertical or horizontal planes. In this paper different variants of such process execution are presented, depending on the kind and dimension of the permanent deformation.

  2. The analysis of the wax foundry models fabrication process for the CPX3000 device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Budzik

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents possibilities of creating wax founding models by means of CPX3000 device. The device is used for Rapid Prototypingof models made of foundry wax in an incremental process. The paper also presents problems connected with choosing technologicalparameters for incremental shaping which influence the accuracy of created models. Issues connected with post-processing are alsodescribed. This process is of great importance for obtaining geometrically correct models. The analysis of parameters of cleaning models from supporting material is also presented. At present CPX3000 printer is the first used in Poland device by 3D Systems firm for creating wax models. The printer is at The Faculty of Mechanical Engineering at Rzeszów University of Technology.

  3. Hydrometallurgical treatment of brass foundry and EAF steelmaking dusts for zinc recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ducati, U.; Bestetti, M. [Politechnico di Milano, Milano (Italy); Colombo, D. [Univ. di Trento, Mesiano (Italy); Nodari, L.; Belitrandi, L. [Colmetal Combiago S.p.A., Cambiago (Italy); Cagol, A. [Nordeco S.p.A., Pergine Valsugana (Italy)

    1998-12-31

    Pyrometallurgical treatments are commonly used to recover zinc from oxidic residues generated in metallurgical plants. This study showed how hydrometallurgy offers a more versatile ensemble of technologies to face the challenge of metal recovery from both primary and secondary sources. Solvent extraction, in particular, is a promising technology for various fields in non-ferrous metallurgy. A process was described to treat zinc oxide containing residues, such as Waelz kiln oxides and plasma smelting oxides. The process can be applied to the treatment of brass foundry dusts, and is based on leaching with concentrated ammonium chloride solution and media exchange by solvent extraction. The process can also be applied to electric arc furnace dust with some modifications. 17 refs., 10 tabs., 4 figs.

  4. Dust and Sand Mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Released 10 November 2003The bright and dark tones observed in this THEMIS image of part of an unnamed impact crater (85 km in diameter) near the larger impact crater Schiaparelli are due to variable amounts of bright dust and dark sand covering the surface. Wind Shadows observed around small impact craters at the top of the image and small grooves and ripple-like marks observed throughout the scene illustrate dynamic and continued aeolian processes on Mars.Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -1.4, Longitude 10.9 East (349.1 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  5. Exposure of iron foundry workers to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: benzo(a)pyrene-albumin adducts and 1-hydroxypyrene as biomarkers for exposure.

    OpenAIRE

    Omland, O.; Sherson, D.; Hansen, A. M.; Sigsgaard, T.; Autrup, H.; Overgaard, E.

    1994-01-01

    Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in foundry workers has been evaluated by determination of benzo(a)pyrene-serum albumin adducts and urinary 1-hydroxypyrene. Benzo(a)pyrene binding to albumin and 1-hydroxypyrene were quantitatively measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), respectively. 70 male foundry workers and 68 matched controls were investigated. High and low exposure groups were defined from ...

  6. Beyond barriers – A case study on driving forces for improved energy efficiency in the foundry industries in Finland, France, Germany, Italy, Poland, Spain, and Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Thollander, Patrik; Backlund, Sandra; Trianni, Andrea; Cagno, Enrico

    2013-01-01

    Energy management plays an important role in the transformation of industrial energy systems towards improved energy efficiency and increased sustainability. This paper aims to study driving forces for improved energy efficiency in some European energy-intensive foundry industries. The investigation has been conducted as a multiple case study involving 65 foundries located in Finland, France, Germany, Italy, Poland, Spain, and Sweden. The most relevant perceived driving forces were found to b...

  7. Reclaimability of the spent sand mixture – sand with bentonite – sand with furfuryl resin

    OpenAIRE

    Dan?ko, J.; Dan?ko, R.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction of new binding materials and new technologies of their hardening in casting moulds and cores production requires theapplication of reclamation methods adequate to their properties as well as special devices realizing tasks. The spent sands circulationsystem containing the same kind of moulding and core sands is optimal from the point of view of the expected reclamation results.However, in the face of a significant variability of applied technologies and related to them various re...

  8. Characterization and preparation of fluorescent sand tracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results on a laboratory scale study on the preparation of fluorescence sand tracer for sediment transport study are presented. Two aspects were emphasized in this study namely the physical properties of sand and the preparation of the fluorescent sand. The physical properties studied were component of sand, grain size distribution, and grain shape or form of the sand. The most common component of sand is quartz. This quartz sand contains small amount of feldspar, calcareous material, iron ore, and volcanic glass. Carbonates grains or particles such as brachiopods, gastropods, mollusk and small pieces of coral can be found in the sand sample. Based on the observation, the shape or form of the sand grains can be classified as a very angular with low sphericity. The materials that used in this experiment were beach sand, Rhodamine , Araldite CY 45, hardener Hy 48, toluene and ethyl alcohol. In order to produce the fluorescent sand, three solutions were prepared at certain proportion i.e. solution A (Whodamine + ethyl alcohol + toluene), solution B (Araldite + ethyl alcohol + toluene) and solution C (Hardener + ethyl alcohol + toluene). These three solutions were mixed together with sand and blended slowly until the surface of the sand grain dried. Fluorescent monitor and cabinet viewer were used to measure the intensity of fluorescent sand. Experimental results show that various intensity of fluorescent sand can be obtained depending on the proportion of the solutions. (ding on the proportion of the solutions. (Author)

  9. Chvorinov’s rule and determination of coefficient of heat accumulation of moulds with non-quartz base sands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Elbel

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Application of the „Chvorinov’s rule“ for calculation of the total time of casting solidification made also possible to determine chilling effect of foundry moulds (coefficient of heat accumulation of the mould, bf with use of mixtures with new kinds of non-quartz base sands (Magnesite, Chromite, Olivine, Dunite, Kerphalit. Processes by several authors (G. Halbart, A. I. Vejnik, G. A. Anisovich were used for mathematical treatment of measurement results and determination of bf. The highest values were achieved for magnesite moulds followed by chromite ones; the lowest values, approximately half-ones, represented the Dunite moulds. At the same time the results made possible to determine „the Chvorinov’s mean solidification constants“ (k that are in direct proportional dependence on bf and indirect proportional to solidification time (?1.

  10. Impact to groundwater resources by landfill foundry industries waste in Tandil, Buenos Aires, Argentina. A preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Tandil city, in Buenos Aires province, Argentina, the foundry industry is one of the most important production lines. The waste generated by these industries has historically been disposed as fill material in pit quarries and brick works of the likelihood that some of his constituents leach contacting the underground water resources. The aim of this paper is to present the preliminaries results hydrochemical and hydrodynamic study conducted in a landfill of waste foundry industries. The work is around developing a disposal site with the measurement of groundwater levels and taking water samples along an annual hydrological cycle (November 2007 - November 2008). The hydrodynamic analysis shows that the groundwater flow is from the west from a rocky area where high variance across the study area. Hydrochemistry in relation to concentrations of nitrate and electrical conductivity vary significantly upstream and downstream of the landfill. (Author) 9 refs.

  11. Preliminary Research on Granulation Process of Dust Waste from Reclamation Process of Moulding Sands with Furan Resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kami?ska

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The results of investigations of the granulation process of foundry dusts generated in the dry mechanical reclamation process of usedsands, where furan resins were binders are presented in the paper. Investigations concerned producing of granules of the determineddimensions and strength parameters.Granules were formed from the dusts mixture consisting in 50 mass% of dusts obtained after the reclamation of the furane sands and in50 mass % of dusts from sands with bentonite. Dusts from the bentonite sands with water were used as a binder allowing the granulation of after reclamation dusts from the furane sands.The following parameters of the ready final product were determined: moisture content (W, shatter test of granules (Wz performeddirectly after the granulation process and after 1, 3, 5, 10 days and nights of seasoning, water-resistance of granules after 24 hours of being immersed in water, surface porosity ep and volumetric porosity ev. In addition the shatter test and water-resistance of granulate dried at a temperature of 105oC were determined.Investigations were performed at the bowl angle of inclination 45o, for three rotational speeds of the bowl being: 10, 15, 20 rpm.For the speed of 10 rpm the granulation tests of dusts mixture after the preliminary mixing in the roller mixer and with the addition ofwater-glass in the amount of 2% in relation to the amount of dust were carried out.The obtained results indicate that the granulator allows to obtain granules from dusts originated from the reclamations of mouldingsands with the furane resin with an addition of dusts from the bentonite sands processing plants.

  12. Dust exposure and impairment of lung function at a small iron foundry in a rapidly developing country

    OpenAIRE

    Gomes, J.; Lloyd, O.; Norman, N.; Pahwa, P.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—A cross sectional prospective study was carried out among iron foundry workers (exposed) and soft drink bottling and supply company workers (unexposed) to assess their occupational exposure to ambient respiratory dust in their work environment and its effect on their lung function profile.?PARTICIPANTS—Lung function was measured in 81 exposed and 113 unexposed workers. Personal respirable dust concentrations were measured for all the exposed and the unexposed workers. Infor...

  13. Risk assessment related to manual handling on choosen work possition in foundry Alstom Power Sp. z o. o.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kowal

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Manual handling remains one of the different types of transport inside working place, although technological progress and modernorganization of work. Manual transport as a transport inside working place is related to foundry industry. According to polish lawregulations employer has to give consideration to manual handling in professional risk assessment and introduce actions for manualhandling reduction. In Foundry Elblag case there is found that in many processes manual handling are made by workers. For example wecan choose melting processes (additives manual feeding, mixing and pulling metallurgical slag, etc. or fettling processes like grinding.Objective of that analysis was to define level of risk related to manual handling in work stand chosen and define activities impacted onrisk assessment result with biggest range. For risk reduction, technical and organizational solutions were shown (better ergonomically work stand, method of work and worker’s awareness about good practices. In this study methods related to manual handling risk assessment were described, focus on KIM method used in Foundry Elblag. Key Item Method allow to estimate the risk by simple calculation based on key indicators (time rating points, rating points of mass, posture or work condition. Points were chosen based on timekeeping, information from workers and foreman.

  14. Sands at Gusev Crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrol, Nathalie A.; Herkenhoff, Kenneth; Knoll, Andrew H.; Farmer, Jack; Arvidson, Raymond; Grin, Edmond; Li, Ronxing; Fenton, Lori; Cohen, Barbara; Bell, James F.; Aileen Yingst, R.

    2014-05-01

    Processes, environments, and the energy associated with the transport and deposition of sand at Gusev Crater are characterized at the microscopic scale through the comparison of statistical moments for particle size and shape distributions. Bivariate and factor analyses define distinct textural groups at 51 sites along the traverse completed by the Spirit rover as it crossed the plains and went into the Columbia Hills. Fine-to-medium sand is ubiquitous in ripples and wind drifts. Most distributions show excess fine material, consistent with a predominance of wind erosion over the last 3.8 billion years. Negative skewness at West Valley is explained by the removal of fine sand during active erosion, or alternatively, by excess accumulation of coarse sand from a local source. The coarse to very coarse sand particles of ripple armors in the basaltic plains have a unique combination of size and shape. Their distribution display significant changes in their statistical moments within the ~400 m that separate the Columbia Memorial Station from Bonneville Crater. Results are consistent with aeolian and/or impact deposition, while the elongated and rounded shape of the grains forming the ripples, as well as their direction of origin, could point to Ma'adim Vallis as a possible source. For smaller particles on the traverse, our findings confirm that aeolian processes have dominated over impact and other processes to produce sands with the observed size and shape patterns across a spectrum of geologic (e.g., ripples and plains soils) and aerographic settings (e.g., wind shadows).

  15. Combining optimisation and simulation in an energy systems analysis of a Swedish iron foundry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To face global competition, and also reduce environmental and climate impact, industry-wide changes are needed, especially regarding energy use, which is closely related to global warming. Energy efficiency is therefore an essential task for the future as it has a significant impact on both business profits and the environment. For the analysis of possible changes in industrial production processes, and to choose what changes should be made, various modelling tools can be used as a decision support. This paper uses two types of energy analysis tool: Discrete Event Simulation (DES) and Energy Systems Optimisation (ESO). The aim of this study is to describe how a DES and an ESO tool can be combined. A comprehensive five-step approach is proposed for reducing system costs and making a more robust production system. A case study representing a new investment in part of a Swedish iron foundry is also included to illustrate the method's use. The method described in this paper is based on the use of the DES program QUEST and the ESO tool reMIND. The method combination itself is generic, i.e. other similar programs can be used as well with some adjustments and adaptations. The results from the case study show that when different boundary conditions are used the result obtained from the simulation tools is not optimum, in other words, the result shows only a feasible solution and not the best way to run the factory. It is therefore important to use the optimisation tool in such cases in order to obtain the optimum operating strategy. By using the optimisation tool a substantial amount of resources can be saved. The results also show that the combination of optimisation and simulation tools is useful to provide very detailed information about how the system works and to predict system behaviour as well as to minimise the system cost. -- Highlights: ? This study describes how a simulation and an optimisation tool can be combined. ? A case study representing a new investment in part of a foundry is included to illustrate the method's use. ? Combination of the optimization and simulation tools provides detailed information about how the system works. ? By using the optimization and simulation tools a substantial amount of resources can be saved.

  16. Characterization of sand lenses embedded in tills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessler, Timo Christian; Klint, K.E.S.

    2012-01-01

    Tills dominate large parts of the superficial sediments on the Northern hemisphere. These glacial diamictons are extremely heterogeneous and riddled with fractures and lenses of sand or gravel. The frequency and geometry of sand lenses within tills are strongly linked to glaciodynamic processes occurring in various glacial environments. This study specifically focuses on the appearance and spatial distribution of sand lenses in tills. It introduces a methodology on how to measure and characterize sand lenses in the field with regard to size, shape and degree of deformation. A set of geometric parameters is defined to allow characterization of sand lenses. The proposed classification scheme uses a stringent terminology to distinguish several types of sand lenses based on the geometry. It includes sand layers, sand sheets, sand bodies, sand pockets and sand stringers. The methodology has been applied at the Kallerup field site in the Eastern part of Denmark. The site offers exposures in a number of till types that underwent different levels of glaciotectonic deformation. Sand lenses show high spatial variability and only weak uniformity in terms of extent and shape. Secondly, the genesis of the various types of sand lenses is discussed, primarily in relation to the depositional and glaciotectonic processes they underwent. Detailed characterization of sand lenses facilitates such interpretations. Finally, the observations are linked to a more general overview of the distribution of sand lenses in various glacial environments. Due to the complex and mutable appearance of sand lenses, geometric descriptions can reveal the deformation history and even give indications on the palaeo-glaciological conditions during the deposition of the surrounding tills. This information can support the understanding of till genesis and further inform till classifications. In this regard, structural heterogeneity such as sand lenses can supplement traditional directional element analysis to identify till types and may be used as a noveltool in till investigations.

  17. Effect of water glass modification with nanoparticles of zinc oxide on selected physical and chemical properties of binder and mechanical properties of sand mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kmita

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an attempt was made to use the ZnO nanoparticles as a modifier of foundry binder - water glass. The modifier was a colloidal suspension of the ZnO zinc oxide nanoparticles in propanol. A thermal method to obtain metal oxide nanoparticles was adopted. The modifier was product of the thermal decomposition of the basic zinc carbonate ([ZnCO3]2•[Zn(OH2]3, and was introduced into the water glass in an amount of 1 and 3 wt%. To determine the interfacial reactions taking place in a quartz - modified water glass system, the binder wettability of the quartz grains was measured. The effect of water glass modification on the mechanical properties of moulding sands was verified by testing the tensile strength Rm u of moulding sands with the modified binders. Water glass modification with the colloidal solution of ZnO nanoparticles in propanol confirmed the effect of modifier on the water glass wettability of sand grains and on the mechanical properties of the sand mixtures with this additive.

  18. The eolian sand problems arising from desertification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bofah, K K; Owusu, Y A

    1986-05-01

    Eolian (wind blown) sand constitutes a very serious problem to development in sandy desert lands and causes equally serious problems in lands that are undergoing desertification. In this paper, eolian sand movement due to bulk movement such as sand dune and ripple movement, sand drift by saltation, and sand storms by strong winds are discussed. Associated problems such as eolian sand encroachment on highways, farms, communities and industrial complexes are also discussed and workable solutions are offered. Solutions include chemical stabilization of the surface grains, fences to trap the blown sand and vegetation to prevent soil deflation. Vegetation is emphasized and recommended as the ultimate viable solution to combat desertification and eolian sand problems. PMID:24254738

  19. Laboratory test preparation of fluorescent sand tracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper described the preparation procedure of fluorescent sand tracer. The materials that used in this experiment were beach sand, Rhodamine-B, Araldite CY-245, hardener Hy-248, toluene and ethyl alcohol. Three solutions were prepared at certain formula i.e. solution A (Rhodamine-B + ethyl alcohol + toluene), solution B (Araldite + ethyl alcohol + toluene) and solution C (Hardener + ethyl alcohol + toluene) in order to produce the fluorescent sand. These solutions were mixed together with sand and blended slowly until the surface of the sand grain dried. Fluorescent monitor and UV cabinet viewer were used to measure and monitor the intensity of fluorescent sand. Results show that various intensity of fluorescent sand can be obtained depending on the formulation. Laboratory test has been carried out purposely to identify the suitable sand for the field test. (Author)

  20. Sand and Water Table Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Ann H.; White, Mary J.; Stone, Ryan

    2010-01-01

    The authors observed preschoolers engaged at the sand and water table to determine if math could be found within their play. Wanting to understand how children interact with provided materials and what kinds of math ideas they explore during these interactions, the authors offer practical examples of how such play can promote mathematical…

  1. Impact Behavior of A356 Foundry Alloys in the Presence of Trace Elements Ni and V

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casari, Daniele; Ludwig, Thomas H.; Merlin, Mattia; Arnberg, Lars; Garagnani, Gian Luca

    2015-02-01

    In the present work, the impact behavior of unmodified A356 alloys with the addition of Ni or V in as-cast and T6 heat-treated conditions was assessed. Charpy V-notched specimens obtained from sand and permanent mold casting showed low total absorbed energy average values ( W t A356 alloy, V had a strong influence: (i) V-containing sand cast alloys absorbed slightly higher impact energies compared to the corresponding A356 base alloys; (ii) in the permanent mold cast alloys, V in solid solution led to a considerable loss of ductility, which in turn decreased the total absorbed energy.

  2. Generation of sand ripples and sand bars by surface waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jie

    1999-12-01

    Part I. Generation of sand ripples by surface waves. In Chapter 1, we study the sand ripple instability under partially standing surface waves in constant water depth. For gently sloped ripples, the approximate flow field is worked out. By invoking an empirical formula of sediment transport rate, an eigenvalue problem is obtained, which gives rise to the equation for initial ripple growth with coefficients depending on local wave conditions. It is found that the wave-induced steady streaming has no effect on ripple growth. Thus, ripple instability is locally similar to the cases for oscillatory flows and for purely progressive waves, and is driven by ripple-induced flow. But the intensity of this process varies spatially with the period of half the surface wavelength due to the reflection. The results show that beneath the envelope minima (nodes) ripples grow the fastest and are the longest; under the envelope maxima (antinodes) ripples are unlikely. Part II. Generation of sand bars and sediment/ wave interaction. In this part we study the formation mechanism of sand bars under reflected surface waves and the mutual influence of the waves and bars through Bragg resonance. In Chapter 2, we first give an analysis of the effects of shoreline reflection on Bragg resonance by considering rigid bars, aiming at acquiring a deeper understanding of the physical processes of the Bragg resonance mechanism. We show that finite reflection by the shoreline can increase the wave energy arriving at the shore, in contrast to the result from most previous studies, suggesting that the mechanism can enhance the attack of the incident sea on the beach. The phase relation of the rigid bars and the shoreline reflection is found to be a key to the qualitative change of wave response. In Chapter 3, we develop a quantitative theory to describe the formation mechanism of sand bars by coupling sediment dynamics and wave hydrodynamics. Assuming that the slopes of waves and bars are comparably gentle and sediment motion is dominated by the bedload, an approximate evolution equation of bar height is derived. This equation shows that sand bars grow and evolve via a forced diffusion process rather than instability. Both the forcing and diffusivity depend on the flow field above the current bed. In Chapter 4, the coupled evolution of sand bars and waves is investigated, in which the Bragg scattering mechanism has been understood as two concurrent physical processes: energy transfer between two wavetrains propagating in opposite directions and change of their wavelength. Both effects are found to be controlled locally by the position of bar crests relative to wave nodes. In the absence of shoreline reflection, it is found that pre-existing sand bars cannot be maintained by their own Bragg scattered waves and the formation of sand bars offshore by Bragg scattering is at best a transient phenomenon. Comparison with experimental data supports the description of bar formation as a forced diffusion process. In Chapter 5, we examine the effects of horizontal variation of eddy viscosity on the evolution of bars. (Copies available exclusively from MIT Libraries, Rm. 14-0551, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307. Ph. 617-253-5668; Fax 617-253-1690.) (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  3. Saltation of Non-Spherical Sand Particles

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Zhengshi; Ren, Shan; Huang, Ning

    2014-01-01

    Saltation is an important geological process and the primary source of atmospheric mineral dust aerosols. Unfortunately, no studies to date have been able to precisely reproduce the saltation process because of the simplified theoretical models used. For example, sand particles in most of the existing wind sand movement models are considered to be spherical, the effects of the sand shape on the structure of the wind sand flow are rarely studied, and the effect of mid-air collision is usually ...

  4. Use of technical and economic analysis in production of liquid metal in foundries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Kafka

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper in its introduction describes main principles of technical and economic analysis the application of which leads to determination of potential costs savings and subsequently to costs reduction. The application of the method is illustrated by an example of production of three types of steel grades for cast steel produced in five tons electric arc furnace. With the aid of the calculation model, incomplete costs of selective complex of the melts were determined (30 melts within the first phase and 260 in the second one. Incomplete costs and selected physical indicators (e.g. melting time, electrical energy consumption etc. were subsequently compiled with the aid of statistical analysis. After that, the individual selective complexes were compared with each other (according to melters; first and second melt on the shift; melting with one or more charge basket; days in a week. The detailed analysis of these outcomes resulted in many particular recommendations how to reduce the costs in the foundry. The final recommendation for the melting shop is a proposal to introduce continuous monitoring of costs.

  5. Modeling of the influence of coarsening on viscoplastic behavior of a 319 foundry aluminum alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Both metallurgical and mechanical behaviors of a 319 foundry aluminum alloy have been modeled by means of a multiscale approach. The nano-scale, represented by the coarsening of Al2Cu precipitates, has been modeled according to the Lifshitz–Slyozov–Wagner (LSW) law in a range of temperature going from 23 °C to 300 °C up to 1000 h aging time. Results were then compared to transmission electron microscope (TEM) observations and are in good agreement with the experimental measurements. The model allows us to know the critical radius, the volume fraction and the number of particles per ?m3 in a ?-phase representative volume element (RVE). The increase in yield stress generated by the interaction of dislocations with precipitates, lattice and solid solution, is modeled on the microscale. The yield stress becomes thus a function of the precipitation state, and is time/temperature dependent. These two models were then combined into a mechanical macroscale model in order to represent the Low Cycle Fatigue (LCF) behavior of the material. An elasto-viscoplastic law has been used and all the material parameters were experimentally determined with LCF stress/strain loops for the first cycle and for the mechanical steady state. The simulation results are in good agreement with the experiments.

  6. Modeling of the influence of coarsening on viscoplastic behavior of a 319 foundry aluminum alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, R., E-mail: remi.martinez@ensmp.fr [Universite Paris-Est Creteil, Institut de Chimie et de Materiaux Paris-Est, CNRS UMR7182, 2-8 rue Henri Dunant, 94320 Thiais (France); Mines ParisTech, Centre des Materiaux, CNRS UMR7633, BP 87, 91003 Evry Cedex (France); Renault SA, Technocentre, Direction de l' ingenierie et des materiaux, 1 avenue du Golf, 78288 Guyancourt (France); Russier, V., E-mail: vincent.russier@icmpe.cnrs.fr [Universite Paris-Est Creteil, Institut de Chimie et de Materiaux Paris-Est, CNRS UMR7182, 2-8 rue Henri Dunant, 94320 Thiais (France); Couzinie, J.P. [Universite Paris-Est Creteil, Institut de Chimie et de Materiaux Paris-Est, CNRS UMR7182, 2-8 rue Henri Dunant, 94320 Thiais (France); Guillot, I., E-mail: ivan.guillot@icmpe.cnrs.fr [Universite Paris-Est Creteil, Institut de Chimie et de Materiaux Paris-Est, CNRS UMR7182, 2-8 rue Henri Dunant, 94320 Thiais (France); Cailletaud, G. [Mines ParisTech, Centre des Materiaux, CNRS UMR7633, BP 87, 91003 Evry Cedex (France)

    2013-01-01

    Both metallurgical and mechanical behaviors of a 319 foundry aluminum alloy have been modeled by means of a multiscale approach. The nano-scale, represented by the coarsening of Al{sub 2}Cu precipitates, has been modeled according to the Lifshitz-Slyozov-Wagner (LSW) law in a range of temperature going from 23 Degree-Sign C to 300 Degree-Sign C up to 1000 h aging time. Results were then compared to transmission electron microscope (TEM) observations and are in good agreement with the experimental measurements. The model allows us to know the critical radius, the volume fraction and the number of particles per {mu}m{sup 3} in a {alpha}-phase representative volume element (RVE). The increase in yield stress generated by the interaction of dislocations with precipitates, lattice and solid solution, is modeled on the microscale. The yield stress becomes thus a function of the precipitation state, and is time/temperature dependent. These two models were then combined into a mechanical macroscale model in order to represent the Low Cycle Fatigue (LCF) behavior of the material. An elasto-viscoplastic law has been used and all the material parameters were experimentally determined with LCF stress/strain loops for the first cycle and for the mechanical steady state. The simulation results are in good agreement with the experiments.

  7. Influence of Some Trace Elements on Solidification Path and Microstructure of Al-Si Foundry Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Thomas Hartmut; Schaffer, Paul Louis; Arnberg, Lars

    2013-08-01

    In the present study, Ca, Ni, V, and Zn were added to a high purity binary Al-7wt pct Si and commercial purity A356 foundry alloy in the nominal range of 50 to 600 ppm in order to study their effect on the solidification path and the resultant microstructure. Thermal analysis was used to assess nucleation and growth of the various phases. It was found that Ca and Ni additions suppress characteristic temperatures associated with nucleation and growth of the eutectic by up to 4 and 1.5 K, respectively. Additionally, Ca was observed to modify the eutectic Si and a concentration as low as 39 ppm Ca was sufficient to precipitate the geometrically unfavored polyhedral Al2Si2Ca phase. Furthermore, Ni addition resulted in the formation of two intermetallic phases when the Ni concentration exceeded 300 ppm. These phases have been quantified as Al3Ni and Al9FeNi by SEM-EDS. V and Zn had no apparent effect on the cooling curve and the microstructure. Even though it could be shown that V accumulates preferably in ?-Al5FeSi particles, V concentrations of 600 ppm were too low to have any influence on the phase's morphology.

  8. Treating tar sands formations with karsted zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Karanikas, John Michael (Houston, TX)

    2010-03-09

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. The tar sands formation may have one or more karsted zones. Methods may include providing heat from one or more heaters to one or more karsted zones of the tar sands formation to mobilize fluids in the formation. At least some of the mobilized fluids may be produced from the formation.

  9. Sand and Water Table Buying Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Susan

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the importance of sand and water play for young children. Provides a partial list of materials and equipment used to provide sensory experiences at sand and water tables. Offers a buying guide listing manufacturers of sand and water tables, product descriptions, and ordering information. (DR)

  10. Sand dunes as migrating strings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guignier, L; Niiya, H; Nishimori, H; Lague, D; Valance, A

    2013-05-01

    We develop a reduced complexity model for three-dimensional sand dunes, based on a simplified description of the longitudinal and lateral sand transport. The spatiotemporal evolution of a dune migrating over a nonerodible bed under unidirectional wind is reduced to the dynamics of its crest line, providing a simple framework for the investigation of three-dimensional dunes, such as barchan and transverse dunes. Within this model, we derive analytical solutions for barchan dunes and investigate the stability of a rectilinear transverse dune against lateral fluctuations. We show, in particular, that the latter is unstable only if the lateral transport on the dune slip face prevails over that on the upwind face. We also predict the wavelength and the characteristic time that control the subsequent evolution of an unstable transverse dune into a wavy ridge and the ultimate fragmentation into barchan dunes. PMID:23767529

  11. Air-sand heat exchanger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumann, Torsten; Zunft, Stefan [German Aerospace Center (DLR), Stuttgart (Germany); Boura, Cristiano; Eckstein, Julian; Felinks, Jan; Goettsche, Joachim; Hoffschmidt, Bernhard; Schmitz, Stefan [FH Aachen, Juelich (Germany). Solar-Inst. Juelich

    2011-07-01

    This paper summarizes research activities that analyse the thermodynamic behaviour of an Air / Sand Heat Exchanger, developed by Solar-Institut Juelich (SIJ) and the German Aerospace Centre (DLR). A numerical 3-D model, new results and a model validation of this particular cross-flow heat exchanger are presented. Simulation results were obtained for sand with 1-2 mm grain size. The simulation was validated with operational results of a new 15 kW prototype unit. Ansys, including Ansys-CFX, is used as modelling and simulation platform. The bulk material is modelled by a porous solid medium without structural dynamic interaction between fluid and solid phase. For pressure drop calculations, Ergun's model for bulk material is used. The model parameters were validated and fitted with measured values of a separate pressure drop test rig. The validation was done with quartz sand. To determine the suitability of available granular products for this application, tests have been conducted regarding the thermomechanical properties as well as their attrition behaviour and abrasion on various wall materials.

  12. Reducing industrial energy costs through energy-efficiency measures in a liberalized European electricity market: case study of a Swedish iron foundry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swedish industry, which has one of the lowest electricity prices in the European Union, will face higher electricity prices due to the Union's electricity market liberalization. Rising electricity prices, together with a larger use of electricity than other European countries, pose a threat to industrial activity in Sweden. The Swedish foundry industry, with large proportions of energy costs in relation to the added value, is particularly sensitive to higher electricity costs. The aim of this paper is to study the effect of higher electricity prices on the Swedish iron-and-steel foundry industry, quantify an energy efficiency potential for a medium-sized Swedish iron foundry resulting from a thorough industrial energy audit, and investigate what impact they have on the energy cost. (author)

  13. Monitoring of heavy metal particle emission in the exhaust duct of a foundry using LIBS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutouquet, C; Gallou, G; Le Bihan, O; Sirven, J B; Dermigny, A; Torralba, B; Frejafon, E

    2014-09-01

    Heavy metals have long been known to be detrimental to human health and the environment. Their emission is mainly considered to occur via the atmospheric route. Most of airborne heavy metals are of anthropogenic origin and produced through combustion processes at industrial sites such as incinerators and foundries. Current regulations impose threshold limits on heavy metal emissions. The reference method currently implemented for quantitative measurements at exhaust stacks consists of on-site sampling of heavy metals on filters for the particulate phase (the most prominent and only fraction considered in this study) prior to subsequent laboratory analysis. Results are therefore known only a few days after sampling. Stiffer regulations require the development of adapted tools allowing automatic, on-site or even in-situ measurements with temporal resolutions. The Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) technique was deemed as a potential candidate to meet these requirements. On site experiments were run by melting copper bars and monitoring emission of this element in an exhaust duct at a pilot-scale furnace in a French research center dedicated to metal casting. Two approaches designated as indirect and direct analysis were broached in these experiments. The former corresponds to filter enrichment prior to subsequent LIBS interrogation whereas the latter entails laser focusing right through the aerosol for detection. On-site calibration curves were built and compared with those obtained at laboratory scale in order to investigate possible matrix and analyte effects. Eventually, the obtained results in terms of detection limits and quantitative temporal monitoring of copper emission clearly emphasize the potentialities of the direct LIBS measurements. PMID:24913859

  14. Mechanical engineering note - safety analysis of molten uranium/water interaction in the uranium foundry furnace; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Engineering Note describes the development of the accident criteria used the basis for the design of the uranium foundry vacuum vessel. The results of this analysis provide input into other safety notes that investigate how well the uranium containment boundary will maintain its integrity during the design basis accident. The preventative measures that have been designed into the system to minimize the potential to produce a flammable gas mixture are described. The system response is designed for consistency with applicable sections of the LLNL Health and Safety Manual, as well as the Mechanical engineering Safety Design Standards

  15. Evaluation of Synthetic Gypsum Recovered via Wet Flue-Gas Desulfurization from Electric Power Plants for Use in Foundries

    OpenAIRE

    Biernacki, R.; Haratym, R.; Kwapisz, J.

    2012-01-01

    This article investigates possible use of waste gypsum (synthetic), recovered via flue-gas desulfurization from coal-fired electric powerplants, in foundries. Energy sector, which in Eastern Europe is mostly composed from coal-fired electric power plants, is one of the largestproducers of sulfur dioxide (SO2).In order to protect the environment and reduce the amount of pollution flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) is used to remove SO2 fromexhaust flue gases of fossil-fuel power plants. As a resul...

  16. Emission of organic compounds from mould and core binders used for casting iron, aluminium and bronze in sand moulds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tiedje, Niels Skat; Crepaz, Rudolf

    2010-01-01

    Emissions from mould and core sand binders commonly used in the foundry industry have been investigated. Degradation of three different types of binders was investigated: Furfuryl alcohol (FA), phenolic urethane (PU) and resol-CO2 (RC). In each group of binders at least two different binder compositions were tested. A test method that provides uniform test conditions is described. The method can be used as general test method to analyse off gasses from binders. Moulds containing a standard size casting were produced and the amount and type of organic compounds resulting from thermal degradation of binders was monitored when cast iron, bronze and aluminium was poured in the moulds. Binder degradation was measured by collecting off gasses in a specially designed ventilation hood at a constant flow rate. Samples were taken from the ventilation system and analysed for hydrocarbons and CO content. It is shown how off gasses vary with time after pouring and shake out. Also the composition of off-gasses is analysed and shown. It is further shown how the composition of off-gasses varies between different types of binders and with varying composition of the binders as well as function of the thermal load on the moulding sand.

  17. Effect of foundry waste content on technological properties of ceramic bricks

    OpenAIRE

    Quijorna, N.; San Miguel, G.; Andre?s, A.

    2009-01-01

    A change from linear to cyclical production processes, as proposed by Industrial Ecology, is investigated in this paper. The feasibility of introducing Waelz slag (Ferrosita®) into a ceramic manufacturing process had been assessed in previous studies. In this work, the influence of incorporating Waelz slag and a Waelz slag/Moulding sand mix into a clayey matrix has been evaluated through the analysis of the physical and mechanical properties of fired bodies. A math...

  18. Sand’s electrical parameters vary with frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Germán Duarte Velasco

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of two types of test in one kind of sand to obtain resistivity and permittivity values for frequency ranging from Hz to MHz. One test involved wave generation at specific frequencies and the other an impulse generator (continuous fre-quency spectrum. Tests were made for three humidity values. The results of both test revealed non-linear performance on test elec-trode surface. Such non-linearity was modelled and eliminated to give the permittivity and resistivity values in frequency domain.

  19. Sand’s electrical parameters vary with frequency

    OpenAIRE

    Oscar Germán Duarte Velasco; John Edwin Candelo Becerra; Johny Hernan Montaña Chaparro

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the results of two types of test in one kind of sand to obtain resistivity and permittivity values for frequency ranging from Hz to MHz. One test involved wave generation at specific frequencies and the other an impulse generator (continuous fre-quency spectrum). Tests were made for three humidity values. The results of both test revealed non-linear performance on test elec-trode surface. Such non-linearity was modelled and eliminated to give the permittivity and resistivi...

  20. Shaking a Box of Sand

    CERN Document Server

    Stadler, P F; Luck, J M; Stadler, Peter F.; Mehta, Anita; Luck, Jean-Marc

    2001-01-01

    We present a simple model of a vibrated box of sand, and discuss its dynamics in terms of two parameters reflecting static and dynamic disorder respectively. The fluidised, intermediate and frozen (`glassy') dynamical regimes are extensively probed by analysing the response of the packing fraction to steady, as well as cyclic, shaking, and indicators of the onset of a `glass transition' are analysed. In the `glassy' regime, our model is exactly solvable, and allows for the qualitative description of ageing phenomena in terms of two characteristic lengths; predictions are also made about the influence of grain shape anisotropy on ageing behaviour.

  1. Biological Clogging of Sand Columns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsutoshi Seki

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Increased microbial activity leads to biological clogging (or bioclogging, i.e., the pore space is clogged by microbes and saturated hydraulic conductivity of porous media decreases. A series of column experiments were carried out to study the bioclogging of sand columns. Hydraulic conductivity remained unchanged when a sterilizing agent was applied; however, it decreased when a glucose solution was applied. In most cases, bioclogging proceeded from the inlet of the solution; but, in some cases, it started from the bottom or outlet of the column. In this experiment, the reduction of hydraulic conductivity was better explained by microcolony models compared to biofilm models.

  2. Crest line minimal model for sand dune

    OpenAIRE

    Guignier, Lucie; Valance, Alexandre; Lague, Dimitri

    2013-01-01

    In desert, complex patterns of dunes form. Under unidirectional wind, transverse rectilinear dunes or crescent shaped dunes called barchan dunes can appear, depending on the amount of sediment available. Most rectilinear transverse sand dunes are observed to fragment, for example at White Sands (New Mexico, United States of America) or Walvis Bay (Namibia). We develop a reduced complexity model to investigate the morphodynamics of sand dunes migrating over a non-erodible bed under unidirectio...

  3. Coupled changes in sand grain size and sand transport driven by changes in the upstream supply of sand in the Colorado River: relative importance of changes in bed-sand grain size and bed-sand area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topping, D.J.; Rubin, D.M.; Melis, T.S.

    2007-01-01

    Sand transport in the Colorado River in Marble and Grand canyons was naturally limited by the upstream supply of sand. Prior to the 1963 closure of Glen Canyon Dam, the river exhibited the following four effects of sand supply limitation: (1) hysteresis in sediment concentration, (2) hysteresis in sediment grain size coupled to the hysteresis in sediment concentration, (3) production of inversely graded flood deposits, and (4) development or modification of a lag between the time of a flood peak and the time of either maximum or minimum (depending on reach geometry) bed elevation. Construction and operation of the dam has enhanced the degree to which the first two of these four effects are evident, and has not affected the degree to which the last two effects of sand supply limitation are evident in the Colorado River in Marble and Grand canyons. The first three of the effects involve coupled changes in suspended-sand concentration and grain size that are controlled by changes in the upstream supply of sand. During tributary floods, sand on the bed of the Colorado River fines; this causes the suspended sand to fine and the suspended-sand concentration to increase, even when the discharge of water remains constant. Subsequently, the bed is winnowed of finer sand, the suspended sand coarsens, and the suspended-sand concentration decreases independently of discharge. Also associated with these changes in sand supply are changes in the fraction of the bed that is covered by sand. Thus, suspended-sand concentration in the Colorado River is likely regulated by both changes in the bed-sand grain size and changes in the bed-sand area. A physically based flow and suspended-sediment transport model is developed, tested, and applied to data from the Colorado River to evaluate the relative importance of changes in the bed-sand grain size and changes in the bed-sand area in regulating suspended-sand concentration. Although the model was developed using approximations for steady, uniform flow, and other simplifications that are not met in the Colorado River, the results nevertheless support the idea that changes in bed-sand grain size are much more important than changes in bed-sand area in regulating the concentration of suspended sand.

  4. The nucleation and growth of microporosity in aluminum-7% silicon foundry alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anson, James Philip

    2000-10-01

    Small cavities, called micropores, are common defects found in aluminum castings. Mathematical modeling of microporosity is difficult due to a lack of chemical parameters and a limited understanding of the mechanisms of pore formation and development. The objective of the present work is to obtain a better understanding of the nucleation and growth of microporosity in Al-7%Si (A356) foundry alloy. This consisted of the measurement of the surface tension of A356 alloy, a study of the factors that affect the final amount of porosity in castings, and the measurement of the evolution of porosity during solidification. The measurement of the surface tension of pure aluminum and A356 alloy was performed under vacuum and hydrogen atmospheres. The surface tension of A356 alloy under vacuum at 630°C was 0.889 N/m. The addition of hydrogen did not significantly alter this value. The addition of strontium decreased the surface tension by about 5%. It was concluded that the effect of strontium on the surface tension was not the cause of the increase in porosity observed in strontium modified castings. The effects of hydrogen content, local solidification time and strontium modification on microporosity were studied. Two critical fraction solids were associated with the formation of microporosity. The first, the critical fraction solid for pore growth, is the point at which preexisting baseline porosity begins to grow due to hydrogen evolution. It varied with hydrogen content and strontium modification. The second, the critical fraction solid for nucleation, is the point at which shrinkage type porosity nucleates. It did not vary with hydrogen content or strontium modification, and remained constant at approximately 75--80% solid. The measurement of microporosity was performed using image analysis. A new method for filtering and sorting the data, based on nearest neighbor cluster analysis, was developed. A mathematical model based on the current experimental results was created. The model is capable of predicting the evolution of the percentage porosity during solidification, the final percentage porosity and the maximum pore size.

  5. Occupational exposure profile of Pb, Mn, and Cd in nonferrous Brazilian sanitary alloy foundries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peixe, Tiago Severo; Nascimento, Elizabeth de Souza; Silva, Carlos Sérgio; Bussacos, Marco Antonio

    2014-09-01

    In addition to the primary components of alloys, approximately 5% of the formulation may contain other metals, including lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), arsenic, manganese (Mn), iron, phosphorus, and nickel. Workers in the foundries are exposed to several compounds; therefore, it is important to assess the levels of injury that may reflect an additive, synergistic, or antagonistic effect caused by these compounds. The mean values of the environmental evaluation of the facilities range from 16.65 to 40.31 µg m(-3) for Pb, 0.99 to 1.73 µg m(-3) for Cd, and 0.91 to 1.70 µg m(-3) for Mn. The mean values of the metal concentrations for furnace, mold, melting, and automatic melting activities range from 15.37 to 19.26 µg m(-3) for Pb, 7.07 to 9.14 µg m(-3) for Cd, and 8.83 to 16.00 µg m(-3) for Mn. Biological samples were divided into two groups: control (n = 38) and exposed (n = 45). The obtained data are3.41 ± 3.40 and 14.89 ± 7.82 µg dL(-1) for Pb, 0.90 ± 0.80 and 1.91 ± 1.90 µg g(-1) creatinine for Cd, and 0.51 ± 0.40 and 3.17 ± 1.93 µg g(-1) creatinine for Mn. Statistical analysis showed significant differences (p < 0.05). Positive linear correlations were established between metal concentrations in the air and the biological matrixes: Pb (r = 0.68; p < 0.001), Cd (r = 0.81; p = 0.17), and Mn (r = 0.12; p < 0.03). Regression analysis showed that professional activities can interfere with element exposure profiles in occupational settings. The analysis in the event of exposure to metals in these companies allowed investigating whether the simultaneous exposure leads to biological damage even if the levels of the compounds are within the exposure limits that are considered to be safe. PMID:23104727

  6. Nuclear energy for oil sands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1980, Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, working with a number of Alberta-based companies, assessed the technical and economic feasibility of using a CANDU nuclear reactor to raise the production steam for the recovery of bitumen. The study followed several years of analysis which identified oil sands projects as the most appropriate single users of thermal energy of the amount and quality available from reactors. Over the life of an oil sands project a steam supply system based on a nuclear reactor is expected to offer a substantial cost advantage (25 - 50%) over the alternative system based on coal as the make-up fuel. Steam from natural gas is marginally more expensive than that from coal because the cost of natural gas is expected to escalate at a rate higher than inflation. For shallow deposits (150 - 250 metres) using intermediate pressure steam, the commercially proven Pressurized Heavy Water (PHW) reactor is most suitable. For deeper deposits (250 - 650 metres), the PHW reactor can provide the higher pressure steam using a compressor, but only with a reduction in thermal efficiency that substantially reduces its cost advantage. The CANDU Organic Cooled Reactor (OCR), however, can provide the high presure steam required with the large cost advantage. The economic benefit of nuclear steam supply systems, a saving of $2-4 per barrel of product, is large enough to justify a more detailed study

  7. Nuclear energy for oil sands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In working partnership with a number of Alberta-based companies an AECL (Atomic Energy of Canada Limited) study team assessed the technical and economic feasibility of using a nuclear reactor to raise the production steam for the recovery of bitumen. Technically sound concepts have been identified for using CANDU reactors for the in-situ recovery of bitumen from oil sands. Over the life of an oil sands project a steam supply system based on a nuclear reactor is expected to offer a substantial cost advantage (25 - 50 %) over the alternative system based on coal as the make-up fuel. Steam from natural gas is marginally more expensive than that from coal because the cost of natural gas is expected to escalate at a rate higher than inflation. For shallow deposits (150 -250 metres) using intermediate pressure steam, the commercially proven Pressurized Heavy Water (PHW) reactor is most suitable. For deeper deposits (250 - 650 metres), the PHW reactor can provide the higher pressure steam using a compressor, but only with a reduction in thermal efficiency that substantially reduces its cost advantage. The CANDU Organic Cooled Reactor (OCR), however, can provide a high pressure steam required with the large cost advantage. The economic benefit offered by nuclear steam supply systems, a saving of $2-4 per barrel of product, is large enough to justify the commitment of a more detailed study

  8. Effect of atmosphere in a foundry mould on casting surface quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Chojecki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Changes of gas pressure in the moulding sand in the zone adjacent to mould cavity were analysed during pouring of cast iron. No significant effect of pressure on the surface quality of castings was observed. In the second series of tests, the concentration of hydrogen in the gas atmosphere was measured. It has been found that the value of this concentration depends on metal composition and is particularly high in cast iron containing magnesium. This is due to the reduction of water vapour with the element that has high affinity to oxygen. The presence of hydrogen causes the formation of gas-induced defects on the casting surface.

  9. Fuel options for oil sands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation examined fuel options in relation to oil sands production. Options include steam and hydrogen (H2) for upgrading; natural gas by pipeline; bitumen; petroleum coke; and coal. Various cost drivers were also considered for each of the fuel options. It was noted that natural gas has high energy value but the capital cost is low, and that coke's energy value is very low but the capital cost is high. A chart forecasting energy prices was presented. The disposition of Western Canada's northern gas situation was presented. Issues concerning rail transportation for coal were considered. Environmental concerns were also examined. A chart of typical gas requirements for 75,000 B/D oil sands projects was presented. Issues concerning steam generation with gas and mining cogeneration with gas fuel and steam turbines were discussed, as well as cogeneration and H2 with gas fuels and steam turbines. Various technology and fuel utility options were examined, along with details of equipment and processes. Boiler technologies were reviewed by type as well as fuel and steam quality and pressure. Charts of cogeneration with gas turbine and circulation fluid bed boilers were presented. Gasification processes were reviewed and a supply cost basis was examined. Cost drivers were ranked according to energy, operating considerations and capital investment. Results indicated that fuel costs were significant for gas and coal. Capital costs and capital recov and coal. Capital costs and capital recovery charge was most significant with coal and gasification technology. Without capital recovery, cash costs favour the use of bitumen and coke. Gasification would need lower capital and lower capital recovery to compete with direct burning. It was concluded that direct burning of bitumen can compete with natural gas. With price volatility anticipated, dual fuel capability for bitumen and gas has merit. Petroleum coke can be produced or retrieved from stockpiles. Utility supply costs of direct burning of coke is marginally higher than the cost with gas. Direct burning of coal has a higher supply cost than other fuels. However, there will be additional costs for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for heavy fuels. Natural gas is likely to be the fuel of choice for oil sands production unless gas prices are much higher on a sustained basis. tabs., figs

  10. Japan's involvement in oil sands development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to Japanese national policy, exploration and development by Japanese companies in overseas countries are promoted in order to ensure stable oil supplies. Japan Canada Oil Sands Limited (JACOS), part of the JAPEX group, was established during the 1978 world oil crisis to explore and develop Canadian oil sand resources in accordance with Japan's national policy. The JAPEX group, including JACOS, has invested $123 million in oil sands projects in Alberta. JAPEX's first involvement in oil sands was in the Primrose Project operated by Norcen in the Cold Lake area. Five years of cyclic steam stimulation pilot tests did not produce sufficiently good results to justify further operation. The second involvement was the PCEJ Project, a joint effort by four companies that are participating in a bitumen recovery test project in the Athabasca Deposit. JACOS holds 2,452 km2 of oil sands leases in Alberta. Tests conducted since 1978 in the PCEJ Project include multiwell steam injection pilot tests, some of which showed promise. JACOS is also participating in steam assisted gravity drainage projects and in federal/provincial research programs. Obstacles identified in developing Alberta oil sands are the lack of a bitumen pipeline to Edmonton and the insufficient length of oil sands leases (currently 10 years), given the difficulties of oil sand development. 10 figs

  11. Oil sands: Our petroleum future conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A conference was held to discuss oil sands technology. Papers were presented concerning oil sands mining, alternative technologies, environmental factors, economics, bitumen conversion and processing, bitumen uses, bitumen upgrading, fine tails formation, and fine tails disposal. Separate abstracts have been prepared for 64 papers from the conference

  12. Explorations with the Sand and Water Table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas Child Care, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Presents sand and water activities for young children as examples of sensory explorations, science activities, and comforting play. Includes information on health and safety precautions, adaptations for children with physical disabilities, the use of other materials, and sand and water toys made from one-liter plastic bottles. (KB)

  13. Investigación sobre industrias de fundición taiwanesas y de China Continental, a través de análisis espectral / Investigating taiwanese and Mainland China foundry industries by spectral analysis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Vivian, Tam; Khoa, Le.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Un creciente número de inversionistas taiwaneses se encuentran capitalizando en la industria de la fundición de China Continental. Este artículo examina el desarrollo actual, las dificultades y los riesgos enfrentados por la industria de la fundición taiwanesa en China y en Taiwán. Se han realizado [...] encuestas telefónicas y entrevistas formales. Una innovadora metodología de investigación - análisis espectral - es empleada para el análisis de identificación del factor o factores predominantes para el desarrollo de las industrias de la fundición en Taiwán y China Continental. A partir de los resultados de las encuestas, se ha determinado que las compañías de fundición taiwanesas enfrentan una multitud de temas administrativos, tanto en China como en Taiwán. Es necesario implementar estrategias prácticas a la brevedad, con el fin de aliviar los potenciales riesgos administrativos y promover operaciones comerciales fluidas. Se recomienda proporcionar suficientes flujos de caja y comprender las diferencias culturales entre los dos países, así como fomentar la atención hacia los taiwaneses cuando éstos inician sus actividades comerciales dentro de la industria de la fundición en China. Abstract in english Increasing numbers of Taiwan investors are investing in Mainland China foundry industry. This paper examines the existing development, difficulties and risk encountered for Taiwanese foundry industry in Mainland China and Taiwan. Telephone surveys and structured interviews are conducted with 50 foun [...] dry companies of 100% response rate. A novel research methodology, spectral analysis, is used for the analysis in identifying dominant factor(s) in the development of Taiwanese and Mainland China foundry industries. From the survey results, it is found that Taiwanese foundry companies tackle a multitude of management issues in both Mainland China and Taiwan; practical strategies must be implemented early to alleviate potential management risks and to promote smooth business operations. Providing enough cash flow and understanding cultural differences between two countries are suggested and encouraged to be concerned for Taiwanese when establishing their business in Mainland China foundry industry.

  14. Automação industrial e sistemas informatizados de gestão da produção em fundições de mercado / Industrial automation and computerized production management systems in make-to-order foundries

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Flavio Cesar F., Fernandes; Reinaldo Batista, Leite.

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Fundição é um processo de fabricação que vem crescendo em importância. O principal objetivo deste artigo é analisar, em termos de automação e sistemas informatizados de gestão da produção (SIGP), as fundições de mercado (fundições que produzem sob encomenda um grande número de pedidos vindos, em ger [...] al, de um grande número de clientes) no interior do Estado de São Paulo pertencentes aos 5 principais pólos (Piracicaba, Indaiatuba, Limeira, São Carlos e Itu) com 10 a 250 trabalhadores. Das 61 empresas do interior de São Paulo, 35 situam-se nesses 5 pólos (ou em suas imediações); entrevistamos pessoalmente os diretores industriais e visitamos o chão de fábrica de 30 fundições dentre essas 35. Analisamos quase 200 tabelas de freqüência e de contingência e extraímos várias conclusões, por exemplo: (i) entre os três principais problemas e necessidades relativos à produção, dois deles estão diretamente relacionados com a automação industrial e com os SIGP; (ii) são coincidentes os interesses em automação e SIGP. Abstract in english Foundry is a manufacturing process with a growing importance. The main objective of this paper is to analyze, in terms of automation and of computerized production management systems (CPMS), the make-to-order foundry in the interior of the state of São Paulo belonging to 5 main foundry industrial di [...] stricts (Piracicaba, Indaiatuba, Limeira, São Carlos and Itu) with 10 to 250 workers. From the 61 enterprises in the interior of São Paulo State, 35 are situated in these 5 industrial districts (or in their neighborhood); we interviewed personally the industrial executive officer and visited the shop-floor of 30 among this 35 foundries. We have analyzed almost 200 frequency and contingency tables and draw several conclusions, for example: (i) among the three main problems and necessities related with production, two of them are directly related with automation and CPMS; (ii) automation and CPMS generate coincident interests on the make-to-order foundries.

  15. Properties of steel foundry electric arc furnace dust solidified/stabilized with Portland cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salihoglu, Guray; Pinarli, Vedat; Salihoglu, Nezih Kamil; Karaca, Gizem

    2007-10-01

    Electric arc furnace dust from steel production is generated in considerable amounts worldwide and needs to be treated as hazardous waste. The aim of this study was to investigate the properties of electric arc furnace dust solidified/stabilized by using Portland cement. Mortar and paste samples were prepared with varying waste-to-binder ratios between 0% and 90%. A comprehensive experimental program was designed including XRF characterization, setting time, unconfined compressive strength, and toxicity characteristics leaching procedure (TCLP), synthetic precipitation leaching procedure (SPLP), and acid neutralization capacity (ANC) tests. The results were evaluated in order to determine if the solidified /stabilized product can be disposed of at a landfill site with domestic waste or at a segregated landfill. The effect of using sand on S/S performance was also investigated. The results indicated that the solidification /stabilization process using PC helps the heavy metals to be bound in the cement matrix, but the TCLP leaching results exceeded the EPA landfilling limits. The SPLP leaching results conformed to the limits implying that the waste or S/S products can be disposed of at a segregated landfill; however the low ANC of the S/S products reveals that there may be leaching in the long-term. The sand used in the mortar samples adversely affected the S/S performance, causing higher heavy metal leaching levels, and lower pH levels in the leachate after the TCLP extraction than those measured in the leachate of the paste samples. PMID:17084503

  16. A pleistocene sand desert in Arctic Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, L. D.

    A sand desert composed of large dunes and barren sand plains extended across a significant part of Arctic Alaska north of the Brooks Range during late Pleistocene time. The dunes occupied about 11,600 square km. of the Arctic Coastal Plain west of the Colville River, and the sand plains extended at least 100 km northeast of the dunes. This sand desert was part of an eolian system that extended about 400 km from sediment sources on outwash plains and fans in the east to where waning winds deposited loess along the margin of the Arctic Foothills southwest of the dunes. Linear dunes, as much as 20 km long and 1 km wide make up the eastern 7,000 square km of the dune field, but dune types in the rest of the area were not yet classified. All the Pleistocene dunes are obscured by a thin cover of younger eolian sand that includes small stabilized longitudinal and parabolic dunes.

  17. Propagation of nanocatalyst particles through Athabasca sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamani, Amir; Maini, Brij [Society of Petroleum Engineers (Canada); Pereira Almao, Pedro [University of Calgary (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    This paper presents an experimental study to examine the propagation of nanodispersed catalyst suspension in sand packs at the Athabasca sands. Size distribution and concentration of the particles at the injection and production ends were measured. Pressure drops in various segments were constantly monitored. By measuring the catalyst concentration in the bed as a function of the distance from the injection end of the sand pack, the retention behavior of particles at the end of each experiment was examined. This study was part of a larger effort aimed at developing a nanoparticle-based process for in-situ upgrading of heavy oil. One of the important aspects of this is the placement of nanodispersed catalyst particles deep into the formation. Hence, understanding of the propagation behavior of nanoparticles in reservoir sand is important. The results demonstrate the possibility of propagating nanodispersed catalyst suspension through sand beds without causing permeability damage.

  18. A Continuum Saltation Model for Sand Dunes

    CERN Document Server

    Sauermann, G; Herrmann, H J

    2001-01-01

    We derive a phenomenological continuum saltation model for aeolian sand transport that can serve as an efficient tool for geomorphological applications. The coupled differential equations for the average density and velocity of sand in the saltation layer reproduce both known equilibrium relations for the sand flux and the time evolution of the sand flux as predicted by microscopic saltation models. The three phenomenological parameters of the model are a reference height for the grain-air interaction, an effective restitution coefficient for the grain-bed interaction, and a multiplication factor characterizing the chain reaction caused by the impacts leading to a typical time or length scale of the saturation transients. We determine the values of these parameters by comparing our model with wind tunnel measurements. Our main interest are out of equilibrium situations where saturation transients are important, for instance at phase boundaries (ground/sand) or under unsteady wind conditions. We point out that...

  19. Optimization as investment decision support in a Swedish medium-sized iron foundry - A move beyond traditional energy auditing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to increased globalisation, industries are facing greater competition that is pressing companies into decreasing their expenses in order to increase their profits. As regards Swedish industry, it has been faced with substantial increases in energy prices in recent years. Barriers to energy efficiency such as imperfect information inhibit investments in energy efficiency measures, energy audits being one means of reducing barriers and overcoming imperfect information. However, an evaluation of such energy audits in Sweden reveals that it is chiefly low-cost measures that are undertaken as a result of an audit. Moreover, these audits often tend to focus on support processes such as ventilation, lighting, air compressors etc., while measures impacting production processes are often not as extensively covered, which underlines the need for further support in addition to energy audits. Decision support is practised in a variety of different disciplines such as optimization and simulation and the aim of this paper is to explore whether investment decision support practices may be used successfully towards small and medium-sized manufacturers in Sweden when complex production-related investment decisions are taken. The optimization results from the different cases, involving a foundry's investment in a new melting unit, indicate that with no electricity price fluctuations over the day, the investment seems sound as it lowers the overall energy costs. However, with fluctuoverall energy costs. However, with fluctuating electricity prices, there are no large differences in energy costs between the option of retaining the existing five melting furnaces at the foundry and investing in a twin furnace and removing the holding furnaces - which was the initial investment plan for the foundry in the study. It would not have been possible to achieve this outcome without the use of investment decision support such as MIND. One of the main conclusions in this paper is that investment decision support, when strategic investment decisions are to be taken, may be a means of emphasising energy efficiency for energy-intensive SMEs beyond the level of traditional energy auditing

  20. Optimization as investment decision support in a Swedish medium-sized iron foundry - A move beyond traditional energy auditing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to increased globalisation, industries are facing greater competition that is pressing companies into decreasing their expenses in order to increase their profits. As regards Swedish industry, it has been faced with substantial increases in energy prices in recent years. Barriers to energy efficiency such as imperfect information inhibit investments in energy efficiency measures, energy audits being one means of reducing barriers and overcoming imperfect information. However, an evaluation of such energy audits in Sweden reveals that it is chiefly low-cost measures that are undertaken as a result of an audit. Moreover, these audits often tend to focus on support processes such as ventilation, lighting, air compressors etc., while measures impacting production processes are often not as extensively covered, which underlines the need for further support in addition to energy audits. Decision support is practised in a variety of different disciplines such as optimization and simulation and the aim of this paper is to explore whether investment decision support practices may be used successfully towards small and medium-sized manufacturers in Sweden when complex production-related investment decisions are taken. The optimization results from the different cases, involving a foundry's investment in a new melting unit, indicate that with no electricity price fluctuations over the day, the investment seems sound as it lowers the overall energy costs. However, with fluctuoverall energy costs. However, with fluctuating electricity prices, there are no large differences in energy costs between the option of retaining the existing five melting furnaces at the foundry and investing in a twin furnace and removing the holding furnaces - which was the initial investment plan for the foundry in the study. It would not have been possible to achieve this outcome without the use of investment decision support such as MIND. One of the main conclusions in this paper is that investment decision support, when strategic investment decisions are to be taken, may be a means of emphasising energy efficiency for energy-intensive SMEs beyond the level of traditional energy auditing. (author)

  1. Sand Failure Mechanism and Sanding Parameters in Niger Delta Oil Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunday Isehunwa,

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Sand production is a major issue during oil and gas production from unconsolidated reservoirs. In predicting the onset of sand production, it is important to accurately determine the failure mechanism and the contributing parameters. The aim of this study was to determine sand failure mechanism in the Niger-Delta, identify themajor contributing parameters and evaluate their effects on sanding.Completion and production data from 78 strings completed on 22 reservoirs in a Niger Delta oil Field were evaluated. Sand failure mechanisms and contributing parameters were identified and compared with published profiles. The results showed that cohesive stress is the predominant sand failure mechanism. Water cut, bean size and gas oil ratio (GOR impact sand production in the Niger Delta.

  2. Hematite Outlier and Sand Dunes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Released 4 December 2003This image shows a crater just south of the edge of the famous hematite-bearing surface, which is visible in the context image as a smooth area to the north. The crater has two features of immediate note. The first is a layered mound in the north part of the crater floor. This mound contains hematite, and it is an outlying remnant of the greater deposits to the north that have otherwise completely disappeared in this crater. The second feature is a dune field in the center of the crater floor, with dark dunes indicating winds from the northwest. The dunes grade into a dark sand sheet with no coherent structure, indicating that the sand layer thins out to the south and east.Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -4.4, Longitude 357.3 East (2.7 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  3. Calculation of the store house worker dose in a lost wax foundry using MCNP-4C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lost wax casting is an industrial process which permits the transmutation into metal of models made in wax. The wax model is covered with a siliceous shell of the required thickness and once this shell is built the set is heated and wax melted. Liquid metal is then cast into the shell replacing the wax. When the metal is cool, the shell is broken away in order to recover the metallic piece. In this process zircon sands are used for the preparation of the siliceous shell. These sands have varying concentrations of natural radionuclides: 238U, 232Th and 235U together with their progenics. The zircon sand is distributed in bags of 50 kg, and 30 bags are on a pallet, weighing 1,500 kg. The pallets with the bags have dimensions 80 cm x 120 cm x 80 cm, and constitute the radiation source in this case. The only pathway of exposure to workers in the store house is external radiation. In this case there is no dust because the bags are closed and covered by plastic, the store house has a good ventilation rate and so radon accumulation is not possible. The workers do not touch with their hands the bags and consequently skin contamination will not take place. In this study all situations of external irradiation to the workers have been considered; transportation of the pallets from vehicle to store house, lifting the pallets to the shelf, resting of the stock on the shelf, getting down the pallets, and carrying the pallets to production area. Usinrying the pallets to production area. Using MCNP-4C exposure situations have been simulated, considering that the source has a homogeneous composition, the minimum stock in the store house is constituted by 7 pallets, and the several distances between pallets and workers when they are at work. The photons flux obtained by MCNP-4C is multiplied by the conversion factor of Flux to Kerma for air by conversion factor to Effective Dose by Kerma unit, and by the number of emitted photons. Those conversion factors are obtained of ICRP 74 table 1 and table 17 respectively. This is the way to obtain a function giving dose rate around the source. (authors)

  4. Energy intensity and economic performance in small scale bricks and foundry clusters in India: does energy intensity matter?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper probes energy intensity and economic performance in small enterprises with reference to two energy-intensive small-scale industry (SSI) clusters in the state of Karnataka in India. Based on analysis of primary data collected from 38 bricks enterprises and 31 foundries, the paper brought out that there is a positive relationship not only between energy intensity and share of energy cost in total variable cost but also between energy intensity and value of output. But there is a negative relationship between energy intensity and factor productivities. Energy made a statistically significant contribution to economic performance in terms of returns to scale. Those small enterprises, which were less energy intensive, achieved higher returns to scale than those, which were more energy intensive. Therefore, it is imperative for Indian Policy Makers to include 'energy efficiency improvement' programmes as part of the strategy for enhancing SSI competitiveness

  5. Why single-machine processing overlay error still fails: reticle interference effect and our solution on IC foundry fab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, H. M.; Kuoe, Chen-Cheng; Terng, L. G.; Cheng, Dong S.; Liao, Yung H.; Guo, Joseph

    2000-08-01

    Processing two consequent layers on the same exposure tool had long time been considered to be the terminated solution for overlay control by photolithography process engineers. Such measure would take advantage of excluding Lens distortion contribution to overlay performance and lead to only mask error, alignment accuracy, stage accuracy consume the overlay main budget. But in practice, large overlay error still could be observed even single machine run on scanner that could not be tolerable by current device requirement. How come. Reticle interference effect with alignment laser beam had been demonstrated to dominate such large overlay error contribution. Solutions to control and eliminate this effect on CI foundry fab were also presented. An advanced feedforward/feedback control system would compensate such error in advance. Also ARC coating on mask quartz side that would eliminate the interference effect will be mentioned and proved to be effective way for better overlay control performance.

  6. Contribution of laser altimetry images to the geomorphology of the Late Holocene inland drift sands of the European Sand Belt

    OpenAIRE

    Jungerius, P. D.; Riksen, M. J. P. M.

    2010-01-01

    The paper explores the possibilities of applying the analysis of laser altimetry images to Dutch drift sands. All along the European Sand Belt, which stretches from Great Britain to the Ural Mountains, Late Glacial cover sands, river dunes and other ice–age deposits were reactivated as drift sand during the Holocene. New insights were obtained in three aspects of drift–sands geomorphology. First, the variety in forms of drift–sand landscapes is often described as chaotic. Laser altimetr...

  7. Invasive plants on disturbed Korean sand dunes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kee Dae

    2005-01-01

    The sand dunes in coastal regions of South Korea are important ecosystems because of their small size, the rare species found in this habitat, and the beautiful landscapes they create. This study investigated the current vegetative status of sand dunes on three representative coasts of the Korean peninsula, and on the coasts of Cheju Island, and assessed the conditions caused by invasive plants. The relationships between the degree of invasion and 14 environmental variables were studied. Plots of sand dunes along line transects perpendicular to the coastal lines were established to estimate vegetative species coverage. TWINSPAN (Two-Way Indicator Species Analysis), CCA (Canonical Correspondence Analysis), and DCCA (Detrended Canonical Correspondence Analysis) were performed to classify communities on sand dunes and assess species composition variation. Carex kobomugi, Elymus mollis, and Vitex rotundifolia were found to be the dominant species plotted on the east, the west, and the peripheral coasts of Cheju Island, respectively. Vegetation on the south coast was totally extinct. The 19 communities, including representative C. kobomugi, C. kobomugi- Ixeris repens, C. kobomugi- Oenothera biennis, E. mollis, Lolium multiflorum- Calystegia soldanella, and V. rotundifolia- C. kobomugi, were all classified according to TWINSPAN. Oenothera biennis and L. multiflorum were exotics observed within these native communities. CCA showed that invasive native and exotic species distribution was segregated significantly, according to disturbance level, exotic species number, gravel, sand and silt contents, as well as vegetation size. It further revealed that human disturbance can strongly favor the settlement of invasive and exotic species. Restoration options to reduce exotic plants in the South Korean sand dune areas were found to be the introduction of native plant species from one sand dune into other sand dune areas, prohibition of building and the introduction of exotic soils, and conservation of surrounding sand dune areas.

  8. Sound-producing dune and beach sands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, J. F.; Criswell, D. R.; Criswell, T. L.; Criswell, B. S.

    1976-01-01

    Acoustic and seismic outputs of booming sands and singing (squeaking) sands in response to shearing are investigated, with samples of silent sands studied for controls. A vertical-axis geophone buried at shallow depth and an air microphone were used in the studies. The frequency spectra of the acoustic and seismic responses, propagation delays, comparison of acoustic and seismic traces, grain size and grain surface texture, particle morphology, coherent behavior of grains in assemblages, and relation to prevalent local winds were studied. Mechanisms are still obscure and disputed; slumping and avalanches were induced artificially in some studies. Existence of booming dune phenomena on Mars or on the moon is conjectured.

  9. The kinetics of activation and deactivation in the process of water ozonising used for advanced oxidation of the dust waste from moulding sands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bali?ski

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Adding coal dust and organic carriers of the lustrous carbon to bentonite-bonded moulding sands in amounts justified by thetechnological regime and the use of cores and protective coatings based on organic compounds create serious threats to the environment.During thermal destruction of the individual components of moulding and core sands, some toxic organic compounds are emitted. They formthe majority of the Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAPs, and include mainly compounds like benzene, toluene, xylene, naphtalene, hexane,acetaldehyde, acrolein, aniline, cresol and cumene, their polycyclic derivatives, phenol, formaldehyde, and other similar matters. In thusformed dust waste, the amount of which constitutes about 20% of all the waste from foundries using traditional moulding and core sands, there are still full-value materials which can undergo total recycling, providing the HAPs are partially or totally removed from them. The article discusses some problems of the advanced oxidation of selected toxic chemical compounds present in bentonite-bonded moulding sands due to the effect of high temperature. The results of the investigations of the kinetics of the process of maximum water saturation with ozone (acting as an oxidiser and of the kinetics of the natural process of ozone decomposition to diatomic oxygen were presented. It has been stated that the maximum time of water saturation with ozone using an OZOMATIC OSC-MODULAR 4HC ozone generator and a 1m3 capacity tank with water is 60 minutes. After 30 minute break in the ozonising process, the ozone concentration in water decreases by 40 to 50%. To obtain maximum ozone concentration in water during the next ozonising cycle, it is necessary to have the ozone-generating device running for the next 30 minutes. The stabilisation of ozone concentration in water takes place only after the third ozonising cycle, when it reaches nearly 80%of the maximum value obtained after the first process cycle

  10. Oil sands : opportunities and challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepherd, R.L. [Husky Oil Operations Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2004-09-01

    Husky Energy's current state of business was outlined in this paper, along with predictions of future growth due to strong demand. Various commercial plans were outlined, with access to new markets expected to add value. Access and stakeholder management issues were examined. Resource opportunities were outlined. Key business challenges include project execution cost, schedules and operating commitments; commodity price risks; deriving full benefits for the full value chain; and management of stakeholder expectations. Husky's position and development strategy were reviewed, along with a map of lands currently owned and operated by Husky. Details of the Husky Tucker oil sands plant were provided, with lump sum figures and start-up dates. An update on the Sunrise project was presented, as well as details of perceived obstacles and opportunities. Details of the Steam-Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) process were presented with reference to in-situ thermal recovery process; horizontal well pairs; continuous injection of steam into the upper well; and bitumen and condensed steam that drain to the lower well by gravity. Reservoir properties were presented, with details of gross pay thickness, horizontal and vertical permeability. Resource factors for the success of SAGD were outlined. Other resource factors include a thick reservoir; high horizontal and vertical permeability; no laterally-continuous permeability barriers; and no thief zones. Future opportunities were outlined. tabs, figs.

  11. Grain size characteristics of dune sands in the central Taklimakan Sand Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xunming; Dong, Zhibao; Zhang, Jiawu; Qu, Jianjun; Zhao, Aiguo

    2003-09-01

    Compared with the sand grain size of the other sand seas, central Taklimakan Sand Sea has some of the finest sands seen globally. The dunes are composed of fine and very fine sands with a diameter between 2.00 and 4.00 ? (0.25-0.063 mm). There are differences in the grain size distributions for different dune types. Mean grain size of the compound/complex crescent dune sands is 3.08 ?; the compound dome dunes 3.21 ?; the compound/complex linear dune sands between 2.63 and 3.41 ?; and the star dunes 2.81 ?. From the northern edge of the sand sea towards southern edge, the components of fine and very fine sands increase, closely related to the wind regimes, time scale for dune development, and underlying sediments. Compared with the foregoing, there are some differences for the compound/complex linear dunes in the centre of Taklimakan. Though the pattern of coarser crests does exist, the sorting parameters indicate that the sands on the west flank of compound/complex linear dunes are better sorted than that on the east flank and crest. Sampling on the superimposed dunes developed on the surface of the complex linear dunes suggests that the patterns of finer crest, coarser crest all existed in central Taklimakan. Under the conditions of low energy wind regime when fine sand is available, the frequency of the pattern for finer crest and better sorting will increase. Sampling on the simple crescent dunes developed on the interdunes suggests that the simple dunes are developed originally with nearly the same grain size distributions and parameters. With the development of the dunes and evolution of the dune morphology, the grain size distributions of the dune sands varied under the actions of the wind regimes, time scale and underlying sediments.

  12. Geotechnical properties of crude oil contaminated sand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contamination of soil due to an oil spill influences its subsequent engineering behavior. An investigation was conducted to study the effect of crude oil contamination on compaction characteristics, shear strength, one-dimensional compression, and coefficient of permeability. Water permeability was also determined by using commercial grade motor oils as contaminants. The test results indicate that the compaction characteristics are influenced by oil contamination. The angle of internal friction of sand (based on total stress condition) decreases due to presence of oil within the pore spaces in sand. One dimensional compression characteristics of sand are significantly influenced by oil contamination resulting in a decrease in the value of constrained modulus with increase in the degree of oil contamination compared to the case of dry sand. Water permeability was observed to be a function of the initial viscosity and the degree of saturation due to the contaminating oil

  13. Direct laser sintering of a silica sand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As an application study of rapid prototyping, commercially available silica sand was successfully direct-laser-sintered in a self-developed high-temperature laser sintering equipment. The mechanism of powder-state sand becoming a solid state block during the laser sintering process was disclosed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis on sand particles and sintered samples. The effect of process parameters to the accuracy, strength and surface finish of sintered parts was investigated and thus a set of optimal parameters has been obtained for the sand sintering process. The feasibility of using this material and process to build casting moulds for metal casting was also investigated and discussed

  14. Sexing sand fly pupae (Diptera: Psychodidade: Phlebotominae)

    OpenAIRE

    Brazil Beatriz Gomes; Brazil Reginaldo Peçanha

    2000-01-01

    We describe a technique to separate male and female pupae of sand flies. This has reduced the labour to separate flies after emergence and also allows the isolation of unmated adults for behavioural and physiological studies.

  15. Establishment and maintenance of sand fly colonies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volf, P; Volfova, V

    2011-03-01

    Sand flies used to have a reputation for being difficult and labour-intensive to breed. Here we summarize our experience with establishment and maintenance of sand fly colonies and their use for infective experiments: techniques for collection and handling wild-caught females, rearing larvae and adults and experimental infections of sand flies by Leishmania using membrane feeding. In addition, we compare major life cycle parameters between various colonies maintained under standard laboratory conditions. The sand fly rearing is tricky but some species can be reared in large numbers with a minimum of space and equipment. Initiation of new colonies from endemic sites is a prerequisite for accurate studies on parasite-vector interaction but it is more difficult step than routine maintenance of colonies already established in laboratory for many generations. PMID:21366760

  16. Minimal model for aeolian sand dunes

    OpenAIRE

    Kroy, Klaus; Sauermann, Gerd; Herrmann, Hans J.

    2002-01-01

    We present a minimal model for the formation and migration of aeolian sand dunes. It combines a perturbative description of the turbulent wind velocity field above the dune with a continuum saltation model that allows for saturation transients in the sand flux. The latter are shown to provide the characteristic length scale. The model can explain the origin of important features of dunes, such as the formation of a slip face, the broken scale invariance, and the existence of...

  17. Erosion threshold of sand-mud mixtures

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobs, Walter; Le Hir, Pierre; Kesteren, Walther; Cann, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Results of a large number of erosion tests on artificially generated and relatively dense sand-mud mixtures are presented. Soil sample compositions are varied concerning clay-silt and sand-silt ratio, and clay mineralogy. The experimental set-up consists of a re-circulating small-scale rectangular erosion flume with unidirectional flow conditions. The erosion threshold and erosion rate are studied through step by step increasing the flow rate during a test. Results clearly indicate time-decre...

  18. Coagulation in clarifier with micro-sand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As water treatment play key role in power generation at thermal and nuclear power station. This article is devoted to determine effectiveness of water clarifier with use of micro-sand at Thermal power stations. Efficiency of coagulation with application of aluminum sulphate and flocculants is experimentally detected. Presented the result of the tests of clarifier with micro-sand and given conclusion on these results. (author)

  19. George Sand: últimas novelas, últimos ensueños...

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Àngels Santa

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A propósito de la obra de George Sand, Œuvres complètes.Sous la direction de Béatrice Didier. 1870, I :Malgrétout. Édition critique par Dominique Laporte (París, Honoré Champion, 2013, 247 p. ISBN : 9782745322968 y de George Sand, Œuvres complètes.Sous la direction de Béatrice Didier. 1876 :La Tour de Percemont. Édition critique par Dominique Laporte (París, Honoré Champion, 2013, 247 p. ISBN : 9782745322951.

  20. Dimensionless and unbiased CPT interpretation in sand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuttle, Dawn; Jefferies, Michael

    1998-05-01

    The cone penetration test (CPT) is widely used, and although initially developed as a stratigraphic logging tool its excellent repeatability and accuracy offers a benchmark quantitative test for sand in particular. A continuing difficulty, however, is that the CPT does not measure any soil property directly, so that parameters of interest must be recovered from solution of an inverse boundary value problem, which is difficult. To date most CPT interpretations in sand have been based on very limited calibration testing carried out in large chambers on a few sands from which mappings are developed. But there are differences in the CPT response from one sand to another leaving the interpretation imprecise (and arguably even speculative) because these differences remain poorly understood. In this paper we use the familiar spherical cavity expansion analogy to the CPT including large strains and a good, critical-state-based, soil model to develop a pattern of behaviour which we then compare to some of the reference chamber test data. We find that one of the issues of dispute in the empirical interpretation methods, the so-called stress-level effect, is caused by neglect of elasticity and that there are several additional parameters of first-order significance to cavity expansion in sands. More generally, we show that the difference in CPT response between various chamber sands in predicted. Our results are cast in dimensionless form and the inversion illustrates that extreme care is required in interpreting CPT data if the in situ sand state is to be determined with precision approaching that suggested as achievable by the repeatability of the CPT data itself. Aspects requiring particular care in interpreting CPT data in sand are discussed.

  1. Relationships of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera)

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Williams

    1993-01-01

    The status of phlebotomine sand flies in relationship to the family Psychodidae (Diptera) is reviewed. It is concluded that sand flies should be given familial recognition as Phlebotomidae, divided into subfamilies Phlebotominae and Bruchomyiinae. A comparison is made between the evolution of Psychodidae and Phlebotomidae, and it is concluded that the two families represent contrasting evolutionary experiments at an early stage of the diversification of Diptera.

  2. Flow behaviour of sand-water slurries.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vlasák, Pavel; Chára, Zden?k

    Cranfield , Bedforshire : BHR Group, 2010 - (Heywood, N.), s. 383-392 ISBN 978-1-85598-119-5. [International Conference on Hydrotransport /18./. Rio de Janeiro (BR), 22.09.2010-24.09.2010] R&D Projects: GA ?R(CZ) GAP105/10/1574 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20600510 Keywords : sand slurry * sand-kaolin slurry * flow behavior * pressure drop * particle size distribution effect * concentration effect * slurry peptisation Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics

  3. Phenolic removal processes in biological sand filters, sand columns and microcosms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welz, P J; Ramond, J-B; Cowan, D A; Burton, S G

    2012-09-01

    This study evaluated the removal processes involved in the removal of the phenolic component of winery wastewater in biological sand filters, sand columns and sand microcosms. It was found that at low influent phenolic concentrations, complete organic removal was accomplished, but at high concentrations, there was incomplete substrate removal and an accumulation of potentially toxic metabolites, including catechol. The sand provided a suitable substrate for the treatment of phenolic-laden waste, and both biotic (48%) and abiotic (52%) removal mechanisms effected the removal of model phenolics. Prior acclimation of microbial communities increased the biodegradation rate of phenolic acids significantly. PMID:22728790

  4. Influence of wall thickness of spheroidal cast iron, manufactured in the foundry METAL-ODLEW Sp.J., on its graphite shape index and ultrasonic control index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Or?owicz

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the results of ultrasonic evaluation of the microstructure of spheroidal cast iron manufactured under production condi-tions at the foundry of Metal Odlew Sp.J. Evaluation of ultrasonic control index sensitiveness to changes of graphite shape index Ss of spheroidal cast iron (type 500-7, utilized modelled stepped castings. The relationship was determined between the shape index of graphite precipitation Ss and the velocity of longitudinal ultrasonic wave cL.

  5. Correlation between work process-related exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and urinary levels of alpha-naphthol, beta-naphthylamine and 1-hydroxypyrene in iron foundry workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Åse Marie; Omland, Øyvind

    1994-01-01

    In two Danish iron foundries the concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in 24 personal air samples of workers employed in selected processes, i.e. melters, melted iron transporters, casters, machine molders, hand molders, shake-out workers and finishing workers, were measured and correlated to levels of 1-hydroxypyrene, alpha-naphthol and beta-naphthylamine in the urine of exposed workers. The highest total airborne PAH concentrations (sum of 15 selected PAH compounds: 9.6-11.2 micrograms/m3) were associated with casting, machine molding, and shake-out. The highest concentrations of the sum of six selected airborne carcinogenic PAH compounds were found for melting, casting and machine and hand molding. As seen in other working environments involving low-level PAH exposure, the content of naphthalene was high, in general exceeding 85% of the total content of PAH compounds. The present study demonstrates that 1-hydroxypyrene is a useful and direct biomarker of low-dose occupational exposure to PAH compounds. Molding and casting had the highest pyrene levels in iron foundries. Furthermore, the data shows that levels of beta-naphthylamine in urine are significantly elevated in iron foundry workers. Hand molders, finishing workers and truck drivers tended to have the highest levels. Concerning alpha-naphthol the highest concentrations were measured in urine from casters and shake-out workers. With regard to epidemiologic studies demonstrating that molders and casters have a higher risk of lung cancer, the present study suggests that the elevated risk may be due to exposure to carcinogenic PAH compounds in iron foundries, particularly in some high-risk work processes, e.g. casting and molding. In addition, the present study suggests that biological monitoring of 1-hydroxypyrene and beta-naphthylamine may be used to estimate the individual exposure, which seems to be correlated with exposure during individual work processes.

  6. Alpha spectrometric characterization of process-related particle size distributions from active particle sampling at the Los Alamos National Laboratory uranium foundry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium particles within the respirable size range pose a significant hazard to the health and safety of workers. Significant differences in the deposition and incorporation patterns of aerosols within the respirable range can be identified and integrated into sophisticated health physics models. Data characterizing the uranium particle size distribution resulting from specific foundry-related processes are needed. Using personal air sampling cascade impactors, particles collected from several foundry processes were sorted by activity median aerodynamic diameter onto various Marple substrates. After an initial gravimetric assessment of each impactor stage, the substrates were analyzed by alpha spectrometry to determine the uranium content of each stage. Alpha spectrometry provides rapid non-distructive isotopic data that can distinguish process uranium from natural sources and the degree of uranium contribution to the total accumulated particle load. In addition, the particle size bins utilized by the impactors provide adequate resolution to determine if a process particle size distribution is: lognormal, bimodal, or trimodal. Data on process uranium particle size values and distributions facilitate the development of more sophisticated and accurate models for internal dosimetry, resulting in an improved understanding of foundry worker health and safety.

  7. AN INTRODUCTION TO RAPID CASTING: DEVELOPMENT AND INVESTIGATION OF PROCESS CHAINS FOR SAND CASTING OF FUNCTIONAL PROTOTYPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Dimitrov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: This paper discusses the results obtained from studies on different Rapid Tooling process chains in order to improve the design and manufacture of foundry equipment that is used for sand casting of prototypes in final material. These prototypes are intended for functional and pre-production tests of vehicles. The Three Dimensional Printing process is used as core technology. Subsequently, while considering aspects such as time, cost, quality (accuracy and surface roughness, and tool life, a framework is presented for the evaluation and selection of the most suitable process chain in accordance with specific requirements. This research builds on an in-depth characterisation of the accuracy and repeatability of a 3D printing process.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Hierdie artikel bespreek die resultate wat verkry is tydens studies op verskillende Snel-Gereedskapvervaardigingproseskettings wat ondersoek is teneinde die ontwerp en vervaardiging van sandgietgereedskap, om prototipes in finale materiaal te vervaardig, te verbeter. Die prototipes is bestem vir gebruik in funksionele- en voorproduksietoetse van voertuie. Die sogenaamde Driedimensionele Drukproses (3DP is as kerntegnologie aangewend. Gevolglik, na oorweging van aspekte soos tyd, koste, kwaliteit (akkuraatheid en oppervlakafwerking, en gereedskapleeftyd, is ’n raamwerk ontwikkel vir die evaluering en seleksie van die mees geskikte prosesketting met inagname van spesifieke vereistes. Hierdie navorsing bou op ’n diepgaande karakterisering van die akkuraatheids- en herhaalbaarheidsvermoë van ’n 3D drukproses.

  8. The Effect of use the Silica Sand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahla N. Helal

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This research includes study the effects of use the silica sand at different rates and comparison some characteristics with other concrete mixture contains ordinary sand to investigate the effect on some mechanical properties of concrete such as compressive strength, density absorption and flexural strength after (3, 7, 14 and 28 days for four mixtures.  , the ordinary sand was replaced by the (Silica Sand at different rates ( 25%, 50%, 75%, 100%. Sodium Silicate solution at percentage of cement ratio(water to cement ratio is decreased on same ratio added to the Ideal silica sand mixture  to study the effect of addition of some additives on concrete. The study showed that the  best results of mixture was when  replaced (75% of the ordinary sand by silica sand , then study some mechanical properties of mixtures such as compressive strength, density absorption and flexural strength after (3, 7, 14 and 28 days .                             The study showed the optimum percentage of sodium silicate was (1.75%. The study showed that the best result of Density was (2493Kg/m3 after (28 days, and the increment ratio in Density was (2.95%, and the large value in compressive strength was (85.76 MPa which was (42.9% after (28 days. The study showed also that the best results of absorption were (0.77 after (28 days, and the decrement ratio in Absorption was (33.8%. The study showed that the best result of flexural strength was (8.02 MPa after (28 days, and the maximum increment ratio in Flexural Strength was (150.6% after (28 days.                                                                   

  9. Exposure of iron foundry workers to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons : benzo(a)pyrene-albumin adducts and 1-hydroxypyrene as biomarkers for exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Omland, O; Sherson, D

    1994-01-01

    Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in foundry workers has been evaluated by determination of benzo(a)pyrene-serum albumin adducts and urinary 1-hydroxypyrene. Benzo(a)pyrene binding to albumin and 1-hydroxypyrene were quantitatively measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), respectively. 70 male foundry workers and 68 matched controls were investigated. High and low exposure groups were defined from breathing zone hygienic samples, consisting of 16 PAH compounds in particulate and gaseous phase. Mean total PAH was 10.40 micrograms/m3 in the breathing zone, and mean dust adsorbed PAH was 0.15 microgram/m. All carcinogenic PAH was adsorbed to dust. Median benzo(a)pyrene-albumin adduct concentrations (10-90% percentiles) were similar in foundry workers (smokers 0.55 (0.27-1.00) and non-smokers 0.58 (0.17-1.15)) pmol/mg albumin and age matched controls (smokers 0.57 (0.16-1.45) and non-smokers 0.70 (0.19-1.55) pmol/mg albumin). Median 1-hydroxypyrene concentrations were significantly higher (P <0.0001) in smoking and non-smoking foundry workers (0.022 (0.006-0.075) and 0.027 (0.006-0.164)) mumol/mol creatinine than in smoking and non-smoking controls (0 (0-0.022) and 0 (0-0.010) mumol/mol creatinine). Dose-response relations between total PAH, pyrene, carcinogenic PAHs, and 1-hydroxypyrene for smokers, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons adsorbed to dust for non-smokers are suggested. Exposure to PAHs adsorbed to dust showed an additive effect. There was no correlation between the concentrations of 1-hydroxypyrene and benzo(a)pyrene-albumin adducts. The change in 1-hydroxypyrene over a weekend was also studied. Friday morning median 1-hydroxypyrene concentrations were significantly higher in both smokers and non-smokers (0.021 (0-0.075) and 0.027 (0.06-0.164)) mumol/mol creatinine than Monday morning median concentrations (0.007 (0-0.021) and 0.008 (0-0.021) mumol/mol creatinine). Smoking did not affect the concentrations of 1-hydroxypyrene or benzo(a)pyrene-albumin adducts. These data suggest that 1-hydroxypyrene is a sensitive biomarker for low dose PAH exposure. Exposure to PAHs may be aetiologically related to increased risk of lung cancer in foundry workers.

  10. Mitigating in situ oil sands carbon costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theriault, D.J.; Peterson, J. [Laricina Energy Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Heinrichs, H. [Canadian Chemical Technology Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2008-10-15

    Carbon capture and sequestration is a complex problem with a variety of dimensions that need to be considered. The political, social, and regulatory pressures are forcing carbon costs on the oil sands industry in an effort to reduce the carbon footprint of oil sands operations. This paper reviewed the political, social, and regulatory pressures and obligations for the in-situ oil sands industry. It presented the views and insights of Laricina Energy on the carbon challenge. It also described the initiatives that Laricina Energy is taking to manage these imperatives and outlined the challenges the industry is facing. The purpose of the paper was to encourage dialogue and collaboration by the oil sands industry. The paper also described the dimensions of the carbon problem and how the industry can contribute to a solution. Last, the paper reviewed the parameters of carbon dioxide or greenhouse gas containment and storage issues. It was concluded that the regulatory and policy requirements need to be clarified so that industry understands the new business landscape as well as the requirements that influence the economics of in-situ oil sands development. 7 refs., 7 figs.

  11. Significance of oil sands in North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The oil sands reserves in Alberta hold 1.6 trillion barrels of bitumen in-place, of which 315 billion barrels are recoverable with current technology. In 2002, 66 per cent of Canada's crude oil production came from Alberta, of which more than half came from Alberta's oil sands. It is estimated that there is more than 500 years of supply available at current production rates. Production is based on current surface mining and in-situ processing methods such as cyclic steam stimulation (CSS), steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD), and vapour extraction (VAPEX). The oil sands resource is currently marketed to Canadian and U.S. refineries, primarily in the Midwest United States. From 1996 to 2002, approximately $24 billion was invested in Alberta's oil sands resource. There are currently 21 commercial projects underway in Alberta. The largest market for Canadian exports is the United States. Reducing costs and increasing revenues are the two main opportunities to improve profitability for the oil sand industry. Other challenges facing the industry include societal pressures such as climate change, greenhouse gas emissions, water management, land use, Aboriginal involvement, and sustainable communities. 6 figs

  12. Thermoluminescent dosimetric properties of Descalvado sand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, M.I.; Caldas, L.V.E

    2006-07-01

    Sand samples proceeding from Descalvado, Sao Paulo, were studied with regard to their dosimetric properties using the thermoluminescence technique (TL) for high doses. These sand samples present steady physical and chemical characteristics to the end items, and they are used in the glass industry and for casting. The TL curves of the samples were obtained after an irradiation at the Gamma-Cell system ({sup 60} Co), of IPEN. The glow curves present two peaks at 80 C and 220 C approximately. Calibration curves were obtained for doses between 50 Gy and 5 kGy. The results indicate that the sand samples can be used for high-doses dosimetry in several areas of applications of ionizing radiation. (Author)

  13. Sustainability innovation foundry %3CU%2B2013%3E FY13 : merging research and operations.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizner, Jack Harry,; Passell, Howard David; Keller, Elizabeth James Kistin; Gordon, Margaret Ellen; McNeish, Jerry A. [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA; Sullivan, Kristina [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA

    2013-12-01

    Sustainability is a critical national security issue for the U.S. and other nations. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is already a global leader in sustainability science and technology (SS&T) as documented in this report. This report documents the ongoing work conducted this year as part of the Sustainability Innovation Foundry (SIF). The efforts of the SIF support Sandia's national and international security missions related to sustainability and resilience revolving around energy use, water use, and materials, both on site at Sandia and externally. The SIF leverages existing Sandia research and development (R&D) in sustainability science and technology to support new solutions to complex problems. The SIF also builds on existing Sandia initiatives to support transformation of Sandia into a fully sustainable entity in terms of materials, energy, and water use. In the long term, the SIF will demonstrate the efficacy of sustainability technology developed at Sandia through prototyping and test bed approaches and will provide a common platform for support of solutions to the complex problems surrounding sustainability. Highlights from this year include the Sustainability Idea Challenge, improvements in facilities energy use, lectures and presentations from relevant experts in sustainability [Dr. Barry Hughes, University of Denver], and significant development of the Institutional Transformation (IX) modeling tools to support evaluation of proposed modifications to the SNL infrastructure to realize energy savings.

  14. Declining metal levels at Foundry Cove (Hudson River, New York): Response to localized dredging of contaminated sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study examines the effectiveness of remediating a well-recognized case of heavy metal pollution at Foundry Cove (FC), Hudson River, New York. This tidal freshwater marsh was polluted with battery-factory wastes (1953-1979) and dredged in 1994-1995. Eight years after remediation, dissolved and particulate metals (Cd, Co, Cu, Pb, Ni, and Ag) were found to be lower than levels in the lower Hudson near New York City. Levels of metals (Co, Ni, Cd) on suspended particles were comparatively high. Concentrations of surface sediment Cd throughout the marsh system remain high, but have decreased both in the dredged and undredged areas: Cd was 2.4-230 mg/kg dw of sediment in 2005 vs. 109-1500 mg/kg in the same area in 1983. The rate of tidal export of Cd from FC has decreased by >300-fold, suggesting that dredging successfully stemmed a major source of Cd to the Hudson River. - Dredging of a hotspot of metal-contaminated sediment is associated with a recognizable local and river-wide decline in cadmium in the Hudson River, New York

  15. Evaluation of Synthetic Gypsum Recovered via Wet Flue-Gas Desulfurization from Electric Power Plants for Use in Foundries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Biernacki

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates possible use of waste gypsum (synthetic, recovered via flue-gas desulfurization from coal-fired electric powerplants, in foundries. Energy sector, which in Eastern Europe is mostly composed from coal-fired electric power plants, is one of the largestproducers of sulfur dioxide (SO2.In order to protect the environment and reduce the amount of pollution flue-gas desulfurization (FGD is used to remove SO2 fromexhaust flue gases of fossil-fuel power plants. As a result of this process gypsum waste is produced that can be used in practicalapplications.Strength and permeability tests have been made and also in-depth analysis of energy consumption of production process to investigateways of preparing the synthetic gypsum for casting moulds application. This paper also assesses the chemical composition, strength andpermeability of moulds made with synthetic gypsum, in comparison with moulds made with traditional GoldStar XL gypsum and withceramic molds. Moreover examination of structure of synthetic gypsum, the investigations on derivatograph and calculations of energyconsumption during production process of synthetic gypsum in wet flue-gas desulfurization were made.After analysis of gathered data it’s possible to conclude that synthetic gypsum can be used as a material for casting mould. There is nosignificant decrease in key properties, and on the other hand there is many additional benefits including low energy consumption,decreased cost, and decreased environmental impact.

  16. Sand control systems used in completing wells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Wittenberger

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Expandable Tubular Technology is transforming the face of well completion and construction. This technology provides: a substantially higher hydrocarbon production rates from the reservoir, a reduced well drilling and construction costs, new possibilities for previously unreachable or uneconomic reservoirs, and step a change towards the single diameter well. ESS (Expandable Sand Screen has an unrivalled performance worldwide for delivering a reliable sand control in a wide range of applications. Well costs typically cut by over 20 %, and the productivity increases up to 70 %.

  17. Queensland mineral comodity report: mineral sands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current status of the heavy mineral sands industry in Queensland is reviewed. The main minerals sought are rutile, ilmenite, zircon and monazite. Of these the titanium bearing minerals, rutile and ilmenite are the most important. A description of their phisical and chemical characteristics is given. It is shown that they occur in the Pleistocene to recent coastal deposits of beaches and dune systems backed by sand plains. These areas fringe the Queensland coastline almost continuously with average thicknesses from 25 to 30 meters. The status of current producers , production methods and rates are also briefly discussed. 12 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs

  18. Log-inject-log in sand consolidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method is described for gathering information for the determination of the adequacy of placement of sand consolidating plastic for sand control in oil and gas wells. The method uses a high neutron cross-section tracer which becomes part of the plastic and uses pulsed neutron logging before and after injection of the plastic. Preferably, the method uses lithium, boron, indium, and/or cadmium tracers. Boron oxide is especially useful and can be dissolved in alcohol and mixed with the plastic ingredients

  19. Zandmotor (sand motor): building with nature:

    OpenAIRE

    Mulder, J. P. M.; Stive, M. J. F.

    2011-01-01

    Our coast essentially consists of sand from the bottom of the North Sea that was laid there by rivers in previous interglacial periods. Increasing sea levels have meant that this source has gradually almost ceased to exist with build-up reversing to break down. The balance between the supply and demand for sediment is currently negative but sand supplementation can restore this balance. By scaling up supplementation we can ‘Build with Nature’ and so grow in a natural way as the sea level ...

  20. Creating fluid injectivity in tar sands formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegemeier, George Leo; Beer, Gary Lee; Zhang, Etuan

    2012-06-05

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. Methods for treating a tar sands may include heating a portion of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from one or more heaters located in the portion. The heat may be controlled to increase the permeability of at least part of the portion to create an injection zone in the portion with an average permeability sufficient to allow injection of a fluid through the injection zone. A drive fluid and/or an oxidizing fluid may be provided into the injection zone. At least some hydrocarbons including mobilized hydrocarbons are produced from the portion.

  1. Threshold for sand mobility on Mars calibrated from seasonal variations of sand flux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayoub, F; Avouac, J-P; Newman, C E; Richardson, M I; Lucas, A; Leprince, S; Bridges, N T

    2014-01-01

    Coupling between surface winds and saltation is a fundamental factor governing geological activity and climate on Mars. Saltation of sand is crucial for both erosion of the surface and dust lifting into the atmosphere. Wind tunnel experiments along with measurements from surface meteorology stations and modelling of wind speeds suggest that winds should only rarely move sand on Mars. However, evidence for currently active dune migration has recently accumulated. Crucially, the frequency of sand-moving events and the implied threshold wind stresses for saltation have remained unknown. Here we present detailed measurements of Nili Patera dune field based on High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment images, demonstrating that sand motion occurs daily throughout much of the year and that the resulting sand flux is strongly seasonal. Analysis of the seasonal sand flux variation suggests an effective threshold for sand motion for application to large-scale model wind fields (1-100?km scale) of ?(s)=0.01±0.0015?N?m(-2). PMID:25268931

  2. Threshold for sand mobility on Mars calibrated from seasonal variations of sand flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayoub, F.; Avouac, J.-P.; Newman, C. E.; Richardson, M. I.; Lucas, A.; Leprince, S.; Bridges, N. T.

    2014-09-01

    Coupling between surface winds and saltation is a fundamental factor governing geological activity and climate on Mars. Saltation of sand is crucial for both erosion of the surface and dust lifting into the atmosphere. Wind tunnel experiments along with measurements from surface meteorology stations and modelling of wind speeds suggest that winds should only rarely move sand on Mars. However, evidence for currently active dune migration has recently accumulated. Crucially, the frequency of sand-moving events and the implied threshold wind stresses for saltation have remained unknown. Here we present detailed measurements of Nili Patera dune field based on High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment images, demonstrating that sand motion occurs daily throughout much of the year and that the resulting sand flux is strongly seasonal. Analysis of the seasonal sand flux variation suggests an effective threshold for sand motion for application to large-scale model wind fields (1–100?km scale) of ?s=0.01±0.0015?N?m?2.

  3. Assessment of harmfulness of green sand with additions of dust from dry dedusting

    OpenAIRE

    Holtzer, M.; Bobrowski, A.

    2010-01-01

    Recently, in the literature about the problems cause to the environment by foundry industry, attention has been paid to the presence and harmful effect of aromatic hydrocarbons: benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and isomers of xylenes (BTEX) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The growing interest in these pollutants of the environment is a result of their biological activity; some of them are characterized by mutagenic and carcinogenic action. In foundries these hydrocarbons are emitte...

  4. Isotope fractionation due to evaporation from sand dunes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dune sand moisture isotope data and results from laboratory sand column experiments are reported. The evaporation process and the mechanisms producing the isotope fractionation depth profiles observed are discussed. (author)

  5. Compaction tests on quartz sand - bentonite mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report the results are presented of compaction tests on quartz sand - bentonite mixtures. The selected quartz sand exhibited a steep grading curve in the range 1 to 1.5 mm. The bentonites used were those previously investigated, i.e. the Na-bentonite MX-80 and the Ca-bentonite Montigel. The mixtures were statically compacted in a compaction mould. Altogether about 80 tests were carried out, in which the bentonite content was varied between roughly 20 and 50 % of the weight of sand and the compacting pressure was between 80 and 320 MN/m2. The tests showed that the pressures required to reach a given dry density of the bentonite filling the pores of the sand's grain structure were 10 to 20 times greater than those required for specimens of bentonite alone. It was also observed that the mixtures with MX-80 were easier to compact than those with Montigel. On the other hand, it was found that the specimens with MX-80 were more brittle, especially at low compacting pressures. Mixtures with 35 to 45 % Montigel compacted at pressures in the range 160 - 240 MN/m2 resulted in homogeneous, compact specimens with bentonite dry densities of about 1.5 Mg/m3. (author)

  6. Regional study of black sands radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concentrations of radioactive materials in black sand samples along the beach north to the Egyptian Delta were determined using ?-analysis and solid state nuclear track detector (SSNTD) techniques. 232Th was found with appreciable concentrations which amounts to 250 ppm in Rosetta mouth sample. In addition, the gamma exposure dose rates were calculated. (author)

  7. Sand and dust storm events in Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varoujan K. Sissakian

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Iraq is one of the most affected countries in the Middle East concerning the occurrences of sand and dust storms. The frequency of the occurrence has increased drastically in the last decade and it is increasing continuously. The events of sand and dust storms are either regional or local. The former, however, is more frequent than the latter. The regional event, generally extends outside the Iraqi territory, into different directions, but usually covers part of Syria, crossing the Iraqi territory towards Kuwait and Saudi Arabia, and/or towards the Arabian Gulf, and less frequently extends to Iran. The main causes in the development of sand and dust storms, in Iraq are discussed. The causes are also either regional or local. The former, however, causes more economic losses and harsh effect on the human’s health, as compared with the latter. One of the main reasons behind the development of sand and dust storms is the climatic changes within the region, especially the drastic decrease in the annual rate of rain fall, besides environmental changes, such as drying of the marshes, land degradation, and desertification. From the local causes, the most effective reason is the haphazard driving and military operations, especially in the Iraqi Southern Desert. Prudent management of water resources by using non-conventional resources and adapting suitable irrigation methods can greatly help to overcome this phenomenon and minimize the number of dust storm.

  8. TOXOPLASMOSIS IN SAND FOX (VULPUS RUEPPELLII)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatal toxoplasmosis was diagnosed in a sand fox (Vulpes rueppelli) from United Arab Emirates. Toxoplasma gondii-like tachyzoites were found associated with necrosis in intestine, spleen, liver, pancreas, lungs, mesenteric lymph nodes, and the heart. Ttachyzoites reacted positively with T. gondii-spe...

  9. Oil sands tailings : technology developments and regulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houlihan, R.H.; Mian, M.H.; Lord, E.R. [Energy Resources Conservation Board, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Alberta's Energy Resources Conservation Board (ERCB) has recently introduced a new regulation for tailings derived from oil sands mining operations. The regulation requires that 50 per cent of oil sands fines must be permanently disposed of in designated disposal areas (DDA). Tailings in the DDA that are less than 44 {mu}m must be removed, or remediated in place. This paper discussed the technology required to meet regulatory requirements as well as the impact of the regulation on current tailings practices in the oil sands industry. A history of technology innovations and field pilot studies conducted to evaluate mature fine tailings techniques was presented. Long-term objectives related to tailings management now include the elimination of long-term storage of fluid tailings; reducing stored process-affected waste water volumes; and ensuring that the liability for tailings is managed through the reclamation of tailings ponds. The study concluded that there is a lack of successful technologies for managing MFT in oil sands operations. 29 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs.

  10. Radiation safety in Australia's mineral sands industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This brochure is part of a training package aiming to explain in simple terms what radiation is, how it affects people's lives and how, in the specific case of the mineral sand industry, the risk of ill-effects from low-level radioactivity could be effectively guarded against by simple and easily followed safety precautions. ills

  11. Market opportunities and challenges for oil sands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of Alberta bitumen as a clean fuel depends on upgrading, transportation, and refining processes. Forecasts show that oil sands production, which includes synthetic crude oil (SCO), will surpass declining conventional production from the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin. The challenges facing the oils sands processing industry include: crude oil prices which affect the producer's market; market expansion options; diluent availability/cost; supply cost competitiveness; and, regional processing. The common market issues include light/heavy crude prices, oil sands crude qualities, prices of oil sands crudes, pipeline infrastructure, and competitive supplies. The issues facing the refiners are: refining margins, security of crude supply, refined product quality, and competitive product supply. It was noted that Alberta must retain or increase its share of the Midwest market. The market expansion options were reviewed for both downstream (refining) and upstream (upgrading) operations. New pipeline capacity is needed to reach more distant markets such as Southern Midwest, Washington, and California. The market is nearly saturated for Canada's heavy oil supply. More upgrading will be required as bitumen production increases. Market growth is still possible for Canada's SCO but according to forecasts, the market could also become saturated. To increase demand and allow supplies to grow, SCO prices may fall below light crude prices. It was noted that a balance must be aces. It was noted that a balance must be achieved in order for producers to increase production and for refiner/upgraders to expand their conversion capacity. 13 figs

  12. Expandable sand screens: from novel concept to proven sand control technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metcalfe, Paul; Jones, Colin; Ballard, Tracey; Beare, Steve; Hillis, Dave [Weatherford International Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    2004-07-01

    Expandable Sand Screens (ESS) have proved a viable alternative to gravel packing for sand control. With over 300 installations worldwide, analysis of their use has confirmed that ESS offers excellent production performance and sand control reliability in Open hole. This paper presents details of a global survey on ESS performance that gives accurate information on production performance, sand exclusion reliability and cost effectiveness in Open hole and cased hole application scenarios. This paper also discusses the role and effect of compliant expansion in observed productivity performance and skin values. The rock mechanical, reservoir characterization and metallurgical requirements of ESS systems are also investigated. Finally, the latest advances of the technology for use within the reservoir are explained. This paper demonstrates how the combination of ESS and Expandable Zonal Isolation devices can offer cased hole functionality (in terms of zonal isolation) in combination with Open hole levels of production performance (from the ESS). (author)

  13. New Method for Estimation of Aeolian Sand Transport Rate Using Ceramic Sand Flux Sensor (UD-101

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiko Udo

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a new method for the estimation of aeolian sand transport rate was developed; the method employs a ceramic sand flux sensor (UD-101. UD-101 detects wind-blown sand impacting on its surface. The method was devised by considering the results of wind tunnel experiments that were performed using a vertical sediment trap and the UD-101. Field measurements to evaluate the estimation accuracy during the prevalence of unsteady winds were performed on a flat backshore. The results showed that aeolian sand transport rates estimated using the developed method were of the same order as those estimated using the existing method for high transport rates, i.e., for transport rates greater than 0.01 kg m–1 s–1.

  14. Canada's oil sands industry: Yesterday, today, and tomorrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The discovery and the development of the Athabasca oil sands were reviewed in detail. Background was provided to show when the oil sands became a feasible resource for development. Key events were noted on a time line from the discovery of the oil sands to 1994. The state of industrial development at the time of writing was discussed with respect to operators and infrastructure. Plans for future development were outlined with estimates of potential benefits. A glossary of oil sands terms was provided

  15. Imaging of Acoustic Waves in Sand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deason, Vance Albert; Telschow, Kenneth Louis; Watson, Scott Marshall

    2003-08-01

    There is considerable interest in detecting objects such as landmines shallowly buried in loose earth or sand. Various techniques involving microwave, acoustic, thermal and magnetic sensors have been used to detect such objects. Acoustic and microwave sensors have shown promise, especially if used together. In most cases, the sensor package is scanned over an area to eventually build up an image or map of anomalies. We are proposing an alternate, acoustic method that directly provides an image of acoustic waves in sand or soil, and their interaction with buried objects. The INEEL Laser Ultrasonic Camera utilizes dynamic holography within photorefractive recording materials. This permits one to image and demodulate acoustic waves on surfaces in real time, without scanning. A video image is produced where intensity is directly and linearly proportional to surface motion. Both specular and diffusely reflecting surfaces can be accomodated and surface motion as small as 0.1 nm can be quantitatively detected. This system was used to directly image acoustic surface waves in sand as well as in solid objects. Waves as frequencies of 16 kHz were generated using modified acoustic speakers. These waves were directed through sand toward partially buried objects. The sand container was not on a vibration isolation table, but sat on the lab floor. Interaction of wavefronts with buried objects showed reflection, diffraction and interference effects that could provide clues to location and characteristics of buried objects. Although results are preliminary, success in this effort suggests that this method could be applied to detection of buried landmines or other near-surface items such as pipes and tanks.

  16. FLUIDIZATION BEHAVIOR OF WOOD/SAND MIXTURES

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Bram J, Ramakers; Ronny, de Ridder; Piet J.A.M, Kerkhof.

    Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english In conversion of biomass to secondary energy carriers, several routes are possible, such as gasification, combustion and pyrolysis. In many of these processes it is necessary or advantageous to dry the biomass before further processing. For wooden biomass, fluidized bed drying in superheated steam i [...] s a promising option. Given the difficulty to fluidize wood particles alone, it is very common to fluidize these kinds of particles with sand. This also gives better defined fluidization behavior. Especially when the wood particles come in various size and shape (i.e. from sawdust to chopped wood), this gives a more reliable scale-up. Also heat transfer to the wood particles may benefit from the use of sand. However, not much is known about fluidization behavior in pressurized steam of binary mixtures with large particle size ratio and large particle density ratio. Therefore minimum fluidization velocity and bed porosity of wood/sand mixtures in air have been experimentally determined and compared to correlations known from literature. The experimental values show a clear trend, but correlations from literature appear not to be very accurate. So more experiments have to be done to find a correlation that gives more accurate predictions in case of the specific particles used in this work. From segregation experiments could be found that, to keep the wood/sand bed well-mixed, finer sand (0.1-0.5 mm) with maximum 10 weight-% wood should be used, and the superficial gas velocity should be at least 3-4 times the minimum fluidization velocity

  17. 77 FR 75007 - Importation of Sand Pears From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-19

    ...0579-AD42 Importation of Sand Pears From China AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection...sand pears (Pyrus pyrifolia) from China into the United States. As a condition of entry, sand pears from areas in China in which the Oriental fruit fly...

  18. Supercritical-Fluid Extraction of Oil From Tar Sands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, L. E.

    1982-01-01

    New supercritical solvent mixtures have been laboratory-tested for extraction of oil from tar sands. Mixture is circulated through sand at high pressure and at a temperature above critical point, dissolving organic matter into the compressed gas. Extract is recovered from sand residues. Low-temperature super-critical solvents reduce energy consumption and waste-disposal problems.

  19. Optimum procedures for calibrating acoustic sand detector, gas field case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibrahim, M. [Suez Canal Univ., Ismailia (Egypt); Haugsdal, T. [ClampOn, Laksevaag, Bergen (Norway)

    2008-07-01

    For many decades, sand production from unconsolidated formations in oil and gas wells has been a global challenge for the petroleum industry. The challenge lies in avoiding or stopping sand production and in maintaining commercial well productivity after efforts to control sand have been implemented. In order to help in detecting sand production, this paper presented the optimum procedures for calibrating the ClampOn sand detector. This sand injector unit is a mobile piece of equipment that is used to convey small quantities of sand into oil and gas production streams. The paper discussed the calibration of sand injections; sand type; dry gas well calibration; effect of sensor location; the effect of water production on sand detector for a dry gas well; and condensate gas well calibration. The paper also discussed the effect of water production and choke change in sand detector response. It was concluded that the acoustic sand detector was very sensitive to choke change which could act like a gas meter to track the change in well rate and choke change. 6 refs., 4 tabs., 11 figs.

  20. Investigation of the sand sea with the tallest dunes on Earth: China's Badain Jaran Sand Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Zhibao; Qian, Guangqiang; Lv, Ping; Hu, Guangyin

    2013-05-01

    China's Badain Jaran Sand Sea features the tallest dunes on Earth and a unique mega-dune-lake landscape. It had been explored little until the 1990s, though early scientific explorations surrounding the sand sea had begun by the early 20th century. Heated debates now focus on the desert environment, and particularly how the mega-dunes and desert lakes develop and evolve. This paper reviews the status of these debates and summarizes the supporting evidences. The environmental research mainly concerns formation and evolution of the sand sea, and its relationship with climate change. The proposed formation time ranges from the Early Pleistocene to the Holocene. Opinions vary about climate change on different time scales. The reconstructed climate change history is shorter than the sand sea's history, with the longest record extending to the Late Pleistocene. The mega-dune research focuses on sediments, dune morphology, and formation processes. It remains unclear whether the mega-dunes result primarily from wind action, control by the underlying topography, or groundwater maintenance. The sources of lake water are also debated, but there are four main hypotheses: atmospheric precipitation, groundwater from nearby areas, precipitation and snowmelt in remote areas such as the Qilian Mountains and the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, or paleowater that formed during past periods of wet climate. We believe that the sand sea deserves further study in terms of its dune geomorphology, evolution, and hydrology, and their responses to climate change. Meteorological and hydrological observations and monitoring in the sand sea are particularly necessary.

  1. Air pollution inside a small bronze foundry plant, measured by the energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this paper was to evaluate the chemical concentration of some elements in Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) inside a small bronze (copper and zinc alloy) foundry plant. Using a rotating streaker air-particulate sampler, it was possible to collect fine (aerodynamic diameters between 2.5 to 10 ?m) and coarse particulates (aerodynamic diameters larger than 10 ?m) in strips deposited on membranes, during eight hours, with a twenty minutes step. This first fraction is particularly important, because it can reach the lung alveoli and, depending on their chemical composition and concentration, cause serious damage to the health. Each sample strip, containing the deposited SPM was analyzed by energy dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) technique, using in the excitation a collimated the X-ray beam coming from a Mo target tube (30 kV, 20 ma, Zr filter). For collimating it was used a bronze collimator with 72 mm long, 10 mm at entrance diameter and 5 x 0.5 mm rectangular slit at exit. The characteristic X-ray detection was carried out using a Si(Li) semiconductor detector coupled to a multi-channel analyzer, and the X-ray spectra were fitted with the AXIL software. The temporal profiles for twelve chemical elements are evaluated. The critical moment to the worker health in that industrial activity was during the molding process, when high concentration peaks for toxic chemical elements were measured: Zn, Pb, Cu e Ni in the fine and coarse fractions, and Cr in thefine and coarse fractions, and Cr in the coarse fraction. The Pb concentration found in the suspended particulate was shown very superior to the maximum level established by WHO, suggesting a constant monitoring of the atmosphere in these work places.(Author)

  2. Inhalation exposure of lead in brass foundry workers: the evaluation of the effectiveness of a powered air-purifying respirator and engineering controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Que Hee, S S; Lawrence, P

    1983-10-01

    The protection that a powered air-purifying respirator afforded to ladle and furnace attendants who were exposed to lead, copper and zinc fumes in a brass foundry was found by measuring metal levels at the lapel and at nose level inside the respirator. Respirator fit was evaluated by use of a hot-wire anemometer at the face/Tyvek seal interfaces, and at the exit of the respirator. Effective protection factors for lead ranged from 1.05 to 67. Ergonomic factors and engineering controls are also discussed. PMID:6650396

  3. The Rheology of Acoustically Fluidized Sand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, J. W.; Melosh, J.

    2013-12-01

    The collapse of large craters and the formation of central peaks and peak rings is well modeled by numerical computer codes that incorporate the acoustic fluidization mechanism to temporarily allow the fluid-like flow of rock debris immediately after crater excavation. Furthermore, long runout landslides require a similar mechanism to explain their almost frictionless movement, which is probably also a consequence of their granular composition coupled with internal vibrations. Many different investigators have now confirmed the ability of vibrations to fluidize granular materials. Yet it still remains to fully describe the rheology of vibrated sand as a function of stress, frequency and amplitude of the vibrations in the sand itself. We constructed a rotational viscometer to quantitatively investigate the relation between the stress and strain rate in a horizontal bed of strongly vibrated sand. In addition to the macroscopic stain rate, the amplitude and frequency of the vibrations produced by a pair of pneumatic vibrators were also measured with the aid of miniaturized piezoelectric accelerometers (B&K 4393) whose output was recorded on a digital storage oscilloscope. The initial gathering of the experimental data was difficult due to granular memory, but by having the sand compacted vibrationally for 8 minutes before each run the scatter of data was reduced and we were able to obtain consistent results. Nevertheless, our major source of uncertainty was variations in strain rate from run to run. We find that vibrated sand flows like a highly non-Newtonian fluid, in which the shear strain rate is proportional to stress to a power much greater than one, where the precise power depends on the amplitude and frequency of the applied vibrations. Rapid flow occurs at stresses less than half of the static yield stress (that is, the yield stress when no vibration is applied) when strong vibrations are present. For a Newtonian fluid, such as water, the relation between strain rate and stress is linear. In our experiments we found that the shear strain rate is proportional to shear stress raised to the powers 5.9 and 8.4 at frequencies of 8.5 kHz and 7.4 kHz and increasing amplitude of vibration, respectively. This demonstrates that vibrated sand behaves as a strongly nonlinear pseudo-plastic material that, like glacier ice, can also be approximated as a Bingham material with a rate-dependent yield stress. The flow of acoustically fluidized granular materials provides a reasonable explanation of crater collapse, long runout landslides, and other events involving large masses of granular material.

  4. The physics of wind-blown sand and dust

    CERN Document Server

    Kok, Jasper F; Michaels, Timothy I; Karam, Diana Bou

    2012-01-01

    The transport of dust and sand by wind is a potent erosional force, creates sand dunes and ripples, and loads the atmosphere with suspended dust aerosols. This article presents an extensive review of the physics of wind-blown sand and dust on Earth and Mars. Specifically, we review the physics of aeolian saltation, the formation and development of sand dunes and ripples, the physics of dust aerosol emission, the weather phenomena that trigger dust storms, and the lifting of dust by dust devils and other small-scale vortices. We also discuss the physics of wind-blown sand and dune formation on Venus and Titan.

  5. The physics of wind-blown sand and dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transport of sand and dust by wind is a potent erosional force, creates sand dunes and ripples, and loads the atmosphere with suspended dust aerosols. This paper presents an extensive review of the physics of wind-blown sand and dust on Earth and Mars. Specifically, we review the physics of aeolian saltation, the formation and development of sand dunes and ripples, the physics of dust aerosol emission, the weather phenomena that trigger dust storms, and the lifting of dust by dust devils and other small-scale vortices. We also discuss the physics of wind-blown sand and dune formation on Venus and Titan. (review article)

  6. Dynamic characteristics of quaternary sand-gravel deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There had been few researches and experiments concerned with the dynamic characteristics of sand-gravel, so far. But the number of report concerned with the dynamic characteristics of sand-gravel are increasing gradually now. This report provides a brief introduction to the basic dynamic characteristics of sand-gravel: initial shear modulus, cyclic deformation property, liquefaction resistance, settlement of ground, based on the recent researches and experiments. And this report describes the dynamic properties of sand-gravel deposit in comparison with those of sand and clay. (author)

  7. The physics of wind-blown sand and dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Jasper F; Parteli, Eric J R; Michaels, Timothy I; Karam, Diana Bou

    2012-10-01

    The transport of sand and dust by wind is a potent erosional force, creates sand dunes and ripples, and loads the atmosphere with suspended dust aerosols. This paper presents an extensive review of the physics of wind-blown sand and dust on Earth and Mars. Specifically, we review the physics of aeolian saltation, the formation and development of sand dunes and ripples, the physics of dust aerosol emission, the weather phenomena that trigger dust storms, and the lifting of dust by dust devils and other small-scale vortices. We also discuss the physics of wind-blown sand and dune formation on Venus and Titan. PMID:22982806

  8. Analysis of Wind-blown Sand Movement over Transverse Dunes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hong; Huang, Ning; Zhu, Yuanjian

    2014-12-01

    Wind-blown sand movement often occurs in a very complicated desert environment where sand dunes and ripples are the basic forms. However, most current studies on the theoretic and numerical models of wind-blown sand movement only consider ideal conditions such as steady wind velocity, flat sand surface, etc. In fact, the windward slope gradient plays a great role in the lift-off and sand particle saltation. In this paper, we propose a numerical model for the coupling effect between wind flow and saltating sand particles to simulate wind-blown sand movement over the slope surface and use the SIMPLE algorithm to calculate wind flow and simulate sands transport by tracking sand particle trajectories. We furthermore compare the result of numerical simulation with wind tunnel experiments. These results prove that sand particles have obvious effect on wind flow, especially that over the leeward slope. This study is a preliminary study on windblown sand movement in a complex terrain, and is of significance in the control of dust storms and land desertification.

  9. Oil sands tailings preliminary ecological risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemical data collected from various oil sands soil-tailings mixtures were used to determine the ecological risk that such tailings would pose to terrestrial wildlife at the surface of a reclaimed site. A methodology that could be used to evaluate the risks posed by various reclamation options (for dry land only) was proposed. Risks associated with other reclamation options, such as wet landscapes or deeper in-pit disposal, were not evaluated. Ten constituents (eight organic and two inorganic) were found to pose a threat to terrestrial biota. The relative contribution of different exposure pathways (water and food ingestion, incidental soil ingestion, inhalation) were studied by probabilistic models. Some physical and chemical reclamation alternatives which involve incorporating oil sands tailings in the landscape to produce a surface that could sustain a productive ecosystem, were described. 53 refs., 15 tabs., 3 figs

  10. Longshore sediment transport at Golden Sands (Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hristo Nikolov

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of studies on the qualitative and quantitative features of the littoral drift at Golden Sands (Bulgaria, carried out jointly by Polish and Bulgarian researchers. The mathematical modelling of physical coastal processes took wave transformation (wave diffraction and refraction; the effects of shoaling and wave breaking and longshore sediment transport into account. The computations were carried out for the mean statistical annual wave climate, determined on the basis of IO BAS wave data, simulated using the WAM method from long-term Black Sea wind data. The results of sediment transport computations clearly show that its direction off the Golden Sands shore is from north to south.

  11. Adding value to Alberta's oil sands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper addressed some of the challenges facing Alberta's oil sand industry with particular reference to diluent availability. Oil sand production in Alberta is currently greater than conventional oil production. In 2003, production of bitumen and synthetic crude oil was close to one million BPD, while conventional oil production was 630,000 BPD. Alberta's bitumen production is expected to triple by the year 2030, if all new projects currently planned take place as scheduled. The need for additional bitumen and synthetic crude oil markets, as well as additional upgrading/refining capacity, has prompted several studies to evaluate new markets and product options, including the production of a wide range of refined products and petrochemical feedstocks, from bitumen. This paper reviewed the results of these studies, and discussed the feasibility of adding value to Alberta's oil sands. Interest in evaluating bitumen for producing petrochemicals stems from the dwindling supply of feedstock for Alberta's ethane-based petrochemical industry. Two industry/government studies evaluated different process schemes for integrating oil sands, refining and petrochemical operations and convert heavy gas oils into both refined products and petrochemicals. Since market demand for fuels and refined products exceeds that for petrochemicals, the performance characteristics of the heavy oil conversion processes are important to optimize the volume ratios of the products to meet market vme ratios of the products to meet market volume demands. The authors reviewed different heavy oil processing technologies focusing on olefin to fuel product ratios and flexibility to change these ratios. The review includes conventional non-catalytic thermal (steam) cracking, as well as catalytic processes. These technologies are at different stages of commercial development for production of fuels and olefins, and must be evaluated and adapted to meet Alberta's aromatic bitumen-derived heavy gas oils. 8 refs., 3 tabs., 8 figs

  12. Colloidal radionuclide migration in sand aquifer systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groundwater of a selected organic rich aquifer from the Gorleben site is used, as this has been well characterized during earlier work and it contains substantial amounts of humic colloids. In such groundwaters tracer amounts of trivalent 152Eu/241Am and hexavalent 233U metal ions are found to be mainly bound on humic colloids. The transport behaviour of such colloids through sands columns from a Gorleben aquifer system is being investigated. 1 ref., 2 figs

  13. Biogenic crust dynamics on sand dunes

    OpenAIRE

    Kinast, Shai; Meron, Ehud; Yizhaq, Hezi; Ashkenazy, Yosef

    2012-01-01

    Sand dunes are often covered by vegetation and biogenic crusts. Despite their significant role in dune stabilization, biogenic crusts have rarely been considered in studies of dune dynamics. Using a simple model, we study the existence and stability ranges of different dune-cover states along gradients of rainfall and wind power. Two ranges of alternative stable states are identified: fixed crusted dunes and fixed vegetated dunes at low wind power, and fixed vegetated dunes ...

  14. Reflection of internal waves by sand ripples

    OpenAIRE

    Uma Basu; Samiran Mandal

    1995-01-01

    An investigation is made to study the diffraction of a train of time harmonic progressive waves propagating along the surface of separation of two superposed fluids which are laterally unbounded, the upper fluid being extended infinitely upwards, the lower fluid being of finite depth with sand ripples at the bottom. The first order correction to the velocity potential for the problem of diffraction of interface waves in the presence of bottom deformation is obtained by integral transform tech...

  15. Growing markets to sustain oil sands development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The utilization of Alberta bitumen for the clean fuels market depends on upgrading, transportation, and refining processes. Forecasts show that oil sands production, which includes synthetic crude oil (SCO), will surpass declining conventional production in Western Canada. Several issues pose a challenge to the oil sands processing industry. The producers' market is affected by crude oil prices, market expansion options, diluent availability/cost, supply cost competitiveness, and regional processing. The common market issues include light/heavy crude prices, oil sands crude qualities, prices of oil sands crudes, pipeline infrastructure, and competitive supplies. The issues facing the refiners are: refining margins, security of crude supply, refined product quality, and competitive product supply. A brief review of markets for Canadian crude oil, including synthetic crude, was provided. The share of the Midwest market by Alberta must be retained and increased. The market expansion options were reviewed for both downstream (refining) and upstream (upgrading) operations. To reach more distant markets such as Southern Midwest, Washington, and California, new pipeline capacity would be required. The market is nearly saturated for Canada's heavy oil supply. More upgrading will be required as bitumen production increases. Market growth is still possible for Canada's SCO but according to forecasts, the market could also become saturated. To increase demand and allow supplies ed. To increase demand and allow supplies to grow, SCO prices may fall below light crude prices. It was noted that a balance must be achieved in order for producers to increase production and for refiner/upgraders to expand their conversion capacity. tabs., figs

  16. Direct numerical simulations of aeolian sand ripples

    OpenAIRE

    Duran, Orencio; Claudin, Philippe; Andreotti, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    Aeolian sand beds exhibit regular patterns of ripples resulting from the interaction between topography and sediment transport. Their characteristics have been so far related to reptation transport caused by the impacts on the ground of grains entrained by the wind into saltation. By means of direct numerical simulations of grains interacting with a wind flow, we show that the instability turns out to be driven by resonant grain trajectories, whose length is close to a rippl...

  17. Guide to preparing SAND reports. Revised

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Locke, T.K. [ed.

    1996-04-01

    This guide contains basic information needed to produce a SAND report. Its guidelines reflect DOE regulation and Sandia policy. The guide includes basic writing instructions in an annotated sample report; guidance for organization, format, and layout of reports produced by line organizations; and information about conference papers, journal articles, and brochures. The appendixes contain sections on Sandia`s preferred usage, equations, references, copyrights and permissions, and publishing terms.

  18. Denitrification in a Sand and Gravel Aquifer

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Richard L.; Duff, John H.

    1988-01-01

    Denitrification was assayed by the acetylene blockage technique in slurried core material obtained from a freshwater sand and gravel aquifer. The aquifer, which has been contaminated with treated sewage for more than 50 years, had a contaminant plume greater than 3.5-km long. Near the contaminant source, groundwater nitrate concentrations were greater than 1 mM, whereas 0.25 km downgradient the central portion of the contaminant plume was anoxic and contained no detectable nitrate. Samples we...

  19. Tension Tests On Bored Piles In Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    KrabbenhØft, Sven; Clausen, Johan

    2006-01-01

    De borede pæles længde lå i intervallet 2 m til 6 m og havde alle en diameter på 140 mm. Pælenes brudbæreevne i træk blev målt og last-flytningskurver bestemt. Undersøgelserne har vist en udtalt forskel mellem bæreevnerne i sand bestemt ved forskellige projekteringsmetoder. Metoderne foreslået af Fleming et al. (1992) og Reese & O'Neil (1988) synes at give de bedste overénstemmelser med de eksperimentielt bestemte værdier.

  20. Energetic Instability Unjams Sand and Suspension

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Yimin; Liu, Mario

    2004-01-01

    Jamming is a phenomenon occurring in systems as diverse as traffic, colloidal suspensions and granular materials. A theory on the reversible elastic deformation of jammed states is presented. First, an explicit granular stress-strain relation is derived that captures many relevant features of sand, including especially the Coulomb yield surface and a third-order jamming transition. Then this approach is generalized, and employed to consider jammed magneto- and electro-rheolo...

  1. Comparison of SAND-II and FERRET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comparison was made of the advantages and disadvantages of two codes, SAND-II and FERRET, for determining the neutron flux spectrum and uncertainty from experimental dosimeter measurements as anticipated in the FFTF Reactor Characterization Program. This comparison involved an examination of the methodology and the operational performance of each code. The merits of each code were identified with respect to theoretical basis, directness of method, solution uniqueness, subjective influences, and sensitivity to various input parameters

  2. Collaborative production management for oil sands operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, Andrew [Matrikon (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    This paper gives an overview of the collaborative production management of oil sands operations. Some characteristics of oil sands operations include oil treatment, hydro treating, diluent addition, logistics, and environmental impact assessments. Some of the business challenges include regulatory uncertainty, a fluid workforce and a technology still in the process of being developed. Improvement is only possible when process is assessed and measured; hence, production data management is very important. Production data measurements encompass such areas as planning, documentation and transactions. Regulatory data reporting is represented using a flow chart. The concepts of business application architecture and functional reference modeling are also explained. Benchmarking plays a vital role, some aspects of which would be technology, automation and integration. Certain advantages of timely assessment are increased production, equity, and goodwill as well as reduction in costs, risk, and capital requirements. The relevance and importance of collaboration, awareness of web technology and aggregate information are also explained. From the study, it can be concluded that the key to overall improvement in the oil sands industry will be improved production management.

  3. Recycled sand in lime-based mortars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanidou, M; Anastasiou, E; Georgiadis Filikas, K

    2014-12-01

    The increasing awareness of the society about safe guarding heritage buildings and at the same time protecting the environment promotes strategies of combining principles of restoration with environmentally friendly materials and techniques. Along these lines, an experimental program was carried out in order to investigate the possibility of producing repair, lime-based mortars used in historic buildings incorporating secondary materials. The alternative material tested was recycled fine aggregates originating from mixed construction and demolition waste. Extensive tests on the raw materials have been performed and mortar mixtures were produced using different binding systems with natural, standard and recycled sand in order to compare their mechanical, physical and microstructure properties. The study reveals the improved behavior of lime mortars, even at early ages, due to the reaction of lime with the Al and Si constituents of the fine recycled sand. The role of the recycled sand was more beneficial in lime mortars rather than the lime-pozzolan or lime-pozzolan-cement mortars as a decrease in their performance was recorded in the latter cases due to the mortars' structure. PMID:25266158

  4. New production techniques for alberta oil sands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrigy, M A

    1986-12-19

    Low world oil prices represent a serious threat to expanded commercial development of the Canadian oil sands in the near term, as they do to all of the higher cost alternatives to crude oil such as oil shales and coal liquefaction. Nonetheless, research and field testing of new technology for production of oil from oil sands are being pursued by industry and government in Alberta. New production technology is being developed in Canada to produce synthetic oil from the vast resources of bitumen trapped in the oil sands and bituminous carbonates of northern Alberta. This technology includes improved methods of mining, extraction, and upgrading of bitumen from near-surface deposits as well as new drilling and production techniques for thermal production of bitumen from the more deeply buried reservoirs. Of particular interest are the cluster drilling methods designed to reduce surface disturbance and the techniques for horizontal drilling of wells from underground tunnels to increase the contact of injection fluids with the reservoir. PMID:17816505

  5. Stone heave field experiment in sand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolstrup, Else; Thyrsted, Tage

    2011-06-01

    Movements of 24 cm large globes and cuboids of granite, concrete and wood were recorded during four and a half years. The objects were buried at three different depths in well-sorted sand in a natural cool temperate environment. All objects moved during the experiment and at the end most wood objects, which had a relatively low thermal conductivity had moved up, and the granite and concrete objects with higher thermal conductivities had sunk a little or remained almost in place. Also the soil surface moved and its final height was up to 1 cm above that at the start. The movements of the objects started within a few hours after temperature shifts around 0 °C with the granite reacting more readily than the wood. It is hypothesized that the movements are related to the thermal properties of the objects and the soil. The experiment was done in parallel with an experiment in clayey silt and the net results in sand show clear parallels to the movements of similar objects in the silt. It is concluded that the material and shape of the object are more important to movements than whether they are embedded in sand or silty clay.

  6. Measurement of natural radioactivity in sand samples collected from the Baoji Weihe Sands Park, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xinwei, Lu; Xiaolan, Zhang

    2006-08-01

    The activity concentrations and the gamma-absorbed dose rates of the primordial naturally occurring radionuclides 226Ra, 232Th and 40K were determined for sand samples collected from the Baoji Weihe Sands Park, China, using ?-ray spectrometry. The natural radioactivity concentration of sand ranges from 10.2 to 38.3 Bq kg-1 for 226Ra, 27.0 to 48.8 Bq kg-1 for 232Th and 635.8 to 1,126.7 Bq kg-1 for 40K with mean values of 22.1, 39.0 and 859.1 Bq kg-1, respectively. The concentrations of these radionuclides are compared with the typical world values and the average activity of Chinese soil. The measured activity concentration of 226Ra and 232Th in sand is lower than the world average while that of 40K is higher. . To evaluate the radiological hazard of the natural radioactivity, the radium equivalent activity, the external hazard index, the absorbed dose rate, and the effective dose rate have been calculated and compared with internationally approved values. The radium equivalent activity values of all sand samples are lower than the limit of 370 Bq kg-1. The values of the external hazard index are less than unity. The mean outdoor air absorbed dose rate is 69.6 nGy h-1 and the corresponding outdoor effective dose rate is 0.085 mSv y-1.

  7. Proposal to negotiate an amendment to an existing blanket contract for the supply of foundry services in quarter-micron CMOS technology for the LHC experiments

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    This document concerns the proposal to negotiate an amendment to an existing blanket contract for the supply of foundry services in quarter-micron CMOS technology for the LHC experiments. For the reasons explained in this document, the Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of an amendment to the blanket contract for the supply of foundry services in quarter-micron CMOS technology with the company IBM TECHNOLOGY GROUP (CH), formerly IBM ITALIA (IT), for an extension of the period of validity from five to eight years and for an amount exceeding the previously authorised amount of 8 500 000 US dollars by up to 6 500 000 US dollars, not subject to revision, bringing the total contract amount to a maximum amount of 15 000 000 US dollars, not subject to revision. At the present rate of exchange, the total amended amount of the blanket contract is equivalent to approximately 19 800 000 Swiss francs. This requirement will be financed by the collaborating institutes of the LHC experiments and by CER...

  8. Small Strain Behaviour and Viscous Effects on Sands and Sand-Clay Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Benedetto, H.

    This lecture paper focuses on sands and sand-clay mixtures behaviour in the small strain domain. Non viscous and viscous components are measured, identified and modelled within the framework of a 3 component model. Two precision prototype devices (triaxial and hollow cylinder) both equipped with piezoelectric sensors are used. Non viscous measured behaviour considering small quasi-static cycles and wave properties are compared with simulations obtained from 2 recently formulated anisotropic hypoelastic models (DBGS and DBGSP). Then, viscous experimental part is compared with the proposed model prediction. This model is an asymptotic expression, for the small strain domain, of a viscous evanescent formalism proposed by the author. It takes into account very peculiar behaviour observed on sands. Simulation for loadings with and without rotation of axes and for different rate histories, are quite satisfactory.

  9. Water availability in peat-mineral mixes and sands in oil sands reclamation, NE Alberta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soil productivity is a function of the soil's ability to provide moisture to plants. This study was initiated by Suncor and Syncrude to determine the water holding capacity of peat-mineral mixtures in the oil sands region. Other concepts dealt with in this presentation include soil drainage classification, soil moisture regime classification, soil permeability, the hydrological regime and the interactions of these phenomena. A further objective was to incorporate this information in a publication entitled 'Land capability classification for forest ecosystems in the oil sands region', scheduled to be released in November 1997

  10. Compaction resistant wellbore for sand-producing wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shute, D.M. [Volant Products Inc., Edmonton, AB (Canada); Kaiser, T.M.V. [Noetic Engineering Inc., Edmonton, AB (Canada); Munoz, H. [Husky Oil Operations Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    This paper presents a solution to extend the life of a well in high sand producing fields. The economic value of cold heavy oil production depends on maximizing the rate of oil production and well life. One strategy in heavy oil sands is to produce the sand with the oil to increase the deliverability of the well. However, the cumulative sand volume from the reservoir can be very large, resulting in large vertical deformations relative to the elastic strain limit of the steel and liner through the producing interval. A compaction resistant wellbore (CRW) with better structural capacity was designed to absorb the axial compaction. A review of deformation mechanisms associated with sand production strategies has shown that improved deformation assessment tools and measurement systems can provide accurate casing deformation evaluations. A case study from a high sand-producing field showed that this approach can increase well life. 10 refs., 9 figs.

  11. Radiometric Characterization of Sand in Northeast Sinai

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thirty-eight locations covering an area of 350 km2 in northeast Sinai were investigated by gamma-ray spectroscopy using a 50% HPGe detector. The limits of area are Al-Arish North, El-Hasana South, El-Oga East, and El- Gifgafa West. The range of activity concentrations of 238U, 234Th, 226Ra, 232Th and 40K are 0.6-35.2, 3.9-22.6, 4.7-29.6, 4.7-23.9, and 108-295 Bq/kg for sands, respectively. 137Cs in the region ranged from 0.1-8.0 Bq/kg. No major difference between the studied area and that previously investigated in the costal area in North Sinai. Reliable correlations (R2 = 0.8-0.9) among 238U, 234Th, and 226Ra isotopes was obtained. On the other hand, low correlation (R2 = 0.6-0.7) was obtained from the analysis of the isotopes of 238U-seies and 232Th. No evidence of correlation between the concentrations of radioisotopes and pH contents, TOM, and grain size were found. The soil-plant transfer factor are 226Ra and 232Th, 40K, and 137Cs, respectively. The wild vegetations collected from the studied area have average concentrations of 1.9, 1.4, 1.3, 254, and 0.3 for 234Th, 226Ra, 232Th, 40K, and 137Cs, respectively. The average concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K in water samples collected from five wells are 0.02, 0.02, and 1.1 Bq/l, respectively. The average absorbed dose rate for the sand samples were calculated to be 19.4 n Gy h-1. The Raeq activities of the sands are lower than the recommended maximum value of 370 Bq kg-1 criterion limit of Raeq activity for building materials

  12. A toxicity assessment of oil sands wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was conducted to characterize the fractions responsible for the acute toxicity of oil sand wastewaters and to compare the relative sensitivity of Microtox, Daphnia magna, and rainbow trout to the toxic fractions. The second objective of the study was to assess the potential of the mixed-function oxygenase (MFO) system in rainbow trout as an indicator of exposure to sublethal concentrations of oil sand tailings water. All and ca 85% of the acute toxicity of surface tailings water and fine tails interstitial water respectively, as measured using the Microtox assay, was due to organic acid surfactants. Organic acids accounted for all the acute toxicity of surface tailings water to Daphnia and rainbow trout. However, Daphnia were 0.4 times less sensitive and rainbow trout were 3 times more sensitive than Microtox to these acids. The MFO system in rainbow trout responded rapidly, following a definable concentration-response relationship; however, it proved to be a relatively insensitive indicator of sublethal exposure to oil sand tailings water. Increased activity and maximal induction, as a result of exposure to 0.3 and 0.6 toxic units (TU), occurred rapidly within 24 h of exposure. Maximal induction required 0.4-0.8 TU of this wastewater. The absolute level of maximal induction was only 1/5 to 1/6 of the potential induction as found in response to the positive control, 0.5 mg/kg ?-naphthoflavone. The sensitivity of this system was further compromised when the unystem was further compromised when the undesirably very high no observed effect and lowest observed effect concentrations of 0.15 TU and 0.2 TU were considered. The acutely toxic organic acids may have been responsible for the observed MFO induction and speculation in support of this hypothesis is presented. 68 refs., 7 figs., 9 tabs

  13. 'Sharks Teeth' -- Sand Dunes in Proctor Crater

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    Sometimes, pictures received from Mars Global Surveyor's Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) are 'just plain pretty.' This image, taken in early September 2000, shows a group of sand dunes at the edge of a much larger field of dark-toned dunes in Proctor Crater. Located at 47.9oS, 330.4oW, in the 170 km (106 mile) diameter crater named for 19th Century British astronomer Richard A. Proctor (1837-1888), the dunes shown here are created by winds blowing largely from the east/northeast. A plethora of smaller, brighter ripples covers the substrate between the dunes. Sunlight illuminates them from the upper left.

  14. Tour of Park Geology: Sand Dunes

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Park Geology site provides links to tours of individual National Parks, Monuments, and Recreation Areas with sand dunes. Where appropriate for each park, links are provided to maps, photographs, geologic research, related links, visitor information, and teacher features (resources for teaching geology with National Park examples). The list includes places such as Death Valley and Mojave National Preserve, along with less well-known areas such as the Pictured Rocks National Lakeshore in Michigan and the Wright Brothers National Memorial in North Carolina.

  15. Biogenic crust dynamics on sand dunes

    CERN Document Server

    Kinast, Shai; Yizhaq, Hezi; Ashkenazy, Yosef

    2012-01-01

    Sand dunes are often covered by vegetation and biogenic crusts. Despite their significant role in dune stabilization, biogenic crusts have rarely been considered in studies of dune dynamics. Using a simple model, we study the existence and stability ranges of different dune-cover states along gradients of rainfall and wind power. Two ranges of alternative stable states are identified: fixed crusted dunes and fixed vegetated dunes at low wind power, and fixed vegetated dunes and active dunes at high wind power. These results suggest a cross-over between two different forms of desertification.

  16. Radiogenic heavy minerals in Brazilian beach sand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sand samples collected on the beaches of the 'radioactive' Brazilian town of Guarapari were first separated by flotation in bromoform and successively divided into various magnetic fractions with a Franz isodynamic separator. concentrations of background radionuclides in samples of monazite, ilmenite, and zircon were determined by a ?-ray spectrometer. Chemical composition of monazite, ilmenite and magnetite were assessed by means of an electron microprobe. Monazite resulted to be relatively rich in ThO2 whose abundance ranged from 5.3 to 7.7 (wt%). (author)

  17. Undrained Cyclic Behaviour of Dense Frederikshavn Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, SØren Kjær; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2013-01-01

    A modified contour diagram is created for the Frederikshavn Sand in the undrained case for a relative density of ID = 80 %. It can be used to estimate the number of cycles to failure for a given combination of pore pressure, average and cyclic load ratio. The diagram is based on a series of undrained cyclic triaxial tests, which have been performed at the Geotechnical Laboratory at Aalborg University. In order to ensure offshore conditions, the tests were fully saturated and performed with a relative density of 80 %. During cyclic loading, special attention was given to the development of pore pressure and deformation.

  18. Heating tar sands formations to visbreaking temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanikas, John Michael (Houston, TX); Colmenares, Tulio Rafael (Houston, TX); Zhang, Etuan (Houston, TX); Marino, Marian (Houston, TX); Roes, Augustinus Wilhelmus Maria (Houston, TX); Ryan, Robert Charles (Houston, TX); Beer, Gary Lee (Houston, TX); Dombrowski, Robert James (Houston, TX); Jaiswal, Namit (Houston, TX)

    2009-12-22

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. Methods may include heating at least a section of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from a plurality of heaters located in the formation. The heat may be controlled so that at least a majority of the section reaches an average temperature of between 200.degree. C. and 240.degree. C., which results in visbreaking of at least some hydrocarbons in the section. At least some visbroken hydrocarbon fluids may be produced from the formation.

  19. REMOVAL OF ARSENIC FROM SAND FILTRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Parag Dalal

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of removal of arsenic from ground water using iron oxide and sand filtration is been found and the outcome says they are one of the best natural technique. The arsenic is removed with Single, Double and Triple filters with efficiency of 70-58%, 83-90% and 88-96% respectively. The higher is the percentage of arsenic in ground water the lower will be the efficiency. This study also concludes that the life of ferric oxide disk is about 16-17 months which indicates it as a low cost process.

  20. The stress-strain and strength characteristics of Portaway Sand

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Jun

    2005-01-01

    Despite the large number of modifications proposed to the standard Cam-clay models over the last three decades, the critical state concept has been much less successful for modelling sand behaviour. This thesis is concerned with understanding the stress-strain and strength characteristics of Portaway sand, a quartz sand, and the validity of several recently developed critical state models formulated in terms of the state parameter concept. The laboratory investigation consisted of the eva...

  1. Stabilization of Dune Sand with Ceramic Tile Waste as Admixture

    OpenAIRE

    Ameta, Dr N. K.

    2013-01-01

    The Dune-Sand has nil cohesion and thus has a very low compressive strength. The stabilization of Dune-Sand is of prime importance since it can be used for various construction works and highways, airfields and helipads projects. The investigation reported herein presents a study of stabilization of Dune- Sand with Ceramic Tiles Wastage as admixture. All the California Bearing Ratio tests were conducted at maximum dry density and optimum moisture content as arrived from Standard Proctor Test....

  2. Strength properties of moulding sands with chosen biopolymer binders

    OpenAIRE

    Dobosz, St M.; Major-gabrys?, K.

    2010-01-01

    The article presents the results of primary researches of the IV generation moulding sands, in which as the binders are used differentbiodegradable materials. The bending and the tensile strength of the moulding sands with polylactide, poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid),polycaprolactone, polyhydroxybutyrate and cellulose acetate as binders were measured. The researches show that the best strengthproperties have the moulding sands with polylactide as binder. It was proved that the tested moulding s...

  3. Overview of Canada's oil sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-01-01

    Oil sands are mixtures of sand, bitumen and water. The Alberta Energy and Utilities Board estimates that there are more than 300 billion barrels of oil sands that are recoverable under current technologies. By comparison, Saudi Arabia's current proved conventional oil reserves are estimated at 260 billion barrels. This overview of Canada's oil sands demonstrates the importance of the oil sands to the North American energy mix. Oil sands will become a significant percentage of Canada's total oil production. The vast oil sands reserves in Canada also represent a long-term and secure source of oil supply for the United States. Canada's oil sands reserves provide a huge, long life resource base with no exploration risk. Projects typically have 30 to 50 year reserve lives with no decline curves. Oil sand producers have strong, predictable growth profiles and oil sands projects have a very attractive fiscal regime in Alberta. Operating costs for projects continue to decline. Historically, oil sands producers have produced strong reserves and have enjoyed a significant cost advantage over conventional producers. Major oil sands mining projects currently underway in the Athabasca region include the Syncrude Base Mine, North Aurora, Suncor Base Mine, Suncor's Millennium Project, and Muskeg River. Major in-situ projects are underway at Cold Lake, Wolf Lake, Primrose, Foster Creek, MacKay River, Christina Lake, Firebag, and Hangingstone. Many others are under development. Bitumen blend and synthetic crude oil are transported from the various field facilities to major hubs in Alberta by one of many pipelines. They can easily access the primary markets in eastern Canada, PADD II and PADD IV. Secondary markets offshore and in PADD V are accessed by ship. tabs., figs.

  4. Design of Screens for Sand Control of Wells

    OpenAIRE

    Ján Pinka; Marina Sidorová

    2006-01-01

    Drilling, completion, production, and reservoir engineers, supervisors, foremen, superintendents, service company personnel, technologists and anyone involved with recommending, selecting, designing or on-site performance of well completions or workovers where sand production is, or may become, a serious problem will benefit from this course. Less sand influx can be expected in a horizontal well than in a vertical well. If horizontal holes in weak formation sands can be successfully gravel pa...

  5. A soil emergence trap for collections of phlebotomine sand flies

    OpenAIRE

    Casanova Cláudio

    2001-01-01

    The identification of breeding sites of sand flies is of great epidemiological interest. A soil emergence trap for investigating potential sand fly breeding sites is described. The trap was tested in two rural areas in the Mogi Guaçu River Valley where the American cutaneous leishmaniasis is an endemic disease. Seventy-three sand fly individuals of three species, Lutzomyia intermedia s. l., L. whitmani and L. pessoai, were collected on the forest floor and peridomicile.

  6. A soil emergence trap for collections of phlebotomine sand flies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casanova Cláudio

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The identification of breeding sites of sand flies is of great epidemiological interest. A soil emergence trap for investigating potential sand fly breeding sites is described. The trap was tested in two rural areas in the Mogi Guaçu River Valley where the American cutaneous leishmaniasis is an endemic disease. Seventy-three sand fly individuals of three species, Lutzomyia intermedia s. l., L. whitmani and L. pessoai, were collected on the forest floor and peridomicile.

  7. Sand flies, Leishmania, and transcriptome-borne solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Fabiano; Jochim, Ryan C.; Valenzuela, Jesus G.; Kamhawi, Shaden

    2008-01-01

    Sand fly-parasite and sand fly-host interactions play an important role in the transmission of leishmaniasis. Vector molecules relevant for such interactions include midgut and salivary proteins. These potential targets for interruption of propagation of Leishmania parasites have been poorly characterized. Transcriptomic analysis has proven to be an effective tool for identification of new sand fly molecules, providing exciting new insights into vector-based control strategies against leishma...

  8. Quality stabilisation of synthetic sand containing bentonite in process lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fedoryszyn

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Stabilisation of sand quality requires the monitoring and control of sand moisture contents and its other parameters at each stage of sandprocessing, i.e. during the preparation of return sand mix and rebonding processes. Stabilisation of sand quality necessitates the use of reliable control equipment and evaluation procedures. This study outlines the scope and results of research work aimed to improve the control equipment to enhance the performance of turbine mixers. The paper reviews the measurement and control systems and equipment available from domestic manufactures and the evaluationprocedures based on the principles of statistic process control.

  9. A review of sanding mechanisms in cold heavy oil production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, X. [Alberta Research Council, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Nouri, A. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    Cold Heavy Oil Production with Sand (CHOPS) is an enhanced oil recovery method whose economic viability depends on the optimization of the sanding rate. In order to maximize wellbore productivity, the sanding mechanisms and the geometry of the sanded zones under various field conditions must be well understood and predicted. The many parameters that influence the sanding mechanism and the cavity geometry were explored in this study. There are 3 basic mechanisms that are associated with wellbore productivity in CHOPS operations, notably uniform sanding from around the well; wormhole development; and a mixed mechanism of wormhole development and sanding from around the well. The factors that determine which mechanism will result include the rock properties of the geologic formation; reservoir fluid properties; completion techniques; and operational conditions. This paper reviewed field observations, experimental investigations and mathematical studies to provide evidence of these influencing factors on sanding mechanisms. Formation homogeneity, weak granular interlocking and axisymmetric completions increased the chances of uniform sanding. However, the possibility of wormhole development increased with formation heterogeneity, high granular interlocking and completions with localized features.

  10. Reuse of waste cutting sand at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathews, S., LLNL

    1998-02-25

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) examined the waste stream from a water jet cutting operation, to evaluate the possible reuse of waste garnet sand. The sand is a cutting agent used to shape a variety of materials, including metals. Nearly 70,000 pounds of waste sand is generated annually by the cutting operation. The Environmental Protection Department evaluated two potential reuses for the spent garnet sand: backfill in utility trenches; and as a concrete constituent. In both applications, garnet waste would replace the sand formerly purchases by LLNL for these purposes. Findings supported the reuse of waste garnet sand in concrete, but disqualified its proposed application as trench backfill. Waste sand stabilized in ac concrete matrix appeared to present no metals-leaching hazard; however, unconsolidated sand in trenches could potentially leach metals in concentrations high enough to threaten ground water quality. A technical report submitted to the San Francisco Bay Regional Water Quality Control Board was reviewed and accepted by that body. Reuse of waste garnet cutting sand as a constituent in concrete poured to form walkways and patios at LLNL was approved.

  11. Numerical modeling of wind-blown sand on Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, HaoJie; Bo, TianLi; Zheng, XiaoJing

    2014-09-01

    Recent observation results show that sand ripples and dunes are movable like those on Earth under current Martian climate. And the aeolian process on Mars therefore is re-attracting the eyes of scientific researchers in different fields. In this paper, the spatial and temporal evolution of wind-blown sand on Mars is simulated by the large-eddy simulation method. The simulations are conducted under the conditions of both friction wind speed higher and lower than the "fluid threshold", respectively. The fluid entrainment of the sand particles, the processes among saltation sand particles and sand bed, and the negative feedback of sand movement to flow field are considered. Our results show that the "overshoot" phenomenon also exists in the evolution of wind-blown sand on Mars both temporally and spatially; impact entrainment affects the sand transport rate on Mars when the wind speed is smaller or larger than the fluid threshold; and both the average saltation length and height are one order of magnitudes larger than those on Earth. Eventually, the formulas describing the sand transport rate, average saltation length and height on Mars are given, respectively. PMID:25236498

  12. Bioclogging and Biocementation in Construction of Water Pond in Sand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, J.; Ivanov, V.; Stabnikov, V.; Li, B.

    2012-12-01

    Conventionally, compacted bentonite, geosynthetic clay liner or plastic liners are used to seal ponds, channels, and reservoirs in sand. Recently, a new approach to form a low permeability layer of several centimetres thick through the microbially induced calcium carbonate precipitation (MICP) process has been developed (Chu et al., 2012). This method has been adopted to build a laboratory scale water pond model in sand. Calcium solution for bioclogging and biocementation was supplied initially by spaying to form a layer of the clogged sand by precipitation in the pores and then by slow percolation from solution above sand surface, which formed a crust of calcite. This combination of bioclogging and biocementation formed a sand layer of 1 - 3 cm depth with low permeability. The permeability of sand after this treatment was reduced from the order of 10^-4 m/s to 10^-7 m/s when an average 2.1 kg of Ca per m^2 of sand surface was precipitated. The bending strengths of the walls and the base of the model pond were in the range of 90 to 256 kPa. The unconfined compressive strengths obtained from samples from the walls and the base were in the range of 215 to 932 kPa. The graded sand and uniform supply of calcium solution were used for the model pond construction but it was significant spatial three-dimensional heterogeneity of sand bioclogging and biocementation.

  13. Oblique second-order sand transport pathways on an intertidal sand flat in a natural tidal inlet system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernstsen, Verner Brandbyge; Lefebvre, Alice

    2013-01-01

    A detailed digital elevation model (DEM) of an intertidal sand flat in the Knudedyb tidal inlet in the Danish Wadden Sea, derived from high-resolution Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR) data, reveals a large elongated bedform field with complex bedform morphologies and drainage channel networks. This indicates distinct second-order sand transport pathways oblique to the main tidal transport pathways. A conceptual model for the development of the bedforms and channels is presented, which comprises hypotheses of the hydrodynamic forcing of the different second-order sand transport pathways. During flood tide, sand is transported along ESE-oriented pathways across the intertidal flat towards the inner tidal basin. During the late stages of ebb tide, sand is transported in drainage channels (WSWoriented) from the intertidal flat towards the inlet channel. During storm events with winds from SW, wave-generated currents transport sand along a NE-oriented transport pathway from the inlet channel towards the intertidal flat.

  14. Experimental Study on Superfine Sand Concrete Mixed by Double Mixing Technology

    OpenAIRE

    yuqing zhao

    2013-01-01

    Traditional concept thought that medium sand and fine sand can be used to mix concrete, superfine sand can not used to mix concrete. This makes the source of superfine sand limited. With the shortage of medium sand and fine sand, it is imperative to exploit the resource of superfine sand. Superfine sand concrete is mixed by means of Double-doped Technology-ultra-fine fly ash and super plasticizer. Primary factor influencing superfine sand concrete strength is studied by orthogonal test, the o...

  15. Western Gas Sands Project: status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-05-01

    Progress of the major government sponsored projects undertaken to increase gas production from low permeability gas sands of the western United States during March 1978 is summarized. The Bartlesville Energy Research Center (BERC) and participating National Laboratories, funded by DOE, are continuing their work in the area of research and development. The emphasis is on the development of new tools and instrumentation systems, rock mechanics, mathematical modeling and data analysis. Field Tests and demonstrations active in the Uinta and Piceance Basins include: Gas Producing Enterprises (GPE) Natural Buttes Unit Wells No. 9, 14, 18, 19, 20, 21 and 22, Mobil Research and Development Corporation, Well No. F-31-13G, and Rio Blanco Natural Gas Company, Well No. 498-4-1. Gas Producing Enterprises Natural Buttes Unit Well No. 9 was fractured on March 27, 1978. The treatment consisted of 554,000 pounds of sand and 349,000 gallons of gel. Mitchell Energy Corporation of Houston, Texas was awarded Department of Energy Contract EF-78-C-08-1547 on March 15, 1978. Field work under this contract is scheduled to begin on June 15, 1978, with the drilling of a new well.

  16. Falling sand tests on various coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manetti, M.; Zonfrillo, G.; Pratesi, F. [Florence Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Meccanica e Tecnologie Industriali; Giovannetti, I. [GE Oil and Gas - Nuovo Pilnone, Florence (Italy)

    2010-07-01

    Abrasive wear is responsible for severe machine parts and in particular of compressor impellers. Methods of increasing service lifetime are based on employment of abrasion resistant materials or more frequently of the creation of hard, wear-resistant surface layers. In this work a bare aluminium alloy and the same alloy with four different coatings have been tested at room temperature, in order to verify their resistance to falling abrasive. Following standard ASTM D968-93, tests have been performed using a precise quantity of sand as abrasive and letting it fall on the sample with a standard apparatus: two different kinds of sand have been used, in order to obtain also information on the influence of composition and Grain size of the abrasive on material resistance. Determinations of hardness, roughness, weight loss, and morphology of the eroded surface have also been carried out. The comparison between the coatings in vestilated has been performed on the basis of the thickness decrease of the samples. (orig.)

  17. Microstructural characterization of a Canadian oil sand

    CERN Document Server

    Dinh, Hong Doan; Nauroy, Jean-François; Tang, Anh-Minh; Souhail, Youssef; 10.1139/T2012-072

    2013-01-01

    The microstructure of oil sand samples extracted at a depth of 75 m from the estuarine Middle McMurray formation (Alberta, Canada) has been investigated by using high resolution 3D X-Ray microtomography ($\\mu$CT) and Cryo Scanning Electron Microscopy (CryoSEM). $\\mu$CT images evidenced some dense areas composed of highly angular grains surrounded by fluids that are separated by larger pores full of gas. 3D Image analysis provided in dense areas porosity values compatible with in-situ log data and macroscopic laboratory determinations, showing that they are representative of intact states. $\\mu$CT hence provided some information on the morphology of the cracks and disturbance created by gas expansion. The CryoSEM technique, in which the sample is freeze fractured within the SEM chamber prior to observation, provided pictures in which the (frozen) bitumen clearly appears between the sand grains. No evidence of the existence of a thin connate water layer between grains and the bitumen, frequently mentioned in th...

  18. Removal of microcystins by slow sand filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grützmacher, Gesche; Böttcher, Gabriele; Chorus, Ingrid; Bartel, Hartmut

    2002-01-01

    To assess the elimination potential of slow sand filters for cyanobacterial hepatotoxins (microcystins), two full-scale experiments were conducted using the German Federal Environment Agency's experimental field in Berlin, Germany. One experiment was carried out with dissolved microcystins extracted from a cyanobacterial bloom on one of Berlin's lakes, dosed as short-term, single-pulse application. The other experiment simulated natural conditions more closely, with a longer-term exposure of the filter to living cyanobacterial cells (collected from the same lake) so that most toxins were initially contained inside the cells. The microcystins were detected by ELISA and HPLC/photodiode array detector and subsequently identified by MALDI-TOF MS. The experiment with dissolved microcystins yielded very high elimination rates (>95%) inside the filter bed attributed to biodegradation, whereas retardation by adsorption was low. The obtained half-lives for the microcystins detected by ELISA were about 1 h. The second experiment, which was with mostly cell-bound microcystins, showed similar results during the first days after application of cyanobacteria (elimination >85%). As the population declined in late autumn, the proportion of extracellular to cell-bound microcystins increased. At the same time the elimination rates declined to values <60%. This decline is most likely attributable to retarded biodegradation at temperatures of <4 degrees C. Altogether the results of the experiments show that under moderate temperatures, with an intact schmutzdecke (biofilm) with previous contact with microcystins, slow sand filtration is an effective treatment for eliminating microcystins from drinking water. PMID:12203961

  19. Sulfur biogeochemistry of oil sands composite tailings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, Lesley; Stephenson, Kate [Earth Sciences, McMaster University (Canada)], email: warrenl@mcmaster.ca; Penner, Tara [Syncrude Environmental Research (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    This paper discusses the sulfur biogeochemistry of oil sands composite tailings (CT). The Government of Alberta is accelerating reclamation activities on composite tailings. As a CT pilot reclamation operation, Syncrude is currently constructing the first freshwater fen. Minor unpredicted incidents with H2S gas released from the dewatering process associated with these reclamations have been reported. The objective of this study is to ascertain the connection between microbial activity and H2S generation within CT and to assess the sulfur biogeochemistry of untreated and treated (fen) CT over seasonal and annual timescales. The microbial geochemical interactions taking place are shown using a flow chart. CT is composed of gypsum, sand, clay and organics like naphthenic acids and bitumen. Sulfur and Fe cycling in mining systems and their microbial activities are presented. The chemistry and the processes involved within CT are also given along with the results. It can be said that the diverse Fe and S metabolizing microorganisms confirm the ecology involved in H2S dynamics.

  20. Oil sands tailings leachability and toxicity evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fine tailings disposal and reclamation is a major issue facing the oil sands mining and extraction industry. Government regulations dictate that reclamation must return the site to a level of self-sustaining biological capability which approximates the natural condition. A two-phase laboratory program has been completed to investigate the suitability of alternative reclamation materials. For the first phase of the study, chemical and toxicological analyses were carried out on 13 different reclamation and reference materials (solid phase and extractions). Seedling emergence, nematode maturation, algal growth and bacterial luminescence for leachate samples showed a range of sensitivities in response to the tested materials, although phytotoxicity tests were generally the most sensitive. With the exception of one test material, high toxicity ratings were consistent with that expected from the chemical data. The second phase of the study focused on the evaluation of chemical and toxicological conditions in leachate water generated using bench-scale column percolation tests. Leachate water equivalent to 10 pore volume replacements was generated and temporal variations in toxicity and chemistry monitored. Similar to phase 1 findings, phytotoxicity tests were the most sensitive tests to leachate waters. For most materials tested, most toxicity was removed after 2--3 porewater replacements. More persistent toxicity was noted for samples containing bitumen (e.g., fine tails anes containing bitumen (e.g., fine tails and oil sands). No clear correspondence was noted between chemical concentrations and toxicity in leachate waters