WorldWideScience
1

Foundry sand reclamation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A dry method of conditioning spent foundry sand is disclosed. After having sized the sand and removal of tramp metallic elements, the sand is subjected to a sequence of squeezing under a high-stress low kinetic energy system for a period of 5-30 minutes, and then propelled against a target with high-kinetic energy in the presence of a suction for several minutes. This sequence can be preferably repeated to increase the quality of the resulting product which should have 0.1% or less of fine particles, a pH of 6-9, a clay content and organic combustible content of substantially zero. The reclaimed sand will exhibit a density of at least 100 grams/biscuit when compacted for core making or molding

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Dilatometric Characterization of Foundry Sands  

OpenAIRE

The goal of this contribution is summary of physical – chemistry properties of usually used foundry silica and no – silica sands in Czech foundries. With the help of dilatometry analysis theoretical assumptions of influence of grain shape and size on dilatation value of sands were confirmed. Determined was the possibility of dilatometry analysis employment for preparing special (hybrid) sands with lower and/or more linear character of dilatation.

Br?uska, M.; Ben?o, J.; Cagala, M.; Jasinkova, V.

2012-01-01

3

Waste foundry sand: Environmental implication and characterization  

OpenAIRE

This paper presents the results of analyses using Scanning Electron Microscopy in field samples of waste foundry sand, as well as the results of granulometric, chemical and groundwater analyses. Field data allowed to characterize waste foundry sand and showed that there are elevated concentrations of metals in the groundwater (iron, manganese, boron and selenium), in addition to other potentially toxic elements (chromium, copper, cobalt, nickel, zinc, aluminum, iron, manganese), which are pre...

Gabriela Penkaitis; Joel Barbujiani Sígolo

2012-01-01

4

Alternate utilization of foundry sand waste  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Illinois Geological Survey data indicate that Illinois foundries purchase nearly 800,000 tons of silica sand each year for the production of molds and cores. This paper reports that once utilized, this sand becomes an expensive and difficult commodity to dispose. The volume and regulatory status requirements make it unattractive to landfill operators. Most foundries use an industrial grade of silica of very high purity for the production of molds and cores. Recent data from the Illinois Geological Survey record silica usage in excess of 30 million tons per year in the state. Construction usage of silica includes applications such as: cement, concrete products, asphalt, fill and others. Industrial usage includes: glass products, foundry molds and cores, oil well propant, inert carriers for fertilizers and others

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Plant Availability of Metals in Waste Foundry Sands  

Science.gov (United States)

Foundries in the United States generate several million tons of waste sand each year. These sands are no longer suitable for metalcasting processes, and about 90% are discarded in landfills. However, the majority of these waste foundry sands (WFSs) qualify as non-hazardous industrial waste and the...

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Characterization of Beach/River Sand for Foundry Application  

OpenAIRE

A detailed experimental investigation is been reported on the characterization of beach/river sand for foundry use. Bulk properties of the sand samples collected were evaluated. The experimental results were analyzed as per the American Foundry Society (AFS) standard. The analyses show that samples from Ughelli River, Warri River and Ethiope River could be used effectively in the foundry. The sample from Lagos bar beach requires to be sieved properly to remove the coarse fractions in order to...

Bala, Katsina Christopher; Khan, Reyazul Haque

2013-01-01

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Characterization of Beach/River Sand for Foundry Application  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A detailed experimental investigation is been reported on the characterization of beach/river sand for foundry use. Bulk properties of the sand samples collected were evaluated. The experimental results were analyzed as per the American Foundry Society (AFS standard. The analyses show that samples from Ughelli River, Warri River and Ethiope River could be used effectively in the foundry. The sample from Lagos bar beach requires to be sieved properly to remove the coarse fractions in order to make it suitable for foundry use.

Katsina Christopher BALA

2013-11-01

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Evaluation of Toxicity Analysis for Foundry Sand Specifications  

OpenAIRE

Byproducts from many industries have the potential to be used as construction materials, but some means is required to determine if the material is environmentally benign. Foundry sands are produced in many states and can be useful as in transportation projects. However, INDOT currently requires the use of the MICROTOX test to assess the potential toxicity of the sands, and this requirement is viewed as an unnecessary impediment by the producers of foundry sands and is a requirement not encou...

Banks, M. Katherine; Schwab, A. Paul

2010-01-01

9

Properties of Self-Compacting Concrete Incorporating Waste Foundry Sand  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper demonstrates the possibilities of using waste foundry sand as partial replacement of sand in self-compacting concrete. Self-compacting concrete, as the name indicates, is a type of concrete that does not require external or internal compaction, because it becomes levelled and consolidated under its self-weight. Foundry sand is high quality silica sand used as a moulding material by ferrous and non-ferrous metal casting industries. It can be reused several times in foundries but, after a certain period, cannot be used further and becomes waste material, referred to as waste, used or spent foundry sand (WFS,UFS or SFS. This experimental investigation was performed to evaluate the strength and durability properties of SCC, in which natural sand was partial replaced with waste foundry sand (WFS. Natural sand was replaced with four percentage (0%, 10%, 15%, 20% of WFS by weight. Fresh properties of self-compacting concrete were studied. Compression test and splitting tensile strength test were carried out to evaluate the strength properties of concrete at the age of 7, 28, and 56 days. In case of durability properties, sulphate resistance was evaluated at the age of 7, 28 and 56 days and Rapid Chloride Permeability test was conducted at age of 28 days. Test results showed that there is increase in compressive strength, splitting tensile strength of self-compacting concrete by incorporating waste foundry sand (WFS as partial replacement by sand up to 15%. Resistance of concrete against sulphate attack and rapid chloride permeability were also improved for concrete mixes.

Rafat SIDDIQUE

2013-11-01

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Microtox(TM) characterization of foundry sand residuals  

Science.gov (United States)

Although foundry residuals, consisting mostly of waste Sands, represent a potentially attractive, high-volume resource for beneficial reuse applications (e.g. highway embankment construction), prospective end users are understandably concerned about unforeseen liabilities stemming from the use of these residuals. This paper, therefore, focuses on the innovative use of a microbial bioassay as a means of developing a characterization of environmental suitability extending beyond the analytical coverage already provided by mandated chemical-specific tests (i.e., TCLP, etc.). Microtox(TM) bioassays were conducted on leachates derived from residuals obtained at a wide range of facilities, including: 11 gray and ductile iron foundries plus one each steel and aluminum foundries. In addition, virgin sand samples were used to establish a relative 'natural' benchmark against which the waste foundry sands could then be compared in terms of their apparent quality. These bioassay tests were able to effectively 'fingerprint' those residuals whose bioassay behavior was comparable to that of virgin materials. In fact, the majority of gray and ductile iron foundry residuals tested during this reported study elicited Microtox(TM) response levels which fell within or below the virgin sand response range, consequently providing another quantifiable layer of Support for this industry's claim that their sands are 'cleaner than dirt.' However, negative Microtox(TM) responses beyond that of the virgin sands were observed with a number of foundry samples (i.e. four of the 11 gray or ductile iron sands plus both non-iron sands). Therefore, the latter results would suggest that these latter residuals be excluded from beneficial reuse for the immediate future, at least until the cause and nature of this negative response has been further identified.

Bastian, K.C.; Alleman, J.E.

1998-01-01

11

Geoenvironmental behavior of foundry sand amended mixtures for highway subbases.  

Science.gov (United States)

The high cost of landfilling and the potential uses of waste foundry sands have prompted research into their beneficial reuse. Roadways have a high potential for large volume usage of the foundry sands. A laboratory testing program was conducted on soil-foundry sand mixtures amended with cement and lime to assess their applicability as highway subbase materials. The mixtures were compacted in the laboratory at a variety of moisture contents and compactive efforts and subjected to unconfined compression, California bearing ratio, and hydraulic conductivity tests. The environmental suitability of the prepared mixtures was evaluated by analyzing the effluent collected during hydraulic conductivity tests. Finally, required subbase thicknesses were calculated using the laboratory-based strength parameters. The results of the study show that the strength of a mixture is highly dependent on the curing period, compactive energy, lime or cement presence, and water content at compaction. The resistance of foundry sand-based specimens to winter conditions is generally better than that of a typical subbase reference material. Laboratory leaching tests indicated that if these mixtures later come in contact with water that has been discharged directly to the environment (e.g., drainage through asphalt pavement), the quality of water will not be affected. PMID:16111882

Guney, Yucel; Aydilek, Ahmet H; Demirkan, M Melih

2006-01-01

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Glass matrix composite material prepared with waste foundry sand  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The technology of glass matrix of the composite material manufactured through a sintering process and using waste foundry sand and waste glass as the main raw materials was studied. The effects of technological factors on the performance of this material were studied. The results showed that this composite material is formed with glass as matrix, core particulate as strengthening material, it has the performance of glass and ceramics, and could be used to substitute for stone.

ZHANG Zhao-shu

2006-11-01

13

Glass matrix composite material prepared with waste foundry sand  

OpenAIRE

The technology of glass matrix of the composite material manufactured through a sintering process and using waste foundry sand and waste glass as the main raw materials was studied. The effects of technological factors on the performance of this material were studied. The results showed that this composite material is formed with glass as matrix, core particulate as strengthening material, it has the performance of glass and ceramics, and could be used to substitute for stone.

Zhang, Zhao-shu; Xia, Ju-pei; Zhu, Xiao-qin

2006-01-01

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Geotechnical Performance of Highway Embankment Constructed Using Waste Foundry Sand  

OpenAIRE

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of waste foundry sand (WFS) as a highway embankment material in a fullscale field demonstration project. This evaluation included geotechnical concerns, such as deformation, strength, hydraulic conductivity, and ease of construction. The report presents an introduction and previous research concerning WFS use in highway construction. A geotechnical laboratory testing program characterized the WFS used in the project, which was a waste product ...

Fox, Patrick J.; Mast, David G.

1998-01-01

15

Pond Ash and Foundry Sand: Opportunities for Development of Eco-Friendly High Strength Concrete  

OpenAIRE

To produce low cost concrete by replacement of fine aggregate with pond ash and used foundry sand & also reduce disposal and pollution problems due to pond ash and used foundry sand. The innovative use of pond ash and used foundry sand in concrete formulations as a fine aggregate replacement material was tested as an alternative to traditional concrete. The fine aggregate has been replaced by used foundry sand accordingly in the range of 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% & 50% by weight and pond ash 20%...

Gaurav Kantibhai Patel; Prof. Jayeshkumar Pitroda2

2014-01-01

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Extraction of toxic and valuable metals from foundry sands  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There were extracted valuable metals from foundry sands such as: gold, platinum, silver, cobalt, germanium, nickel and zinc among others, as well as highly toxic metals such as chromium, lead, vanadium and arsenic. The extraction efficiency was up to 100% in some cases. For this reason there were obtained two patents at the United States, patent number 5,356,601, in October 1994, given for the developed process and patent number 5,376,000, in December 1994, obtained for the equipment employed. Therefore, the preliminary parameters for the installation of a pilot plant have also been developed. (Author)

17

Pond Ash and Foundry Sand: Opportunities for Development of Eco-Friendly High Strength Concrete  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To produce low cost concrete by replacement of fine aggregate with pond ash and used foundry sand & also reduce disposal and pollution problems due to pond ash and used foundry sand. The innovative use of pond ash and used foundry sand in concrete formulations as a fine aggregate replacement material was tested as an alternative to traditional concrete. The fine aggregate has been replaced by used foundry sand accordingly in the range of 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% & 50% by weight and pond ash 20% for M-20 grade and M-40 grade concrete. Concrete mixtures were produced, tested and compared in terms of workability and strength with the conventional concrete. These tests were carried out to evaluate the mechanical properties for 7, 14 and 28 days. As a result, the compressive strength increased up to 30% addition of used foundry sand and 20% pond ash.

Gaurav Kantibhai Patel

2014-03-01

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INSOLUBILIZATION METHOD OF THE FLUORINE IN WASTE FOUNDRY SAND AND THE PRODUCTION METHOD OF THE ROADBED MATERIAL  

Science.gov (United States)

We have studied how the fluorine-insoluble in the waste foundry sand (chromite sand) and production method of the roadbed material with insolubilized waste foundry sand. And we got following knowledges. (1) We found a minimum mixing rate to insolubilize of fluorine in the waste foundry sand by the ingenuity of mixing procedure. (2) Now we can insolubilize the waste foundry sand including comparatively high concentration fluorine (elution concentration: 20-70mg/l) by the mixing time difference of MgO and blast furnace cement. (3) In the verification test the roadbed material made from the insolubilized waste foundry sand satisfied reference value of environment safety.

Fukayama, Masamitu; Terazono, Katsuhiro; Koga, Yasuyuki

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Excess Foundry Sand Characterization and Experimental Investigation in Controlled Low-Strength Material and Hot-Mixing Asphalt  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report provides technical data regarding the reuse of excess foundry sand. The report addresses three topics: (1) a statistically sound evaluation of the characterization of foundry sand, (2) a laboratory investigation to qualify excess foundry sand as a major component in controlled low-strength material (CLSM), and (3) the identification of the best methods for using foundry sand as a replacement for natural aggregates for construction purposes, specifically in asphalt paving materials. The survival analysis statistical technique was used to characterize foundry sand over a full spectrum of general chemical parameters, metallic elements, and organic compounds regarding bulk analysis and leachate characterization. Not limited to characterization and environmental impact, foundry sand was evaluated by factor analyses, which contributes to proper selection of factor and maximization of the reuse marketplace for foundry sand. Regarding the integration of foundry sand into CLSM, excavatable CLSM and structural CLSM containing different types of excess foundry sands were investigated through laboratory experiments. Foundry sand was approved to constitute a major component in CLSM. Regarding the integration of foundry sand into asphalt paving materials, the optimum asphalt content was determined for each mixture, as well as the bulk density, maximum density, asphalt absorption, and air voids at N{sub ini}, N{sub des}, and N{sub max}. It was found that foundry sands can be used as an aggregate in hot-mix asphalt production, but each sand should be evaluated individually. Foundry sands tend to lower the strength of mixtures and also may make them more susceptible to moisture damage. Finally, traditional anti-stripping additives may decrease the moisture sensitivity of a mixture containing foundry sand, but not to the level allowed by most highway agencies.

Pauul J. Tikalsky

2004-10-31

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Excess Foundry Sand Characterization and Experimental Investigation in Controlled Low-Strength Material and Hot-Mixing Asphalt  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report provides technical data regarding the reuse of excess foundry sand. The report addresses three topics: a statistically sound evaluation of the characterization of foundry sand, a laboratory investigation to qualify excess foundry sand as a major component in controlled low-strength material (CLSM), and the identification of the best methods for using foundry sand as a replacement for natural aggregates for construction purposes, specifically in asphalt paving materials. The survival analysis statistical technique was used to characterize foundry sand over a full spectrum of general chemical parameters, metallic elements, and organic compounds regarding bulk analysis and leachate characterization. Not limited to characterization and environmental impact, foundry sand was evaluated by factor analyses, which contributes to proper selection of factor and maximization of the reuse marketplace for foundry sand. Regarding the integration of foundry sand into CLSM, excavatable CLSM and structural CLSM containing different types of excess foundry sands were investigated through laboratory experiments. Foundry sand was approved to constitute a major component in CLSM. Regarding the integration of foundry sand into asphalt paving materials, the optimum asphalt content was determined for each mixture, as well as the bulk density, maximum density, asphalt absorption, and air voids at Nini, Ndes, and Nmax. It was found that foundry sands can be used as an aggregate in hot-mix asphalt production, but each sand should be evaluated individually. Foundry sands tend to lower the strength of mixtures and also may make them more susceptible to moisture damage. Finally, traditional anti-stripping additives may decrease the moisture sensitivity of a mixture containing foundry sand, but not to the level allowed by most highway agencies.

Paul J. Tikalsky, Hussain U. Bahia, An Deng and Thomas Snyder

2004-10-15

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Application of Waste Foundry Sand for Evolution of Low-Cost Concrete  

OpenAIRE

Generation of waste foundry sand as by product of metal casting industries causes environmental problems because of its improper disposal. Thus, its usage in building material, construction and in other fields is essential for reduction of environmental problems. This research is carried out to produce a low-cost and eco-friendly concrete. This paper demonstrates the use of waste foundry sand as a partial replacement by fine aggregate in concrete. An experimental investigation is carried out ...

Pathariya Saraswati C, Rana Jaykrushna K.

2013-01-01

22

Application of a power quality analyser to the monitoring of sand preparation processes in foundry plants  

OpenAIRE

Process control plays a major role in supervision and identification of states, for example in monitoring of electric circuits power- supplying the foundry machines and devices, such as sand preparation processes, moulding technologies, melting, cleaning and finishing of castings. The monitoring and control equipment includes the power quality analysers. Testing is done using a Japanese analyser KEW 6319 (Kyoritsu) applied to monitoring of the sand preparation process in a foundry plant with ...

Smyksy, K.; Wrona, R.; Zio??kowski, E.

2011-01-01

23

Use of an integrated approach to characterize the physicochemical properties of foundry green sands  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? Physicochemical properties of fresh, spent, and landfilled foundry green sands were determined. ? A phase composition model was postulated for each material based on thermogravimetric results. ? Sand from the landfill was determined to be composed of almost pure silica sand. ? Weathering is likely responsible for removing the coating materials from the green sands. ? Landfilled sands may be suitable for reuse within the foundry or beneficial use applications. - Abstract: A fresh green sand, spent green sand, and a weathered spent green sand (wSGS) from a foundry landfill were analyzed using diffractometry, electron microscopy, fluorometry, granulometry, spectrometry, and thermogravimetry (TG). Our objective was to understand how the physicochemical properties of the foundry green sands change from their original form after being subjected to the casting process, then after weathering at the landfill. A quantitative phase composition model was also postulated for each material based on the TG results and it was found to be the most reliable and informative quantitative data for this type of residue. The weathered sample, that remained in a landfill for two years, was found to be composed of almost pure sand. Because of the weathering process, it may be possible to use the wSGS as a virgin sand replacement in the regeneration system or in geotechnical applications where bentonite would affect the properties of the final product.final product.

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Use of an integrated approach to characterize the physicochemical properties of foundry green sands  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Physicochemical properties of fresh, spent, and landfilled foundry green sands were determined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A phase composition model was postulated for each material based on thermogravimetric results. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sand from the landfill was determined to be composed of almost pure silica sand. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Weathering is likely responsible for removing the coating materials from the green sands. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Landfilled sands may be suitable for reuse within the foundry or beneficial use applications. - Abstract: A fresh green sand, spent green sand, and a weathered spent green sand (wSGS) from a foundry landfill were analyzed using diffractometry, electron microscopy, fluorometry, granulometry, spectrometry, and thermogravimetry (TG). Our objective was to understand how the physicochemical properties of the foundry green sands change from their original form after being subjected to the casting process, then after weathering at the landfill. A quantitative phase composition model was also postulated for each material based on the TG results and it was found to be the most reliable and informative quantitative data for this type of residue. The weathered sample, that remained in a landfill for two years, was found to be composed of almost pure sand. Because of the weathering process, it may be possible to use the wSGS as a virgin sand replacement in the regeneration system or in geotechnical applications where bentonite would affect the properties of the final product.

Carnin, Raquel L.P. [Tupy S.A., Rua Albano Schmidt 3.400, Joinville, Santa Catarina (Brazil); Folgueras, Marilena Valadares; Luvizao, Rubia Raquel; Correia, Sivaldo Leite [Universidade do Estado de Santa Catarina, Rua Paulo Malschitzki, s/numero - Campus Universitario Prof. Avelino Marcante, Bairro Zona Industrial Norte, Joinville, Santa Catarina (Brazil); Cunha, Carlos Jorge da [Universidade Federal do Parana, Centro Politecnico, Jardim das Americas, Curitiba, Parana (Brazil); Dungan, Robert S., E-mail: robert.dungan@ars.usda.gov [USDA-ARS, Northwest Irrigation and Soils Research Laboratory, 3793 North 3600 East, Kimberly, ID 83341 (United States)

2012-09-10

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The characterization of trace metals and organics in spent foundry sands over a one-year period  

Science.gov (United States)

Millions of tons of spent sand, used to create metalcasting molds, are generated by the foundry industry each year in the United States. Not surprisingly, spent foundry sands (SFSs) are an excellent substitute for virgin sands that are currently used in manufactured soils and geotechnical applicati...

26

Application of a power quality analyser to the monitoring of sand preparation processes in foundry plants  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Process control plays a major role in supervision and identification of states, for example in monitoring of electric circuits power- supplying the foundry machines and devices, such as sand preparation processes, moulding technologies, melting, cleaning and finishing of castings. The monitoring and control equipment includes the power quality analysers. Testing is done using a Japanese analyser KEW 6319 (Kyoritsu applied to monitoring of the sand preparation process in a foundry plant with low level of mechanization, equipped with the sand preparation unit based on a roller mixer.

K. Smyksy

2011-10-01

27

Concentrations of PCDD/PCDFs and PCBs in spent foundry sands  

Science.gov (United States)

Approximately 10 million tons of spent foundry sand (SFS) are generated in the U.S. each year, and their beneficial use in agricultural and horticultural applications is being considered. Other studies have demonstrated that trace elements are low enough in sands from iron, steel, and aluminum foun...

28

A new low-cost method of reclaiming mixed foundry waste sand based on wet-thermal composite reclamation  

OpenAIRE

A lot of mixed clay-resin waste sand from large-scale iron foundries is discharged every day; so mixed waste sand reclamation in low cost and high quality has a great realistic significance. In the study to investigate the possibility of reusing two types of waste foundry sands, resin bonded sand and clay bonded sand which came from a Chinese casting factory, a new low-cost reclamation method of the mixed foundry waste sand based on the wet-thermal composite reclamation was proposed. The wast...

Fan Zitian; Liu Fuchu; Long Wei

2014-01-01

29

Technological behaviour and recycling potential of spent foundry sands in clay bricks.  

Science.gov (United States)

The feasibility of recycling spent foundry sand in clay bricks was assessed in laboratory, pilot line and industrial trials, using naturally occurring sand as a reference. Raw materials were analyzed by X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffraction, particle size distribution, and leaching and combined to produce bodies containing up to 35% wt. sand. The extrusion, drying and firing behaviour (plasticity, drying sensitivity, mechanical strength, bulk density, water absorption, and shrinkage) were determined. The microstructure, phase composition, durability and leaching (EN 12457, granular materials, end-life step, European Waste Landfill Directive; NEN 7345, monolithic materials, use-life step, Dutch Building Material Decree) were evaluated for bricks manufactured at optimal firing temperature. These results demonstrate that spent foundry sand can be recycled in clay bricks. There are no relevant technological drawbacks, but the feasibility strongly depends on the properties of the raw materials. Spent foundry sand may be introduced into bricks up to 30% wt. Most of the hazardous elements from the spent foundry sand are inertized during firing and the concentrations of hazardous components in the leachates are below the standard threshold for inert waste category landfill excepting for chromium and lead; however, their environmental risk during their use-life step can be considered negligible. PMID:21129840

Alonso-Santurde, R; Andrés, A; Viguri, J R; Raimondo, M; Guarini, G; Zanelli, C; Dondi, M

2011-03-01

30

Analysis of total metals in waste molding and core sands from ferrous and non-ferrous foundries  

Science.gov (United States)

Waste molding and core sands from the foundry industry have been successfully used around the world as byproducts in geotechnical and agricultural applications. Although waste foundry sands (WFSs) are generally not considered hazardous in nature, relevant data are not available in Argentina. This ...

31

An innovative tester system for measuring mechanical property of foundry molding sand  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A new intelligent tester system for measuring multiple mechanical properties of foundry molding sand is introduced and has been patented for the invention in China. The testing process can be simutaneosly controlled wth a build-in chip microcomputer communicating with a PC through a serial port. The testing system pplies dynamic testing technology. During the measurement for compression, relaxation, shearing and tensile processes of sand specimens, the corresponding characteristic curves and eight mechanical property parameters can be obtained in a short time, simply by consecutively testing on four sand specimens. The properties and parameters to be measurable by the tester include compressive strength, elastic modulus, plastic deformation threshold, springback potential, shear strength, shear deformation limit, toughness and tensile strength. These properties and parameters for sand specimens can be defined as the corresponding characteristic curves with precise physical meanings, carried out by the tester. Two of them, namely plastic deformation threshold and springback potential, as well as their testing methods, have been invented for the first time. The testing system applying advanced data measurement technology as well as performing excellent functions is an important breakthrough and creativity in foundry molding sand property testing field. The parameters acquired by the testing system are stable, accurate and reliable. The test data can be instantly diaplayed or printed out or stored in the PC. As evidence, many experimental data obtained by the tester practically from bth laboratory and foundry floor tests indicate that the testr system can be widely applied in foundry industry.

Zuxi XIE

2004-11-01

32

Effect of compost-, sand-, or gypsum-amended waste foundry sands on turfgrass yield and nutrient content  

Science.gov (United States)

To prevent the 7-11 million metric tons of waste foundry sand (WFS) produced annually in the U.S. from entering landfills, current research is focused on the reuse of WFSs as soil amendments. The effects of different WFS-containing amendments on turfgrass growth and nutrient content were tested by ...

33

Granulation process of foundry dusts originated from bentonite sand processing plants  

OpenAIRE

The results of the investigation results of the granulation process of foundry dusts generated during the mechanical reclamation of spent sands with bentonite and also dusts from the sand processing plants are presented in the paper. The following parameters of the final product were determined: moisture content (W) and granules shatter test (Wz) performed directly after the granulation process and after 1, 3, 5, 10 and 30 days and nights of seasoning, water-resistant ability of gr...

Kamin?ska, J.; Dan?ko, J.

2013-01-01

34

An innovative tester system for measuring mechanical property of foundry molding sand  

OpenAIRE

A new intelligent tester system for measuring multiple mechanical properties of foundry molding sand is introduced and has been patented for the invention in China. The testing process can be simutaneosly controlled wth a build-in chip microcomputer communicating with a PC through a serial port. The testing system pplies dynamic testing technology. During the measurement for compression, relaxation, shearing and tensile processes of sand specimens, the corresponding characteristic curves and ...

Xie, Zuxi; Xiang, Qingchun; Wang, Xu

2004-01-01

35

A new low-cost method of reclaiming mixed foundry waste sand based on wet-thermal composite reclamation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A lot of mixed clay-resin waste sand from large-scale iron foundries is discharged every day; so mixed waste sand reclamation in low cost and high quality has a great realistic significance. In the study to investigate the possibility of reusing two types of waste foundry sands, resin bonded sand and clay bonded sand which came from a Chinese casting factory, a new low-cost reclamation method of the mixed foundry waste sand based on the wet-thermal composite reclamation was proposed. The waste resin bonded sand was first reclaimed by a thermal method and the waste clay bonded sand was reclaimed by a wet method. Then, hot thermal reclaimed sand and the dehydrated wet reclaimed sand were mixed in certain proportions so that the hot thermal reclaimed sand dried the wet reclaimed sand leaving some water. The thermal reclamation efficiency of the waste resin bonded sand was researched at different heat levels. The optimized wet reclamation process of the waste clay bonded sand was achieved by investigating the effects of wet reclamation times, sand-water ratio and pH value on the reclaimed sand characteristics. The composite reclamation cost also was calculated. The research results showed that the properties of the mixed reclaimed sand can satisfy the application requirements of foundries; in which the temperature of the thermal reclamation waste resin bonded sand needs to be about 800 ?, the number of cycles of wet reclamation waste clay bonded sand should reach four to five, the optimal sand-water ratio of wet reclamation is around 1:1.5, and the pH value should be adjusted by adding acid. The mass ratio of hot thermal reclaimed sand to dehydrated wet reclaimed sand is about 1:2.5, and the composite reclaimed sand cost is around 100 yuan RMB per ton.

Fan Zitian

2014-09-01

36

Applications of the systems theory to the designing of the sand preparation sub-system in foundry plants  

OpenAIRE

This study provides the basic principles for designing the functional structure of manufacturing systems and their components. The analysis of functional values is applied to create the technological and manufacturing model underlying the design of the foundry equipment with machine units and materials handling systems. Quoted examples illustrate the approved procedure to be applied to control the sand preparation process in a foundry.

Wrona, R.; Stawowy, A.; Macio?, A.

2009-01-01

37

Foundry performance in relation to the radiographic quality of aluminium alloy sand castings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article examines radiographic soundness and acceptance standards for aluminium alloy sand castings for aerospace and general engineering applications. A method is suggested by which foundries can evaluate their performance to provide evidence of capability with respect to radiographic quality; purchasers could use the same system to assess suppliers. The shortcomings of standards are briefly discussed in the light of an approach to radiographic acceptance on the horizon

38

Synergy of Practical Knowledge of Molding Sands Reclamation in Heavy Casting Foundry of Iron Alloys  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper summarizes research realized by the author in laboratory and industrial conditions (foundries of cast steel and cast iron, castings up to 50 tons on the effects of the chemically hardened molding sands regeneration using hard/soft rubbing in the dry reclamation. A reference was simultaneously made to advisability of application of the thermal regeneration in conditions, where chromite amount in the circulating (reclaimed molding sand goes as high as above ten percent. An advisability of connecting standard and specialized methods of examination of the reclaimed sands and molding sands made using it was pointed out. A way of application of studies with the Hot Distortion Plus® method modified by the author for validation of modeling of the thermo-dynamic phenomena in the mold was shown.

Z. Ignaszak

2013-07-01

39

Applications of the systems theory to the designing of the sand preparation sub-system in foundry plants  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study provides the basic principles for designing the functional structure of manufacturing systems and their components. The analysis of functional values is applied to create the technological and manufacturing model underlying the design of the foundry equipment with machine units and materials handling systems. Quoted examples illustrate the approved procedure to be applied to control the sand preparation process in a foundry.

R. Wrona

2009-07-01

40

Performance Evaluation of a Highway Embankment Constructed Using Waste Foundry Sand  

OpenAIRE

Over 9 million Mg of waste foundry sands (WFS) are produced annually in the United States as a by-product of the metal casting industry. The majority of WFS are deposited in restricted or sanitary waste landfills. Considerable savings is available to the metal casting industry through the development of reuse applications for their WFS and generators are often willing to provide WFS to a job site at no cost to the end user. Laboratory investigations have indicated that WFS from ferrous fou...

Partridge, Barry K.; Alleman, James E.

1998-01-01

41

Analysis of modern methods of assessing the quality of sand foundry moulds  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Currently offered devices for the hardness measuring or indices of the mould strength, are presented in the hereby paper. The presented results allow to compare approximately the indications of individual devices of different types.The description of the author’s own microprocessor tester for the quality assessment of the sand foundry moulds, is shown. On the bases of the measurements results it is possible, to evaluate indirectly, the mould apparent density in the selected points, as well as several other properties.

K. Smyksy

2015-04-01

42

Effect of additives promoting the formation of lustrous carbon on the knocking out properties of foundry sands with new inorganic binders  

OpenAIRE

The article presents the results of investigations, which make a fragment of the broad-scale studies carried out as a part of the statutory activity on optimising the foundry sand technology using new, modified, inorganic binders.The results of investigations regarding the effect of lustrous carbon carriers on the technological properties of foundry sands with inorganic binders were presented in a concise manner. The selected additives were introduced to moulding sands prepared with the new, ...

Izdebska-szanda, I.; Zb Stefan?skidepartment Of Technology, Foundry Research Institute; Pezarski, F.; Szolc, M.

2009-01-01

43

Design and production of a novel sand materials strength testing machine for foundry applications  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In the foundry, existing strength testing machines are used to measure only the maximum fracture strength of mould and core materials. With traditionally used methods, the loading history to ascertain deformation of the material is not available. In this paper, a novel moulding material strength testing machine was designed and built for both green sand and chemically-bonded sand materials. This machine measures and presents the loading response as a force-displacement profile from which the mechanical properties of the moulding materials can be deduced. The system was interfaced to a computer with a commercial PC based-control and data acquisition software. The testing conditions and operations are specified in the user interface and the data acquisition is made according to specifications. The force and displacements were calibrated to ensure consistency and reliability of the measurement data. The force was calibrated using an Amsler Hydraulic Press while the displacements were calibrated with and without loading using a displacement calibrator (Heidenhain Digitaler). The calibration results showed that the data obtained are stable and reliable and the machine can be used for the measurement of the strength of chemically-bonded sand materials.

Nwaogu, Ugochukwu Chibuzoh; Hansen, K. S.

2012-01-01

44

The foundry wastes. Storage  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This work deals with the regulation relative to the management of foundry wastes, such as sands (which can be radioactive), non hazardous and hazardous wastes. Some examples of the reuse of these foundry wastes are given. (O.M.)

45

Review on Analysis of Foundry Defects for Quality Improvement of Sand Casting  

OpenAIRE

In the present global and competitive environment foundry industries needs to perform efficiently with minimum number of rejections. Also they have to develop casting components in very short lead time. Casting process is still state of art with experienced people, but these experience needs to be transformed in engineering knowledge for the better growth of the foundry industries. Some foundries are working with trial and error method and get their work done. Factually, most ...

Sunil Chaudhari; Hemant Thakkar

2014-01-01

46

Mechanical and toxicological evaluation of concrete artifacts containing waste foundry sand.  

Science.gov (United States)

The creation of metal parts via casting uses molds that are generally made from sand and phenolic resin. The waste generated after the casting process is called waste foundry sand (WFS). Depending on the mold composition and the casting process, WFS can contain substances that prevent its direct emission to the environment. In Brazil, this waste is classified according to the Standard ABNT NBR 10004:2004 as a waste Class II (Non-Inert). The recycling of this waste is limited because its characteristics change significantly after use. Although the use (or reuse) of this byproduct in civil construction is a technically feasible alternative, its effects must be evaluated, especially from mechanical and environmental points of view. Thus, the objective of this study is to investigate the effect of the use of WFS in the manufacture of cement artifacts, such as masonry blocks for walls, structural masonry blocks, and paving blocks. Blocks containing different concentrations of WFS (up to 75% by weight) were produced and evaluated using compressive strength tests (35 MPa at 28 days) and toxicity tests on Daphnia magna, Allium cepa (onion root), and Eisenia foetida (earthworm). The results showed that there was not a considerable reduction in the compressive strength, with values of 35 ± 2 MPa at 28 days. The toxicity study with the material obtained from leaching did not significantly interfere with the development of D. magna and E. foetida, but the growth of the A. cepa species was reduced. The study showed that the use of this waste in the production of concrete blocks is feasible from both mechanical and environmental points of view. PMID:24582355

Mastella, Miguel Angelo; Gislon, Edivelton Soratto; Pelisser, Fernando; Ricken, Cláudio; da Silva, Luciano; Angioletto, Elídio; Montedo, Oscar Rubem Klegues

2014-08-01

47

New sol–gel refractory coatings on chemically-bonded sand cores for foundry applications to improve casting surface quality  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Foundry refractory coatings protect bonded sand cores and moulds from producing defective castings during the casting process by providing a barrier between the core and the liquid metal. In this study, new sol–gel refractory coating on phenolic urethane cold box (PUCB) core was examined. The coating density, viscosity, moisture content and wet and dry weight of the coating were evaluated on cores that had been coated at three different dip-coating times. The coating coverage, surface appearance and depth of penetration into the cores were examined with a Stereomicroscope. Gray iron castings were produced with sol-gel coated and uncoated cores and the results were related to the coating properties. The casting results were also compared with castings made with cores coated with commercial alcohol-based and water-based foundry coatings. The analyses show that castings produced with sol–gel coated cores have better surface quality than those from uncoated cores and comparable surface quality with the commercialcoatings. Therefore, the new sol–gel coating has a potential application in the foundry industry for improving the surface finish of castings thereby reducing the cost of fettling in the foundry industry since the raw materials and technology are easily affordable.

Nwaogu, Ugochukwu Chibuzoh; Poulsen, T.

2011-01-01

48

Industrial-hygiene report of radon daughters in foundries using zirconium sand as a molding agent, July 31, September 30-October 2, 1980  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A survey of exposures to radon daughters in foundries using zirconium sand as a molding agent was conducted. The survey was prompted by a report that significant concentrations of uranium- and thorium-decay isotopes were found in zirconium sand. Area air and bulk samples were analyzed for radon-daughter activity in selected operations of five foundries that used zirconium sand as part of the molding aggregate or as a molding agent. One foundry was located in Ohio, the other four were in California. Maximum radon-daughter activity in the area samples ranged from not detectable to 0.023 working level (WL). The OSHA standards for radon-daughter activity is 0.33 WL. No results were available for the bulk samples due to difficulties with the analytical procedures. The author concludes that the measured levels of radon daughter activity in the foundries are extremely low. The potential for a radiological health hazard due to exposure from radon daughters in zirconium sand at this time is very low. Laboratory studies of zirconium sand and a gamma-radiation survey of foundries that use zirconium sand are recommended

49

Review on Analysis of Foundry Defects for Quality Improvement of Sand Casting  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the present global and competitive environment foundry industries needs to perform efficiently with minimum number of rejections. Also they have to develop casting components in very short lead time. Casting process is still state of art with experienced people, but these experience needs to be transformed in engineering knowledge for the better growth of the foundry industries. Some foundries are working with trial and error method and get their work done. Factually, most of the foundries have very less control on rejections, as they are always on the toes of production urgency; hence they ignore the rejections and salvage the castings. Majority foundries are failed to maintain a satisfactory quality control level. Defect free castings with minimum production cost have become the need of the foundries. This study is aimed to review the research work made by several researchers and an attempt to get technical solution for minimizing various casting defects and to improve the entire process of casting manufacturing.

Sunil Chaudhari

2014-03-01

50

Application of design projects developed by Foundry Research Institute in Krakow in construction of integrated stand for processing and reclamation of moulding sands  

OpenAIRE

The article is devoted to the description of a new integrated system for processing and reclamation of moulding and core sands using the equipment developed by Foundry Research Institute in Krakow. The idea and operation of a complex stand, which allows for co-existence of three routes of material circulation, i.e. system sand, new sand and reclaim, with maximum utilisation of the existing equipment have been presented. Various aspects, economical and ecological, of the proposed design have b...

Izdebska-szanda, I.; Pezarski, F.; Ste?pniewski, K.

2008-01-01

51

Measurement of elastic modulus and evaluation of viscoelasticity of foundry green sand  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Elastic modulus is an important physical parameter of molding sand; it is closely connected with molding sand's properties. Based on theories of rheology and molding sand microdeformation, elastic modulus of molding sand was measured and investigated using the intelligent molding sand multi-property tester developed by ourselves. The measuring principle was introduced. Effects of bentonite percentage and compactibility of the molding sand were experimentally studied. Furthermore, the essential viscoelastic nature of green sand was analyzed. It is considered that viscoelastic deformation of molding sand consists mainly of that of Kelvin Body of clay membrane, and elastic modulus of molding sand depends mainly on that of Kelvin Body which is the elastic component of clay membrane between sands. Elastic modulus can be adopted as one of the property parameters, and can be employed to evaluate viscoelastic properties of molding sand.

Qingchun XIANG

2004-08-01

52

Investigation into the origin of radioactivity in ceramic waste. Zircon sand in iron foundries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 2002 a truck loaded with used car scrap triggered a radiation monitoring gate detector at a scrapyard. The material under suspicion turned out to be some ceramic waste material. The ceramic waste was used for many years to raise roads or pave yards and premises in the surroundings of Almelo, Netherlands, as was the case with the used car dump where the metal scrap came from. The ceramic material contains zircon sand, which has elevated concentrations of naturally occuring radionuclides. Therefore, using this waste in a surface soil layer may cause radiological exposures to the public. From measurements at the used car dump dose rates were determined up to ten times the background. From further research it was determined that part of the ceramic waste has concentrations above exemption level. From these measurements it was also concluded that the ceramic material is retaining radon and its decay products. From some calculations a maximum effective annual dose was estimated of about 1 mSv. This dose is determined mainly by external radiation and is for long lasting exposure on some large factory grounds. On the other hand, children might be playing in smaller yards or premises. Ingestion might play some role in that case. For this exposure path an annual dose of 0.12 mSv was calculated. For adults this is not an important exposure path. Inhalation doesn't seem to play an important role neither for adults nor for children

53

Respiratory disease in foundry workers.  

OpenAIRE

A survey was carried out in a steel foundry in Brisbane to evaluate the nature and frequency of respiratory symptoms and to assess ventilatory function. The foundry used many moulding processes including the Furane, Isocure, Shell, carbon dioxide, and oil sand systems. Nasal symptoms and wheeze were often reported, particularly by workers in the general foundry and core shop, and on a semiautomated line. By contrast, workers in the aftercast section not exposed to fumes or vapours from the va...

Low, I.; Mitchell, C.

1985-01-01

54

Environmental Bioassay Evaluation of Foundry Waste Residuals  

OpenAIRE

Although the constructive reuse of foundry residuals represents a decidedly beneficial goal with distinct economic and environmental benefits, potential end-users are nonetheless reluctant to use these residuals, given an inherent concern about potential unforeseen environmental liabilities. Results of foundry residual leachate characterization to date strongly suggest that many ferrous foundries are discarding sands whose quality is fully amenable to their future use with embankment constru...

Bastian, Kenneth Chad; Alleman, James E.

1996-01-01

55

CONTROLLING ODOROUS EMISSIONS FROM IRON FOUNDRIES  

Science.gov (United States)

The report discusses the control of odorous emissions from iron foundries. he main process sources of odors in iron foundries are mold and core making, casting, and sand shakeout. he odors are usually caused by chemicals, which may be present as binders and other additives to the...

56

The pneumatic conveying applications in foundry industry  

OpenAIRE

The paper presents some issues connected to pneumatic conveying usage in foundry industry. The loose materials transportation (sand and moulding sand) through consecutive production cycles were described. The powder injection into liquid metal, the bentonite into mixers and pneumatic used moulding sand reclamation applications were presented, too. The industrial setups, technological descriptions and some loose materials parameters were given, too.

Homa, D.; Janerka, K.; Szajnar, J.; Jezierski, J.

2010-01-01

57

The pneumatic conveying applications in foundry industry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper presents some issues connected to pneumatic conveying usage in foundry industry. The loose materials transportation (sand and moulding sand through consecutive production cycles were described. The powder injection into liquid metal, the bentonite into mixers and pneumatic used moulding sand reclamation applications were presented, too. The industrial setups, technological descriptions and some loose materials parameters were given, too.

D. Homa

2010-10-01

58

Thermal analysis of foundry bentonites  

OpenAIRE

The results of investigations of 3 calcium bentonites, activated by sodium carbonate, applied in the foundry industry as bindingmaterial for moulding sands are presented in the paper. Investigations were performed by the thermal analysis (TG) method. The occurrence of the dehydration and dehydroxylation process was confirmed in all tested bentonites.

Z?ymankowska-kumon, S.; Holtzer, M.; Grabowski, G.

2011-01-01

59

Thermal analysis of foundry bentonites  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The results of investigations of 3 calcium bentonites, activated by sodium carbonate, applied in the foundry industry as bindingmaterial for moulding sands are presented in the paper. Investigations were performed by the thermal analysis (TG method. The occurrence of the dehydration and dehydroxylation process was confirmed in all tested bentonites.

S. ?ymankowska-Kumon

2011-10-01

60

Foundry Coating Technology: A Review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The importance of foundry coating in improving the surface quality of castings cannot be over emphasized. The application of mould and core washes creates a high thermal integrity barrier between the metal and the mould resulting in the reduction of the thermal shock experienced by the sand system. These thermal shock leads to series of surface defects such as veining/finning, metal penetration, burn-on/in, scab, rat tail, erosion etc. The use of coatings reduces the tendency of occurrence of these defects. However, the understanding of the coating, its components, characteristics and mechanism of action is important. In this review, a detailed description of these topics and examples are provided where necessary. A potential area of research in foundry coating development, using sol-gel process is suggested. The application of sol-gel technology in the development of foundry coatings is a novel approach.

U. C Nwaogu

2011-08-01

61

Respiratory disease in foundry workers.  

Science.gov (United States)

A survey was carried out in a steel foundry in Brisbane to evaluate the nature and frequency of respiratory symptoms and to assess ventilatory function. The foundry used many moulding processes including the Furane, Isocure, Shell, carbon dioxide, and oil sand systems. Nasal symptoms and wheeze were often reported, particularly by workers in the general foundry and core shop, and on a semiautomated line. By contrast, workers in the aftercast section not exposed to fumes or vapours from the various moulding processes reported these symptoms less often. Of 46 workers exposed to moulding fumes and vapours, 11 had developed a wheeze while working at the foundry. Wheeze and other respiratory tract symptoms were often attributed by the workers to exposure to substances at work, particularly from the Shell process which uses phenol formaldehyde resin and hexamethylenetetramine. Symptoms were reported also, but less often, on exposure to materials used in the Furane process (urea formaldehyde and furfuryl alcohol) and the Isocure process (methylene diphenyl diisocyanate, phenol formaldehyde, and dimethylethylamine). Ventilatory function studied over Monday and Friday showed a small and inconsistent changes. The six subjects working on the semiautomated line showed a small decrease in FEV1 (+/- SEM) (208 +/- 70 ml) only on Monday; this differed significantly from that in 17 aftercast workers (9 +/- 50 ml, p less than 0.05). Ventilatory function recorded before work on Monday morning showed no evidence of chronic airway obstruction in any group. Most environmental measurements were below the threshold limit values (TLV) except in the general foundry, where furfuryl alcohol was detected at concentrations of up to 50 ppm and formaldehyde at 4 ppm. The onset of symptoms in relation to exposure to various fumes and vapours suggests that both irritant and hypersensitivity mechanisms are present. As environmental modifications had occurred recently the apparent hypersensitivity may relate to past exposure levels above the TLV. PMID:3970867

Low, I; Mitchell, C

1985-02-01

62

Foundry Coating Technology: A Review  

OpenAIRE

The importance of foundry coating in improving the surface quality of castings cannot be over emphasized. The appli-cation of mould and core washes creates a high thermal integrity barrier between the metal and the mould resulting in the reduction of the thermal shock experienced by the sand system. These thermal shock leads to series of surface de-fects such as veining/finning, metal penetration, burn-on/in, scab, rat tail, erosion etc. The use of coatings reduces the tendency of occurrence ...

Nwaogu, U. C.; Tiedje, N. S.

2011-01-01

63

Influence of foundry dust on moulding mixtures quality  

OpenAIRE

The objective of this paper was to observe the effect of the addition of the dust from the moulding plant on the quality parameters of the moulding mixtures and determine tolerable content in the moulding mixture. Three types of moulding mixtures were used in experiments: mixture prepared from new quartz sand and bentonite, mixture which is recycled in the experimental foundry and mixture came from the small foundry. To these moulding mixture was added the dust from moulding plant in the rang...

Pribulova?, A.; Futas?, P.; Rosova?, A.; Demeter, P.; Baricova?, D.

2013-01-01

64

Foundry Industry Training Committee  

Science.gov (United States)

The Foundry Industry Training Committee has encouraged the foundry industry in developing systematic manpower training and development programs at all levels. Features developed include competitions as a technique of standard setting, recommendations for technician training, and a widely used manpower information system. (MW)

Industrial Training Journal, 1974

1974-01-01

65

UPGRADING FOUNDRY WASTEWATER TREATMENT  

Science.gov (United States)

The paper summarizes findings of a 10-week pilot plant study of gray iron foundry wastewater treatment. Treatment technologies studied included lime softening, lime/soda ash softening, polymer addition, flocculation/sedimentation, and dual media filtration. Results indicate that ...

66

Foundry energy conservation workbook  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The foundry industry is a significant user of energy, and therefore, a natural candidate for efforts to save energy and improve efficiency by both governmental agencies and technical/trade associations. These efforts are designed to both improve the national energy position and improve the industry's efficiency and profitability. Increased energy cost and the reduced availability of fossil fuels at certain times have provided the incentive to curb waste and to utilize purchased energy wisely. Energy costs now approach and sometimes exceed 10% of the sales dollar of many foundries. Although energy use by foundries has gradually decreased on a per/ton basis in recent years, the foundry industry must continue to find ways to utilize energy more efficiently. This workbook provides ways to achieve this goal.

1990-01-01

67

Energy conservation in foundry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In any foundry, the cost of fuel in the form of coal, oil or electrical power, is about 10 to 15% of the cost of the product. Saving of the order of 30 to 50% can be achieved in energy by reducing consumption of fuel and increasing efficiency. This has been illustrated by describing 4 examples in foundry industry. In each case, saving in terms of rupees is also indicated. (N.B.)

68

Process management in foundries  

OpenAIRE

This paper presents the nature of process management and the basic process analysis. A general model of process management in a foundry is showed. The essential activities of processing, systems and change management are described. There is also presented a problem of effectiveness, efficiency and processing improvement. The criteria, methods and techniques of process improvement are indicated. The importance of process approach to the improvement of foundry management system is underlined.

Wojtynek, L.

2009-01-01

69

Process management in foundries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents the nature of process management and the basic process analysis. A general model of process management in a foundry is showed. The essential activities of processing, systems and change management are described. There is also presented a problem of effectiveness, efficiency and processing improvement. The criteria, methods and techniques of process improvement are indicated. The importance of process approach to the improvement of foundry management system is underlined.

L. Wojtynek

2009-07-01

70

Influência do emprego de areia de fundição residual nas propriedades no estado fresco e endurecido de misturas cimentícias / Influence of foundry sand residues on the fresh and hardened properties of mortars produced with portland cement  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A areia de fundição residual (AFR) consiste em um resíduo arenoso proveniente dos moldes utilizados no processo de fundição de metais. O presente trabalho foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de avaliar a influência do uso da AFR nas propriedades concreto. Para tanto, utilizou-se cimento CPV-ARI RS, adit [...] ivo plastificante, AFR e areias fina, média natural e de britagem. As propriedades no estado fresco foram avaliadas através da determinação da consistência e teor de ar incorporado. No estado endurecido avaliou-se a resistência à compressão axial. Os resultados indicaram que o uso da AFR resulta no aumento do teor de ar incorporado, fissuração por reações expansivas e consequ?ente redução de resistência. Visando investigar a origem das tendências observadas, realizou-se um estudo complementar empregando AFR de diferentes composições. Todavia, independente da composição utilizada, os resultados indicaram tendência semelhante à observada anteriormente. Por fim, considerando os materiais empregados nesta pesquisa, conclui-se que a utilização da AFR em concreto é inadequada, pois prejudica não apenas a resistência mecânica, mas também a durabilidade do material. Abstract in english The foundry sand waste (FSW) derives from moulds used in the metallurgical industries. The present experimental study was developed to evaluate the influence of the use of FSW on concrete properties. The mixtures were produced with cement CPV-ARI-RS, water reducing admixture, FSW, natural and crushe [...] d aggregates. The properties on the fresh state were evaluated by means of flow table test and the determination of the incorporated air content. On the hardened state, compressive strength tests were performed. The initial results have shown that the use of FSW leads to an increase in the air content and cracking, caused by expansive reactions. As a result of that, a reduction in the compressive strength has been noticed. In order to define the origin of the presented trends, a complementary study was developed using FSW with different compositions. However, regardless the composition of the FSW, the obtained results presented trends which were similar to the ones previously observed. Finally, considering the materials herein used, the addition of FSW in concrete is considered inadequate since this leads to a decrease not only in the compressive strength, but also in the durability of the material.

W. R. L da, Silva; E., Tochetto; L. R., Prudêncio JR; A. L., Oliveira.

2011-10-01

71

Determination of thermal conductivity in foundry mould mixtures  

OpenAIRE

For a thorough understanding of the behaviour of foundry mould mixtures, a good knowledge of thermal properties of mould materials is needed. Laboratory determination of thermal conductivity of mould mixtures enables a better control over scabbing defects which are a major problem in green sand mould mixtures. A special instrument has been designed for that purpose and it is described in this work.

Solenic?ki, G.; Budic?, I.; Ciglar, D.

2010-01-01

72

Pneumatic reclamation devices applied in the conditions of Ostrowiec Foundry  

OpenAIRE

The scope of publication includes presentation of used sand reclamation system with the use of energy of compressed stream of air, whichshift reclaimed sand in pneumatic system. The solution, by incorporating into pneumatic installation an element which act as special disordered element causing controlled flow of two-phase flow to clean the surface layer of regenerated grains in a dry environment.The described reclamation equipment was installed and operated in the foundry "Ostrowiec".

Homa, D.; Gorazda, Z.; Myszor, A.

2010-01-01

73

Pneumatic reclamation devices applied in the conditions of Ostrowiec Foundry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The scope of publication includes presentation of used sand reclamation system with the use of energy of compressed stream of air, whichshift reclaimed sand in pneumatic system. The solution, by incorporating into pneumatic installation an element which act as special disordered element causing controlled flow of two-phase flow to clean the surface layer of regenerated grains in a dry environment.The described reclamation equipment was installed and operated in the foundry "Ostrowiec".

D. Homa

2010-04-01

74

National Metal Casting Research Institute final report. Volume 1, Sand reclamation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A mobile thermal foundry sand reclamation unit was designed and constructed. This unit consisted of thermal and mechanical sand reclamation equipment installed on the bed of a 50 foot low-boy trailer. It was transported to a number of Midwest foundries for on-site demonstration of the sand reclamation process. This allowed participating foundries to have their own refuse sand (10-100 tons) processed and then reused in production for evaluation. The purpose for building the unit was to demonstrate to foundries through ``hands on`` experience that refuse sands can be reclaimed and successfully reused particularly in regard to product quality. Most of the participating foundries indicated a high level of satisfaction with the reclaimed sand. Laboratory testing of samples of the used sand, before and after processing by the demonstration unit, verified the usability of the reclaimed sand. One of the foundries participating was a brass foundry, the sand from this foundry contained lead and is classified as a hazardous material. After reclamation the sand was no longer hazardous and could also be reused in the foundry.

Vondra, L.F.; Burningham, J.S. [University of Northern Iowa, Cedar Falls, IA (United States). Dept. of Industrial Technology

1995-08-01

75

Foundry energy conservation workbook  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report discusses methods for promoting energy conservation in foundries. Use of electric power, natural gas, and coke are evaluated. Waste heat recovery systems are considered. Energy consumption in the specific processes of electric melting, natural gas melting, heat treatments, ladle melting, and coke fuel melting is described. An example energy analysis is included. (GHH)

1990-12-31

76

Foundry energy conservation workbook  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report discusses methods for promoting energy conservation in foundries. Use of electric power, natural gas, and coke are evaluated. Waste heat recovery systems are considered. Energy consumption in the specific processes of electric melting, natural gas melting, heat treatments, ladle melting, and coke fuel melting is described. An example energy analysis is included. (GHH)

77

JPL Innovation Foundry  

Science.gov (United States)

Space science missions are increasingly challenged today: in ambition, by increasingly sophisticated hypotheses tested; in development, by the increasing complexity of advanced technologies; in budgeting, by the decline of flagship-class mission opportunities; in management, by expectations for breakthrough science despite a risk-averse programmatic climate; and in planning, by increasing competition for scarce resources. How are the space-science missions of tomorrow being formulated? The paper describes the JPL Innovation Foundry, created in 2011, to respond to this evolving context. The Foundry integrates methods, tools, and experts that span the mission concept lifecycle. Grounded in JPL's heritage of missions, flight instruments, mission proposals, and concept innovation, the Foundry seeks to provide continuity of support and cost-effective, on-call access to the right domain experts at the right time, as science definition teams and Principal Investigators mature mission ideas from "cocktail napkin" to PDR. The Foundry blends JPL capabilities in proposal development and concurrent engineering, including Team X, with new approaches for open-ended concept exploration in earlier, cost-constrained phases, and with ongoing research and technology projects. It applies complexity and cost models, project-formulation lessons learned, and strategy analyses appropriate to each level of concept maturity. The Foundry is organizationally integrated with JPL formulation program offices; staffed by JPL's line organizations for engineering, science, and costing; and overseen by senior Laboratory leaders to assure experienced coordination and review. Incubation of each concept is tailored depending on its maturity and proposal history, and its highest-leverage modeling and analysis needs.

Sherwood, Brent; McCleese, Daniel

2013-08-01

78

Possibilities of utilizing 3DP technology for foundry mould making  

OpenAIRE

Possibilities of application of three-dimensional printing (3DP) technology for making casting prototypes are discussed. Three-dimensional printing enables making of foundry moulds for elements of complex shapes. The mould presented in the paper was printed with the use of Z510 Spectrum unit in the Car Technology Sp. z o.o. (Ltd. Co.) in Kraków. The basic material for printing foundry moulds is the ZCast 501 powder. This powder is a mixture of traditional molding sand, gypsum and supplementa...

Budzik, G.

2007-01-01

79

Heat recovery in foundries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Possibilities of an economical utilization of primary energy. Energy consumption in foundries. Planning and utilization of heat recovery plants linked up with LF-crucible-type induction furnaces. Analysis of energy demand, numerical values of heat demand and supply, cooling water inlet and outlet temperatures as well as operating times. Construction of plant: cooling water system, difficulties, connection to consumer. Result with efficiency. Measuring facilities and regular records. Possibilities of using excessive heat. Saved energy. Cost and economy examinations. Experience and conclusions.

Krabiell, H.; Opitz, R.

1981-01-01

80

Innovative developments in sand reclamation technologies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Proper sand management and efficient sand reclamation system are two main factors influencing economical and ecological side of modern foundry plant. It is well known fact that the production of 1 metric ton of casting from ferrous alloys generates circa 1 metric ton of waste [1], which due to containing certain amounts of harmful and dangerous compounds should undergo a reclamation – at least of the main component, which means a silica sand grains. The paper present problems of scientific and development research concerning the innovative reclamation technologies of used foundry sands such as: mechanical-cryogenic reclamation and innovative thermal reclamation.

R. Dañko

2011-04-01

81

Influence green sand system by core sand additions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Today, about two thirds of iron alloys casting (especially for graphitizing alloys of iron are produced into green sand systems with usually organically bonded cores. Separation of core sands from the green sand mixture is very difficult, after pouring. The core sand concentration increase due to circulation of green sand mixture in a closed circulation system. Furthermore in some foundries, core sands have been adding to green sand systems as a replacement for new sands. The goal of this contribution is: “How the green sand systems are influenced by core sands?”This effect is considered by determination of selected technological properties and degree of green sand system re-bonding. From the studies, which have been published yet, there is not consistent opinion on influence of core sand dilution on green sand system properties. In order to simulation of the effect of core sands on the technological properties of green sands, there were applied the most common used technologies of cores production, which are based on bonding with phenolic resin. Core sand concentration added to green sand system, was up to 50 %. Influence of core sand dilution on basic properties of green sand systems was determined by evaluation of basic industrial properties: moisture, green compression strength and splitting strength, wet tensile strength, mixture stability against staling and physical-chemistry properties (pH, conductivity, and loss of ignition. Ratio of active betonite by Methylene blue test was also determined.

N. Špirutová

2012-01-01

82

Determination of thermal conductivity in foundry mould mixtures  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available For a thorough understanding of the behaviour of foundry mould mixtures, a good knowledge of thermal properties of mould materials is needed. Laboratory determination of thermal conductivity of mould mixtures enables a better control over scabbing defects which are a major problem in green sand mould mixtures. A special instrument has been designed for that purpose and it is described in this work.

G. Soleni?ki

2010-01-01

83

UK silica sand resources for fracking  

OpenAIRE

UK silica sand resources for fracking Clive Mitchell, Industrial Minerals Specialist, British Geological Survey, Keyworth, Nottingham, NG12 5GG Email: cjmi@bgs.ac.uk Silica sand is high purity quartz sand that is mainly used for glass production, as foundry sand, in horticulture, leisure and other industrial uses. One specialist use is as a ‘proppant’ to enhance oil and gas recovery. This presentation will focus on this application, particularly for shale gas recovery where it i...

Mitchell, Clive

2013-01-01

84

Effect of Used Foundry Sandand Pozzocrete Partial Replacement with Fine Aggregate and Cement in Concrete  

OpenAIRE

To produce low cost concrete by blending various ratios of fine aggregate and cement with used foundry sand and Pozzocrete to reduce disposal and pollution problems due to used foundry sand and Pozzocrete.Pozzocrete P60 is a processed quality assured fly ash, investigated for its use as a partial replacement for cement in concrete (1:1.48:3.21). The utilization of Pozzocrete P60 as cement replacement material in concrete or as additive in cement introduces many benefits from economical, techn...

Bhimani, Dushyant R.; Prof. Jayeshkumar Pitroda2; Bhavsar, Prof Jaydev J.

2013-01-01

85

Heat recovery in foundries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Induction furnaces offer good possibilities of heat recovery; in these aggregates, 70% of the electrical energy supplied is converted into useful heat. The waste heat per tonne of iron requires either 18 to 19 kg light heating fuel oil or 23 to 24 m/sup 3/ natural gas if a 65% efficiency is assumed. The waste heat can be used for service water heating and for heating purposes in a foundry. The concept for utilisation and planning of the heat recovery system is presented. The circuiting diagram of the heat recovery system is presented as well as the start-up procedure, results of waste heat utilisation, cost and economics, experience and conclusions.

Krabiell, H.; Opitz, R.

1981-09-14

86

JPL Innovation Foundry  

Science.gov (United States)

NASA supports the community of mission principal investigators by helping them ideate, mature, and propose concepts for new missions. As NASA's Federally Funded Research and Development Center (FFRDC), JPL is a primary resource for providing this service. The environmental context for the formulation lifecycle evolves continuously. Contemporary trends include: more competitors; more-complex mission ideas; scarcer formulation resources; and higher standards for technical evaluation. Derived requirements for formulation support include: stable, clear, reliable methods tailored for each stage of the formulation lifecycle; on-demand access to standout technical and programmatic subject-matter experts; optimized, outfitted facilities; smart access to learning embodied in a vast oeuvre of prior formulation work; hands-on method coaching. JPL has retooled its provision of integrated formulation lifecycle support to PIs, teams, and program offices in response to this need. This mission formulation enterprise is the JPL Innovation Foundry.

Sherwood, Brent; McCleese, Daniel J.

2012-01-01

87

Technologies for decreasing the tap temperature to save energy in steel foundries  

Science.gov (United States)

Steel foundries are one of the most energy intensive industries. The increasing concerns over volatile energy cost and carbon dioxide emission have pushed foundries to improve efficiency and hence decrease electrical energy consumption. Statistical analysis of industrial survey data was combined with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling to investigate the best industrial practices and opportunities to improve energy efficiency. Reducing tap temperature was identified as one of the important ways of reducing energy consumption. Steel foundries typically tap at 1650-1800°C (3000-3300°F) which is 100-250°C (150-450°F) higher than the pouring temperature. The steel temperature is elevated to compensate for the temperature loss associated with tapping, holding and transporting the liquid steel from the furnace to the pouring floor. Based on experimental investigations and CFD modeling of heat losses during holding in the ladle for different foundry practices, a spreadsheet calculator has been developed to calculate the optimum tap temperature for the specific foundry practices which will eliminate unnecessary superheating. The calculated results were compared and validated with industrial measurements. Improving the lining refractory is one significant way of reducing heat losses during holding of the steel in ladle. Silica sand linings are being used in steel foundries as an inexpensive and convenient material for short holding times and small volumes. The possibilities of improvements of silica sand linings by the addition of lower density cenospheres (hollow spheres), a byproduct of coal fired power plants, was studied through property measurements and laboratory trials.

Biswas, Siddhartha

88

77 FR 32998 - Foundry Coke From China  

Science.gov (United States)

...No. 731-TA-891 (Second Review)] Foundry Coke From China Determination On the basis...revocation of the antidumping duty order on foundry coke from China would be likely to lead...Publication 4326 (May 2012), entitled Foundry Coke from China: Investigation No....

2012-06-04

89

Health and safety at work in foundry companies  

OpenAIRE

The article presents the identification and analysis of threats in the environment of the foundry at individual stages of the casts manufacturing process. A generalized model of the foundry was created in the system presentation including harmful and dangerous factors in the foundry technical workplace. This model can refer to an iron foundry and cast steel and small non-ferrous foundries, to modern foundries, with automatic moulding lines and to chill and pressure foundries where machines ex...

Wojtynek, L.

2011-01-01

90

FUGITIVE EMISSIONS FROM IRON FOUNDRIES  

Science.gov (United States)

The report describes the assessment of fugitive emissions of air pollutants discharged from process operations in iron foundries, and the need for the development of control technology for the most critical sources. Data indicates that the most significant fugitive emissions cont...

91

Determination of electrical properties of materials used in microwaveheating of foundry moulds and cores  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The environment-friendly and cost efficient microwave heating of moulding and core sands opens possibilities to use plastics and wood for structures of foundry instrumentation, where transparency to microwaves is the main requirement. Presented are results of a preliminary research on determining possibilities to use selected materials in microwave field. From the viewpoint of specificity of this process, the basic parameter is ability to absorb or transmit microwave radiation. Determined were the following electrical properties: tangent of dielectric loss angle and permittivity of selected materials. The materials were classified according to their transparency to electromagnetic radiation in order to choose the ones suitable for tooling applied in foundry processes.

B. Opyd

2015-04-01

92

Thermal aspects of temperature transformations in silica sand  

OpenAIRE

Problems related with the choice of moulding sand composition considering its behaviour in contact with molten metal were discussed.The investigations of high-temperature phenomena enable moulding sand composition to be evaluated in terms of its applicability underthe specific conditions of a foundry shop. It is also possible to eliminate the casting defects related to moulding sand and its properties. The investigations were carried out on selected moulding sands from the family of the tradi...

St Kowalski, J.

2010-01-01

93

From famous foundry to 'supersurgery'.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dr Steve Mann, a partner at the Worcester Street Medical Practice in Stourbridge, describes how he and a number of his GP colleagues have worked with architects, Abacus Architects, and main contractor, Amphion Construction, as well as with a number of local NHS and local authority bodies, to co-ordinate construction of a new GP 'supersurgery' - the realisation of a dream - on the former site of what is believed to be one of England's oldest foundries in the West Midlands town. The architects' view on the scheme, one of the key goals of which is to retain both much of the character, and the unusual original metal sub-structure, of the former foundry, is also given. PMID:24620493

Mann, Steve

2014-02-01

94

Web based foundry knowledge base  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The main assumptions and functions of proposed Foundry Knowledge Base (FKB are presented in this paper. FKB is a framework forinformation exchange of casting products and manufacturing methods. We use CMS (Content Management System to develope andmaintain our web-based system. The CastML – XML dialect developed by authors for description of casting products and processes – isused as a tool for information interchange between ours and outside systems, while SQL is used to store and edit knowledge rules and alsoto solve the basic selection problems in the rule-based module. Besides the standard functions (companies data, news, events, forums and media kit, our website contains a number of nonstandard functions; the intelligent search module based on expert system is the main advantage of our solution. FKB is to be a social portal which content will be developed by foundry community.

A. Stawowy

2009-01-01

95

What to do with used resin sands  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Disposal of used resin sands is getting more expensive every day. The aim of this paper is to examine how to reduce these costs by recycling the sands inside or outside the foundry. Partial or total recycling is possible through reclamation or regeneration, the former method producing suitable sand for partial re-use, while the latter fully restores the sand's original properties. In this paper, the operating principles of existing recycling systems are briefly described with their related pros and cons. The investigation of internal cycle sand recycling feasibility regards sands with organic binders only and sand mixtures with organic and inorganic binders (e.g., bentonites or silicates). External cycle recycled sands are considered for applications as cement mixture components, road works filling materials and as raw materials in the bricks and ceramic industries.

Selli, M. (Integrazione per l' Industria Srl, Milan (Italy))

1992-12-01

96

Examination and analysis of influence of compaction degree on dielectricproperties of moulding sand components  

OpenAIRE

In the paper, presented are results of a research on influence of compaction degree on dielectric properties of components of moulding sands. During recent years, intensive research works on possibilities of using microwave heating in foundry technique are carried-out. However, introduction of such innovative, environment-friendly and efficient heating processes to foundry technologies is accompanied by a shortage of basic knowledge about behaviour of components of moulding sands in microwave...

Nowak, D.; Granat, K.; Opyd, B.

2015-01-01

97

Energy saving and heat recovery in foundries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Environmental protection and energy: two connected complexes. Sources for waste heat in the foundry and problems in its utilization. Subjects of investigation in the sub-committee of ''Energy''. VDG-specification on ''Energy Saving and Reduction of Energy Cost in Foundries''. Example of heat recovery. Prospect of energy consumption.

Kinne, M.

1983-12-24

98

Biopolimers – structure, properties and applicability in the foundry industry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A review of literature data concerning physicochemical properties and possibilities of practical utilisation of the most important natural biopolymers (proteins, celluloses, starch, chitozan are presented in the paper. Biopolymers being renewable natural polymers characterised by several required physicochemical properties (adhesivity, activity, no toxicity, biodegradability constitute more and more interesting processing raw material for various industrial utilisations including environment friendly binding agents for moulding sands. Protein and starch compositions are used as binding agents for moulding and core sands in the foundry industry. Preliminary tests – performed within own research - of modification and utilisation of biopolymers as binding agents for moulding sands are promising from many aspects: technological (adequate properties of moulding sands, ecological (no toxicity, biodegradability and economic (low price. Starch from the polysaccharide group seems to be especially interesting since it is abundant, easily obtainable, biodegradable and the cheapest polymer. At its actual low price and the possibility of using agricultural wastes in the production, problem of utilising starch in many industry branches can become significant, especially in Poland.

B. Grabowska

2008-04-01

99

Optimising network flow for cost- and value- efficient operation of the supplier-to-foundry system  

OpenAIRE

Skillful control of a network flow, which creates a real bridge between the supplier and user, is one of the most important conditions for cost-efficient operation of an enterprise, foundry shop included. This paper describes modern principles of the network optimising for better distribution of the moulding sand, using modern methods of operational research and commonly available Excel calculation sheet equipped with an optimising tool called Solver.

Smolin?ski, A.; Szymszal, J.; Mikuszewski, T.

2007-01-01

100

Determination of electrical properties of materials used in microwaveheating of foundry moulds and cores  

OpenAIRE

The environment-friendly and cost efficient microwave heating of moulding and core sands opens possibilities to use plastics and wood for structures of foundry instrumentation, where transparency to microwaves is the main requirement. Presented are results of a preliminary research on determining possibilities to use selected materials in microwave field. From the viewpoint of specificity of this process, the basic parameter is ability to absorb or transmit microwave radiation. Determined wer...

Opyd, B.; Granat, K.; Nowak, D.

2015-01-01

101

Health and safety at work in foundry companies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article presents the identification and analysis of threats in the environment of the foundry at individual stages of the casts manufacturing process. A generalized model of the foundry was created in the system presentation including harmful and dangerous factors in the foundry technical workplace. This model can refer to an iron foundry and cast steel and small non-ferrous foundries, to modern foundries, with automatic moulding lines and to chill and pressure foundries where machines execute the majority of essential operations.

L. Wojtynek

2011-07-01

102

The present and future status of Japanese foundry industry  

OpenAIRE

An introduction is given in detail about the current situation of Japanese foundry industry in 2006 from aspects such as the delivery structure of castings, scale and numbers of foundries, current profi t of foundry industry as well as the background of lower profi tability, etc. The development trend of Japanese foundry industry was also predicted, such as the transition of foundries from family business to modern company business, the improvement of rejection ratio and yield, application of...

Nakatani, Kanetake

2008-01-01

103

The Properties of Moulding Sand with Halloysite  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Until now, the mould sand in general use in the foundry industry are based on bentonite, which resulted from the fact that a good recognition properties and phenomena associated with this material. Come to know and normalized content of montmorillonite and carbonates and their important role in the construction of bentonite, and mass properties of the participation of compressive strength or scatter. Halloysite is widely used in industry and beyond them. However, little is known about its use in the foundry in Poland and abroad. This article presents preliminary research conducted at the Foundry Department of Silesian University of Technology on this material. Will raise the question of the representation of this two materials, which contains information connected with history and formation of materials, their structure and chemical composition. In the research, the results of compressive strength tests in wet masses of quartz matrix, where as a binder is used halloysite and bentonite in different proportions.

M. Cholewa

2012-04-01

104

Restoration of an Argonne National Laboratory foundry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Environmental Management Operations Waste Management Department (WMD) at Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL-E) undertook the restoration of an unused foundry with the goal of restoring the area for general use. The foundry was used in the fabrication of reactor components for ANL's research and development programs; many of the items fabricated in the facility were radioactive, thereby contaminating the foundry equipment. The major challenges associated with the safe removal of the foundry equipment included the sheer size of the equipment, a limited overhead crane capability (4.5 tonnes), the minimization of radioactive and hazardous wastes, the cost-effective completion of the project, the hazardous and radioactive wastes present, and limited process knowledge (the facility was unused for man years)

105

Advanced technology nodes, a foundry perspective  

Science.gov (United States)

Leading edge foundries need to fulfill a wide range of customer needs and have to deliver state-of-the-art performance processes. Therefore, an innovative but flexible modular technology set up is essential. This paper will show after a brief introduction of foundry challenges in general Global Foundries path towards the 28nm technology. Here, two key elements like high k metal gate process and embedded stressors are discussed. The article is concluded with an outlook on future device scaling from a leading edge foundry's perspective. This look ahead includes recent transistor architecture and process technology trends. More specifically, some challenges of the 20nm technology are discussed. This node will push planar transistor technology to its physical limits. Due to this, subsequent nodes will require substantial innovations in process architecture and device concepts. Two potential device paths are foreseen and compared, i.e. FinFet and ET-SOI-UTBB devices.

Faul, Jürgen; Hoentschel, Jan; Wiatr, Maciej; Horstmann, Manfred

2012-11-01

106

Radiometric measurement techniques in metallurgy and foundry technology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The contributions contain informations concerning the present state and development of radiometric measurement techniques in metallurgy and foundry technology as well as their application to the solution of various problems. The development of isotope techniques is briefly described. Major applications of radiometric equipment in industrial measurement are presented together with the use of isotopes to monitor processes of industrial production. This is followed by a short description of numerous laboratory-scale applications. Another contribution deals with fundamental problems and methods of moisture measurement by neutrons. A complex moisture/density measurement device the practical applicability of which has been tested is described here. Possibilities for clay determination in used-up moulding materials are discussed in a further contribution. The clay content can be determined by real-time radiometric density measurement so that the necessary moisture or addition of fresh sand can be controlled. (orig.) With 20 figs., 9 tabs., 178 refs

107

Wastes Characterisation from Foundry Activities on European Level  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This work presents The results of the eco toxicological characterisation of 22 defined wastes from steel foundry activities. The wastes have been selected from three processes, steel mill (smelting). sand casting and cleaning and finishing of steel products,with the common characteristics of represent an important industrial activity in the area and generated the wastes considered in this study. The eco toxicological characterisation obtained applying the Spanish regulations on hazardous waste is compared to the hazardous attributions considered by the European Union in order to characterise a waste as hazardous (non hazardous). The results allow to conclude that a acceptable concordance between both methodologies is reached and remark the need to split the broad generic types of wastes given by the Spanish regulation (Eco toxic / non eco toxic) into clearly identifiable specific types of waste

108

Evaluation of electromagnetic absorbing capacity of materials in foundry industry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the paper, a research on determining the standing wave ratio as a measure of electromagnetic absorbing capacity of moulding materials is presented. Preliminary tests performed using a microwave strip line showed that high-silica, chromite and magnesite moulding sands are characterised by low absorbing capacity of microwaves. It was demonstrated that microwave absorbing capacity is significantly affected by chemical compounds included in the examined substrates. It was found that use of a microwave strip line permits precise determining characteristic microwave absorbing capacities of various moulding materials and thus their suitability for microwave drying/hardening of moulds and cores or for other foundry processes. Such a microwave drier can be applied for identifying mass components and for determining e.g. base granularity by means of precisely determined reflection ratios |?| and positions of minimum signal values.

D. Nowak

2010-01-01

109

Hybrid foundry patterns of bevel gears  

OpenAIRE

Possibilities of making hybrid foundry patterns of bevel gears for investment casting process are presented. Rapid prototyping of gears with complex tooth forms is possible with the use of modern methods. One of such methods is the stereo-lithography, where a pattern is obtained as a result of resin curing with laser beam. Patterns of that type are applicable in precision casting. Removing of stereo-lithographic pattern from foundry mould requires use of high temperatures. Resin burning would...

Budzik G.; Markowski T.; Sobolak M.

2007-01-01

110

International negotiations in the foundry engineering  

OpenAIRE

The aim of this paper is to introduce the essence of negotiations in general, which could find it’s application in foundry engineering. The paper is the result of long cooperation of the authors with foundry engineering and their participation in negotiations between the domestic and foreign companies. In this paper the essence and the rules of negotiations have been introduced. It presents also the skills and abilities of the negotiators. The cycle of negotiations and the following stages ...

Wojtynek, L.; Pietrowski, S.

2008-01-01

111

Foundry industry – current state and future development  

OpenAIRE

The casting production is considered as one of the main factors influencing the development of world economy. The state of art and foresight of world’s casting production is discussed in the paper on the basis of the latest statistical data. The progress gained during the last few years in foundry engineering is shown as a way to further development of foundry technology. The last decade brought significant changes in the world map of the greatest casting producers. Globalization and transf...

Holtzer, M.; Dan?ko, R.; Z?ymankowska-kumon, S.

2012-01-01

112

Research and application of enterprise resource planning system for foundry enterprises  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available PPDB issues - four aspects of current management issues of foundry enterprises are discussed in this paper, including Production Management, Process Control, Duration Monitoring and Business Intelligence Data Analysis. Also a whole Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP solution for foundry enterprises is proposed. The solution contains many models, four of which are used to solve the PPDB issues. These are called SPDB models, which separately are the Single-piece management model (based on casting lifecycle, Process management model (based on task-driven technology, Duration monitoring model (based on surplus period, and Business intelligence data analysis model (based on data mining. An ERP system for foundry enterprises, named HZERP, was researched and developed, and applied to a sand casting company of single piece and small batch production. Qualitatively and quantitatively comparing the application effect before and after implementing the HZERP system, the result demonstrated that the foundry ERP system based on the SPDB models can help metal casting enterprises achieve the single-piece management, better regulate the production processes, improve production and delivery management, shorten the production cycle, reduce costs, and speed up the capital turnover to a large extent.

Zhou Jianxin

2013-01-01

113

78 FR 21123 - Charlotte Pipe and Foundry; Analysis to Aid Public Comment  

Science.gov (United States)

...File No. 111 0034] Charlotte Pipe and Foundry; Analysis to Aid Public Comment AGENCY...Agreement'') from Charlotte Pipe and Foundry Company (hereinafter ``CP&F...DWV'') in 2004, and Richmond Foundry, Inc. (``Richmond Foundry'')...

2013-04-09

114

Method of the Moulding Sands Binding Power Assessment in Two-Layer Moulds Systems  

OpenAIRE

More and more foundry plants applying moulding sands with water-glass or its substitutes for obtaining the high-quality casting surface at the smallest costs, consider the possibility of implementing two-layer moulds, in which e.g. the facing sand is a sand with an organic binder (no-bake type) and the backing sand is a sand with inorganic binder. Both kinds of sands must have the same chemical reaction. The most often applied system is the moulding sand on the water-glass or geopolymer bases...

Holtzer, M.; Droz?yn?ski, D.; Bobrowski, A.; Makselon, J.

2014-01-01

115

Investigations of reclamation ability of used moulding sand with water glass binder and used sand with CO2 hardened alkaline resin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction of modern moulding sands with the organic and unorganic binders requires the use of reclamation carried out in order to reuseof used sands. Used sands depending on the type of binding material are characterized by different susceptibility to the recoveryprocesses. Presented research is aimed at determining reclaimability of selected used sands, which are often used in the Polish foundryindustry. This applies to the used moulding sand with water glass binder hardener by esters (ethylene glycol diacetate - technology floster S and used moulding sand with Carbophen 5692 resin, hardened by CO2 as a representative for this type of resins used in foundry.

R. Da?ko

2010-04-01

116

The Properties of Moulding Sand with Halloysite  

OpenAIRE

Until now, the mould sand in general use in the foundry industry are based on bentonite, which resulted from the fact that a good recognition properties and phenomena associated with this material. Come to know and normalized content of montmorillonite and carbonates and their important role in the construction of bentonite, and mass properties of the participation of compressive strength or scatter. Halloysite is widely used in industry and beyond them. However, little is known about its use...

Cholewa, M.; Kozakiewicz, ?.

2012-01-01

117

Optimizing the Moulding Properties of Recycled Ilaro Silica Sand  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Effect of varying binders (bentonite and dextrin and water on the properties of recycled foundry sand made from silica sand mined from Ilaro Silica sand deposit in Ogun State Nigeria and have been used in several cycles for production of cast iron was examined. The used sand was washed in hot water, dried and the sieved for grain distribution. Varying bentonite and dextrin contents were added together with water to portions of the silica sand and thoroughly mixed. The moulding sand properties (permeability, green strength, compatibility, shatter index and moisture content of the recycled foundry sand were determined. It was observed that the recycled Ilaro sand (after several cycle of usage has grain Fineness Index (GFI of 50 and that it can still be reused by minimum addition of binders. It was concluded that the optimum green strength and permeability for the recycled sand was achieved when 12g of bentonite, 8g of dextrin and 12cm3 of water were added to 200g of recycled sand.

Davies Oladayo FOLORUNSO

2011-12-01

118

Gas pressure in sand mould poured with cast iron  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The results of measurements of gas pressure in foundry moulds made from sands bonded with bentonite, sodium sil icate and furan resin were disclosed. It was found that the maximum pressure during pouring of mould with metal occurs in the case of bentonite sands, especially with the addition of coal dust. The effect of this pressure on the formation of surface defects in castings was examined.

A. Chojecki

2011-01-01

119

Gas pressure in sand mould poured with cast iron  

OpenAIRE

The results of measurements of gas pressure in foundry moulds made from sands bonded with bentonite, sodium sil icate and furan resin were disclosed. It was found that the maximum pressure during pouring of mould with metal occurs in the case of bentonite sands, especially with the addition of coal dust. The effect of this pressure on the formation of surface defects in castings was examined.

Chojecki, A.; Mocek, J.

2011-01-01

120

Influence of dust addition from cast iron production on bentonite sand mixture properties  

OpenAIRE

In cast iron foundry operations like melting, casting, feetling, casts cleaning and grinding of a high amount of dusts are produced. Threekinds of dusts from different parts of cast iron foundry were analysed; chemical analyses, granulometric analyses and microscopic analyseswere carried out. The bentonite sand mixtures with different portion of dusts were prepared. Technological properties of prepared sandmixtures (compression strength, shearing strength and permeability) were measured.

Gengel?, P.; Pribulova?, A.

2010-01-01

121

Moisture content measurement of foundry raw materials with NZK 201 neutron moisture gage  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The possibility was studied of applying densimeters and moisture gages of the NZK 201 type in a foundry. The experiments were conducted in the measurement of pure quartz sands and sands with binding agents, such as sodium silicate and bentonite, within the moisture range of 0.5 to 6% water, and in the measurement of a fuel mixture consisting of ground anthracite and ground coke with a moisture content of more than 5%. The dependence was determined of the recorded pulse rates on the water content in quartz sands without binding agents. The measurements were carried out in a volume of 507 dm3 over a period of 3 mins. The accuracy of moisture determination within 0 to 1.5% water was 0.2 to 0.3%, for a higher water content 0.1 to 0.2%. The results of measurements in volumes of 38 and 25 dm3 are given in form of calibration curves. In the minimal volume of 25 dm3 an accuracy of +-0.2% could be obtained. Similar measurements were carried out in a mixture of sand with sodium silicate. The calibration curves for pure quartz sand and sand with sodium silicate are similar. A calibration curve could not be obtained in measurements of quartz sand with bentonite and of the fuel mixture of ground anthracite and ground coke owing to the unreproducibility of results. (J.B.)

122

Thermal reclamation of the used moulding sands  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper presents the results of the research on the used moulding sands subjected to mechanical and thermal reclamation at different stages of the process in the foundry. The research on thermal treatment was carried out in an experimental thermal reclamation appliance. The effects of the process were evaluated with the use of a range of criteria, e.g. loss in roasting, sieve analysis, strength, the acidic reaction (pH. The performed investigations indicate that the thermal reclamation, of spent moulding sands knocked-out from the mould supplying reclaimed materials of the proper quality, can fully substitute the mechanical reclamation.

M. ?ucarz

2015-01-01

123

AIR TOXIC EMISSIONS FROM IRON FOUNDRIES  

Science.gov (United States)

The paper presents uncontrolled air toxic emission factors for different process operations in a gray iron foundry. he emission factors are based on the results of on-site test measurements available in the literature. he emission factors are presented for organic and inorganic c...

124

Increase of foundry properties of secondary silumins  

OpenAIRE

The work is devoted to increase of foundry properties of secondary silumins. The influence of a chip contents in charge, quantities of iron in an alloy and the modifier used for processing of liquid metal, on fluidity, linear shrinkage, crack resistance and a porosity number of silumin AlSi9Cu2 is considered.

Ljutova, O. V.; Volchok, I. P.

2008-01-01

125

Gas evolution rate from heated moulding sands bonded with organic binders  

OpenAIRE

This study is continuation of research on gas evolution rate from heated moulding sands used in the manufacture of foundry moulds. Thefirst stage of the study described in [1] included bentonite-bonded sands. At the second stage, sands bonded with organic binders weretested. The composition of gases, evolved at a given temperature using mould heating system that simulates the process of mould pouringwith molten metal, was determined. Metal was not used in these studies to prevent its reaction...

Siewiorek, A.; Nowak, R.; Chojecki, A.; Mocek, J.

2011-01-01

126

Characterization and extraction of gold contained in foundry industrial wastes; Caracterizacion y extraccion de oro contenido en matrices de desechos industriales de fundicion  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Gold was characterized and leached in foundry sands. These wastes are product among others of the automotive industry where they are used as molds material which are contaminated by diverse metals during the foundry. To fulfil the leaching process four coupled thermostat columns were used. To characterize the solid it was used the X-ray diffraction technique. For the qualitative analysis it was used the Activation analysis technique. Finally, for the study of liquors was used the Plasma diffraction spectroscopy (Icp-As) technique. The obtained results show that the process which was used the thermostat columns was more efficient, than the methods traditionally recommended. (Author)

Vite T, J.; Vite T, M.; Diaz C, A.; Carreno de Leon, C. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Depto. de Estudios del Ambiente, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

1999-07-01

127

Failure effects and resolution of modes: a novel FMEA treatise for finalizing mould designs in foundries  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english This paper proposes a novel strategy to finalize the mould design of a specific cast component through the failure analysis using case study data of a foundry. Traditional failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) is one of the effective tools for prioritizing the possible failure modes by calculating [...] the Risk priority Number (RPN) of a process/design. But in foundries, prioritizing the failures through the traditional FMEA produces unmatched results when RPN values are identical during preproduction trials. Hence it is very difficult to finalize moulds design of a specific cast component using traditional FMEA approach. This research paper addresses an alternate FMEA approach named FEAROM (Failure Effects And Resolution of Modes) to resolve the difficulty in finalizing the mould designs. Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) is used for validating the results obtained using FEAROM method. The results presented are based on an experimental study carried out for a specific component in a foundry using the sand casting method. It is found that proposed FEAROM model matches well in practice and produces quality castings.

T.A., Selvan; C., Jegadheesan; P., Ashoka Varthanan; K.M., Senthilkumar.

128

Improving electrical efficiency in the foundry industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the current economic climate, it is essential for industry to minimize costs wherever possible. This is particularly important in the foundry industry that is being subjected to competitive pressure from offshore suppliers and by suppliers of competing materials. This paper reports that foundries must continuously strive to lower operating costs wherever possible. In many respects, the utility industry is no different. The situation facing utilities over the past several years has resulted in its transition from a producer and supplier of energy to that of a more customer oriented service company. In many cases, utilities have formed departments dedicated to providing assistance to their customers in the application of electricity to their business. At the same time, the need for energy conservation has become widespread in North America as energy demand increases, environmental concerns increase and the cost of providing new power plants become formidable

129

Commercial negotiations in the foundry engineering  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article presents the process of commercial negotiations paying attention to the negotiation itself as well as to its basic elements. The specificity of the Polish foundries’ main negotiation partners from The European Union, who are the deliverers of diverse casting range, was specified. The most important cultural factors, which determine the process of negotiations conducted by the representatives of various cultural groups, were analysed. The understanding of cultural differences and adapting to them while negotiating are important factors which constitute the parties’ negotiation process. The meaning of price in the commercial negotiation process was described. The elements of sale process and the factors which influence the casts price were enumerated. What is more, the main methods of determining price were characterized. The essential problems connected with conducting the price negotiations in foundries were indicated.

L. Wojtynek

2008-10-01

130

Monitoring of the supply system of electrical foundry equipment  

OpenAIRE

The article presents examples of recording the instantaneous values voltages, currents and power in electrical power systems foundry.Recorded measurements of the instantaneous values allow to make an analysis of transients at the time of turning on the foundry device.The author on the bases of the measurements results in power systems selected foundry mixers, describes examples of analysis andevaluation of transients when switching these devices.

Zio??kowski, E.

2010-01-01

131

How orthogonal are the OBO Foundry ontologies?  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Ontologies in biomedicine facilitate information integration, data exchange, search and query of biomedical data, and other critical knowledge-intensive tasks. The OBO Foundry is a collaborative effort to establish a set of principles for ontology development with the eventual goal of creating a set of interoperable reference ontologies in the domain of biomedicine. One of the key requirements to achieve this goal is to ensure that ontology developers reus...

Ghazvinian Amir; Noy Natalya F; Musen Mark A

2011-01-01

132

Ion traps fabricated in a CMOS foundry  

OpenAIRE

We demonstrate trapping in a surface-electrode ion trap fabricated in a 90-nm CMOS (complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor) foundry process utilizing the top metal layer of the process for the trap electrodes. The process includes doped active regions and metal interconnect layers, allowing for co-fabrication of standard CMOS circuitry as well as devices for optical control and measurement. With one of the interconnect layers defining a ground plane between the trap electro...

Mehta, K. K.; Eltony, A. M.; Bruzewicz, C. D.; Chuang, I. L.; Ram, R. J.; Sage, J. M.; Chiaverini, J.

2014-01-01

133

A Formalised Description of Foundry Production Program  

OpenAIRE

Rational designing of foundry enterprises is based on a program allowing for both the quantitative and qualitative aspects of production. Studies carried out in this respect are mainly oriented at the task of establishing a classification system of castings and formalising their description. This article refers to the absolute classification and technological classification of castings existing so far; some principles of the formation of a model of the data on production program have been pre...

Wrona, R.; Stawowy, A.; Macio?, A.

2007-01-01

134

Development tendencies of moulding and core sands  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Further development of the technology for making moulding and core sands will be strictly limited by tough requirements due to protection of the natural environment. These tendencies are becoming more and more tense, so that we will reach a point when even processes, that from technological point of view fulfill high requirements of the foundry industry, must be replaced by more ecologically-friendly solutions. Hence, technologies using synthetic resins as binding materials will be limited. This paper presents some predictable development tendencies of moulding and core sands. The increasing role of inorganic substances will be noticed, including silicate binders with significantly improved properties, such as improved knock-out property or higher reclamation strength. Other interesting solutions might also be moulding sands bonded by geo-polymers and phosphate binders or salts and also binders based on degradable biopolymers. These tendencies and the usefulness of these binders are put forward in this paper.

Stanislaw M. Dobosz1

2011-11-01

135

Foundry. Trade and Industrial Education Trade Preparatory Training Guide.  

Science.gov (United States)

One of a series of curriculum guides prepared for the metals occupations cluster of the construction/fabrication occupational group, this guide identifies the essentials of the foundry trade as recommended by the successful foundry operator. An instructional program based upon the implementation of the guide is expected to prepare a student to…

Nebraska State Dept. of Education, Lincoln. Div. of Vocational Education.

136

Mutagenic material in air particles in a steel foundry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recently published epidemiological reports indicate lung cancer mortality amongst foundry workers at DOFASCO, Ltd., was higher than found elsewhere in the plant or control populations. Presented are preliminary work on mutagen screening efforts and studies on the use of various sampling devices and on optimization of the assays, followed by data which show a diverse range of mutagenic compounds present in foundry air particulates

137

Photonic Device Layout Within the Foundry CMOS Design Environment  

OpenAIRE

A design methodology to layout photonic devices within standard electronic complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) foundry data preparation flows is described. This platform has enabled the fabrication of designs in three foundry scaled-CMOS processes from two semiconductor manufacturers.

Orcutt, Jason Scott; Ram, Rajeev J.

2009-01-01

138

GRAY IRON FOUNDRY INDUSTRY PARTICULATE EMISSIONS: SOURCE CATEGORY REPORT  

Science.gov (United States)

The report gives results of a study to develop particulate emission factors based on cutoff size for inhalable particles for the gray iron foundry industry. After a review of available information characterizing particulate emissions from gray iron foundries, the data were summar...

139

A Formalised Description of Foundry Production Program  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Rational designing of foundry enterprises is based on a program allowing for both the quantitative and qualitative aspects of production. Studies carried out in this respect are mainly oriented at the task of establishing a classification system of castings and formalising their description. This article refers to the absolute classification and technological classification of castings existing so far; some principles of the formation of a model of the data on production program have been presented as well. The program was written by the technique of relational databases with description of the documents and diagrams of relations existing between the data.

R. Wrona

2007-07-01

140

Thermal aspects of temperature transformations in silica sand  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problems related with the choice of moulding sand composition considering its behaviour in contact with molten metal were discussed.The investigations of high-temperature phenomena enable moulding sand composition to be evaluated in terms of its applicability underthe specific conditions of a foundry shop. It is also possible to eliminate the casting defects related to moulding sand and its properties. The investigations were carried out on selected moulding sands from the family of the traditional carbon-free moulding mixtures. The effect of moulding sand composition and moisture content on the linear dilatation and stress formation caused by an allotropic quartz transformation was determined. The investigated phenomena were analysed on 3D diagrams plotted from the test data. A strong effect of the beta quartz - alpha quartz transformation at a temperature of about 6000C was stated.

J.St. Kowalski

2010-07-01

141

Characterization of modified 9 Cr-1 Mo steel sand castings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Experience with the sand casting of modified 9 Cr-1 Mo steel at several foundries is presented. The castings included simple blocks, elbows, valve bodies, and a steam chest. Castings were characterized by tensile and Charpy impact tests, for the effects of thermal aging on Charpy impact properties and hardness, and by creep, fatigue, and microstructure. Properties of the castings were compared with those observed for wrought material. In general, mechanical properties of castings were slightly lower than those of the wrought material

142

Sand Dunes  

Science.gov (United States)

Most will agree that nothing is more relaxing that lying or walking on a beach. While unwinding, have you ever wondered what caused those big mounds of sand that you crossed to get there? This topic in depth addresses this issue, featuring Web sites that discuss sand dune processes and formations. Some of the Web sites also discuss research, mining, and protection activities taking place in areas with sand dune.The Environment Bay of Plenty in New Zealand has an online brochure (1) dealing with the coastal processes that form sand dunes and beaches. From this site, users can obtain a general understanding of how dunes change with time. Ted Brambleby developed the second site (2) for the Marine Education Society of Australasia, Inc. This site gives a great overview of the functions and formations of dunes as well as describing their unique beauty and strategies on how to care for the dunes. Produced by Nova Scotia Museum of Natural History, the third site (3) is an online pamphlet discussing the physical features and locations of sand dunes in Nova Scotia. Visitors can also read about the ecosystem supported by these dynamic features. The forth site (4), created by John Mangimeli for the National Park Service, is a review of the scientific research completed throughout the years dealing with the geology of sand dunes. Visitors will find a more in-depth discussion about sand movement, sand accumulation, and sand dune features. The fifth site is a scientific paper (5 ) written by R.L. Van Dam, et al. Studying the long term evolution of the Parengarenga Sandspit, these researchers used ground penetrating radar (GPR) "to (1) explore the possibilities for mapping lateral continuity of the coffee rock, (2) study the sedimentary architecture and stratigraphy of the solitary dunes, and (3) reconstruct the wind regime on the sandspit." The next two sites discuss the threats to sand dunes and activities taking place to protect them. The Lake Michigan Federation addresses the issues of mining (6). Visitors can learn about alternatives to mining dune sand and the ecological values of dunes. The Department of Environmental Quality in Michigan created a site (7) that provides users with statistical information dealing with the amount of sand harvested, the regulations of mining, and maps of critical dune areas. After learning about the formation, processes, threats, and protections efforts; the last site (8), created by Eva Hornecker with the University of Bremen, will allow users to get a real sense of the beauty of the sand dunes. The site features a collage of spectacular images of the Great Sand Dunes in the San Luis Valley.

Enright, Rachel

143

Space Technology for the Iron Foundry  

Science.gov (United States)

Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) initiated development of a plasma melter intended to solve a major problem in the U.S. foundry industry. EPRI is a non-profit organization that manages research and development for some 600 electric utility member companies. For the plasma melter program, EPRI enlisted as co-sponsors Westinghouse Electric's Environmental Systems and Services Division, General Motors Corporation, and Modern Equipment Company, supplier of equipment and services to the foundry industry. General Motor's plasma melter, first in the U.S., is an advanced technology system designed to improve the efficiency of coke-burning cupolas that melt iron to produce automotive castings. The key elements are six Westinghouse plasma torches. Electrically-powered plasma torch creates an ionized gas that superheats air entering the cupola to 10,000 degrees Fahrenheit. That great heat, three times higher than that attainable by oil or natural gas systems, is the key to making iron cheaper, cleaner, and faster. System offers an environmental bonus in reduced cupola emissions. Plasma torches increase GM's electric bill at Defiance, but that cost is more than compensated by the savings in charge material. The EPRI-sponsored Center for Materials Production (CMP) is evaluating the potential of plasma cupola technology.

1990-01-01

144

Hybrid foundry patterns of bevel gears  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Possibilities of making hybrid foundry patterns of bevel gears for investment casting process are presented. Rapid prototyping of gears with complex tooth forms is possible with the use of modern methods. One of such methods is the stereo-lithography, where a pattern is obtained as a result of resin curing with laser beam. Patterns of that type are applicable in precision casting. Removing of stereo-lithographic pattern from foundry mould requires use of high temperatures. Resin burning would generate significant amounts of harmful gases. In case of a solid stereo-lithographic pattern, the pressure created during gas burning may cause the mould to crack. A gas volume reduction may be achieved by using patterns of honeycomb structure. However, this technique causes a significant worsening of accuracy of stereo-lithographic patterns in respect of their dimensions and shape. In cooperation with WSK PZL Rzeszów, the Machine Design Department of Rzeszow University of Technology carried out research on the design of hybrid stereo-lithographic patterns. Hybrid pattern consists of a section made by stereo-lithographic process and a section made of casting wax. The latter material is used for stereo-lithographic pattern filling and for mould gating system. The hybrid pattern process consists of two stages: wax melting and then the burn-out of stereolithographic pattern. Use of hybrid patterns reduces the costs of production of stereolithographic patterns. High dimensional accuracy remains preserved in this process.

Budzik G.

2007-01-01

145

Gas evolution rate from heated moulding sands bonded with organic binders  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study is continuation of research on gas evolution rate from heated moulding sands used in the manufacture of foundry moulds. Thefirst stage of the study described in [1] included bentonite-bonded sands. At the second stage, sands bonded with organic binders weretested. The composition of gases, evolved at a given temperature using mould heating system that simulates the process of mould pouringwith molten metal, was determined. Metal was not used in these studies to prevent its reaction with gases formed as a result of moulding sand heating, since this effect would significantly impede the gas identification or even make it totally impossible.

A. Siewiorek

2011-01-01

146

In vitro characterization of DNA adducts formed by foundry air particulate matter.  

OpenAIRE

This study is part of an ongoing investigation of biomarkers in iron foundry workers exposed to polycyclic aromatic compounds. Foundry workers with the highest exposures had elevated levels of DNA adducts in their white blood cells in previous studies. The purpose of this study was to characterize the nature of DNA reactive chemicals in foundry air samples through incubating the foundry filter extract with DNA and activation enzymes. Calf thymus DNA was incubated with foundry filter extract a...

Savela, K.; Kohan, M. J.; Walsh, D.; Perera, F. P.; Hemminki, K.; Lewtas, J.

1996-01-01

147

Study of exposure to radiation in a lost wax foundry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Lost wax casting is an old method for making metal pieces. At the beginning of the process, the required metal piece is made in wax. After that, the wax model is covered with a siliceous shell. When the siliceous shell is finished, the wax is melted, replacing the wax by liquid metal. In the moment when the metal is cool the siliceous shell is broken away. Finally some finishing process is made, and the piece is just prepared for its utilization. The siliceous shell is prepared with zircon sands containing varying concentrations of natural radionuclides: 238U, 232Th and 235U together with their progenies. For that reason it is very convenient to assess the dose to workers, considering the tasks they perform and the exposure time in these activities during a year. The first part of the study is centred in identifying the situations and areas where workers are exposed to radiation. The exposure pathways are: inhalation of dust, ingestion of dust, inhalation of radon, skin contamination and external irradiation. In a plant where this process is implemented the areas where workers are exposed are: the store, the shell building area, the foundry area, the shell or mould breaking area, and the waste area, including those areas close to the store too. In those sections, workers are exposed while they work in different tasks. The second part of the study deals with dose assessment. In most of the areas, external irradiation is the df the areas, external irradiation is the dominant pathway, and in order to assess doses a Monte-Carlo simulation using MCNP-4C code has been performed. Photons fluxes so obtained are multiplied by the conversion factor of Flux to Kerma for air, by conversion factor to Effective Dose by kerma unit, and by the number of emitted photons per disintegration of parent nuclide. The application of this methodology to given mill has obtained the following results: Individual doses by area received by workers have a mean value of 5.9 ?Sv/y and a standard deviation of 7.7 ?Sv/y with an upper limit of 20.3 ?Sv/y and a lower limit of 0.2 ?Sv/y. The corresponding collective dose is 232.8 ?Sv/y and being the distribution of dose by task as follows: - Maintenance: Carrying the zircon sands from lorry to store (0.039 ?Sv/y), putting the zircon sand pallet on the shelf (0.012 ?Sv/y), while the pallet is on the shelf (2.8 ?Sv/y), taking the pallet off the shelf (0.022 ?Sv/y), taking the pallet to mould preparation area (0.39 ?Sv/y). The total collective dose making that task is 3.263 ?Sv/y. - Shell Making: shell preparation (58.2 ?Sv/y), shell cover (big trays) (76 ?Sv/y), shell cover (small trays) (9 ?Sv/y), exposures to moulds (5.6?Sv/y), loading the pieces on the wagon (2.1?Sv/y), taking the wagon to foundry area (7.4 ?Sv/y), taking the residues to waste area (2.2 ?Sv/y), putting the pieces into the take wax removing kiln (1.4 ?Sv/y). The total collective dose making that task is 161.91 ?Sv/y. - Mould preparation (35.2 ?Sv/y). - Shell removal: waste material removal (0.4 ?Sv/y), and moving the cart from foundry area (0.6 ?Sv/y). - Finishing (28.6 ?Sv/y). - Waste (0.00034 ?Sv). And here it can be seen that those workers working on the shell making are the most exposed ones, but the value of collective dose is less than 1 mSv/y. Comparing with the levels of the graphical representation of the classification system, it can conclude that the processes 'do not need to consider regulation'. (author)

148

Study of exposure to radiation in a lost wax foundry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Lost wax casting is an ancient method for making metal pieces. At the beginning of the process, the required metal piece is made in wax. After that, the wax model is covered with a silicaceous shell. When the silicaceous shell is finished, the wax is melted and replaced by liquid metal. As soon as the metal is cool the silicaceous shell is broken away. Finally a finishing process is made, and the piece is ready for utilization. The silicaceous shell is prepared with zircon sands containing varying concentrations of natural radionuclides: 238U, 232Th and 235U together with their progenies. For that reason it is very convenient to assess the dose to workers, considering the tasks they perform and the exposure time during these activities over a year. The first part of the study focuses on identifying the situations and areas where workers are exposed to radiation. The exposure pathways are: inhalation of dust, ingestion of dust, inhalation of radon, skin contamination and external irradiation. In a plant where this process is implemented the areas where workers are exposed are: the store, the shell building area, the foundry area, the shell or mold breaking area, and the waste area, including the areas close to the store. In these areas, workers are exposed while they work at their different tasks. The second part of the study deals with dose assessment. In most of the areas, external irradiation is the dominant pathway, and iirradiation is the dominant pathway, and in order to assess doses a Monte-Carlo simulation using MCNP-4C code has been performed. The photon fluxes thus obtained are multiplied by the conversion factor of flux to kerma for air, by conversion factor to Effective Dose by kerma unit, and by the number of emitted photons per disintegration of parent nuclide. The application of this methodology to a given mill has produced the following results: Individual doses received by workers by area have a mean value of 5.9 ?Sv/y and a standard deviation of 7.7 ?Sv/y with an upper limit of 20.3 ?Sv/y and a lower limit of 0.2 ?Sv/y. The corresponding collective dose is 232.8 ?Sv/y and the distribution of dose by task being as follows: 1) Maintenance: carrying the zircon sands from lorry to store (0.039 ?Sv/y), placing the zircon sand pallet on the shelf (0.012 ?Sv/y), exposure while the pallet is on the shelf (2.8 ?Sv/y), taking the pallet off the shelf (0.022 ?Sv/y), taking the pallet to the mold preparation area (0.39 ?Sv/y). The total collective dose associated to this task is 3.263 ?Sv/y 2) Shell Making: shell preparation (58.2 ?Sv/y), shell cover (big trays) (76 ?Sv/y), shell cover (small trays) (9 ?Sv/y), exposures to molds (5.6?Sv/y), loading the pieces on the wagon (2.1?Sv/y), taking the wagon to the foundry area (7.4 ?Sv/y), taking the residues to the waste area (2.2 ?Sv/y), putting the pieces into the wax removing kiln (1.4 ?Sv/y). The total collective dose of this task is 161.91 ?Sv/y 3) Mold preparation (35.2 ?Sv/y) 4) Shell removal: waste material removal (0.4 ?Sv/y), and moving the cart from the foundry area (0.6 ?Sv/y) 5) Finishing (28.6 ?Sv/y) 6) Waste (0.00034 ?Sv) Workers in shell making are the most exposed, but the value of the collective dose is less than 1 mSv/y. Comparing with the levels of the graphical representation of the classification system, we can conclude that the processes 'do not need to consider regulation'. (author)

149

Casting Ductile Iron in Layer Moulds Made from Ecological Sands  

OpenAIRE

The article contains the results of tests performed under the target project in Hardtop Foundry Charsznica.The objective of the tests and studies was to develop a technology of making high-quality ductile iron castings, combined witheffective means of environmental protection. The studies presented in this article related to castings weighing from 1 to 300 kg made from ductile iron of grades 400-15 and 500-7, using two-layer moulds, where the facing and core sand was the sand with an alkaline...

Ra?czka, M.; Gandurski, K.; Isendorf, B.

2012-01-01

150

Using sol-gel component as additive to foundry coatings to improve casting quality  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The improvement of foundry coatings to enhance performance is important. This paper investigates the effect of using sol?gel component as an additive to foundry coatings applied on chemically bonded sand cores. Three parameters at three levels each were investigated using Taguchi experimental parameter design. The effects of the sol?gel component on viscosity, density, °Baumé, core coverage and permeability are shown. Numerical simulations were used to predict defect areas. The thermal profiles of the core materials during casting were determined, and the surface quality of the castings was evaluated. The results show that the surface quality of castings obtained by adding the sol?gel component to the coatings for cold box cores has no significant difference from castings produced with coatings without sol?gel component. On the other hand, the addition of the sol?gel component in coatings for furan cores showed significant improvement on the surface quality of the castings compared to that obtained without sol?gel component.

Nwaogu, Ugochukwu Chibuzoh; Poulsen, T.

2012-01-01

151

Contamination at a small precious metals foundry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Extensive contamination of foundry premises resulted from the accidental inclusion of a radioactive source, a strontium-90 compound probably incorporated in rolled silver foil, in a melt for reprocessing silver scrap. Most of this contamination was easily removed using an industrial vacuum cleaner, but some brickwork, concrete flooring, the furnace lining and waste flux bin had to be removed. Fortunately the strontium contamination from the melt was concentrated in the flux around the silver. It is recommended that every radioactive source should be permanently and recognisably marked if such incidents are to be avoided in future. The correct procedure for accounting for radioactive sources should also have been followed. Subsequent monitoring by the company of scrap metal led to the discovery of an empty depleted uranium radiography source container in a consignment of lead. (U.K.)

152

Ion traps fabricated in a CMOS foundry  

Science.gov (United States)

We demonstrate trapping in a surface-electrode ion trap fabricated in a 90-nm CMOS (complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor) foundry process utilizing the top metal layer of the process for the trap electrodes. The process includes doped active regions and metal interconnect layers, allowing for co-fabrication of standard CMOS circuitry as well as devices for optical control and measurement. With one of the interconnect layers defining a ground plane between the trap electrode layer and the p-type doped silicon substrate, ion loading is robust and trapping is stable. We measure a motional heating rate comparable to those seen in surface-electrode traps of similar size. This demonstration of scalable quantum computing hardware utilizing a commercial CMOS process opens the door to integration and co-fabrication of electronics and photonics for large-scale quantum processing in trapped-ion arrays.

Mehta, K. K.; Eltony, A. M.; Bruzewicz, C. D.; Chuang, I. L.; Ram, R. J.; Sage, J. M.; Chiaverini, J.

2014-07-01

153

Ion traps fabricated in a CMOS foundry  

CERN Document Server

We demonstrate trapping in a surface-electrode ion trap fabricated in a 90-nm CMOS (complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor) foundry process utilizing the top metal layer of the process for the trap electrodes. The process includes doped active regions and metal interconnect layers, allowing for co-fabrication of standard CMOS circuitry as well as devices for optical control and measurement. With one of the interconnect layers defining a ground plane between the trap electrode layer and the p-type doped silicon substrate, ion loading is robust and trapping is stable. We measure a motional heating rate comparable to those seen in surface-electrode traps of similar size. This is the first demonstration of scalable quantum computing hardware, in any modality, utilizing a commercial CMOS process, and it opens the door to integration and co-fabrication of electronics and photonics for large-scale quantum processing in trapped-ion arrays.

Mehta, K K; Bruzewicz, C D; Chuang, I L; Ram, R J; Sage, J M; Chiaverini, J

2014-01-01

154

Maintenance system improvement in cast iron foundry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The work presents the issue of technical equipment management in an iron foundry basing on the assumptions of the TPM system (Total Productive Maintenance. Exploitation analysis of automatic casting lines has been carried out and their work’s influence on the whole production system’s functioning has been researched. Within maintenance system improvement, implementation of autonomic service and planned lines’ review have been proposed in order to minimize the time of breakdown stoppages. The SMED method was used to optimize changeover time, and the OEE (Overall Equipment Effectiveness was applied to evaluate the level of resources usage before and after implementing changes. Further, the influence of the maintenance strategy of casting devices’ efficiency on own costs of casting manufac- ture was estimated.

S. Kukla

2011-07-01

155

XML Model of Planning System in Foundry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Contemporary enterprises (including those manufacturing iron castings have at their disposal advanced computer resources for the management of production processes. The disadvantage of these solutions is an incoherent language for writing production planning and scheduling problems. The lack of the standard for data exchange and model description makes the work on designing, development and implementation difficult. Various dialects of XML language, among others for production planning purposes, which may change this situation have been developed for the last several years. The paper describes a PSLX language, which can be viewed first of all as an ontology and communication protocol inside and outside of the Advanced Planning and Scheduling (APS system, as well as an XML standard for production planning and scheduling. This language has been then used to develop a model of planning system in a foundry. The model consists of customer’s order model, resources model and scheduling model.

A. Stawowy

2007-07-01

156

Evaluation of Reclamability of Molding Sands with New Inorganic Binders  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One of the purposes of the application of chemically modified inorganic binders is to improve knocking out properties and the related reclamability with previously used in foundry inorganic binder (water glass, which allowing the use of ecological binders for casting non- ferrous metals. Good knocking out properties of the sands is directly related to the waste sands reclamability, which is a necessary condition of effective waste management. Reclamation of moulding and core sands is a fundamental and effective way to manage waste on site at the foundry, in accordance with the Environmental Guidelines. Therefore, studies of reclamation of waste moulding and core sands with new types of inorganic binders (developed within the framework of the project were carried out. These studies allowed to determine the degree of recovery of useful, material, what the reclaimed sand is, and the degree of its use in the production process. The article presents these results of investigation. They are a part of broader research programme executed under the project POIG.01.01.02-00- 015/09 "Advanced materials and technologies".

I. Izdebska-Szanda

2012-04-01

157

Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene, a PAH biomarker in foundry workers  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Exposure to PAH in foundry workers has been studied by urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (HPU) levels, quantitatively measured by reversed phase HPLC. Seventy male foundry workers and 68 matched controls were investigated. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure was defined by 17 breathing zone hygienic samples, consisting of 16 selected PAH compounds. Mean total PAH concentration (SD) was 10.40 (4.04) mu g/m3. A multiple regression model of tobacco consumption, age, airborne PAH-exposure and foundry work on log HPU showed a significant correlation, p <0.001, r2 = 0.69. Only foundry work (p <0.0001) and airborne PAH exposure (p = 0.0478) contributed significantly to the model. These data suggest that HPU is a sensitive biomarker for low-dose PAH exposure.

Omland, O; Sherson, D

1996-01-01

158

The restoration of an Argonne National Laboratory foundry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Environmental Management Operations' Waste Management Department (WMD) at Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL-E) undertook the restoration of an unused foundry with the goal of restoring the area for general use. The foundry was used in the fabrication of reactor components for ANL's research and development programs; many of the items fabricated in the facility were radioactive, thereby contaminating the foundry equipment. This paper very briefly describes the dismantling and decontamination of the facility. The major challenges associated with the safe removal of the foundry equipment included the sheer size of the equipment, a limited overhead crane capability (4.5 tonne), the minimization of radioactive and hazardous wastes, and the cost-effective completion of the project, the hazardous and radioactive wastes present, and limited process knowledge (the facility was unused for many years)

159

EMISSION FACTORS FOR IRON FOUNDRIES--CRITERIA AND TOXIC POLLUTANTS  

Science.gov (United States)

The report lists criteria and toxic pollutant emission factors or sources commonly found in gray and ductile iron foundries. Emission factors are identified for process source and process fugitive emissions. he emission factors, representing uncontrolled emissions, may be used to...

160

EMISSION FACTORS FOR IRON FOUNDRIES - CRITERIA AND TOXIC POLLUTANTS  

Science.gov (United States)

The report lists criteria and toxic pollutant emission factors or sources commonly found in gray and ductile iron foundries. Emission factors are identified for process source and process fugitive emissions. he emission factors, representing uncontrolled emissions, may be used to...

161

Guide to energy efficiency opportunities in Canadian foundries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In Canada, the foundry sector employs about 15000 people and most of the companies are members of the Canadian Foundry Association (CFA). The CFA is committed to reducing its greenhouse gas emissions and is therefore looking for energy savings which, in addition to reducing emissions, would help the industry save costs and improve its competitiveness. The aim of this document is to provide operators with a guide to improving energy efficiency in their foundries. The report provides guidance on carrying out energy audits, gathering energy saving ideas, prioritizing projects, and charting the course of improved energy performance. Many different energy saving ideas for many kinds of operation are presented in this guidebook as a help to operators in finding where they could improve their energy efficiency; references to energy saving methods from all over the world are provided. This guidebook is a useful tool for helping foundry operators improve energy efficiency in their operations.

NONE

2003-07-01

162

Logic Foundry: Rapid Prototyping for FPGA-Based DSP Systems  

OpenAIRE

We introduce the Logic Foundry, a system for the rapid creation and integration of FPGA-based digital signal processing systems. Recognizing that some of the greatest challenges in creating FPGA-based systems occur in the integration of the various components, we have proposed a system that targets the following four areas of integration: design flow integration, component integration, platform integration, and software integration. Using the Logic Foundry, a system can be easily spec...

Gary Spivey; Bhattacharyya, Shuvra S.; Kazuo Nakajima

2003-01-01

163

Elements of the efficiency system improvement of foundry  

OpenAIRE

The effectiveness of industrial systems is being ranked among important factors industrial engineering in foundry. He determines internal production abilities of foundry. It is possible to describe the effectiveness the measure of matching closely possibilities maximum number of products for definite quality standards, at the optimal use of production factors and with the application the best methods pouring out. The second worship of article is devoted to problems market supply casting produ...

Sitko, J.

2010-01-01

164

Rationalization of foundry processes on the basis of simulation experiment  

OpenAIRE

The paper presents results of research obtained on the basis of simulation experiment, whose aim was to analyze the performance of cast iron foundry. A simulation model of automobile industry foundry was made. The course of the following processes was analyzedin a computer model: preparation of liquid cast iron, forming and filling the moulds, cooling and stamping the castings, cleaning andfinishing treatment. The sheets of multi-criterion evaluation were prepared, where criteria and variants...

Kukla, S.

2008-01-01

165

Production system rationalisation on the example of iron foundry  

OpenAIRE

The present paper presents a systemic approach to foundry management. Thanks to production process modelling and simulation techniques, an attempt was made to synthesise many interconnected devices and numerous manufacturing stages into one production system. In the beginning, a factor analysis was carried out of the research object, which is a system of iron castings manufacture on automated foundry lines. On the basis of a simulation experiment, use the accessible production resources and m...

Kukla, S.

2010-01-01

166

Investigation of Pollution Emits By Cupola Furnace in Gujarat Foundry  

OpenAIRE

The foundry industry is the major contributor in pollution among all other industries in India. At present only few foundries in India have pollution controllable system. Most of these casting industries use cupola furnace that emits gases namely carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide, suspended particle matter, dust and ash. Though, emission from single furnace is not considerable but it has huge impact if much such type of furnaces located in particular area. A i...

Hardikkumar Patil, Gajanan Patange

2013-01-01

167

77 FR 20788 - Foundry Coke Products From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Expedited Second...  

Science.gov (United States)

...International Trade Administration [A-570-862] Foundry Coke Products From the People's Republic of China...sunset'') review of the antidumping duty order on foundry coke products (``foundry coke'') from the People's Republic of...

2012-04-06

168

40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Zzzzzz... - Applicability of General Provisions to Aluminum, Copper, and Other Nonferrous Foundries Area Sources  

Science.gov (United States)

...Aluminum, Copper, and Other Nonferrous Foundries Area Sources 1 Table 1 to Subpart...Aluminum, Copper, and Other Nonferrous Foundries Pt. 63, Subpt. ZZZZZZ, Table 1...Aluminum, Copper, and Other Nonferrous Foundries Area Sources As required in §...

2010-07-01

169

Examination and analysis of influence of compaction degree on dielectricproperties of moulding sand components  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the paper, presented are results of a research on influence of compaction degree on dielectric properties of components of moulding sands. During recent years, intensive research works on possibilities of using microwave heating in foundry technique are carried-out. However, introduction of such innovative, environment-friendly and efficient heating processes to foundry technologies is accompanied by a shortage of basic knowledge about behaviour of components of moulding sands in microwave field. In this case, of particular importance becomes knowledge of electrical properties of components of moulding and core sands, i.e. their permittivity ?r and dielectric loss factor tg? that characterise efficiency of absorbing electromagnetic radiation and thus prove effectiveness of the heating process.

D. Nowak

2015-04-01

170

Moulding Sands with New InorganicBinders - Ecology Assessment in the Aspect of Work Environment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The development of economy and industry introducing new technologies and materials often means the increased threat of occurrenceof factors harmful to humans and environment. Workers employed in foundries as mould pourers are the group of high professional risk.Foundry moulding sands when poured with liquid metal are a source of the emission of harmful, toxic and carcinogenic (benzene,PAHs compounds.The paper presents the results of studies on the concentration of chemical compounds emitted in the process of casting aluminiumalloy and brass using moulding sands with the new inorganic binders. The specific values of the exposure indices were compared with thelimit values. This enabled an assessment of the impact of moulding sands on work environment. The obtained results were compared withthe values of contaminants emitted when pouring foundry moulds made from furan sands and bentonite sands with an addition of coaldust.Studies were carried out under the project POIG.01.01.02-00-015/09 "Advanced materials and technologies."

I. Szanda

2012-09-01

171

Secondary foundry alloy damage and particle fracture  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The damage mechanisms of a hypoeutectic Al-Si-Cu foundry alloy, obtained through die casting, have been studied. Observations were made during tensile tests using a tensile test machine that was inserted into an scanning electron microscope. The microstructure features that are critical for damage were determined. The cleavage fracture of intermetallic particles was found to be the main process that limited the alloy ductility. Shrinkage cavities mainly play a role in the final fracture stage; the reduction in cross-section area induced by shrinkage cavities was assumed to be the main contribution of these defects to the fracture of the specimens. Attempts were made to determine the cleavage stress that initiated the fracture of the particles. Three-dimensional finite element computations were performed considering particular locations at the free surface of the observed fractured particles. The maximum principal stress was calculated for different locations of the particle with reference to the free surface. Different shapes and different elastic behaviour were studied. It was shown that the influence of a free surface on the stress level in a particle depends on its shape. The results were compared with those found in literature concerning the fracture strength of particles in Al alloys

172

Secondary foundry alloy damage and particle fracture  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The damage mechanisms of a hypoeutectic Al-Si-Cu foundry alloy, obtained through die casting, have been studied. Observations were made during tensile tests using a tensile test machine that was inserted into an scanning electron microscope. The microstructure features that are critical for damage were determined. The cleavage fracture of intermetallic particles was found to be the main process that limited the alloy ductility. Shrinkage cavities mainly play a role in the final fracture stage; the reduction in cross-section area induced by shrinkage cavities was assumed to be the main contribution of these defects to the fracture of the specimens. Attempts were made to determine the cleavage stress that initiated the fracture of the particles. Three-dimensional finite element computations were performed considering particular locations at the free surface of the observed fractured particles. The maximum principal stress was calculated for different locations of the particle with reference to the free surface. Different shapes and different elastic behaviour were studied. It was shown that the influence of a free surface on the stress level in a particle depends on its shape. The results were compared with those found in literature concerning the fracture strength of particles in Al alloys.

Berdin, C.; Ouglova, A.; Djafari, V.; Doglione, R

2003-09-25

173

Influence of water-glass grade and quantity on residual strength of microwave-hardened moulding sands. Part 1  

OpenAIRE

The paper presents a research on influence of dielectric drying process on mechanical properties of water-glass containing moulding sands. Examined were moulding sands containing additions of 1.5 and 2.5 % of hydrated sodium silicate grades 145, 149 and 150, most oftenused in foundry practice. Standard, cylindrical specimens for mechanical testing were held at temperatur es from 100 to 1200 °C for 30 minutes and next cooled-down to ambient temperature. Then their residual strength was determ...

Stachowicz, M.; Granat, K.; Nowak, D.

2011-01-01

174

76 FR 74810 - Foundry Coke From China; Institution of a Five-Year Review  

Science.gov (United States)

...No. 731-TA-891 (Second Review)] Foundry Coke From China; Institution of a Five-Year...revocation of the antidumping duty order on foundry coke from China would be likely to lead...an antidumping duty order on imports of foundry coke from China (66 FR 48025)....

2011-12-01

175

40 CFR 63.7682 - What parts of my foundry does this subpart cover?  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 false What parts of my foundry does this subpart cover? 63.7682...Hazardous Air Pollutants for Iron and Steel Foundries What This Subpart Covers § 63.7682 What parts of my foundry does this subpart cover? (a)...

2010-07-01

176

40 CFR 63.10900 - What parts of the General Provisions apply to my large foundry?  

Science.gov (United States)

...the General Provisions apply to my large foundry? 63.10900 Section 63.10900...Hazardous Air Pollutants for Iron and Steel Foundries Area Sources Requirements for New...Sources Classified As Large Iron and Steel Foundries § 63.10900 What parts of the...

2010-07-01

177

Foundry industries: environmental aspects and environmental condition indicators  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nowadays, environmental indicators are widely used as effective tools to assist decision-making in both public and private sectors. The lack of literature and research about local and regional Environmental Condition Indicators (ECI), the poor knowledge regarding solid waste generation, effluents and gas emissions from foundry industries, and their particular location in the urban area of Tandil, Argentina are the main reasons for this investigation, aiming to develop a set a of ECI to provide information about the environment in relation to the foundry industry. The study involves all the foundries located in the city between March and April 2010. The set of ECI developed includes 9 indicators for air, 5 for soil and 1 for water. Specific methodology was used for each indicator. (Author) 31 refs.

178

Manufacturing foundry alloys containing vanadium, niobium, titanium and rare earths  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ways to obtain foundry and ferroalloys, containing rare and disseminated metals, are analysed. To extract the expensive metals (V, Nb, rare earths and Ti) out of ores during smelting, the reduction of the metal oxides in accordance with MeO+2C=MeC+CO reaction (where Me- V, Nb, Ti, rare earths) is used. Some additional techniques are used and new compositions of the foundry alloys, in which the activity of the reduced metals is decreased as a result of chemical compound formation, are developed to increase the extraction of the reduced metal. It is shown that the advantages of using the foundry alloys, containing V, Nb, Ti and rare earths expressed in the increase and stabilization of alloying metal assimilation and in their distribution in the bulk of the metal more uniformly

179

The AHP method used in assessment of foundry enterprise position  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Complex assessment of activity of a selected foundry enterprise based on a modern AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process method has beenpresented. Having defined the areas of analysis, which include: marketing (products, distribution channels, sales organisation and client concentration, personnel (skills, managerial abilities, organisation climate, effectiveness of incentives, personnel fluctuations, production (availability of raw materials, technical level of production, effective use of production capacities, organisation and management (foundry structure, organisation culture, management performance, the analysis was made using the weighted sum of evaluations. The second step consisted in a comparative assessment of Foundry position using Saaty’s scale modified by Weber and the AHP method with examinationof a hierarchy structure involving the main (parent problem and its direct evolution into sub-problems. The assessment of Foundryposition made by AHP enables introducing changes and/or innovations which are expected to improve the overall productioneffectiveness.

J. Szymszal

2008-10-01

180

Rationalization of foundry processes on the basis of simulation experiment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper presents results of research obtained on the basis of simulation experiment, whose aim was to analyze the performance of cast iron foundry. A simulation model of automobile industry foundry was made. The course of the following processes was analyzedin a computer model: preparation of liquid cast iron, forming and filling the moulds, cooling and stamping the castings, cleaning andfinishing treatment. The sheets of multi-criterion evaluation were prepared, where criteria and variants were assessed by meansof subjective point evaluation and fuzzy character evaluation. The paper presents an analysis example of finishing activities of castings realized in foundry on traditional machines and efficient presses and in cooperation. On the basis of reports from a simulation experiment information was achieved related to activities’ duration, load of accessible resources, the problems of storage and transport, bottle necks in the system and appearing queues in from of workplaces. The research used a universal modelling and simulation packet for productionsystems - ARENA.

S. Kukla

2008-10-01

181

Reduced energy consumption for melting in foundries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

By improving the gating technology in traditional gating systems it is possible to reduce the amount of metal to be re-melted, and hence reduce the energy consumption for melting in foundries. Traditional gating systems are known for a straight tapered down runner a well base and 90 deg. bends in the runner system. In the streamlined gating systems there are no sharp changes in direction and a large effort is done to confine and control the flow of the molten metal during mould filling. Experiments in real production lines have proven that using streamlined gating systems improves yield by decreasing the poured weight compared to traditional layouts. In a layout for casting of valve housings in a vertically parted mould the weight of the gating system was reduced by 1,1kg which is a 20% weight reduction for the gating system. In a layout for horizontally parted moulds the weight of the gating system has been reduced by 3,7kg which is a weight reduction of 60% for the gating system. The experiments casting valve housings in ductile iron also proved that it is possible to lower the pouring temperature from 1400 deg. C to 1300 deg. C without the risk of cold runs. Glass plate fronted moulds have been used to study the flow of melt during mould filling. These experiments have also been used for studying the flow pattern when ceramic filters are used. The thorough study of the use of filters revealed that the metal passing through the filter is divided into a number of small jets. This proves that filters do not have the claimed positive effect on the flow of metal. The volumes necessary on either side of the filter is not filled till a backpressure is build up and results in formation of pressure shocks when backfilled. These pressure shocks result in more turbulence inside the casting than the same gating system with no filter. Not using filters can mean a reduction in poured weight of 0,6kg. To examine if the experiments using glass plate fronted moulds give representative results of how the melt flows in a real mould a series of experiments have been conducted using the xray facilities at the Metallurgy and Materials department at the University of Birmingham. The results proved that the glass plate do not have any large effect on the flow pattern during mould filling. It was also found that using fan gates only 1mm thick holds back slag and in this way works as a filter. A complete set of guidelines for designing streamlined gating systems have been made in this project. Using these guidelines and combining standard geometries and the presented spreadsheet makes it possible for foundries to use streamlined gating systems in praxis. (au)

Skov-Hansen, S.

2007-09-15

182

Shifting sands  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The growing global competition for oil between the United States and China, and the potential role of Alberta's vast oil sands resources in the struggle between the two industrial giants to secure these and other potentially available oil supplies for themselves, are discussed. The principal argument made by the author is that for China and the United States oil is an instrument of foreign policy, the means by which to achieve or to maintain super-power status. In contrast, in Canada oil remains purely a commodity. The oil sands of Alberta are the largest hydrocarbon deposit in the world, holding some 1.6 trillion barrels of heavy crude. The oil sands have become the great White Hope of the world's petroleum supply, with intense interest in its development by both China and the United States. While Canadians are eager to cash in on the current high prices and growing shortage and are busy fighting over jurisdiction between the federal and the Alberta provincial government, there is no clear indications as to how Canada proposes to use the oil in broader trade negotiations with Washington, or China. Canadians are urged to become sensitized to the more distant future, raise their voices against the focus on short term benefits and refuse to allow themselves to become bystanders watching their energy heritage flowing south to the United States, and perhaps even east to China without efforts to maximize the potential benefits to Canada.

Gillmor, D.

2005-04-01

183

Shifting sands  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The growing global competition for oil between the United States and China, and the potential role of Alberta's vast oil sands resources in the struggle between the two industrial giants to secure these and other potentially available oil supplies for themselves, are discussed. The principal argument made by the author is that for China and the United States oil is an instrument of foreign policy, the means by which to achieve or to maintain super-power status. In contrast, in Canada oil remains purely a commodity. The oil sands of Alberta are the largest hydrocarbon deposit in the world, holding some 1.6 trillion barrels of heavy crude. The oil sands have become the great White Hope of the world's petroleum supply, with intense interest in its development by both China and the United States. While Canadians are eager to cash in on the current high prices and growing shortage and are busy fighting over jurisdiction between the federal and the Alberta provincial government, there is no clear indications as to how Canada proposes to use the oil in broader trade negotiations with Washington, or China. Canadians are urged to become sensitized to the more distant future, raise their voices against the focus on short term benefits and refuse to allow themselves to become bystanders watching their energy heritage flowing south to the United States, and perhaps even east to China without efforts to maximize the potential benefits to Canadaanada

184

Optimization of a new animal glue binder system cured by CO2 for use in foundry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A new sand binder system cured by CO2 was prepared based on the animal bone glue. To overcome the disadvantages of animal glue such as agglomeration at room temperature, high energy consumption and low efficiency, an alkaline decomposition process was selected, and certain modifier was used to modify the performance of the animal glue binder. For the alkaline decomposition, NaOH was used as the catalyst with an addition of 4wt.% to the animal glue. A modifier was determined through the orthogonal experiment with a weight ratio of glycerin: glycol: dextrin: animal glue = 9:16:15:100, and the optimal modification reaction should be performed at 75 ? with a reaction time of 90 min. Ca(OH2 was used as a promoter; the optimal CO2 gas flux blowing into the sand was 0.7 m3·h-1 for a duration of 60 s under the experimental conditions. Results show that an original strength above 0.7 MPa and a final strength about 4.2 MPa can be achieved, which could meet the requirement of rapid moulding and core-making for foundry. The new binder was characterized and analyzed by means of IR, and the modification and CO2-cured mechanisms of this animal glue binder were also discussed.

Liu Weihua

2012-11-01

185

Logic Foundry: Rapid Prototyping for FPGA-Based DSP Systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We introduce the Logic Foundry, a system for the rapid creation and integration of FPGA-based digital signal processing systems. Recognizing that some of the greatest challenges in creating FPGA-based systems occur in the integration of the various components, we have proposed a system that targets the following four areas of integration: design flow integration, component integration, platform integration, and software integration. Using the Logic Foundry, a system can be easily specified, and then automatically constructed and integrated with system level software.

Bhattacharyya Shuvra S

2003-01-01

186

Electromagnet Gripping in Iron Foundry Automation Part III: Practice  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Flexibility can be defined as the ability to respond efficiently to the changing demands of the customer and is different in SMEs (Small-to-Medium manufacturing Enterprises than the traditional OEMs (Original Equipment Manufacturers. Costs involved in implementing manufacturing flexibility to meet customer demand are more important in the SMEs, especially those that are labor intensive for example foundries. Manufacturing systems with a high degree of flexibility can be rapidly changed to cover a wide range of production requirements. In this paper, we present a methodology enabling part handling flexibility, which has been incorporated in an iron foundry SME framework.

Rhythm Suren Wadhwa

2012-07-01

187

FMEA: Methodology, Design and Implementation in a Foundry  

OpenAIRE

Failure Mode And Effect Analysis (FMEA) is a technique to identify and prioritize potential failures of a process. This paper reports the description of FMEA methodology & its implementation in a foundry. It is used as a tool to assure products quality & as a mean to improve operational performance of the process. The work was developed in an Indian foundry, in co-operation with part of the internal staff chosen as FMEA team members & was focused on the study of core making process. The probl...

AWADHESH KUMAR,; M.P. POONIA,; UPENDER PANDEL,; Jethoo, A. S.

2011-01-01

188

Methods of the montmorillonite content determination in foundry bentonites  

OpenAIRE

This paper presents results of the measurements montmorillonite content in foundry bentonites and mixtures of bentonite – lustrous carbon carrier by three methods: spectrophotometric method with the use of methylene blue, spectrophotometric method with the use of Cu(II) – triethylenotetramine (Cu-TET) complex, infrared spectroscopic method (FTIR).

Holtzer, M.; Grabowska, B.; Bobrowski, A.; Z?ymankowska-kumon, S.

2009-01-01

189

SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS OF WASTES GENERATED BY GRAY IRON FOUNDRIES  

Science.gov (United States)

Thirty (30) wastes generated by 21 gray iron foundries in Pennsylvania and Michigan were sampled and analyzed. The samples were collected by Northrop Services, Inc., in accordance with strict chain-of-custody procedures, and sent to the Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory...

190

The AHP method used in assessment of foundry enterprise position  

OpenAIRE

Complex assessment of activity of a selected foundry enterprise based on a modern AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process) method has beenpresented. Having defined the areas of analysis, which include: marketing (products, distribution channels, sales organisation and client concentration), personnel (skills, managerial abilities, organisation climate, effectiveness of incentives, personnel fluctuations), production (availability of raw materials, technical level of production, effective use of produ...

Szymszal, J.; Pia?tkowski, J.; Mikuszewski, T.; Klis?, J.

2008-01-01

191

Using lean methodologies for economically and environmentally sustainable foundries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Lean manufacturing is often seen as a set of tools that reduce the total cost and improve the quality of manufactured products. The lean management philosophy is one which targets waste reduction in every facet of the manufacturing business; however, only recently have studies linked lean management philosophies with improving environmental sustainability. These studies suggest that lean manufacturing is more than a set of lean tools that can optimize manufacturing efficiencies; it is a process and mindset that needs to be integrated into daily manufacturing systems to achieve sustainability. The foundry industry, as well as manufacturing in general, has significant challenges in the current regulatory and political climate with developing an economically and environmentally sustainable business model. Lean manufacturing has proven itself as a model for both economic sustainability and environmental stewardship. Several recent studies have shown that both lean and green techniques and “zero-waste” policies also lead to reductions in overall cost. While these strategies have been examined for general manufacturing, they have not been investigated in detail for the foundry industry. This paper will review the current literature and describe how lean and green can provide a relevant framework for environmentally and economically sustainable foundries. Examples of lean and green technologies and techniques which can be applied to foundries in a global context will be described.

R. M. Torielli

2011-02-01

192

Contribution to determination of the life time of chemically self-hardening mould sand  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article presents the problem of quality of casting moulds made of self-hardening sand, especially for manufacturing moulds for large-sized iron alloy castings. In such cases, unequivocal determination of so-called time of life of moulding sand is one of the most important issues, since it affects usability of a self-hardening sand for making subsequent layers of the mould prepared in time above one hour. Life time, measured in minutes, is dependent on the type of used sand grains, resins and their hardeners (catalysts and also on the temperature and air humidity. Companies which manufacture and sell binding materials estimate the time of life according to their own criteria, which do not always correspond with real conditions. This article shows the experiences of the author, who has been working as an expert in European foundries for many years. New proposed parameter named FIP characterizing a life time of tested sands is also presented.

Z. Ignaszak

2011-10-01

193

Costs Models in Design and Manufacturing of Sand Casting Products  

CERN Document Server

In the early phases of the product life cycle, the costs controls became a major decision tool in the competitiveness of the companies due to the world competition. After defining the problems related to this control difficulties, we will present an approach using a concept of cost entity related to the design and realization activities of the product. We will try to apply this approach to the fields of the sand casting foundry. This work will highlight the enterprise modelling difficulties (limits of a global cost modelling) and some specifics limitations of the tool used for this development. Finally we will discuss on the limits of a generic approach.

Perry, Nicolas; Bernard, Alain

2010-01-01

194

ANN modelling for the determination of moulding sand matrix grain size  

OpenAIRE

One of the modern methods of the production optimisation are artificial neural networks. Neural networks are gaining broader and broader application in the foundry industry, among others for controlling melting processes in cupolas and in arc furnaces, for designing castings and supply systems, for controlling moulding sand processing, for predicting properties of cast alloys or selecting parameters of pressure castings. An attempt to apply neural networks for controlling the quality of bento...

Jakubski, J.; Dobosz, St M.; Major-gabrys?, K.

2011-01-01

195

Determination of application possibilities of microwave heating in the curing process of water glass molding sands with fluid esters. Part 1  

OpenAIRE

This article presents results of the experimental trial of combination of the chemical method of water glass molding sands’ curing, used in foundry industry, with an innovative microwave heating. The research objective was to indicate at new areas of microwave energy application. The sands prepared, according to recommendations for curing technology, with the use of ethylene glycol diacetate, have been subject to microwave influence. The attempt at determination of microwave influence on qu...

Granat, K.; Nowak, D.; Pigiel, M.; Stachowicz, M.; Wikiera, R.

2009-01-01

196

Reduction in Energy Consumption & Variability in Steel Foundry Operations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This project worked to improve the efficiency of the steel casting industry by reducing the variability that occurs because of process and product variation. The project focused on the post shakeout operations since roughly half of the production costs are in this area. These improvements will reduce the amount of variability, making it easier to manage the operation and improve the competitiveness. The reduction in variability will also reduce the need for many rework operations, which will result in a direct reduction of energy usage, particularly by the reduction of repeated heat treatment operations. Further energy savings will be realized from the reduction of scrap and reduced handling. Field studies were conducted at ten steel foundries that represented the U.S. steel casting industry, for a total of over 100 weeks of production observation. These studies quantified the amount of variability, and looked toward determining the source. A focus of the data collected was the grinding operations since this is a major effort in the cleaning room, and it represents the overall casting quality. The grinding was divided into two categories, expected and unexpected. Expected grinding is that in which the location of the effort is known prior to making the casting, such as smoothing parting lines, gates, and riser contacts. Unexpected grinding, which was approximately 80% of the effort, was done to improve the surfaces at weld repair locations, to rectify burnt on sand, and other surface anomalies at random locations. Unexpected grinding represents about 80% of the grinding effort. By quantifying this effort, the project raised awareness within the industry and the industry is continuing to make improvements. The field studies showed that the amount of variation of grinding operations (normalized because of the diverse set of parts studied) was very consistent across the industry. The field studies identified several specific sources that individually contributed to large process variation. This indicates the need for ongoing monitoring of the process and system to quantify the effort being expended. A system to measure the grinding effort was investigated but did not prove to be successful. A weld wire counting system was shown to be very successful in tracking casting quality by monitoring the quantity of weld wire being expended on a per casting basis. Further use of such systems is highly recommended. The field studies showed that the visual inspection process for the casting surface was a potentially large source of process variation. Measurement system analysis studies were conducted at three steel casting producers. The tests measured the consistency of the inspectors in identifying the same surface anomalies. The repeatability (variation of the same operator inspecting the same casting) was found to be relatively consistent across the companies at about 60-70%. However, this is still are very large amount of variation. Reproducibility (variation of different operators inspecting the same casting) was worse, ranging between 20 to 80% at the three locations. This large amount of variation shows that there is a great opportunity for improvement. Falsely identifying anomalies for reworking will cause increased expense and energy consumption. This is particularly true if a weld repair and repeated heat treatment is required. However, not identifying an anomaly could also result in future rework processing, a customer return, or scrap. To help alleviate this problem, casting surface comparator plates were developed and distributed to the industry. These plates are very inexpensive which enables them to be provided to all those involved with casting surface quality, such as operators, inspectors, sales, and management.

Frank Peters

2005-05-04

197

Sand particle dislodgement in windblown sand  

Science.gov (United States)

The incipient motion of sand particle from sand bed plays a very important role in the prediction of windblown sand. In this paper, we proposed a new method for predicting the incipient motion of sand particle based on wind speed fluctuation as follows, when the wind speed is larger than the critical wind speed, if the total impulse on sand particle is larger than the critical impulse, incipient motion of sand particle would take place, otherwise if not. Furthermore, from the analysis of entrainment in the rolling and lifting modes, we come to the following conclusion. When the average wind speed is smaller than the critical wind speed, if the average wind speed is used to judge the incipient motion of sand particle, one will underestimate the number of sand particles jumping from the bed, if the instantaneous wind speed is used to judge incipient motion of sand particle, one will overestimate the number of sand particles jumping from the bed; When the average wind speed is larger than the critical wind speed, either the average or the instantaneous wind speeds is used to judge the incipient motion of sand particles, one will overestimate the number of sand particles jumping from the bed.

Bo, Tian-Li; Li, Zheng; Zheng, Xiao-Jing

2014-12-01

198

The properties of sand-lime bricks manufactured with the use of waste moulding and core sands  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper summarises the laboratory research data on potential applications of selected mould and core mix wastes and dusts fromregeneration processes as alternative or supplementary materials to be added to natural silica sands used in manufacturing of sand-limebricks. The rational behind this solution is the large silica content in used moulding and core mix, their matrices being high-quality natural silica sands. The research program shall involve obtaining the series of silicate sample products, press-formed and made from mixtures containing the waste materials discussed here. In the course of laboratory tests autoclaved materials shall be manufactured, including sand-lime bricks. Apart from conventional components: natural silica sand and quicklime, the prepared mixture shall contain pre-processed mould and core mix and dusts from regeneration processes, depending on the type of applied binder. The previously mentioned wastes from the foundry processes were introduced to the basic composition mix as substitutes for silica sand, ranging from 0-100 % (by weight. Potential applications of these wastes were explored using the comparative analysis, covering the basic functional parameters of two types of materials: the reference material made from conventional constituents and several experimental formulas containing additives, differing in qualitative and quantitative composition. Characteristics of thus obtained materials are supported by selected SEM+EDS test results.

Z. Pytel

2010-04-01

199

Investigation into the origin of radioactivity in ceramic waste - Zircon sand in iron foundries  

OpenAIRE

In 2002 ging bij een schrootbedrijf het alarm af toen naast autoschroot enig radioactief keramisch materiaal door de detector werd gereden. Gedurende een groot aantal jaren is het keramische afval toegepast als verharding voor wegen en erven in de omgeving van Almelo, zo ook bij de autosloper. In het keramische materiaal is zirkoonzand verwerkt. Dit materiaal bevat van nature verhoogde concentraties van radionucliden. Het gebruik van het afval als verharding kan dan oo...

Ro, Blaauboer

2012-01-01

200

40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Zzzzz of... - Performance Test Requirements for New and Existing Affected Sources Classified as Large Foundries  

Science.gov (United States)

...Existing Affected Sources Classified as Large Foundries 1 Table 1 to Subpart ZZZZZ of Part...Hazardous Air Pollutants for Iron and Steel Foundries Area Sources Pt. 63, Subpt. ZZZZZ...Affected Sources Classified as Large Foundries As required in §...

2010-07-01

201

40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Zzzzz of... - Procedures for Establishing Operating Limits for New Affected Sources Classified as Large Foundries  

Science.gov (United States)

...New Affected Sources Classified as Large Foundries 2 Table 2 to Subpart ZZZZZ of Part...Hazardous Air Pollutants for Iron and Steel Foundries Area Sources Pt. 63, Subpt. ZZZZZ...Affected Sources Classified as Large Foundries As required in §...

2010-07-01

202

Logistics of Materials Flow in an Iron Foundry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article presents issues related to creating and realizing added value by logistic processes and processing in a casting enterprise. It discusses possibilities of improving systems of casts production by evaluating labour intensity of casts manufacture and analyzing manufacturing prime costs. Operations with added value, processes indirectly creating added value and operations without added value have been specified. The problem was presented on the example of materials flow design in a foundry, where casts are manufactured in expendable moulds and using automated foundry lines. On the basis of the Pareto analysis, a group of casts was specified whose manufacture significantly influences the functioning of the whole enterprise. Finishing treatment operations have been particularly underlined, as they are performed away from the line and are among the most labour-consuming processes during casts production.

S. Kukla

2013-07-01

203

Production system rationalisation on the example of iron foundry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present paper presents a systemic approach to foundry management. Thanks to production process modelling and simulation techniques, an attempt was made to synthesise many interconnected devices and numerous manufacturing stages into one production system. In the beginning, a factor analysis was carried out of the research object, which is a system of iron castings manufacture on automated foundry lines. On the basis of a simulation experiment, use the accessible production resources and manufacturing own cost of castings were analysed, depending on batch content and melting order, choice of an automatic line and the model of line fed with cast iron, sequence of order realization and the size of production lots. Simulation experiments were carried out on a computer simulation model prepared in the Arena packet produced by Rockwell Automation. Cost was estimated on the basis of additional calculation according to cost centres basing on factory spreadsheet.

S. Kukla

2010-04-01

204

Nanophotonic integration in state-of-the-art CMOS foundries.  

Science.gov (United States)

We demonstrate a monolithic photonic integration platform that leverages the existing state-of-the-art CMOS foundry infrastructure. In our approach, proven XeF2 post-processing technology and compliance with electronic foundry process flows eliminate the need for specialized substrates or wafer bonding. This approach enables intimate integration of large numbers of nanophotonic devices alongside high-density, high-performance transistors at low initial and incremental cost. We demonstrate this platform by presenting grating-coupled, microring-resonator filter banks fabricated in an unmodified 28 nm bulk-CMOS process by sharing a mask set with standard electronic projects. The lithographic fidelity of this process enables the high-throughput fabrication of second-order, wavelength-division-multiplexing (WDM) filter banks that achieve low insertion loss without post-fabrication trimming. PMID:21369052

Orcutt, Jason S; Khilo, Anatol; Holzwarth, Charles W; Popovi?, Milos A; Li, Hanqing; Sun, Jie; Bonifield, Thomas; Hollingsworth, Randy; Kärtner, Franz X; Smith, Henry I; Stojanovi?, Vladimir; Ram, Rajeev J

2011-01-31

205

FMEA: Methodology, Design and Implementation in a Foundry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Failure Mode And Effect Analysis (FMEA is a technique to identify and prioritize potential failures of a process. This paper reports the description of FMEA methodology & its implementation in a foundry. It is used as a tool to assure products quality & as a mean to improve operational performance of the process. The work was developed in an Indian foundry, in co-operation with part of the internal staff chosen as FMEA team members & was focused on the study of core making process. The problems identified in the various steps of core making process contributing for high rejection are studied & analyzed in terms of RPN to prioritize the attention for each of the problem. The monetary loss due to core rejection is considered as measure of risk.

AWADHESH KUMAR,

2011-06-01

206

Assessment of Occupational Exposure to Aluminum Respirable Aerosols among Aluminum Foundry Workers  

OpenAIRE

AbstractBackgrounds and Aims: Aluminum and in particular its compounds make up a large proportion of the pollutants coming from the aluminum foundry. In several studies conducted on the harmful effects of aluminum in recent decades, it has been identified as a neurotoxic metal. Chronic occupational exposure through inhalation of dust is a common problem in aluminum foundries. Investigation of the exposure of various occupational groups in two aluminum foundry plants to aluminum aerosols.Mater...

Rezazadeh Azari M; Choupani A; Jafari M J; Soori H; Hosseini S Y

2013-01-01

207

The management of production value stream factors in a foundry  

OpenAIRE

Connection of two value streams: production and human resources were proposed as a new approach to the production process. To assess the factors of production value streams the elements of the top of the Toyota's house as well as fourth and sixth Toyota's managing principles were used. On the basis of the feedback from respondents –the foundry workers, there can be determined the validity of series of decisive factors' importance that equalizes the work load and requires the standardization.

Borkowski, S.; Knop, K.

2010-01-01

208

Kinetics of moisture absorption in mixtures for iron foundry  

OpenAIRE

The moisture absorption in granulated materials used in foundry technologies is analyzed. The absorption process has a diffusive behavior mainly. A simple experimental technique, in which the wet weight increment was recorded as the experimental parameter and an analytic method with computing procedure to find the parameters characterizing the process was used. The determination of these parameters by traditional methods is a very difficult task so, very refined and expensiv...

Cocina, Ernesto Villar; Morales, Eduardo Valencia; Rodriguez, Romulo Gonzalez

1999-01-01

209

Safety management system of subcontractors’ works in foundry companies  

OpenAIRE

Most companies use the services of subcontractors, either in their core business, or to support the work – e.g. maintenance. This poses the need for effective and systematic monitoring of the work of subcontractors, especially if they perform it on the premises of an enterprise. In some industries such as construction, energy, petrochemicals, metallurgy and foundry additional system requirements appear, particularly with regard to safety and the environment, a compliance with which is neces...

Ra?czka, M.

2010-01-01

210

Foundry Technologies Focused on Environmental and Ecological Applications  

Science.gov (United States)

Solutions allowing fabrication of remote control systems with integrated sensors (motes) were introduced as a part of CMOS foundry production platform and verified on silicon. The integrated features include sensors employing principles previously verified in the development of ultra-low power consuming non-volatile memories (C-Flash, MRAM) and components allowing low-power energy harvesting (low voltage rectifiers, high -voltage solar cells). The developed systems are discussed with emphasis on their environmental and security applications.

Roizin, Ya.; Lisiansky, M.; Pikhay, E.

211

Natural gas on its way into aluminium foundries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The article deals with natural gas as a fuel for aluminium smelters. The traditional way of heating the smelters in Norway has been the use of oil-fired combustors or electric heaters. According to the article, the aluminium foundries increase the use of natural gas in the heating process. The cycle principle of regenerative combustion is discussed together with the combustion process of propane with air or oxygen. 3 figs

212

Energy conservation and emissions reduction strategies in foundry industry  

OpenAIRE

Current energy conservation and emissions reduction strategies in iron and steel industry were reviewed. Since foundry industry is one of the major source of energy consumption and pollution emission (especially CO2), issues concerning energy-saving and emission-reduction have been raised by governments and the industry. Specialists from around the world carried out multidimensional analyses and evaluation on the potentials in energy conservation and emissions reduction in iron and steel indu...

Li Yuanyuan; Chen Weiping; Huang Dan

2010-01-01

213

Classification of foundry clients using business rules approach  

OpenAIRE

The paper presents the application of business rules approach for the classification of foundry clients taking into account t he economic and technological attributes. Business Rules Management (BRM) systems allow non-technical business people to change the rules, analyze them for errors, and test and simulate them for impact analysis. Although BRM is focused on business processes improvement, it is possible to use this approach in technology management. The model of classification problem, a...

Stawowy, A.; Wrona, R.; Ronduda, M.

2011-01-01

214

The production of TiAl by foundry processes  

OpenAIRE

This paper describes a foundry technique that enables the production of TiAl employing an adapted melting procedure that uses an induction furnace with suitable refractory crucibles, inside a controlled atmosphere chamber. The developed technique allows the production of samples with a low and controlled amount of residual elements, with a thin superficial hard skin – known as “alpha-case” – and allows the use of higher superheating temperatures, when compared with alte...

Barbosa, J.; Ribeiro, Carlos Silva; Monteiro, A. Caetano

2002-01-01

215

Biological monitoring of foundry workers exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.  

OpenAIRE

This investigation describes benzo(a)pyrene (BP) serum protein adduct concentrations in 45 foundry workers and 45 matched non-occupationally exposed controls. High and low BP exposure groups were defined using breathing zone hygienic samples for both quartz and BP exposures. A newly developed enzyme linked immunosorbent assay detected benzo(a)pyrenediolepoxide-I binding to serum protein. Mean BP protein adduct concentrations (SD) for non-smoking (24.0 BP equivalents/100 micrograms protein (21...

Sherson, D.; Sabro, P.; Sigsgaard, T.; Johansen, F.; Autrup, H.

1990-01-01

216

Total productive maintenance on example of automated foundry lines  

OpenAIRE

Within framework of the presented study one has performed analysis of stoppages in automatic foundry lines operation, and basing on assumptions from complex maintenance system has undertaken himself to develop a service maintenance schedule for machinery installed in the line. Moreover, one has presented general assumptions of TPM system operated in conditions of series and multi-series production of cast iron castings. One has constructed operational database and has elaborated a list of lin...

Kukla, S.

2009-01-01

217

Statistical and Visualization Data Mining Tools for Foundry Production  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In recent years a rapid development of a new, interdisciplinary knowledge area, called data mining, is observed. Its main task is extracting useful information from previously collected large amount of data. The main possibilities and potential applications of data mining in manufacturing industry are characterized. The main types of data mining techniques are briefly discussed, including statistical, artificial intelligence, data base and visualization tools. The statistical methods and visualization methods are presented in more detail, showing their general possibilities, advantages as well as characteristic examples of applications in foundry production. Results of the author’s research are presented, aimed at validation of selected statistical tools which can be easily and effectively used in manufacturing industry. A performance analysis of ANOVA and contingency tables based methods, dedicated for determination of the most significant process parameters as well as for detection of possible interactions among them, has been made. Several numerical tests have been performed using simulated data sets, with assumed hidden relationships as well some real data, related to the strength of ductile cast iron, collected in a foundry. It is concluded that the statistical methods offer relatively easy and fairly reliable tools for extraction of that type of knowledge about foundry manufacturing processes. However, further research is needed, aimed at explanation of some imperfections of the investigated tools as well assessment of their validity for more complex tasks.

M. Perzyk

2007-07-01

218

Study of radon and its progeny concentrations in an oil refinery and foundry environment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

LR-115 type II detectors were used to measure the radon concentrations in the dwellings of an oil refinery and in some foundries. The radon levels inside an oil refinery and foundries are found to be below the USEPA's remedial action levels of 150 Bq m-3. The radon concentrations in oil refinery were found to be higher in both outdoor and indoor environment, as compared to those found in normal background dwellings. The radon levels inside the foundries investigated are of the same order as measured in dwellings of the same city. The reported higher lung cancer rates in foundries may not be attributed to radon. (author)

219

The Condition of Silica Sand Grains Surface Subjected to Reclamation Treatment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The results of investigations are concerned on evaluation of new silica sand grains surface condition after mechanical reclamation treatment as well as on the conditions of reclaimed sand grains surface subjected to thermal and thermo-mechanical reclamation processes. The purpose of research was to answer the question how the applied methods have influenced the surface condition of reclaimed sand grains which was tested by means of bending strength determination of sand samples prepared with resin binder and reclaimed sand. The immediate aim of the research was to explain the mechanism of impurities cleaning on the sand grains surface after thermal reclamation, when the sand is used several times in preparation of a foundry mixture, and to determine what effect these impurities may have on the technological properties of the ready sand mixture. The task of the additionally applied mechanical reclamation was to remove the accumulated inorganic compounds from the sand grains surface and confirm if further improvement of the reclaim quality is possible.

?ucarz, M.

2006-01-01

220

Control of rebonding sand mixing as a condition for optimisation of the sand feeding system in the casting line  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In order to ensure the effective operation of the casting line, synthetic sand containing bentonite has to be fed in a precisely controlled quality and quantity. The required quantity is ensured by mixing stations outfitted with turbine mixers. The quality of sand mix, defined by its technological parameters, depends on the available measurement and control equipment and the system controlling the mixers’ operation. These issues are investigated at the Department of Foundry Engineering AGH-UST in collaboration with the PPP Technical Company in Now Sól (Poland, a major manufacturer of turbine mixers.This study outlines the scope and results of research work aimed to improve the control equipment to enhance the performance of turbine mixers.

A. Fedoryszyn

2010-04-01

221

Investigations of the Influence of the Matrix Recycling on Properties of the Moulding Sand with Geopol 618 Binder  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Self-hardening moulding sands with water-glass hardened by liquid esters are applied in several foundry plants for making moulds for the production of heavy iron and steel castings. The main good point of this process is a low cost of sands. However, on account of a lowsusceptibility of this moulding sand for the matrix reclamation the fraction of sands originated from the reclamation is limited.The investigations presented in this work were aimed at the determination of the addition of the reclaimed material, obtained in the dry mechanical reclamation, on properties of the moulding sand with the Geopol 618 binder, which is water-glass modified by polymers and hardened by esters.

J. Kami?ska

2013-01-01

222

AN INTRODUCTION TO RAPID CASTING: DEVELOPMENT AND INVESTIGATION OF PROCESS CHAINS FOR SAND CASTING OF FUNCTIONAL PROTOTYPES  

OpenAIRE

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: This paper discusses the results obtained from studies on different Rapid Tooling process chains in order to improve the design and manufacture of foundry equipment that is used for sand casting of prototypes in final material. These prototypes are intended for functional and pre-production tests of vehicles. The Three Dimensional Printing process is used as core technology. Subsequently, while considering aspects such as time, cost, quality (accuracy and surface ro...

Dimitrov, D.; Wijk, W.; Beer, N.

2012-01-01

223

Chvorinov’s rule and determination of coefficient of heat accumulation of moulds with non-quartz base sands  

OpenAIRE

Application of the „Chvorinov’s rule“ for calculation of the total time of casting solidification made also possible to determine chilling effect of foundry moulds (coefficient of heat accumulation of the mould, bf) with use of mixtures with new kinds of non-quartz base sands (Magnesite, Chromite, Olivine, Dunite, Kerphalit). Processes by several authors (G. Halbart, A. I. Vejnik, G. A. Anisovich) were used for mathematical treatment of measurement results and determination of bf. The h...

Elbel, T.; Jeli?nek, P.

2010-01-01

224

Quality management as a tool forming foundry competitive capacity in the process of market globalisation  

OpenAIRE

This paper presents the analysis and identification of the key factors influencing the competitiveness of the foundry in the process of market globalisation. The main attention is paid to the quality management as an important tool used for the formation of the foundry's competitive capacity.

Wojtynek, L.

2010-01-01

225

77 FR 34012 - Foundry Coke Products From the People's Republic of China: Continuation of Antidumping Duty Order  

Science.gov (United States)

...Trade Administration [A-570-862] Foundry Coke Products From the People's Republic...revocation of the antidumping duty order on foundry coke products from the People's Republic...review of the antidumping duty order on foundry coke products from the PRC,...

2012-06-08

226

Methodological aspects of systemic designing of foundry plants  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An approach is attempted to systematise the systemic research. A set of hypotheses are formulated, defining how a conceptual design of afoundry plant should be developed and improved when it is investigated as a system. The methodology aims to eliminate the particular approach to design to be replaced by integral design. The need of integral design seems a logical consequence of a transition from taskoriented design to situational design. The methodology outlined here offers an innovative and modern approach to engineering design, particularly in foundry plant design.

R. Wrona

2008-10-01

227

Use of Solid Waste (Foundry Slag) Mortar and Bamboo Reinforcement in Seismic Analysis for Single Storey Masonry Building  

Science.gov (United States)

The conversion of large amount of solid waste (foundry slag) into alternate source of building material will contribute not only as a solution to growing waste problem, but also it will conserve the natural resources of other building material and thereby reduce the cost of construction. The present work makes an effort to safe and economic use of recycle mortar (1:6) as a supplementary material. Conventional and recycled twelve prisms were casted with varying percentage of solid waste (foundry slag) added (0, 10, 20, 30 %) replacing cement by weight and tested under compression testing machine. As the replacement is increasing, the strength is decreasing. 10 % replacement curve is very closed to 0 % whereas 20 % is farther and 30 % is farthest. 20 % replacement was chosen for dynamic testing as its strength is within permissible limit as per IS code. A 1:4 scale single storey brick model with half size brick was fabricated on shake table in the lab for dynamic testing using pure friction isolation system (coarse sand as friction material µ = 0.34). Pure friction isolation technique can be adopted economically in developing countries where low-rise building prevails due to their low cost. The superstructure was separated from the foundation at plinth level, so as to permit sliding of superstructure during severe earthquake. The observed values of acceleration and displacement responses compare fairly with the analytical values of the analytical model. It also concluded that 20 % replacement of cement by solid waste (foundry slag) could be safely adopted without endangering the safety of the masonry structures under seismic load.To have an idea that how much energy is dissipated through this isolation, the same model with fixed base was tested and results were compared with the isolated free sliding model and it has been observed that more than 60 % energy is dissipated through this pure friction isolation technique. In case of base isolation, no visible cracks were observed up to the table force of 4.25 kN (1,300 rpm), whereas for fixed base failure started at 800 rpm.To strengthen the fixed base model, bamboo reinforcement were used for economical point of view. Another model of same dimension with same mortar ratio was fabricated on the shake table with bamboo reinforcement as plinth band and lintel band. In addition another four round bamboo bars of 3 mm diameter were placed at each of the four corners of the model. The building model was tested and found very encouraging and surprising results. The model failure started at 1,600 rpm, which means that this model is surviving the double force in comparison with the non-bamboo reinforcement.

Ahmad, S.; Husain, A.; Ghani, F.; Alam, M. N.

2013-11-01

228

Total dose hardness of three commercial CMOS microelectronics foundries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The authors have measured the effects of total ionizing dose (TID) on CMOS FETs, ring oscillators and field-oxide transistor test structures fabricated at three different commercial foundries with four different processes. The foundries spanned a range of integration levels and included Hewlett-Packard (HP) 0.5 microm and 0.8 microm processes, an Orbit 1.2 microm process, and an AMI 1.6 microm process. They found that the highest tolerance to TID was for the HP 0.5 microm process, where the shift in NMOS threshold voltage was less than 40 mV at 300 krad. An examination of the dependence of the threshold voltage shift on gate oxide thickness indicated that oxides of the different commercial processes were of similar quality, and that the improvement in the total dose tolerance of the HP 0.5 microm technology is associated with the scaling of the gate oxide. Measurements on field-oxide transistors from the HP 0.5 microm process were shown not to invert for signal voltages at 300 krad, maintaining the integrity of the LOCOS isolation

229

Total productive maintenance on example of automated foundry lines  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Within framework of the presented study one has performed analysis of stoppages in automatic foundry lines operation, and basing on assumptions from complex maintenance system has undertaken himself to develop a service maintenance schedule for machinery installed in the line. Moreover, one has presented general assumptions of TPM system operated in conditions of series and multi-series production of cast iron castings. One has constructed operational database and has elaborated a list of line stoppage causes within a year. One has proposed a possibility of implementation of manufacturing systems modeling and simulating technique in management of production machinery operation in a foundry shop. Within framework of the simulation experiment one has developed schedules of production, schedules of maintenance and has forecasted indices of general productivity of the machinery for a various scenarios of events on example of casting line having in-series structure of operational reliability. In course of the study there was implemented ARENA universal software package to modeling and simulation of the manufacturing systems.

S. Kukla

2009-07-01

230

Investigation of Pollution Emits By Cupola Furnace in Gujarat Foundry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The foundry industry is the major contributor in pollution among all other industries in India. At present only few foundries in India have pollution controllable system. Most of these casting industries use cupola furnace that emits gases namely carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide, suspended particle matter, dust and ash. Though, emission from single furnace is not considerable but it has huge impact if much such type of furnaces located in particular area. A inclusive study on the type of gas emitted, rate of gases and amount of pollution cause from cupola furnace is essential before design any emission controlling system. In this paper investigation on furnace wastages is carried out on GIDC (Gujarat, India. The outcomes of research are based on data taken out from cupola furnace where the pollution measuring system was set up. The rates of emission of gases are measured hourly for a whole day and it has been noted that in very first hours of firing the emission was at peak. It also been noted that pollution from this furnace was much higher than decided pollution range by the Gujarat pollution control board (GPCB. There are some alternatives of such furnaces are also suggested.

Hardikkumar Patil1 , Gajanan Patange2 , M.P.Khond

2013-05-01

231

Active binder content as a factor of the control system of the moulding sand quality  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One of the modern methods of the production optimisation are artificial neural networks. Neural networks are gaining broader and broaderapplication in the foundry industry, among others for controlling melting processes in cupolas and in arc furnaces, for designing castingsand supply systems, for controlling moulding sand processing, for predicting properties of cast alloys or selecting parameters of pressurecastings. An attempt to apply neural networks for controlling the quality of bentonite moulding sands is presented in this paper. This is theassessment method of sands suitability by means of detecting correlations between their individual parameters. The presentedinvestigations were obtained by using the Statistica 9.0 program. The presented investigations were aimed at the selection of the neuralnetwork able to predict the active bentonite content in the moulding sand on the basis of this sand properties such as: permeability,compactibility and the compressive strength. An application of the Statistica program allowed to select automatically the type of networkproper for the representation of dependencies occurring in between the proposed moulding sand parameters. The most advantageousconditions were obtained for the uni-directional multi-layer perception (MLP network. Knowledge of the neural network sensitivity to individual moulding sand parameters, allowed to eliminate not essential ones.

J. Jakubski

2011-01-01

232

The influence of microwave curing time and water glass kind on the properties of molding sands  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This work presents results of research on the influence of microwave heating time on the process of hardening of water glass molding sands. Essential influence of this drying process on basic properties such as: compression, bending and tensile strength as well as permeability and wear resistance, has been found. It has been proved, that all the investigated sorts of sodium water glass could be used as binding material of molding sands intended for curing with the microwave process heating. It has been found, while analyzing the results of property studies of microwave heated molding sands with 2.5% addition of water glass, that all available on the market kinds of this binding agent (including the most frequently used in foundry 145 and 149 kinds after microwave heating guarantee very good compression, bending and tensile strength as well as permeability and wear resistance. Moreover, it has been determined that the optimal curing time of molding sands containing various kinds of water glass is 240 seconds. After this time, all basic properties of molding sands are stable. The use of microwave curing of water glass molding sands results in a significant decrease of hardening process time, full stabilization of molding sands as well as much lower energy consumption.

K. Granat

2007-12-01

233

Beneficial Use Information Center (BUIC): Foundry By-products  

Science.gov (United States)

The database on beneficial reuse of foundry by-products may be downloaded as a Microsoft Access (.mdb) file through the Beneficial Use Information Center of the University of Wisconsin-Madison. The database was designed "to identify (1) materials and applications where methods and specifications exist such that beneficial reuse can begin or be expanded immediately and (2) areas in need of further research." Data were assembled by the University of Wisconsin-Madison researchers from 98 projects in fourteen states and two locations in Canada. Applications described in the database are Structural/Base/Sub-base Fill, Flowable Fill, Concrete and Related Products, Asphalt, Soil Amendments, Portland Cement, Landfill Liners and Covers, and Other Applications such as pipe bedding, clay bricks, and landfill drainage layers.

234

Kinetics of moisture absorption in mixtures for iron foundry  

CERN Document Server

The moisture absorption in granulated materials used in foundry technologies is analyzed. The absorption process has a diffusive behavior mainly. A simple experimental technique, in which the wet weight increment was recorded as the experimental parameter and an analytic method with computing procedure to find the parameters characterizing the process was used. The determination of these parameters by traditional methods is a very difficult task so, very refined and expensive trials are needed. The fitting of the model permits to determine the diffusion coefficient and the moisture concentration in the separation surface between the sample and the environment. The concentration profiles are established for different times. Finally, the possibility of occurrence of superimposed diffusive processes in some materials is analyzed and the diffusion coefficient and the amount of moisture incorporated by each process are calculated.

Cocina, E V; Rodríguez, R; Cocina, Ernesto Villar; Morales, Eduardo Valencia; Rodriguez, Romulo Gonzalez

1999-01-01

235

Classification of foundry clients using business rules approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper presents the application of business rules approach for the classification of foundry clients taking into account t he economic and technological attributes. Business Rules Management (BRM systems allow non-technical business people to change the rules, analyze them for errors, and test and simulate them for impact analysis. Although BRM is focused on business processes improvement, it is possible to use this approach in technology management. The model of classification problem, and the knowledge base as a set of decision tables are presented in the paper.The results indicate that the proposed business rules tool REBIT, developed by AGH team as the project co-funded by the European Union, is feasible as a complete knowledge base and technology management method.

A. Stawowy

2011-10-01

236

Advanced laser mask repair in the current wafer foundry environment  

Science.gov (United States)

Contrary to the prior assumptions of its technical demise, deep UV (DUV) femtosecond pulsed laser repair of photomasks is continuing to mature and improve as a technology. Similar to the optical enhancements that allow for 193 nm wavelength light to continue being used down to the 32, or even in some cases 22 nm, node, the process regimes for this type of laser repair continue to expand as new processes are discovered. This work reviews the qualification of repair performance for production at a major wafer foundry site. In addition advances are shown in the area of through-pellicle repair (TRP) process development. These advances include the preferential (versus surrounding reference mask structures) removal of soft defects and the capability to remove or manipulate particles on top of a flat absorber region with no detectable removal of the absorber. These developments will further demonstrate the progressive decoupling of the laser repair spot size from the minimum technology node for laser repair.

Robinson, Tod; Yi, Daniel; LeClaire, Jeff; White, Roy; Bozak, Ron; Archuletta, Mike

2010-09-01

237

Ergonomic and work safety evaluation criteria of process excellence in the foundry industry  

OpenAIRE

The article presents a concept of criteria assessment called the “process excellence” for ergonomics and work safety in enterprises of the foundry industry as well as points to the possibility of its application.

Butlewski, M.; Misztal, A.; Jasiulewicz-kaczmarek, M.; Janik, S.

2014-01-01

238

Closeout of IE Bulletin 80-21: valve parts supplied by Malcom Foundry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cracking of yokes in active valves in a safety-related system was discovered during pre-operational testing of the Residual Heat Removal System at Susquehanna 1. These defective yokes had been supplied to Anchor/Darling Valve Company by Malcolm Foundry Company, Inc. Because Malcolm Foundry had gone out of business, it was necessary to issue the Bulletin to utilities to determine directly whether Malcolm Foundry had provided parts to valve manufacturers other than Anchor/Darling. From results of the extensive survey of valve manufacturers generated by this Bulletin, it was determined that only Anchor/Darling had used Malcolm Foundry as a source of safety-related valve parts. On the basis of survey results and a search of Anchor/Darling records, it was found that only seven facilities had affected valves

239

Ergonomic and work safety evaluation criteria of process excellence in the foundry industry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article presents a concept of criteria assessment called the “process excellence” for ergonomics and work safety in enterprises of the foundry industry as well as points to the possibility of its application.

M. Butlewski

2014-10-01

240

Electromagnet Gripping in Iron Foundry Automation Part I: Principles and Framework  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Robot grippers are employed to position and retain parts in automated assembly operations. This paper presents an overview of electromagnet part handling framework in an iron foundry and an equivalent electromagnet circuit model. The manner in which this whole concept of automated gripping system operates will be discussed in this paper. The material handling system uses machine vision system coupled with conveyor motion and Ethernet communication strategy to assist the material handling system for transporting the foundry parts. The paper provides an overview of the electromagnet principles at play. The electromagnet interaction with the part is the key issue in the robust handling of this automated foundry system. This paper helps in the realization of the concept of automation in an iron foundry, in which the number of published studies is very limited.

Rhythm Suren Wadhwa

2011-11-01

241

The new foundry line for magnesium alloys high-pressure die-casting  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The new foundry line for high-pressure die-casting of magnesium alloys constructed in the “SILUM” Foundry (Opojowice, Poland is described. In the process cold chamber die-casting machines are used. The experimental casts and the radiators fabricated using the new cold chamber die-casting line are presented as the final results. The new production line allows to obtain good quality magnesium casts.

K.N Braszczy?ska-Malik

2008-04-01

242

Specificity of SPC Procedures Application in Foundry in Aspect of Data Acquisition and Data Exploration  

OpenAIRE

The paper presents an analysis of SPC (Statistical Process Control) procedures usability in foundry engineering. The authors pay particular attention to the processes complexity and necessity of correct preparation of data acquisition procedures. Integration of SPC systems with existing IT solutions in area of aiding and assistance during the manufacturing process is important. For each particular foundry, methodology of selective SPC application needs to prepare for supervision and control o...

Ignaszak, Z.; Sika, R.

2012-01-01

243

The new foundry line for magnesium alloys high-pressure die-casting  

OpenAIRE

The new foundry line for high-pressure die-casting of magnesium alloys constructed in the “SILUM” Foundry (Opojowice, Poland) is described. In the process cold chamber die-casting machines are used. The experimental casts and the radiators fabricated using the new cold chamber die-casting line are presented as the final results. The new production line allows to obtain good quality magnesium casts.

Braszczyn?ska-malik, K. N.; Walczak, W.; Braszczyn?ski, J.

2008-01-01

244

Simulation by the method of inverse cumulative distribution function applied in optimising of foundry plant production  

OpenAIRE

The study discusses application of computer simulation based on the method of inverse cumulative distribution function. The simulationrefers to an elementary static case, which can also be solved by physical experiment, consisting mainly in observations of foundryproduction in a selected foundry plant. For the simulation and forecasting of foundry production quality in selected cast iron grade, arandom number generator of Excel calculation sheet was chosen. Very wide potentials of this type o...

Szymszal, J.; Pia?tkowski, J.; Podolski, P.; Klis?, J.

2009-01-01

245

Research and application of enterprise resource planning system for foundry enterprises  

OpenAIRE

PPDB issues - four aspects of current management issues of foundry enterprises are discussed in this paper, including Production Management, Process Control, Duration Monitoring and Business Intelligence Data Analysis. Also a whole Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) solution for foundry enterprises is proposed. The solution contains many models, four of which are used to solve the PPDB issues. These are called SPDB models, which separately are the Single-piece management model (based on casti...

Zhou Jianxin; Ji Xiaoyuan; Liao Dunming

2013-01-01

246

Evaluation and Verification of Time and Costs of Production Activities in Foundry Industry  

OpenAIRE

This work presents the possibility of using technology of modelling and simulation of productive systems in the management of cast iron production by means of automated foundry lines to maximize assembly line structure. The computer model of foundry has been planed and conducted in order to compile the schedule of cast production. The variants of solution have been estimated talking into account time limitations imposed by clients and the criterion for prime costs appointed on the basis of th...

Kukla, S.

2007-01-01

247

Implementation KMES Quality system for acquisition and processing data in chosen foundry  

OpenAIRE

In the paper, main assumptions, algorithms and functions of author’s KMES Quality system are discussed. Its working version is tested in chosen foundry by near 2 years. This system is applied to enlarge the use of chosen technological data accessible during foundry processes. The data can be introduced by means of keyboard directly in the fields (windows) present on the PC screen according to program commands, instead of report-manuscripts containing measured results, or from the automated ...

Sika, R.; Ignaszak, Z.

2008-01-01

248

Historical cohort study of a New Zealand foundry and heavy engineering plant  

OpenAIRE

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the mortality of workers who had been exposed to asbestos, machining fluids and foundry work in a foundry and heavy engineering plant in the railway rolling stock manufacturing industry in New Zealand. METHODS: Historical cohort study design. RESULTS: For the total workforce of 3522 men employed between 1945 and 1991, follow up was 90% of person-years to 31 December 1991. Significantly increased standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) were found for all causes of...

Firth, H. M.; Elwood, J. M.; Cox, B.; Herbison, G. P.

1999-01-01

249

Comparison of Energy Consumption in the Classical (PID) and Fuzzy Control of Foundry Resistance Furnace  

OpenAIRE

Foundry resistance furnaces are thermal devices with a relatively large time delay in their response to a change in power parameters.Commonly used in automation classical PID controllers do not meet the requirements of high-quality control. Developed in recent years,fuzzy control theory is increasingly being used in various branches of economy and industry. Fuzzy controllers allow to introduce newdevelopments in control systems of foundry furnaces as well. Correctly selected fuzzy controller ...

Zio??kowski, E.; S?mierciak, P.

2012-01-01

250

Barriers to and drivers for energy efficiency in the Swedish foundry industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Despite the need for increased industrial energy efficiency, studies indicate that cost-efficient energy conservation measures are not always implemented, explained by the existence of barriers to energy efficiency. This paper investigates the existence of different barriers to and driving forces for the implementation of energy efficiency measures in the energy intensive Swedish foundry industry. The overall results from a questionnaire show that limited access to capital constitutes by far the largest barrier to energy efficiency according to the respondents. A comparison between group-owned and privately owned foundries shows that, except for limited access to capital, they face different high-ranked barriers. While barriers within group owned companies are more related to organizational problems, barriers within private foundries are more related to information problems. This study also found that energy consultants or other actors working with energy issues in foundries are of major importance in overcoming the largest barriers, as the foundries consider them trustworthy. They may thus help the foundries overcome organizational problems such as lack of sub-metering and lack of budget funds by quantifying potential energy efficiency investments. The two, by far, most important drivers were found to be people with real ambition and long-term energy strategies

251

Permeability of shaly sands  

Science.gov (United States)

The permeability of a sand shale mixture is analyzed as a function of shale fraction and the permeability of the two end-members, i.e., the permeability of a clay-free sand and the permeability of a pure shale. First, we develop a model for the permeability of a clay-free sand as a function of the grain diameter, the porosity, and the electrical cementation exponent. We show that the Kozeny-Carman-type relation can be improved by using electrical parameters which separate pore throat from total porosity and effective from total hydraulic radius. The permeability of a pure shale is derived in a similar way but is strongly dependent on clay mineralogy. For the same porosity, there are 5 orders of magnitude of difference between the permeability of pure kaolinite and the permeability of pure smectite. The separate end-members' permeability models are combined by filling the sand pores progressively with shale and then dispersing the sand grains in shale. The permeability of sand shale mixtures is shown to have a minimum at the critical shale content at which shale just fills the sand pores. Pure shale has a slightly higher permeability. Permeability decreases sharply with shale content as the pores of a sand are filled. The permeability of sand shale mixtures thus has a very strong dependence on shale fraction, and available data confirm this distinctive shale-fraction dependence. In addition, there is agreement (within 1 order of magnitude) between the permeabilities predicted from our model and those measured over 11 orders of magnitude from literature sources. Finally, we apply our model to predict the permeabilities of shaly sand formations in the Gulf Coast. The predictions are compared to a data set of permeability determination made on side-wall cores. The agreement between the theoretical predictions and the experimental data is very good.

Revil, A.; Cathles, L. M.

1999-03-01

252

Analysis of effectiveness of used sands reclamation treatment – in various technological devices  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The analysis of effectiveness of spent sands reclamation treatment performed in technological devices of various intensity of dry reclamation – during which used binding material is being removed from grain surfaces – is presented in the paper. Variety of reclamation influences was considered via the realization of the so called elementary operations such as: rubbing, grinding and crushing [1-5], which are realised mainly in dry mechanical reclamation devices but also appear in other technological devices for sand preparation.The model rotor reclaimer and two types of mixers used for preparing initial foundry sands with resin U 404 and hardener 100 T3 of the Hüttenes-Albertus Company were applied for tests.The theoretical model for assessing the effectiveness of reclamation treatment developed by the author [3, 4], was experimentally verified [5, 7], with the application of standard testing procedures. The model can be considered a new tool enabling the selection of optimal reclamation times for the given used sand at the assumed intensity of silica sand matrix recovery. Sand mixture of a proper composition fulfilled needed technological properties after total hardening was used as charge material in experiments. The reclamation treatment consisted of mechanical and mechanical-cryogenic reclamation performed within a wide range of times and conditions influencing the treatment intensity.

R. Da?ko

2009-10-01

253

Cleanup under Airlock of an Old Uranium Foundry - 13273  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since 2004, AREVA's subsidiary SICN has been conducting the cleanup and dismantling of an old uranium foundry located in the town of Annecy (France). The first operations consisted in the removal of the foundry's production equipment, producing more than 300 metric tons (MT) of waste. The second step consisted in performing the radiological characterization of the 1,600 m2 (17,200 ft2) building, including underground trenches and galleries. The building was precisely inventoried, based on operations records and direct measurements. All sub-surfaces, which needed to be cleaned up were characterized, and a determination of the contamination migration was established, in particular with trenches and galleries. The wall thicknesses to be treated were empirically justified, knowing that the maximal migration depth inside concrete is 5 mm for a liquid transfer vector. All singularities such as cracks, anchoring points, etc. were spotted for a complete and systematic treatment. Building structures not laying directly on the soil, such as floor slabs, were not cleaned up but directly deconstructed and disposed of as waste. The facility was located within the town of Annecy. Therefore, in order to avoid the risk of dusts dispersion and public exposure during the building deconstruction and the soil treatment, a third of the building's surface was confined in a sliding airlock built from a metal structure capable of resisting to wind and snow, which are frequent in this area. This particular structure provided a static confinement over the half of the building which was covered and a dynamic confinement using a ventilation and high efficiency air filtration system, sized to provide 2.5 air changes per hour. The enclosure and its metallic structure is 33 m long (108 feet), 25 m wide (82 feet), and 13 m high (42 feet), for a volume of 10,000 m3 (353,000 ft3). It was made up of a double skin envelope, allowing the recycling of its structure and outside envelope. After cleaning up and dismantling the first portion of the building, the enclosure was repositioned on the second and the last third of the building, by sliding it on support pads. Almost 7,000 m2 of concrete surface has been treated with no dust dispersion outside the enclosure. After treatment, all the remaining surfaces were controlled by an independent entity to verify their acceptability with regards to residual contamination (less than 0.4 Bq/cm2 (24 DPM) for alpha contamination and less than 1 Bq/g of total uranium). Approximately 1,900 MT of equipment and waste were generated in batches of 1m3, in order to be staged on site, and then characterized and packaged in 20 foot containers for shipment to the final ANDRA repository. The package certification included the verification of the physical and chemical characteristics and the radiological characteristics (mass activity, dose rate, and residual outside surface contamination). Finally, after cleanup and dismantling of the foundry, a concrete slab was poured on the free surface as a clean base for implementation of new activities. (authors)

254

Cleanup under Airlock of an Old Uranium Foundry - 13273  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Since 2004, AREVA's subsidiary SICN has been conducting the cleanup and dismantling of an old uranium foundry located in the town of Annecy (France). The first operations consisted in the removal of the foundry's production equipment, producing more than 300 metric tons (MT) of waste. The second step consisted in performing the radiological characterization of the 1,600 m{sup 2} (17,200 ft{sup 2}) building, including underground trenches and galleries. The building was precisely inventoried, based on operations records and direct measurements. All sub-surfaces, which needed to be cleaned up were characterized, and a determination of the contamination migration was established, in particular with trenches and galleries. The wall thicknesses to be treated were empirically justified, knowing that the maximal migration depth inside concrete is 5 mm for a liquid transfer vector. All singularities such as cracks, anchoring points, etc. were spotted for a complete and systematic treatment. Building structures not laying directly on the soil, such as floor slabs, were not cleaned up but directly deconstructed and disposed of as waste. The facility was located within the town of Annecy. Therefore, in order to avoid the risk of dusts dispersion and public exposure during the building deconstruction and the soil treatment, a third of the building's surface was confined in a sliding airlock built from a metal structure capable of resisting to wind and snow, which are frequent in this area. This particular structure provided a static confinement over the half of the building which was covered and a dynamic confinement using a ventilation and high efficiency air filtration system, sized to provide 2.5 air changes per hour. The enclosure and its metallic structure is 33 m long (108 feet), 25 m wide (82 feet), and 13 m high (42 feet), for a volume of 10,000 m{sup 3} (353,000 ft{sup 3}). It was made up of a double skin envelope, allowing the recycling of its structure and outside envelope. After cleaning up and dismantling the first portion of the building, the enclosure was repositioned on the second and the last third of the building, by sliding it on support pads. Almost 7,000 m{sup 2} of concrete surface has been treated with no dust dispersion outside the enclosure. After treatment, all the remaining surfaces were controlled by an independent entity to verify their acceptability with regards to residual contamination (less than 0.4 Bq/cm{sup 2} (24 DPM) for alpha contamination and less than 1 Bq/g of total uranium). Approximately 1,900 MT of equipment and waste were generated in batches of 1m{sup 3}, in order to be staged on site, and then characterized and packaged in 20 foot containers for shipment to the final ANDRA repository. The package certification included the verification of the physical and chemical characteristics and the radiological characteristics (mass activity, dose rate, and residual outside surface contamination). Finally, after cleanup and dismantling of the foundry, a concrete slab was poured on the free surface as a clean base for implementation of new activities. (authors)

Thuillier, Daniel; Houee, Jean-Marie [AREVA D and D BU, Paris La Defense (France); Chambon, Frederic [AREVA FEDERAL SERVICES, Columbia MD (United States)

2013-07-01

255

Petrochemicals from oil sands  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The petrochemical industry in Alberta developed rapidly during the 1980s and 1990s. However, projected diminishing gas production from the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin has raised concerns about the future growth of the industry in Alberta. A joint industry/government study has been conducted to evaluate new feedstocks from Alberta's vast oil sands resources to supplement natural gas liquids. Having both gas and oil sands feedstock options should increase the long-term competitiveness of Alberta's petrochemical industry.This paper presents a framework for evaluating and optimizing schemes for helping Alberta develop synergies for its oil sands and petrochemical industries through cost effective integration of oil sands, upgrading, refining and petrochemical development from 2005 to 2020. The paper places emphasis on specific locations and market conditions. It demonstrates that phased integration of oil sands and petrochemical developments is technically and economically feasible to co-produce high grade fuels and petrochemicals, assuming a new pipeline is built between Edmonton and Vancouver. Alberta has the potential to become a world-scale energy and petrochemical cluster. Alberta's oil sands facilities are potentially capable of supporting new world-scale plants producing ethylene, propylene, benzene, para-xylene, and other high-value-added derivatives. The products can be produced by integrating existing and new oil sands upgrading plants, refineries and petsands upgrading plants, refineries and petrochemical plants within the next 5 to 10 years. 3 refs., 2 tabs., 7 figs

256

UK Frac Sand Resources  

OpenAIRE

Although still just a glimmer in the gas man’s eye, the prospect of shale gas development in the UK has many companies thinking about the industrial minerals it will require. Chief amongst these is silica sand which is used as a ‘proppant’ in the hydraulic fracturing, or ‘fracking’, of shales to help release the gas. The UK has large resources of sand and sandstone, of which only a small proportion have the necessary technical properties that classify them as ‘silica sand’. S...

Mitchell, Clive

2014-01-01

257

Pre-SPC Math for Foundry Workers. A Lesson Developed for Robinson Foundry and Bodine-Robinson as Part of a National Workplace Literacy Program.  

Science.gov (United States)

Developed as part of a National Workplace Literacy Program, this lesson focuses on terms and mathematical operations associated with Statistical Process Control (SPC) in the foundry industry. With appropriate assistance and preparatory work, workers testing between grades 4 and 9 on the Test of Adult Basic Education Locator should be able to use…

Rasmussen, Bonnie

258

Sand, Plants and Pants  

Science.gov (United States)

In this activity, learners explore how the application of nano-sized particles or coatings can change a bigger materialâs properties. Learners investigate the hydrophobic properties of plants, nano-fabric pants and magic sand.

Network, Nanoscale I.; Houston, Children'S M.

2014-06-04

259

Electromagnet Gripping in Iron Foundry Automation Part II: Simulation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper compares the simulation and initial experimental results for robust part handling by radially symmetric cylindrical electromagnetic gripper heads, that are used in foundry manufacturing assembly operation. Knowledge of the direct holding force is essential to determine if a given electromagnet is capable of preventing part slipping during pick and place operation. Energy based model and the magnetic circuit model have been described. The latter is developed further and compared with results from a FEA software. It was found that the magnetic circuit model, although simple in form, was limited in its ability to accurately predict the holding force over the entire range of conditions investigated. The shortcomings in the model were attributed to its inability to accurately model the leakage flux and non-uniform distribution of the magnetic flux. A finite element allowed for the ability to couple the mechanical and magnetic models. The finite element model was used to predict the magnetic field based off the solutions to the mechanical (sigma and the magnetic model (B.

Rhythm Suren Wadhwa

2012-03-01

260

Signalling a foundry mould filling degree with infrared sensors  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A contactless method of measuring a foundry mould filling degree in course of its pouring with liquid metal is suggested. The concept is based on infrared radiation of molten metal appearing in venting and flow-off holes. As the detector, an infrared channel receiving diode is applied. Three solutions were tested. In the first solution, the diode is placed at the calculated distance from the radiation source, in a housing that suppresses the scattered signal. The housing contains the electronics, while power supply and control signals are delivered by conductors. A diode actuation threshold is established in order to obtain high resolution and repeatability of the results. On the output, a miniature relay transmits the signal to the control system. In the second solution, the measuring system is supplied with a battery and the signal in transmitted through a plastic optical fibre. In the third solution, the optical fibre serves as an energy carrier. The optical system focuses the infrared radiation and introduces the energy to the optical fibre. On the other end of the fibre, a phototransistor amplifies the signal, forms it and transmits to the control system. Some experiments were carried out. Their results permitted noting disadvantages and advantages of individual solutions. It was evidenced that the measurement results obtained using the infrared radiation are independent on a constructional design. The solutions utilising optical fibres proved to be more useful in industrial conditions. Targets and further directions of research works using transceivers for wireless data transmission are presented.

M. Bogdan

2008-07-01

261

Determination of application possibilities of microwave heating in the curing process of water glass molding sands with fluid esters. Part 2  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article, constituting continuation of the subject discussed in the first part, presents results of the experimental trial of water glass molding sands’ curing method modification with application of fluid esters and innovative microwave heating. The research objective was to determine possibilities of microwave application for curing of water glass molding sands prepared with addition of hardening agents sold under the trade name of Mach. After initial chemical curing molding sands, prepared with addition of the above mentioned hardeners, have been heated with microwaves in order to determine their influence on changes of basic technological and strength parameters of the sands, and indirectly on the quality of quartz grains binding. Studies aimed at determination of water content changes in the sands have also been undertaken. As our studies demonstrated, microwave heating allows for quick reduction of water content, thus resulting in improvement of strength parameters such as bending and tensile strength. Application of the combined methods of ester curing and innovative microwave heating facilitates production of high quality foundry moulds and cores, while simultaneously improving mould and core preparation procedures at the foundries and as a result reduces their time to an indispensable minimum.

K. Granat

2009-01-01

262

Influence of water-glass grade and quantity on residual strength of microwave-hardened moulding sands. Part 1  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper presents a research on influence of dielectric drying process on mechanical properties of water-glass containing moulding sands. Examined were moulding sands containing additions of 1.5 and 2.5 % of hydrated sodium silicate grades 145, 149 and 150, most oftenused in foundry practice. Standard, cylindrical specimens for mechanical testing were held at temperatur es from 100 to 1200 °C for 30 minutes and next cooled-down to ambient temperature. Then their residual strength was determined. Comparison of the obtained resultswith literature data indicates that dielectric drying is favourable for reduction of residual strength of used water-glass moulding sands, and thus improves their knock-out properties.

M. Stachowicz

2011-01-01

263

Rebounding process of moulding sands-thermal degradation of bentonite binding qualities  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problems related to a gradual degradation of binding qualities of montmorillonite, the main component of foundry bentonites, are presented in the paper. This degradation is caused by high temperatures originated from liquid metal influencing moulding sands. Laboratory measurements of an active binding agent content in classic moulding sands prepared with two types of bentonite and subjected to a controlled heating to high temperatures – were performed. These laboratory examinations were compared to industrial tests, in which a temperature distribution was being determined in several places in the thickness of the casting ingot mould for 24 hours from the moment of pouring liquid metal. On the basis of the performed examinations, the method allowing to determine optimal additions in the rebounding process of the tested bentonites was developed.

R. Da?ko

2010-01-01

264

Application of microwave energy for curing of molding sands containing oil binders  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This works presents the results of studies concerning possibility of application of microwave heating in the curing process of molding sands containing oil binders. Molding sands prepared with three kinds of binders, that is oils C, DL and Retanol, have been subject to experiments. The sands have been dried with two methods: in a microwave chamber of 750W power and, for comparison, with classical method at the temperature of 200°C for 120 minutes. Tensile and bending strength of the samples have been determined after cooling down. It has been found that microwave drying in the low-power device used for experiments is effective only in case of molding sand prepared with addition of DL binder. The temperature of heated, even up to 32 minutes in a microwave chamber, blocks prepared from the remaining two masses, was insufficient to initiate binding process. The undertaken attempts of binder modification and introduction of additives intensifying microwave heating process allowed for achievement of satisfactory results. It has been found that power of the heating device is the main factor determining efficiency of microwave curing of molding sands containing oil binders. An additional experiment has been conducted on a laboratory workstation allowing for microwave heating of small mass samples with a high output power of magnetron concentrated in a small substrate volume. It has been observed that microwave drying process of molding sands was of dynamic character over a short period of time, not exceeding 120 seconds, thus assuring efficient curing of the sands containing the used oil binders. Therefore, application of devices of properly high microwave output power allows for efficient drying of oil molding sands, while simultaneously assuring the possibility to reduce time and energy consumption necessary for production of foundry cores of proper functional characteristics.

M. Stachowicz

2008-07-01

265

Comparison of Energy Consumption in the Classical (PID and Fuzzy Control of Foundry Resistance Furnace  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Foundry resistance furnaces are thermal devices with a relatively large time delay in their response to a change in power parameters.Commonly used in automation classical PID controllers do not meet the requirements of high-quality control. Developed in recent years,fuzzy control theory is increasingly being used in various branches of economy and industry. Fuzzy controllers allow to introduce newdevelopments in control systems of foundry furnaces as well. Correctly selected fuzzy controller can significantly reduce energyconsumption in a controlled thermal process of heating equipment. The article presents a comparison of energy consumption by controlsystem of foundry resistance furnace, equipped with either a PID controller or fuzzy controller optimally chosen.

E. Zió?kowski

2012-09-01

266

Oil sands tax expenditures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The oil sands are a strategic Canadian resource for which federal and provincial governments provide financial incentives to develop and exploit. This report describes the Oil Sands Tax Expenditure Model (OSTEM) developed to estimate the size of the federal income tax expenditure attributed to the oil sands industry. Tax expenditures are tax concessions which are used as alternatives to direct government spending for achieving government policy objectives. The OSTEM was developed within the business Income Tax Division of Canada's Department of Finance. Data inputs for the model were obtained from oil sands developers and Natural Resources Canada. OSTEM calculates annual revenues, royalties and federal taxes at project levels using project-level projections of capital investment, operating expenses and production. OSTEM calculates tax expenditures by comparing taxes paid under different tax regimes. The model also estimates the foregone revenue as a percentage of capital investment. Total tax expenditures associated with investment in the oil sands are projected to total $820 million for the period from 1986 to 2030, representing 4.6 per cent of the total investment. 10 refs., 2 tabs., 7 figs

267

Simulating the deformation of dies in the foundry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Digital simulation (QuikCAST, ProCAST) is already used extensively when designing metallic dies for founding, in particular to design filling and gating systems. Simulation of the steady-state temperature cycles of dies has also been mastered. With large castings, the temperature gradient induced between the moulding surface and the rear surfaces of the die leads to deformations that may be large enough to measure, and incompatible with the required dimensional accuracy. The temperature gradient also creates thermal fatigue stresses that cause crazing of the die surface. In the study conducted by CTIF, aimed at measuring tooling deformations, various ways of measuring displacements at high temperatures (with and without contact) were investigated in order to evaluate their capabilities and limitations. An experimental device was designed - a test bench combining a metallic die having a simple geometry, in which an aluminium part could be cast, and instrumentation (temperature and displacement sensors). The deformations of the die were measured during first cycles of temperature homogenization. Concurrently, thermomechanical calculations were carried out on the same geometry using PROCAST. The calculation results are well correlated with the experimental measurements and validate the tools and the calculation methods. This thermomechanical approach makes it possible to optimize die design in the foundry and to predict high-temperature deformations as early as the desigerature deformations as early as the design stage. Knowledge of these deformations makes it possible in turn to anticipate the geometrical and dimensional variations undergone by the castings themselves and so to improve their accuracy. The designer can act on the temperature of the die or the design of the casting, or create a die in which the expected thermal deformation is reversed so as to produce a casting having the correct dimensions. In short, thermomechanical simulation can be applied to this problem to achieve a better understanding of the phenomena and to test solutions in advance.

268

Simulating the deformation of dies in the foundry  

Science.gov (United States)

Digital simulation (QuikCAST, ProCAST) is already used extensively when designing metallic dies for founding, in particular to design filling and gating systems. Simulation of the steady-state temperature cycles of dies has also been mastered. With large castings, the temperature gradient induced between the moulding surface and the rear surfaces of the die leads to deformations that may be large enough to measure, and incompatible with the required dimensional accuracy. The temperature gradient also creates thermal fatigue stresses that cause crazing of the die surface. In the study conducted by CTIF, aimed at measuring tooling deformations, various ways of measuring displacements at high temperatures (with and without contact) were investigated in order to evaluate their capabilities and limitations. An experimental device was designed - a test bench combining a metallic die having a simple geometry, in which an aluminium part could be cast, and instrumentation (temperature and displacement sensors). The deformations of the die were measured during first cycles of temperature homogenization. Concurrently, thermomechanical calculations were carried out on the same geometry using PROCAST. The calculation results are well correlated with the experimental measurements and validate the tools and the calculation methods. This thermomechanical approach makes it possible to optimize die design in the foundry and to predict high-temperature deformations as early as the design stage. Knowledge of these deformations makes it possible in turn to anticipate the geometrical and dimensional variations undergone by the castings themselves and so to improve their accuracy. The designer can act on the temperature of the die or the design of the casting, or create a die in which the expected thermal deformation is reversed so as to produce a casting having the correct dimensions. In short, thermomechanical simulation can be applied to this problem to achieve a better understanding of the phenomena and to test solutions in advance.

Chabod, A.; Longa, Y.; Dracon, J. M.; Chailler, K.; Hairy, P.; Da Silva, A.

2012-07-01

269

[Mucociliary clearance and respiratory function in foundry workers].  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of the study was to establish whether changes occur in respiratory function, particularly mucociliary clearance, among second fusion smeltery workers. The research covered 93 male smelters employed in steel forming and casting and 116 male workers of an electric power station, considered as non-exposed. Physiological, pathological and occupational histories of all subjects under study were available. An ECCS respiratory symptoms questionnaire was administered to all subjects ad the two groups also underwent a general medical examination, a spirometry and a chest X-ray. During the medical examination sputum was collected from the subjects to measure mucus transport rate on frog palate, expressed as Normalised Frog Palate Transport Rate (NFPTR). For the environmental research, dust, fumes and gas samplings were taken either at a fixed station or by means of personal dosimeters. Environmental research revealed very low concentrations of respiratory irritants (total dust: 0.2-6.8 mg/m3; respirable dust: 0.1-4.9 mg/m3; total silica: power station. The spirometries showed that only the mean PEF values were significantly lower among the exposed. Stratified analysis of the results according to smoking habits in the two groups revealed a close association between smeltery work and reduction of PEF to under 80% of the ECCS 1983 theoretical values, independently of smoking habits. We also compared the mean PEF values, both as measured values and as percent values of the ECCS 1983 theoretical values, stratified for occupational exposure and smoking; the results again showed that differences between these mean values were mainly due to current or past work in the foundry.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:7731407

Di Lorenzo, L; Pegorari, M M; Capozzi, D; Margiotta, M; Carpinelli, G; Cassano, F; Zocchetti, C; Sacchitelli, F; De Francesco, G; Soleo, L

1994-01-01

270

MODELS AND METHODS OF CONTROL SYSTEMS OF ECOLOGICAL SAFETY OF FOUNDRY MANUFACTURE ?????? ? ?????? ?????? ?????????? ????????????? ????????????? ????????? ????????????  

OpenAIRE

The given developments are devoted to modeling of control systems by ecological safety of foundry manufacture. In a working zone of foundry shops except for a dust the significant amount of polluting substances is allocated. The most unsuccessful sites from a position of allocation of a dust are chambers and lattices. The experimental analysis shows, that in structure of a dust the weight maintenance of fractions with a diameter up to 20 microns reaches 43,8 % on weight. The given dust is mos...

Manohin V. J.; Murzinov V. L.

2011-01-01

271

Database for foundry engineers – simulationDB – a modern database storing simulation results  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose: of this paper The main aim of this paper is to build specific database system for collecting, analysing and searching simulation results.Design/methodology/approach: It was prepared using client-server architecture. Then was prepared GUI - Graphical User Interface.Findings: New database system for foundry was discovered.Practical implications: System development is in progress and practical implication will be hold in one of iron foundry in next year.Originality/value: The original value of this paper is innovative database system for storing and analysing simulation results.

P. Malinowski

2010-11-01

272

Highly Unidirectional Uniform Optical Grating Couplers, Fabricated in Standard 45nm SOI-CMOS Foundry Process  

CERN Document Server

This paper defines new structures of highly unidirectional uniform optical grating couplers which are all within constraints of the standard 45nm SOI-CMOS foundry process. Analysis in terms of unidirectivity and coupling efficiency is done. Maximum achieved unidirectivity (power radiation in one direction) is 98%. Unidirectional uniform gratings are fabricated in the standard 45nm SOI-CMOS foundry process. These gratings are measured and compared, using the new method of comparison, with typical bidirectional uniform gratings fabricated in the same process, in terms of coupling efficiency (in this case unidirectivity) with the standard singlemode fiber. For both types of gratings spectrum is given, measured with optical spectrum analyzer.

Uroševi?, Stevan Lj

2014-01-01

273

MODELS AND METHODS OF CONTROL SYSTEMS OF ECOLOGICAL SAFETY OF FOUNDRY MANUFACTURE ?????? ? ?????? ?????? ?????????? ????????????? ????????????? ????????? ????????????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The given developments are devoted to modeling of control systems by ecological safety of foundry manufacture. In a working zone of foundry shops except for a dust the significant amount of polluting substances is allocated. The most unsuccessful sites from a position of allocation of a dust are chambers and lattices. The experimental analysis shows, that in structure of a dust the weight maintenance of fractions with a diameter up to 20 microns reaches 43,8 % on weight. The given dust is most dangerous to health of the working personnel and creates problems when clearing the air

Manohin V. J.

2011-12-01

274

Erosion phenomena in sand moulds  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Authors studicd the erosion phcnorncna in sand moulds pured with cast iron. Thc study comprises an evaluation of erosionresistance of thc three sands: grccn sand. sand bondcd with inorganic or organic bindcr. It was concluded that thc most resistant is [heclassic green sand with thc addition of 5 B coal dust. Resistance of the sand with organic binder is generally weak and dcvnds onkind of used raisin. Spccinl nztcntion was paid to the sands with no organic bindcr watcr glass and phospha~c. It was Sound that thcirrcsistance depends on dehydratation conditions. When the mould is stored in law humidity of atmosphcrc the very strong crosion canbe expected. It rcsul ts hrn thc micro fractures in the bridges of binders, joining the grains of the sable. This phcnomcna facilitates thetearing away of fragments of sand [tom the surface

A. Chojecki

2008-03-01

275

Reduction of Energy Consumption and GHGs Emission in Conventional Sand Casting Process by Application of a New CRIMSON Process  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

In conventional foundry, engineers generally consider the quality of casting part as the most essential issue and regard the energy consumption and Green House Gas (GHGs emission as the auxiliary ones. This usually causes large amount of energy consumption as a result of the inefficient casting processes used and increases the production costs and environmental pollution. This paper presents the new CRIMSON process where its facility and melting process were compared with conventional melt furnaces and aluminium alloy melting process. An actual case was investigated to reveal quantitatively how the conventional foundry wastes energy and increases GHGs emission, and what the improvement of energy efficiency and the GHGs emission reduction can be achieved using the new CRIMSON process. The results of this investigation will help the foundry engineer recognize the importance of energy saving and environmental protection and show how to utilise this new process to reduce production costs and carbon footprint without decreasing the quality of the cast part.

Key words: Energy consumption; GHGs emission; Furnace; Aluminium; Sanding casting; Melting; CRIMSON

Xiaojun DAI

2012-03-01

276

Northern Sand Sea  

Science.gov (United States)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Our topic for the weeks of April 4 and April 11 is dunes on Mars. We will look at the north polar sand sea and at isolated dune fields at lower latitudes. Sand seas on Earth are often called 'ergs,' an Arabic name for dune field. A sand sea differs from a dune field in two ways: 1) a sand sea has a large regional extent, and 2) the individual dunes are large in size and complex in form. This VIS image was taken at 82 degrees North latitude during Northern spring. The image is completely dominated by dunes. In sand seas, it is very common for a single type of dune to occur, and for a single predominate wind to control the alignment of the dunes. Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 82.2, Longitude 152.5 East (207.5 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution. Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

2005-01-01

277

Identifying iron foundries as a new source of unintentional polychlorinated naphthalenes and characterizing their emission profiles.  

Science.gov (United States)

Iron foundries have been identified as dioxin sources in previous field investigations. Similar formation mechanisms between dioxins and unintentional polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) have led us to speculate that iron foundries are also potential PCN sources. In this study, PCNs in stack gas and fly ash samples representing atmospheric and residue emissions from 13 typical iron foundry plants were analyzed. The average emission factor of ?(2-8)PCNs to residue was calculated to be 61 ?g t(-1), with a range of 10-107 ?g t(-1). The emission factors of ?(2-8)PCNs to air in two case plants were 267 and 1472 ?g t(-1). The derived emission factors might be useful for estimating annual emissions and understanding the contribution of PCNs from iron foundries. The possible formation mechanisms of PCNs, based on the PCN profiles, are discussed. Successive reductions in the abundance of homologues were observed to occur with the increase in chlorine substituted numbers. Abundances of congeners containing more ?-position chlorines in the naphthalene skeleton were much higher than those of congeners containing more ?-position chlorines for penta-, hexa-, and hepta- homologues, which suggests that the ?-positions are favored for chlorination. Potential chlorination pathways from tetra- to octa- homologues are proposed. PMID:25313855

Liu, Guorui; Lv, Pu; Jiang, Xiaoxu; Nie, Zhiqiang; Zheng, Minghui

2014-11-18

278

Maths and Science in the Foundry: Integral Components of Accredited Training.  

Science.gov (United States)

A workplace literacy project involved complex math and science concepts and applications integral to foundry operations. It demonstrates that, despite lack of formal schooling or English proficiency, workers can learn complex concepts through practical experience and reflection, using their knowledge and skills with contextual cues. (SK)

Deakin, Rosemary

1995-01-01

279

Risk assessment of chemicals in foundries: The International Chemical Toolkit pilot-project  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In Brazil, problems regarding protection from hazardous substances in small-sized enterprises are similar to those observed in many other countries. Looking for a simple tool to assess and control such exposures, FUNDACENTRO has started in 2005 a pilot-project to implement the International Chemical Control Toolkit. During the series of visits to foundries, it was observed that although many changes have occurred in foundry technology, occupational exposures to silica dust and metal fumes continue to occur, due to a lack of perception of occupational exposure in the work environment. After introducing the Chemical Toolkit concept to the foundry work group, it was possible to show that the activities undertaken to improve the management of chemicals, according to its concept, will support companies in fulfilling government legislations related to chemical management, occupational health and safety, and environmental impact. In the following meetings, the foundry work group and FUNDACENTRO research team will identify 'inadequate work situations'. Based on the Chemical Toolkit, improvement measures will be proposed. Afterwards, a survey will verify the efficency of those measures in the control of hazards and consequently on the management of chemicals. This step is now in course

280

77 FR 15123 - Foundry Coke From China; Scheduling of an Expedited Five-Year Review  

Science.gov (United States)

...Foundry Coke From China; Scheduling of an Expedited Five-Year...gives notice of the scheduling of an expedited review...Rules of Practice and Procedure, part 201, subparts...FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Angela M.W. Newell...the Commission should contact the Office of the...

2012-03-14

281

APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 8: Industrialist's Manual No. 3, Rusty's Iron Foundry.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Industrialist's Manual No. 3, Rusty's Iron Foundry is part of a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise), a computerized college and professional level "real world" game simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties. The first two sections,…

Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

282

METRO-APEX Volume 13.1: Industrialist's Manual No. 3, Rusty's Iron Foundry. Revised.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Industrialist's Manual No. 3 (Rusty's Iron Foundry) is one of a set of twenty-one manuals used in METRO-APEX 1974, a computerized college and professional level, computer-supported, role-play, simulation exercise of a community with "normal" problems. Stress is placed on environmental quality considerations. APEX 1974 is an expansion of…

University of Southern California, Los Angeles. COMEX Research Project.

283

Improvements in Fabrication of Sand/Binder Cores for Casting  

Science.gov (United States)

Three improvements have been devised for the cold-box process, which is a special molding process used to make sand/binder cores for casting hollow metal parts. These improvements are: The use of fiber-reinforced composite binder materials (in contradistinction to the non-fiber-reinforced binders used heretofore), The substitution of a directed-vortex core-blowing subprocess for a prior core-blowing process that involved a movable gassing plate, and The use of filters made from filtration-grade fabrics to prevent clogging of vents. For reasons that exceed the scope of this article, most foundries have adopted the cold-box process for making cores for casting metals. However, this process is not widely known outside the metal-casting industry; therefore, a description of pertinent aspects of the cold-box process is prerequisite to a meaningful description of the aforementioned improvements. In the cold-box process as practiced heretofore, sand is first mixed with a phenolic resin (considered to be part 1 of a three-part binder) and an isocyanate resin (part 2 of the binder). Then by use of compressed air, the mixture is blown into a core box, which is a mold for forming the core. Next, an amine gas (part 3 of the binder) that acts as a catalyst for polymerization of parts 1 and 2 is blown through the core box. Alternatively, a liquid amine that vaporizes during polymerization can be incorporated into the sand/resin mixture. Once polymerization is complete, the amine gas is purged from the core box by use of compressed air. The finished core is then removed from the core box.

Bakhitiyarov, Sayavur I.; Overfelt, Ruel A.; Adanur, Sabit

2005-01-01

284

Liquefaction resistance of calcareous sands  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Calcareous sands are unique in terms of their origin, mineralogy, shape, fragility and intra particle porosity. This article presents results from an experimental program carried out to study the liquefaction resistance of a calcareous sand retrieved from Cabo Rojo at Puerto Rico. The experimental program included mineralogical characterization, index properties, and undrained cyclic triaxial tests on isotropically consolidated reconstituted samples. Due to the large variation in the calcareous sand properties, results are compared with previous researches carried out on other calcareous sands around the world. Results showed a wide range in the liquefaction resistance of the studied calcareous sands. Cabo Rojo sand experienced greater liquefaction resistance than most of the calcareous sands used for comparison. Important differences in the excess pore pressure generation characteristics were also found.

285

Magic Sand: Nanosurfaces  

Science.gov (United States)

This is an activity/demo in which learners are exposed to the difference bewteen hydrophobic surfaces (water repelling) and hydrophilic surfaces (water loving). This activity also demonstrates how changing the size of material to nanoscale changes its behavior at the macroscale. The instructions assume that Magic Sand is performed as a demonstration, but it works great a a hands-on activity as well.

Network, Nanoscle I.; Wisconsin-Madison, University O.

2014-06-18

286

FINAL REPORT: Reduction in Energy Consumption and Variability in Steel Foundry Operations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This project worked to improve the efficiency of the steel casting industry by reducing the variability that occurs because of process and product variation. The project focused on the post shakeout operations since roughly half of the production costs are in this area. These improvements will reduce the amount of variability, making it easier to manage the operation and improve the competitiveness. The reduction in variability will also reduce the need for many rework operations, which will result in a direct reduction of energy usage, particularly by the reduction of repeated heat treatment operations. Further energy savings will be realized from the reduction of scrap and reduced handling. Field studies were conducted at ten steel foundries that represented the U.S. steel casting industry, for a total of over 100 weeks of production observation. These studies quantified the amount of variability, and looked toward determining the source. A focus of the data collected was the grinding operations since this is a major effort in the cleaning room, and it represents the overall casting quality. The grinding was divided into two categories, expected and unexpected. Expected grinding is that in which the location of the effort is known prior to making the casting, such as smoothing parting lines, gates, and riser contacts. Unexpected grinding, which was approximately 80% of the effort, was done to improve the surfaces at weld repair locations, to rectify burnt on sand, and other surface anomalies at random locations. Unexpected grinding represents about 80% of the grinding effort. By quantifying this effort, the project raised awareness within the industry and the industry is continuing to make improvements. The field studies showed that the amount of variation of grinding operations (normalized because of the diverse set of parts studied) was very consistent across the industry. The field studies identified several specific sources that individually contributed to large process variation. This indicates the need for ongoing monitoring of the process and system to quantify the effort being expended. A system to measure the grinding effort was investigated but did not prove to be successful. A weld wire counting system was shown to be very successful in tracking casting quality by monitoring the quantity of weld wire being expended on a per casting basis. Further use of such systems is highly recommended. The field studies showed that the visual inspection process for the casting surface was a potentially large source of process variation. Measurement system analysis studies were conducted at three steel casting producers. The tests measured the consistency of the inspectors in identifying the same surface anomalies. The repeatability (variation of the same operator inspecting the same casting) was found to be relatively consistent across the companies at about 60-70%. However, this is still are very large amount of variation. Reproducibility (variation of different operators inspecting the same casting) was worse, ranging between 20 to 80% at the three locations. This large amount of variation shows that there is a great opportunity for improvement. Falsely identifying anomalies for reworking will cause increased expense and energy consumption. This is particularly true if a weld repair and repeated heat treatment is required. However, not identifying an anomaly could also result in future rework processing, a customer return, or scrap. To help alleviate this problem, casting surface comparator plates were developed and distributed to the industry. These plates are very inexpensive which enables them to be provided to all those involved with casting surface quality, such as operators, inspectors, sales, and management.

F. Peters

2005-05-24

287

Design process optimization, virtual prototyping of manufacturing, and foundry-portable DFM (Invited Paper)  

Science.gov (United States)

We consider modern design for manufacturing (DFM) as a manifestation of IC industry re-integration and intensive cost management dynamics. In that regard DFM is somewhat different from so-called design for yield (DFY) which essentially focuses on productivity (yield) management (that is not to say that DFM and DFY do not have significant overlaps and interactions). We clearly see the shaping of a new "full-chip DFM" infrastructure on the background of the "back to basics" design-manufacturing re-integration dynamics. In the presented work we are focusing on required DFM-efficiencies in a "foundry-fabless" link. Concepts of "virtual prototyping of manufacturing", "design process optimization", and "foundry-portable DFM" models are explored. Both senior management of the industry and leading design groups finally realize the need for a radical change of design styles. Some of the DFM super-goals are to isolate designers from process details and to make designs foundry portable. It requires qualification of designs at different foundries. In their turn, foundries specified and are implementing a set of DFM rules: "action-required", "recommended", and "guidelines" while asking designers to provide netlist and testing information. Also, we observe strong signs of innovation coming back to the mask industry. Powerful solutions are emerging and shaping up toward mask-centered IP as a business. While it seems that pure-play foundries have found their place for now in the "IDM+" model (supporting manufacturing capacity of IDMs) it is not obvious how sustainable the model is. Wafer as a production unit is not sufficient anymore; foundries are being asked by large customers to price products in terms of good die. It brings back the notion of the old ASIC business model where the foundry is responsible for dealing with both random and systematic yield issues for a given design. One scenario of future development would be that some of the leading foundries might eventually transform themselves into IDMs. Another visible trend: some of the manufacturing capacities started to diversify business by providing services for new emerging markets (for example, new energy and medicine applications). Finally it is very unclear what"s going to happen to fabless players. We continue building on the "Think SPICE again!" methodology introduced last year and expanding on previous platforms' discussion. Model expression of DFM, most probably, will be supplied by the equipment suppliers and yield management community. Actual content for a design intent model will be provided by manufacturing. Much like SPICE it describes the behavior and not what the actual measurement in manufacturing is. When the model is available and populated, a design automation solution can be created that will allow a designer to extract, analyze, simulate, and optimize the circuit prior to handoff to manufacturing.

Hogan, James; Progler, Christopher; Chatila, Ahmad; Bruggeman, Bert; Heins, Mitchell; Pack, Robert; Boksha, Victor

2005-05-01

288

Risk assessment related to manual handling on choosen work possition in foundry Alstom Power Sp. z o. o.  

OpenAIRE

Manual handling remains one of the different types of transport inside working place, although technological progress and modernorganization of work. Manual transport as a transport inside working place is related to foundry industry. According to polish lawregulations employer has to give consideration to manual handling in professional risk assessment and introduce actions for manualhandling reduction. In Foundry Elblag case there is found that in many processes manual handling are made by ...

Kowal, G.

2010-01-01

289

Oil sands development update  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A detailed review and update of oil sands development in Alberta are provided covering every aspect of the production and economic aspects of the industry. It is pointed out that at present oil sands account for 28 per cent of Canadian crude oil production, expected to reach 50 per cent by 2005. Based on recent announcements, a total of 26 billion dollars worth of projects are in progress or planned; 20 billion dollars worth of this development is in the Athabasca area, the remainder in Cold Lake and other areas. The current update envisages up to 1,800,000 barrels per day by 2008, creating 47,000 new jobs and total government revenues through direct and indirect taxes of 118 billion dollars. Provinces other than Alberta also benefit from these development, since 60 per cent of all employment and income created by oil sands production is in other parts of Canada. Up to 60 per cent of the expansion is for goods and services and of this, 50 to 55 per cent will be purchased from Canadian sources. The remaining 40 per cent of the new investment is for engineering and construction of which 95 per cent is Canadian content. Aboriginal workforce by common consent of existing operators matches regional representation (about 13 per cent), and new developers are expected to match these standards. Planned or ongoing development in environmental protection through improved technologies and optimization, energy efficiency and improved tailings management, and active support of flexngs management, and active support of flexibility mechanisms such as emission credits trading, joint implementation and carbon sinks are very high on the industry's agenda. The importance of offsets are discussed extensively along with key considerations for international negotiations, as well as further research of other options such as sequestration, environmentally benign disposal of waste, and enhanced voluntary action

290

AN ANALYSIS OF THE DIFFERENTIATION STRATEGIES OF RURAL FOUNDRIES IN THE BEGINNING OF THE 20TH CENTURY IN THE PROVINCE OF QUEBEC  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The business model and strategic position of Quebec's rural foundries at the beginning of the 20th century is virtually unknown. Inferences have been made based on pictorial and oral data sources. This data reveals that successful rural foundries were, in essence, confined to producing and selling agricultural tools to local farmers on an as-needed basis, because large urban foundries were already mass-producing domestic and industrial objects. In contrast, use of detailed accounting records and advertising publications of three rural foundries over the 1900 to 1914 period provides a clearer picture of the production and of the clientele of those rural foundries. Analysis of these sources suggests that the strategic business model of rural foundries was much more elaborate than the existing literature posits. Rural owner-managers of the early 20th century were sophisticated strategists, marketers, and operators.

Lisa Baillargeon

2009-01-01

291

Magnetic and GPR surveys of a former munitions foundry site at the Denver Federal Center  

Science.gov (United States)

We made magnetometer and ground penetrating radar (GPR) surveys over part of the foundation of a World War II-era foundry located on the Denver Federal Center. The site contains a number of highly magnetic source bodies, concrete foundation walls, and underground openings, buried under a clay cap. The cap is several feet thick and has a conductivity of about 35 mS/m, making the features underneath it a poor target for conventional GPR. Indeed, the raw data look unlike typical GPR data, but rather show reverberation (?) bands under sidewalks and other shallow buried sources. Using a newly-written computer package, we made plan maps of the GPR response at different time slices. The sliced GPR data did not outline buried foundry foundations, as we had hoped it might. The resulting plan maps of the sliced data show sidewalks and other blobby features, some of which correspond to magnetometer highs.

Campbell, David L.; Beanland, Shay; Lucius, Jeffrey E.; Powers, Michael H.

2000-01-01

292

DESIGN NOTE: Ultrasonic recognition technique for quality control in foundry pieces  

Science.gov (United States)

In the manufacture of foundry pieces, small defects can sometimes be found after casting. Although not critical for the final use of the piece, such defects affect the manufacturing processes detrimentally, especially in machining tasks. This work describes a defect recognition system based on ultrasonic sensing. The equipment is for application to foundry pieces that will later be machined in the automobile industry. An ultrasonic sensor array model that inspects the pieces and selects the good ones is described. The ultrasonic signal reflected by a piece is mathematically treated and neural network technology is used to perform the discrimination between machinable and non-machinable pieces. This is an automated solution for an industrial application in which ultrasonic tools are shown to provide a powerful technique for process quality control.

Lázaro, A.; Serrano, I.

1999-09-01

293

Determination of application possibilities of microwave heating in the curing process of water glass molding sands with fluid esters. Part 1  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article presents results of the experimental trial of combination of the chemical method of water glass molding sands’ curing, used in foundry industry, with an innovative microwave heating. The research objective was to indicate at new areas of microwave energy application. The sands prepared, according to recommendations for curing technology, with the use of ethylene glycol diacetate, have been subject to microwave influence. The attempt at determination of microwave influence on qualitative changes of the binding bridges created during the curing process concerned such parameters as: bending and tensile strength, permeability as well as wear resistance. Moreover,we also determined the influence of microwave curing on the phenomena accompanying the process as well as bond stability (storage time of the prepared molding and core sands. It has been found, basing on the result analysis, that the innovative microwave heating might constitute a very good supplementation of the ester curing method. The advantages of the combined chemical and microwave gelation process include, among others, improvement of the described resistance and technological parameters as well as significant decrease of preparation time of foundry moulds and cores. The subject discussed in this article will be continued in its second part.

K. Granat

2009-01-01

294

The analysis of the wax foundry models fabrication process for the CPX3000 device  

OpenAIRE

The paper presents possibilities of creating wax founding models by means of CPX3000 device. The device is used for Rapid Prototypingof models made of foundry wax in an incremental process. The paper also presents problems connected with choosing technologicalparameters for incremental shaping which influence the accuracy of created models. Issues connected with post-processing are alsodescribed. This process is of great importance for obtaining geometrically correct models. The analysis of p...

Budzik, G.; Kozik, B.; Bernaczek, J.; Wieczorowski, M.; Tutak, M.

2011-01-01

295

Monitoring of power demand of foundry machinery, using the example of paddle mixers  

OpenAIRE

The study outlines the basic features of a newly-designed computer-supported system for monitoring and recording the instantaneous power consumption, used to control the operating parameters of foundry machinery. Explored are potential applications of the module for fast recording of instantaneous currents and voltages in a triple phase power supply system in a paddle mixer. Further research areas are indicated, to extend the system and the range of its potential applications.

Wrona, R.; Zio??kowski, E.; Smyksy, K.

2008-01-01

296

Uniaxial and triaxial compression test series on two types of foundry stone  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Uniaxial and triaxial compression experiments were performed on ten cylindrical samples of foundry stone. All of the test samples were nominally 50.8 mm in diameter, with a 2:1 length to diameter ratio. The experiments were run on room dry samples in compression, at room temperature, four confining pressures, and a nominal axial displacement rate of 10-4 mm/s. 3 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs

297

In-depth Evaluation of Energy Management Practices in a Swedish Iron Foundry  

OpenAIRE

Energy efficiency in industry is became important issue in this century considering cost of energy, energy crisis in the world and environmental issue of using energy sources. To solve this problem energy management can be successful tools due to it positive impact on reduction of energy use and also reduction of energy use environmental impacts. The aim of this thesis is to present results of a successful energy managing practices in a Swedish iron foundry and explain the possibilities to im...

Rahimi Ardkapan, Siamak; Rahimi, Maral

2010-01-01

298

Electromagnet Gripping in Iron Foundry Automation Part I: Principles and Framework  

OpenAIRE

Robot grippers are employed to position and retain parts in automated assembly operations. This paper presents an overview of electromagnet part handling framework in an iron foundry and an equivalent electromagnet circuit model. The manner in which this whole concept of automated gripping system operates will be discussed in this paper. The material handling system uses machine vision system coupled with conveyor motion and Ethernet communication strategy to assist the material handling syst...

Rhythm Suren Wadhwa; Terje-Lien

2011-01-01

299

Virtual Factory as a Method of Foundry Design and Production Management  

OpenAIRE

The paper outlines the methodology of virtual design of a foundry plant as a system. The most important stage in the procedure involvesthe development of a model defined as a set of data about the system. Model development involves two stages: defining the model’sarchitecture and specifying the model data in the form of parameters and input-output relationships. The structure is understood asconfiguration of machines and transport units, representing the sub-systems and system components. A...

Stawowy, A.; Wrona, R.; Brzezin?ski, M.; Zio??kowski, E.

2013-01-01

300

Survey-based naming conventions for use in OBO Foundry ontology development  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background A wide variety of ontologies relevant to the biological and medical domains are available through the OBO Foundry portal, and their number is growing rapidly. Integration of these ontologies, while requiring considerable effort, is extremely desirable. However, heterogeneities in format and style pose serious obstacles to such integration. In particular, inconsistencies in naming conventions can impair the readability and navigability of ontology class hie...

Mungall Chris; Lomax Jane; Kusnierczyk Waclaw; Lewis Suzanna E; Smith Barry; Schober Daniel; Taylor Chris F; Rocca-Serra Philippe; Sansone Susanna-Assunta

2009-01-01

301

Properties of made by different methods of RP impeller foundry patterns  

OpenAIRE

This article presents the tests of properties of foundry patterns of turbocharger turbine impeller. Impellers prototypes were predestinated for casting by method losing patterns. There were carried out tests of these prototypes made by different methods of Rapid Prototyping (RP). Two impeller were made by growth methods: stereolitography (SLA) and three dimensional printing (3DP). One prototype was made by the method of Vacuum Casting as a wax casting. Tests were executed in the Department of...

Budzik, G.

2007-01-01

302

Monitoring of power demand of foundry machinery, using the example of paddle mixers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study outlines the basic features of a newly-designed computer-supported system for monitoring and recording the instantaneous power consumption, used to control the operating parameters of foundry machinery. Explored are potential applications of the module for fast recording of instantaneous currents and voltages in a triple phase power supply system in a paddle mixer. Further research areas are indicated, to extend the system and the range of its potential applications.

R. Wrona

2008-04-01

303

Integration of “QES” systems on the small and medium size foundry companies in Portugal  

OpenAIRE

This paper presents the present situation concerning the integration of the quality, environment and safety systems on industrial companies. A case study performed by the authors on the Portuguese foundry is presented. The present situation of this activity sector, on what concerns the application of the quality, environment and safety (QES) systems, is characterized, and the short time needs, procedures and initiatives that are being taken, or will be taken in a near future, to accomplish...

Santos, Gilberto; Barbosa, J.; Pedro, Claudia

2004-01-01

304

Occupational eosinophilic bronchitis in a foundry worker exposed to isocyanate and a baker exposed to flour  

OpenAIRE

Eosinophilic bronchitis without asthma may occur as a consequence of occupational exposure. The cases of a foundry worker and a baker who developed symptoms, respectively, due to exposure to isocyanate and flour, are reported. Cough was not associated with variable airflow obstruction or with airway hyper?responsiveness and was responsive to inhaled corticosteroids. The eosinophilia detectable in their sputum was causally related to the occupational exposure in the workplace. The examinatio...

Stefano, Fabio Di; Giampaolo, Luca Di; Verna, Nicola; Gioacchino, Mario Di

2007-01-01

305

Increased cytogenetic abnormalities in exfoliated oral mucosal cells of South Indian foundry workers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Biomonitoring offers a valuable tool to estimate the genetic risk as of exposure to genotoxic agents. Here, we intend to assess the potential cytogenetic damage related with occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by evaluating the genetic damages in exfoliated buccal epithelial cells of foundry workers via counting micronucleus (MNs) and other nuclear abnormalities (NAs). This was a cross-sectional study and all study subjects were male . Exfoliated buccal mucosal cells were obtained from 100 subjects involved in either foundry molding or melting processes, and 100 controls matched for sex, age, and smoking from the area of Coimbatore city, Southern India. For each individual, 2000 exfoliated buccal cells were analyzed. Significantly, there was a higher frequency of MN in the exposed workers than in the controls (P?foundry workers display increased levels of genotoxicity and these biomarker responses may be related to the increased cancer risk. These results conclude that the studied individuals are at a risk group and they require periodical biological monitoring and proper care which is essential for them. PMID:25205155

Singaravelu, Saranya Ramalingam; Sellappa, Sudha

2014-09-11

306

Survey-based naming conventions for use in OBO Foundry ontology development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background A wide variety of ontologies relevant to the biological and medical domains are available through the OBO Foundry portal, and their number is growing rapidly. Integration of these ontologies, while requiring considerable effort, is extremely desirable. However, heterogeneities in format and style pose serious obstacles to such integration. In particular, inconsistencies in naming conventions can impair the readability and navigability of ontology class hierarchies, and hinder their alignment and integration. While other sources of diversity are tremendously complex and challenging, agreeing a set of common naming conventions is an achievable goal, particularly if those conventions are based on lessons drawn from pooled practical experience and surveys of community opinion. Results We summarize a review of existing naming conventions and highlight certain disadvantages with respect to general applicability in the biological domain. We also present the results of a survey carried out to establish which naming conventions are currently employed by OBO Foundry ontologies and to determine what their special requirements regarding the naming of entities might be. Lastly, we propose an initial set of typographic, syntactic and semantic conventions for labelling classes in OBO Foundry ontologies. Conclusion Adherence to common naming conventions is more than just a matter of aesthetics. Such conventions provide guidance to ontology creators, help developers avoid flaws and inaccuracies when editing, and especially when interlinking, ontologies. Common naming conventions will also assist consumers of ontologies to more readily understand what meanings were intended by the authors of ontologies used in annotating bodies of data.

Mungall Chris

2009-04-01

307

Evaluation and Verification of Time and Costs of Production Activities in Foundry Industry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This work presents the possibility of using technology of modelling and simulation of productive systems in the management of cast iron production by means of automated foundry lines to maximize assembly line structure. The computer model of foundry has been planed and conducted in order to compile the schedule of cast production. The variants of solution have been estimated talking into account time limitations imposed by clients and the criterion for prime costs appointed on the basis of the ZAR by means of aided detailed calculation according to planes of their formation. In the research, problem connected with exploitation of automatic foundry lines have been taken into consideration. Moreover, the analysis of line work stoppage has been conducted and construction of schedule of the planned service of line device has been undertaken on the basis of the knowledge of timetables of correct work of these devices. Furthermore, the operational database has been prepared so as to assemble and process data about the damaged and other line work stoppage. It should be noted that the database will give the possibility of working out the schedule of planned service. The problems has been presented by using the pocket for modelling and the simulation of productive systems – ARENA

S. Kukla

2007-07-01

308

Basic properties for sand automata  

CERN Document Server

We prove several results about the relations between injectivity and surjectivity for sand automata. Moreover, we begin the exploration of the dynamical behavior of sand automata proving that the property of nilpotency is undecidable. We believe that the proof technique used for this last result might reveal useful for many other results in this context.

Cervelle, J; Masson, B; Cervelle, Julien; Formenti, Enrico; Masson, Benoit

2004-01-01

309

2010 oil sands performance report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

With the depletion of traditional energy resources and the rising demand for energy, oil sands have become an important energy resource for meeting energy needs. Oil sands are a mixture of water, sand, clay and bitumen which is recovered either through open pit mining or in situ drilling techniques. The bitumen is then converted into syncrude or sold to refineries for the production of gasoline, diesel or other products. Shell has oil sands operations in Alberta and the aim of this report is to present its 2010 performance in terms of CO2, water, tailings, land, and reclamation and engagement. This document covers several of Shell's operations in the Muskeg River and Jackpine mines, Scotford upgrader, Peace River, Orion, Seal, Cliffdale and Chipmunk. It provides useful information on Shell's oil sands performance to governments, environmental groups, First Nations, local communities and the public.

NONE

2011-07-01

310

Sand swimming lizard: sandfish  

CERN Document Server

We use high-speed x-ray imaging to reveal how a small (~10cm) desert dwelling lizard, the sandfish (Scincus scincus), swims within a granular medium [1]. On the surface, the lizard uses a standard diagonal gait, but once below the surface, the organism no longer uses limbs for propulsion. Instead it propagates a large amplitude single period sinusoidal traveling wave down its body and tail to propel itself at speeds up to ~1.5 body-length/sec. Motivated by these experiments we study a numerical model of the sandfish as it swims within a validated soft sphere Molecular Dynamics granular media simulation. We use this model as a tool to understand dynamics like flow fields and forces generated as the animal swims within the granular media. [1] Maladen, R.D. and Ding, Y. and Li, C. and Goldman, D.I., Undulatory Swimming in Sand: Subsurface Locomotion of the Sandfish Lizard, Science, 325, 314, 2009

Maladen, Ryan D; Kamor, Adam; Goldman, Daniel I

2009-01-01

311

Alberta oil sands royalty regime  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The long term objective of the Oil Sands Business Unit of Alberta Energy is to pave the way for Alberta's bitumen production to reach 3 million barrels per day by 2020. This presentation described the national government's role in resource development. It was emphasized that since the Crown is the owner of the oil sands resource, it would benefit by providing strategic leadership and by generating a larger royalty base. The oil sands fiscal regime was described with reference to generic royalty, risk sharing, investment, and project economics. Business rule principles were also outlined along with criteria for project expansions. Both upstream and downstream challenges and opportunities were listed. 4 figs

312

Reclaimability of the spent sand mixture – sand with bentonite – sand with furfuryl resin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction of new binding materials and new technologies of their hardening in casting moulds and cores production requires theapplication of reclamation methods adequate to their properties as well as special devices realizing tasks. The spent sands circulationsystem containing the same kind of moulding and core sands is optimal from the point of view of the expected reclamation results.However, in the face of a significant variability of applied technologies and related to them various reclamation methods, the need - of theobtained reclamation products assessment on the grounds of systematic criteria and uniform bases – arises, with a tendency of indicatingwhich criteria are the most important for the given sand system. The reclaimability results of the mixture of the spent moulding sand withGeko S bentonite and the spent core sand with the Kaltharz 404U resin hardened by acidic hardener 100 T3, are presented in the paper.Investigations were performed with regard to the estimation of an influence of core sands additions (10 –25% on the reclaimed materialquality. Dusts and clay content in the reclaim, its chemical reaction (pH and ignition loss were estimated. The verification of the reclaiminstrumental assessment was performed on the basis of the technological properties estimation of moulding sand with bentonite, where the reclaimed material was used as a matrix.

J. Da?ko

2011-04-01

313

Qualidade Superficial de Peças de Alumínio Fundidas em Molde de Areia / Surface Quality of Sand Aluminum Pieces Cost  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O presente trabalho consiste basicamente na análise das características físico-químicas de areia-base para fundição e sua influência na qualidade das peças fundidas. Foram coletados cinco diferentes tipos de areia-base, ambas com o mesmo tratamento mineral. A caracterização das areias-base foi reali [...] zada através dos seguintes ensaios de laboratório: distribuição granulométrica, argila AFS, umidade, permeabilidade base, expansão ao choque térmico, perda ao fogo, temperatura de sinterização, teor de finos, caracterização visual e análise química. Foram confeccionados dois modelos diferentes. O primeiro com o formato em espiral, com o objetivo de investigar a fluidez do metal em função das características das diferentes areias-base. O segundo, uma placa escalonada, que permite identificar a qualidade do acabamento superficial da peça fundida para diferentes espessuras. O metal utilizado no processo de fundição foi o alumínio. A partir dos resultados encontrados no ensaio tecnológico, observou-se uma correlação com os resultados de laboratório, verificando que uma correta análise das características identificadas no laboratório permite prever o comportamento da areia-base e seu resultado final observado na peça fundida. Abstract in english The present work consists to analyze the physical and chemical characteristics of sands used to foundry and its influence in the quality of the melted pieces. Five different types of sand were collected, both with the same mineral treatment. The characterization of the sand was carried out through t [...] he following laboratory tests: grain size distribution (sieving), AFS clay content, water content, permeability, thermal expansion, loss on ignition, sinter point, fine contents meshes and chemical composition. The optical microscope was used in order to identify the geometry of the grains of sand. Two different models were made. The first one with a spiral shape was made to investigate the flow’s capacity of the metal with respect the different characteristics of the sands. The second model which is a plate with different thickness was made to investigate the quality of the surface finishing of the melted pieces. The metal used in the foundry process was the aluminum. It was observed a significant correlation between the laboratory and technological results, which means that it is possible to preview the quality of melted pieces from the characteristics of the sand grains.

Juan C. Campos, Rubio; Túlio Hallak, Panzera; Wagner Alves, Nogueira.

314

Foundry industries: environmental aspects and environmental condition indicators; Industrias de fundicion: aspectos ambientales e indicadores de condicion ambiental  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Nowadays, environmental indicators are widely used as effective tools to assist decision-making in both public and private sectors. The lack of literature and research about local and regional Environmental Condition Indicators (ECI), the poor knowledge regarding solid waste generation, effluents and gas emissions from foundry industries, and their particular location in the urban area of Tandil, Argentina are the main reasons for this investigation, aiming to develop a set a of ECI to provide information about the environment in relation to the foundry industry. The study involves all the foundries located in the city between March and April 2010. The set of ECI developed includes 9 indicators for air, 5 for soil and 1 for water. Specific methodology was used for each indicator. (Author) 31 refs.

Sosa, B. s.; Banda-Noriega, R. B.; Guerrero, E. M.

2013-03-01

315

STUDY OF CREEP OF SAND  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Statement of the problem. Subgrade has perceived rheological properties, most importantly, creep. As a result, the number subbase displacements and their irregularities grow constantly in re-cent years. But this fact is not taken into account in calculations, this is why additional studies of structural strength and creep of sand are essential.Results. Empirical relationships between displacements of models of sand subbase and loading conditions are obtained. It is shown that creep in sand subbase develops within a few months and years even. A degree of an increase in strength of sand with low moisture content with time result-ing from structural strength formation is examined. It is found that a deformation rate depends largely on a loading level.Conclusions. The data obtained allow us to develop more reliable methods to predict a defor-mation change with time.

K. D. Chyong

2012-07-01

316

Estimation and characterization of PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like PCBs from Chinese iron foundries.  

Science.gov (United States)

The iron foundry industry is considered to be a potential source of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). This study investigated the emission factors and total emission amounts of PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) from iron foundries in China. The concentrations and the World Health Organization toxicity equivalents (WHO-TEQs) are presented and the congener profiles are discussed in this paper. In the present work, 26 fly ash samples were collected and tested to quantify the PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs generated by 14 plants of different scales, and five stack gas samples were collected from two (named as EFG and LFG) of those plants. The emission levels of PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs indicated that hot-air cupolas had lower emissions than cold-air cupolas. When iron ore lump and sinter were used as raw material, the emission factors were about 250ng TEQt(-1) of product. However, if the raw material was scrap, the emission factors varied owing to the different contents of organic materials in the raw materials. It was found that the mean WHO-TEQ values of PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs were 144 and 34.2pgNm(-3) in stack gas and 20.0 and 1.58pgg(-1) in fly ash. In multiple tests, it was estimated that the mean emission factors of PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs were 365 and 10.9ng WHO-TEQt(-1) released to residue and 2719 and 555ng TEQt(-1) released to air. The total emission amounts of PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs from Chinese iron foundries with cupola furnaces released to residue and air were 16.8 and 146g WHO-TEQ in 2008, respectively. PMID:21075413

Lv, Pu; Zheng, Minghui; Liu, Guorui; Liu, Wenbin; Xiao, Ke

2011-01-01

317

Sand Erosion in Hydraulic Machinery  

OpenAIRE

The topic of this thesis is damage of hydraulic machinery due to sand erosion. This is a very broad topic in which all the aspects of design of hydraulic machinery namely material selection; mechanics of material and hydraulics are involved. The issue of sand erosion is equally important for operation and maintenance of hydropower plants. The erosion damage of turbines of hydropower plants in Himalayan Rivers, in particular in Nepal, due to high sediment contents in river is a motivating fact...

Thapa, Bhola

2004-01-01

318

Gas flow through a multilayer ceramic mould in lost wax foundry process  

OpenAIRE

The paper deals with the issues of permeability testing of ceramic moulds used in lost wax foundry process. The main issue in thetesting is to provide proper specimens of ceramic moulds (CM). The moulds have to be repeatable and must be free of internal defects ofmicrocrack type that are formed mainly during the removal of patterns from CM in the course of heat treatment.Moreover, the process of forming ceramic moulds must be similar to the general industrial process of CM moulds making regar...

Matysiak, H.; Haratym, R.; Klabczyk, M.

2009-01-01

319

Mechanical engineering note - safety analysis of molten uranium/water interaction in the uranium foundry furnace  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This Engineering Note describes the development of the accident criteria used the basis for the design of the uranium foundry vacuum vessel. The results of this analysis provide input into other safety notes that investigate how well the uranium containment boundary will maintain its integrity during the design basis accident. The preventative measures that have been designed into the system to minimize the potential to produce a flammable gas mixture are described. The system response is designed for consistency with applicable sections of the LLNL Health and Safety Manual, as well as the Mechanical engineering Safety Design Standards.

Gourdin, W H; Sze, J

1999-08-19

320

Occupational eosinophilic bronchitis in a foundry worker exposed to isocyanate and a baker exposed to flour.  

Science.gov (United States)

Eosinophilic bronchitis without asthma may occur as a consequence of occupational exposure. The cases of a foundry worker and a baker who developed symptoms, respectively, due to exposure to isocyanate and flour, are reported. Cough was not associated with variable airflow obstruction or with airway hyper-responsiveness and was responsive to inhaled corticosteroids. The eosinophilia detectable in their sputum was causally related to the occupational exposure in the workplace. The examination of induced sputum should be used in addition to the objective monitoring of lung function for workers who have asthma-like symptoms in an occupational setting. PMID:16055615

Di Stefano, Fabio; Di Giampaolo, Luca; Verna, Nicola; Di Gioacchino, Mario

2007-04-01

321

Photodegradation of chlorinated pesticides dispersed on sand.  

Science.gov (United States)

The photochemical behaviour of several chlorinated pesticides, namely 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid (MCPA), dichlorophen (DCPH), flamprop-methyl (FPM) and vinclozolin (VCZ) is studied on various kinds of sand: Fontainebleau sand (almost pure silica), Touggourt sand (coloured sand from Sahara) and Jijel sand (dark marine sand). The photodegradation of MCPA is more rapid on Fontainebleau sand than on the two others, because the former is almost colourless pure silica and the others adsorb on the internal surface of the reactor. The degradation rate decreases in the order MCPA, DCPH, FPM, VCZ. The main products identified are 4-chloro-2-methylphenol with MCPA and reduction product with DCPH. PMID:15686762

Zertal, Abdennour; Jacquet, Michel; Lavédrine, Bernadette; Sehili, Tahar

2005-03-01

322

Proposal for the award of a blanket purchase contract for the supply of foundry services for semiconductor technologies  

CERN Document Server

This document concerns the award of a blanket purchase contract for the supply of foundry services for semiconductor technologies. The Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of a blanket purchase contract with IBM SWITZERLAND (CH), the lowest bidder complying with the specification, for the supply of foundry services for semiconductor technologies for a period of four years, for a total amount not exceeding 4 000 000 US dollars, not subject to revision. At the present rate of exchange, the total amount of the blanket purchase contract is equivalent to approximately 5 000 000 Swiss francs. CERN's financial contribution will not exceed 1 000 000 Swiss francs.

2006-01-01

323

Interaction of smoking, uptake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and cytochrome P450IA2 activity among foundry workers.  

OpenAIRE

An increased lung cancer risk has been described among foundry workers. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and silica are possible aetiological factors. This study describes a urinary PAH metabolite, 1-hydroxypyrene (hpU), as well as the degree of cytochrome P450IA2 activity/induction as reflected by the urinary caffeine ratio (IA2) in 45 foundry workers and 52 controls; IA2 was defined as the ratio of paraxanthine 7-demethylation products to a paraxanthine 8-hydroxylation product (1,7-d...

Sherson, D.; Sigsgaard, T.; Overgaard, E.; Loft, S.; Poulsen, H. E.; Jongeneelen, F. J.

1992-01-01

324

Identification of interfacial heat transfer between molten metal and green sand by inverse heat conduction method  

Science.gov (United States)

Heat flux and heat transfer coefficients at the interfaces of castings and molds are important parameters in the mold design and computer simulations of the solidification process in foundry operations. A better understanding of the heat flux and heat transfer coefficient between the solidifying casting and its mold can promote model design and improve the accuracy of computer simulation. The main purpose of the present dissertation involves the estimation of the heat flux and heat transfer coefficient at the interface of the molten metal and green sand. Since the inverse heat conduction method requires temperature measurement data to deduce the missing surface information, it is suitable for the present research. However, heat transfer inside green sand is complicated by the migration of water vapor and zonal temperature distribution results. This makes the solution of the inverse heat conduction problem more challenging. In this dissertation, Galerkin's method of Weighted Residual together with the front tracking technique is used in the development of a forward solver. Beck's future time step method incorporated with the Gaussian iterative minimization method is used as the inverse solver. The mathematical descriptions of the sensitivity coefficient for both the direct heat flux and direct heat transfer coefficient estimation are derived. The variations of the sensitivity coefficients with time are revealed. From the analysis of sensitivity coefficients, the concept of blank time period is proposed. This blank time period makes the inverse problem much more difficult. A total energy balance criterion is used to combat this. Numerical experiments confirmed the accuracy and robustness of both the direct heat flux estimation algorithm and the direct heat transfer coefficient estimation algorithm. Finally, some pouring experiments are carried out. The inverse algorithms are applied to the estimation of the heat flux and heat transfer coefficient at the interface of the molten metal and green sand with the input of measured temperature data from field experiments. The heat flux and heat transfer coefficient history at the interface of molten metal and green sand are obtained.

Ke, Quanpeng

325

Optical coordinate scanners applied for the inspection of large scale housings produced in foundry technology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper presents possibilities of the dimensional and geometry measurement of the large scale casting details with a coordinate measuring technique. In particular, the analysis has been devoted to the measurement strategy in case of the measurement of large scale detail (larger than 1000 mm made in foundry technology, with the 3D optical scanner. The attention was paid on the possibility created by the advanced software attached to the scanner for measurement data processing. Preparation to the geometrical accuracy analysis of the measured objects consisted of the identification of particular geometrical features based on the large number of probing points, as well as the creation of the coordinate systems derived from the best-fitting algorithms which calculate the inscribed or circumscribed geometrical elements. Analysis of accuracy in every probing point has been performed through the comparison of their coordinates with nominal values set by 3D model. Application of the 3D optical coordinate scanner with advanced measurement software for the manufacturing accuracy inspection is very useful in case of large scale details produced with foundry technologies and allows to carry out full accuracy analysis of the examined detail.

M. Grzelka

2010-01-01

326

Replies to Challenges in the Field of Air Pollution Control in Foundry Plants  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The solution of applications for air pollution control in foundries for iron and non-ferrous metals may not only be understood as theobservance of requested emission limit values at the stack outlet. An effective environmental protection already starts with the greatest possible capture of pollutants at the source with at the same time minimisation of the volume flow necessary for this. Independent of this, the downstream installed filtration system has to realise a degree of separation of definitely above 99%.Furthermore, when selecting the filter construction, attention has to be paid to a high availability. An even temporarily productionwithout filter will more and more no longer be accepted by residents and authorities. Incidents at the filter lead to a shutdown of the whole production.Additional measures for heat recovery while preparing concepts for filtration plants help to reduce the energy consumption and servefor a sustained conservation of environment.A consequent consideration of the items above is also condition for the fact that environmental protection in foundries remainsaffordable. The lecture deals with the subjects above from the point of view of a plant constructor.

R. Margraf

2012-09-01

327

Pore structure development of in-situ pyrolyzed coals for pollution prevention in iron foundries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A protocol was devised for preparing pyrolyzed coals that could be made in-situ at foundries to capture volatile organic compound (VOC) emission. This pyrolysis created extensive micropore volume in lignite over a broad range of temperature and time; and could use waste heat from cupola exhaust gases by a heat-exchange tube. For foundry application, moderate porous carbon with relatively uniform pores over wide ranges of temperature and time would be more practical than highly porous activated carbon (AC) that requires narrowly-controlled operations. This pyrolysis protocol was developed in a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) and in a small tube furnace, while using lignite, bituminous coal, and anthracite. The lignite yielded the most pore volume; and this was relatively uniform (0.1-0.13 mL/g of pores) while temperatures were 600-900 C, and times were 0-60 min. Smaller grain sizes yielded improved porosity; and this corresponded to more release of phenols and naphthalenes from smaller grains, as discerned by TGA-mass spectroscopy (MS). TGA-MS also revealed that improved pore development between 600-800 C corresponded to the release of CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O; and concurrently higher slurry pH linked to less oxygenated functionality. Adsorption of benzene was compared between the in-situ porous carbon and a commercial AC. (author)

Huang, He; Cannon, Fred S. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, 212 Sackett Building, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Wang, Yujue [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Bejing, 100084 (China)

2009-09-15

328

Oil sands tailings management project  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Oil sands leadership initiative (OSLI) works with the Government of Alberta on the development of the oil sands industry, considering environmental, economical and social aspects. Water management was identified as one of most important areas to focus on. Alberta WaterSMART was requested to support the development and the management of projects resulting from the work done or underway in this field. The development of a regional water management solution stood out as the most interesting solution to obtain significant results. In the Athabasca Region, oil sands producers work independently on their water sourcing and disposal with particular attention to fresh water conservation and economics. The Athabasca River represents a source for mines and distant saline aquifers are the target of steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) operators. As part of a four-phase project aiming to study the environmental and economic footprint (EEF) benefit of alternatives for Athabasca oil sands production water supply and disposal, the purpose of the tailings water management project was to identify tailings treatment technologies that are ready to be implemented, and to design and evaluate solutions in order to improve regional oil sands production water sourcing and disposal. Alternatives were evaluated based on their total EEF, applying a lifecycle assessment methodology with a particular attention on the quantification of important performance indicators. 25 refs., 8 tabs., 40 ormance indicators. 25 refs., 8 tabs., 40 figs.

329

Oil sands tailings management project  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Oil sands leadership initiative (OSLI) works with the Government of Alberta on the development of the oil sands industry, considering environmental, economical and social aspects. Water management was identified as one of most important areas to focus on. Alberta WaterSMART was requested to support the development and the management of projects resulting from the work done or underway in this field. The development of a regional water management solution stood out as the most interesting solution to obtain significant results. In the Athabasca Region, oil sands producers work independently on their water sourcing and disposal with particular attention to fresh water conservation and economics. The Athabasca River represents a source for mines and distant saline aquifers are the target of steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) operators. As part of a four-phase project aiming to study the environmental and economic footprint (EEF) benefit of alternatives for Athabasca oil sands production water supply and disposal, the purpose of the tailings water management project was to identify tailings treatment technologies that are ready to be implemented, and to design and evaluate solutions in order to improve regional oil sands production water sourcing and disposal. Alternatives were evaluated based on their total EEF, applying a lifecycle assessment methodology with a particular attention on the quantification of important performance indicators. 25 refs., 8 tabs., 40 figs.

Godwalt, C. [Alberta WaterSMART, Calgary, AB (Canada); Kotecha, P. [Suncor Energy Inc, Calgary, AB (Canada); Aumann, C. [Alberta Innovates - Technology Futures, Alberta Governement, AB (Canada)

2010-11-15

330

2003/2004 STATISTICALLY VALID NONCOMPLIANCE RATE (SVNR) INSPECTIONS FOR THE FOUNDRY SECTOR IN EPA REGION 4  

Science.gov (United States)

The SVNR initiative involves the determination of a compliance rate for the foundry sector in EPA Region 4. A compliance rate is an estimate of the percentage of all the facilities in a population in compliance. The actual rate could be determined if all facilities were inspect...

331

Alberta oil sands royalty regime  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The long term objective of the Oil Sands Business Unit of Alberta Energy is to pave the way for Alberta's bitumen production to reach 3 million barrels per day by 2020. This presentation described the national government's role in resource development. It was emphasized that since the Crown is the owner of the oil sands resource, it would benefit by providing strategic leadership and by generating a larger royalty base. The oil sands fiscal regime was described with reference to generic royalty, risk sharing, investment, and project economics. Business rule principles were also outlined along with criteria for project expansions. Both upstream and downstream challenges and opportunities were listed. 4 figs.

Asgarpour, S. [Alberta Energy, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

2004-07-01

332

Steamflooding of preheated tar sand  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Steamflooding was evaluated as a thermal oil recovery process for a Utah tar sand. A series of one-dimensional steamflood experiments were conducted to study the effects of the processing conditions on oil recovery efficiency and product oil quality. Processing variables included (1) injected steam fluxes ranging from 200 to 670 scfh/ft/sup 2/, (2) tar sand preheat temperatures ranging from 215/sup 0/ to 500/sup 0/F (102 to 260/sup 0/C), and (3) initial bitumen saturations of 47% and 62% of pore volume. Oil recoveries ranged from 50% original oil in place (OOIP) for the highly saturated tar sand to 35% OOIP for the leaner tar sand. The oil yields improved with increasing initial oil saturations mainly because the steamflood residual oil saturation was independent of the initial bitumen saturation. Residual oil saturations, which decreased with increased steam temperature, averaged 30% of the pore volume regardless of the preheat temperature or the steam injection flux. Increased preheat temperatures reduced the bitumen viscosity and increased the steam zone velocity. This resulted in increased oil production rates and improved product oil quality. However, as preheat temperatures increased, improvements in oil quality and production rate became less significant. Based on the conventional measure for steamflood performance (steam-oil ratio), steamflooding Asphalt Ridge tar sand does not appear to have economic potential as an oil recovery process. At least six pore volumes of steam were injected to produce 35% OOIP from the preheated, highly saturated tar sand. This resulted in a steam-oil ratio of 30 while a ratio of 4 to 6 is typical for commercially operated heavy oil steamfloods which recover 30% to 60% OOIP. 13 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs.

Romanowski, L.J. Jr.; Thomas, K.P.

1985-02-01

333

Sands at Gusev Crater, Mars  

Science.gov (United States)

environments, and the energy associated with the transport and deposition of sand at Gusev Crater are characterized at the microscopic scale through the comparison of statistical moments for particle size and shape distributions. Bivariate and factor analyses define distinct textural groups at 51 sites along the traverse completed by the Spirit rover as it crossed the plains and went into the Columbia Hills. Fine-to-medium sand is ubiquitous in ripples and wind drifts. Most distributions show excess fine material, consistent with a predominance of wind erosion over the last 3.8 billion years. Negative skewness at West Valley is explained by the removal of fine sand during active erosion, or alternatively, by excess accumulation of coarse sand from a local source. The coarse to very coarse sand particles of ripple armors in the basaltic plains have a unique combination of size and shape. Their distribution display significant changes in their statistical moments within the ~400 m that separate the Columbia Memorial Station from Bonneville Crater. Results are consistent with aeolian and/or impact deposition, while the elongated and rounded shape of the grains forming the ripples, as well as their direction of origin, could point to Ma'adim Vallis as a possible source. For smaller particles on the traverse, our findings confirm that aeolian processes have dominated over impact and other processes to produce sands with the observed size and shape patterns across a spectrum of geologic (e.g., ripples and plains soils) and aerographic settings (e.g., wind shadows).

Cabrol, Nathalie A.; Herkenhoff, Kenneth; Knoll, Andrew H.; Farmer, Jack; Arvidson, Raymond; Grin, Edmond; Li, Ronxing; Fenton, Lori; Cohen, Barbara; Bell, James F.; Aileen Yingst, R.

2014-05-01

334

Strange phenomena in Cuban sands  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Several unusual phenomena that occur in certain Cuban sands flows (and some other parts of the world) are presented . First, the phenomenon occurs revolving rivers, explained by a phenomenological model. Several open questions were discussed on the 'microscopic' causes of the phenomenon. Uphill lonely waves are shown in second, in streams of the same type of sand that occur in a cell in Hele-Shaw. The 'microscopic' necessary conditions are explored for these waves emerge as solution of Saint-Venant equations modified hydrodynamic type. (author)

335

Chvorinov’s rule and determination of coefficient of heat accumulation of moulds with non-quartz base sands  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Application of the „Chvorinov’s rule“ for calculation of the total time of casting solidification made also possible to determine chilling effect of foundry moulds (coefficient of heat accumulation of the mould, bf with use of mixtures with new kinds of non-quartz base sands (Magnesite, Chromite, Olivine, Dunite, Kerphalit. Processes by several authors (G. Halbart, A. I. Vejnik, G. A. Anisovich were used for mathematical treatment of measurement results and determination of bf. The highest values were achieved for magnesite moulds followed by chromite ones; the lowest values, approximately half-ones, represented the Dunite moulds. At the same time the results made possible to determine „the Chvorinov’s mean solidification constants“ (k that are in direct proportional dependence on bf and indirect proportional to solidification time (?1.

T. Elbel

2010-10-01

336

Dry reusing and wet reclaiming of used sodium silicate sand  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Based on the characteristics of used sodium silicate sand and the different use requirements for recycled sand, "dry reusing and wet reclaiming of used sodium silicate sand" is considered as the most suitable technique for the used sand. When the recycled sand is used as support sand, the used sand is only reused by dry process including breaking, screening, dust-removal, etc., and it is not necessary that the used sand is reclaimed with strongly rubbing and scraping method, but when the recycled sand is used as facing sand (or single sand, the used sand must be reclaimed by wet method for higher removal rate of the residual binders. The characteristics and the properties of the dry reused sand are compared with the wet reclaimed sand after combining the different use requirements of support sand and facing sand (or single sand, and above the most adaptive scheme has also been validated.

Zitian FAN

2005-02-01

337

Characterization of sand lenses embedded in tills  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Tills dominate large parts of the superficial sediments on the Northern hemisphere. These glacial diamictons are extremely heterogeneous and riddled with fractures and lenses of sand or gravel. The frequency and geometry of sand lenses within tills are strongly linked to glaciodynamic processes occurring in various glacial environments. This study specifically focuses on the appearance and spatial distribution of sand lenses in tills. It introduces a methodology on how to measure and characterize sand lenses in the field with regard to size, shape and degree of deformation. A set of geometric parameters is defined to allow characterization of sand lenses. The proposed classification scheme uses a stringent terminology to distinguish several types of sand lenses based on the geometry. It includes sand layers, sand sheets, sand bodies, sand pockets and sand stringers. The methodology has been applied at the Kallerup field site in the Eastern part of Denmark. The site offers exposures in a number of till types that underwent different levels of glaciotectonic deformation. Sand lenses show high spatial variability and only weak uniformity in terms of extent and shape. Secondly, the genesis of the various types of sand lenses is discussed, primarily in relation to the depositional and glaciotectonic processes they underwent. Detailed characterization of sand lenses facilitates such interpretations. Finally, the observations are linked to a more general overview of the distribution of sand lenses in various glacial environments. Due to the complex and mutable appearance of sand lenses, geometric descriptions can reveal the deformation history and even give indications on the palaeo-glaciological conditions during the deposition of the surrounding tills. This information can support the understanding of till genesis and further inform till classifications. In this regard, structural heterogeneity such as sand lenses can supplement traditional directional element analysis to identify till types and may be used as a noveltool in till investigations.

Kessler, Timo Christian; Klint, K.E.S.

2012-01-01

338

Preliminary Research on Granulation Process of Dust Waste from Reclamation Process of Moulding Sands with Furan Resin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The results of investigations of the granulation process of foundry dusts generated in the dry mechanical reclamation process of usedsands, where furan resins were binders are presented in the paper. Investigations concerned producing of granules of the determineddimensions and strength parameters.Granules were formed from the dusts mixture consisting in 50 mass% of dusts obtained after the reclamation of the furane sands and in50 mass % of dusts from sands with bentonite. Dusts from the bentonite sands with water were used as a binder allowing the granulation of after reclamation dusts from the furane sands.The following parameters of the ready final product were determined: moisture content (W, shatter test of granules (Wz performeddirectly after the granulation process and after 1, 3, 5, 10 days and nights of seasoning, water-resistance of granules after 24 hours of being immersed in water, surface porosity ep and volumetric porosity ev. In addition the shatter test and water-resistance of granulate dried at a temperature of 105oC were determined.Investigations were performed at the bowl angle of inclination 45o, for three rotational speeds of the bowl being: 10, 15, 20 rpm.For the speed of 10 rpm the granulation tests of dusts mixture after the preliminary mixing in the roller mixer and with the addition ofwater-glass in the amount of 2% in relation to the amount of dust were carried out.The obtained results indicate that the granulator allows to obtain granules from dusts originated from the reclamations of mouldingsands with the furane resin with an addition of dusts from the bentonite sands processing plants.

J. Kami?ska

2012-09-01

339

Baskarp Sand No. 15 : data report 9401  

OpenAIRE

The Soil Mechanics Laboratory has started performing tests with a new sand, Baskarp No 15. Baskarp No 15 is a graded sand from Sweden. The shapes of the largest grains are round, while the small grains have sharp edges. The main part of of Baskarp No 15 is quarts, but it also contains feldspar and biotit. Mainly the sand will be used for tests concerning the development og the theory of building up pore pressure in sand, L. B. Ibsen 1993.

Ibsen, Lars Bo; Bødker, Lars Bødker

2011-01-01

340

Effects of pipe orientation on sand transportation  

OpenAIRE

Sand transport in hilly terrain geometry is different and complex to understand compared to horizontal pipeline, due to the influence of the geometry that greatly affect multiphase flow and sand behaviour at the dip. The overall aim of this research work is to use experimental method to investigate the effects of multiphase flow behaviour on sand transport in a dip configuration. Experimental work was carried out to understand the complex dynamic mechanisms that exist during sand multipha...

Osho, Adeyemi Joseph

2013-01-01

341

Baskarp Sand No. 15 : data report 9403  

OpenAIRE

The Soil Mechanics Laboratory has started performing tests with a new sand, Baskarp No 15. Baskarp No 15 is a graded sand from Sweden. The shapes of the largest grains are round, while the small grains have sharp edges. The main part of of Baskarp No 15 is quarts, but it also contains feldspar and biotit. Mainly the sand will be used for tests concerning the development og the theory of building up pore pressure in sand, L. B. Ibsen 1993.

Borup, M.; Hedegaard, J.

1995-01-01

342

The analysis of the wax foundry models fabrication process for the CPX3000 device  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper presents possibilities of creating wax founding models by means of CPX3000 device. The device is used for Rapid Prototypingof models made of foundry wax in an incremental process. The paper also presents problems connected with choosing technologicalparameters for incremental shaping which influence the accuracy of created models. Issues connected with post-processing are alsodescribed. This process is of great importance for obtaining geometrically correct models. The analysis of parameters of cleaning models from supporting material is also presented. At present CPX3000 printer is the first used in Poland device by 3D Systems firm for creating wax models. The printer is at The Faculty of Mechanical Engineering at Rzeszów University of Technology.

G. Budzik

2011-04-01

343

The effect of main alloying elements on the physical properties of Al-Si foundry alloys  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this study we describe the effect of the main alloying elements Si, Cu and Ni on the thermal properties of hypoeutectic and near-eutectic Al-Si foundry alloys. By means of systematic variations of the chemical composition, the influence of the amount of 'second phases' on the thermal conductivity, thermal expansion coefficient, and thermal shock resistance is evaluated. Thermodynamic calculations predicting the phase formation in multi-component Al-Si cast alloys were carried out and verified using SEM, EDX and XRD analysis. The experimentally obtained data are discussed on a systematic basis of thermodynamic calculations and compared to theoretical models for the thermal conductivity and thermal expansion of heterogeneous solids.

Stadler, F. [Institute of Nonferrous Metallurgy, Montanuniversitaet Leoben, Franz-Josef-Strasse 18, A-8700 Leoben (Austria); Antrekowitsch, H., E-mail: helmut.antrekowitsch@unileoben.ac.at [Institute of Nonferrous Metallurgy, Montanuniversitaet Leoben, Franz-Josef-Strasse 18, A-8700 Leoben (Austria); Fragner, W. [AMAG Casting GmbH, Postfach 32, A-5282 Ranshofen (Austria); Kaufmann, H. [AMAG Austria Metall AG, Postfach 32, A-5282 Ranshofen (Austria); Pinatel, E.R. [Dipartimento di Chimica and NIS, Universita degli Studi di Torino, via Giuria 7/9, Torino 10125 (Italy); Uggowitzer, P.J. [Laboratory of Metal Physics and Technology, Department of Materials, ETH Zurich, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland)

2013-01-10

344

Elemental composition of dust in an iron foundry as determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the workplace of an iron foundry total and respirable suspended particulate matter was daily collected with a network of stationary filtration systems, with Andersen cascade impactors and with personal samplers. The performances of the different sampling systems are evaluated. All samples were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis. More than 30 elements were determined. The composition of the particulate samples is compared to that of the major emission sources. For visualising and interpretation of the data computer programs for contour plotting, classification and clustering of the elements can be divided in a number of groups, for which easily determined elements are proposed as indicator elements. The results allow an estimate of the impact of the major emission sources on the air quality in the entire workroom. Suggestions for representative sampling techniques and locations are made. (author) 8 refs.; 7 figs

345

The effect of main alloying elements on the physical properties of Al–Si foundry alloys  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this study we describe the effect of the main alloying elements Si, Cu and Ni on the thermal properties of hypoeutectic and near-eutectic Al–Si foundry alloys. By means of systematic variations of the chemical composition, the influence of the amount of ‘second phases’ on the thermal conductivity, thermal expansion coefficient, and thermal shock resistance is evaluated. Thermodynamic calculations predicting the phase formation in multi-component Al–Si cast alloys were carried out and verified using SEM, EDX and XRD analysis. The experimentally obtained data are discussed on a systematic basis of thermodynamic calculations and compared to theoretical models for the thermal conductivity and thermal expansion of heterogeneous solids.

346

Work-related musculoskeletal disorders, job stressors and gender responses in foundry industry.  

Science.gov (United States)

The main aim of this paper was to identify job stressors, gender responses and association of psychosocial work stressors with prevalence of work related musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) among foundry workers. The data were obtained with ergonomics checklist using Likert scale. The results of this study showed a high prevalence of MSDs among workers. The male workers were more prone to pain in neck while the female workers were more prone to MSDs in upper back and shoulders. Correlation analysis showed significant relationship of dimensions of work aspects with pain and discomfort. It proved that the work-related MSDs are the results of interaction of multiple stressors associated with work and work environment, and other personal factors. ANOVA indicated that the perception of work aspects as stressors differed significantly between male and female workers. PMID:24934431

Sharma, Rohit; Singh, Ranjit

2014-01-01

347

Virtual Factory as a Method of Foundry Design and Production Management  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper outlines the methodology of virtual design of a foundry plant as a system. The most important stage in the procedure involvesthe development of a model defined as a set of data about the system. Model development involves two stages: defining the model’sarchitecture and specifying the model data in the form of parameters and input-output relationships. The structure is understood asconfiguration of machines and transport units, representing the sub-systems and system components. As the main purpose of thesimulation procedure is to find the characteristics of the system’s behaviour, the merits of the iterative method involving analysis,synthesis and evaluation of results are fully explored.

A. Stawowy

2013-01-01

348

Elimination of permanent deformation of travelling cranes box girders operating in foundry shops  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The serious problem in travelling cranes maintenance, crane supporting beams and other carrying elements of material handling facilities in foundry shops is phenomenon of permanent deformations. There are known many ways to eliminate these deformations like mechanical compression by tension members however a disadvantage of such methods is work consuming process of railways rectification. One of technological methods relies on application of shrinkage of compression plates welded with box girder. Regeneration with the use of such method can be executed for the travelling cranes box girders but also with travelling crane support beams that have permanent deformations in both vertical or horizontal planes. In this paper different variants of such process execution are presented, depending on the kind and dimension of the permanent deformation.

St. Wolny

2008-07-01

349

Models and Algorithms for Production Planning and Scheduling in Foundries – Current State and Development Perspectives  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mathematical programming, constraint programming and computational intelligence techniques, presented in the literature in the field of operations research and production management, are generally inadequate for planning real-life production process. These methods are in fact dedicated to solving the standard problems such as shop floor scheduling or lot-sizing, or their simple combinations such as scheduling with batching. Whereas many real-world production planning problems require the simultaneous solution of several problems (in addition to task scheduling and lot-sizing, the problems such as cutting, workforce scheduling, packing and transport issues, including the problems that are difficult to structure. The article presents examples and classification of production planning and scheduling systems in the foundry industry described in the literature, and also outlines the possible development directions of models and algorithms used in such systems.

A. Stawowy

2012-04-01

350

Treating tar sands formations with karsted zones  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. The tar sands formation may have one or more karsted zones. Methods may include providing heat from one or more heaters to one or more karsted zones of the tar sands formation to mobilize fluids in the formation. At least some of the mobilized fluids may be produced from the formation.

Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Karanikas, John Michael (Houston, TX)

2010-03-09

351

Effect of water glass modification with nanoparticles of zinc oxide on selected physical and chemical properties of binder and mechanical properties of sand mixture  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper, an attempt was made to use the ZnO nanoparticles as a modifier of foundry binder - water glass. The modifier was a colloidal suspension of the ZnO zinc oxide nanoparticles in propanol. A thermal method to obtain metal oxide nanoparticles was adopted. The modifier was product of the thermal decomposition of the basic zinc carbonate ([ZnCO3]2•[Zn(OH2]3, and was introduced into the water glass in an amount of 1 and 3 wt%. To determine the interfacial reactions taking place in a quartz - modified water glass system, the binder wettability of the quartz grains was measured. The effect of water glass modification on the mechanical properties of moulding sands was verified by testing the tensile strength Rm u of moulding sands with the modified binders. Water glass modification with the colloidal solution of ZnO nanoparticles in propanol confirmed the effect of modifier on the water glass wettability of sand grains and on the mechanical properties of the sand mixtures with this additive.

A. Kmita

2012-12-01

352

Beyond barriers – A case study on driving forces for improved energy efficiency in the foundry industries in Finland, France, Germany, Italy, Poland, Spain, and Sweden  

OpenAIRE

Energy management plays an important role in the transformation of industrial energy systems towards improved energy efficiency and increased sustainability. This paper aims to study driving forces for improved energy efficiency in some European energy-intensive foundry industries. The investigation has been conducted as a multiple case study involving 65 foundries located in Finland, France, Germany, Italy, Poland, Spain, and Sweden. The most relevant perceived driving forces were found to b...

Thollander, Patrik; Backlund, Sandra; Trianni, Andrea; Cagno, Enrico

2013-01-01

353

Study of the air quality and particle deposition in the surroundings of the Van Voorden Gieterij BV foundry in Zaltbommel, The Netherlands  

OpenAIRE

A study commissioned by the Inspectorate of the Netherlands Ministry of Spatial Planning, Housing and the Environment and the municipality of Zaltbommel was conducted by RIVM on the living environment in the surroundings of the Van Voorden Gieterij BV foundry in the city of Zaltbommel in 2003. The measurements collected were used to study both the exposure of residents to compounds emitted from the foundry and the health effects and annoyance experienced by the residen...

Mg, Mennen; Em, Putten; Krystek P

2012-01-01

354

Rancang Dan Buat Dapur Pelebur Crucible Untuk Melebur Aluminium/Paduannya Dan Tembaga/Paduannya Berkapasitas 50 Kg Menggunakan Bahan Bakar Padat Untuk Kebutuhan Laboratorium Foundry  

OpenAIRE

Pengecoran Logam merupakan salah satu ilmu keteknikan yang perkembangannya cukup pesat saat ini. Untuk itu, perlu didukung dengan pengembangan fasilitas Pengecoran Logam di Laboratorium Foundry agar setidaknya menyamai industri-industri di luar Laboratorium Foundry. Oleh sebab itu, semua ahli di bidang Ilmu Pengecoran Logam harus mampu mengembangkan industri pengecoran di Indonesia yang salah satu caranya adalah dengan memberikan dasar-dasar kepada mahasiswa Perguruan Tinggi program studi Tek...

Hutapea, M. Rolan B.

2011-01-01

355

Exposure of iron foundry workers to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: benzo(a)pyrene-albumin adducts and 1-hydroxypyrene as biomarkers for exposure.  

OpenAIRE

Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in foundry workers has been evaluated by determination of benzo(a)pyrene-serum albumin adducts and urinary 1-hydroxypyrene. Benzo(a)pyrene binding to albumin and 1-hydroxypyrene were quantitatively measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), respectively. 70 male foundry workers and 68 matched controls were investigated. High and low exposure groups were defined from ...

Omland, O.; Sherson, D.; Hansen, A. M.; Sigsgaard, T.; Autrup, H.; Overgaard, E.

1994-01-01

356

Beyond barriers – A case study on driving forces for improved energy efficiency in the foundry industries in Finland, France, Germany, Italy, Poland, Spain, and Sweden  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: • Results are based on a questionnaire in the European foundry industry. • The energy efficiency potential is assed to be 7.5% of the total energy use. • Most important drivers to and barriers for energy efficiency are financial followed by organizational. • EPC is used among 23% of the foundries, third party financing among 12%. • Large energy management improvement potentials are uncovered. - Abstract: Energy management plays an important role in the transformation of industrial energy systems towards improved energy efficiency and increased sustainability. This paper aims to study driving forces for improved energy efficiency in some European energy-intensive foundry industries. The investigation has been conducted as a multiple case study involving 65 foundries located in Finland, France, Germany, Italy, Poland, Spain, and Sweden. The most relevant perceived driving forces were found to be financially related, followed by organizational driving forces. Nevertheless, some differences can be appreciated according to the firm’s size and country. Almost half of the studied foundries lack a long-term energy strategy, about one-fourth stated that they have used Energy Performance Contracting (EPC), and only approximately one in ten foundries have used Third Party Financing (TPF). Among the studied foundries, three out of five have conducted an energy audit. On average, the energy saving potential according to the respondents is stated to be 7.5%. In conclusion, energy management in the European foundry industry, despite increasing energy prices and extensive energy policy actions taken by the EU, still seems to have great improvement potential, calling for future research and policy actions in the field

357

A compact topology for sand automata  

CERN Document Server

In this paper, we exhibit a strong relation between the sand automata configuration space and the cellular automata configuration space. This relation induces a compact topology for sand automata, and a new context in which sand automata are homeomorphic to cellular automata acting on a specific subshift. We show that the existing topological results for sand automata, including the Hedlund-like representation theorem, still hold. In this context, we give a characterization of the cellular automata which are sand automata, and study some dynamical behaviors such as equicontinuity. Furthermore, we deal with the nilpotency. We show that the classical definition is not meaningful for sand automata. Then, we introduce a suitable new notion of nilpotency for sand automata. Finally, we prove that this simple dynamical behavior is undecidable.

Dennunzio, Alberto; Masson, Benoît

2008-01-01

358

Energy for oil sands production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Both integrated mining and thermal in-situ operations consume large quantities of natural gas in their operations. It has been estimated that purchased gas requirements could reach 20% of total Alberta conventional gas production (2.5 trillion cubic feet) by 2020, based on current forecasts for conventional gas supply and efficiency improvements in oil sands production. To reduce the industry's dependence on natural gas, oil sands developers are seeking alternative sources of energy, such as the gasification of coal, coke, and asphaltenes. In addition, Nuclear energy is being explored, as the application of this technology has the potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by as much as ten years worth of Canada's current GHG emissions. (author)

359

Water Film in Saturated Sand  

OpenAIRE

In order to investigate the initiation mechanism of landslide and debris flow occurring on a gentle slope. The formation and evolution of water film (or crack) in saturated sand is analyzed by numerical and theoretical simulations under given conditions. First a psudo-three-phase model is presented considering the movement of skeleton and water and the erosion. Secondly, difference method is used to analyze the formation conditions and the evolution of the velocity of water and pore pressure ...

Peng, C.; Zhang, X. H.; Lu, X. B.

2010-01-01

360

HPHT horizontal sand control completion  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The North Sea, Marnock retrograde gas condensate well completion project was presented with focus on the major changes used to take the completion from a mere concept to an operationally deliverable result. Compared to conventional North Sea reservoirs, the Marnock field is near high pressure-high temperature (HPHT) with a pressure of 9123 psia and a temperature of 310 degrees F. The development plan for the field consisted of six horizontal wells, with average reservoir sections of 750 m in length. Thus far, two phases of drilling have yielded 4 wells which can deliver sand free production with individual well rates of up to 120 mmscf/d. The main challenges facing the well completion project were: (1) installing downhole sand control in a horizontal well, (2) flow back of 1.9 sg drilling mud through sand screens, (3) the use of an isolation valve to allow upper completion to be installed underbalance, (4) the provision of a 5 inch high pressure bore, (5) cement filled external casing packers for future water shut off, and (6) the introduction of high pressure coiled tubing to the North Sea. A modular completion approach used for this project was successful in simplifying the installation and reducing the interdependency of the sand face and upper completion, allowing some flexibility when problems were encountered. The isolation valve was proven to be invaluable by providing safe installation of the upper completion in a solids free fluid. The clean-up technique of whole mud flow back through screens in horizontal, open hole completions was successfully applied in a heavy mud weight environment. 3 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs.

Law, D.; Dundas, A.S.; Reid, D.J. [Amoco Canada Petroleum Co. Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

2000-11-01

361

Sea sand for reactive barriers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Some phosphates have the property to suck in radioactive metals in solution, what it is taken in advance to make reactive barriers which are placed in the nuclear waste repositories. In an effort for contributing to the study of this type of materials, it has been obtained the zirconium silicate (ZrSiO4) and the alpha zirconium hydrogen phosphate (Zr(HPO4) 2H2O) starting from sea sand in an easy and economic way. (Author)

362

Characterization of oil sand resources  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A computerized data base developed at the Alberta Research Council (ARC) includes information on the visual examination of whole oil sand and determination of physical and chemical properties of whole oils sand and bitumen. Data from cooperative studies showed that systematic errors during analysis will seriously diminish the significance of a single data point in the data base. In an attempt to identify some of the reasons for variations in analytical data and to resolve discrepancies, the Western Research Institute (Wyoming) and the ARC exchanged samples of oil sand from the Asphalt Ridge and Athabasca deposits. They were able to provide equivalent data for most properties, except for elemental carbon, carbon residue, relative density and C{sub 5}-asphaltenes. A difference in methods for extracting test samples of bitumen was identified as being a potential contributor to differences in the bitumen properties. In subsequent studies at the ARC, failure to correct for entrained solids and residual solvent, which was related to sample preparation, was confirmed to be a major source of discrepancy between the two laboratories' data. In addition, the level of asphaltenes was significantly affected by prolonged exposure to heat and selective adsorption on cellulose thimbles in the extraction apparatus. A final exchange of bitumen samples prepared at the ARC indicated that discrepancies changed with the capabilities of the laboratories. It appears that the systematic errors that contribute to these discrepancies can only be controlled or at least minimized through the use of secondary standards. 31 refs., 5 figs., 23 tabs.

Wallace, D.; Starr, J.; Thomas, K.P.; Dorrence, S.M.

1988-01-01

363

Impact to groundwater resources by landfill foundry industries waste in Tandil, Buenos Aires, Argentina. A preliminary study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In Tandil city, in Buenos Aires province, Argentina, the foundry industry is one of the most important production lines. The waste generated by these industries has historically been disposed as fill material in pit quarries and brick works of the likelihood that some of his constituents leach contacting the underground water resources. The aim of this paper is to present the preliminaries results hydrochemical and hydrodynamic study conducted in a landfill of waste foundry industries. The work is around developing a disposal site with the measurement of groundwater levels and taking water samples along an annual hydrological cycle (November 2007 - November 2008). The hydrodynamic analysis shows that the groundwater flow is from the west from a rocky area where high variance across the study area. Hydrochemistry in relation to concentrations of nitrate and electrical conductivity vary significantly upstream and downstream of the landfill. (Author) 9 refs.

364

Experimental investigation on trap stagnant effect and sand flux in aeolian sand transport  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A new isokinetic vertical sand trap is designed in this work, and the new trap has an advantage that airflows in all sampling tubes at different height can simultaneously approach the isokinetic state. The stagnant effect and vertical sand mass flux are experimentally investigated in a wind tunnel. Compared with the traditional passive sand trap, the new design greatly reduces the stagnant effect, and has higher efficiency at different heights and wind speeds. The results obtained in this Letter also show the stagnant effect of the sand trap not only changes the total efficiency of the sand collection, but also the distribution of the vertical sand flux. The new isokinetic sand trap has good performance and can be applied to study the sand flux in aeolian sand transport

365

The rocky road to mass production : change and continuity in the US foundry industry, 1890-1940.  

OpenAIRE

This article is a pioneering exploration of technological change in the U.S. foundry industry from the period of its most dramatic growth through its interwar stagnation and decline. Not only does it describe key changes in the mechanization and reorganization of manufacturing processes that helped transform parts of the industry into sites of classic 'Fordist' mass production, but it also explains why the impact of these changes was so slow and limited. Through analysis that divides the 'fou...

Harris, Howell John

2000-01-01

366

Dust exposure and impairment of lung function at a small iron foundry in a rapidly developing country  

OpenAIRE

OBJECTIVES—A cross sectional prospective study was carried out among iron foundry workers (exposed) and soft drink bottling and supply company workers (unexposed) to assess their occupational exposure to ambient respiratory dust in their work environment and its effect on their lung function profile.?PARTICIPANTS—Lung function was measured in 81 exposed and 113 unexposed workers. Personal respirable dust concentrations were measured for all the exposed and the unexposed workers. Infor...

Gomes, J.; Lloyd, O.; Norman, N.; Pahwa, P.

2001-01-01

367

Risk assessment related to manual handling on choosen work possition in foundry Alstom Power Sp. z o. o.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Manual handling remains one of the different types of transport inside working place, although technological progress and modernorganization of work. Manual transport as a transport inside working place is related to foundry industry. According to polish lawregulations employer has to give consideration to manual handling in professional risk assessment and introduce actions for manualhandling reduction. In Foundry Elblag case there is found that in many processes manual handling are made by workers. For example wecan choose melting processes (additives manual feeding, mixing and pulling metallurgical slag, etc. or fettling processes like grinding.Objective of that analysis was to define level of risk related to manual handling in work stand chosen and define activities impacted onrisk assessment result with biggest range. For risk reduction, technical and organizational solutions were shown (better ergonomically work stand, method of work and worker’s awareness about good practices. In this study methods related to manual handling risk assessment were described, focus on KIM method used in Foundry Elblag. Key Item Method allow to estimate the risk by simple calculation based on key indicators (time rating points, rating points of mass, posture or work condition. Points were chosen based on timekeeping, information from workers and foreman.

G. Kowal

2010-04-01

368

A lithography aware design optimization using foundry-certified models and hotspot detection  

Science.gov (United States)

An automated litho-aware design migration solution has been implemented to enable designers to port existing IP layouts (custom, library, and block) to nanometer technologies while optimizing layout printability and silicon yield. With rapidly shrinking technology nodes, the industry consolidation toward fabless or fab-lite manufacturing, demand for second-sourcing and dramatic increase in cost of IP development, the automation of "vertical" (between nodes) and 'horizontal" (between chip manufacturers) migration becomes a very important task. The challenge comes from the fact that even within the same technology node design and process-induced rules deviate substantially among different IDMs and foundries, which leads to costly, error-prone and time consuming design modifications. At the same time, fast and reliable adjustments to design and ability to switch between processes and chip manufacturers could represent significant improvement to TTM, and respectively improving ROI. Using conservative rules (or restricted design rules) is not always a viable option because of the area, performance and yield penalties. The difficulty of migration is augmented by the fact that design rules are not sufficient to guaranty good printability, maximum process window and high yield. Model-based detection of lithography-induced systematic yield-limiting defects (a.k.a. hotspots) is becoming a vital part of the design-for-manufacturing flow for advanced technology nodes at 65nm and below. Driven by customer demand, a collaborative effort between EDA vendors provides a complete design-for-manufacturing migration solution that allows sub-65 nanometer designers to comprehensively address the impact of manufacturing variations on design yield and performance during layout migration. First, the physical hard IP is migrated from its existing 90nm process to a more advanced 65 and 45 nm processes, resulting in an area-optimized DRC-clean 65nm design retaining the original hierarchy to facilitate further editing and design verification the original hierarchy is maintained. Then, the design manufacturability is checked using a model-based hotspot detection solution, applying foundry-certified models. Along with hotspots, it is also critical for the hotspot detection tool to generate directives on how to modify the layout to fix hotspots and prevent creation of new hotspots. Several alternative fixing guidelines, ranked by amount of design perturbation, are generated to provide focus and maximum flexibility to the correction tool. The correction tool reads hotspot locations, severities along with the fixing guidelines, identifies area to be fixed and converts the fixing guidelines into geometry constraints. Correction is then done on each area while respecting design rules, managing ripple effects through multiple layers and maintaining the hierarchy. When all the corrections are completed areas that have been affected are identified to allow these to be incrementally checked by the lithography verification tool (LPC) and re-assembled. In case new or residual hotspots are detected, this fix-verify flow iterates over to converge on a DRC and lithography-compliant design. Usually no more than three iterations are needed to output hotspot-free, DRC and Lithocompliant design. We present the results of this fully automated lithography-aware migration flow on layout IPs ranging from 65 nm to 45 nm design and migrated across foundries. Results show substantial layout quality improvements, reduced design sensitivity to process variability by eliminating hotspots. Run-time and hotspot fixing performance are shown.

Karklin, L.; Arkhipov, A.; Blakely, D.; Dingenen, M.; Mehrotra, A.; Watson, B.; Zelnik, C.; Cote, M.; Hurat, P.

2007-10-01

369

Production Mechanisms for the Sand on Titan and the Prospects for a Global Sand Sea  

Science.gov (United States)

With ~15% of its surface covered by sand seas, Titan turns out to be the Arrakis of the solar system. How the sand particles that make up the dunes are created, however, remains an outstanding question. Titan's haze particles are organic in composition as required by spectral analysis of dunes, however they have diameters of ~1um, and are 10,000,000 times too small by mass to directly represent the ~200-um sand particles. In addition to previous suggestions that sand could come from sintering of sand particles or by burial, lithification, and subsequent erosion (more like typical sands on Earth), we suggest two new mechanisms for production of sand in association with Titan's liquid reservoirs. Dissolution and reprecipitation as evaporite forms the gypsum dunes of White Sands, NM, USA on Earth, and could play a role on Titan as well. Alternatively, haze particles in the lakes and seas could aggregate into larger particles via flocculation, a mechanism seen to occur on Earth in Morocco. Each of these sand particle production ideas has associated predictions that can be tested by future observations. The lack of evident sand sources in VIMS data implies that Titan's sand seas may be old and their continuous interconnectedness across the Dark Equatorial Belt implies that all of the equatorial dunefields may represent a single compositionally uniform sand sea. We will present possibilities for sands from this sea to bridge the large gap across Xanadu, including barchan chains and fluvial transport.

Barnes, Jason W.; Lorenz, Ralph D.; Radebaugh, Jani; Hayes, Alexander G.; MacKenzie, Shannon

2014-11-01

370

Severe sand aspiration: a case report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We report here on a case of sand aspiration in a 32-year-old man who had been accidentally buried in the deep pile of sand for four hours. Chest radiograph showed bilateral fluffy consolidations and nodular lesions with a typical 'sand bronchogram' in both lower lung zones, and these findings were more clearly visualized on the HRCT. The patient recovered completely with conservative treatment that included mechanical ventilation and postural drainage.

Kim, Ho Kyun; Jung, Kyung Jae [School of Medicine, Catholic University of Daegu, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

2006-03-15

371

Crest line minimal model for sand dune  

OpenAIRE

In desert, complex patterns of dunes form. Under unidirectional wind, transverse rectilinear dunes or crescent shaped dunes called barchan dunes can appear, depending on the amount of sediment available. Most rectilinear transverse sand dunes are observed to fragment, for example at White Sands (New Mexico, United States of America) or Walvis Bay (Namibia). We develop a reduced complexity model to investigate the morphodynamics of sand dunes migrating over a non-erodible bed under unidirectio...

Guignier, Lucie; Valance, Alexandre; Lague, Dimitri

2013-01-01

372

Recent advances in waterglass sand technologies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper reports some new understandings and advances in waterglass sand technologies. The multiple chemical modification process can increase the binding strength of the waterglass sand by up to 50%-70%. Therefore, the additions of the modified waterglass can be decreased to 3.0%-4.0% for CO2 process and to 2.0%-2.5% for organic ester hardening process, and greatly improve the collapsibility and reclaimability of the sand. Based on the new understandings and experimental results reported in this paper, several original ideas, such as nano modification, have been proposed to promote advances of waterglass sand technologies.

ZHU Chun-xi

2007-02-01

373

Health-hazard evaluation report GHETA 83-309-1405, Chrysler Corporation Foundry, Indianapolis, Indiana  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In response to a request arising out of employee concerns over the medical surveillance program at the Chrysler Corporation Foundry located in Indianapolis, Indiana, an evaluation was made of chest radiographs evaluated by the program with specific concern directed to disagreement on the radiographic diagnosis of pneumoconiosis. The request was made by the Chrysler Corporation and the United Auto Workers National Joint Committee on Health and Safety. Three NIOSH certified B-readers independently interpreted a set of 78 systematically sampled posteroanterior (PA) chest radiographs from the system files. These interpretations were compared among themselves and with company interpretations. While none of the radiographs was deemed unreadable, 35% were classified as having poor technical quality. Only one film was found which had a profusion of small opacities, and the company had interpreted the film as positive. Overall, agreement on proportion of positive readings and agreement on individual films was as good between the company and B-readers as it was between any two of the individual B-readers. The author recommends, however, that in order to avoid future complaints of the nature, the company should use standard radiographic equipment and techniques, NIOSH certified B-readers, and current international classifications of radiographs for pneumoconioses in their medical surveillance program

374

Modeling of the influence of coarsening on viscoplastic behavior of a 319 foundry aluminum alloy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Both metallurgical and mechanical behaviors of a 319 foundry aluminum alloy have been modeled by means of a multiscale approach. The nano-scale, represented by the coarsening of Al2Cu precipitates, has been modeled according to the Lifshitz–Slyozov–Wagner (LSW) law in a range of temperature going from 23 °C to 300 °C up to 1000 h aging time. Results were then compared to transmission electron microscope (TEM) observations and are in good agreement with the experimental measurements. The model allows us to know the critical radius, the volume fraction and the number of particles per ?m3 in a ?-phase representative volume element (RVE). The increase in yield stress generated by the interaction of dislocations with precipitates, lattice and solid solution, is modeled on the microscale. The yield stress becomes thus a function of the precipitation state, and is time/temperature dependent. These two models were then combined into a mechanical macroscale model in order to represent the Low Cycle Fatigue (LCF) behavior of the material. An elasto-viscoplastic law has been used and all the material parameters were experimentally determined with LCF stress/strain loops for the first cycle and for the mechanical steady state. The simulation results are in good agreement with the experiments.

375

Influence of Some Trace Elements on Solidification Path and Microstructure of Al-Si Foundry Alloys  

Science.gov (United States)

In the present study, Ca, Ni, V, and Zn were added to a high purity binary Al-7wt pct Si and commercial purity A356 foundry alloy in the nominal range of 50 to 600 ppm in order to study their effect on the solidification path and the resultant microstructure. Thermal analysis was used to assess nucleation and growth of the various phases. It was found that Ca and Ni additions suppress characteristic temperatures associated with nucleation and growth of the eutectic by up to 4 and 1.5 K, respectively. Additionally, Ca was observed to modify the eutectic Si and a concentration as low as 39 ppm Ca was sufficient to precipitate the geometrically unfavored polyhedral Al2Si2Ca phase. Furthermore, Ni addition resulted in the formation of two intermetallic phases when the Ni concentration exceeded 300 ppm. These phases have been quantified as Al3Ni and Al9FeNi by SEM-EDS. V and Zn had no apparent effect on the cooling curve and the microstructure. Even though it could be shown that V accumulates preferably in ?-Al5FeSi particles, V concentrations of 600 ppm were too low to have any influence on the phase's morphology.

Ludwig, Thomas Hartmut; Schaffer, Paul Louis; Arnberg, Lars

2013-08-01

376

Exposure vs toxicity levels of airborne quartz, metal and carbon particles in cast iron foundries.  

Science.gov (United States)

Aerosol dust samples and quartz raw materials from different working stations in foundry plants were characterized in order to assess the health risk in this working environment. Samples were analysed by scanning and transmission electron microscopy coupled with image analysis and microanalysis, and by cathodoluminescence spectroscopy. In addition, the concentration and the solubility degree of Fe and other metals of potential health effect (Mn, Zn and Pb) in the bulk samples were determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). Overall, the results indicate substantial changes in quartz crystal structure and texture when passing from the raw material to the airborne dust, which include lattice defects, non-bridging oxygen hole centres and contamination of quartz grains by metal and/or graphite particles. All these aspects point towards the relevance of surface properties on reactivity. Exposure doses have been estimated based on surface area, and compared with threshold levels resulting from toxicology. The possible synergistic effects of concomitant exposure to inhalable magnetite, quartz and/or graphite particles in the same working environment have been properly remarked. PMID:23385294

Moroni, Beatrice; Viti, Cecilia; Cappelletti, David

2014-01-01

377

Properties of made by different methods of RP impeller foundry patterns  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article presents the tests of properties of foundry patterns of turbocharger turbine impeller. Impellers prototypes were predestinated for casting by method losing patterns. There were carried out tests of these prototypes made by different methods of Rapid Prototyping (RP. Two impeller were made by growth methods: stereolitography (SLA and three dimensional printing (3DP. One prototype was made by the method of Vacuum Casting as a wax casting. Tests were executed in the Department of Machine Design of Rzeszow University of Technology in cooperation with WSK PZL Rzeszow and Car Technology Krakow. First impeller was carried out by method of stereolitography on SLA 250 plant. That pattern was also used to carry out silicon matrix for casting of wax pattern. Next pattern was printed by three dimensional printer Z510 from the powder ZP14. Good removability of the pattern from the mould is particularly essential for impellers of small turbines with blades of small thickness of their section. All pattern were tested on their removability from the ceramic mould. The best melting properties had the wax pattern. Patterns made from resin SL5170 (SLA and powder ZP14 (3DP were removed in the process of burning but about 1% of soot was left in the mould.

G. Budzik

2007-04-01

378

28N foundry reticle requal challenges and solutions for IC fabs  

Science.gov (United States)

Most leading-edge IC fabs continue to use direct reticle inspection for "early warning" detection of haze defects before they print on wafers. This inspection strategy enables fabs to cost-effectively maintain the highest product yields possible. As design rules advance from 45/40 nm nodes to 32/28 nm, mask pattern sizes continue to shrink while increasing in pattern density. More layers are exposed on 193nm immersion scanners, and as a result, reticle requal inspection requirements become more challenging in order to meet sensitivity and inspectibility performance. In this paper, we examine some of the inspection challenges 32/28 nm logic mask designs present. New reticle requal requirements created by aggressive SRAF and higher MEEF mask designs used at these nodes are first examined. A new and improved inspection technology to support requal requirements at this level is introduced and tested. These data are analyzed to evaluate the overall inspection capability and sensitivity of this new product designed to meet 32/28 nm foundry reticle requal needs for high-volume production in IC fabs.

Yeh, Mike; Wu, David; Mu, Bo; Reese, Bryan

2010-09-01

379

Effect of High Alumina Cement on Selected Foundry Properties of Ant-Hill Clay  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The effect of high alumina cement (HAC on some selected foundry properties of ant-hill clay was investigated. Pulverised clay, water and 5 to 40% HAC weight fractions were manually mixed, pressed and air dried at 110°C for twenty-four hours followed by firing in a kiln to 1100°C. For each property, four samples were prepared, tested and the average value reported. The results showed that the values of the investigated properties generally increased up to 15% HAC after which no significant improvement was observed. At an optimum 15% HAC, compressive strength increased from 4933.50 N/mm2 to 6457.25 N/mm2. In addition, refractoriness increased from 1450°C to 1600°C at this optimum weight percent. Apparent porosity was also observed to be improved in the tested samples. It was concluded that for a refractoriness value of 1600°C, the optimum mix of 15% HAC would be suitable for metallurgical furnace linings.

Akeem Damilola AKINWEKOMI

2012-11-01

380

Modeling of the influence of coarsening on viscoplastic behavior of a 319 foundry aluminum alloy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Both metallurgical and mechanical behaviors of a 319 foundry aluminum alloy have been modeled by means of a multiscale approach. The nano-scale, represented by the coarsening of Al{sub 2}Cu precipitates, has been modeled according to the Lifshitz-Slyozov-Wagner (LSW) law in a range of temperature going from 23 Degree-Sign C to 300 Degree-Sign C up to 1000 h aging time. Results were then compared to transmission electron microscope (TEM) observations and are in good agreement with the experimental measurements. The model allows us to know the critical radius, the volume fraction and the number of particles per {mu}m{sup 3} in a {alpha}-phase representative volume element (RVE). The increase in yield stress generated by the interaction of dislocations with precipitates, lattice and solid solution, is modeled on the microscale. The yield stress becomes thus a function of the precipitation state, and is time/temperature dependent. These two models were then combined into a mechanical macroscale model in order to represent the Low Cycle Fatigue (LCF) behavior of the material. An elasto-viscoplastic law has been used and all the material parameters were experimentally determined with LCF stress/strain loops for the first cycle and for the mechanical steady state. The simulation results are in good agreement with the experiments.

Martinez, R., E-mail: remi.martinez@ensmp.fr [Universite Paris-Est Creteil, Institut de Chimie et de Materiaux Paris-Est, CNRS UMR7182, 2-8 rue Henri Dunant, 94320 Thiais (France); Mines ParisTech, Centre des Materiaux, CNRS UMR7633, BP 87, 91003 Evry Cedex (France); Renault SA, Technocentre, Direction de l' ingenierie et des materiaux, 1 avenue du Golf, 78288 Guyancourt (France); Russier, V., E-mail: vincent.russier@icmpe.cnrs.fr [Universite Paris-Est Creteil, Institut de Chimie et de Materiaux Paris-Est, CNRS UMR7182, 2-8 rue Henri Dunant, 94320 Thiais (France); Couzinie, J.P. [Universite Paris-Est Creteil, Institut de Chimie et de Materiaux Paris-Est, CNRS UMR7182, 2-8 rue Henri Dunant, 94320 Thiais (France); Guillot, I., E-mail: ivan.guillot@icmpe.cnrs.fr [Universite Paris-Est Creteil, Institut de Chimie et de Materiaux Paris-Est, CNRS UMR7182, 2-8 rue Henri Dunant, 94320 Thiais (France); Cailletaud, G. [Mines ParisTech, Centre des Materiaux, CNRS UMR7633, BP 87, 91003 Evry Cedex (France)

2013-01-01

381

Emission of organic compounds from mould and core binders used for casting iron, aluminium and bronze in sand moulds  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Emissions from mould and core sand binders commonly used in the foundry industry have been investigated. Degradation of three different types of binders was investigated: Furfuryl alcohol (FA), phenolic urethane (PU) and resol-CO2 (RC). In each group of binders at least two different binder compositions were tested. A test method that provides uniform test conditions is described. The method can be used as general test method to analyse off gasses from binders. Moulds containing a standard size casting were produced and the amount and type of organic compounds resulting from thermal degradation of binders was monitored when cast iron, bronze and aluminium was poured in the moulds. Binder degradation was measured by collecting off gasses in a specially designed ventilation hood at a constant flow rate. Samples were taken from the ventilation system and analysed for hydrocarbons and CO content. It is shown how off gasses vary with time after pouring and shake out. Also the composition of off-gasses is analysed and shown. It is further shown how the composition of off-gasses varies between different types of binders and with varying composition of the binders as well as function of the thermal load on the moulding sand.

Tiedje, Niels Skat; Crepaz, Rudolf

2010-01-01

382

Nuclear energy for oil sands  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In working partnership with a number of Alberta-based companies an AECL (Atomic Energy of Canada Limited) study team assessed the technical and economic feasibility of using a nuclear reactor to raise the production steam for the recovery of bitumen. Technically sound concepts have been identified for using CANDU reactors for the in-situ recovery of bitumen from oil sands. Over the life of an oil sands project a steam supply system based on a nuclear reactor is expected to offer a substantial cost advantage (25 - 50 %) over the alternative system based on coal as the make-up fuel. Steam from natural gas is marginally more expensive than that from coal because the cost of natural gas is expected to escalate at a rate higher than inflation. For shallow deposits (150 -250 metres) using intermediate pressure steam, the commercially proven Pressurized Heavy Water (PHW) reactor is most suitable. For deeper deposits (250 - 650 metres), the PHW reactor can provide the higher pressure steam using a compressor, but only with a reduction in thermal efficiency that substantially reduces its cost advantage. The CANDU Organic Cooled Reactor (OCR), however, can provide a high pressure steam required with the large cost advantage. The economic benefit offered by nuclear steam supply systems, a saving of $2-4 per barrel of product, is large enough to justify the commitment of a more detailed study

383

Nuclear energy for oil sands  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 1980, Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, working with a number of Alberta-based companies, assessed the technical and economic feasibility of using a CANDU nuclear reactor to raise the production steam for the recovery of bitumen. The study followed several years of analysis which identified oil sands projects as the most appropriate single users of thermal energy of the amount and quality available from reactors. Over the life of an oil sands project a steam supply system based on a nuclear reactor is expected to offer a substantial cost advantage (25 - 50%) over the alternative system based on coal as the make-up fuel. Steam from natural gas is marginally more expensive than that from coal because the cost of natural gas is expected to escalate at a rate higher than inflation. For shallow deposits (150 - 250 metres) using intermediate pressure steam, the commercially proven Pressurized Heavy Water (PHW) reactor is most suitable. For deeper deposits (250 - 650 metres), the PHW reactor can provide the higher pressure steam using a compressor, but only with a reduction in thermal efficiency that substantially reduces its cost advantage. The CANDU Organic Cooled Reactor (OCR), however, can provide the high presure steam required with the large cost advantage. The economic benefit of nuclear steam supply systems, a saving of $2-4 per barrel of product, is large enough to justify a more detailed study

384

To Determine the Molding Sand Strength by Using Different Sand Control Test  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The need for systematic evaluation of the working qualities of molding sands has led to the development of a wide range of sand control tests. Production of sound casting largely depends upon uniform and good quality of molding sand.

Mazhar Iqbal*

2014-08-01

385

Effect of modifying process on mechanical properties of EN AC-43300 silumin cast into sand moulds  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Significance of alloy modification in course of casting process is the most explicitly visible on example of Al-Si alloys. Broad application of these alloys in foundry industry has become possible after invention of a method which changes solidification form of Al-Si eutectic mixture. Such primarily thick, acicular shape of silicon crystals becomes changed into fine and compact structure due to introduction of a small quantity of modifier to liquid alloy. The paper presents an attempt of assessment of melting and modification with strontium effects on mechanical properties of EN AC-43300 alloy cast into sand moulds. Obtained results concern selection of optimal quantity of strontium additive in aspect of obtained mechanical properties (Rm, A5, KCV, HB. Effect of strontium additive on change of mechanical properties of the investigated alloy was presented in graphical form. Further investigations shall be connected with determination of an effect of strontium additive on mechanical properties of the alloy after solution heat treatment and ageing treatment.

J. Pezda

2009-07-01

386

Sand dune tracking from satellite laser altimetry  

Science.gov (United States)

Substantial problems arise from sand movement in arid and semi-arid countries. Sand poses a threat to infrastructure, agricultural and urban areas. These issues are caused by the encroachment of sand on roads and railway tracks, farmland, towns and villages, and airports, to name a few. Sand movement highly depends on geomorphology including vegetation cover, shape and height of the terrain, and grain size of the sand. However, wind direction and speed are the most important factors that affect efficient sand movement. The direction of the movement depends on the main direction of the wind, but it has been shown that a minimum wind speed is required, e.g. wind gusts, to initiate sand transport. This fact prevents a simple calculation of sand transport from conventional wind data as wind records rarely contain sub-minute intervals masking out any wind gusts. An alternative of predicting sand transport is the direct observation of sand advance by in situ measurements or via satellite. Until recently, satellite imagery was the only means to compare dune shape and position for predicting dune migration over several years. In 2003, the NASA laser altimetry mission ICESat became operational and monitors elevations over all surface types including sand dunes with an accuracy of about 10-20 cm. In this study, ICESat observations from repeat tracks (tracks overlapping eachother within 50 m) are used to derive sand dune advance and direction. The method employs a correlation of the elevation profiles over several dunes and was sucessfully validated with synthetic data. The accuracy of this method is 5 meters of dune advance. One of the most active areas exhibiting sand and dune movement is the area of the Arabian Peninsula. Approximately one-third of the Arabian Peninsula is covered by sand dunes. Different wind regimes (Shamal, Kaus) cause sand dune movement in the selected study area in the eastern part of the Arabian Peninsula between 20-25 degrees North and 45-55 degrees East. Two different dune types can be distinguised which exhibit a 6 m and 26 m average dune advance over a 6 months time period. Wind speed/direction data and the observed dune advance agree well and indicate that dune tracking from space is a viable alternative to in situ or model data.

Dabboor, Mohammed

387

NEARSHORE SAND SOURCES FOR AMERICAN SAMOA: AN ALTERNATIVE TO USING BEACH SAND.  

Science.gov (United States)

Using a combination of geophysical techniques, in situ observations, and sampling by scuba divers, we investigated along the south shore of Tutuila Island, American Samoa, for nearshore sand deposits. To minimize the impact of future sand dredging on the island's littoral sediments, the search took place in a narrow zone between the outside of the fringing reef and the 30-m bathymetric contour. Because the sand will be used by the Samoans in a variety of ways, an area high in siliciclastic sand - Nua-Se'etaga Bay - and two areas containing only carbonate sand - Faga'itua Bay and Nafanua Bank - were inspected in detail. Results of the exploration program are discussed.

Dingler, John R.; Reiss, Thomas E.

1987-01-01

388

Oil sands: Our petroleum future conference  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A conference was held to discuss oil sands technology. Papers were presented concerning oil sands mining, alternative technologies, environmental factors, economics, bitumen conversion and processing, bitumen uses, bitumen upgrading, fine tails formation, and fine tails disposal. Separate abstracts have been prepared for 64 papers from the conference

389

Japan's involvement in oil sands development  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

According to Japanese national policy, exploration and development by Japanese companies in overseas countries are promoted in order to ensure stable oil supplies. Japan Canada Oil Sands Limited (JACOS), part of the JAPEX group, was established during the 1978 world oil crisis to explore and develop Canadian oil sand resources in accordance with Japan's national policy. The JAPEX group, including JACOS, has invested $123 million in oil sands projects in Alberta. JAPEX's first involvement in oil sands was in the Primrose Project operated by Norcen in the Cold Lake area. Five years of cyclic steam stimulation pilot tests did not produce sufficiently good results to justify further operation. The second involvement was the PCEJ Project, a joint effort by four companies that are participating in a bitumen recovery test project in the Athabasca Deposit. JACOS holds 2,452 km2 of oil sands leases in Alberta. Tests conducted since 1978 in the PCEJ Project include multiwell steam injection pilot tests, some of which showed promise. JACOS is also participating in steam assisted gravity drainage projects and in federal/provincial research programs. Obstacles identified in developing Alberta oil sands are the lack of a bitumen pipeline to Edmonton and the insufficient length of oil sands leases (currently 10 years), given the difficulties of oil sand development. 10 figs

390

Sand Failure Mechanism and Sanding Parameters in Niger Delta Oil Reservoirs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sand production is a major issue during oil and gas production from unconsolidated reservoirs. In predicting the onset of sand production, it is important to accurately determine the failure mechanism and the contributing parameters. The aim of this study was to determine sand failure mechanism in the Niger-Delta, identify themajor contributing parameters and evaluate their effects on sanding.Completion and production data from 78 strings completed on 22 reservoirs in a Niger Delta oil Field were evaluated. Sand failure mechanisms and contributing parameters were identified and compared with published profiles. The results showed that cohesive stress is the predominant sand failure mechanism. Water cut, bean size and gas oil ratio (GOR impact sand production in the Niger Delta.

Sunday Isehunwa,

2010-05-01

391

Altitude of the top of the Sparta Sand and Memphis Sand in three areas of Arkansas  

Science.gov (United States)

The Sparta Sand and Memphis Sand form the second most productive aquifer in Arkansas. The Sparta Sand and Memphis Sand range in thick- ness from 0 to 900 feet, consisting of fine- to medium-grained sands interbedded with layers of silt, clay, shale, and minor amounts of lignite. Within the three areas of interest, the top surface of the Sparta Sand and Memphis Sand dips regionally east and southeast towards the axis of the Mississippi Embayment syncline and Desha Basin. Local variations in the top surface may be attributed to a combination of continued development of structural features, differential compaction, localized faulting, and erosion of the surface prior to subsequent inundation and deposition of younger sediments.

Pugh, Aaron L.; Westerfield, Paul W.; Gonthier, Gerard J.; Poynter, David T.

1998-01-01

392

Hematite Outlier and Sand Dunes  

Science.gov (United States)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Released 4 December 2003This image shows a crater just south of the edge of the famous hematite-bearing surface, which is visible in the context image as a smooth area to the north. The crater has two features of immediate note. The first is a layered mound in the north part of the crater floor. This mound contains hematite, and it is an outlying remnant of the greater deposits to the north that have otherwise completely disappeared in this crater. The second feature is a dune field in the center of the crater floor, with dark dunes indicating winds from the northwest. The dunes grade into a dark sand sheet with no coherent structure, indicating that the sand layer thins out to the south and east.Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -4.4, Longitude 357.3 East (2.7 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

2003-01-01

393

Reducing industrial energy costs through energy-efficiency measures in a liberalized European electricity market: case study of a Swedish iron foundry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Swedish industry, which has one of the lowest electricity prices in the European Union, will face higher electricity prices due to the Union's electricity market liberalization. Rising electricity prices, together with a larger use of electricity than other European countries, pose a threat to industrial activity in Sweden. The Swedish foundry industry, with large proportions of energy costs in relation to the added value, is particularly sensitive to higher electricity costs. The aim of this paper is to study the effect of higher electricity prices on the Swedish iron-and-steel foundry industry, quantify an energy efficiency potential for a medium-sized Swedish iron foundry resulting from a thorough industrial energy audit, and investigate what impact they have on the energy cost. (author)

394

Effect of foundry waste content on technological properties of ceramic bricks  

OpenAIRE

A change from linear to cyclical production processes, as proposed by Industrial Ecology, is investigated in this paper. The feasibility of introducing Waelz slag (Ferrosita®) into a ceramic manufacturing process had been assessed in previous studies. In this work, the influence of incorporating Waelz slag and a Waelz slag/Moulding sand mix into a clayey matrix has been evaluated through the analysis of the physical and mechanical properties of fired bodies. A math...

Quijorna, N.; San Miguel, G.; Andre?s, A.

2009-01-01

395

Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans and their association with cancer mortality among workers in one automobile foundry factory.  

Science.gov (United States)

Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) have been reported as possible carcinogenic hazards to humans. However, epidemiological studies on their carcinogenic roles are limited. The current study was designed to determine the concentrations and characteristics of PCDD/Fs and evaluate their association with cancer mortality in exposed workers in one automobile foundry factory. PCDD/F levels in factory and surrounding environment were analyzed through air and settling dust sampling. The cancer mortalities among workers in this foundry factory were calculated using data from a cohort study. The results showed that the PCDD/F concentrations of air in workplace ranged 0.36-2.25 pg World Health Organization-Toxic Equivalent (WHO-TEQ) Nm(-3) (average 1.01 pg WHO-TEQ Nm(-3)), which were 1.16-7.26 times higher than those outside the factory. The PCDD/F concentrations of settling dust in the workplace ranged 3.34-18.64 pg WHO-TEQ g(-1) (average 8.25 pg WHO-TEQ g(-1)), which were lower than those just outside the factory (average 16.13 pg WHO-TEQ g(-1)). Furthermore, a cohort study of workers in this factory with average follow-up of 24.52 years showed that cancer was the leading cause of death, with significant elevated mortality (standardized mortality ratio (SMR)=1.70, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.35-2.13) among workers, when compared with Chinese national mortality. The cancer mortality among front-line workers was increased significantly (adjusted relative risk (RR)=1.73, 95% CI: 1.14-2.60), particularly among melting and casting workers, when compared with that among assistant workers. Our results indicated that there was a dose-response relationship between PCDD/F exposure and cancer mortality among foundry workers. PMID:23178894

Wang, Lihua; Weng, Shaofan; Wen, Sheng; Shi, Tingming; Sun, Gangtao; Zeng, Yuyu; Qi, Cheng; Chen, Weihong

2013-01-15

396

Monitoring of heavy metal particle emission in the exhaust duct of a foundry using LIBS.  

Science.gov (United States)

Heavy metals have long been known to be detrimental to human health and the environment. Their emission is mainly considered to occur via the atmospheric route. Most of airborne heavy metals are of anthropogenic origin and produced through combustion processes at industrial sites such as incinerators and foundries. Current regulations impose threshold limits on heavy metal emissions. The reference method currently implemented for quantitative measurements at exhaust stacks consists of on-site sampling of heavy metals on filters for the particulate phase (the most prominent and only fraction considered in this study) prior to subsequent laboratory analysis. Results are therefore known only a few days after sampling. Stiffer regulations require the development of adapted tools allowing automatic, on-site or even in-situ measurements with temporal resolutions. The Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) technique was deemed as a potential candidate to meet these requirements. On site experiments were run by melting copper bars and monitoring emission of this element in an exhaust duct at a pilot-scale furnace in a French research center dedicated to metal casting. Two approaches designated as indirect and direct analysis were broached in these experiments. The former corresponds to filter enrichment prior to subsequent LIBS interrogation whereas the latter entails laser focusing right through the aerosol for detection. On-site calibration curves were built and compared with those obtained at laboratory scale in order to investigate possible matrix and analyte effects. Eventually, the obtained results in terms of detection limits and quantitative temporal monitoring of copper emission clearly emphasize the potentialities of the direct LIBS measurements. PMID:24913859

Dutouquet, C; Gallou, G; Le Bihan, O; Sirven, J B; Dermigny, A; Torralba, B; Frejafon, E

2014-09-01

397

Exposure assessment and modeling of quartz in Swedish iron foundries for a nested case-control study on lung cancer.  

Science.gov (United States)

Exposure assessment of quartz in Swedish iron foundries was performed based on historical and current measurement data. To evaluate the exposure-response relationship between quartz exposure and lung cancer, we modeled quartz exposure from our database of measurements using determinants job title, time period, and company. Based on these modeled exposure data, we conducted a nested case-control evaluation. In our database, the overall individual, daily time-weighted average (TWA) quartz concentrations of current and historical data varied between 0.0018 and 4.9 mg/m(3), averaging 0.083 mg/m(3). Job titles with mean TWAs for the whole study period exceeding the European Union recommended occupational exposure limit of 0.05 mg/m(3) were fettlers (0.087 mg/m(3)), furnace and ladle repair (0.42 mg/m(3)), and maintenance (0.054 mg/m(3)) workers. The mixed model analysis demonstrated significant determinants on the job level for furnace and ladle repair (? = 4.06; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.78-5.93). For all jobs, significantly higher exposure levels occurred only during the first time period, 1968-1979 (? = 2.08; 95% CI 1.75-2.47), and a decreasing but not significant trend was noted for the three following 10-year time periods up to 2006 (? = 1.0, 0.96 and 1, respectively). Two iron foundries had significantly higher quartz concentration levels than the others (? = 1.31; 95% CI 1.00-1.71 and ? = 1.63; 95% CI 1.00-2.65, respectively). The individual cumulative quartz exposure measures were categorized in low, medium, and high exposure (0.5-0.05 mg/m(3) of quartz. To conclude, certain foundry workers are still exposed to high levels of quartz, but an increased risk of lung cancer caused by quartz exposure in these Swedish iron foundries could not be confirmed at our exposure levels. PMID:22239127

Andersson, Lena; Bryngelsson, Ing-Liss; Ngo, Yen; Ohlson, Carl-Göran; Westberg, Håkan

2012-01-01

398

Mechanical engineering note - safety analysis of molten uranium/water interaction in the uranium foundry furnace; TOPICAL  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This Engineering Note describes the development of the accident criteria used the basis for the design of the uranium foundry vacuum vessel. The results of this analysis provide input into other safety notes that investigate how well the uranium containment boundary will maintain its integrity during the design basis accident. The preventative measures that have been designed into the system to minimize the potential to produce a flammable gas mixture are described. The system response is designed for consistency with applicable sections of the LLNL Health and Safety Manual, as well as the Mechanical engineering Safety Design Standards

399

Evaluation of Synthetic Gypsum Recovered via Wet Flue-Gas Desulfurization from Electric Power Plants for Use in Foundries  

OpenAIRE

This article investigates possible use of waste gypsum (synthetic), recovered via flue-gas desulfurization from coal-fired electric powerplants, in foundries. Energy sector, which in Eastern Europe is mostly composed from coal-fired electric power plants, is one of the largestproducers of sulfur dioxide (SO2).In order to protect the environment and reduce the amount of pollution flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) is used to remove SO2 fromexhaust flue gases of fossil-fuel power plants. As a resul...

Biernacki, R.; Haratym, R.; Kwapisz, J.

2012-01-01

400

Dry reusing and wet reclaiming of used sodium silicate sand  

OpenAIRE

Based on the characteristics of used sodium silicate sand and the different use requirements for recycled sand, "dry reusing and wet reclaiming of used sodium silicate sand" is considered as the most suitable technique for the used sand. When the recycled sand is used as support sand, the used sand is only reused by dry process including breaking, screening, dust-removal, etc., and it is not necessary that the used sand is reclaimed with strongly rubbing and scraping method, but when the recy...

Fan, Zitian; Huang, Naiyu; Wang, Huafang

2005-01-01

401

Gamma Ray Shielding from Saudi White Sand  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study is a comparison of gamma ray linear attenuation coefficient of two typs of shielding materials made of Saudi white and red sand. Each shield was consisted of one part of cement two parts of sand in addi-tion to water. Different thicknesses were tested. The concentrations of all elements in each shield material were determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS. The results obtained from the ICP-MS were used in MCNP4B (Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Computer Code System [1] to calculate the attenuation coefficient. The theoretical (MCNP4B and the experimental calculations were found to be in a good agreement. In the casw of the largest thickness used, 28cm, the gamma ray intensity passing through the white sand shield was approximately half of the intensity obtained through the red sand shield. The average linear attenuation coefficients were found to be 0.17cm-1 and 0.15cm-1 for white and red sand shields respectively. The study shows that white sand is better for attenuating gamma ray compared to the red sand.

Al-horayess OKLA

2010-03-01

402

A study of soil nailing in sand  

OpenAIRE

This dissertation is concerned with a study of soil nailing, in particular the interaction mechanism between the soil and a nail and the failure mechanism and suitable design procedure for nailed slopes in sand. The interaction mechanism of a nail was studied by carrying out a number of pull-out tests, direct shear tests of nailed sand and interface tests using two uniform sands. Major parameters of the tests were flexibility, surface roughness and diameter of a nail. From the tests, it w...

Tei, Kouji; Milligan, G. W. E.

1993-01-01

403

VideoLab: Swimming in Sand  

Science.gov (United States)

Physics can model organisms running or crawling on solids, and those flying and swimming through fluids. Yet the desert-dwelling sandfish lizard moves through sand -- a solid- and fluid-like medium. Using high-speed x-ray imaging, Maladen et al. discovered that, although the sandfish uses its legs to run on top of sand and to bury itself underneath (movie 1), once subsurface, sandfish use undulatory locomotion (movie 2), slithering through sand with its unused limbs tucked close to its body (movie 3).

Ryan D. Maladen (Georgia Institute of Technology;Interdisciplinary Bioengineering Program); Ying Ding (Georgia Institute of Technology;School of Physics); Chin Li (Georgia Institute of Technology;School of Physics); Daniel Goldman (Georgia Institute of Technology;Interdisciplinary Bioengineering Program and School of Physics)

2009-07-17

404

Sand to Root Transfer of PAHs and PCBs by Carrots Grown on Sand with Pure Substances and Biosolids Amended Sand  

OpenAIRE

A study on behaviour of trace organic compounds (Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, PAH, and Polychlorinated Biphenyls, PCB) in a sand-plant system has been carried out, with the reclamation of wastewater treatment plant biosolids for agriculture in mind. Carrot plants (Daucus carota) were grown on soilless culture (sand), to provide optimal transfer conditions, in plant containers inside a temperature regulated greenhouse. There were two types of experiment. The trace organic compounds have i...

Sablayrolles, Caroline; Montre?jaud-vignoles, Mireille; Silvestre, Je?ro?me; Patria, Lucie

2006-01-01

405

Water Film in Saturated Sand  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In order to investigate the initiation mechanism of landslide and debris flow occurring on a gentle slope. The formation and evolution of water film (or crack in saturated sand is analyzed by numerical and theoretical simulations under given conditions. First a psudo-three-phase model is presented considering the movement of skeleton and water and the erosion. Secondly, difference method is used to analyze the formation conditions and the evolution of the velocity of water and pore pressure and porosity. Thirdly, a simplified theoretical method is presented based on the consolidation theory to analyze the initiation, expansion and close. It is shown that there are stable water films when some point is blocked and the state keeps unchangeable or there exists a thin layer with very low permeability. Once the blocked point is open, the water film will disappear gradually. The evolution of water film may be calculated by a simplified method. The analytical results are agreement well with that of Kokusho.

C. PENG

2010-02-01

406

Building the oil sands advantage  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

OPTI and Nexen are building a major oil sands project using the patented OrCrude{sup TM} process, that is designed to produce a high-quality synthetic crude at low operating cost. The integrated project includes Canada's first gasification project. OPTI's solution to rising costs is to significantly reduce reliance on natural gas. The process requires no diluent. The gasification unit uses alternative feeds: asphalt, coal, heavy oil and residues, petroleum coke, orimulsion, natural gas, wastes, and clean fuels. Sulphur is removed from the synthetic gas produced. End products include electricity and steam or hydrogen, ammonia, methanol, Fischer-Tropsch liquids, and other chemicals. The Shell Global Solutions gasifier for solid coal and coke is shown in a diagram. OPTI implementations include utilization of a multi-train gasifier for reliability, sufficient hydrogen with a simple process, and the simplest possible gasification and hydrogen production process. The Long Lake Project Gasification unit is described. Information is included on costs, project schedule, budget, reserves in the Athabasca oil region, future development plans, and production forecast. 16 figs., 4 tabs.

Crookshank, G. [OPTI Canada Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

2006-07-01

407

Sudan challenges the sand dragon.  

Science.gov (United States)

Formerly productive areas have become wasteland as the desert advances in the Sudan. To understand how desertification is undermining the very survival of the Sahel, one ecosystem is reviewed in detail here: the gum arabic zone of Kordofan. After cotton, gum arabic is Sudan's largest export, worth from $14-26 million in recent years. In this zone the ecologically balanced cycle of gum gardens, fire, grain crops, and fallow is now breaking down; the 1968-1973 drought having in many areas delivered the final blow. Because of a growing population, the cultivation period is extended, and the soil becomes impoverished. Overgrazing in the fallow period, and the lopping of gum trees for firewood is producing a low return on the gum trees. Without this gum to harvest for cash, farmers must repeatedly replant their subsistence crops until the land becomes useless sand. The Sudanese have recognized the problem earlier than most, and a number of imaginative and practicable pilot projects are already in use: 1) waterpoint management; 2) construction of firebreaks; 3) land threatened by shifting dunes has been enclosed by stockproof fence and afforested with local trees; and 4) shelter belts have been planted around town perimeters where old gum tree stumps have started to sprout and the grass is reseeding itself. Out of these pilot projects, and with the advice of the U.N. Environment Program, the U.N. Development Program, and FAO, the Sudanese have developed a modest $26 million desert encroachment control and rehabilitation program (DECARP). PMID:12278008

Tinker, J

1978-01-01

408

Optimization of a new animal glue binder system cured by CO2 for use in foundry  

OpenAIRE

A new sand binder system cured by CO2 was prepared based on the animal bone glue. To overcome the disadvantages of animal glue such as agglomeration at room temperature, high energy consumption and low efficiency, an alkaline decomposition process was selected, and certain modifier was used to modify the performance of the animal glue binder. For the alkaline decomposition, NaOH was used as the catalyst with an addition of 4wt.% to the animal glue. A modifier was determined through the orthog...

Liu Weihua; Zhang Yilin; Li Yingmin

2012-01-01

409

Effect of atmosphere in a foundry mould on casting surface quality  

OpenAIRE

Changes of gas pressure in the moulding sand in the zone adjacent to mould cavity were analysed during pouring of cast iron. No significant effect of pressure on the surface quality of castings was observed. In the second series of tests, the concentration of hydrogen in the gas atmosphere was measured. It has been found that the value of this concentration depends on metal composition and is particularly high in cast iron containing magnesium. This is due to the reduction of water vapour wit...

Chojecki, A.; Mocek, J.

2012-01-01

410

Effect of atmosphere in a foundry mould on casting surface quality  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Changes of gas pressure in the moulding sand in the zone adjacent to mould cavity were analysed during pouring of cast iron. No significant effect of pressure on the surface quality of castings was observed. In the second series of tests, the concentration of hydrogen in the gas atmosphere was measured. It has been found that the value of this concentration depends on metal composition and is particularly high in cast iron containing magnesium. This is due to the reduction of water vapour with the element that has high affinity to oxygen. The presence of hydrogen causes the formation of gas-induced defects on the casting surface.

A. Chojecki

2012-01-01

411

New Method for Estimation of Aeolian Sand Transport Rate Using Ceramic Sand Flux Sensor (UD-101)  

OpenAIRE

In this study, a new method for the estimation of aeolian sand transport rate was developed; the method employs a ceramic sand flux sensor (UD-101). UD-101 detects wind-blown sand impacting on its surface. The method was devised by considering the results of wind tunnel experiments that were performed using a vertical sediment trap and the UD-101. Field measurements to evaluate the estimation accuracy during the prevalence of unsteady winds were performed on a flat backshore. The results show...

Keiko Udo

2009-01-01

412

Geotechnical properties of crude oil contaminated sand  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Contamination of soil due to an oil spill influences its subsequent engineering behavior. An investigation was conducted to study the effect of crude oil contamination on compaction characteristics, shear strength, one-dimensional compression, and coefficient of permeability. Water permeability was also determined by using commercial grade motor oils as contaminants. The test results indicate that the compaction characteristics are influenced by oil contamination. The angle of internal friction of sand (based on total stress condition) decreases due to presence of oil within the pore spaces in sand. One dimensional compression characteristics of sand are significantly influenced by oil contamination resulting in a decrease in the value of constrained modulus with increase in the degree of oil contamination compared to the case of dry sand. Water permeability was observed to be a function of the initial viscosity and the degree of saturation due to the contaminating oil

413

Sexing sand fly pupae (Diptera: Psychodidade: Phlebotominae  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We describe a technique to separate male and female pupae of sand flies. This has reduced the labour to separate flies after emergence and also allows the isolation of unmated adults for behavioural and physiological studies.

Brazil Beatriz Gomes

2000-01-01

414

Sexing sand fly pupae (Diptera: Psychodidade: Phlebotominae)  

OpenAIRE

We describe a technique to separate male and female pupae of sand flies. This has reduced the labour to separate flies after emergence and also allows the isolation of unmated adults for behavioural and physiological studies.

Brazil Beatriz Gomes; Brazil Reginaldo Peçanha

2000-01-01

415

Occupational exposure profile of Pb, Mn, and Cd in nonferrous Brazilian sanitary alloy foundries.  

Science.gov (United States)

In addition to the primary components of alloys, approximately 5% of the formulation may contain other metals, including lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), arsenic, manganese (Mn), iron, phosphorus, and nickel. Workers in the foundries are exposed to several compounds; therefore, it is important to assess the levels of injury that may reflect an additive, synergistic, or antagonistic effect caused by these compounds. The mean values of the environmental evaluation of the facilities range from 16.65 to 40.31 µg m(-3) for Pb, 0.99 to 1.73 µg m(-3) for Cd, and 0.91 to 1.70 µg m(-3) for Mn. The mean values of the metal concentrations for furnace, mold, melting, and automatic melting activities range from 15.37 to 19.26 µg m(-3) for Pb, 7.07 to 9.14 µg m(-3) for Cd, and 8.83 to 16.00 µg m(-3) for Mn. Biological samples were divided into two groups: control (n = 38) and exposed (n = 45). The obtained data are3.41 ± 3.40 and 14.89 ± 7.82 µg dL(-1) for Pb, 0.90 ± 0.80 and 1.91 ± 1.90 µg g(-1) creatinine for Cd, and 0.51 ± 0.40 and 3.17 ± 1.93 µg g(-1) creatinine for Mn. Statistical analysis showed significant differences (p < 0.05). Positive linear correlations were established between metal concentrations in the air and the biological matrixes: Pb (r = 0.68; p < 0.001), Cd (r = 0.81; p = 0.17), and Mn (r = 0.12; p < 0.03). Regression analysis showed that professional activities can interfere with element exposure profiles in occupational settings. The analysis in the event of exposure to metals in these companies allowed investigating whether the simultaneous exposure leads to biological damage even if the levels of the compounds are within the exposure limits that are considered to be safe. PMID:23104727

Peixe, Tiago Severo; Nascimento, Elizabeth de Souza; Silva, Carlos Sérgio; Bussacos, Marco Antonio

2014-09-01

416

The nucleation and growth of microporosity in aluminum-7% silicon foundry alloy  

Science.gov (United States)

Small cavities, called micropores, are common defects found in aluminum castings. Mathematical modeling of microporosity is difficult due to a lack of chemical parameters and a limited understanding of the mechanisms of pore formation and development. The objective of the present work is to obtain a better understanding of the nucleation and growth of microporosity in Al-7%Si (A356) foundry alloy. This consisted of the measurement of the surface tension of A356 alloy, a study of the factors that affect the final amount of porosity in castings, and the measurement of the evolution of porosity during solidification. The measurement of the surface tension of pure aluminum and A356 alloy was performed under vacuum and hydrogen atmospheres. The surface tension of A356 alloy under vacuum at 630°C was 0.889 N/m. The addition of hydrogen did not significantly alter this value. The addition of strontium decreased the surface tension by about 5%. It was concluded that the effect of strontium on the surface tension was not the cause of the increase in porosity observed in strontium modified castings. The effects of hydrogen content, local solidification time and strontium modification on microporosity were studied. Two critical fraction solids were associated with the formation of microporosity. The first, the critical fraction solid for pore growth, is the point at which preexisting baseline porosity begins to grow due to hydrogen evolution. It varied with hydrogen content and strontium modification. The second, the critical fraction solid for nucleation, is the point at which shrinkage type porosity nucleates. It did not vary with hydrogen content or strontium modification, and remained constant at approximately 75--80% solid. The measurement of microporosity was performed using image analysis. A new method for filtering and sorting the data, based on nearest neighbor cluster analysis, was developed. A mathematical model based on the current experimental results was created. The model is capable of predicting the evolution of the percentage porosity during solidification, the final percentage porosity and the maximum pore size.

Anson, James Philip

2000-10-01

417

Erosion threshold of sand-mud mixtures  

OpenAIRE

Results of a large number of erosion tests on artificially generated and relatively dense sand-mud mixtures are presented. Soil sample compositions are varied concerning clay-silt and sand-silt ratio, and clay mineralogy. The experimental set-up consists of a re-circulating small-scale rectangular erosion flume with unidirectional flow conditions. The erosion threshold and erosion rate are studied through step by step increasing the flow rate during a test. Results clearly indicate time-decre...

Jacobs, Walter; Le Hir, Pierre; Kesteren, Walther; Cann, Philippe

2011-01-01

418

Laboratory evaluation of selected tar sand asphalts  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Three tar sand asphalts of similar grades prepared from one syncrude by three different refining methods were characterized by tests commonly used to specify paving asphalts together with certain special tests. Asphalt-aggregate mixtures were prepared using these asphalts and tested in the laboratory to determine strength stiffness stability, tensile properties, temperature effects and water susceptibility. Comparison of the tar sand asphalt properties to conventional petroleum asphalt properties reveal no striking differences.

Button, J.W.; Epps, J.A.; Gallaway, B.M.

1980-12-01

419

Sand and dust storm events in Iraq  

OpenAIRE

Iraq is one of the most affected countries in the Middle East concerning the occurrences of sand and dust storms. The frequency of the occurrence has increased drastically in the last decade and it is increasing continuously. The events of sand and dust storms are either regional or local. The former, however, is more frequent than the latter. The regional event, generally extends outside the Iraqi territory, into different directions, but usually covers part of Syria, crossing the Iraqi terr...

Sissakian, Varoujan K.; Nadhir Al-Ansari; Sven Knutsson

2013-01-01

420

Relationships of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera)  

OpenAIRE

The status of phlebotomine sand flies in relationship to the family Psychodidae (Diptera) is reviewed. It is concluded that sand flies should be given familial recognition as Phlebotomidae, divided into subfamilies Phlebotominae and Bruchomyiinae. A comparison is made between the evolution of Psychodidae and Phlebotomidae, and it is concluded that the two families represent contrasting evolutionary experiments at an early stage of the diversification of Diptera.

Paul Williams

1993-01-01

421

Textural characteristics of the Nigerian tar sands  

Science.gov (United States)

Extensive tar sands with reserves of about 41 billion barrels of oil are known to occur in Cretaceous terrigenous sediments in Ondo and Ogun States of Nigeria. The hydrocarbon occurs in two predominantly sandy zones separated by an 8 m thick oil shale. The lower (Horizon Y) is mostly quartz sand, 3-26 m thick. It shows an upward fining of grains and increased consolidation updip. The upper Horizon X is 10-22 m of sandstone with interbedded shales and siltstones. The sands are loosely consolidated. Cementing material is lacking, the grains being held together largely by the tarry oil. Porosity is about 30% and mean oil saturation in both zones is 12%. The recorded clay content (2-7%) is considerably lower than the average for Athabasca, Canada (10-25%) and may enhance the settling properties of the tailing ponds. The sands are water-wet, fine- to medium-grained, moderately well sorted, mesokurtic and positively skewed to near symmetrical. The Nigerian tar sands compare closely with the Athabasca sands in all the above textural parameters. They would thus be expected to show identical response to mining processing, except for the influence of higher ground-water table and the high humidity and ambient temperatures in Nigeria.

Enu, E. I.

1985-05-01

422

Study of titanomagnetite sands from Costa Rica  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In Cahuita town, Limon province, at the Atlantic coast of Costa Rica there are titanomagnetite sands. The chemical, structural and magnetic characterization of the titanomagnetite sands can clarify aspects of their geological formation; as well as suggest applications from them. The magnetic sand is composed mainly of titanomagnetite and hematite, with very small quartz impurities quantities, pyroxene, etc. The refinement of X-rays diffraction patterns by the method of Rietveld indicates an 86.03% in weight of titanomagnetite and a 13.97% in weight of hematite. The particles size of this magnetic sand have an interval of 75-300 ?m and a specific surface area of 1.18 m2/g. The specific magnetization of the saturation of the sand is 55.8 emu/g and the intrinsic coercivity is 39.6 Oe. In this work a characterization of the titanomagnetite sands is presented the chemical composition was determined by absorption spectroscopy. The present crystalline phases were determined by X-ray diffraction. The morphology and composition of the particles were determined by scanning electron microscopy together with microanalytical techniques. The classification of the particles by shape and color were carried out using optical microscopy. The magnetic properties and the hyperfine structure were measured by vibrating sample magnetometry and Moessbauer spectroscopy

423

Optical Dating of Tsunami-Laid Sands  

Science.gov (United States)

The ages of some tsunami deposits can be determined by optical dating, a key requirement being that the deposits are derived from sediment that was reworked and exposed to daylight by tidal currents, waves, wind, or bioturbation during the last years before the tsunami. Measurements have been made using 1.4 eV (infrared) excitation of K-feldspar grains separated from samples of prehistoric tsunami sand sheets and modern analogs of tsunami source sediments at four sites in Washington state and British Columbia. Source sands gave equivalent doses indicative of recent exposure to daylight. Tsunami sand at Cultus Bay, Washington, yielded an optical age of 1285 ± 95 yr (calendric years before A.D. 1995, ±1?). At 2?, this age overlaps the range of from 1030 to 1100 yr determined through a combination of high-precision radiocarbon dating and stratigraphic correlation. Tsunami sands at three sites near Tofino and Port Alberni on Vancouver Island, British Columbia, have optical ages of 260 ± 20, 325 ± 25, and 335 ± 45 yr. Historical records and radiocarbon dating show that the sand at each of the three sites is between 150 and 400 yr old. These optical ages support the hypothesis that the Vancouver Island sands were deposited by a tsunami generated by a large earthquake on the Cascadia subduction zone about 300 yr ago.

Huntley, David J.; Clague, John J.

1996-09-01

424

Impact Behavior of A356 Foundry Alloys in the Presence of Trace Elements Ni and V  

Science.gov (United States)

In the present work, the impact behavior of unmodified A356 alloys with the addition of Ni or V in as-cast and T6 heat-treated conditions was assessed. Charpy V-notched specimens obtained from sand and permanent mold casting showed low total absorbed energy average values (W t < 2 J). SEM analysis of fracture profiles and surfaces indicated a Si-driven crack propagation with a predominant transgranular fracture mode. Occasionally, intergranular contributions to fracture were detected in the permanent mold cast alloys due to the locally finer microstructure. Concurrent mechanisms related to the chemical composition, solidification conditions and heat treatment were found to control the impact properties of the alloys. While the trace element Ni exerted only minor effects on the impact toughness of the A356 alloy, V had a strong influence: (i) V-containing sand cast alloys absorbed slightly higher impact energies compared to the corresponding A356 base alloys; (ii) in the permanent mold cast alloys, V in solid solution led to a considerable loss of ductility, which in turn decreased the total absorbed energy.

Casari, Daniele; Ludwig, Thomas H.; Merlin, Mattia; Arnberg, Lars; Garagnani, Gian Luca

2014-12-01

425

Layers, Landslides, and Sand Dunes  

Science.gov (United States)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Released 27 October 2003This image shows the northern rim of one of the Valles Marineris canyons. Careful inspection shows many interesting features here. Note that the spurs and gullies in the canyon wall disappear some distance below the top of the canyon wall, indicating the presence of some smooth material here that weathers differently from the underlying rocks. On the floor of the canyon, there are remains from a landslide that came hurtling down the canyon wall between two spurs. Riding over the topography of the canyon floor are many large sand dunes, migrating generally from the lower right to upper left.Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -14.1, Longitude 306.7 East (53.3 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

2003-01-01

426

Tidal sands as biogeochemical reactors  

Science.gov (United States)

Sandy sediments of continental shelves and most beaches are often thought of as geochemical deserts because they are usually poor in organic matter and other reactive substances. The present study focuses on analyses of dissolved biogenic compounds of surface seawater and pore waters of Aquitanian coastal beach sediments. To quantitatively assess the biogeochemical reactions, we collected pore waters at low tide on tidal cross-shore transects unaffected by freshwater inputs. We recorded temperature, salinity, oxygen saturation state, and nutrient concentrations. These parameters were compared to the values recorded in the seawater entering the interstitial environment during floods. Cross-shore topography and position of piezometric level at low tide were obtained from kinematics GPS records. Residence time of pore waters was estimated by a tracer approach, using dissolved silica concentration and kinetics estimate of quartz dissolution with seawater. Kinetics parameters were based on dissolved silica concentration monitoring during 20-day incubations of sediment with seawater. We found that seawater that entered the sediment during flood tides remained up to seven tidal cycles within the interstitial environment. Oxygen saturation of seawater was close to 100%, whereas it was as low as 80% in pore waters. Concentrations of dissolved nutrients were higher in pore waters than in seawater. These results suggest that aerobic respiration occurred in the sands. We propose that mineralised organic matter originated from planktonic material that infiltrated the sediment with water during flood tides. Therefore, the sandy tidal sediment of the Aquitanian coast is a biogeochemical reactor that promotes or accelerates remineralisation of coastal pelagic primary production. Mass balance calculations suggest that this single process supplies about 37 kmol of nitrate and 1.9 kmol of dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP) to the 250-km long Aquitanian coast during each semi-diurnal tidal cycle. It represents about 1.5% of nitrate and 5% of DIP supplied by the nearest estuary.

Anschutz, Pierre; Smith, Thomas; Mouret, Aurélia; Deborde, Jonathan; Bujan, Stéphane; Poirier, Dominique; Lecroart, Pascal

2009-08-01

427

The kinetics of activation and deactivation in the process of water ozonising used for advanced oxidation of the dust waste from moulding sands  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Adding coal dust and organic carriers of the lustrous carbon to bentonite-bonded moulding sands in amounts justified by thetechnological regime and the use of cores and protective coatings based on organic compounds create serious threats to the environment.During thermal destruction of the individual components of moulding and core sands, some toxic organic compounds are emitted. They formthe majority of the Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAPs, and include mainly compounds like benzene, toluene, xylene, naphtalene, hexane,acetaldehyde, acrolein, aniline, cresol and cumene, their polycyclic derivatives, phenol, formaldehyde, and other similar matters. In thusformed dust waste, the amount of which constitutes about 20% of all the waste from foundries using traditional moulding and core sands, there are still full-value materials which can undergo total recycling, providing the HAPs are partially or totally removed from them. The article discusses some problems of the advanced oxidation of selected toxic chemical compounds present in bentonite-bonded moulding sands due to the effect of high temperature. The results of the investigations of the kinetics of the process of maximum water saturation with ozone (acting as an oxidiser and of the kinetics of the natural process of ozone decomposition to diatomic oxygen were presented. It has been stated that the maximum time of water saturation with ozone using an OZOMATIC OSC-MODULAR 4HC ozone generator and a 1m3 capacity tank with water is 60 minutes. After 30 minute break in the ozonising process, the ozone concentration in water decreases by 40 to 50%. To obtain maximum ozone concentration in water during the next ozonising cycle, it is necessary to have the ozone-generating device running for the next 30 minutes. The stabilisation of ozone concentration in water takes place only after the third ozonising cycle, when it reaches nearly 80%of the maximum value obtained after the first process cycle

A. Bali?ski

2009-01-01

428

Experimental assessment of the liquefaction resistance of calcareous biogenous sands  

OpenAIRE

ABSTRACT

Liquefaction is a phenomenon in which soils, typically sands, suddenly loose a substantial amount of their shear strength and stiffness, this often triggered by large-magnitude earthquakes. Most liquefaction research has focused on silicate-based sands and not on other sand types, such as calcareous biogenous sands Calcareous sands ar...

Sandoval Eimar; Pando Miguel A

2012-01-01

429

Provenance and recycling of Arabian desert sand  

Science.gov (United States)

This study seeks to determine the ultimate origin of aeolian sand in Arabian deserts by high-resolution petrographic and heavy-mineral techniques combined with zircon U-Pb geochronology. Point-counting is used here as the sole method by which unbiased volume percentages of heavy minerals can be obtained. A comprehensive analysis of river and wadi sands from the Red Sea to the Bitlis-Zagros orogen allowed us to characterize all potential sediment sources, and thus to quantitatively constrain provenance of Arabian dune fields. Two main types of aeolian sand can be distinguished. Quartzose sands with very poor heavy-mineral suites including zircon occupy most of the region comprising the Great Nafud and Rub' al-Khali Sand Seas, and are largely recycled from thick Lower Palaeozoic quartzarenites with very minor first-cycle contributions from Precambrian basement, Mesozoic carbonate rocks, or Neogene basalts. Instead, carbonaticlastic sands with richer lithic and heavy-mineral populations characterize coastal dunes bordering the Arabian Gulf from the Jafurah Sand Sea of Saudi Arabia to the United Arab Emirates. The similarity with detritus carried by the axial Tigris-Euphrates system and by transverse rivers draining carbonate rocks of the Zagros indicates that Arabian coastal dunes largely consist of far-travelled sand, deposited on the exposed floor of the Gulf during Pleistocene lowstands and blown inland by dominant Shamal northerly winds. A dataset of detrital zircon U-Pb ages measured on twelve dune samples and two Lower Palaeozoic sandstones yielded fourteen identical age spectra. The age distributions all show a major Neoproterozoic peak corresponding to the Pan-African magmatic and tectonic events by which the Arabian Shield was assembled, with minor late Palaeoproterozoic and Neoarchean peaks. A similar U-Pb signature characterizes also Jafurah dune sands, suggesting that zircons are dominantly derived from interior Arabia, possibly deflated from the Wadi al-Batin fossil alluvial fan or even from Mesozoic sandstones of the Arabian margin accreted to the Cenozoic Zagros orogen. Due to extensive recycling and the fact that zircon is so resistant to weathering and erosion, the U-Pb age signatures are much less powerful a tracer of sedimentary provenance than framework petrography and heavy minerals. Actualistic provenance studies of dune fields at subcontinental scale shed light on the generation and homogenization of aeolian sand, and allow us to trace complex pathways of multistep sediment transport, thus providing crucial independent information for accurate palaeogeographic and palaeoclimatic reconstructions.

Garzanti, Eduardo; Vermeesch, Pieter; Andò, Sergio; Vezzoli, Giovanni; Valagussa, Manuel; Allen, Kate; Kadi, Khalid A.; Al-Juboury, Ali I. A.

2013-05-01

430

Automação industrial e sistemas informatizados de gestão da produção em fundições de mercado / Industrial automation and computerized production management systems in make-to-order foundries  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Fundição é um processo de fabricação que vem crescendo em importância. O principal objetivo deste artigo é analisar, em termos de automação e sistemas informatizados de gestão da produção (SIGP), as fundições de mercado (fundições que produzem sob encomenda um grande número de pedidos vindos, em ger [...] al, de um grande número de clientes) no interior do Estado de São Paulo pertencentes aos 5 principais pólos (Piracicaba, Indaiatuba, Limeira, São Carlos e Itu) com 10 a 250 trabalhadores. Das 61 empresas do interior de São Paulo, 35 situam-se nesses 5 pólos (ou em suas imediações); entrevistamos pessoalmente os diretores industriais e visitamos o chão de fábrica de 30 fundições dentre essas 35. Analisamos quase 200 tabelas de freqüência e de contingência e extraímos várias conclusões, por exemplo: (i) entre os três principais problemas e necessidades relativos à produção, dois deles estão diretamente relacionados com a automação industrial e com os SIGP; (ii) são coincidentes os interesses em automação e SIGP. Abstract in english Foundry is a manufacturing process with a growing importance. The main objective of this paper is to analyze, in terms of automation and of computerized production management systems (CPMS), the make-to-order foundry in the interior of the state of São Paulo belonging to 5 main foundry industrial di [...] stricts (Piracicaba, Indaiatuba, Limeira, São Carlos and Itu) with 10 to 250 workers. From the 61 enterprises in the interior of São Paulo State, 35 are situated in these 5 industrial districts (or in their neighborhood); we interviewed personally the industrial executive officer and visited the shop-floor of 30 among this 35 foundries. We have analyzed almost 200 frequency and contingency tables and draw several conclusions, for example: (i) among the three main problems and necessities related with production, two of them are directly related with automation and CPMS; (ii) automation and CPMS generate coincident interests on the make-to-order foundries.

Flavio Cesar F., Fernandes; Reinaldo Batista, Leite.

2002-12-01

431

Optimization as investment decision support in a Swedish medium-sized iron foundry - A move beyond traditional energy auditing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Due to increased globalisation, industries are facing greater competition that is pressing companies into decreasing their expenses in order to increase their profits. As regards Swedish industry, it has been faced with substantial increases in energy prices in recent years. Barriers to energy efficiency such as imperfect information inhibit investments in energy efficiency measures, energy audits being one means of reducing barriers and overcoming imperfect information. However, an evaluation of such energy audits in Sweden reveals that it is chiefly low-cost measures that are undertaken as a result of an audit. Moreover, these audits often tend to focus on support processes such as ventilation, lighting, air compressors etc., while measures impacting production processes are often not as extensively covered, which underlines the need for further support in addition to energy audits. Decision support is practised in a variety of different disciplines such as optimization and simulation and the aim of this paper is to explore whether investment decision support practices may be used successfully towards small and medium-sized manufacturers in Sweden when complex production-related investment decisions are taken. The optimization results from the different cases, involving a foundry's investment in a new melting unit, indicate that with no electricity price fluctuations over the day, the investment seems sound as it lowers the overall energy costs. However, with fluctuoverall energy costs. However, with fluctuating electricity prices, there are no large differences in energy costs between the option of retaining the existing five melting furnaces at the foundry and investing in a twin furnace and removing the holding furnaces - which was the initial investment plan for the foundry in the study. It would not have been possible to achieve this outcome without the use of investment decision support such as MIND. One of the main conclusions in this paper is that investment decision support, when strategic investment decisions are to be taken, may be a means of emphasising energy efficiency for energy-intensive SMEs beyond the level of traditional energy auditing. (author)

432

Optimization as investment decision support in a Swedish medium-sized iron foundry - A move beyond traditional energy auditing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Due to increased globalisation, industries are facing greater competition that is pressing companies into decreasing their expenses in order to increase their profits. As regards Swedish industry, it has been faced with substantial increases in energy prices in recent years. Barriers to energy efficiency such as imperfect information inhibit investments in energy efficiency measures, energy audits being one means of reducing barriers and overcoming imperfect information. However, an evaluation of such energy audits in Sweden reveals that it is chiefly low-cost measures that are undertaken as a result of an audit. Moreover, these audits often tend to focus on support processes such as ventilation, lighting, air compressors etc., while measures impacting production processes are often not as extensively covered, which underlines the need for further support in addition to energy audits. Decision support is practised in a variety of different disciplines such as optimization and simulation and the aim of this paper is to explore whether investment decision support practices may be used successfully towards small and medium-sized manufacturers in Sweden when complex production-related investment decisions are taken. The optimization results from the different cases, involving a foundry's investment in a new melting unit, indicate that with no electricity price fluctuations over the day, the investment seems sound as it lowers the overall energy costs. However, with fluctuoverall energy costs. However, with fluctuating electricity prices, there are no large differences in energy costs between the option of retaining the existing five melting furnaces at the foundry and investing in a twin furnace and removing the holding furnaces - which was the initial investment plan for the foundry in the study. It would not have been possible to achieve this outcome without the use of investment decision support such as MIND. One of the main conclusions in this paper is that investment decision support, when strategic investment decisions are to be taken, may be a means of emphasising energy efficiency for energy-intensive SMEs beyond the level of traditional energy auditing

433

The Effect of use the Silica Sand  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This research includes study the effects of use the silica sand at different rates and comparison some characteristics with other concrete mixture contains ordinary sand to investigate the effect on some mechanical properties of concrete such as compressive strength, density absorption and flexural strength after (3, 7, 14 and 28 days for four mixtures.  , the ordinary sand was replaced by the (Silica Sand at different rates ( 25%, 50%, 75%, 100%. Sodium Silicate solution at percentage of cement ratio(water to cement ratio is decreased on same ratio added to the Ideal silica sand mixture  to study the effect of addition of some additives on concrete. The study showed that the  best results of mixture was when  replaced (75% of the ordinary sand by silica sand , then study some mechanical properties of mixtures such as compressive strength, density absorption and flexural strength after (3, 7, 14 and 28 days .                             The study showed the optimum percentage of sodium silicate was (1.75%. The study showed that the best result of Density was (2493Kg/m3 after (28 days, and the increment ratio in Density was (2.95%, and the large value in compressive strength was (85.76 MPa which was (42.9% after (28 days. The study showed also that the best results of absorption were (0.77 after (28 days, and the decrement ratio in Absorption was (33.8%. The study showed that the best result of flexural strength was (8.02 MPa after (28 days, and the maximum increment ratio in Flexural Strength was (150.6% after (28 days.                                                                   

Nahla N. Helal

2013-04-01

434

Calculation of the store house worker dose in a lost wax foundry using MCNP-4C  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Lost wax casting is an industrial process which permits the transmutation into metal of models made in wax. The wax model is covered with a siliceous shell of the required thickness and once this shell is built the set is heated and wax melted. Liquid metal is then cast into the shell replacing the wax. When the metal is cool, the shell is broken away in order to recover the metallic piece. In this process zircon sands are used for the preparation of the siliceous shell. These sands have varying concentrations of natural radionuclides: 238U, 232Th and 235U together with their progenics. The zircon sand is distributed in bags of 50 kg, and 30 bags are on a pallet, weighing 1,500 kg. The pallets with the bags have dimensions 80 cm x 120 cm x 80 cm, and constitute the radiation source in this case. The only pathway of exposure to workers in the store house is external radiation. In this case there is no dust because the bags are closed and covered by plastic, the store house has a good ventilation rate and so radon accumulation is not possible. The workers do not touch with their hands the bags and consequently skin contamination will not take place. In this study all situations of external irradiation to the workers have been considered; transportation of the pallets from vehicle to store house, lifting the pallets to the shelf, resting of the stock on the shelf, getting down the pallets, and carrying the pallets to production area. Usinrying the pallets to production area. Using MCNP-4C exposure situations have been simulated, considering that the source has a homogeneous composition, the minimum stock in the store house is constituted by 7 pallets, and the several distances between pallets and workers when they are at work. The photons flux obtained by MCNP-4C is multiplied by the conversion factor of Flux to Kerma for air by conversion factor to Effective Dose by Kerma unit, and by the number of emitted photons. Those conversion factors are obtained of ICRP 74 table 1 and table 17 respectively. This is the way to obtain a function giving dose rate around the source. (authors)

435

Wind tunnel experimental investigation of sand velocity in aeolian sand transport  

Science.gov (United States)

Sand velocity in aeolian sand transport was measured using the laser Doppler technique of PDPA (Phase Doppler Particle Analyzer) in a wind tunnel. The sand velocity profile, probability distribution of particle velocity, particle velocity fluctuation and particle turbulence were analyzed in detail. The experimental results verified that the sand horizontal velocity profile can be expressed by a logarithmic function above 0.01 m, while a deviation occurs below 0.01 m. The mean vertical velocity of grains generally ranges from - 0.2 m/s to 0.2 m/s, and is downward at the lower height, upward at the higher height. The probability distributions of the horizontal velocity of ascending and descending particles have a typical peak and are right-skewed at a height of 4 mm in the lower part of saltation layer. The vertical profile of the horizontal RMS velocity fluctuation of particles shows a single peak. The horizontal RMS velocity fluctuation of sand particles is generally larger than the vertical RMS velocity fluctuation. The RMS velocity fluctuations of grains in both horizontal and vertical directions increase with wind velocity. The particle turbulence intensity decreases with height. The present investigation is helpful in understanding the sand movement mechanism in windblown sand transport and also provides a reference for the study of blowing sand velocity.

Kang, Liqiang; Guo, Liejin; Gu, Zhengmeng; Liu, Dayou

2008-05-01

436

Cleaning oil sands drilling waste in Alberta  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The waste generated from steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) wells is brought to the surface and separated by shale shakers. The waste can include drilling fluids and sand contaminated with bitumen. This paper described a new technology developed to treat waste using the addition of hot water and various mixing and separation technologies to reduce the viscosity of the bitumen and separate it from the sand. The bitumen-contaminated drill cuttings were mixed with hot water to form a slurry that was then separated through the G-force created by a hydrocyclone. A secondary separation was then conducted in an elutriation column to remove residual contaminants from the sand. The flow rate of the process was controlled by the fine solids composition of the cuttings, the temperature of the cleaning process, and the performance of the individual components. Laboratory tests conducted to tests the method showed that the sand particles produced using the method were clean enough to be safely disposed in the environment. A pilot study will be conducted to test the sand cleaning technology at a commercial scale. 6 refs., 3 figs.

Mikic, N.; Nilsen, C.; Markabi, M. [Mi SWACO, Calgary, AB (Canada)

2008-07-01

437

Energy intensity and economic performance in small scale bricks and foundry clusters in India: does energy intensity matter?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper probes energy intensity and economic performance in small enterprises with reference to two energy-intensive small-scale industry (SSI) clusters in the state of Karnataka in India. Based on analysis of primary data collected from 38 bricks enterprises and 31 foundries, the paper brought out that there is a positive relationship not only between energy intensity and share of energy cost in total variable cost but also between energy intensity and value of output. But there is a negative relationship between energy intensity and factor productivities. Energy made a statistically significant contribution to economic performance in terms of returns to scale. Those small enterprises, which were less energy intensive, achieved higher returns to scale than those, which were more energy intensive. Therefore, it is imperative for Indian Policy Makers to include 'energy efficiency improvement' programmes as part of the strategy for enhancing SSI competitiveness

438

Modernisation of tree-phase electric arc furnace in steel foundries; Modernisierung von Drehstrom-Lichtbogenoefen in Stahlgiessereien  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

With reference to an 8-t-EAF commissioned in 1984, the purpose of this article is the description of the comprehensive process of maintenance and modernization of a furnace system. This includes the electro-technical equipment, the hydraulics and the mechanical part of the furnace. Great importance is given to a user-friendly design, to the consideration of safety-requirements and to improvements of the measuring and control technology. Charge accompanying measurements were conducted before and after the maintenance process. The operating- and maintenance personnel was instructed properly. Comparative considerations of the characteristics results before and after the maintenance imply the enhancement and effectiveness of the measures that might be of interest for other foundries. (orig.)

Kuhlow, Peter [Ingenieurbuero fuer Elektrowaerme, Parchim (Germany); Weber, Wolfgang [ELIMO GmbH, Riesa (Germany); Sachse, Gunther [ATS Sachse GmbH, Leipzig (Germany)

2012-12-15

439

Western gas sands project: status report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report summarizes the progress of government sponsored projects undertaken to increase gas production from low-permeability gas sands of the western United States during June, 1978. Background information is given in the September 1977 Status Report, NVO/0655-100. USGS is continuing geological and geophysical studies to characterize the resource base in the four primary study areas. Field work is under way at the following locations: Western Green River Basin, Sand Wash Basin, Central Montana, Southern Piceance Basin, and Uinta Basin near Price, Utah. The DOE funded National Laboratories are continuing their work directed toward the development of mathematical models, new tools and instrumentation systems, data analysis, and rock mechanics. Active field tests and demonstrations continue in the Piceance and Uinta Basins. CIGE Well No. 2 was fractured on June 22, 1978 with 170,500 lb sand and 203,000 gal of gel. 42 figures, 3 tables.

1978-07-31

440

Characterization of sand boils with grading entropy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Grain size and grain distribution by size are dominant factors determining soil behaviour. The shape and position of a grain distribution curve contain implicit information about the propensity of sand boiling or piping at flood conditions. The author used 1040-grain distribution curves taken from 12 sand boil locations to study the relationship between sand boils, hydraulic soil failures and entropy. The results have justified the hypotheses and indicated some fairly important details for practical consideration. Calculating grain distribution entropy is not “magic” with mathematics: it simply helps put the expected behaviour of soils into a different perspective and promotes orientation for classifying soils according to a new parameter related to grain movement.

Na? Laslo

2012-01-01

441

Thermoluminescent dosimetric properties of Descalvado sand  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sand samples proceeding from Descalvado, Sao Paulo, were studied with regard to their dosimetric properties using the thermoluminescence technique (TL) for high doses. These sand samples present steady physical and chemical characteristics to the end items, and they are used in the glass industry and for casting. The TL curves of the samples were obtained after an irradiation at the Gamma-Cell system (60 Co), of IPEN. The glow curves present two peaks at 80 C and 220 C approximately. Calibration curves were obtained for doses between 50 Gy and 5 kGy. The results indicate that the sand samples can be used for high-doses dosimetry in several areas of applications of ionizing radiation. (Author)

442

Lund Sand No 0 : part 2  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

During the last 15 years the Geotechnical Engineering Group (GEG) at Aalborg University has performed triaxial tests with a sand called Lund No 0. Lund No 0 is a graded sand from a gravel pit near Horsens in Denmark. For the classification of the sand the following tests have been performed: Sieve test, Grain density, ds, Maximum, emax, and minimum, emin, void ratio. The strength parameters of Lund No 0 are detennined by some drained and undrained triaxial tests in the Danish Triaxial Cell. The Danish Triaxial Cell prescribes smooth pressure heads and specimens with equal height and diameter. Four series with Id equal to 0.92, 0.87 0.76 and 0.55 have been performed.

Ibsen, Lars Bo; Jakobsen, Finn Rosendal

1996-01-01

443

Lund Sand No 0 : part 1  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

During the last 15 years the Geotechnical Engineering Group (GEG) at Aalborg University has performed triaxial tests with a sand called Lund No 0. Lund No 0 is a graded sand from a gravel pit near Horsens in Denmark. For the classification of the sand the following tests have been performed: Sieve test, Grain density, ds, Maximum, emax, and minimum, emin, void ratio. The strength parameters of Lund No 0 are detennined by some drained and undrained triaxial tests in the Danish Triaxial Cell. The Danish Triaxial Cell prescribes smooth pressure heads and specimens with equal height and diameter. Four series with Id equal to 0.92, 0.87 0.76 and 0.55 have been performed.

Ibsen, Lars Bo; Jakobsen, Finn Rosendal

1996-01-01

444

The sand-glass gas detector (SGG)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A novel position-sensitive micro-pattern gas detector called Sand-Glass is introduced. It has been manufactured using printed circuit board technique and its structure is based on two thin kapton foils joined together. The foils are copper-clad on both sides with the strip electrodes structure engraved on either side, and with a very dense perforation in the form of a conically shaped hole pattern etched through both foils, which forms the Sand-Glass shape. The two foils are in electrical contact; the outer faces form cathodes, and the inner layer becomes an anode. Due to the electric field symmetry, electrons from avalanches are collected on the central electrode of the Sand-Glass holes. This geometry may allow 2D readout in the single gas amplification structure. Preliminary results of the SGG detector prototype tests are reported

445

Oil sand synfuel production using nuclear energy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The importance of oil sand as a primary energy carrier is illustrated. The oil sand mining project 'synfuel' in Fort McMurray, Alberta, Canada, is described. On the basis of a layout of an In-situ-process different possibilities of introducing nuclear energy to the process are described. This leads to an increase of the product yield, leading finally to a doubling of the energy output compared to the reference layout. The introduction of nuclear energy contributes to the reduction of emissions, in particular to the emission of carbon dioxide in the conversion process. (orig.)

446

Gamma Ray Shielding from Saudi White Sand  

OpenAIRE

This study is a comparison of gamma ray linear attenuation coefficient of two typs of shielding materials made of Saudi white and red sand. Each shield was consisted of one part of cement two parts of sand in addi-tion to water. Different thicknesses were tested. The concentrations of all elements in each shield material were determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS). The results obtained from the ICP-MS were used in MCNP4B (Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Computer ...

Okla, Al-horayess; Omar, Al-dayel; Jameel, Hefne; Turki, Al-ajyan; Ali, Bagazi

2010-01-01

447

Sand dunes, Mocamedes Desert, Angola, Africa  

Science.gov (United States)

These lines of sand dunes in the Mocamedes Desert, Angola, Africa (16.0S, 12.0E), make a festoon pattern as they curve inland from the coast. Beach sand is blown inland by very strong southerly winds giving rise to lines of dunes, the crests of which have a ribbed appearance. The reason for the inland curve of the winds is not known but the effect can bve observed at the mouths of most of the major valleys along the Namib coast to the south.

1990-01-01

448

Sand control systems used in completing wells  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Expandable Tubular Technology is transforming the face of well completion and construction. This technology provides: a substantially higher hydrocarbon production rates from the reservoir, a reduced well drilling and construction costs, new possibilities for previously unreachable or uneconomic reservoirs, and step a change towards the single diameter well. ESS (Expandable Sand Screen has an unrivalled performance worldwide for delivering a reliable sand control in a wide range of applications. Well costs typically cut by over 20 %, and the productivity increases up to 70 %.

Gabriel Wittenberger

2005-12-01

449

Threshold for sand mobility on Mars calibrated from seasonal variations of sand flux  

Science.gov (United States)

Coupling between surface winds and saltation is a fundamental factor governing geological activity and climate on Mars. Saltation of sand is crucial for both erosion of the surface and dust lifting into the atmosphere. Wind tunnel experiments along with measurements from surface meteorology stations and modelling of wind speeds suggest that winds should only rarely move sand on Mars. However, evidence for currently active dune migration has recently accumulated. Crucially, the frequency of sand-moving events and the implied threshold wind stresses for saltation have remained unknown. Here we present detailed measurements of Nili Patera dune field based on High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment images, demonstrating that sand motion occurs daily throughout much of the year and that the resulting sand flux is strongly seasonal. Analysis of the seasonal sand flux variation suggests an effective threshold for sand motion for application to large-scale model wind fields (1–100?km scale) of ?s=0.01±0.0015?N?m?2.

Ayoub, F.; Avouac, J.-P.; Newman, C. E.; Richardson, M. I.; Lucas, A.; Leprince, S.; Bridges, N. T.

2014-09-01

450

Sexing sand fly pupae (Diptera: Psychodidade: Phlebotominae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english We describe a technique to separate male and female pupae of sand flies. This has reduced the labour to separate flies after emergence and also allows the isolation of unmated adults for behavioural and physiological studies. [...

Beatriz Gomes, Brazil; Reginaldo Peçanha, Brazil.

2000-08-01

451

Steamflood experiment in a Utah tar sand  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The first Laramie Energy Technology Center steamflood experiment in a Utah Tar Sand, LETC TS-1S, was conducted in the Northwest Asphalt Ridge deposit located near Vernal, Utah. Following completion of construction in April 1980, steam injection was initiated in the center well of two concentric inverted five spot patterns. 8 refs.

Johnson, L.A. Jr.; Fahy, L.J.; Romanowski, L.J. Jr.

1981-01-01

452

Animals Between the Sand Grains - Meiofauna  

Science.gov (United States)

In this lab activity, students will observe the minute animals that live between sand grains. The activity includes a list of materials, procedures, and discussion question. It is supplemented with reference images and a list of species and their phyla, including Gastrotrichicha, Crustacea/Ostracoda, Crustacea/Copepoda/Harpacticoidea, Nematoda, Turbellaria, Nemertina, Archiannelida, Polychaeta, and Oligochaeta.

Center, Ucla M.

453

EXPRESSING SUPPLY LIMITATION IN SAND SALTATION  

Science.gov (United States)

Saltation-driven sandblasting is the most effective producer of windblown dust. Modeling of wind-blown dust emissions requires an efficient parameterization of sand flux in the saltating mode. According to the theory of P. R. Owen the horizontal mass flux of saltating uniform p...

454

Compaction tests on quartz sand - bentonite mixtures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this report the results are presented of compaction tests on quartz sand - bentonite mixtures. The selected quartz sand exhibited a steep grading curve in the range 1 to 1.5 mm. The bentonites used were those previously investigated, i.e. the Na-bentonite MX-80 and the Ca-bentonite Montigel. The mixtures were statically compacted in a compaction mould. Altogether about 80 tests were carried out, in which the bentonite content was varied between roughly 20 and 50 % of the weight of sand and the compacting pressure was between 80 and 320 MN/m2. The tests showed that the pressures required to reach a given dry density of the bentonite filling the pores of the sand's grain structure were 10 to 20 times greater than those required for specimens of bentonite alone. It was also observed that the m