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1

Foundry sand reclamation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A dry method of conditioning spent foundry sand is disclosed. After having sized the sand and removal of tramp metallic elements, the sand is subjected to a sequence of squeezing under a high-stress low kinetic energy system for a period of 5-30 minutes, and then propelled against a target with high-kinetic energy in the presence of a suction for several minutes. This sequence can be preferably repeated to increase the quality of the resulting product which should have 0.1% or less of fine particles, a pH of 6-9, a clay content and organic combustible content of substantially zero. The reclaimed sand will exhibit a density of at least 100 grams/biscuit when compacted for core making or molding

1984-01-01

2

Foundry sand reclamation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A dry method of conditioning spent foundry sand is disclosed. After having sized the sand and removal of tramp metallic elements, the sand is subjected to a sequence of squeezing under a high-stress low kinetic energy system for a period of 5-30 minutes, and then propelled against a target with high-kinetic energy in the presence of a suction for several minutes. This sequence can be preferably repeated to increase the quality of the resulting product which should have 0.1% or less of fine particles, a pH of 6-9, a clay content and organic combustible content of substantially zero. The reclaimed sand will exhibit a density of at least 100 grams/biscuit when compacted for core making or molding.

Filipovitch, A.J.; Bleuenstein, J.M.

1984-05-22

3

Foundry Sand Facts for Civil Engineers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Metal foundries use large amounts of sand as part of the metal casting process. Foundries successfully recycle and reuse the sand many times in a foundry. When the sand can no longer be reused in the foundry, it is removed from the foundry and is termed f...

2004-01-01

4

Dilatometric Characterization of Foundry Sands  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The goal of this contribution is summary of physical – chemistry properties of usually used foundry silica and no – silica sands in Czech foundries. With the help of dilatometry analysis theoretical assumptions of influence of grain shape and size on dilatation value of sands were confirmed. Determined was the possibility of dilatometry analysis employment for preparing special (hybrid sands with lower and/or more linear character of dilatation.

M. B?uska

2012-04-01

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[Environmental toxicity of waste foundry sand].  

Science.gov (United States)

The metal leaching characteristics and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of five different types of waste foundry sands were analyzed with the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) and head space-gas chromatography (HS-GC). Microtox and soil dehydrogenase activity (DHA) tests were then used to evaluate the bio-effects of these waste sands. The results showed that due to the different metals poured and casting materials used to make the sand molds, there was significant difference among the five waste foundry sands in the compositions and concentrations of metal and organic pollutants. The concentrations of Fe in the leachates of iron and steel casting waste foundry sand exceeded the maximal allowable concentrations specified in the National Standard of Drinking Water Quality, whereas the As concentration in the leachate of aluminum casting waste foundry sand exceeded the standard. The five waste foundry sands had quite different compositions and levels of VOCs, which resulted in different levels of inhibition effects on the luminescent bacteria (30% and 95%). Additionally, the soil DHA tests suggested that metal pollutants in waste foundry sands may inhibit the soil microbial activity, whereas organics in the sands may slightly promote the microbial activity. The results of this study indicated that the waste foundry sands may pose considerable threat to the environment when improperly disposed. PMID:23745431

Zhang, Hai-Feng; Wang, Yu-Jue; Wang, Jin-Lin; Huang, Tian-You; Xiong, Ying

2013-03-01

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Use of Foundry Sands in Transportation Applications.  

Science.gov (United States)

The primary objective of this project was to verify the availability and suitability of Texas-generated foundry sand (FS) for TxDOT and to develop specifications for use of these sands in TxDOT construction and maintenance applications. Extensive literatu...

C. Vipulanandan S. Cho S. Wang

2005-01-01

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Alternate utilization of foundry sand waste  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Illinois Geological Survey data indicate that Illinois foundries purchase nearly 800,000 tons of silica sand each year for the production of molds and cores. This paper reports that once utilized, this sand becomes an expensive and difficult commodity to dispose. The volume and regulatory status requirements make it unattractive to landfill operators. Most foundries use an industrial grade of silica of very high purity for the production of molds and cores. Recent data from the Illinois Geological Survey record silica usage in excess of 30 million tons per year in the state. Construction usage of silica includes applications such as: cement, concrete products, asphalt, fill and others. Industrial usage includes: glass products, foundry molds and cores, oil well propant, inert carriers for fertilizers and others

1992-02-26

8

Waste foundry sand: Environmental implication and characterization  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents the results of analyses using Scanning Electron Microscopy in field samples of waste foundry sand, as well as the results of granulometric, chemical and groundwater analyses. Field data allowed to characterize waste foundry sand and showed that there are elevated concentrations of metals in the groundwater (iron, manganese, boron and selenium, in addition to other potentially toxic elements (chromium, copper, cobalt, nickel, zinc, aluminum, iron, manganese, which are present in the waste and are considered not hazardous by current standards. Even if these elements are not considered hazardous, their concentrations above the permissible limit compromise the environmental quality of the site, posing risks to the local population, since they work in agriculture and use groundwater. Two different types of waste foundry sands were identified using granulometric analyses. Electron microscopy showed features related to morphological, chemical and mineralogical characteristics of grains that make up the waste. Quartz was the dominant mineral. Waste foundry sand is composed of two types of grains: a rounded grain with almost no incrustations formed during alloy production, and a second type of grain, which is not rounded, has incrustations, and always has several metals derived from alloys and associated with these incrustations. Chemical elements detected in groundwater with concentrations above the limits established by the regulatory bodies were found in wells located in the landfill area. Most of these elements show higher concentrations downstream, some of them with concentrations above the regulatory limit, and others show an increase in concentration upstream, indicating that the landfill may be impacting the local environment.

Gabriela Penkaitis

2012-12-01

9

Characterization of Beach/River Sand for Foundry Application  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A detailed experimental investigation is been reported on the characterization of beach/river sand for foundry use. Bulk properties of the sand samples collected were evaluated. The experimental results were analyzed as per the American Foundry Society (AFS standard. The analyses show that samples from Ughelli River, Warri River and Ethiope River could be used effectively in the foundry. The sample from Lagos bar beach requires to be sieved properly to remove the coarse fractions in order to make it suitable for foundry use.

Katsina Christopher BALA

2013-11-01

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Properties of Self-Compacting Concrete Incorporating Waste Foundry Sand  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper demonstrates the possibilities of using waste foundry sand as partial replacement of sand in self-compacting concrete. Self-compacting concrete, as the name indicates, is a type of concrete that does not require external or internal compaction, because it becomes levelled and consolidated under its self-weight. Foundry sand is high quality silica sand used as a moulding material by ferrous and non-ferrous metal casting industries. It can be reused several times in foundries but, after a certain period, cannot be used further and becomes waste material, referred to as waste, used or spent foundry sand (WFS,UFS or SFS. This experimental investigation was performed to evaluate the strength and durability properties of SCC, in which natural sand was partial replaced with waste foundry sand (WFS. Natural sand was replaced with four percentage (0%, 10%, 15%, 20% of WFS by weight. Fresh properties of self-compacting concrete were studied. Compression test and splitting tensile strength test were carried out to evaluate the strength properties of concrete at the age of 7, 28, and 56 days. In case of durability properties, sulphate resistance was evaluated at the age of 7, 28 and 56 days and Rapid Chloride Permeability test was conducted at age of 28 days. Test results showed that there is increase in compressive strength, splitting tensile strength of self-compacting concrete by incorporating waste foundry sand (WFS as partial replacement by sand up to 15%. Resistance of concrete against sulphate attack and rapid chloride permeability were also improved for concrete mixes.

Rafat SIDDIQUE

2013-11-01

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Microtox(TM) characterization of foundry sand residuals  

Science.gov (United States)

Although foundry residuals, consisting mostly of waste Sands, represent a potentially attractive, high-volume resource for beneficial reuse applications (e.g. highway embankment construction), prospective end users are understandably concerned about unforeseen liabilities stemming from the use of these residuals. This paper, therefore, focuses on the innovative use of a microbial bioassay as a means of developing a characterization of environmental suitability extending beyond the analytical coverage already provided by mandated chemical-specific tests (i.e., TCLP, etc.). Microtox(TM) bioassays were conducted on leachates derived from residuals obtained at a wide range of facilities, including: 11 gray and ductile iron foundries plus one each steel and aluminum foundries. In addition, virgin sand samples were used to establish a relative 'natural' benchmark against which the waste foundry sands could then be compared in terms of their apparent quality. These bioassay tests were able to effectively 'fingerprint' those residuals whose bioassay behavior was comparable to that of virgin materials. In fact, the majority of gray and ductile iron foundry residuals tested during this reported study elicited Microtox(TM) response levels which fell within or below the virgin sand response range, consequently providing another quantifiable layer of Support for this industry's claim that their sands are 'cleaner than dirt.' However, negative Microtox(TM) responses beyond that of the virgin sands were observed with a number of foundry samples (i.e. four of the 11 gray or ductile iron sands plus both non-iron sands). Therefore, the latter results would suggest that these latter residuals be excluded from beneficial reuse for the immediate future, at least until the cause and nature of this negative response has been further identified.

Bastian, K. C.; Alleman, J. E.

1998-01-01

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Field demonstration of highway embankment constructed using waste foundry sand  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Considerable savings is available to the metal casting industry through development of reuse applications for waste foundry sand (WFS). Furthermore, generators frequently are willing to provide WFS to reusers at no cost. Laboratory investigations have indicated that WFS from ferrous foundries can provide the necessary engineering properties for a highway embankment and that the MicrotoxTM bioassay test can be used to screen the ‘toxicity’ of WFS to prevent a negative environmental impact....

1998-01-01

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Geoenvironmental behavior of foundry sand amended mixtures for highway subbases.  

Science.gov (United States)

The high cost of landfilling and the potential uses of waste foundry sands have prompted research into their beneficial reuse. Roadways have a high potential for large volume usage of the foundry sands. A laboratory testing program was conducted on soil-foundry sand mixtures amended with cement and lime to assess their applicability as highway subbase materials. The mixtures were compacted in the laboratory at a variety of moisture contents and compactive efforts and subjected to unconfined compression, California bearing ratio, and hydraulic conductivity tests. The environmental suitability of the prepared mixtures was evaluated by analyzing the effluent collected during hydraulic conductivity tests. Finally, required subbase thicknesses were calculated using the laboratory-based strength parameters. The results of the study show that the strength of a mixture is highly dependent on the curing period, compactive energy, lime or cement presence, and water content at compaction. The resistance of foundry sand-based specimens to winter conditions is generally better than that of a typical subbase reference material. Laboratory leaching tests indicated that if these mixtures later come in contact with water that has been discharged directly to the environment (e.g., drainage through asphalt pavement), the quality of water will not be affected. PMID:16111882

Guney, Yucel; Aydilek, Ahmet H; Demirkan, M Melih

2006-01-01

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Use, reuse and recycling of waste foundry sand  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Navistar International Transportation Corp. is a manufacturer of heavy- and medium-duty trucks and smokeless diesel engines. The company has a very proactive environmental protection policy and management program, that has been favorably recognized by federal, state, and local environmental regulatory agencies, and has earned the company 25 environmental awards. The key to this recognition has been outstanding pollution prevention efforts at its operating locations that have resulted in documented savings to the company of over $37 million over the past five years. Although the company has made significant progress in reducing the generation and disposal of its hazardous wastes (paints solvents and parts washing solvents), and non-hazardous wastes (used oil and coolants), it has faced a great challenge in reducing the volume of its waste foundry sand from its foundry operations in Indiana and Wisconsin. This foundry sand, which has amounted to approximately 100,000 tons per year, and has cost the company over $1 million a year for disposal has historically been sent to industrial waste landfills. This paper will address how the company has worked with regulatory agencies and with potential users in developing environmental regulations and strategies that allowed for beneficial use, reuse, and recycling of waste foundry sand.

Alido, F.B.; Dasher, D.R.

1998-12-31

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Glass matrix composite material prepared with waste foundry sand  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The technology of glass matrix of the composite material manufactured through a sintering process and using waste foundry sand and waste glass as the main raw materials was studied. The effects of technological factors on the performance of this material were studied. The results showed that this composite material is formed with glass as matrix, core particulate as strengthening material, it has the performance of glass and ceramics, and could be used to substitute for stone.

ZHANG Zhao-shu

2006-11-01

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Pond Ash and Foundry Sand: Opportunities for Development of Eco-Friendly High Strength Concrete  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To produce low cost concrete by replacement of fine aggregate with pond ash and used foundry sand & also reduce disposal and pollution problems due to pond ash and used foundry sand. The innovative use of pond ash and used foundry sand in concrete formulations as a fine aggregate replacement material was tested as an alternative to traditional concrete. The fine aggregate has been replaced by used foundry sand accordingly in the range of 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% & 50% by weight and pond ash 20% for M-20 grade and M-40 grade concrete. Concrete mixtures were produced, tested and compared in terms of workability and strength with the conventional concrete. These tests were carried out to evaluate the mechanical properties for 7, 14 and 28 days. As a result, the compressive strength increased up to 30% addition of used foundry sand and 20% pond ash.

Gaurav Kantibhai Patel

2014-03-01

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INSOLUBILIZATION METHOD OF THE FLUORINE IN WASTE FOUNDRY SAND AND THE PRODUCTION METHOD OF THE ROADBED MATERIAL  

Science.gov (United States)

We have studied how the fluorine-insoluble in the waste foundry sand (chromite sand) and production method of the roadbed material with insolubilized waste foundry sand. And we got following knowledges. (1) We found a minimum mixing rate to insolubilize of fluorine in the waste foundry sand by the ingenuity of mixing procedure. (2) Now we can insolubilize the waste foundry sand including comparatively high concentration fluorine (elution concentration: 20-70mg/l) by the mixing time difference of MgO and blast furnace cement. (3) In the verification test the roadbed material made from the insolubilized waste foundry sand satisfied reference value of environment safety.

Fukayama, Masamitu; Terazono, Katsuhiro; Koga, Yasuyuki

18

Excess Foundry Sand Characterization and Experimental Investigation in Controlled Low-Strength Material and Hot-Mixing Asphalt  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report provides technical data regarding the reuse of excess foundry sand. The report addresses three topics: a statistically sound evaluation of the characterization of foundry sand, a laboratory investigation to qualify excess foundry sand as a major component in controlled low-strength material (CLSM), and the identification of the best methods for using foundry sand as a replacement for natural aggregates for construction purposes, specifically in asphalt paving materials. The survival analysis statistical technique was used to characterize foundry sand over a full spectrum of general chemical parameters, metallic elements, and organic compounds regarding bulk analysis and leachate characterization. Not limited to characterization and environmental impact, foundry sand was evaluated by factor analyses, which contributes to proper selection of factor and maximization of the reuse marketplace for foundry sand. Regarding the integration of foundry sand into CLSM, excavatable CLSM and structural CLSM containing different types of excess foundry sands were investigated through laboratory experiments. Foundry sand was approved to constitute a major component in CLSM. Regarding the integration of foundry sand into asphalt paving materials, the optimum asphalt content was determined for each mixture, as well as the bulk density, maximum density, asphalt absorption, and air voids at Nini, Ndes, and Nmax. It was found that foundry sands can be used as an aggregate in hot-mix asphalt production, but each sand should be evaluated individually. Foundry sands tend to lower the strength of mixtures and also may make them more susceptible to moisture damage. Finally, traditional anti-stripping additives may decrease the moisture sensitivity of a mixture containing foundry sand, but not to the level allowed by most highway agencies.

Paul J. Tikalsky, Hussain U. Bahia, An Deng and Thomas Snyder

2004-10-15

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Excess Foundry Sand Characterization and Experimental Investigation in Controlled Low-Strength Material and Hot-Mixing Asphalt  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report provides technical data regarding the reuse of excess foundry sand. The report addresses three topics: (1) a statistically sound evaluation of the characterization of foundry sand, (2) a laboratory investigation to qualify excess foundry sand as a major component in controlled low-strength material (CLSM), and (3) the identification of the best methods for using foundry sand as a replacement for natural aggregates for construction purposes, specifically in asphalt paving materials. The survival analysis statistical technique was used to characterize foundry sand over a full spectrum of general chemical parameters, metallic elements, and organic compounds regarding bulk analysis and leachate characterization. Not limited to characterization and environmental impact, foundry sand was evaluated by factor analyses, which contributes to proper selection of factor and maximization of the reuse marketplace for foundry sand. Regarding the integration of foundry sand into CLSM, excavatable CLSM and structural CLSM containing different types of excess foundry sands were investigated through laboratory experiments. Foundry sand was approved to constitute a major component in CLSM. Regarding the integration of foundry sand into asphalt paving materials, the optimum asphalt content was determined for each mixture, as well as the bulk density, maximum density, asphalt absorption, and air voids at N{sub ini}, N{sub des}, and N{sub max}. It was found that foundry sands can be used as an aggregate in hot-mix asphalt production, but each sand should be evaluated individually. Foundry sands tend to lower the strength of mixtures and also may make them more susceptible to moisture damage. Finally, traditional anti-stripping additives may decrease the moisture sensitivity of a mixture containing foundry sand, but not to the level allowed by most highway agencies.

Pauul J. Tikalsky

2004-10-31

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Problems of scientific and development research concerning the reclamation of used foundry sands  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In traditional technologies of casting moulds and core production on the basis of high-silica sands with binding agent addition, the reclamation consists mainly of a sand recovery and very seldom of a sand and bentonite recovery.Analysis of data from several countries indicates that from 600 to 1200 kg of fresh sand is used for 1 tonne of ferrous casting alloys. In Poland it is 1000 kg of sand for 1 tonne of castings [1]. Out of this amount approximately 20% of fresh sand is used for core production and the remaining amount for rebounding moulding sands. Analysis of data from 20 largest Polish foundries, performed in 2004 [2] indicates that approximately 50% of waste foundry sands is reclaimed while the rest is directed to dumping grounds. Taking into account all remaining foundries it can be estimated that approximately 250-350 000 tonnes of waste foundry sands are sent to dumping grounds annually.Important issue are costs of storage, which depend on the kind of wastes and on the ownership form of dump-sites (municipal dumpinggrounds, plant’s or own [belonging to the foundry] as well as on their relation to the costs of purchasing fresh sands. Average charges for storage of moulding sands wastes on storage yards in Europe are within the range: 12.5 to 61 Eu, which means from 85% to above 400% of purchasing costs of 1 tonne of fresh high-silica sand. The contractual price accepted for such sand in the BREF UE document [3] is 14.56 Eu. Problems of scientific and development research concerning the reclamation of used foundry sands can be systematised according to the research fields and the actual state of knowledge - based on the analysis of scientific papers.

R. Da?ko

2010-10-01

 
 
 
 
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Use of an integrated approach to characterize the physicochemical properties of foundry green sands  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? Physicochemical properties of fresh, spent, and landfilled foundry green sands were determined. ? A phase composition model was postulated for each material based on thermogravimetric results. ? Sand from the landfill was determined to be composed of almost pure silica sand. ? Weathering is likely responsible for removing the coating materials from the green sands. ? Landfilled sands may be suitable for reuse within the foundry or beneficial use applications. - Abstract: A fresh green sand, spent green sand, and a weathered spent green sand (wSGS) from a foundry landfill were analyzed using diffractometry, electron microscopy, fluorometry, granulometry, spectrometry, and thermogravimetry (TG). Our objective was to understand how the physicochemical properties of the foundry green sands change from their original form after being subjected to the casting process, then after weathering at the landfill. A quantitative phase composition model was also postulated for each material based on the TG results and it was found to be the most reliable and informative quantitative data for this type of residue. The weathered sample, that remained in a landfill for two years, was found to be composed of almost pure sand. Because of the weathering process, it may be possible to use the wSGS as a virgin sand replacement in the regeneration system or in geotechnical applications where bentonite would affect the properties of the final product.

2012-09-10

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Use of an integrated approach to characterize the physicochemical properties of foundry green sands  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Physicochemical properties of fresh, spent, and landfilled foundry green sands were determined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A phase composition model was postulated for each material based on thermogravimetric results. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sand from the landfill was determined to be composed of almost pure silica sand. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Weathering is likely responsible for removing the coating materials from the green sands. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Landfilled sands may be suitable for reuse within the foundry or beneficial use applications. - Abstract: A fresh green sand, spent green sand, and a weathered spent green sand (wSGS) from a foundry landfill were analyzed using diffractometry, electron microscopy, fluorometry, granulometry, spectrometry, and thermogravimetry (TG). Our objective was to understand how the physicochemical properties of the foundry green sands change from their original form after being subjected to the casting process, then after weathering at the landfill. A quantitative phase composition model was also postulated for each material based on the TG results and it was found to be the most reliable and informative quantitative data for this type of residue. The weathered sample, that remained in a landfill for two years, was found to be composed of almost pure sand. Because of the weathering process, it may be possible to use the wSGS as a virgin sand replacement in the regeneration system or in geotechnical applications where bentonite would affect the properties of the final product.

Carnin, Raquel L.P. [Tupy S.A., Rua Albano Schmidt 3.400, Joinville, Santa Catarina (Brazil); Folgueras, Marilena Valadares; Luvizao, Rubia Raquel; Correia, Sivaldo Leite [Universidade do Estado de Santa Catarina, Rua Paulo Malschitzki, s/numero - Campus Universitario Prof. Avelino Marcante, Bairro Zona Industrial Norte, Joinville, Santa Catarina (Brazil); Cunha, Carlos Jorge da [Universidade Federal do Parana, Centro Politecnico, Jardim das Americas, Curitiba, Parana (Brazil); Dungan, Robert S., E-mail: robert.dungan@ars.usda.gov [USDA-ARS, Northwest Irrigation and Soils Research Laboratory, 3793 North 3600 East, Kimberly, ID 83341 (United States)

2012-09-10

23

Foundry sands as low-cost adsorbent material for Cr (VI) removal.  

Science.gov (United States)

The potential of foundry sands, industrial waste from the iron foundry industry, was evaluated for the removal of Cr (VI) using discontinuous assays. Chemical foundry sands are composed of fine silica sand, furanic resins as binder, chemical catalyst and residual iron particles. The influence ofpH, agitation rate and metal concentration on the removal process was investigated. Kinetic and equilibrium tests were conducted to determine Cr (VI) removal from aqueous solutions at a temperature range of 25-55 degrees C. Cr (VI) removal of 40-100% for a range of pH 6-1.6 was obtained. This removal was attributed to the presence of a large number of protonated silanol and aluminol groups. Cr (VI) adsorption in foundry sands follows a pseudo-second-order kinetic reaction (Ho model, r2 > 0.999) reaching kinetic constants of 0.341, 0.551, 0.775 and 0.920 g/mg h at 25, 35, 45 and 55 degrees C, respectively. The adsorption data were fitted to the Langmuir adsorption isotherm model (r > 0.99) obtaining adsorption capacities (q(max)) of 1.99, 2.40, 2.50, and 3.14 mg Cr (VI)/g sand at 25, 35, 45 and 55 degrees C, respectively. Calculated Gibbs free energy change (deltaG0), adsorption energy (E) and activation energy (E(a)) values indicate that a physisorption mechanism governs Cr (VI) adsorption process in foundry sands. PMID:24191460

Campos, I; Alvarez, J A; Villar, P; Pascual, A; Herrero, L

2013-01-01

24

Application of a power quality analyser to the monitoring of sand preparation processes in foundry plants  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Process control plays a major role in supervision and identification of states, for example in monitoring of electric circuits power- supplying the foundry machines and devices, such as sand preparation processes, moulding technologies, melting, cleaning and finishing of castings. The monitoring and control equipment includes the power quality analysers. Testing is done using a Japanese analyser KEW 6319 (Kyoritsu applied to monitoring of the sand preparation process in a foundry plant with low level of mechanization, equipped with the sand preparation unit based on a roller mixer.

K. Smyksy

2011-10-01

25

The use of soil washing processes for the reclamation and reuse of foundry waste sands  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Soil washing processes are being investigated for possible use to reclaim foundry waste sands for beneficial reuse. The production of metal castings in foundry operations involves molds, coremaking, melting, pouring, cleaning and inspection. The molten metal is poured into molds cores made from sand during the casting process. After the castings harden, the metal product is separated from the molding sand and core materials in the shakeout process. These castings are then cleaned, inspected and prepared for shipment. Foundries overall have a high rate of spent sand reuse on-site, with about 93% of these sands being recycled. However, the remaining 7% of these waste sands which require disposal accounts for 7 to 8 million tons of waste generated annually in the United States alone. The pollution prevention priorities of source reduction and on-site recycle are not sufficient to fully address the issues of foundry waste sands generation. Off-site beneficial reuse of these sands -- both with and without reclamation treatment -- are necessary to reduce the large quantities of these wastes being sent to disposal sites.

Kocher, W.M. [Cleveland State Univ., OH (United States). Fenn College of Engineering

1995-12-31

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Application of Waste Foundry Sand for Evolution of Low-Cost Concrete  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Generation of waste foundry sand as by product of metal casting industries causes environmental problems because of its improper disposal. Thus, its usage in building material, construction and in other fields is essential for reduction of environmental problems. This research is carried out to produce a low-cost and eco-friendly concrete. This paper demonstrates the use of waste foundry sand as a partial replacement by fine aggregate in concrete. An experimental investigation is carried out on a concrete containing waste foundry sand in the range of 0%, 20%, 40%, and 60% by weight for M-25 grade concrete(PPC. Material was produced, tested and compared with conventional concrete in terms of workability and strength. These tests were carried out on standard cube of 150*150*150* mm for 7, 14 and 28 days to determine the mechanical properties of concrete. Through experimental result we conclude that the compressive strength increases with increase in partial replacement of waste foundry sand and split tensile strength decreases with increases in percentage of waste foundry sand. The aim of this research is to know the behaviour and mechanical properties of concrete after addition of industrial waste in different proportion by tests like compressive strength and split tensile.

Pathariya Saraswati C1 , Rana Jaykrushna K2 , Shah Palas A3 , Mehta Jay G4 ,Assistant Prof. Patel Ankit N

2013-10-01

27

Permeability of flowable slurry materials containing foundry sand and fly ash  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of foundry sand and fly ash on permeability of flowable slurry mixtures. In this work, two reference flowable fly ash slurry mixtures were proportioned for strength levels in the range of 0.34--0.69 MPa (50--100 psi) at 28 d using two different sources of ASTM Class F fly ash. Other mixtures contained clean and used foundry sands as a replacement for fly ash in the range of 30--85%. The permeability of the flowable mixtures was affected by an increase in either the water to cementitious materials ratio or the foundry sand content. The permeability values were higher comparable to or lower than those reported for granular compacted fills up to 85% fly ash replacement with foundry sand. The type of foundry sand (clean or used) did not materially affect permeability of the mixtures tested. The permeability values for the mixtures tested varied from 3 {times} 10{sup {minus}6} to 74 {times} 10{sup {minus}6} cm/s.

Naik, T.R.; Singh, S.S. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States)

1997-05-01

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Environmental and technical requirements for the utilization of foundry sands, part 2; Valimoiden ylijaeaemaehiekan hyoetykaeyttoe- ja sijoituskelpoisuus, osa 2  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective of this research work was to characterise the environmental properties of surplus foundry sands used in Finland and to technically and environmentally test their most potential re-use opportunities. Specific quality control procedures based on detailed knowledge of variations in surplus foundry sand residue were developed for two selected foundries. In order to estimate the composition variations and identify critical process parameters affecting the sand residue composition in a specific foundry, several sand residue samples were collected from the production line. The specific quality control proposals comprise guidelines for sampling strategies and deviation management together with proposals for necessary analytical testing methodologies. In the surplus foundry sand utilisation study, the following basic results were obtained: The use of surplus foundry sand does not reduce the wear resistance of asphalt concrete. The use of surplus foundry sand together with fly ash and steel slag is possible in mineral wool production. The use of surplus foundry sand in the composting process of bio wastes does not negatively affect the environmental or technical features of the final product, topsoil. The use of surplus green sand in mineral liners is technically and environmentally possible in the top layers of the landfill. (orig.)

Orkas, J.; Nordlund, H.; Wahlstroem, M.; Laine-Ylijoki, J.

2001-07-01

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Worker Exposure to Airborne Contaminates When Using Waste Foundry Sand in the Construction of Road Embankments  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A section of road was constructed in Northeastern Indiana in the summer of 1996 using waste foundry sand as the embankment construction material. Initial testing on the waste sand had determined no detrimental health effects. However, it was observed during construction that once the sand had dried, tire-road interaction raised copious clouds of black dust. This led to worker concern regarding airborne silica and silicosis. This study aimed at determining whether the threat of overexposure to...

2002-01-01

30

Flowable fill using waste foundry sand: A substitute for compacted or stabilized soil  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Flowable fill is generally a mixture of sand, fly ash, a small amount of cement, and water. Sand is the major component of most flowable fill mixes; consequently, using a waste material as a substitute for natural sand results in the beneficial use of the waste material. Waste foundry sand (WFS) was used as a fine aggregate in this study. Three green sands from ferrous foundries and two class F fly ashes were used. The flow behavior, hardening characteristics, ultimate strength behavior, and permeability characteristics of flowable fill were investigated. The penetration resistance necessary to sustain walkability as the fresh flowable fill hardens was determined. The pH of pore solution of hardened flowable fill indicated that the potential for corrosivity is low. The toxicity tests indicated that some WFSs are environmentally safe.

Bhat, S.T.; Lovell, C.W. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States). School of Civil Engineering

1997-12-31

31

An innovative tester system for measuring mechanical property of foundry molding sand  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A new intelligent tester system for measuring multiple mechanical properties of foundry molding sand is introduced and has been patented for the invention in China. The testing process can be simutaneosly controlled wth a build-in chip microcomputer communicating with a PC through a serial port. The testing system pplies dynamic testing technology. During the measurement for compression, relaxation, shearing and tensile processes of sand specimens, the corresponding characteristic curves and eight mechanical property parameters can be obtained in a short time, simply by consecutively testing on four sand specimens. The properties and parameters to be measurable by the tester include compressive strength, elastic modulus, plastic deformation threshold, springback potential, shear strength, shear deformation limit, toughness and tensile strength. These properties and parameters for sand specimens can be defined as the corresponding characteristic curves with precise physical meanings, carried out by the tester. Two of them, namely plastic deformation threshold and springback potential, as well as their testing methods, have been invented for the first time. The testing system applying advanced data measurement technology as well as performing excellent functions is an important breakthrough and creativity in foundry molding sand property testing field. The parameters acquired by the testing system are stable, accurate and reliable. The test data can be instantly diaplayed or printed out or stored in the PC. As evidence, many experimental data obtained by the tester practically from bth laboratory and foundry floor tests indicate that the testr system can be widely applied in foundry industry.

Zuxi XIE

2004-11-01

32

An innovative tester system for measuring mechanical property of foundry molding sand  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A new intelligent tester system for measuring multiple mechanical properties of foundry molding sand is introduced and has been patented for the invention in China. The testing process can be simutaneosly controlled wth a build-in chip microcomputer communicating with a PC through a serial port. The testing system pplies dynamic testing technology. During the measurement for compression, relaxation, shearing and tensile processes of sand specimens, the corresponding characteristic curves and ...

2004-01-01

33

p-Toluenesulfonate in Landfill Leachates : Leachability from Foundry Sands and Aerobic Biodegradation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

p-Toluenesulfonate (pTS) was found at concentrations between 9.6 and 48.8 mg/L in leachates from two Swiss landfill sections where foundry wastes are stored. pTS represented ?33% of the nonpurgable organic carbon (NPOC) in the leachates. A standard test showed that pTS is easily leached from foundry sands that contained 1% (w/w) of a technical hardener consisting of tolu enesulfonates. Hence, the hardener is a likely source of pTS in the landfill leachates. Furthermore, analyses using liqui...

Riediker, Sonja; Ruckstuhl, Sabine; Suter, Marc J. -f; Cook, Alasdair M.; Giger, Walter

2000-01-01

34

Techno- Economical Study of Rigid Pavement by Using the Used Foundry Sand  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Indian road network of almost 3.5 million km comprising both paved and unpaved surfaces is the world’s second largest. Indian roads are presently constructed with not the right choice of material. The two major types of materials, bitumen and concrete are used in road construction in the country. A very small share of roads in the country is made of concrete. Though, it is superior on many counts as a medium for road buildings. The use of large amount of by-product materials as powder or fines not only avoids the requirement of landfills but also reduce the environmental problems. It is most essential to develop profitable building materials from used foundry sand. The innovative use of used foundry sand in concrete formulations as a fine aggregate replacement material was tested as an alternative to traditional concrete. The fine aggregate has been replaced by used foundry sand accordingly in the range of 0%, 10%, 30% & 50% by weight for M-20 grade concrete. Concrete mixtures were produced, tested and compared in terms of compressive and flexural strength with the conventional concrete. These tests were carried out to evaluate the mechanical properties for 7, 14 and 28 days. This research work is to investigate the behaviour of concrete while replacing used foundry sand in different proportion in concrete. This low cost concrete with good strength is used in rigid pavement for 3000 commercial vehicles per day (cvpd and Dry Lean Concrete (DLC 100mm thick for national highway to make it eco-friendly.

Vipul D. Prajapati1 , Nilay Joshi2 , Prof. Jayeshkumar Pitroda

2013-05-01

35

Foundry performance in relation to the radiographic quality of aluminium alloy sand castings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article examines radiographic soundness and acceptance standards for aluminium alloy sand castings for aerospace and general engineering applications. A method is suggested by which foundries can evaluate their performance to provide evidence of capability with respect to radiographic quality; purchasers could use the same system to assess suppliers. The shortcomings of standards are briefly discussed in the light of an approach to radiographic acceptance on the horizon

1988-01-01

36

Evaluation of the Effective Baking Conditions for Grade 3 Nigerian Acacia Species Bonded Foundry Sand Cores  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The most effective economical baking conditions w ere determined for foundry cores bonded with the grade 3 Nigerian acacia species exudates. Silica sand base cores bonded with the material were oven baked at temperatures ranging from 160 to 250ºC for varying periods oven cooled and then subjected to tensile strength tests to ascertain the best baking conditions for different alloy castings. The experimental core specimens were in accordance with foundry test standard, shaped like figure number eight. They were tested with standard universal strength machine equipped with attachment for gripping the cores and an instantaneous meter from which the test values were read. The result were compared with established standard foundry core property table which showed that the class V iron/steel cores are best made with 3% acacia bonded silica sand baked at 160ºC for 1 h. For magnesium cores, sand bonded with 4.5% acacia baked at 160ºC for 1-2 h was optimum. For class IV iron/steel cores 4.5% acacia bonded sand baked at 180ºC for 1 hour was optimal. Sand bonded with 4.5% grade 3 acacia baked at 200ºC for 1.0-2.0 h was optimum for copper, aluminium, classes II and III iron/steel cores. Sand bonded with 8.0-13.0% grade 3 N igerian acacia species baked at 200ºC for 1.5-2 h was found most effective for class I iron and steel cores.

Nuhu A. ademoh

2010-09-01

37

Synergy of Practical Knowledge of Molding Sands Reclamation in Heavy Casting Foundry of Iron Alloys  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper summarizes research realized by the author in laboratory and industrial conditions (foundries of cast steel and cast iron, castings up to 50 tons on the effects of the chemically hardened molding sands regeneration using hard/soft rubbing in the dry reclamation. A reference was simultaneously made to advisability of application of the thermal regeneration in conditions, where chromite amount in the circulating (reclaimed molding sand goes as high as above ten percent. An advisability of connecting standard and specialized methods of examination of the reclaimed sands and molding sands made using it was pointed out. A way of application of studies with the Hot Distortion Plus® method modified by the author for validation of modeling of the thermo-dynamic phenomena in the mold was shown.

Z. Ignaszak

2013-07-01

38

Applications of the systems theory to the designing of the sand preparation sub-system in foundry plants  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study provides the basic principles for designing the functional structure of manufacturing systems and their components. The analysis of functional values is applied to create the technological and manufacturing model underlying the design of the foundry equipment with machine units and materials handling systems. Quoted examples illustrate the approved procedure to be applied to control the sand preparation process in a foundry.

R. Wrona

2009-07-01

39

Performance Evaluation of a Highway Embankment Constructed Using Waste Foundry Sand  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Over 9 million Mg of waste foundry sands (WFS) are produced annually in the United States as a by-product of the metal casting industry. The majority of WFS are deposited in restricted or sanitary waste landfills. Considerable savings is available to the metal casting industry through the development of reuse applications for their WFS and generators are often willing to provide WFS to a job site at no cost to the end user. \tLaboratory investigations have indicated that WFS from ferrous...

1998-01-01

40

Evaluation of volatile hydrocarbon emission characteristics of carbonaceous additives in green sand foundries.  

Science.gov (United States)

This research studied a relative comparison of the hydrocarbon emissions during pyrolysis of four carbonaceous additives that can be used in green sand foundries. These included a highly volatile bituminous coal, anthracite, lignite, and cellulose. Analytic pyrolysis was conducted to simulate the heating conditions that the carbonaceous additives would experience during metal pouring. Specifically, the samples were flash pyrolyzed in a Curie-point pyrolyzer at 920 degrees C with a heating rate of about 3000 degrees C/sec. This simulated some key features of the fast heating conditions that the carbonaceous additives would experience at the metal-mold interface when molten metal is poured into green sand molds. The samples were also pyrolyzed in a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) from ambient temperature to 1000 degrees C with a heating rate of 20 degrees C/min; and this simulated key features of the slow heating conditions that the carbonaceous additives would experience within the bulk of green sand molds that is further away from the metal-mold interface. Hydrocarbon emissions from flash pyrolysis were analyzed with GC-FID, while those from TGA pyrolysis were monitored with mass spectroscopy and GC-FID. The anthracite exhibited very low volatile hydrocarbons during both flash pyrolysis and TGA pyrolysis. The cellulose released less hydrocarbons than bituminous coal or lignite in TGA pyrolysis, but more hydrocarbons than those two during flash pyrolysis. This means that cellulose can release sufficient volatile hydrocarbons at the intensely heated molten metal-mold interface where they are most desired for ensuring casting quality, but much less within the bulk of the mold where they are undesirable. This characteristic of cellulose offers an important opportunity for green sand foundries to diminish their hazardous air pollutant (HAP) emissions. PMID:17533864

Wang, Yujue; Huang, He; Cannon, Fred S; Voigt, Robert C; Komarneni, Sridhar; Furness, James C

2007-04-15

 
 
 
 
41

Characterization of hydrocarbon emissions from green sand foundry core binders by analytical pyrolysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Analytical pyrolysis was conducted to compare the hydrocarbon and greenhouse gas emissions of three foundry sand binders: (a) conventional phenolic urethane resin, (b) biodiesel phenolic urethane resin, and (c) collagen-based binder. These binders are used in the metal casting industry to create internal cavities within castings. Green sand contains silica sand, clay, carbonaceous additives (eg bituminous coal) and water. The core samples were flash pyrolyzed in a Curie-point pyrolyzer at 920{sup o}C with a heating rate of about 3000{sup o}C/sec. This simulated some key features of the fast heating conditions that the core binders would experience at the metal-core interface when molten metal is poured into green sand molds. The core samples were also pyrolyzed in a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) from ambient temperature to 1000{sup o}C with a heating rate of 30{sup o}C/min, and this simulated key features of the slow heating conditions that the core binders would experience at distances that are further away from the metal-core interface during casting cooling. Hydrocarbon emissions from flash pyrolysis were analyzed with a gas chromatography-flame ionization detector, while hydrocarbon and greenhouse gas emissions from TGA pyrolysis were monitored with mass spectrometry. The prominent hazardous air pollutant emissions during pyrolysis of the three binders were phenol, cresols, benzene, and toluene for the conventional phenolic urethane resin and biodiesel resin, and benzene and toluene for the collagen-based binder. Bench-scale analytical pyrolysis techniques could be a useful screening tool for the foundries to compare the relative emissions of alternative core binders and to choose proper materials in order to comply with air-emission regulations. 20 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

Yujue Wang; Fred S. Cannon; Magda Salama; Jeff Goudzwaard; James C. Furness [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA (United States). Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

2007-11-15

42

On the durability of ceramics sand and various foundry sands from the point of view of its mechanical strength; Ceramics sand to sono ta imonosuna no kikaiteki kyodo kara mita taikyusei  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Utilization of waste sands and dusts as industrial wastes is highlighted in the foundry industry. Foundry sands have been used as aggregates for cement conventionally, but have not fully met the requirement because of weak mechanical strength of the foundry sands. The present study has been performing rupture tests on the durability (rupture resistance) of the foundry sands, including ceramics sand (ceramics beads), conventional silica sand, chromite sand, and zircon sand. As a result, it was verified that the ceramic beads have shown stable rupture resistance and ruptured very little in any of the S-6 method and the NRR method used in the present test. With little generation of microfine particles, the ceramics beads are thought a sand that has a high possibility of solving the problem in the subject dealt in the present study. Silica sands have shown micronization of the powder irrespective of the kinds, and its friability easily causing rupture during transportation and kneading under normal temperatures is a large drawback. Chromite has also shown insufficient strength. 12 figs., 2 tabs.

Matsubara, M.; Yasukawa, S. [Naigai Refractory Co. Ltd., Aichi (Japan)

1994-07-25

43

Design and production of a novel sand materials strength testing machine for foundry applications  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In the foundry, existing strength testing machines are used to measure only the maximum fracture strength of mould and core materials. With traditionally used methods, the loading history to ascertain deformation of the material is not available. In this paper, a novel moulding material strength testing machine was designed and built for both green sand and chemically-bonded sand materials. This machine measures and presents the loading response as a force-displacement profile from which the mechanical properties of the moulding materials can be deduced. The system was interfaced to a computer with a commercial PC based-control and data acquisition software. The testing conditions and operations are specified in the user interface and the data acquisition is made according to specifications. The force and displacements were calibrated to ensure consistency and reliability of the measurement data. The force was calibrated using an Amsler Hydraulic Press while the displacements were calibrated with and without loading using a displacement calibrator (Heidenhain Digitaler). The calibration results showed that the data obtained are stable and reliable and the machine can be used for the measurement of the strength of chemically-bonded sand materials.

Nwaogu, Ugochukwu Chibuzoh; Hansen, K. S.

2012-01-01

44

The foundry wastes. Storage  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This work deals with the regulation relative to the management of foundry wastes, such as sands (which can be radioactive), non hazardous and hazardous wastes. Some examples of the reuse of these foundry wastes are given. (O.M.)

2007-01-01

45

New solâ??gel refractory coatings on chemically-bonded sand cores for foundry applications to improve casting surface quality  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Foundry refractory coatings protect bonded sand cores and moulds from producing defective castings during the casting process by providing a barrier between the core and the liquid metal. In this study, new solâ??gel refractory coating on phenolic urethane cold box (PUCB) core was examined. The coating density, viscosity, moisture content and wet and dry weight of the coating were evaluated on cores that had been coated at three different dip-coating times. The coating coverage, surface appearance and depth of penetration into the cores were examined with a Stereomicroscope. Gray iron castings were produced with sol-gel coated and uncoated cores and the results were related to the coating properties. The casting results were also compared with castings made with cores coated with commercial alcohol-based and water-based foundry coatings. The analyses show that castings produced with solâ??gel coated cores have better surface quality than those from uncoated cores and comparable surface quality with the commercialcoatings. Therefore, the new solâ??gel coating has a potential application in the foundry industry for improving the surface finish of castings thereby reducing the cost of fettling in the foundry industry since the raw materials and technology are easily affordable.

Nwaogu, Ugochukwu Chibuzoh; Poulsen, T.

2011-01-01

46

Mechanical and toxicological evaluation of concrete artifacts containing waste foundry sand.  

Science.gov (United States)

The creation of metal parts via casting uses molds that are generally made from sand and phenolic resin. The waste generated after the casting process is called waste foundry sand (WFS). Depending on the mold composition and the casting process, WFS can contain substances that prevent its direct emission to the environment. In Brazil, this waste is classified according to the Standard ABNT NBR 10004:2004 as a waste Class II (Non-Inert). The recycling of this waste is limited because its characteristics change significantly after use. Although the use (or reuse) of this byproduct in civil construction is a technically feasible alternative, its effects must be evaluated, especially from mechanical and environmental points of view. Thus, the objective of this study is to investigate the effect of the use of WFS in the manufacture of cement artifacts, such as masonry blocks for walls, structural masonry blocks, and paving blocks. Blocks containing different concentrations of WFS (up to 75% by weight) were produced and evaluated using compressive strength tests (35MPa at 28days) and toxicity tests on Daphnia magna, Allium cepa (onion root), and Eisenia foetida (earthworm). The results showed that there was not a considerable reduction in the compressive strength, with values of 35±2MPa at 28days. The toxicity study with the material obtained from leaching did not significantly interfere with the development of D. magna and E. foetida, but the growth of the A. cepa species was reduced. The study showed that the use of this waste in the production of concrete blocks is feasible from both mechanical and environmental points of view. PMID:24582355

Mastella, Miguel Angelo; Gislon, Edivelton Soratto; Pelisser, Fernando; Ricken, Cláudio; Silva, Luciano da; Angioletto, Elídio; Montedo, Oscar Rubem Klegues

2014-08-01

47

Ocular effects of exposure to triethylamine in the sand core cold box of a foundry.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OBJECTIVES--To assess the acute and chronic ophthalmological effects of triethylamine exposure among foundry workers. METHODS--Ocular effects on people currently, previously, and never exposed to triethylamine in a foundry cold box were studied at two points in time. The initial phase included an ocular examination with a slit lamp to assess corneal health, a visual acuity test, and a questionnaire to assess vision symptoms. The follow up included measurements of corneal thickness with an ult...

Reilly, M. J.; Rosenman, K. D.; Abrams, J. H.; Zhu, Z.; Tseng, C.; Hertzberg, V.; Rice, C.

1995-01-01

48

Measurement of elastic modulus and evaluation of viscoelasticity of foundry green sand  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Elastic modulus is an important physical parameter of molding sand; it is closely connected with molding sand's properties. Based on theories of rheology and molding sand microdeformation, elastic modulus of molding sand was measured and investigated using the intelligent molding sand multi-property tester developed by ourselves. The measuring principle was introduced. Effects of bentonite percentage and compactibility of the molding sand were experimentally studied. Furthermore, the essential viscoelastic nature of green sand was analyzed. It is considered that viscoelastic deformation of molding sand consists mainly of that of Kelvin Body of clay membrane, and elastic modulus of molding sand depends mainly on that of Kelvin Body which is the elastic component of clay membrane between sands. Elastic modulus can be adopted as one of the property parameters, and can be employed to evaluate viscoelastic properties of molding sand.

Qingchun XIANG

2004-08-01

49

The reclamation of used moulding and core sands as a part of research programme of the Foundry Research Institute in Cracow  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article presents a historical outline of studies carried out by the Foundry Research Institute in Cracow on technical and technological solutions regarding the development of a reclamation process of the used moulding and core sands with attention focused on the past twenty years. Various aspects that control studies of the sand reclamation, from the thermal process, through pneumatic reclamation, and with preferences focused on the application of a mechanical treatment of the used sand, were discussed. Particular emphasis was put on the vibration method.Examples of design solutions developed by the Foundry Research Institute in Cracow were described. They were implemented inindustrial practice both at home and abroad. Their versatility and effectiveness as satisfying BAT criteria was stressed.

I. Izdebska-Szanda

2010-04-01

50

Application of design projects developed by Foundry Research Institute in Krakow in construction of integrated stand for processing and reclamation of moulding sands  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article is devoted to the description of a new integrated system for processing and reclamation of moulding and core sands using the equipment developed by Foundry Research Institute in Krakow. The idea and operation of a complex stand, which allows for co-existence of three routes of material circulation, i.e. system sand, new sand and reclaim, with maximum utilisation of the existing equipment have been presented. Various aspects, economical and ecological, of the proposed design have been discussed.

I. Izdebska-Szanda

2008-04-01

51

Effect of additives promoting the formation of lustrous carbon on the knocking out properties of foundry sands with new inorganic binders  

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Full Text Available The article presents the results of investigations, which make a fragment of the broad-scale studies carried out as a part of the statutory activity on optimising the foundry sand technology using new, modified, inorganic binders.The results of investigations regarding the effect of lustrous carbon carriers on the technological properties of foundry sands with inorganic binders were presented in a concise manner. The selected additives were introduced to moulding sands prepared with the new, modified, inorganic binders bonded by the chemical reaction or by blowing with gaseous CO2.Attention was focussed on the effect of selected additives promoting the formation of lustrous carbon on the knocking out properties ofmoulds and cores prepared from sands with the new types of inorganic binders.The quality of the test castings was also evaluated along with the tendency to the formation of lustrous carbon at the metal – mouldinterface, basing on the results of microscopic examinations and analysis of the chemical composition using an X-ray microanalyser.

I. Izdebska-Szanda

2009-01-01

52

Polysialates binders preparation and their influence to shear strength of foundry sand mixtures  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper deals with polysialates water-glasses preparation. There were used various procedures with the goal to create inorganic polymer on silicon and aluminum base. The one composed of SiO2 and AlO4 tetrahedron chains. For the preparation was concentrated NaOH solution used together with metakaolinite in a way low-temperature synthesis in the presence of alkaline silicate: higher pressure and temperature (autoclave to direct making of alkaline silicate made of sand, NaOH with metakaolinite addition and by melting fritted glass together with metakaolinite and dissolution in autoclave. The dissolving effectivity was evaluated by the concentration of aluminum in alkaline silicate and by the influence to reduce strengths after heat exposition with this inorganic binder.

R. Fridrich

2008-07-01

53

Respiratory disease in foundry workers.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A survey was carried out in a steel foundry in Brisbane to evaluate the nature and frequency of respiratory symptoms and to assess ventilatory function. The foundry used many moulding processes including the Furane, Isocure, Shell, carbon dioxide, and oil sand systems. Nasal symptoms and wheeze were often reported, particularly by workers in the general foundry and core shop, and on a semiautomated line. By contrast, workers in the aftercast section not exposed to fumes or vapours from the va...

Low, I.; Mitchell, C.

1985-01-01

54

The foundry wastes. Storage; Les dechets de fonderie. Stockage  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This work deals with the regulation relative to the management of foundry wastes, such as sands (which can be radioactive), non hazardous and hazardous wastes. Some examples of the reuse of these foundry wastes are given. (O.M.)

Duquet, B. [Centre Technique des Industries de la Fonderie (CTIF), 92 - Sevres (France)

2007-03-15

55

The pneumatic conveying applications in foundry industry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper presents some issues connected to pneumatic conveying usage in foundry industry. The loose materials transportation (sand and moulding sand through consecutive production cycles were described. The powder injection into liquid metal, the bentonite into mixers and pneumatic used moulding sand reclamation applications were presented, too. The industrial setups, technological descriptions and some loose materials parameters were given, too.

D. Homa

2010-10-01

56

Thermal analysis of foundry bentonites  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The results of investigations of 3 calcium bentonites, activated by sodium carbonate, applied in the foundry industry as bindingmaterial for moulding sands are presented in the paper. Investigations were performed by the thermal analysis (TG method. The occurrence of the dehydration and dehydroxylation process was confirmed in all tested bentonites.

S. ?ymankowska-Kumon

2011-10-01

57

Thermal analysis of foundry bentonites  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The results of investigations of 3 calcium bentonites, activated by sodium carbonate, applied in the foundry industry as bindingmaterial for moulding sands are presented in the paper. Investigations were performed by the thermal analysis (TG) method. The occurrence of the dehydration and dehydroxylation process was confirmed in all tested bentonites.

2011-01-01

58

Foundry Coating Technology: A Review  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The importance of foundry coating in improving the surface quality of castings cannot be over emphasized. The appli-cation of mould and core washes creates a high thermal integrity barrier between the metal and the mould resulting in the reduction of the thermal shock experienced by the sand system. These thermal shock leads to series of surface de-fects such as veining/finning, metal penetration, burn-on/in, scab, rat tail, erosion etc. The use of coatings reduces the tendency of occurrence of these defects. However, the understanding of the coating, its components, characteristics and mechanism of action is important. In this review, a detailed description of these topics and examples are provided where necessary. A potential area of research in foundry coating development, using sol-gel process is suggested. The application of sol-gel technology in the development of foundry coatings is a novel approach.

Nwaogu, Ugochukwu Chibuzoh; Tiedje, Niels Skat

2011-01-01

59

Silicate treatment of impure silica sands  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A process is provided for treating impure silica-containing sands to make them more suitable for foundry use. The sands are treated with aqueous alkali metal silicate solutions and the resulting mixture is heated before the sands are coated with a resin binder. Foundry cores and molds prepared with these treated sands show improved hot and cold tensile strengths

1984-01-01

60

Foundry Coating Technology: A Review  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The importance of foundry coating in improving the surface quality of castings cannot be over emphasized. The application of mould and core washes creates a high thermal integrity barrier between the metal and the mould resulting in the reduction of the thermal shock experienced by the sand system. These thermal shock leads to series of surface defects such as veining/finning, metal penetration, burn-on/in, scab, rat tail, erosion etc. The use of coatings reduces the tendency of occurrence of...

Nwaogu, U. C.; Tiedje, N. S.

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Planning and construction of a plant for the manufacture of quartz powder from foundry dust originating from sand by means of thermal treatment. Part project 2: Preliminary experiments on the thermal treatment of foundry dust using a burner; cooperation in the planning and construction of the pilot plant. Final report; Planung und Bau einer Anlage zur Herstellung von Quarzmehl aus Giessereistaub der Sandregenerierung durch thermische Behandlung. Teilvorhaben 2: Vorversuche zur thermischen Behandlung von Giessereistaub mit einem Brenner, Mitarbeit der Planung und Errichtung der Pilotanlage. Schlussbericht  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Foundry dust, a carbon-containing waste product, arises through the recycling of used foundry sands. The aim of the present project was to find a method to burn foundry dust in an open flame and obtain quartz powders as a useful material. A burner suitable for coal dust was used in the experiments. Combustion of foundry dust in an open, self-sustaining flame is only possible using an auxiliary fuel. In this study it proved possible to find reaction conditions in which foundry dust will burn unaided in a fluidised bed. Beside the material product this process also yields energy for, e.g., the thermal regeneration of foundry sand. Short experiments designed to test the process were a success. Process and constructional concepts for a pilot plant were elaborated. (orig.) [Deutsch] Giessereistaub faellt beim Recyclingprozess fuer Giessereialtsande als kohlenstoffhaltiges Abfallprodukt an. Mit der Zielstellung aus dem Giessereistaub durch Verbrennung in freier Flamme, Quarzmehl als verwertbares Produkt herzustellen, wurden Versuche mit einem fuer Kohlenstaub erprobten Brenner durchgefuehrt. Waehrend die Verbrennung des Giessereistaubes in freier, selbsthaltender Flamme nur mit einem Stuetzbrennstoff moeglich ist, konnten Reaktionsbedingungen gefunden werden, unter denen der Giessereistaub ohne Stuetzung in einer Wirbelschicht verbrennt und nicht nur stofflich, sondern auch energetisch, z.B. fuer die thermische Regenerierung von Giessereisand nutzbar ist. Fuer ein solches Verfahren, wurden erfolgreiche Kurzversuche durchgefuehrt. Die verfahrens- und anlagentechnische Konzeption einer Pilotanlage wurde erarbeitet. (orig.)

Weiss, E.; Vogelsang, E.

1995-09-25

62

Respiratory disease in foundry workers.  

Science.gov (United States)

A survey was carried out in a steel foundry in Brisbane to evaluate the nature and frequency of respiratory symptoms and to assess ventilatory function. The foundry used many moulding processes including the Furane, Isocure, Shell, carbon dioxide, and oil sand systems. Nasal symptoms and wheeze were often reported, particularly by workers in the general foundry and core shop, and on a semiautomated line. By contrast, workers in the aftercast section not exposed to fumes or vapours from the various moulding processes reported these symptoms less often. Of 46 workers exposed to moulding fumes and vapours, 11 had developed a wheeze while working at the foundry. Wheeze and other respiratory tract symptoms were often attributed by the workers to exposure to substances at work, particularly from the Shell process which uses phenol formaldehyde resin and hexamethylenetetramine. Symptoms were reported also, but less often, on exposure to materials used in the Furane process (urea formaldehyde and furfuryl alcohol) and the Isocure process (methylene diphenyl diisocyanate, phenol formaldehyde, and dimethylethylamine). Ventilatory function studied over Monday and Friday showed a small and inconsistent changes. The six subjects working on the semiautomated line showed a small decrease in FEV1 (+/- SEM) (208 +/- 70 ml) only on Monday; this differed significantly from that in 17 aftercast workers (9 +/- 50 ml, p less than 0.05). Ventilatory function recorded before work on Monday morning showed no evidence of chronic airway obstruction in any group. Most environmental measurements were below the threshold limit values (TLV) except in the general foundry, where furfuryl alcohol was detected at concentrations of up to 50 ppm and formaldehyde at 4 ppm. The onset of symptoms in relation to exposure to various fumes and vapours suggests that both irritant and hypersensitivity mechanisms are present. As environmental modifications had occurred recently the apparent hypersensitivity may relate to past exposure levels above the TLV. PMID:3970867

Low, I; Mitchell, C

1985-02-01

63

Foundry Coating Technology: A Review  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The importance of foundry coating in improving the surface quality of castings cannot be over emphasized. The appli-cation of mould and core washes creates a high thermal integrity barrier between the metal and the mould resulting in the reduction of the thermal shock experienced by the sand system. These thermal shock leads to series of surface de-fects such as veining/finning, metal penetration, burn-on/in, scab, rat tail, erosion etc. The use of coatings reduces the tendency of occurrence ...

Nwaogu, Ugochukwu Chibuzoh; Tiedje, Niels Skat

2011-01-01

64

Gaseous and adsorbed PAH in an iron foundry.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The increased risk of lung cancer among foundry workers is assumed to be associated with the inhalation of gaseous and particle bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). These compounds are produced during pyrolysis of carbon containing loading material in the moulding sand. The concentrations of 20 PAH, some of which are carcinogenic, have been determined in the dusty casting area of an iron foundry by means of gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. The total dust was fractionated by ...

Knecht, U.; Elliehausen, H. J.; Woitowitz, H. J.

1986-01-01

65

Foundry Industry Training Committee  

Science.gov (United States)

The Foundry Industry Training Committee has encouraged the foundry industry in developing systematic manpower training and development programs at all levels. Features developed include competitions as a technique of standard setting, recommendations for technician training, and a widely used manpower information system. (MW)

Industrial Training Journal, 1974

1974-01-01

66

UPGRADING FOUNDRY WASTEWATER TREATMENT  

Science.gov (United States)

The paper summarizes findings of a 10-week pilot plant study of gray iron foundry wastewater treatment. Treatment technologies studied included lime softening, lime/soda ash softening, polymer addition, flocculation/sedimentation, and dual media filtration. Results indicate that ...

67

Foundry energy conservation workbook  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The foundry industry is a significant user of energy, and therefore, a natural candidate for efforts to save energy and improve efficiency by both governmental agencies and technical/trade associations. These efforts are designed to both improve the national energy position and improve the industry's efficiency and profitability. Increased energy cost and the reduced availability of fossil fuels at certain times have provided the incentive to curb waste and to utilize purchased energy wisely. Energy costs now approach and sometimes exceed 10% of the sales dollar of many foundries. Although energy use by foundries has gradually decreased on a per/ton basis in recent years, the foundry industry must continue to find ways to utilize energy more efficiently. This workbook provides ways to achieve this goal.

1990-01-01

68

Process management in foundries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents the nature of process management and the basic process analysis. A general model of process management in a foundry is showed. The essential activities of processing, systems and change management are described. There is also presented a problem of effectiveness, efficiency and processing improvement. The criteria, methods and techniques of process improvement are indicated. The importance of process approach to the improvement of foundry management system is underlined.

L. Wojtynek

2009-07-01

69

Energy conservation in foundry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In any foundry, the cost of fuel in the form of coal, oil or electrical power, is about 10 to 15% of the cost of the product. Saving of the order of 30 to 50% can be achieved in energy by reducing consumption of fuel and increasing efficiency. This has been illustrated by describing 4 examples in foundry industry. In each case, saving in terms of rupees is also indicated. (N.B.)

1994-04-01

70

Investigation into the origin of radioactivity in ceramic waste. Zircon sand in iron foundries; Onderzoek naar de radioactiviteit van keramisch afval. Zirkoonzand in de ijzergieterij  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In 2002 a truck loaded with used car scrap triggered a radiation monitoring gate detector at a scrapyard. The material under suspicion turned out to be some ceramic waste material. The ceramic waste was used for many years to raise roads or pave yards and premises in the surroundings of Almelo, Netherlands, as was the case with the used car dump where the metal scrap came from. The ceramic material contains zircon sand, which has elevated concentrations of naturally occuring radionuclides. Therefore, using this waste in a surface soil layer may cause radiological exposures to the public. From measurements at the used car dump dose rates were determined up to ten times the background. From further research it was determined that part of the ceramic waste has concentrations above exemption level. From these measurements it was also concluded that the ceramic material is retaining radon and its decay products. From some calculations a maximum effective annual dose was estimated of about 1 mSv. This dose is determined mainly by external radiation and is for long lasting exposure on some large factory grounds. On the other hand, children might be playing in smaller yards or premises. Ingestion might play some role in that case. For this exposure path an annual dose of 0.12 mSv was calculated. For adults this is not an important exposure path. Inhalation doesn't seem to play an important role neither for adults nor for children. [Dutch] In 2002 ging bij een schrootbedrijf het alarm af toen naast autoschroot enig radioactief keramisch materiaal door de detector werd gereden. Gedurende een groot aantal jaren is het keramische afval toegepast als verharding voor wegen en erven in de omgeving van Almelo, zo ook bij de autosloper. In het keramische materiaal is zirkoonzand verwerkt. Dit materiaal bevat van nature verhoogde concentraties van radionucliden. Het gebruik van het afval als verharding kan dan ook leiden tot een blootstelling van de persoon die zich daarop bevindt. Bij de autosloper zijn dosistempi gemeten tot tienmaal de natuurlijke achtergrond. Uit nader onderzoek van het keramische afval, is vastgesteld dat het zich deels boven de zogenaamde meldingsplichtige grens bevindt. Uit dit onderzoek is tevens naar voren gekomen dat radon en daaruit ontstane vervalproducten vrijwel niet uit het keramische afval vrijkomen. Uit enkele berekeningen is een maximale effectieve jaardosis geschat van ongeveer 1 mSv, voornamelijk door externe straling bij langdurige blootstelling op bijvoorbeeld een groot bedrijfsterrein. Op kleinere toegankelijke terreinen zoals erven kunnen ook kinderen worden blootgesteld. Dan speelt mogelijk ook ingestie een rol. Voor deze route is een effectieve jaardosis van 0,12 mSv berekend. Voor volwassenen speelt deze blootstellingsroute geen belangrijke rol. Inhalatie blijkt voor zowel volwassenen als kinderen een minder belangrijke rol te spelen.

Blaauboer, R.O

2003-07-01

71

Thermal reclaimer apparatus for a thermal sand reclamation system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A thermal reclaimer apparatus is disclosed for thermally removing from the used foundry sand the organic matter that is present therein. The subject thermal reclaimer apparatus includes chamber means in which the used foundry sand is heated to a predetermined temperature for a preestablished period in order to accomplish the burning away of the organic matter that the used foundry sand contains. The chamber means includes inlet means provided at one end thereof and outlet means provided at the other end thereof. Feed means are cooperatively associated with the pipe means and thereby with the inlet means for feeding the used foundry sand through the inlet means into the chamber means. The subject thermal reclaimer apparatus further includes rotating means operative for effecting the rotation of the chamber means as the used foundry sand is being heated therein. The chamber means has cooperatively associated therewith burner means located at the same end thereof as the outlet means. The burner means is operative to effect the heating of the used foundry sand to the desired temperature within the chamber means. Tumbling means are provided inside the chamber means to ensure that the used foundry sand is constantly turned over, i.e., tumbled, and that the lumps therein are broken up as the chamber means rotates. Lastly, the used foundry sand from which the organic matter has been removed leaves the chamber means through the outlet means.

Deve, V.

1984-02-07

72

National Metal Casting Research Institute final report. Volume 1, Sand reclamation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A mobile thermal foundry sand reclamation unit was designed and constructed. This unit consisted of thermal and mechanical sand reclamation equipment installed on the bed of a 50 foot low-boy trailer. It was transported to a number of Midwest foundries for on-site demonstration of the sand reclamation process. This allowed participating foundries to have their own refuse sand (10-100 tons) processed and then reused in production for evaluation. The purpose for building the unit was to demonstrate to foundries through ``hands on`` experience that refuse sands can be reclaimed and successfully reused particularly in regard to product quality. Most of the participating foundries indicated a high level of satisfaction with the reclaimed sand. Laboratory testing of samples of the used sand, before and after processing by the demonstration unit, verified the usability of the reclaimed sand. One of the foundries participating was a brass foundry, the sand from this foundry contained lead and is classified as a hazardous material. After reclamation the sand was no longer hazardous and could also be reused in the foundry.

Vondra, L.F.; Burningham, J.S. [University of Northern Iowa, Cedar Falls, IA (United States). Dept. of Industrial Technology

1995-08-01

73

Pneumatic reclamation devices applied in the conditions of Ostrowiec Foundry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The scope of publication includes presentation of used sand reclamation system with the use of energy of compressed stream of air, whichshift reclaimed sand in pneumatic system. The solution, by incorporating into pneumatic installation an element which act as special disordered element causing controlled flow of two-phase flow to clean the surface layer of regenerated grains in a dry environment.The described reclamation equipment was installed and operated in the foundry "Ostrowiec".

D. Homa

2010-04-01

74

Energy usage in foundries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Foundries, particularly smelters, are among the most energy-intensive of industrial energy users. This review of foundry processes examines each stage in terms of energy-consumption advantages or disadvantages. Coke-fired cupola and oil-fired crucible furnaces, for example, have the disadvantage of dissipating energy in flue gasses. Electric induction and resistance furnaces have the advantages of high levels of control and reliability, thermal economy, but higher cooling-water losses. The author suggests equipment improvements and process modifications that should improve energy efficiency. 3 figures. (DCK)

Hoeglund, K.

1980-01-01

75

Influence of foundry dust on moulding mixtures quality  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this paper was to observe the effect of the addition of the dust from the moulding plant on the quality parameters of the moulding mixtures and determine tolerable content in the moulding mixture. Three types of moulding mixtures were used in experiments: mixture prepared from new quartz sand and bentonite, mixture which is recycled in the experimental foundry and mixture came from the small foundry. To these moulding mixture was added the dust from moulding plant in the range 0 – 10%. Influence of dust addition on the compression strength, splitting strength and permeability was observed in all three kinds of mixtures.

A. Pribulová

2013-01-01

76

Characterization and extraction of gold contained in foundry industrial wastes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Gold was characterized and leached in foundry sands. These wastes are product among others of the automotive industry where they are used as molds material which are contaminated by diverse metals during the foundry. To fulfil the leaching process four coupled thermostat columns were used. To characterize the solid it was used the X-ray diffraction technique. For the qualitative analysis it was used the Activation analysis technique. Finally, for the study of liquors was used the Plasma diffraction spectroscopy (Icp-As) technique. The obtained results show that the process which was used the thermostat columns was more efficient, than the methods traditionally recommended. (Author)

1999-12-02

77

JPL Innovation Foundry  

Science.gov (United States)

Space science missions are increasingly challenged today: in ambition, by increasingly sophisticated hypotheses tested; in development, by the increasing complexity of advanced technologies; in budgeting, by the decline of flagship-class mission opportunities; in management, by expectations for breakthrough science despite a risk-averse programmatic climate; and in planning, by increasing competition for scarce resources. How are the space-science missions of tomorrow being formulated? The paper describes the JPL Innovation Foundry, created in 2011, to respond to this evolving context. The Foundry integrates methods, tools, and experts that span the mission concept lifecycle. Grounded in JPL's heritage of missions, flight instruments, mission proposals, and concept innovation, the Foundry seeks to provide continuity of support and cost-effective, on-call access to the right domain experts at the right time, as science definition teams and Principal Investigators mature mission ideas from "cocktail napkin" to PDR. The Foundry blends JPL capabilities in proposal development and concurrent engineering, including Team X, with new approaches for open-ended concept exploration in earlier, cost-constrained phases, and with ongoing research and technology projects. It applies complexity and cost models, project-formulation lessons learned, and strategy analyses appropriate to each level of concept maturity. The Foundry is organizationally integrated with JPL formulation program offices; staffed by JPL's line organizations for engineering, science, and costing; and overseen by senior Laboratory leaders to assure experienced coordination and review. Incubation of each concept is tailored depending on its maturity and proposal history, and its highest-leverage modeling and analysis needs.

Sherwood, Brent; McCleese, Daniel

2013-08-01

78

Tensile properties of Class C fly-ash as a foundry core binder  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Fly-ashes are a potential alternative sand binder for production of foundry sand molds. They have previously been evaluated as binders for the main body of the mold, where they displayed suitable properties. Binders are also needed for producing foundry mold cores, which are separate shapes of sand that are placed in the mold to provide castings with contours, cavities, and passages that are not practical to produce with a simple mold. These cores have considerably higher strength requirements than the main mold and the ability of Class C fly-ash to meet the tensile strength requirements for cores was therefore evaluated.

T.C. Eisele; S.K. Kawatra; A. Nofal [Michigan Technological University, Houghton, MI (US). Department of Chemical Engineering

2004-12-01

79

Optimizing the Moulding Properties of Recycled Ilaro Silica Sand  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Effect of varying binders (bentonite and dextrin) and water on the properties of recycled foundry sand made from silica sand mined from Ilaro Silica sand deposit in Ogun State Nigeria and have been used in several cycles for production of cast iron was examined. The used sand was washed in hot water, dried and the sieved for grain distribution. Varying bentonite and dextrin contents were added together with water to portions of the silica sand and thoroughly mixed. The moulding sand propertie...

Aramide, Fatai Olufemi; Aribo, Sunday; Folorunso, Davies Oladayo

2011-01-01

80

Iron and steel foundries manual emissions testing of cupola baghouse at Waupaca Foundry in Tell City, Indiana: Volume 1 -- Report text and appendices A and B. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Emission Standards Division (ESD) is investigating iron and steel foundries to identify and quantify hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) emitted from cupolas; electric arc furnaces; and pouring, cooling and shakedown operations of sand mold casting processes. The Waupaca Foundry, located in Tell City, Indiana, uses a baghouse and was the subject of this test program. Testing at the Waupaca Foundry was conducted by two EMAD contractors to address the following ESD requirements: (1) characterize HAP emissions from cupolas that are controlled by baghouses; (2) characterize uncontrolled HAP emissions from pouring, cooling, and shakeout (PCS) processes; (3) determine baghouse performance in controlling HAP emissions from cupolas; and (4) identify surrogates for estimating HAP emissions from the subject foundry processes.

Meadows, F.; Scheffel, D.F.

1999-06-01

 
 
 
 
81

Effect of Used Foundry Sandand Pozzocrete Partial Replacement with Fine Aggregate and Cement in Concrete  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To produce low cost concrete by blending various ratios of fine aggregate and cement with used foundry sand and Pozzocrete to reduce disposal and pollution problems due to used foundry sand and Pozzocrete.Pozzocrete P60 is a processed quality assured fly ash, investigated for its use as a partial replacement for cement in concrete (1:1.48:3.21. The utilization of Pozzocrete P60 as cement replacement material in concrete or as additive in cement introduces many benefits from economical, technical and environmental points of view. The innovative use of used foundry sand in concrete formulations as a fine aggregate replacement material was tested as an alternative to traditional concrete. This paper presents the results of the concrete of mix proportion 1:1.48:3.21 in which cement is partially replaced with Pozzocrete P60 as 10% by weight of cement, and fine aggregate is partially replaced with used foundry sand as 10%, 30% and 50% by weight of fine aggregate. Five set of mixture proportions were made. First (A0 were standard mix (without Pozzocrete and used foundry sand with regional fine aggregate (sandand coarse aggregate and the second (B0 mix contained 10% Pozzocrete P60obtained from DIRK India Private Limited, Nasik, Maharashtra state. Other mixes (B1, B2, and B3 contained Pozzocrete P60 (10%plus foundry sand (10%, 30%and 50%respectively obtained fromferrous and non-ferrous metal casting industries.The compressive strength and water absorption has been obtained with partial replacement of Pozzocrete P60 with cement and foundry sand with fine aggregate. Test results indicate the increase in the strength properties of concrete and decreasing water absorption of concrete up to 10% replacement of cement with pozzocrete plus 30% replacement of fine aggregate with used foundry sand for strength at 7, 14and 28 days. Also it can be used in non-structural elements with the low range compressive strength wherestrength is not required and low cost temporary structure is prepared.

Dushyant R. Bhimani

2013-03-01

82

Technologies for decreasing the tap temperature to save energy in steel foundries  

Science.gov (United States)

Steel foundries are one of the most energy intensive industries. The increasing concerns over volatile energy cost and carbon dioxide emission have pushed foundries to improve efficiency and hence decrease electrical energy consumption. Statistical analysis of industrial survey data was combined with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling to investigate the best industrial practices and opportunities to improve energy efficiency. Reducing tap temperature was identified as one of the important ways of reducing energy consumption. Steel foundries typically tap at 1650-1800°C (3000-3300°F) which is 100-250°C (150-450°F) higher than the pouring temperature. The steel temperature is elevated to compensate for the temperature loss associated with tapping, holding and transporting the liquid steel from the furnace to the pouring floor. Based on experimental investigations and CFD modeling of heat losses during holding in the ladle for different foundry practices, a spreadsheet calculator has been developed to calculate the optimum tap temperature for the specific foundry practices which will eliminate unnecessary superheating. The calculated results were compared and validated with industrial measurements. Improving the lining refractory is one significant way of reducing heat losses during holding of the steel in ladle. Silica sand linings are being used in steel foundries as an inexpensive and convenient material for short holding times and small volumes. The possibilities of improvements of silica sand linings by the addition of lower density cenospheres (hollow spheres), a byproduct of coal fired power plants, was studied through property measurements and laboratory trials.

Biswas, Siddhartha

83

JPL Innovation Foundry  

Science.gov (United States)

NASA supports the community of mission principal investigators by helping them ideate, mature, and propose concepts for new missions. As NASA's Federally Funded Research and Development Center (FFRDC), JPL is a primary resource for providing this service. The environmental context for the formulation lifecycle evolves continuously. Contemporary trends include: more competitors; more-complex mission ideas; scarcer formulation resources; and higher standards for technical evaluation. Derived requirements for formulation support include: stable, clear, reliable methods tailored for each stage of the formulation lifecycle; on-demand access to standout technical and programmatic subject-matter experts; optimized, outfitted facilities; smart access to learning embodied in a vast oeuvre of prior formulation work; hands-on method coaching. JPL has retooled its provision of integrated formulation lifecycle support to PIs, teams, and program offices in response to this need. This mission formulation enterprise is the JPL Innovation Foundry.

Sherwood, Brent; McCleese, Daniel J.

2012-01-01

84

The Torgelow foundry; Eisengiesserei Torgelow  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The contribution presents the Torgelow foundry, whose director Hermann-Josef Taterra turned a derelict plant of the former DDR into Europe's most modern iron foundry, capable of producing big and even very big components for the wind power industry. From the very start, instead of learning by doing he opted for competent consulting of customers and high qualification of staff members. (orig.)

Viergutz, A. [Eisengiesserei Torgelow GmbH, Torgelow (Germany)

2006-07-01

85

Application Specific Electronic Module (ASEM) Merchant Foundry.  

Science.gov (United States)

The commercial part of Motorola's ASEM Foundry is the responsibility of GSTG's Diversified Technologies Division (DTD) and is a joint venture with Motorola's Semiconductor Products Sector (SPS). SPS is responsible for the marketing support of the Foundry ...

1995-01-01

86

The U. S. Foundry Industry - Viable Source.  

Science.gov (United States)

The study first provides background, identifies and defines the foundry industry. Then key factors affecting productivity and economic stability are considered to assess their impact on the foundry industry; resources and federal legislation area are disc...

G. L. Schmidt

1975-01-01

87

Application of time-series analysis in foundry production  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Characterization of the time-series analysis is presented, as a data mining tool which facilitates better understanding nature of manufacturing process and permits forecasting of future values of the process parameters or production results on the basis of the past data, recorded in regular intervals. The main methods and problems of the time-series analysis are presented, related to the trend function, evaluation of seasonality and significance of the information contents in the residual values. The authors’ research results, related to exemplary production data collected in a foundry with Disamatic molding line (temperature of the molding sand, are presented. It is concluded that a properly performed analysis of time-series can be a useful tool for analysis and predictions of foundry production process.

J. Koz?owski

2009-07-01

88

Cancer Morbidity of Foundry Workers in Korea  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Foundry workers are potentially exposed to a number of carcinogens. This study was conducted to describe the cancer incidence associated with employment in small-sized Korean iron foundries and to compare those findings to the Korean population. Cancer morbidity in 208 Korean foundries was analyzed using the Standardized Incidence Ratio (SIR) and Standardized Rate Ratio (SRR). Overall cancer morbidity in foundry workers (SIR=1.11, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.01-1.21) was significantly high...

Ahn, Yeon-soon; Won, Jong-uk; Park, Robert M.

2010-01-01

89

77 FR 32998 - Foundry Coke From China  

Science.gov (United States)

...No. 731-TA-891 (Second Review)] Foundry Coke From China Determination On the basis...revocation of the antidumping duty order on foundry coke from China would be likely to lead...Publication 4326 (May 2012), entitled Foundry Coke from China: Investigation No....

2012-06-04

90

Foundry Wastes Reuse and Recycling in Concrete Production  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The industrial process of a cast iron foundry plant located in the North of Italy was analyzed in order to determine the amount and kind of produced wastes. The main fractions are core and moulding sands, muds and powders from dust abatement plants, furnace and ladle slags, and exhaust lime, making about 750-800 t/d of residues for a production of about 800 t/d of globular and grey cast iron. All wastes were sampled and characterized by means of particle-size distribution and chemical analyse...

Silvia Fiore; Zanetti, Maria C.  .

2007-01-01

91

Molecular Foundry, Berkeley, California (Revised)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This case study provides information on the Molecular Foundry, which incorporates Labs21 principles in its design and construction. The design includes many of the strategies researched at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory for energy efficient cleanroom and data centers. The result is an energy efficient high-performing sustainable laboratory.

Carlisle, N.

2008-03-01

92

Possibilities of utilizing 3DP technology for foundry mould making  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Possibilities of application of three-dimensional printing (3DP technology for making casting prototypes are discussed. Three-dimensional printing enables making of foundry moulds for elements of complex shapes. The mould presented in the paper was printed with the use of Z510 Spectrum unit in the Car Technology Sp. z o.o. (Ltd. Co. in Kraków. The basic material for printing foundry moulds is the ZCast 501 powder. This powder is a mixture of traditional molding sand, gypsum and supplementary ingredients. The mould is made in ZCast technology, and it enables casting of zinc, magnesium and aluminum alloys at max. pouring temperature of 1100°C. The paper describes research on the possibility to utilize a standard ZP14 powder for building a rotor blade casting moulds. The research has showed that the ZP14 powder may serve for printing foundry moulds, which should then be subjected to thermo-chemical treatment. Application of the basic ZPrint system powder permits a reduction in mould manufacturing costs.

G. Budzik

2007-04-01

93

Web based foundry knowledge base  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The main assumptions and functions of proposed Foundry Knowledge Base (FKB are presented in this paper. FKB is a framework forinformation exchange of casting products and manufacturing methods. We use CMS (Content Management System to develope andmaintain our web-based system. The CastML – XML dialect developed by authors for description of casting products and processes – isused as a tool for information interchange between ours and outside systems, while SQL is used to store and edit knowledge rules and alsoto solve the basic selection problems in the rule-based module. Besides the standard functions (companies data, news, events, forums and media kit, our website contains a number of nonstandard functions; the intelligent search module based on expert system is the main advantage of our solution. FKB is to be a social portal which content will be developed by foundry community.

A. Stawowy

2009-01-01

94

Iron foundry Torgelow; Eisengiesserei Torgelow  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Equipped with the latest European machinery, the iron foundry Torgelow makes the largest castings for wind turbines in Europe. In the space of three and a half years the manager and co-owner Hermann-Josef Taterra and an Austrian investor turned an industrial ruin into a world market leader. In this period the foundry was extended in two stages for about 45 million Euro, giving it a capacity of around 4000 turbine sets (hub and base frame for 2.5 MW upwards). The main customers are manufacturers of wind turbines and gear boxes. In Torgelow hubs, stub axles, flanges and main frames, and gearbox housings for the multi-megawatt range are manufactured. (orig.)

Anon.

2007-07-01

95

From famous foundry to 'supersurgery'.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dr Steve Mann, a partner at the Worcester Street Medical Practice in Stourbridge, describes how he and a number of his GP colleagues have worked with architects, Abacus Architects, and main contractor, Amphion Construction, as well as with a number of local NHS and local authority bodies, to co-ordinate construction of a new GP 'supersurgery' - the realisation of a dream - on the former site of what is believed to be one of England's oldest foundries in the West Midlands town. The architects' view on the scheme, one of the key goals of which is to retain both much of the character, and the unusual original metal sub-structure, of the former foundry, is also given. PMID:24620493

Mann, Steve

2014-02-01

96

Fluidity of Aluminium Foundry Alloys  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The fluidity of an alloy plays a key role for the foundry and transport industries as it affects the quality and soundness of the cast products. Particularly, fluidity influences the reject rates, hence casting costs and the production of thinwalled, hence light components. Fluidity is a complex technological property and depends on many parameters. However, many aspects of this subject are still not fully understood. The motivation of the research presented in this doctoral thesis was, there...

Di Sabatino, Marisa

2007-01-01

97

Fluidity of Aluminium Foundry Alloys  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The fluidity of an alloy plays a key role for the foundry and transport industries as it affects the quality and soundness of the cast products. Particularly, fluidity influences the reject rates, hence casting costs and the production of thinwalled, hence light components. Fluidity is a complex technological property and depends on many parameters. However, many aspects of this subject are still not fully understood. The motivation of the research presented in this doctoral thesis was, there...

Di Sabatino, Marisa

2005-01-01

98

Influence of the Changes of the Structure of Foundry Bentonites on Their Binding Properties  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper, the effects of the examination of the structure of calcium bentonites, activated by sodium carbonate, applied in the foundry industry as a binding agent for moulding sands, subjected to the effects of high temperature, were presented. The examination was conducted with the use of the infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray analysis (XRD). In addition, the montmorillonite contents in the bentonite sample was determined with the use of the modern, Cu(II)-TET complex method ...

Z?ymankowska-kumon, Sylwia; Holtzer, Mariusz; Olejnik, Ewa; Bobrowski, Artur

2012-01-01

99

Optimising network flow for cost- and value- efficient operation of the supplier-to-foundry system  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Skillful control of a network flow, which creates a real bridge between the supplier and user, is one of the most important conditions for cost-efficient operation of an enterprise, foundry shop included. This paper describes modern principles of the network optimising for better distribution of the moulding sand, using modern methods of operational research and commonly available Excel calculation sheet equipped with an optimising tool called Solver.

A. Smoli?ski

2007-04-01

100

Biopolimers – structure, properties and applicability in the foundry industry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A review of literature data concerning physicochemical properties and possibilities of practical utilisation of the most important natural biopolymers (proteins, celluloses, starch, chitozan are presented in the paper. Biopolymers being renewable natural polymers characterised by several required physicochemical properties (adhesivity, activity, no toxicity, biodegradability constitute more and more interesting processing raw material for various industrial utilisations including environment friendly binding agents for moulding sands. Protein and starch compositions are used as binding agents for moulding and core sands in the foundry industry. Preliminary tests – performed within own research - of modification and utilisation of biopolymers as binding agents for moulding sands are promising from many aspects: technological (adequate properties of moulding sands, ecological (no toxicity, biodegradability and economic (low price. Starch from the polysaccharide group seems to be especially interesting since it is abundant, easily obtainable, biodegradable and the cheapest polymer. At its actual low price and the possibility of using agricultural wastes in the production, problem of utilising starch in many industry branches can become significant, especially in Poland.

B. Grabowska

2008-04-01

 
 
 
 
101

The Properties of Moulding Sand with Halloysite  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Until now, the mould sand in general use in the foundry industry are based on bentonite, which resulted from the fact that a good recognition properties and phenomena associated with this material. Come to know and normalized content of montmorillonite and carbonates and their important role in the construction of bentonite, and mass properties of the participation of compressive strength or scatter. Halloysite is widely used in industry and beyond them. However, little is known about its use in the foundry in Poland and abroad. This article presents preliminary research conducted at the Foundry Department of Silesian University of Technology on this material. Will raise the question of the representation of this two materials, which contains information connected with history and formation of materials, their structure and chemical composition. In the research, the results of compressive strength tests in wet masses of quartz matrix, where as a binder is used halloysite and bentonite in different proportions.

M. Cholewa

2012-04-01

102

Health and safety at work in foundry companies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article presents the identification and analysis of threats in the environment of the foundry at individual stages of the casts manufacturing process. A generalized model of the foundry was created in the system presentation including harmful and dangerous factors in the foundry technical workplace. This model can refer to an iron foundry and cast steel and small non-ferrous foundries, to modern foundries, with automatic moulding lines and to chill and pressure foundries where machines execute the majority of essential operations.

L. Wojtynek

2011-07-01

103

78 FR 21123 - Charlotte Pipe and Foundry; Analysis to Aid Public Comment  

Science.gov (United States)

...File No. 111 0034] Charlotte Pipe and Foundry; Analysis to Aid Public Comment AGENCY...Agreement'') from Charlotte Pipe and Foundry Company (hereinafter ``CP&F...DWV'') in 2004, and Richmond Foundry, Inc. (``Richmond Foundry'')...

2013-04-09

104

Research and application of enterprise resource planning system for foundry enterprises  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available PPDB issues - four aspects of current management issues of foundry enterprises are discussed in this paper, including Production Management, Process Control, Duration Monitoring and Business Intelligence Data Analysis. Also a whole Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP solution for foundry enterprises is proposed. The solution contains many models, four of which are used to solve the PPDB issues. These are called SPDB models, which separately are the Single-piece management model (based on casting lifecycle, Process management model (based on task-driven technology, Duration monitoring model (based on surplus period, and Business intelligence data analysis model (based on data mining. An ERP system for foundry enterprises, named HZERP, was researched and developed, and applied to a sand casting company of single piece and small batch production. Qualitatively and quantitatively comparing the application effect before and after implementing the HZERP system, the result demonstrated that the foundry ERP system based on the SPDB models can help metal casting enterprises achieve the single-piece management, better regulate the production processes, improve production and delivery management, shorten the production cycle, reduce costs, and speed up the capital turnover to a large extent.

Zhou Jianxin

2013-01-01

105

Restoration of an Argonne National Laboratory foundry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Environmental Management Operations Waste Management Department (WMD) at Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL-E) undertook the restoration of an unused foundry with the goal of restoring the area for general use. The foundry was used in the fabrication of reactor components for ANL`s research and development programs; many of the items fabricated in the facility were radioactive, thereby contaminating the foundry equipment. The major challenges associated with the safe removal of the foundry equipment included the sheer size of the equipment, a limited overhead crane capability (4.5 tonnes), the minimization of radioactive and hazardous wastes, the cost-effective completion of the project, the hazardous and radioactive wastes present, and limited process knowledge (the facility was unused for man years).

Shearer, T.; Pancake, D.; Shelton, B. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

1997-12-01

106

Advanced technology nodes, a foundry perspective  

Science.gov (United States)

Leading edge foundries need to fulfill a wide range of customer needs and have to deliver state-of-the-art performance processes. Therefore, an innovative but flexible modular technology set up is essential. This paper will show after a brief introduction of foundry challenges in general Global Foundries path towards the 28nm technology. Here, two key elements like high k metal gate process and embedded stressors are discussed. The article is concluded with an outlook on future device scaling from a leading edge foundry's perspective. This look ahead includes recent transistor architecture and process technology trends. More specifically, some challenges of the 20nm technology are discussed. This node will push planar transistor technology to its physical limits. Due to this, subsequent nodes will require substantial innovations in process architecture and device concepts. Two potential device paths are foreseen and compared, i.e. FinFet and ET-SOI-UTBB devices.

Faul, Jürgen; Hoentschel, Jan; Wiatr, Maciej; Horstmann, Manfred

2012-11-01

107

Foundry industry – current state and future development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The casting production is considered as one of the main factors influencing the development of world economy. The state of art and foresight of world’s casting production is discussed in the paper on the basis of the latest statistical data. The progress gained during the last few years in foundry engineering is shown as a way to further development of foundry technology. The last decade brought significant changes in the world map of the greatest casting producers. Globalization and transformation of economic systems is reflected by variations of foundry production in different countries, more over the globalization of economy is regarded not only as a chance but also as a menace for the European foundries.

M. Holtzer

2012-07-01

108

Foundry coke: physical and chemical properties  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The first part of the paper deals with the desirable properties of foundry coke; the remainder discusses the selection of coal blends and carbonising conditions for manufacturing such coke and describes practice at the Bedwas coking plant.

Hughes, R.T.

1983-01-01

109

Restoration of an Argonne National Laboratory foundry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Environmental Management Operations Waste Management Department (WMD) at Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL-E) undertook the restoration of an unused foundry with the goal of restoring the area for general use. The foundry was used in the fabrication of reactor components for ANL's research and development programs; many of the items fabricated in the facility were radioactive, thereby contaminating the foundry equipment. The major challenges associated with the safe removal of the foundry equipment included the sheer size of the equipment, a limited overhead crane capability (4.5 tonnes), the minimization of radioactive and hazardous wastes, the cost-effective completion of the project, the hazardous and radioactive wastes present, and limited process knowledge (the facility was unused for man years)

1997-11-16

110

Temperature influence on structural changes of foundry bentonites  

Science.gov (United States)

The results of investigations of three calcium bentonites, activated by sodium carbonate, applied in the foundry industry as binding material for moulding sands, subjected to the influence of high temperatures - are presented in the paper. Investigations were performed by the thermal analysis (TG) method, the infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) method and the modern Cu(II)-TET complex method (used for the determination of the montmorillonite content in bentonite samples). The occurrence of the dehydration process and two-stage dehydroxylation process was confirmed only for bentonite no. 2. This probably indicates that cis- and trans-isomers are present in the octahedric bentonite structure. Tests were performed at temperatures: 500, 550, 700, 900, 1000, 1100, 1200 °C.

Holtzer, Mariusz; Bobrowski, Artur; ?ymankowska-Kumon, Sylwia

2011-10-01

111

Wastes Characterisation from Foundry Activities on European Level  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This work presents The results of the eco toxicological characterisation of 22 defined wastes from steel foundry activities. The wastes have been selected from three processes, steel mill (smelting). sand casting and cleaning and finishing of steel products,with the common characteristics of represent an important industrial activity in the area and generated the wastes considered in this study. The eco toxicological characterisation obtained applying the Spanish regulations on hazardous waste is compared to the hazardous attributions considered by the European Union in order to characterise a waste as hazardous (non hazardous). The results allow to conclude that a acceptable concordance between both methodologies is reached and remark the need to split the broad generic types of wastes given by the Spanish regulation (Eco toxic / non eco toxic) into clearly identifiable specific types of waste

1998-12-12

112

Radiometric measurement techniques in metallurgy and foundry technology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The contributions contain informations concerning the present state and development of radiometric measurement techniques in metallurgy and foundry technology as well as their application to the solution of various problems. The development of isotope techniques is briefly described. Major applications of radiometric equipment in industrial measurement are presented together with the use of isotopes to monitor processes of industrial production. This is followed by a short description of numerous laboratory-scale applications. Another contribution deals with fundamental problems and methods of moisture measurement by neutrons. A complex moisture/density measurement device the practical applicability of which has been tested is described here. Possibilities for clay determination in used-up moulding materials are discussed in a further contribution. The clay content can be determined by real-time radiometric density measurement so that the necessary moisture or addition of fresh sand can be controlled. (orig.) With 20 figs., 9 tabs., 178 refs

1990-01-01

113

Towards Modeling Changeovers for flexible foundry manufacturing  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Costs involved in implementing manufacturing flexibility to meet customer demand are more important in the SMEs, especially that are labor intensive for example metalcasting companies located in a high cost country like Norway. Changeover is an important issue in foundries, and setup time of the dies is one of the vital parameters in the manufacturing process. This paper presents an analytical method for evaluating product changeover suitable for foundry manufacturing environment.

Rhythm Suren Wadhwa

2012-01-01

114

Towards Modeling Changeovers for flexible foundry manufacturing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Costs involved in implementing manufacturing flexibility to meet customer demand are more important in the SMEs, especially that are labor intensive for example metalcasting companies located in a high cost country like Norway. Changeover is an important issue in foundries, and setup time of the dies is one of the vital parameters in the manufacturing process. This paper presents an analytical method for evaluating product changeover suitable for foundry manufacturing environment.

Rhythm Suren Wadhwa

2012-07-01

115

The Properties of Moulding Sand with Halloysite  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Until now, the mould sand in general use in the foundry industry are based on bentonite, which resulted from the fact that a good recognition properties and phenomena associated with this material. Come to know and normalized content of montmorillonite and carbonates and their important role in the construction of bentonite, and mass properties of the participation of compressive strength or scatter. Halloysite is widely used in industry and beyond them. However, little is known about its use...

2012-01-01

116

Strength properties of moulding sands with chosen biopolymer binders  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article presents the results of primary researches of the IV generation moulding sands, in which as the binders are used differentbiodegradable materials. The bending and the tensile strength of the moulding sands with polylactide, poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid,polycaprolactone, polyhydroxybutyrate and cellulose acetate as binders were measured. The researches show that the best strengthproperties have the moulding sands with polylactide as binder. It was proved that the tested moulding sands’ strength properties are goodenough for foundry practice.

St.M. Dobosz

2010-07-01

117

Gas pressure in sand mould poured with cast iron  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The results of measurements of gas pressure in foundry moulds made from sands bonded with bentonite, sodium sil icate and furan resin were disclosed. It was found that the maximum pressure during pouring of mould with metal occurs in the case of bentonite sands, especially with the addition of coal dust. The effect of this pressure on the formation of surface defects in castings was examined.

A. Chojecki

2011-01-01

118

Gas pressure in sand mould poured with cast iron  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The results of measurements of gas pressure in foundry moulds made from sands bonded with bentonite, sodium sil icate and furan resin were disclosed. It was found that the maximum pressure during pouring of mould with metal occurs in the case of bentonite sands, especially with the addition of coal dust. The effect of this pressure on the formation of surface defects in castings was examined.

2011-01-01

119

International negotiations in the foundry engineering  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to introduce the essence of negotiations in general, which could find it’s application in foundry engineering. The paper is the result of long cooperation of the authors with foundry engineering and their participation in negotiations between the domestic and foreign companies. In this paper the essence and the rules of negotiations have been introduced. It presents also the skills and abilities of the negotiators. The cycle of negotiations and the following stages of negotiations have been also described. The authors have presented the characteristics of negotiations led by the partners from different parts of the world with particular emphasize on Asian and European countries as with these partners the negotiations in Polish foundries are mainly led.

L. Wojtynek

2008-04-01

120

Moisture content measurement of foundry raw materials with NZK 201 neutron moisture gage  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The possibility was studied of applying densimeters and moisture gages of the NZK 201 type in a foundry. The experiments were conducted in the measurement of pure quartz sands and sands with binding agents, such as sodium silicate and bentonite, within the moisture range of 0.5 to 6% water, and in the measurement of a fuel mixture consisting of ground anthracite and ground coke with a moisture content of more than 5%. The dependence was determined of the recorded pulse rates on the water content in quartz sands without binding agents. The measurements were carried out in a volume of 507 dm3 over a period of 3 mins. The accuracy of moisture determination within 0 to 1.5% water was 0.2 to 0.3%, for a higher water content 0.1 to 0.2%. The results of measurements in volumes of 38 and 25 dm3 are given in form of calibration curves. In the minimal volume of 25 dm3 an accuracy of +-0.2% could be obtained. Similar measurements were carried out in a mixture of sand with sodium silicate. The calibration curves for pure quartz sand and sand with sodium silicate are similar. A calibration curve could not be obtained in measurements of quartz sand with bentonite and of the fuel mixture of ground anthracite and ground coke owing to the unreproducibility of results. (J.B.)

1976-05-21

 
 
 
 
121

Energy conservation in the foundry industry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The production of castings requires the consumption of considerable quantities of energy. The rapid increase in the price of all forms of energy has therefore had a large impact on the foundry industry. This seminar was planned to bring together a speakers from industry and government and to present a range of information and ideas on energy conservation in the foundry industry. Presentations were oriented to the needs of the operating foundryman. Topics covered included heat recovery, energy conservation, and increased efficiency. Separate abstracts were prepared for 9 papers.

Buhr, R.K. (ed.) (Canada Centre for Mineral and Energy Technology, Ottawa, ON (Canada))

1981-04-01

122

Characterization and extraction of gold contained in foundry industrial wastes; Caracterizacion y extraccion de oro contenido en matrices de desechos industriales de fundicion  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Gold was characterized and leached in foundry sands. These wastes are product among others of the automotive industry where they are used as molds material which are contaminated by diverse metals during the foundry. To fulfil the leaching process four coupled thermostat columns were used. To characterize the solid it was used the X-ray diffraction technique. For the qualitative analysis it was used the Activation analysis technique. Finally, for the study of liquors was used the Plasma diffraction spectroscopy (Icp-As) technique. The obtained results show that the process which was used the thermostat columns was more efficient, than the methods traditionally recommended. (Author)

Vite T, J.; Vite T, M.; Diaz C, A.; Carreno de Leon, C. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Depto. de Estudios del Ambiente, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

1999-07-01

123

A cohort mortality study of foundry workers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Since the 1970s, hygienic improvements have led to a reduction in the level of airborne pollutants in Danish foundries. This mortality study reflects the exposure situation prior to 1970, and the findings may be used as a baseline for future evaluations of the preventive impact of reduced exposure. Mortality data were derived from a historical cohort study in which 3,056 foundry workers were compared with 43,024 workers employed in other industries. The foundry workers' life-long risk of dying from pneumoconioses averaged 2% and the corresponding standardized mortality ratio (SMR) equaled 7,368 (95% confidence interval (95% CI): 4,029-12,363). Excess mortality was also seen for chronic bronchitis and emphysema (SMR = 132, 95% CI: 98-185). Nonsignificant increases were seen for buccal cancer, stomach cancer, colon cancer, and urothelial cancer. In conclusion, Danish foundry workers exposed prior to 1970 seem to suffer an excess risk of devastating lung disease of occupational origin. PMID:9219651

Hansen, E S

1997-09-01

124

Use of anthracite in the foundry industry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Anthracite has been used for smelting iron in North America for nearly 200 years and is still used today in cupolas. Environmental and market factors contribute to continued cost increases in foundry coke that will continue in the future. This paper reviews the availability, quality and properties of anthracite and considers some of the differences in operation when using anthracite in place of coke.

Bethray, A. [McClain Corp., Stamford, CT (United States)

1994-12-31

125

Dirty-gas recuperator installed at foundry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A dirty-gas recuperator installed on two foundry cupolas is saving fuel at a rate of more than $500,000 per year. The unit features the pendant ''U'' tube arrangement in the heat exchanger which enables operation in the 1,000 to 1,600 /sup 0/F range.

1981-09-01

126

Increase of foundry properties of secondary silumins  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The work is devoted to increase of foundry properties of secondary silumins. The influence of a chip contents in charge, quantities of iron in an alloy and the modifier used for processing of liquid metal, on fluidity, linear shrinkage, crack resistance and a porosity number of silumin AlSi9Cu2 is considered.

O.V. Ljutova

2008-04-01

127

Towards Measuring Investment in Flexible Foundry Manufacturing  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Manufacturing flexibility is an important instrument to ensure the success of manufacturing systems in the modern day competitive and uncertain environment. The major hindrance in integrating flexibility into decision making process is that it is difficult to measure and be compared to future indefinable manufacturing scenarios. This paper presents a methodical concept utilizing real options to evaluate flexible foundry manufacturing system.

Rhythm Suren Wadhwa

2012-01-01

128

Towards Measuring Investment in Flexible Foundry Manufacturing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Manufacturing flexibility is an important instrument to ensure the success of manufacturing systems in the modern day competitive and uncertain environment. The major hindrance in integrating flexibility into decision making process is that it is difficult to measure and be compared to future indefinable manufacturing scenarios. This paper presents a methodical concept utilizing real options to evaluate flexible foundry manufacturing system.

Rhythm Suren Wadhwa

2012-07-01

129

Failure effects and resolution of modes: a novel FMEA treatise for finalizing mould designs in foundries  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english This paper proposes a novel strategy to finalize the mould design of a specific cast component through the failure analysis using case study data of a foundry. Traditional failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) is one of the effective tools for prioritizing the possible failure modes by calculating [...] the Risk priority Number (RPN) of a process/design. But in foundries, prioritizing the failures through the traditional FMEA produces unmatched results when RPN values are identical during preproduction trials. Hence it is very difficult to finalize moulds design of a specific cast component using traditional FMEA approach. This research paper addresses an alternate FMEA approach named FEAROM (Failure Effects And Resolution of Modes) to resolve the difficulty in finalizing the mould designs. Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) is used for validating the results obtained using FEAROM method. The results presented are based on an experimental study carried out for a specific component in a foundry using the sand casting method. It is found that proposed FEAROM model matches well in practice and produces quality castings.

T.A., Selvan; C., Jegadheesan; P., Ashoka Varthanan; K.M., Senthilkumar.

130

Sand Drains.  

Science.gov (United States)

Explains the sand drain method of consolidating swampy areas for the construction of highways. Uses animation and scenes of an actual project to show preparation of the site, driving the sand drains, placing the control devices and overload, final prepara...

1994-01-01

131

Casting Ductile Iron in Layer Moulds Made from Ecological Sands  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article contains the results of tests performed under the target project in Hardtop Foundry Charsznica.The objective of the tests and studies was to develop a technology of making high-quality ductile iron castings, combined witheffective means of environmental protection. The studies presented in this article related to castings weighing from 1 to 300 kg made from ductile iron of grades 400-15 and 500-7, using two-layer moulds, where the facing and core sand was the sand with an alkaline organic binder, while backing sand was the sand with an inorganic geopolymer binder.A simplified method of sand reclamation was applied with possible reuse of the reclaim as an addition to the backing sand. The castiron spheroidising treatment and inoculation were selected taking into account the specific conditions of Hardtop Foundry. A pilot batch of castings was made, testing the gating and feeding systems and using exothermic sleeves on risers. The study confirmed the validity of the adopted concept of making ductile iron castings in layer moulds, while maintaining the content of sand with an organic binder at a level of maximum 15%.

M. R?czka

2012-09-01

132

Reclamation of used sand by fluidized-bed roaster  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Most of used sand discharged from foundry shops has so far been disposed by means of dumping it to a reclaimed land. Recently, however, from the viewpoint of the restrictions placed on the dumping to prevent environmental pollution as well as from the problem of exhaustion of good quality sand, used sand is being increasingly re-used by recovery and reclamation. The reclamation method of used sand can be roughly classified into the wet reclamation, the dry reclamation, and the burning reclamation, and the most suitable method is being selected among them depending on the kind of bonding material. For the clay bonded sand, the dry reclamation and the wet reclamation are being mainly employed and for the furan resin bonded sand, the dry reclamation is being employed. Results are described of examination on the burning reclamation by means of a fluidized-bed roaster, concerning the clay bonded sand and furan resin bonded sand. The clay bonded sand can be reclaimed by means of a fluidized-bed roaster, and reclaimed sand obtained under the conditions of a fluidized-bed temperature in the range of 800 to 850/sup 0/C and a superficial velocity for fluidizing in the range of 70 to 75 cm/s (air ratio in the fluidized-bed: 0.8 to 1.0) can be used as shell sand. The furan resin bonded sand can also be reclaimed by means of a fluidized-bed roster and reclaimed sand obtained by its burning at a fluidized-bed temperature in the range of 500 to 650/sup 0/C, has properties equivalent to or higher than those of new sand, from the standpoint of properties at normal and high temperatures. The sand reclaimed by burning reclamation (clay sand and furan resin sand) was better in the results of pouring; as compared with the case of the reclaimed sand by the dry reclamation method.

Watanabe, T.; Matsuoka, K.; Satake, T.; Jahami, Y.; Suzuki, K.; Iwato, K.

1980-02-01

133

Development tendencies of moulding and core sands  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Further development of the technology for making moulding and core sands will be strictly limited by tough requirements due to protection of the natural environment. These tendencies are becoming more and more tense, so that we will reach a point when even processes, that from technological point of view fulfill high requirements of the foundry industry, must be replaced by more ecologically-friendly solutions. Hence, technologies using synthetic resins as binding materials will be limited. This paper presents some predictable development tendencies of moulding and core sands. The increasing role of inorganic substances will be noticed, including silicate binders with significantly improved properties, such as improved knock-out property or higher reclamation strength. Other interesting solutions might also be moulding sands bonded by geo-polymers and phosphate binders or salts and also binders based on degradable biopolymers. These tendencies and the usefulness of these binders are put forward in this paper.

Stanislaw M. Dobosz1

2011-11-01

134

Monitoring of the supply system of electrical foundry equipment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article presents examples of recording the instantaneous values voltages, currents and power in electrical power systems foundry.Recorded measurements of the instantaneous values allow to make an analysis of transients at the time of turning on the foundry device.The author on the bases of the measurements results in power systems selected foundry mixers, describes examples of analysis andevaluation of transients when switching these devices.

E. Zió?kowski

2010-04-01

135

Influence of the Changes of the Structure of Foundry Bentonites on Their Binding Properties  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper, the effects of the examination of the structure of calcium bentonites, activated by sodium carbonate, applied in the foundry industry as a binding agent for moulding sands, subjected to the effects of high temperature, were presented. The examination was conducted with the use of the infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and X-ray analysis (XRD. In addition, the montmorillonite contents in the bentonite sample was determined with the use of the modern, Cu(II-TET complex method and the technological properties of moulding sands containing the examined bentonites, such as: compactability, permeability, compression strength were examined.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.18.1.1342

Sylwia ?YMANKOWSKA-KUMON

2012-03-01

136

Commercial negotiations in the foundry engineering  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article presents the process of commercial negotiations paying attention to the negotiation itself as well as to its basic elements. The specificity of the Polish foundries’ main negotiation partners from The European Union, who are the deliverers of diverse casting range, was specified. The most important cultural factors, which determine the process of negotiations conducted by the representatives of various cultural groups, were analysed. The understanding of cultural differences and adapting to them while negotiating are important factors which constitute the parties’ negotiation process. The meaning of price in the commercial negotiation process was described. The elements of sale process and the factors which influence the casts price were enumerated. What is more, the main methods of determining price were characterized. The essential problems connected with conducting the price negotiations in foundries were indicated.

L. Wojtynek

2008-10-01

137

Improving electrical efficiency in the foundry industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the current economic climate, it is essential for industry to minimize costs wherever possible. This is particularly important in the foundry industry that is being subjected to competitive pressure from offshore suppliers and by suppliers of competing materials. This paper reports that foundries must continuously strive to lower operating costs wherever possible. In many respects, the utility industry is no different. The situation facing utilities over the past several years has resulted in its transition from a producer and supplier of energy to that of a more customer oriented service company. In many cases, utilities have formed departments dedicated to providing assistance to their customers in the application of electricity to their business. At the same time, the need for energy conservation has become widespread in North America as energy demand increases, environmental concerns increase and the cost of providing new power plants become formidable

1991-11-12

138

How orthogonal are the OBO Foundry ontologies?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Ontologies in biomedicine facilitate information integration, data exchange, search and query of biomedical data, and other critical knowledge-intensive tasks. The OBO Foundry is a collaborative effort to establish a set of principles for ontology development with the eventual goal of creating a set of interoperable reference ontologies in the domain of biomedicine. One of the key requirements to achieve this goal is to ensure that ontology developers reus...

Ghazvinian Amir; Noy Natalya F; Musen Mark A

2011-01-01

139

Small Scale Foundries in Ghana: The challenges  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Small Scale Foundries (SSFs) have been in existence for several years in Ghana. The industry has created several jobs for the people of Ghana and has minimized the burden on government to find ways of disposing scrap metals generated within the country. While scrap metals are still being exported, the quantity exported has decreased as a result of recycling by foundrymen in producing various parts. The government of Ghana has not paid special attention to this industry. Nevertheless, individu...

Andrews, Anthony; Gikunoo, Emmanuel

2011-01-01

140

Properties of sodium silicate bonded sand hardened by microwave heating  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The sodium silicate bonded sand hardened by microwave heating has many advantages, such as low sodium silicate adding quantity, fast hardening speed, high room temperature strength, good collapsibility and certain surface stability. However, it has big moisture absorbability in the air, which would lead to the compression strength and the surface stability of the sand molds being sharply reduced. In this study, the moisture absorbability of the sodium silicate bonded sand hardened by microwave heating in ifferent humidity conditions and the effect factors were investigated. Meanwhile, the reasons for the big moisture absorbability of the sand were analyzed. Some measures to overcome the problems of high moisture absorbability, bad surface stability and sharply reducing strength in the air were discussed. The results of this study establish the foundation of green and clean foundry technology based on the microwave heating hardening sodium silicate sand process.

Fan Zitian

2009-08-01

 
 
 
 
141

COSTS MODELS IN DESIGN AND MANUFACTURING OF SAND CASTING PRODUCTS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the early phases of the product life cycle, the costs controls became a major decision tool in the competitiveness of the companies due to the world competition. After defining the problems related to this control difficulties, we will present an approach using a concept of cost entity related to the design and realization activities of the product. We will try to apply this approach to the fields of the sand casting foundry. This work will highlight the enterprise modelling difficulties (...

Perry, Nicolas; Mauchand, Magali; Bernard, Alain

2005-01-01

142

Use of foundry coke fines in cupola melting  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Investigations into the best choice of sieving equipment for foundry coke containing high proportions of breeze and the reuse of the breeze are reported. Cement-bonded breeze briquettes were found to be a successful substitute for foundry coke in cupolas.

Ernst, G.

1984-03-01

143

GRAY IRON FOUNDRY INDUSTRY PARTICULATE EMISSIONS: SOURCE CATEGORY REPORT  

Science.gov (United States)

The report gives results of a study to develop particulate emission factors based on cutoff size for inhalable particles for the gray iron foundry industry. After a review of available information characterizing particulate emissions from gray iron foundries, the data were summar...

144

Photonic Device Layout Within the Foundry CMOS Design Environment  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A design methodology to layout photonic devices within standard electronic complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) foundry data preparation flows is described. This platform has enabled the fabrication of designs in three foundry scaled-CMOS processes from two semiconductor manufacturers.

Orcutt, Jason Scott; Ram, Rajeev J.

2009-01-01

145

Mutagenic material in air particles in a steel foundry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recently published epidemiological reports indicate lung cancer mortality amongst foundry workers at DOFASCO, Ltd., was higher than found elsewhere in the plant or control populations. Presented are preliminary work on mutagen screening efforts and studies on the use of various sampling devices and on optimization of the assays, followed by data which show a diverse range of mutagenic compounds present in foundry air particulates

1979-10-04

146

Foundry. Trade and Industrial Education Trade Preparatory Training Guide.  

Science.gov (United States)

One of a series of curriculum guides prepared for the metals occupations cluster of the construction/fabrication occupational group, this guide identifies the essentials of the foundry trade as recommended by the successful foundry operator. An instructional program based upon the implementation of the guide is expected to prepare a student to…

Nebraska State Dept. of Education, Lincoln. Div. of Vocational Education.

147

Evaluation by PIXE external beam of the leaching efficiency for a thermo stated column for the sand treatment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this paper was to measure the leaching efficiency for a thermo stated column designed to extract metals in muds originated by foundry processes. The results obtained were useful to contemplate different alternatives helping to solve the problem of stocking enormous volumes of polluted sand produced by industries. Samples of residual sands and muds (treated sands) coming from an engine factory and from a thermo stated column respectively, were irradiated using an external beam of 3.55 MeV energy protons. From the quantitative analysis PIXE (Proton Induced X-ray Emission), it was possible to establish the level of pollution in sands due to the foundry processes and to evaluate the leaching efficiency of the output liquid phase from the thermo stated column. For polluted sands, certain cases were observed for which the efficiency was not enough to decrease the level of pollution in e.g., Cu, Zn, Br y Pb. (Author)

1995-01-01

148

Evaluation by PIXE external beam-of the leaching efficiency for a thermo stated column for the sand treatment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this paper was to measure the leaching efficiency for a thermo stated column designed to extract metals in muds originated by foundry process. The results obtained were useful to contemplate different alternatives helping to solve the problem of stocking enormous volumes of polluted sand produced by industries. Samples of residual sands and muds (treated sands) coming from an engine factory and from a thermo stated column respectively, were irradiated using an external beam of 3.55 MeV energy protons. From the quantitative analysis PIXE (Proton Induced X-ray Emission), it was possible to establish the level of pollution in sands due to the foundry processes and to evaluate the leaching efficiency of the output liquid phase from the thermo stated column. For polluted sands, certain cases were observed for which the efficiency was not enough to decrease the level of pollution in, e.g., Cu, Zn, Br and Pb. (Author)

1995-01-01

149

Sand Dunes  

Science.gov (United States)

This outdoor activity (on page 2 of the PDF) is a full inquiry investigation into how the amount of moisture in a sand dune relates to the number of plants growing there. Groups of learners will scout at least two locations in a sandy area, count the number and types of plants in contact with a 10 meter line, and then sample the moisture in the top 30 cm of sand in each location, graphing their results to analyze their data. Relates to linked video, DragonflyTV: Sand Dunes.

Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.

2005-01-01

150

A Formalised Description of Foundry Production Program  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Rational designing of foundry enterprises is based on a program allowing for both the quantitative and qualitative aspects of production. Studies carried out in this respect are mainly oriented at the task of establishing a classification system of castings and formalising their description. This article refers to the absolute classification and technological classification of castings existing so far; some principles of the formation of a model of the data on production program have been presented as well. The program was written by the technique of relational databases with description of the documents and diagrams of relations existing between the data.

R. Wrona

2007-07-01

151

In vitro characterization of DNA adducts formed by foundry air particulate matter.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study is part of an ongoing investigation of biomarkers in iron foundry workers exposed to polycyclic aromatic compounds. Foundry workers with the highest exposures had elevated levels of DNA adducts in their white blood cells in previous studies. The purpose of this study was to characterize the nature of DNA reactive chemicals in foundry air samples through incubating the foundry filter extract with DNA and activation enzymes. Calf thymus DNA was incubated with foundry filter extract a...

Savela, K.; Kohan, M. J.; Walsh, D.; Perera, F. P.; Hemminki, K.; Lewtas, J.

1996-01-01

152

Hybrid foundry patterns of bevel gears  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Possibilities of making hybrid foundry patterns of bevel gears for investment casting process are presented. Rapid prototyping of gears with complex tooth forms is possible with the use of modern methods. One of such methods is the stereo-lithography, where a pattern is obtained as a result of resin curing with laser beam. Patterns of that type are applicable in precision casting. Removing of stereo-lithographic pattern from foundry mould requires use of high temperatures. Resin burning would generate significant amounts of harmful gases. In case of a solid stereo-lithographic pattern, the pressure created during gas burning may cause the mould to crack. A gas volume reduction may be achieved by using patterns of honeycomb structure. However, this technique causes a significant worsening of accuracy of stereo-lithographic patterns in respect of their dimensions and shape. In cooperation with WSK PZL Rzeszów, the Machine Design Department of Rzeszow University of Technology carried out research on the design of hybrid stereo-lithographic patterns. Hybrid pattern consists of a section made by stereo-lithographic process and a section made of casting wax. The latter material is used for stereo-lithographic pattern filling and for mould gating system. The hybrid pattern process consists of two stages: wax melting and then the burn-out of stereolithographic pattern. Use of hybrid patterns reduces the costs of production of stereolithographic patterns. High dimensional accuracy remains preserved in this process.

Budzik G.

2007-01-01

153

Mask cycle time reduction for foundry projects  

Science.gov (United States)

One of key deliverables of foundry based manufacturing is low cycletime. Building new and enhancing existing products by mask changes involves significant logistical effort, which could be reduced by standardizing data management and communication procedures among design house, mask shop, and foundry (fab) [1]. As an example, a typical process of taping out can take up to two weeks in addition to technical effort, for database handling, mask form completion, management approval, PO signoff and JDV review, translating into loss of revenue. In order to reduce this delay, we are proposing to develop a unified online system which should assist with the following functions: database edits, final verifications, document approvals, mask order entries, and JDV review with engineering signoff as required. This would help a growing number of semiconductor products to be flexibly manufactured at different manufacturing sites. We discuss how the data architecture based on a non-relational database management system (NRDMBS) extracted into a relational one (RDMBS) should provide quality information [2], to reduce cycle time significantly beyond 70% for an example 2 week tapeout schedule.

Balasinski, A.

2011-10-01

154

Space Technology for the Iron Foundry  

Science.gov (United States)

Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) initiated development of a plasma melter intended to solve a major problem in the U.S. foundry industry. EPRI is a non-profit organization that manages research and development for some 600 electric utility member companies. For the plasma melter program, EPRI enlisted as co-sponsors Westinghouse Electric's Environmental Systems and Services Division, General Motors Corporation, and Modern Equipment Company, supplier of equipment and services to the foundry industry. General Motor's plasma melter, first in the U.S., is an advanced technology system designed to improve the efficiency of coke-burning cupolas that melt iron to produce automotive castings. The key elements are six Westinghouse plasma torches. Electrically-powered plasma torch creates an ionized gas that superheats air entering the cupola to 10,000 degrees Fahrenheit. That great heat, three times higher than that attainable by oil or natural gas systems, is the key to making iron cheaper, cleaner, and faster. System offers an environmental bonus in reduced cupola emissions. Plasma torches increase GM's electric bill at Defiance, but that cost is more than compensated by the savings in charge material. The EPRI-sponsored Center for Materials Production (CMP) is evaluating the potential of plasma cupola technology.

1990-01-01

155

Small Scale Foundries in Ghana: The challenges  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Small Scale Foundries (SSFs have been in existence for several years in Ghana. The industry has created several jobs for the people of Ghana and has minimized the burden on government to find ways of disposing scrap metals generated within the country. While scrap metals are still being exported, the quantity exported has decreased as a result of recycling by foundrymen in producing various parts. The government of Ghana has not paid special attention to this industry. Nevertheless, individuals and private investors are heavily involved in producing several thousands of tonnes of castings annually generating revenue for the government through taxation as well as helping with metal waste disposal. Metal cast products are sold both locally and internationally to neighbouring countries. The industry is however faced with numerous challenges. These include quality issues due to lack of technical know-how, access to funding from both government and private financial institutions and foundry waste management. To promote this industry, government and private financial institutions must be encouraged to come on board. Policies must be established and proper training programme developed to improve and promote this technology. This could go a long way in reducing the high unemployment rate in Ghana.

Emmanuel GIKUNOO

2011-12-01

156

Leaching of metals from beneficially used foundry residuals into soils  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Every year American foundries send thousands of tons of solid waste to landfills. The foundry industry could reduce costs by using the wastes as a component of asphalt, cement materials, and mixing it with construction fill. This would also be environmentally beneficial by reducing the amount of wastes being sent to landfills. The concept has been referred to as beneficial use. Pennsylvania foundries may be permitted to beneficially use their wastes as described in the PA Municipal Waste Code. For regulatory approval, it must be demonstrated that the material to be reused meets similar specifications as the material being replaced without adversely effecting the public health, safety, welfare, and the environment. The purpose of the report from which this paper was developed was to investigate the environmental impact of foundry residuals when beneficially sued as construction materials. Previous environmental assessments have shown that foundry waste does leach metals to a limited degree. This paper indicates the degree that the leached metals may be attenuated by the surrounding soil before entering the local groundwater. Specific objectives of this paper included the following: (1) to report the statistical results of the chemical characterizations of foundry residuals and to relate them to drinking water standards for 12 selected metals; (2) to review selected results for the use of foundry residuals as highway embankment materials; (3) to establish the degree to which typical Pa soils provided an attenuation capacity under extreme conditions for the eight specific metals, namely As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Pb, Hg, Se, Ag (primary drinking water standards).

Fahnline, D.E.; Regan, R.W. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

1996-11-01

157

Study of exposure to radiation in a lost wax foundry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Lost wax casting is an old method for making metal pieces. At the beginning of the process, the required metal piece is made in wax. After that, the wax model is covered with a siliceous shell. When the siliceous shell is finished, the wax is melted, replacing the wax by liquid metal. In the moment when the metal is cool the siliceous shell is broken away. Finally some finishing process is made, and the piece is just prepared for its utilization. The siliceous shell is prepared with zircon sands containing varying concentrations of natural radionuclides: 238U, 232Th and 235U together with their progenies. For that reason it is very convenient to assess the dose to workers, considering the tasks they perform and the exposure time in these activities during a year. The first part of the study is centred in identifying the situations and areas where workers are exposed to radiation. The exposure pathways are: inhalation of dust, ingestion of dust, inhalation of radon, skin contamination and external irradiation. In a plant where this process is implemented the areas where workers are exposed are: the store, the shell building area, the foundry area, the shell or mould breaking area, and the waste area, including those areas close to the store too. In those sections, workers are exposed while they work in different tasks. The second part of the study deals with dose assessment. In most of the areas, external irradiation is the dominant pathway, and in order to assess doses a Monte-Carlo simulation using MCNP-4C code has been performed. Photons fluxes so obtained are multiplied by the conversion factor of Flux to Kerma for air, by conversion factor to Effective Dose by kerma unit, and by the number of emitted photons per disintegration of parent nuclide. The application of this methodology to given mill has obtained the following results: Individual doses by area received by workers have a mean value of 5.9 ?Sv/y and a standard deviation of 7.7 ?Sv/y with an upper limit of 20.3 ?Sv/y and a lower limit of 0.2 ?Sv/y. The corresponding collective dose is 232.8 ?Sv/y and being the distribution of dose by task as follows: - Maintenance: Carrying the zircon sands from lorry to store (0.039 ?Sv/y), putting the zircon sand pallet on the shelf (0.012 ?Sv/y), while the pallet is on the shelf (2.8 ?Sv/y), taking the pallet off the shelf (0.022 ?Sv/y), taking the pallet to mould preparation area (0.39 ?Sv/y). The total collective dose making that task is 3.263 ?Sv/y. - Shell Making: shell preparation (58.2 ?Sv/y), shell cover (big trays) (76 ?Sv/y), shell cover (small trays) (9 ?Sv/y), exposures to moulds (5.6?Sv/y), loading the pieces on the wagon (2.1?Sv/y), taking the wagon to foundry area (7.4 ?Sv/y), taking the residues to waste area (2.2 ?Sv/y), putting the pieces into the take wax removing kiln (1.4 ?Sv/y). The total collective dose making that task is 161.91 ?Sv/y. - Mould preparation (35.2 ?Sv/y). - Shell removal: waste material removal (0.4 ?Sv/y), and moving the cart from foundry area (0.6 ?Sv/y). - Finishing (28.6 ?Sv/y). - Waste (0.00034 ?Sv). And here it can be seen that those workers working on the shell making are the most exposed ones, but the value of collective dose is less than 1 mSv/y. Comparing with the levels of the graphical representation of the classification system, it can conclude that the processes 'do not need to consider regulation'. (author)

2004-10-25

158

Using sol-gel component as additive to foundry coatings to improve casting quality  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The improvement of foundry coatings to enhance performance is important. This paper investigates the effect of using sol�gel component as an additive to foundry coatings applied on chemically bonded sand cores. Three parameters at three levels each were investigated using Taguchi experimental parameter design. The effects of the sol�gel component on viscosity, density, °Baumé, core coverage and permeability are shown. Numerical simulations were used to predict defect areas. The thermal profiles of the core materials during casting were determined, and the surface quality of the castings was evaluated. The results show that the surface quality of castings obtained by adding the sol�gel component to the coatings for cold box cores has no significant difference from castings produced with coatings without sol�gel component. On the other hand, the addition of the sol�gel component in coatings for furan cores showed significant improvement on the surface quality of the castings compared to that obtained without sol�gel component.

Nwaogu, Ugochukwu Chibuzoh; Poulsen, T.

2012-01-01

159

Moulding Sands with New InorganicBinders - Ecology Assessment in the Aspect of Work Environment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The development of economy and industry introducing new technologies and materials often means the increased threat of occurrenceof factors harmful to humans and environment. Workers employed in foundries as mould pourers are the group of high professional risk.Foundry moulding sands when poured with liquid metal are a source of the emission of harmful, toxic and carcinogenic (benzene,PAHs compounds.The paper presents the results of studies on the concentration of chemical compounds emitted in the process of casting aluminiumalloy and brass using moulding sands with the new inorganic binders. The specific values of the exposure indices were compared with thelimit values. This enabled an assessment of the impact of moulding sands on work environment. The obtained results were compared withthe values of contaminants emitted when pouring foundry moulds made from furan sands and bentonite sands with an addition of coaldust.Studies were carried out under the project POIG.01.01.02-00-015/09 "Advanced materials and technologies."

I. Szanda

2012-09-01

160

Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene, a PAH biomarker in foundry workers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Exposure to PAH in foundry workers has been studied by urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (HPU) levels, quantitatively measured by reversed phase HPLC. Seventy male foundry workers and 68 matched controls were investigated. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure was defined by 17 breathing zone hygienic samples, consisting of 16 selected PAH compounds. Mean total PAH concentration (SD) was 10.40 (4.04) mu g/m3. A multiple regression model of tobacco consumption, age, airborne PAH-exposure and foundry work on log HPU showed a significant correlation, p foundry work (p < 0.0001) and airborne PAH exposure (p = 0.0478) contributed significantly to the model. These data suggest that HPU is a sensitive biomarker for low-dose PAH exposure. PMID:8907204

Omland, O; Sherson, D; Hansen, A M; Sigsgaard, T; Autrup, H; Overgaard, E

1996-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

The restoration of an Argonne National Laboratory foundry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Environmental Management Operations` Waste Management Department (WMD) at Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL-E) undertook the restoration of an unused foundry with the goal of restoring the area for general use. The foundry was used in the fabrication of reactor components for ANL`s research and development programs; many of the items fabricated in the facility were radioactive, thereby contaminating the foundry equipment. This paper very briefly describes the dismantling and decontamination of the facility. The major challenges associated with the safe removal of the foundry equipment included the sheer size of the equipment, a limited overhead crane capability (4.5 tonne), the minimization of radioactive and hazardous wastes, and the cost-effective completion of the project, the hazardous and radioactive wastes present, and limited process knowledge (the facility was unused for many years).

Shearer, T.; Pancake, D.; Shelton, B.

1997-09-01

162

A cluster of Acinetobacter Pneumonia in foundry workers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In a 3-month period, three men who had worked for 5 to 19 years as welders or grinders of steel castings in a foundry acquired pneumonia caused by Acinetobacter calcoaceticus variety anitratus serotype 7J. Two of the men died, and postmortem examination showed mixed-dust pneumoconiosis with iron particles in the lungs. A calcoaceticus variety anitratus serotype 7J was isolated from the air in the foundry but the source was not found. The prevalence of antibody titers of 64 or greater to the 7J strain was significantly higher among foundry workers (15%) than among community controls (2%) (p less than 0.01). Sampling showed that the concentrations of total and metallic particles (especially iron) and of free silica in air inhaled by welders and grinders at the foundry frequently exceeded acceptable levels. These findings suggest that chronic exposure to such particles may increase susceptibility to infection by this organism, which rarely affects healthy people.

Cordes, L.G.; Brink, E.W.; Checko, P.J.; Lentnek, A.; Lyons, R.W.; Hayes, P.S.; Wu, T.C.; Tharr, D.G.; Fraser, D.W.

1981-12-01

163

Guide to energy efficiency opportunities in Canadian foundries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In Canada, the foundry sector employs about 15000 people and most of the companies are members of the Canadian Foundry Association (CFA). The CFA is committed to reducing its greenhouse gas emissions and is therefore looking for energy savings which, in addition to reducing emissions, would help the industry save costs and improve its competitiveness. The aim of this document is to provide operators with a guide to improving energy efficiency in their foundries. The report provides guidance on carrying out energy audits, gathering energy saving ideas, prioritizing projects, and charting the course of improved energy performance. Many different energy saving ideas for many kinds of operation are presented in this guidebook as a help to operators in finding where they could improve their energy efficiency; references to energy saving methods from all over the world are provided. This guidebook is a useful tool for helping foundry operators improve energy efficiency in their operations.

NONE

2003-07-01

164

The restoration of an Argonne National Laboratory foundry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Environmental Management Operations' Waste Management Department (WMD) at Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL-E) undertook the restoration of an unused foundry with the goal of restoring the area for general use. The foundry was used in the fabrication of reactor components for ANL's research and development programs; many of the items fabricated in the facility were radioactive, thereby contaminating the foundry equipment. This paper very briefly describes the dismantling and decontamination of the facility. The major challenges associated with the safe removal of the foundry equipment included the sheer size of the equipment, a limited overhead crane capability (4.5 tonne), the minimization of radioactive and hazardous wastes, and the cost-effective completion of the project, the hazardous and radioactive wastes present, and limited process knowledge (the facility was unused for many years)

1997-11-16

165

Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene, a PAH biomarker in foundry workers  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Exposure to PAH in foundry workers has been studied by urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (HPU) levels, quantitatively measured by reversed phase HPLC. Seventy male foundry workers and 68 matched controls were investigated. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure was defined by 17 breathing zone hygienic samples, consisting of 16 selected PAH compounds. Mean total PAH concentration (SD) was 10.40 (4.04) mu g/m3. A multiple regression model of tobacco consumption, age, airborne PAH-exposure and foundry work on log HPU showed a significant correlation, p <0.001, r2 = 0.69. Only foundry work (p <0.0001) and airborne PAH exposure (p = 0.0478) contributed significantly to the model. These data suggest that HPU is a sensitive biomarker for low-dose PAH exposure.

Omland, Ã?yvind; Sherson, D

1996-01-01

166

Investigations of physicochemical properties of dusts generated in mechanical reclamation process of spent moulding sands with alkaline resins  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mechanical reclamation processes of spent moulding sands generate large amounts of post-reclamation dusts mainly containing rubbed spent binding agents and quartz dusts. The amount of post-reclamation dusts, depending in the reclamation system efficiency and the reclaim dedusting system, can reach 5%-10% in relation to the total reclaimed spent moulding sand. The proper utilization of such material is a big problem facing foundries these days. This study presents the results of investigations of physicochemical properties of post- reclamation dusts. All tested dusts originated from various Polish cast steel plants applying the mechanical reclamation process of moulding sands with alkaline resins, obtained from different producers. Different dusts, delivered from foundries, were tested to determine their chemical composition, granular characterization, physicochemical and energetic properties. Presented results confirmed assumptions that it is possible to utilize dusts generated during mechanical reclamation of used sands with organic resins as a source of energy.

R. Da?ko

2014-03-01

167

Ion traps fabricated in a CMOS foundry  

CERN Document Server

We demonstrate trapping in a surface-electrode ion trap fabricated in a 90-nm CMOS (complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor) foundry process utilizing the top metal layer of the process for the trap electrodes. The process includes doped active regions and metal interconnect layers, allowing for co-fabrication of standard CMOS circuitry as well as devices for optical control and measurement. With one of the interconnect layers defining a ground plane between the trap electrode layer and the p-type doped silicon substrate, ion loading is robust and trapping is stable. We measure a motional heating rate comparable to those seen in surface-electrode traps of similar size. This is the first demonstration of scalable quantum computing hardware, in any modality, utilizing a commercial CMOS process, and it opens the door to integration and co-fabrication of electronics and photonics for large-scale quantum processing in trapped-ion arrays.

Mehta, K K; Bruzewicz, C D; Chuang, I L; Ram, R J; Sage, J M; Chiaverini, J

2014-01-01

168

Maintenance system improvement in cast iron foundry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The work presents the issue of technical equipment management in an iron foundry basing on the assumptions of the TPM system (Total Productive Maintenance. Exploitation analysis of automatic casting lines has been carried out and their work’s influence on the whole production system’s functioning has been researched. Within maintenance system improvement, implementation of autonomic service and planned lines’ review have been proposed in order to minimize the time of breakdown stoppages. The SMED method was used to optimize changeover time, and the OEE (Overall Equipment Effectiveness was applied to evaluate the level of resources usage before and after implementing changes. Further, the influence of the maintenance strategy of casting devices’ efficiency on own costs of casting manufac- ture was estimated.

S. Kukla

2011-07-01

169

Contamination at a small precious metals foundry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Extensive contamination of foundry premises resulted from the accidental inclusion of a radioactive source, a strontium-90 compound probably incorporated in rolled silver foil, in a melt for reprocessing silver scrap. Most of this contamination was easily removed using an industrial vacuum cleaner, but some brickwork, concrete flooring, the furnace lining and waste flux bin had to be removed. Fortunately the strontium contamination from the melt was concentrated in the flux around the silver. It is recommended that every radioactive source should be permanently and recognisably marked if such incidents are to be avoided in future. The correct procedure for accounting for radioactive sources should also have been followed. Subsequent monitoring by the company of scrap metal led to the discovery of an empty depleted uranium radiography source container in a consignment of lead. (U.K.)

1977-01-01

170

XML Model of Planning System in Foundry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Contemporary enterprises (including those manufacturing iron castings have at their disposal advanced computer resources for the management of production processes. The disadvantage of these solutions is an incoherent language for writing production planning and scheduling problems. The lack of the standard for data exchange and model description makes the work on designing, development and implementation difficult. Various dialects of XML language, among others for production planning purposes, which may change this situation have been developed for the last several years. The paper describes a PSLX language, which can be viewed first of all as an ontology and communication protocol inside and outside of the Advanced Planning and Scheduling (APS system, as well as an XML standard for production planning and scheduling. This language has been then used to develop a model of planning system in a foundry. The model consists of customer’s order model, resources model and scheduling model.

A. Stawowy

2007-07-01

171

77 FR 20788 - Foundry Coke Products From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Expedited Second...  

Science.gov (United States)

...International Trade Administration [A-570-862] Foundry Coke Products From the People's Republic of China...sunset'') review of the antidumping duty order on foundry coke products (``foundry coke'') from the People's Republic of...

2012-04-06

172

Logic Foundry: Rapid Prototyping for FPGA-Based DSP Systems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We introduce the Logic Foundry, a system for the rapid creation and integration of FPGA-based digital signal processing systems. Recognizing that some of the greatest challenges in creating FPGA-based systems occur in the integration of the various components, we have proposed a system that targets the following four areas of integration: design flow integration, component integration, platform integration, and software integration. Using the Logic Foundry, a system can be easily specified, a...

Kazuo Nakajima; Bhattacharyya, Shuvra S.; Gary Spivey

2003-01-01

173

Qualifound - A modular tool developed for quality improvement in foundries  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Purpose – Castings defects are usually easy to characterize, but to eradicate them can be a difficult task. In many cases, defects are caused by the combined effect of different factors, whose identification is often difficult. Besides, the real non-quality costs are usually unknown, and even neglected. This paper aims to describe the development of a modular tool for quality improvement in foundries, and its main objective is to present the application potential and the foundry...

Santos, Gilberto; Barbosa, J.

2006-01-01

174

Iron removal from wastewater generated in foundry industry  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Nowadays, industrial wastewater significantly contaminates our environment. There are many technologies for cleaning these waters. When we are constructing a new treatment plant we must take into consideration the existing standards and laws of the Republic of Slovenia. The company where I did my research is specialised in foundry industry and it is the manufacturer of the components for automotive and motorcycle industry. Wastewaters in the foundry are cleaned with ultrafiltration treatment ...

Murovec, Nika

2013-01-01

175

Respiratory abnormalities among workers in an iron and steel foundry.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A study of the health of 78 workers in an iron and steel foundry in Vancouver, British Columbia, was carried out and the results compared with those found in 372 railway repair yard workers who were not significantly exposed to air contaminants at work. The foundry workers were exposed to PepSet, which consists of diphenyl methane diisocyanate (MDI) and phenol formaldehyde and their decomposition products as well as to silica containing particulates. A questionnaire was administered by traine...

Johnson, A.; Moira, C. Y.; Maclean, L.; Atkins, E.; Dybuncio, A.; Cheng, F.; Enarson, D.

1985-01-01

176

Recent Developments in Superconductor Digital Electronics Technology at FLUXONICS Foundry  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

"In Europe, the FLUXONICS Foundry develops fabrication processes and design kits for superconductor digital and mixed-signal circuits. We describe the implementation of the ""European Roadmap for Superconductor Electronics"" into the recent foundry process for superconductor digital electronics. Following the hierarchical cell-based design strategy, we developed a design kit with basic cells. We present experimental results of the process quality, the verified operati...

Kunert, Juergen; Brandel, Oliver; Linzen, Sven; Wetzstein, Olaf; Toepfer, Hannes; Ortlepp, Thomas; Meyer, Hans-georg

2013-01-01

177

Production system rationalisation on the example of iron foundry  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The present paper presents a systemic approach to foundry management. Thanks to production process modelling and simulation techniques, an attempt was made to synthesise many interconnected devices and numerous manufacturing stages into one production system. In the beginning, a factor analysis was carried out of the research object, which is a system of iron castings manufacture on automated foundry lines. On the basis of a simulation experiment, use the accessible production resources and m...

2010-01-01

178

Two Cases of Lung Cancer in Foundry Workers  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Iron and steel foundry workers are exposed to various toxic and carcinogenic substances including crystalline silica, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and arsenic. Studies have been conducted on lung cancer in iron and steel founding workers and the concentration of crystalline silica in foundries; however, the concentration of crystalline silica and cases of lung cancer in a single foundry has never been reported in Korea. Therefore, the authors report two cases of lung cancer and concentration of crystalline silica by the X-ray diffraction method. Case presentation A 55-year-old blasting and grinding worker who worked in a foundry for 33 years was diagnosed with lung cancer. Another 64-year-old forklift driver who worked in foundries for 39 years was also diagnosed with lung cancer. Shot blast operatives were exposed to the highest level of respirable quartz (0.412 mg/m3), and a forklift driver was exposed to 0.223 mg/m3. Conclusions The lung cancer of the two workers is very likely due to occupationally related exposure given their occupational history, the level of exposure to crystalline silica, and epidemiologic evidence. Further studies on the concentration of crystalline silica in foundries and techniques to reduce the crystalline silica concentration are required.

2013-01-01

179

Assessment of harmfulness of green sand with additions of dust from dry dedusting  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Recently, in the literature about the problems cause to the environment by foundry industry, attention has been paid to the presence and harmful effect of aromatic hydrocarbons: benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and isomers of xylenes (BTEX and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs. The growing interest in these pollutants of the environment is a result of their biological activity; some of them are characterized by mutagenic and carcinogenic action. In foundries these hydrocarbons are emitted during the contact between mould or core sands and liquid metal.This article discusses the results of the studies made on the elution rate of some harmful compounds include polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs (Table 3 and 4 from waste mould sand with bentonite and coal dust M1 (mixture Kormix 75 and this one with addition of dust from dry dedusting of sand M2 preparing station (partial replacement of bentonite and emission of BTEX gases from this moulds poured with molten cast iron. From the results given in these tables it follows that both mould sands are characterized by low values of the concentration of investigation substances and haven’t negative influence for environment during casting or management in other means. Tests were done according to the methodology developed at Faculty of Foundry Engineering University of Science and Technology in Cracow.

M. Holtzer

2010-07-01

180

Biological monitoring of foundry workers exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.  

Science.gov (United States)

This investigation describes benzo(a)pyrene (BP) serum protein adduct concentrations in 45 foundry workers and 45 matched non-occupationally exposed controls. High and low BP exposure groups were defined using breathing zone hygienic samples for both quartz and BP exposures. A newly developed enzyme linked immunosorbent assay detected benzo(a)pyrenediolepoxide-I binding to serum protein. Mean BP protein adduct concentrations (SD) for non-smoking (24.0 BP equivalents/100 micrograms protein (21.0] and smoking (28.0 (18.2] foundry workers were significantly higher than mean values for non-smoking (7.23 (8.72] and smoking (14.2 (24.4] controls. Foundry workers with high exposures to either quartz (28.4 (15.5] or BP (30.7 (19.3] had slightly raised mean adduct concentrations compared with foundry workers with low exposure for quartz (23.9 (23.1] or BP (24.5 (19.4). Highest mean adduct concentrations were found among a small group of workers with simultaneous high exposures to both quartz and BP (39.2 (6.5] suggesting an additive effect. These data support the ideas of a possible aetiological connection between an increased risk of lung cancer and BP exposure among foundry workers, and an additive effect between BP and quartz. Measurement of BP serum protein adduct concentrations appears to be a useful method by which groups exposed to BP may be biologically monitored. PMID:2383513

Sherson, D; Sabro, P; Sigsgaard, T; Johansen, F; Autrup, H

1990-07-01

 
 
 
 
181

Biological monitoring of foundry workers exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This investigation describes benzo(a)pyrene (BP) serum protein adduct concentrations in 45 foundry workers and 45 matched non-occupationally exposed controls. High and low BP exposure groups were defined using breathing zone hygienic samples for both quartz and BP exposures. A newly developed enzyme linked immunosorbent assay detected benzo(a)pyrenediolepoxide-I binding to serum protein. Mean BP protein adduct concentrations (SD) for non-smoking (24.0 BP equivalents/100 micrograms protein (21.0] and smoking (28.0 (18.2] foundry workers were significantly higher than mean values for non-smoking (7.23 (8.72] and smoking (14.2 (24.4] controls. Foundry workers with high exposures to either quartz (28.4 (15.5] or BP (30.7 (19.3] had slightly raised mean adduct concentrations compared with foundry workers with low exposure for quartz (23.9 (23.1] or BP (24.5 (19.4). Highest mean adduct concentrations were found among a small group of workers with simultaneous high exposures to both quartz and BP (39.2 (6.5] suggesting an additive effect. These data support the ideas of a possible aetiological connection between an increased risk of lung cancer and BP exposure among foundry workers, and an additive effect between BP and quartz. Measurement of BP serum protein adduct concentrations appears to be a useful method by which groups exposed to BP may be biologically monitored.

Sherson, D; Sabro, P

1990-01-01

182

Secondary foundry alloy damage and particle fracture  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The damage mechanisms of a hypoeutectic Al-Si-Cu foundry alloy, obtained through die casting, have been studied. Observations were made during tensile tests using a tensile test machine that was inserted into an scanning electron microscope. The microstructure features that are critical for damage were determined. The cleavage fracture of intermetallic particles was found to be the main process that limited the alloy ductility. Shrinkage cavities mainly play a role in the final fracture stage; the reduction in cross-section area induced by shrinkage cavities was assumed to be the main contribution of these defects to the fracture of the specimens. Attempts were made to determine the cleavage stress that initiated the fracture of the particles. Three-dimensional finite element computations were performed considering particular locations at the free surface of the observed fractured particles. The maximum principal stress was calculated for different locations of the particle with reference to the free surface. Different shapes and different elastic behaviour were studied. It was shown that the influence of a free surface on the stress level in a particle depends on its shape. The results were compared with those found in literature concerning the fracture strength of particles in Al alloys

2003-09-25

183

Energy conservation and utilization in foundries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The iron casting industry in the United Kingdom accounts for about 2% of all primary energy consumed, equivalent to nearly 6 million tons of coal per year. In view of the diverse nature of the business of the industry as a whole, no single type of melting and casting unit can be identified in the interest of energy conservation. Four changes in melting equipment clearly merit consideration as energy-saving measures however: a) the divided-blast cupola, b) the recuperation hot-blast cupola, c) oxygen injection in cupolas and d) electric furnaces for treating molten metal (duplexing). The average energy requirement for a tonne of iron castings is about 44 GJ/sub t/ (just over 1 1/2 tons of coal equivalent), individual foundries vary from 14 to 60 GJ/sub t/. The divided-blast cupola could save about 1.5 GJ/sub t/ per tonne of molten metal. Oxygen injection into the coke bed can increase the savings to 2.4 GJ/sub t/. The recuperation type of cupola can achieve a saving in energy of 30% if it is operated on a long melting campaign. If long-melting campaigns are not possible electric superheating of the melt may have an energy advantage. The report also examines the air pollution problems of the industry in relation to its energy needs.

Rose, K.S.B.

1981-01-01

184

76 FR 74810 - Foundry Coke From China; Institution of a Five-Year Review  

Science.gov (United States)

...No. 731-TA-891 (Second Review)] Foundry Coke From China; Institution of a Five-Year...revocation of the antidumping duty order on foundry coke from China would be likely to lead...an antidumping duty order on imports of foundry coke from China (66 FR 48025)....

2011-12-01

185

40 CFR 63.7682 - What parts of my foundry does this subpart cover?  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 false What parts of my foundry does this subpart cover? 63.7682...Hazardous Air Pollutants for Iron and Steel Foundries What This Subpart Covers § 63.7682 What parts of my foundry does this subpart cover? (a)...

2010-07-01

186

40 CFR 63.10900 - What parts of the General Provisions apply to my large foundry?  

Science.gov (United States)

...the General Provisions apply to my large foundry? 63.10900 Section 63.10900...Hazardous Air Pollutants for Iron and Steel Foundries Area Sources Requirements for New...Sources Classified As Large Iron and Steel Foundries § 63.10900 What parts of the...

2009-07-01

187

77 FR 15123 - Foundry Coke From China; Scheduling of an Expedited Five-Year Review  

Science.gov (United States)

...No. 731-TA-891 (Second Review)] Foundry Coke From China; Scheduling of an Expedited...revocation of the antidumping duty order on foundry coke from China would be likely to lead...No. 731-TA-891 (Second Review) FOUNDRY COKE FROM CHINA Staff Assigned...

2012-03-14

188

Mineral sands  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents an outlook of the Australian mineral sand industry and covers the major operators. It is shown that conscious of an environmentally minded public, the Australian miners have led the way in the rehabilitation of mined areas. Moreover the advanced ceramic industry is generating exciting new perspectives for zircon producers and there is a noticeable growth in the electronic market for rare earths, but in long term the success may depend as much on environmental management and communication skills as on mining and processing skills

1990-01-01

189

Manufacturing foundry alloys containing vanadium, niobium, titanium and rare earths  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ways to obtain foundry and ferroalloys, containing rare and disseminated metals, are analysed. To extract the expensive metals (V, Nb, rare earths and Ti) out of ores during smelting, the reduction of the metal oxides in accordance with MeO+2C=MeC+CO reaction (where Me- V, Nb, Ti, rare earths) is used. Some additional techniques are used and new compositions of the foundry alloys, in which the activity of the reduced metals is decreased as a result of chemical compound formation, are developed to increase the extraction of the reduced metal. It is shown that the advantages of using the foundry alloys, containing V, Nb, Ti and rare earths expressed in the increase and stabilization of alloying metal assimilation and in their distribution in the bulk of the metal more uniformly

1982-01-01

190

Foundry industries: environmental aspects and environmental condition indicators  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nowadays, environmental indicators are widely used as effective tools to assist decision-making in both public and private sectors. The lack of literature and research about local and regional Environmental Condition Indicators (ECI), the poor knowledge regarding solid waste generation, effluents and gas emissions from foundry industries, and their particular location in the urban area of Tandil, Argentina are the main reasons for this investigation, aiming to develop a set a of ECI to provide information about the environment in relation to the foundry industry. The study involves all the foundries located in the city between March and April 2010. The set of ECI developed includes 9 indicators for air, 5 for soil and 1 for water. Specific methodology was used for each indicator. (Author) 31 refs.

2013-01-01

191

Rationalization of foundry processes on the basis of simulation experiment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper presents results of research obtained on the basis of simulation experiment, whose aim was to analyze the performance of cast iron foundry. A simulation model of automobile industry foundry was made. The course of the following processes was analyzedin a computer model: preparation of liquid cast iron, forming and filling the moulds, cooling and stamping the castings, cleaning andfinishing treatment. The sheets of multi-criterion evaluation were prepared, where criteria and variants were assessed by meansof subjective point evaluation and fuzzy character evaluation. The paper presents an analysis example of finishing activities of castings realized in foundry on traditional machines and efficient presses and in cooperation. On the basis of reports from a simulation experiment information was achieved related to activities’ duration, load of accessible resources, the problems of storage and transport, bottle necks in the system and appearing queues in from of workplaces. The research used a universal modelling and simulation packet for productionsystems - ARENA.

S. Kukla

2008-10-01

192

Optimization of a new animal glue binder system cured by CO2 for use in foundry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A new sand binder system cured by CO2 was prepared based on the animal bone glue. To overcome the disadvantages of animal glue such as agglomeration at room temperature, high energy consumption and low efficiency, an alkaline decomposition process was selected, and certain modifier was used to modify the performance of the animal glue binder. For the alkaline decomposition, NaOH was used as the catalyst with an addition of 4wt.% to the animal glue. A modifier was determined through the orthogonal experiment with a weight ratio of glycerin: glycol: dextrin: animal glue = 9:16:15:100, and the optimal modification reaction should be performed at 75 ? with a reaction time of 90 min. Ca(OH2 was used as a promoter; the optimal CO2 gas flux blowing into the sand was 0.7 m3·h-1 for a duration of 60 s under the experimental conditions. Results show that an original strength above 0.7 MPa and a final strength about 4.2 MPa can be achieved, which could meet the requirement of rapid moulding and core-making for foundry. The new binder was characterized and analyzed by means of IR, and the modification and CO2-cured mechanisms of this animal glue binder were also discussed.

Liu Weihua

2012-11-01

193

ANN modelling for the determination of moulding sand matrix grain size  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One of the modern methods of the production optimisation are artificial neural networks. Neural networks are gaining broader and broader application in the foundry industry, among others for controlling melting processes in cupolas and in arc furnaces, for designing castings and supply systems, for controlling moulding sand processing, for predicting properties of cast alloys or selecting parameters of pressure castings. An attempt to apply neural networks for controlling the quality of bentonite moulding sands is presented in this paper. This is the assessment method of sands suitability by means of detecting correlations between their individual parameters. The presented investigations were obtained by using the Statistica 9.0 program. The aim of the investigations was to select the neural network suitable for prediction the moulding sand matrix grain size on the basis of the determined sand properties such as: permeability, compactibility, and compressive strength.

J. Jakubski

2011-10-01

194

Costs Models in Design and Manufacturing of Sand Casting Products  

CERN Document Server

In the early phases of the product life cycle, the costs controls became a major decision tool in the competitiveness of the companies due to the world competition. After defining the problems related to this control difficulties, we will present an approach using a concept of cost entity related to the design and realization activities of the product. We will try to apply this approach to the fields of the sand casting foundry. This work will highlight the enterprise modelling difficulties (limits of a global cost modelling) and some specifics limitations of the tool used for this development. Finally we will discuss on the limits of a generic approach.

Perry, Nicolas; Bernard, Alain

2010-01-01

195

Logic Foundry: Rapid Prototyping for FPGA-Based DSP Systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We introduce the Logic Foundry, a system for the rapid creation and integration of FPGA-based digital signal processing systems. Recognizing that some of the greatest challenges in creating FPGA-based systems occur in the integration of the various components, we have proposed a system that targets the following four areas of integration: design flow integration, component integration, platform integration, and software integration. Using the Logic Foundry, a system can be easily specified, and then automatically constructed and integrated with system level software.

Gary Spivey

2003-05-01

196

Quality of foundry coke obtained under regular coking conditions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Foundry coke's physico-mechanical properties can be improved by using coal with the highest coking power and by lowering the temperature to the optimal level in the axial plane of the coke cake. Coke charge quality and composition figures and foundry coke quality figures are presented in a table. Coking duration is approximately 15 hours, temperature is set at approximately 1000 C. Coal quality and composition are shown in further tables. Results prove that Pechorskii coal (M type) has the strongest influence on coke strength. Increasing coking duration leads to improvement in coke properties but worsens technico-economical aspects of coking. (In Russian)

Kiselev, B.P.; Pestov, V.I.; Ivanov, A.I.; Chivilev, M.P.

1982-01-01

197

Molecular Foundry Workshop draws overflow crowd to BerkeleyLab  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Nanoscale science and technology is now one of the top research priorities in the United States. With this background, it is no surprise that an overflow crowd or more than 350 registrants filled two auditoriums to hear about and contribute ideas for the new Molecular Foundry during a two-day workshop at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab). Scheduled to open for business at Berkeley Labin early 2006, the Molecular Foundry is one of three Nanoscale Science Research Centers (NSRCs) put forward for funding by the DOE's Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES).

Robinson, Art

2002-11-27

198

Elements of the efficiency system improvement of foundry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The effectiveness of industrial systems is being ranked among important factors industrial engineering in foundry. He determines internal production abilities of foundry. It is possible to describe the effectiveness the measure of matching closely possibilities maximum number of products for definite quality standards, at the optimal use of production factors and with the application the best methods pouring out. The second worship of article is devoted to problems market supply casting products. They discussed comprehensive you will eat a little of processes supplying.

J. Sitko

2010-04-01

199

Manganese exposure in foundry furnacemen and scrap recycling workers  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Cast iron products are alloyed with small quantities of manganese, and foundry furnacemen are potentially exposed to manganese during tapping and handling of smelts. Manganese is a neurotoxic substance that accumulates in the central nervous system, where it may cause a neurological disorder that bears many similarities to Parkinson's disease. The aim of the study was to investigate the sources and levels of manganese exposure in foundry furnacemen by a combined measuring of blood-manganese (B-Mn) and manganese in ambient air (air-Mn).

Lander, F; Kristiansen, J

1999-01-01

200

The production of TiAl by foundry processes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper describes a foundry technique that enables the production of TiAl employing an adapted melting procedure that uses an induction furnace with suitable refractory crucibles, inside a controlled atmosphere chamber. The developed technique allows the production of samples with a low and controlled amount of residual elements, with a thin superficial hard skin - known as ''alpha-case'' - and allows the use of higher superheating temperatures, when compared with alternative melting procedures. The micro-hardness and the residual contamination profiles, from the outside to the interior of samples, are presented and correlated to crucible refractory material and foundry practice. (orig.)

Barbosa, J.; Monteiro, C. [Univ. do Minho, Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica, Guimaraes (Portugal); Silva Ribeiro, C.A. [FEUP, Dept. de Engenharia Metalurgica e Materiais, Porto (Portugal)

2002-07-01

 
 
 
 
201

Electromagnet Gripping in Iron Foundry Automation Part III: Practice  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Flexibility can be defined as the ability to respond efficiently to the changing demands of the customer and is different in SMEs (Small-to-Medium manufacturing Enterprises than the traditional OEMs (Original Equipment Manufacturers. Costs involved in implementing manufacturing flexibility to meet customer demand are more important in the SMEs, especially those that are labor intensive for example foundries. Manufacturing systems with a high degree of flexibility can be rapidly changed to cover a wide range of production requirements. In this paper, we present a methodology enabling part handling flexibility, which has been incorporated in an iron foundry SME framework.

Rhythm Suren Wadhwa

2012-07-01

202

[Heme oxygenase 1 expression in foundry workers].  

Science.gov (United States)

Heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) catalyses the oxidation of heme to biliverdin, and its expression is induced by oxidative stress. This study was aimed at assessing the role of metabolic polymorphisms (CYP1A1, CYP1B1, GSTM1, GSTP1, EPHX) in the modulation of HO-1 gene expression in 37 foundry workers. Blood and urine samples were obtained at the beginning (BS) and at the end (ES) of work shift, in February (T1) and June (T2). Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) was measured as a tracer of PAH exposure. HO-1 gene expression in ES samples normalized to BS values (HO-1 ES/BS) was higher at T2 respect to T1. HO-1 gene induction was related to ES 1-OHP when considering either T2 samples or the combination of the two samplings. HO-1 ES/BS was significantly increased in subjects with at least a mutant allele for GSTP1 as compared to subjects with GSTP1AA genotype (1.23 +/- 0.002 vs 0.88 +/- 0.002, p urinary 1-OHP, and the induction of HO-1 expression. Such a correlation seems to be limited to subjects bearing variant alleles for GSTP1. At the same exposure levels, these subjects showed a greater expression of HO-1 FT as compared to subjects with GSTP1 wild type genotype, possibly due to a higher oxidative stress in the subjects expressing the mutant GSTP1-1 isoform, which could imply a limited scavenging capacity. PMID:16240585

Mozzoni, P; De Palma, G; Scotti, E; Andreoli, R; Folesani, G; Maninil, P; Apostoli, P; Mutti, A

2005-01-01

203

Moulding properties of synthetic sand mixtures. A comparative study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A comparative study has been carried out on the foundry qualities of synthetic moulding sand mixtures prepared from indigenous sand and clays of different plasticity (Enugu sand, Enugu fireclay and Ukpor clay). The effect of clay and water content on compressive strength and gas permeability in the green state was investigated. Results show that the more plastic Ukpor clay is a better binder and that moulding sand with up to 8 wt% fireclay, 3 wt% water; and 10 wt% Ukpor clay, 4 wt% water ensure a good combination of all working properties investigated. In the dry state the compressive and tensile strengths of the moulding sand showed a steady increase with increased clay content. With the addition of sawdust and coal dust, the latter showed best improvement on both the dry compressive and tensile strengths. Excellent collapsibility and high friability (12.53% for Ukpor clay-bonded mixture and 10.35% for fireclay-bonded mixture) were exhibited, but the friability values were reduced to about 1% by adding up to 3 wt% H{sub 2}O for Ukpor clay-bonded mixtures. The negative effect on the collapsibility was partially eliminated by the addition of 3 wt% sawdust. The study also shows that synthetic sand would be suitable for steel and general-purpose casting, considering the low binder contents of the mixtures.

Orumwense, F.F.O. [University of Benin, Benin (Nigeria). Dept. of Mechanical Engineers

2002-04-01

204

Methods of the montmorillonite content determination in foundry bentonites  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents results of the measurements montmorillonite content in foundry bentonites and mixtures of bentonite – lustrous carbon carrier by three methods: spectrophotometric method with the use of methylene blue, spectrophotometric method with the use of Cu(II – triethylenotetramine (Cu-TET complex, infrared spectroscopic method (FTIR.

M. Holtzer

2009-10-01

205

Dermal and inhalation exposure to methylene bisphenyl isocyanate (MDI) in iron foundry workers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Diisocyanates are a group of chemically reactive agents, which are used in the production of coatings, adhesives, polyurethane foams, and parts for the automotive industry and as curing agents for cores in the foundry industry. Dermal and inhalation exposure to methylene bisphenyl isocyanate (MDI) is associated with respiratory sensitization and occupational asthma. However, limited research has been performed on the quantitative evaluation of dermal and inhalation exposure to MDI in occupationally exposed workers. The objective of this research was to quantify dermal and inhalation exposure levels in iron foundry workers. Workers involved in mechanized moulding and mechanized production of cores were monitored: 12 core makers, 2 core-sand preparers, and 5 core installers. Personal breathing-zone levels of MDI were measured using impregnated filter sampling. Dermal exposure to MDI was measured using a tape-strip technique. Three or five consecutive tape-strip samples were collected from five exposed skin areas (right and left forefingers, left and right wrists, and forehead). The average personal air concentration was 0.55 microg m(-3), 50-fold lower than the Swedish occupational exposure limit of 30 microg m(-3). The core makers had an average exposure of 0.77 microg m(-3), which was not significantly different from core installers' and core-sand preparers' average exposure of 0.16 microg m(-3) (P = 0.059). Three core makers had a 10-fold higher inhalation exposure than the other core makers. The core makers' mean dermal exposure at different skin sites varied from 0.13 to 0.34 microg while the two other groups' exposure ranged from 0.006 to 0.062 microg. No significant difference was observed in the MDI levels between the skin sites in a pairwise comparison, except for left forefinger compared to left and right wrist (P < 0.05). In addition, quantifiable but decreasing levels of MDI were observed in the consecutive tape strip per site indicating MDI penetration into the skin. This study indicates that exposure to MDI can be quantified on workers' skin even if air levels are close to unquantifiable. Thus, the potential for uncured MDI to deposit on and penetrate into the skin is demonstrated. Therefore, dermal exposure along with inhalation exposure to MDI should be measured in the occupational settings where MDI is present in order to shed light on their roles in the development of occupational isocyanate asthma. PMID:19783835

Liljelind, I; Norberg, C; Egelrud, L; Westberg, H; Eriksson, K; Nylander-French, L A

2010-01-01

206

Reduction in Energy Consumption & Variability in Steel Foundry Operations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This project worked to improve the efficiency of the steel casting industry by reducing the variability that occurs because of process and product variation. The project focused on the post shakeout operations since roughly half of the production costs are in this area. These improvements will reduce the amount of variability, making it easier to manage the operation and improve the competitiveness. The reduction in variability will also reduce the need for many rework operations, which will result in a direct reduction of energy usage, particularly by the reduction of repeated heat treatment operations. Further energy savings will be realized from the reduction of scrap and reduced handling. Field studies were conducted at ten steel foundries that represented the U.S. steel casting industry, for a total of over 100 weeks of production observation. These studies quantified the amount of variability, and looked toward determining the source. A focus of the data collected was the grinding operations since this is a major effort in the cleaning room, and it represents the overall casting quality. The grinding was divided into two categories, expected and unexpected. Expected grinding is that in which the location of the effort is known prior to making the casting, such as smoothing parting lines, gates, and riser contacts. Unexpected grinding, which was approximately 80% of the effort, was done to improve the surfaces at weld repair locations, to rectify burnt on sand, and other surface anomalies at random locations. Unexpected grinding represents about 80% of the grinding effort. By quantifying this effort, the project raised awareness within the industry and the industry is continuing to make improvements. The field studies showed that the amount of variation of grinding operations (normalized because of the diverse set of parts studied) was very consistent across the industry. The field studies identified several specific sources that individually contributed to large process variation. This indicates the need for ongoing monitoring of the process and system to quantify the effort being expended. A system to measure the grinding effort was investigated but did not prove to be successful. A weld wire counting system was shown to be very successful in tracking casting quality by monitoring the quantity of weld wire being expended on a per casting basis. Further use of such systems is highly recommended. The field studies showed that the visual inspection process for the casting surface was a potentially large source of process variation. Measurement system analysis studies were conducted at three steel casting producers. The tests measured the consistency of the inspectors in identifying the same surface anomalies. The repeatability (variation of the same operator inspecting the same casting) was found to be relatively consistent across the companies at about 60-70%. However, this is still are very large amount of variation. Reproducibility (variation of different operators inspecting the same casting) was worse, ranging between 20 to 80% at the three locations. This large amount of variation shows that there is a great opportunity for improvement. Falsely identifying anomalies for reworking will cause increased expense and energy consumption. This is particularly true if a weld repair and repeated heat treatment is required. However, not identifying an anomaly could also result in future rework processing, a customer return, or scrap. To help alleviate this problem, casting surface comparator plates were developed and distributed to the industry. These plates are very inexpensive which enables them to be provided to all those involved with casting surface quality, such as operators, inspectors, sales, and management.

Frank Peters

2005-05-04

207

Cooling of hot sand with liquid nitrogen and solid carbon dioxide. Ekitai chisso oyobi dry ice ni yoru hotter dot sand no reikyaku  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

For the rapid cooling of hot sand in which the temperature of recycled foundry sand exeeds ambient by 10 centigrade or more, the mixing of liquid nitrogen and solid carbon dioxide, so called dry ice, into the hot sand was examined. The temperature of hot sand decreased rapidly, and the more rapid cooling effect was demonstrated compared with the conventional air blowing or water spraying methods. The suitable mixing ratios of the refrigerats depended on the temperature of the sand. The suitable mixing ratio of the liquid nitrogen and the dry ice were 5 % and 3 %, respectively, for the usual recycled sand which was at 60 to 80 centigrade of temperature. The water in usual hot sand evapolated rather rapidly as the time proceeded after kneading. Then, the mold strength and the surface stability decreased to form stickness to the pattern. However, when the hot sand was cooled using the refrigerants, the mold strength and the surface stability were recovered and there was not found so much stickness to the pattern. 10 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

Ninomiya, M.; Sakaguchi, Y.; Kayo, K.; Nozaki, Y.; Kobayashi, K.; Ota, H. (Government Industrial Research Institute, Nagoya, Nagoya (Japan))

1990-02-20

208

Characterization of Coated Sand Cores from Two Different Binder Systems for Grey Iron Castings  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Expansion defects on the surface of the castings include sand burn-in, metal penetration and/or veining, finning or scab. Veining or finning and metal penetration are of interest. These defects are associated with silica sand and result from the penetration of liquid metal into cracks formed during differential expansion of the core during heating. The rapid expansion of silica sand up to 600 oC and especially at 573 oC, where the α â?? β phase transformation occurs, is the cause of stresses in the core system. These stresses cause crack formation and metal melt flows into these cracks causing finning or veining and metal penetration defects. The use of refractory coatings on cores is fundamental to obtaining acceptable casting surface quality and is used on resin bonded cores in production foundries. In this study new sol gel-coated sand cores made from coldbox and furan binder systems were investigated for their casting properties.

Nwaogu, Ugochukwu Chibuzoh; Tiedje, Niels Skat

209

Granulation of After Reclamation Dusts from the Mixed Sands Technology: Water Glass – Resolit  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A technology of sands with water glass hardened by liquid esters is a cheap and ecologic method of producing moulding sands. Due to these advantages, this technology is still very important in several foundry plants for production of heavy iron and steel castings. Reclamation of the mixed moulding and core sands generates significant amounts of dusts, which require further treatments for their reuse. The results of investigations of a pressureless granulation of dusts generated in the dry mechanical reclamation process of the mixture consisting in app. 90 % of moulding sands from the Floster S technology and in 10 % of core sands with phenolic resin resol type, are presented in the hereby paper. Investigations were aimed at obtaining granulates of the determined dimensional and strength parameters. Granules were formed from the mixture of dusts consisting of 75 mass% of dusts after the reclamation of sands mixture and of 25 mass% of dusts from bentonite sands processing plant. Wetted dusts from bentonite sands were used as a binding agent allowing the granulation of after reclamation dusts originated from the mixed sands technology.

J. Kami?ska

2013-04-01

210

A review of energy consumption and related data : Canadian foundry industry 1990 to 2007 : executive summary  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Energy data from the North American industry classification system (NAICS) offer insight into energy consumption and emissions in different industries. NAICS 3315 provides information on the foundry industry. This paper discussed the quality and quantity of energy and production data available on the foundry industry in Canada. The purpose of the report was to identify trends in energy and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions between 1990 and 2007, and to highlight weaknesses in existing data. The report also suggested ways of improving the quality of data collected on foundries. The report provided background information on the Canadian foundry industry; energy and production data; and the NAICS codes of the Canadian foundry industry. The report also discussed trends in energy consumption, greenhouse gas emissions, industrial production, and intensity indicators. The paper revealed that energy consumption in the foundry industry increased by 116 percent between 1990 and 2007.

Nyboer, J. [Simon Fraser Univ., Burnaby, BC (Canada). Canadian Industrial Energy End-Use Data and Analysis Centre

2009-03-15

211

A novel use of calcium aluminate cements for recycling waste foundry sand (WFS)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The recycling of WFS in calcium aluminate cement mortars at high level of replacement (50%) was studied. Consistency and setting time were measured in fresh mortars. Two different curing conditions were used, the second one with the aim of enhancing the formation of stable cubic calcium aluminate hydrates. Compressive strength, pore size distribution and SEM examination were carried out to assess the effectiveness of CAC matrix in the recycling of WFS. The effect of the incorporation of a pol...

2013-01-01

212

Wet Sand flows better than dry sand  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We investigated the yield stress and the apparent viscosity of sand with and without small amounts of liquid. By pushing the sand through a tube with an enforced Poiseuille like profile we minimize the effect of avalanches and shear localization. We find that the system starts to flow when a critical shear of the order of one particle diameter is exceeded. In contrast to common believe, we observe that the resistance against the flow of wet sand is much smaller than that of ...

Fiscina, Jorge E.; Wagner, Christian

2007-01-01

213

Hazardous waste minimization. Part VI. Waste minimization in the foundry industry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The foundry industry is a major consumer of waste materials (scrap). Unfortunately, the recycling of these waste materials can result in the generation of hazardous wastes that must be properly managed at a significant cost. This article focuses on two waste streams in the foundry industry; calcium carbide desulfurization slag and melt emission control residuals. The author presents an overview of how foundries have evaluated different waste management options with the ultimate goal of minimizing the generation of hazardous waste.

Oman, D.E.

1988-07-01

214

Final Scientific Report Steel Foundry Refractory Lining Optimization  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The overall objective of the program was to optimize refractory materials and foundry processing used in casting steel. This objective was to be met by completing the following: (1) Surveying the steel foundries both through paper/electronic surveys sent to North American steel foundries as well as plant visits to participants. Information concerning refractory selection and performance as well as refractory and steelmaking practices provides a baseline for future comparison and to identify opportunities for substantial improvement in energy efficiency. (2) Conducting post-mortem analysis of materials from existing refractory/steelmaking practices to determine wear/failure mechanisms. (3) Identify areas for research on developing refractories for use in steel foundry furnaces, adjusting steelmaking practices to improve efficiency and modifying slag practices to improve refractory performance. The overall objective of the steel foundry refractory lining optimization program was to review established refractory and steelmaking practices to identify opportunities for improvements that would yield substantial energy savings for steel foundries. Energy savings were expected to arise from improved efficiency of the electric arc furnaces and from reductions in the post-casting welding and grinding that are normally required. Ancillary energy savings related to a reduction in the amount of refractories currently produced to meet the needs of the steel foundry industry, and a shift from pre-fired materials (shaped refractories) to monolithic refractories that are heat treated ''in situ'' were anticipated. A review of the complete program results indicates that techniques for achieving the overall goal were demonstrated. The main difference between the predicted and the actual achievements relates to the areas from which actual energy savings could be realized. Although reductions in furnace tap temperature would result in a reduction in the power required for melting, such reductions are realized through changes within the ladle transfer portion of the process, through modified ladle pre-heat and refractory insulation. Reductions in clean room energy usage proved very difficult to track, and some questions as to just how much impact refractory related inclusions have on the degree of welding and grinding required for completion of a casting, remain. Post-mortem analysis of casting defects did identify refractory derived inclusions but the greatest concentration of inclusions related to steel reoxidation issue. In almost every instance, the suggested refractory/process modifications were proven to be both technically and economically feasible. The difficulty in implementation of the proposed changes relates to the ''up front'' expense and the learning curve associated with any process modification. These two issues were compounded by production slow downs that are too common in the current market. Such slow downs normally result in less energy efficient processing coupled with reductions in capital or ''up front'' expenditures. A return to historical norms should allow foundries to implement the suggested modifications and then evaluate the overall benefit.

Smith, J.D.; Peaslee, K.D.

2002-12-02

215

Production system rationalisation on the example of iron foundry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present paper presents a systemic approach to foundry management. Thanks to production process modelling and simulation techniques, an attempt was made to synthesise many interconnected devices and numerous manufacturing stages into one production system. In the beginning, a factor analysis was carried out of the research object, which is a system of iron castings manufacture on automated foundry lines. On the basis of a simulation experiment, use the accessible production resources and manufacturing own cost of castings were analysed, depending on batch content and melting order, choice of an automatic line and the model of line fed with cast iron, sequence of order realization and the size of production lots. Simulation experiments were carried out on a computer simulation model prepared in the Arena packet produced by Rockwell Automation. Cost was estimated on the basis of additional calculation according to cost centres basing on factory spreadsheet.

S. Kukla

2010-04-01

216

Energy conservation and emissions reduction strategies in foundry industry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Current energy conservation and emissions reduction strategies in iron and steel industry were reviewed. Since foundry industry is one of the major source of energy consumption and pollution emission (especially CO2, issues concerning energy-saving and emission-reduction have been raised by governments and the industry. Specialists from around the world carried out multidimensional analyses and evaluation on the potentials in energy conservation and emissions reduction in iron and steel industry, and proposed various kinds of analyzing models. The primary measures mainly focus on the targeted policies formulation and also on clean and high-efficient technologies development. The differences and similarities in energy conservation and emission reduction in foundry industry between China and other countries were discussed, while, the future development trend was also pointed out.

Li Yuanyuan

2010-11-01

217

FMEA: Methodology, Design and Implementation in a Foundry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Failure Mode And Effect Analysis (FMEA is a technique to identify and prioritize potential failures of a process. This paper reports the description of FMEA methodology & its implementation in a foundry. It is used as a tool to assure products quality & as a mean to improve operational performance of the process. The work was developed in an Indian foundry, in co-operation with part of the internal staff chosen as FMEA team members & was focused on the study of core making process. The problems identified in the various steps of core making process contributing for high rejection are studied & analyzed in terms of RPN to prioritize the attention for each of the problem. The monetary loss due to core rejection is considered as measure of risk.

AWADHESH KUMAR,

2011-06-01

218

Logistics of Materials Flow in an Iron Foundry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article presents issues related to creating and realizing added value by logistic processes and processing in a casting enterprise. It discusses possibilities of improving systems of casts production by evaluating labour intensity of casts manufacture and analyzing manufacturing prime costs. Operations with added value, processes indirectly creating added value and operations without added value have been specified. The problem was presented on the example of materials flow design in a foundry, where casts are manufactured in expendable moulds and using automated foundry lines. On the basis of the Pareto analysis, a group of casts was specified whose manufacture significantly influences the functioning of the whole enterprise. Finishing treatment operations have been particularly underlined, as they are performed away from the line and are among the most labour-consuming processes during casts production.

S. Kukla

2013-07-01

219

Study of radon and its progeny concentrations in an oil refinery and foundry environment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

LR-115 type II detectors were used to measure the radon concentrations in the dwellings of an oil refinery and in some foundries. The radon levels inside an oil refinery and foundries are found to be below the USEPA's remedial action levels of 150 Bq m-3. The radon concentrations in oil refinery were found to be higher in both outdoor and indoor environment, as compared to those found in normal background dwellings. The radon levels inside the foundries investigated are of the same order as measured in dwellings of the same city. The reported higher lung cancer rates in foundries may not be attributed to radon. (author)

1999-10-01

220

KNOWLEDGE-BASED MANUFACTURING STRATEGY AND METHODS FOR FOUNDRIES  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The European foundry business is a traditional less RTD intensive industry which is dominated by SMEs and which forms a significant part of Europe’s manufacturing industry. The efficient design and manufacturing of cast components and corresponding tooling is a crucial success factor for these companies. To achieve this, information and knowledge around the design, planning and manufacturing of cast components needs to be accessible in a fast and structured way.

Homburg, Nils

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Kinetics of moisture absorption in mixtures for iron foundry  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The moisture absorption in granulated materials used in foundry technologies is analyzed. The absorption process has a diffusive behavior mainly. A simple experimental technique, in which the wet weight increment was recorded as the experimental parameter and an analytic method with computing procedure to find the parameters characterizing the process was used. The determination of these parameters by traditional methods is a very difficult task so, very refined and expensiv...

Cocina, Ernesto Villar; Morales, Eduardo Valencia; Rodriguez, Romulo Gonzalez

1999-01-01

222

The production of TiAl by foundry processes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper describes a foundry technique that enables the production of TiAl employing an adapted melting procedure that uses an induction furnace with suitable refractory crucibles, inside a controlled atmosphere chamber. The developed technique allows the production of samples with a low and controlled amount of residual elements, with a thin superficial hard skin – known as “alpha-case” – and allows the use of higher superheating temperatures, when compared with alte...

Barbosa, J.; Ribeiro, Carlos Silva; Monteiro, A. Caetano

2002-01-01

223

Biological monitoring of foundry workers exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This investigation describes benzo(a)pyrene (BP) serum protein adduct concentrations in 45 foundry workers and 45 matched non-occupationally exposed controls. High and low BP exposure groups were defined using breathing zone hygienic samples for both quartz and BP exposures. A newly developed enzyme linked immunosorbent assay detected benzo(a)pyrenediolepoxide-I binding to serum protein. Mean BP protein adduct concentrations (SD) for non-smoking (24.0 BP equivalents/100 micrograms protein (21...

Sherson, D.; Sabro, P.; Sigsgaard, T.; Johansen, F.; Autrup, H.

1990-01-01

224

Foundry Technologies Focused on Environmental and Ecological Applications  

Science.gov (United States)

Solutions allowing fabrication of remote control systems with integrated sensors (motes) were introduced as a part of CMOS foundry production platform and verified on silicon. The integrated features include sensors employing principles previously verified in the development of ultra-low power consuming non-volatile memories (C-Flash, MRAM) and components allowing low-power energy harvesting (low voltage rectifiers, high -voltage solar cells). The developed systems are discussed with emphasis on their environmental and security applications.

Roizin, Ya.; Lisiansky, M.; Pikhay, E.

225

Electromagnet Gripping in Iron Foundry Automation Part II: Simulation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper compares the simulation and initial experimental results for robust part handling by radially symmetric cylindrical electromagnetic gripper heads, that are used in foundry manufacturing assembly operation. Knowledge of the direct holding force is essential to determine if a given electromagnet is capable of preventing part slipping during pick and place operation. Energy based model and the magnetic circuit model have been described. The latter is developed further and compared wit...

Rhythm Suren Wadhwa

2012-01-01

226

Electromagnet Gripping in Iron Foundry Automation Part III: Practice  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Flexibility can be defined as the ability to respond efficiently to the changing demands of the customer and is different in SMEs (Small-to-Medium manufacturing Enterprises) than the traditional OEMs (Original Equipment Manufacturers). Costs involved in implementing manufacturing flexibility to meet customer demand are more important in the SMEs, especially those that are labor intensive for example foundries. Manufacturing systems with a high degree of flexibility can be rapidly changed to c...

Rhythm Suren Wadhwa

2012-01-01

227

The management of production value stream factors in a foundry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Connection of two value streams: production and human resources were proposed as a new approach to the production process. To assess the factors of production value streams the elements of the top of the Toyota's house as well as fourth and sixth Toyota's managing principles were used. On the basis of the feedback from respondents –the foundry workers, there can be determined the validity of series of decisive factors' importance that equalizes the work load and requires the standardization.

S. Borkowski

2010-01-01

228

Energy conservation and emissions reduction strategies in foundry industry  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Current energy conservation and emissions reduction strategies in iron and steel industry were reviewed. Since foundry industry is one of the major source of energy consumption and pollution emission (especially CO2), issues concerning energy-saving and emission-reduction have been raised by governments and the industry. Specialists from around the world carried out multidimensional analyses and evaluation on the potentials in energy conservation and emissions reduction in iron and steel indu...

2010-01-01

229

Statistical and Visualization Data Mining Tools for Foundry Production  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In recent years a rapid development of a new, interdisciplinary knowledge area, called data mining, is observed. Its main task is extracting useful information from previously collected large amount of data. The main possibilities and potential applications of data mining in manufacturing industry are characterized. The main types of data mining techniques are briefly discussed, including statistical, artificial intelligence, data base and visualization tools. The statistical methods and visualization methods are presented in more detail, showing their general possibilities, advantages as well as characteristic examples of applications in foundry production. Results of the author’s research are presented, aimed at validation of selected statistical tools which can be easily and effectively used in manufacturing industry. A performance analysis of ANOVA and contingency tables based methods, dedicated for determination of the most significant process parameters as well as for detection of possible interactions among them, has been made. Several numerical tests have been performed using simulated data sets, with assumed hidden relationships as well some real data, related to the strength of ductile cast iron, collected in a foundry. It is concluded that the statistical methods offer relatively easy and fairly reliable tools for extraction of that type of knowledge about foundry manufacturing processes. However, further research is needed, aimed at explanation of some imperfections of the investigated tools as well assessment of their validity for more complex tasks.

M. Perzyk

2007-07-01

230

Prevalence of occupational asthma and respiratory symptoms in foundry workers.  

Science.gov (United States)

This cross-sectional study was conducted in a foundry factory to assess the prevalence of respiratory symptoms and occupational asthma in foundry workers. Physical examination, spirometric evaluation, chest radiograph, and a questionnaire related to respiratory symptoms were performed. Monitoring of peak expiratory flow rates, spirometric reversibility test, and high-resolution computed tomographies were performed for the participants having respiratory symptoms and/or impaired respiratory function test. A total of 347 participants including 286 workers from production department and 61 subjects who worked in nonproduction departments were enrolled in this study. It is found that phlegm (n: 71, 20.46%) and cough (n: 52, 14.98%) were the most frequent symptoms. The other symptoms were breathlessness (n: 28, 8.06%), chest tightness (n: 14, 4.03%), and wheezing (n: 7, 2.01%) . The prevalence of occupational asthma was found to be more frequent among the subjects who worked in the production department (n: 48, 16.78% ) than the other persons who worked in the nonproduction department (n: 3, 4.91%) by chi-square test (P: 0.001). To prevent hazardous respiratory effects of the foundry production, an early diagnosis of occupational asthma is very important. Cessation of cigarette smoking and using of protective masks during the working time should be encouraged. PMID:24175093

Kayhan, Servet; Tutar, Umit; Cinarka, Halit; Gumus, Aziz; Koksal, Nurhan

2013-01-01

231

Prevalence of Occupational Asthma and Respiratory Symptoms in Foundry Workers  

Science.gov (United States)

This cross-sectional study was conducted in a foundry factory to assess the prevalence of respiratory symptoms and occupational asthma in foundry workers. Physical examination, spirometric evaluation, chest radiograph, and a questionnaire related to respiratory symptoms were performed. Monitoring of peak expiratory flow rates, spirometric reversibility test, and high-resolution computed tomographies were performed for the participants having respiratory symptoms and/or impaired respiratory function test. A total of 347 participants including 286 workers from production department and 61 subjects who worked in nonproduction departments were enrolled in this study. It is found that phlegm (n: 71, 20.46%) and cough (n: 52, 14.98%) were the most frequent symptoms. The other symptoms were breathlessness (n: 28, 8.06%), chest tightness (n: 14, 4.03%), and wheezing (n: 7, 2.01%) . The prevalence of occupational asthma was found to be more frequent among the subjects who worked in the production department (n: 48, 16.78% ) than the other persons who worked in the nonproduction department (n: 3, 4.91%) by chi-square test (P: 0.001). To prevent hazardous respiratory effects of the foundry production, an early diagnosis of occupational asthma is very important. Cessation of cigarette smoking and using of protective masks during the working time should be encouraged.

Kayhan, Servet; Tutar, Umit; Cinarka, Halit; Gumus, Aziz; Koksal, Nurhan

2013-01-01

232

Chvorinov’s rule and determination of coefficient of heat accumulation of moulds with non-quartz base sands  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Application of the „Chvorinov’s rule“ for calculation of the total time of casting solidification made also possible to determine chilling effect of foundry moulds (coefficient of heat accumulation of the mould, bf) with use of mixtures with new kinds of non-quartz base sands (Magnesite, Chromite, Olivine, Dunite, Kerphalit). Processes by several authors (G. Halbart, A. I. Vejnik, G. A. Anisovich) were used for mathematical treatment of measurement results and determination of bf. The h...

2010-01-01

233

Mineral Sands Down Under  

Science.gov (United States)

This resource describes what mineral sands are, and discusses the heavy, dark-colored minerals that they contain (rutile, ilmenite, zircon, monazite). A map shows locations of mineral sands deposits in Australia.

234

Genesis of glass sands  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The geological origin of quartz sand layers is studied located in the floor of brown coal seams in the GDR. Due to its high purity, the sand is mined for the glass industry. Quality parameters of the industry and a classification scheme of grain size distribution (A, B and C sand) are provided. Origin of sand layers is marine or marine-terrestrial sedimentation, which can be divided into presedimentary, synsedimentary and postsedimentary stages. The postsedimentary stage includes the moor phase and brown coal seam formation in which descending and laterally intruding humic acid containing waters from the moor leached aluminium and iron compounds, feldspar and clay from the sand layer. The leached clay finally settled above the pure sand layer. Humic acid waters transformed iron compounds into pyrite which can be removed during industrial sand preparation. Conclusions are drawn on possibilities of improving geological exploration of sand reserves. 35 references.

Steinike, K.

1986-11-01

235

Selected parameters of moulding sands for designing quality control systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One of the modern methods of production optimisation are artificial neural networks. Neural networks owe their popularity to the fact thatthey are convenient tools, which can be utilised in a wide scope of problems. They are capable of reflecting complex functions. Especiallytheir non-linearity should be emphasised. They are gaining wider and wider application in the foundry industry, among others, to controlmelting processes in cupolas and arc furnaces, designing castings and supply systems, control of moulding sands treatments, prediction ofproperties of cast alloys as well as selecting die casting.An attempt of the application neural networks to the quality control of moulding sands with bentonite is presented in the paper. This isa method of assessing the suitability of moulding sands by finding correlations in between individual parameters, by means of artificialneural network systems. The presented investigations were performed with the application of the Statistica 8.0 program.The investigations were aimed at the selection of the proper kind of a neural network for prediction a sand moistness on the bases ofcertain moulding sand properties such as: permeability, compactibility and friability. These parameters – determined as sand moistness functions - were introduced as initial parameters.Application of the Statistica program allowed for an automatic selection of the most suitable network for the reflection of dependencies and interactions existing among the proposed parameters. The best results were obtained for unidirectional multi-layer perception network (MLP. The neural network sensitivity to individual moulding sand parameters was determined, which allowed to reject not important parameters when constructing the network.

J. Jakubski

2010-07-01

236

77 FR 34012 - Foundry Coke Products From the People's Republic of China: Continuation of Antidumping Duty Order  

Science.gov (United States)

...Trade Administration [A-570-862] Foundry Coke Products From the People's Republic...revocation of the antidumping duty order on foundry coke products from the People's Republic...review of the antidumping duty order on foundry coke products from the PRC,...

2012-06-08

237

Field performance measurements of half-facepiece respirators--foundry operations.  

Science.gov (United States)

A series of field studies was conducted to measure workplace protection factors (WPF) provided by elastomeric and disposable half-facepiece respirators against different particulate contaminants. The research protocol developed for the study has been described in a previous article. This article presents results from dust and fume exposures at three foundries. The major components of the airborne exposures in these foundries were zinc, lead, and silicon. The major components of the in-facepiece samples were zinc, chlorine, and lead. Significant differences were observed in ambient zinc and lead concentration levels among foundries; however, no significant difference was observed in the in-facepiece concentrations of these elements among foundries. Respirator performance varied within each foundry, but there was no difference in performance when pooling all foundry data. The 5th, 10th and 50th percentile estimates for the pooled foundry and respirator WPF data were about 9, 16, and 114 respectively. The infacepiece concentration data clearly indicate that dust-fume-mist (DFM) class half-facepiece respirators, when conscientiously used, worn, and maintained, in conjunction with other existing controls in these foundries, provided effective worker protection. PMID:8615325

Myers, W R; Zhuang, Z; Nelson, T

1996-02-01

238

Optimising stock management in foundries to keep the economic size of orders  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Skillful stock management is one of the main conditions to raise the production output of an enterprise, foundry shop included. This article outlines modern methods of stock management using the generally available Excel calculation sheet to estimate the economic order quantity and minimum stock level required for selected auxiliary materials used in foundry production.

J. Szymszal

2007-04-01

239

Effect of foundry coke and metallurgical coke on hot metal carburisation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Carburisation of molten iron was found to be faster for foundry coke than for metallurgical coke. This difference was attributed to a difference in the nature of the ash layer on the coke surface: K{sub 2}O-rich and weakly adherent for foundry coke, and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-rich and strongly adherent for metallurgical coke.

Chen Fang; Chen Gang

1991-01-01

240

Sand Pile Avalanche Model  

Science.gov (United States)

The Sand Pile Avalanche Model simulates the occurences of avalanches in sand piles and plots the frequencies of the size of these avalanches. The general shape, size, and growth of a sand pile is easy to model as new sand grains are added. Although the pile assumes a conical shape, a new grain of sand can trigger an avalanche which causes some number of grains to slide down the side of the cone into new positions. These avalanches are chaotic and it is nearly impossible to predict if the next grain of sand will cause an avalanche, where that avalanche will occur on the pile, how many grains of sand will be involved in the event, and so on. The avalanche models have been related to other more chaotic phenomena, such as the frequency and intensity of earthquakes, historical fluctuations in cotton prices, extinction of species, sizes of cities, and solar eruptions.

Franciscouembre

2012-02-12

 
 
 
 
241

Investigations of the Quality of the Reclaim of Spent Moulding Sands with Organic Binders  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Modern investigation methods and equipment for the quality estimation of the moulding sands matrices with organic binders, in theircirculation process, are presented in the paper. These methods, utilising the special equipment combined with the authors investigationmethods developed in the Faculty of Foundry Engineering, AGH the University of Science and Technology, allow for the better estimationof the matrix quality. Moulding sands systems with organic binders require an in-depth approach to factors deciding on the matrixtechnological suitability as well as on their environmental impact. Into modern methods allowing for the better assessment of the matrixquality belongs the grain size analysis of the reclaimed material performed by means of the laser diffraction and also the estimation of the moulding sand gas evolution rate and identification of the emitted gases and their BTEX group gases content, since they are specially hazardous from the point of view of the Occupational Safety and Health.

R. Da?ko

2012-09-01

242

Respiratory symptoms in children at schools near a foundry.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A survey was carried out in response to complaints of increased respiratory symptoms in children at schools near a foundry in Walsall, West Midlands. Air monitoring around the factory had shown concentrations of formaldehyde most of which were orders of magnitude below the current occupational exposure limit of 2.5 mg/m3, although concentrations up to 0.3 mg/m3 had been recorded over short periods. The study sample comprised children aged 6.8-7.8 years from 39 schools in the borough. Informat...

Symington, P.; Coggon, D.; Holgate, S.

1991-01-01

243

Methodological aspects of systemic designing of foundry plants  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An approach is attempted to systematise the systemic research. A set of hypotheses are formulated, defining how a conceptual design of afoundry plant should be developed and improved when it is investigated as a system. The methodology aims to eliminate the particular approach to design to be replaced by integral design. The need of integral design seems a logical consequence of a transition from taskoriented design to situational design. The methodology outlined here offers an innovative and modern approach to engineering design, particularly in foundry plant design.

R. Wrona

2008-10-01

244

Saving energy in the non-ferrous foundry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A report is given on a one day seminar by the Energy Efficiency Office on their Demonstration Schemes in the non-ferrous foundry industry. Examples discussed include crucibles for meltholding aluminium, the use of ceramic fibre linings in baleout holding furnaces, immersion tube heaters for holding aluminium, heat recovery systems from crucible flues, fitting flat flame burners to a high efficiency baleout furnace and combined fluxing and degassing processes. The importance of obtaining a good return on the investment in terms of short payback periods is stressed. (UK).

1985-11-07

245

Quartz and dust exposure in Swedish iron foundries.  

Science.gov (United States)

Exposure to respirable quartz continues to be a major concern in the Swedish iron foundry industry. Recommendations for reducing the European occupational exposure limit (EU-OEL) to 0.05 mg/m3 and the corresponding ACGIH(R) threshold limit value (ACGIH-TLV) to 0.025 mg/m3 prompted this exposure survey. Occupational exposure to respirable dust and respirable quartz were determined in 11 Swedish iron foundries, representing different sizes of industrial operation and different manufacturing techniques. In total, 436 respirable dust and 435 respirable quartz exposure measurements associated with all job titles were carried out and are presented as time-weighted averages. Our sampling strategy enabled us to evaluate the use of respirators in certain jobs, thus determining actual exposure. In addition, measurements using real-time dust monitors were made for high exposure jobs. For respirable quartz, 23% of all the measurements exceeded the EU-OEL, and 56% exceeded the ACGIH-TLV. The overall geometric mean (GM) for the quartz levels was 0.028 mg/m3, ranging from 0.003 to 2.1 mg/m3. Fettler and furnace and ladle repair operatives were exposed to the highest levels of both respirable dust (GM = 0.69 and 1.2 mg/m3; range 0.076-31 and 0.25-9.3 mg/m3 and respirable quartz (GM = 0.041 and 0.052 mg/m3; range 0.004-2.1 and 0.0098-0.83 mg/m3. Fettlers often used respirators and their actual quartz exposure was lower (range 0.003-0.21 mg/m3, but in some cases it still exceeded the Swedish OEL (0.1 mg/m3. For furnace and ladle repair operatives, the actual quartz exposure did not exceed the OEL (range 0.003-0.08 mg/m3, but most respirators provided insufficient protection, i.e., factors less than 200. In summary, measurements in Swedish iron foundries revealed high exposures to respirable quartz, in particular for fettlers and furnace and ladle repair workers. The suggested EU-OEL and the ACGIH-TLV were exceeded in, respectively, 23% and 56% of all measurements regardless of the type of foundry. Further work on elimination techniques to reduce quartz concentrations, along with control of personal protection equipment, is essential. PMID:18982534

Andersson, Lena; Bryngelsson, Ing-Liss; Ohlson, Carl-Göran; Nayström, Peter; Lilja, Bengt-Gunnar; Westberg, Håkan

2009-01-01

246

The influence of microwave curing time and water glass kind on the properties of molding sands  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This work presents results of research on the influence of microwave heating time on the process of hardening of water glass molding sands. Essential influence of this drying process on basic properties such as: compression, bending and tensile strength as well as permeability and wear resistance, has been found. It has been proved, that all the investigated sorts of sodium water glass could be used as binding material of molding sands intended for curing with the microwave process heating. It has been found, while analyzing the results of property studies of microwave heated molding sands with 2.5% addition of water glass, that all available on the market kinds of this binding agent (including the most frequently used in foundry 145 and 149 kinds after microwave heating guarantee very good compression, bending and tensile strength as well as permeability and wear resistance. Moreover, it has been determined that the optimal curing time of molding sands containing various kinds of water glass is 240 seconds. After this time, all basic properties of molding sands are stable. The use of microwave curing of water glass molding sands results in a significant decrease of hardening process time, full stabilization of molding sands as well as much lower energy consumption.

K. Granat

2007-12-01

247

Active binder content as a factor of the control system of the moulding sand quality  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One of the modern methods of the production optimisation are artificial neural networks. Neural networks are gaining broader and broaderapplication in the foundry industry, among others for controlling melting processes in cupolas and in arc furnaces, for designing castingsand supply systems, for controlling moulding sand processing, for predicting properties of cast alloys or selecting parameters of pressurecastings. An attempt to apply neural networks for controlling the quality of bentonite moulding sands is presented in this paper. This is theassessment method of sands suitability by means of detecting correlations between their individual parameters. The presentedinvestigations were obtained by using the Statistica 9.0 program. The presented investigations were aimed at the selection of the neuralnetwork able to predict the active bentonite content in the moulding sand on the basis of this sand properties such as: permeability,compactibility and the compressive strength. An application of the Statistica program allowed to select automatically the type of networkproper for the representation of dependencies occurring in between the proposed moulding sand parameters. The most advantageousconditions were obtained for the uni-directional multi-layer perception (MLP network. Knowledge of the neural network sensitivity to individual moulding sand parameters, allowed to eliminate not essential ones.

J. Jakubski

2011-01-01

248

Use of Solid Waste (Foundry Slag) Mortar and Bamboo Reinforcement in Seismic Analysis for Single Storey Masonry Building  

Science.gov (United States)

The conversion of large amount of solid waste (foundry slag) into alternate source of building material will contribute not only as a solution to growing waste problem, but also it will conserve the natural resources of other building material and thereby reduce the cost of construction. The present work makes an effort to safe and economic use of recycle mortar (1:6) as a supplementary material. Conventional and recycled twelve prisms were casted with varying percentage of solid waste (foundry slag) added (0, 10, 20, 30 %) replacing cement by weight and tested under compression testing machine. As the replacement is increasing, the strength is decreasing. 10 % replacement curve is very closed to 0 % whereas 20 % is farther and 30 % is farthest. 20 % replacement was chosen for dynamic testing as its strength is within permissible limit as per IS code. A 1:4 scale single storey brick model with half size brick was fabricated on shake table in the lab for dynamic testing using pure friction isolation system (coarse sand as friction material µ = 0.34). Pure friction isolation technique can be adopted economically in developing countries where low-rise building prevails due to their low cost. The superstructure was separated from the foundation at plinth level, so as to permit sliding of superstructure during severe earthquake. The observed values of acceleration and displacement responses compare fairly with the analytical values of the analytical model. It also concluded that 20 % replacement of cement by solid waste (foundry slag) could be safely adopted without endangering the safety of the masonry structures under seismic load.To have an idea that how much energy is dissipated through this isolation, the same model with fixed base was tested and results were compared with the isolated free sliding model and it has been observed that more than 60 % energy is dissipated through this pure friction isolation technique. In case of base isolation, no visible cracks were observed up to the table force of 4.25 kN (1,300 rpm), whereas for fixed base failure started at 800 rpm.To strengthen the fixed base model, bamboo reinforcement were used for economical point of view. Another model of same dimension with same mortar ratio was fabricated on the shake table with bamboo reinforcement as plinth band and lintel band. In addition another four round bamboo bars of 3 mm diameter were placed at each of the four corners of the model. The building model was tested and found very encouraging and surprising results. The model failure started at 1,600 rpm, which means that this model is surviving the double force in comparison with the non-bamboo reinforcement.

Ahmad, S.; Husain, A.; Ghani, F.; Alam, M. N.

2014-04-01

249

Use of Solid Waste (Foundry Slag) Mortar and Bamboo Reinforcement in Seismic Analysis for Single Storey Masonry Building  

Science.gov (United States)

The conversion of large amount of solid waste (foundry slag) into alternate source of building material will contribute not only as a solution to growing waste problem, but also it will conserve the natural resources of other building material and thereby reduce the cost of construction. The present work makes an effort to safe and economic use of recycle mortar (1:6) as a supplementary material. Conventional and recycled twelve prisms were casted with varying percentage of solid waste (foundry slag) added (0, 10, 20, 30 %) replacing cement by weight and tested under compression testing machine. As the replacement is increasing, the strength is decreasing. 10 % replacement curve is very closed to 0 % whereas 20 % is farther and 30 % is farthest. 20 % replacement was chosen for dynamic testing as its strength is within permissible limit as per IS code. A 1:4 scale single storey brick model with half size brick was fabricated on shake table in the lab for dynamic testing using pure friction isolation system (coarse sand as friction material µ = 0.34). Pure friction isolation technique can be adopted economically in developing countries where low-rise building prevails due to their low cost. The superstructure was separated from the foundation at plinth level, so as to permit sliding of superstructure during severe earthquake. The observed values of acceleration and displacement responses compare fairly with the analytical values of the analytical model. It also concluded that 20 % replacement of cement by solid waste (foundry slag) could be safely adopted without endangering the safety of the masonry structures under seismic load.To have an idea that how much energy is dissipated through this isolation, the same model with fixed base was tested and results were compared with the isolated free sliding model and it has been observed that more than 60 % energy is dissipated through this pure friction isolation technique. In case of base isolation, no visible cracks were observed up to the table force of 4.25 kN (1,300 rpm), whereas for fixed base failure started at 800 rpm.To strengthen the fixed base model, bamboo reinforcement were used for economical point of view. Another model of same dimension with same mortar ratio was fabricated on the shake table with bamboo reinforcement as plinth band and lintel band. In addition another four round bamboo bars of 3 mm diameter were placed at each of the four corners of the model. The building model was tested and found very encouraging and surprising results. The model failure started at 1,600 rpm, which means that this model is surviving the double force in comparison with the non-bamboo reinforcement.

Ahmad, S.; Husain, A.; Ghani, F.; Alam, M. N.

2013-11-01

250

Total productive maintenance on example of automated foundry lines  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Within framework of the presented study one has performed analysis of stoppages in automatic foundry lines operation, and basing on assumptions from complex maintenance system has undertaken himself to develop a service maintenance schedule for machinery installed in the line. Moreover, one has presented general assumptions of TPM system operated in conditions of series and multi-series production of cast iron castings. One has constructed operational database and has elaborated a list of line stoppage causes within a year. One has proposed a possibility of implementation of manufacturing systems modeling and simulating technique in management of production machinery operation in a foundry shop. Within framework of the simulation experiment one has developed schedules of production, schedules of maintenance and has forecasted indices of general productivity of the machinery for a various scenarios of events on example of casting line having in-series structure of operational reliability. In course of the study there was implemented ARENA universal software package to modeling and simulation of the manufacturing systems.

S. Kukla

2009-07-01

251

Investigation of Pollution Emits By Cupola Furnace in Gujarat Foundry  

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Full Text Available The foundry industry is the major contributor in pollution among all other industries in India. At present only few foundries in India have pollution controllable system. Most of these casting industries use cupola furnace that emits gases namely carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide, suspended particle matter, dust and ash. Though, emission from single furnace is not considerable but it has huge impact if much such type of furnaces located in particular area. A inclusive study on the type of gas emitted, rate of gases and amount of pollution cause from cupola furnace is essential before design any emission controlling system. In this paper investigation on furnace wastages is carried out on GIDC (Gujarat, India. The outcomes of research are based on data taken out from cupola furnace where the pollution measuring system was set up. The rates of emission of gases are measured hourly for a whole day and it has been noted that in very first hours of firing the emission was at peak. It also been noted that pollution from this furnace was much higher than decided pollution range by the Gujarat pollution control board (GPCB. There are some alternatives of such furnaces are also suggested.

Hardikkumar Patil1 , Gajanan Patange2 , M.P.Khond

2013-05-01

252

Design for manufacturability guideline development: integrated foundry approach  

Science.gov (United States)

It has been widely accepted that to ensure good yield in IC wafer manufacturing, early adaptation of DFM (Design for Manufacturability) guidelines in design phase is required and it is particularly true in Foundry business. Integrated foundry approaches for DFM guideline development were presented in this paper. With emphasis of process variations and process sensitivity impact on design patterns, we describe the procedure of the combination of rule-based and simulation-based lithographical hotspot pattern characterizations. An evaluation of process sensitivity metrics for analyzing potential pattern hotspots is then described. In addition, based on hotspot pattern severity, repeated patterns from different designs are saved into a pattern library as knowledge deposition tool and those patterns can be easily identified later in new designs through pattern search, which is much faster than simulation based hotspot detections. With this approach, a set of DFM compliance rules is derived to designs in the design implementation stage for both 110nm and 90nm technology nodes, striving to gain more yield, device performance, and improve time-to-volume production.

Lee, Hyesung; Shim, Yeon-Ah; Choi, Jae-Young; Choi, Kwang-Seon; Wu, Joanne; Su, Bo; Zhou, Xinwei; Kim, Kenny

2008-10-01

253

Cause-Specific Mortality Due to Malignant and Non-Malignant Disease in Korean Foundry Workers  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Foundry work is associated with serious occupational hazards. Although several studies have investigated the health risks associated with foundry work, the results of these studies have been inconsistent with the exception of an increased lung cancer risk. The current study evaluated the mortality of Korean foundry workers due to malignant and non-malignant diseases. Methods This study is part of an ongoing investigation of Korean foundry workers. To date, we have observed more than 150,000 person-years in male foundry production workers. In the current study, we stratified mortality ratios by the following job categories: melting-pouring, molding-coremaking, fettling, and uncategorized production work. We calculated standard mortality ratios (SMR) of foundry workers compare to general Korean men and relative risk (RR) of mortality of foundry production workers reference to non-production worker, respectively. Results Korean foundry production workers had a significantly higher risk of mortality due to malignant disease, including stomach (RR: 3.96; 95% CI: 1.41–11.06) and lung cancer (RR: 2.08; 95% CI: 1.01–4.30), compared with non-production workers. High mortality ratios were also observed for non-malignant diseases, including diseases of the circulatory (RR: 1.92; 95% CI: 1.18–3.14), respiratory (RR: 1.71; 95% CI: 1.52–21.42 for uncategorized production worker), and digestive (RR: 2.27; 95% CI: 1.22–4.24) systems, as well as for injuries (RR: 2.36; 95% CI: 1.52–3.66) including suicide (RR: 3.64; 95% CI: 1.32–10.01). Conclusion This study suggests that foundry production work significantly increases the risk of mortality due to some kinds of malignant and non-malignant diseases compared with non-production work.

Yoon, Jin-Ha; Ahn, Yeon-Soon

2014-01-01

254

Techni-Cast: Foundry Saves Energy with Compressed Air System Retrofit  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In 2002, Techni-Cast improved its compressed air system at its foundry in Southgate, California. The project allowed the foundry to reduce its compressor capacity by 50%, which greatly reduced the foundry's energy and maintenance costs. The annual energy and maintenance savings from the project implementation are 242,000 kWh and $24,200, and the projects cost was $38,000. Because the plant received a $10,000 incentive payment from the California Public Utilities Commission, the total project cost was reduced to $28,000, yielding a 14-month simple payback.

2001-03-01

255

System and process for the abatement of casting pollution, reclaiming resin bonded sand, and/or recovering a low BTU fuel from castings  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Air is caused to flow through the resin bonded mold to aid combustion of the resin binder to form a low BTU gas fuel. Casting heat is recovered for use in a waste heat boiler or other heat abstraction equipment. Foundry air pollution is reduced, the burned portion of the molding sand is recovered for immediate reuse and savings in fuel and other energy is achieved.

Scheffer, Karl D. (121 Governor Dr., Scotia, NY 12302)

1984-07-03

256

Analysis of effectiveness of used sands reclamation treatment – in various technological devices  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The analysis of effectiveness of spent sands reclamation treatment performed in technological devices of various intensity of dry reclamation – during which used binding material is being removed from grain surfaces – is presented in the paper. Variety of reclamation influences was considered via the realization of the so called elementary operations such as: rubbing, grinding and crushing [1-5], which are realised mainly in dry mechanical reclamation devices but also appear in other technological devices for sand preparation.The model rotor reclaimer and two types of mixers used for preparing initial foundry sands with resin U 404 and hardener 100 T3 of the Hüttenes-Albertus Company were applied for tests.The theoretical model for assessing the effectiveness of reclamation treatment developed by the author [3, 4], was experimentally verified [5, 7], with the application of standard testing procedures. The model can be considered a new tool enabling the selection of optimal reclamation times for the given used sand at the assumed intensity of silica sand matrix recovery. Sand mixture of a proper composition fulfilled needed technological properties after total hardening was used as charge material in experiments. The reclamation treatment consisted of mechanical and mechanical-cryogenic reclamation performed within a wide range of times and conditions influencing the treatment intensity.

R. Da?ko

2009-10-01

257

The influence of microwave heating and water glass kind on the properties of molding sands  

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Full Text Available This work presents rcsults of research on thc influcncc of microwave heating time on the process of hardening of warcr glass moldingsands. Essential influence of this drying process on basic properties such as: cornprcssion, bcnding mind tcnsitc strcng~h as well aspcrrneabili~y and war resistance, has bccn found. It has bccn proved, that at1 thc investigated sorts of sodium water glass could be uscd asbinding material of molding sands intended for curing with the microwave process healing. It has bccn found, while analyzing the rcsultsof property studics or microwavc heated molding sands with 2.5% addition of water glass, that aIl available on the markct kinds of thisbinding agent (inctuding the most frequently uscd in foundry 145 and 149 kinds after microwave heating guarantee very goodcompression, bending and tensile strength as well as permeability and wcar resistance. Moroovcr, it has bccn dctcrmined that the optimalcuring powcr of molding sands containing various kinds of water gIass is 560 W. AII values exceeding this rcsult in stabilization of basicpropcrtics of molding sands. The use of microwave curing of water glass molding sands results in a significant decrease of hardeningprocess time. full stabilization of molding sands as well as much lower energy consumption.

K. Granat

2008-03-01

258

Alberta oil sands index. Glossary  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This glossary is a list of keywords used in the Alberta Oil Sands Index (AOSI), including a definition or statement of how the keyword is used for most terms. For this index, it is understood that oil sands consists of bitumen impregnated sands, often called tar sand, bituminous sand, carbonaceous rock, or oil-impregnated rock. The index contains all published information on oil sands, indexed by keywords, categories and weights. Descriptions are given of the subject categories used and the weight system.

1989-01-01

259

Foundry Products: Competitive Conditions in the U.S. Market. Investigation No. 332-460.  

Science.gov (United States)

This investigation provides an overview of the global foundry industry and U.S. market during 1999-2003, including principal metals and casting methods, production steps, technology, and factors of competition affecting the industry's performance and comp...

2005-01-01

260

Integrated Model for Foundry Design and Operation. Final Report December 1986-December 1988.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objectives of this study were to develop a model to analyze technical and economic factors influencing choices of iron foundry equipment and processes, and to use the model to investigate the economic viability of gas preheating under various producti...

M. A. Sutarwala M. M. Crawford P. S. Schmidt

1989-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Closeout of IE Bulletin 80-21: valve parts supplied by Malcom Foundry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Cracking of yokes in active valves in a safety-related system was discovered during pre-operational testing of the Residual Heat Removal System at Susquehanna 1. These defective yokes had been supplied to Anchor/Darling Valve Company by Malcolm Foundry Company, Inc. Because Malcolm Foundry had gone out of business, it was necessary to issue the Bulletin to utilities to determine directly whether Malcolm Foundry had provided parts to valve manufacturers other than Anchor/Darling. From results of the extensive survey of valve manufacturers generated by this Bulletin, it was determined that only Anchor/Darling had used Malcolm Foundry as a source of safety-related valve parts. On the basis of survey results and a search of Anchor/Darling records, it was found that only seven facilities had affected valves.

Foley, W.J.; Hennick, A.

1983-09-01

262

Closeout of IE Bulletin 80-21: valve parts supplied by Malcom Foundry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cracking of yokes in active valves in a safety-related system was discovered during pre-operational testing of the Residual Heat Removal System at Susquehanna 1. These defective yokes had been supplied to Anchor/Darling Valve Company by Malcolm Foundry Company, Inc. Because Malcolm Foundry had gone out of business, it was necessary to issue the Bulletin to utilities to determine directly whether Malcolm Foundry had provided parts to valve manufacturers other than Anchor/Darling. From results of the extensive survey of valve manufacturers generated by this Bulletin, it was determined that only Anchor/Darling had used Malcolm Foundry as a source of safety-related valve parts. On the basis of survey results and a search of Anchor/Darling records, it was found that only seven facilities had affected valves

1983-01-01

263

Implementation KMES Quality system for acquisition and processing data in chosen foundry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the paper, main assumptions, algorithms and functions of author’s KMES Quality system are discussed. Its working version is tested in chosen foundry by near 2 years. This system is applied to enlarge the use of chosen technological data accessible during foundry processes. The data can be introduced by means of keyboard directly in the fields (windows present on the PC screen according to program commands, instead of report-manuscripts containing measured results, or from the automated measurement recording system by direct data import to KMES Quality system. In the paper, a way of technological data acquisition with their further integration into main foundry databases and their processing, with taking into consideration e.g. kind of casting assortment, current time, sequences of measurements, are presented. Also the capabilities of linking KMES Quality system with SAP R/3 system existing in this foundry useful to quality assurance is show.

R. Sika

2008-08-01

264

Electromagnet Gripping in Iron Foundry Automation Part I: Principles and Framework  

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Full Text Available Robot grippers are employed to position and retain parts in automated assembly operations. This paper presents an overview of electromagnet part handling framework in an iron foundry and an equivalent electromagnet circuit model. The manner in which this whole concept of automated gripping system operates will be discussed in this paper. The material handling system uses machine vision system coupled with conveyor motion and Ethernet communication strategy to assist the material handling system for transporting the foundry parts. The paper provides an overview of the electromagnet principles at play. The electromagnet interaction with the part is the key issue in the robust handling of this automated foundry system. This paper helps in the realization of the concept of automation in an iron foundry, in which the number of published studies is very limited.

Rhythm Suren Wadhwa

2011-11-01

265

Ergonomic and work safety evaluation criteria of process excellence in the foundry industry  

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Full Text Available The article presents a concept of criteria assessment called the “process excellence” for ergonomics and work safety in enterprises of the foundry industry as well as points to the possibility of its application.

M. Butlewski

2014-10-01

266

Assessment of Occupational Exposure to Aluminum Respirable Aerosols among Aluminum Foundry Workers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available AbstractBackgrounds and Aims: Aluminum and in particular its compounds make up a large proportion of the pollutants coming from the aluminum foundry. In several studies conducted on the harmful effects of aluminum in recent decades, it has been identified as a neurotoxic metal. Chronic occupational exposure through inhalation of dust is a common problem in aluminum foundries. Investigation of the exposure of various occupational groups in two aluminum foundry plants to aluminum aerosols.Materials and Methods: To study the occupational exposure of foundry workers to respirable aerosols of aluminum, personal sampling was conducted from the breathing zone of 63 workers at two foundries in the south of Tehran city following NIOSH method No. 0600. Then samples were treated using NIOSH Institute optimized method No. 7013 and analyzed by high sensitivity graphite atomic absorption.Collected data were analyzed with SPSS V.16 statistical software using an independent sample t-test and ANOVA.Result: The average of aluminum respirable aerosols in A and B factories were 3.21±2.33 and 3.31±2.15 mg/m3 respectively. The one-way ANOVA indicated that occupational exposure among various occupational groups (Similar Exposure Group in Foundry A had no significant difference (p=0.089, but differences between the exposure of melting and assembling groups in Foundry B are significant (p=0.044. In general, in exposure frequency to aerosols in aluminum foundries, a significant difference was observed between melting and assembling groups (p=0.005 as well among abrading and assembling groups (p=0.02. Conclusion: Most of the exposures to aluminum in foundry workers exceeded the current limits given by ACGIH Institute and the Iranian occupational exposure limits. According to the occupational exposure of both foundries and the absence of differences among variables involved in the exposure, the high exposure of melting and abrading groups compared to assembling groups can be attributed to the nature of these units in the production of aluminum aerosols.Keywords: Occupational Exposure; Aluminum Foundry; Respirable Aerosols.

Rezazadeh Azari M

2013-01-01

267

Kinetics of moisture absorption in mixtures for iron foundry  

CERN Multimedia

The moisture absorption in granulated materials used in foundry technologies is analyzed. The absorption process has a diffusive behavior mainly. A simple experimental technique, in which the wet weight increment was recorded as the experimental parameter and an analytic method with computing procedure to find the parameters characterizing the process was used. The determination of these parameters by traditional methods is a very difficult task so, very refined and expensive trials are needed. The fitting of the model permits to determine the diffusion coefficient and the moisture concentration in the separation surface between the sample and the environment. The concentration profiles are established for different times. Finally, the possibility of occurrence of superimposed diffusive processes in some materials is analyzed and the diffusion coefficient and the amount of moisture incorporated by each process are calculated.

Cocina, E V; Rodríguez, R; Cocina, Ernesto Villar; Morales, Eduardo Valencia; Rodriguez, Romulo Gonzalez

1999-01-01

268

Evolutionary based system for production scheduling in foundry  

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Full Text Available This work presents a development of a capable-to-promise system for companies that operate under the hybrid make-to-order and maketo-stock strategy in a lot-sizing and flowshop environment. Proposed system simultaneously considers planning and scheduling processesin order to achieve the optimality. Optimisation engine is based on an advanced evolutionary algorithm. Information available in ERPsystem from different production units and stages, the optimization module, and customer requests are integrated via Internet using XMLlanguage as a data exchange standard.The details on key elements of the system and a software architecture are given. Practical application of the system is illustrated on the example of production scheduling for an iron castings foundry.

A. Stawowy

2008-10-01

269

Beneficial Use Information Center (BUIC): Foundry By-products  

Science.gov (United States)

The database on beneficial reuse of foundry by-products may be downloaded as a Microsoft Access (.mdb) file through the Beneficial Use Information Center of the University of Wisconsin-Madison. The database was designed "to identify (1) materials and applications where methods and specifications exist such that beneficial reuse can begin or be expanded immediately and (2) areas in need of further research." Data were assembled by the University of Wisconsin-Madison researchers from 98 projects in fourteen states and two locations in Canada. Applications described in the database are Structural/Base/Sub-base Fill, Flowable Fill, Concrete and Related Products, Asphalt, Soil Amendments, Portland Cement, Landfill Liners and Covers, and Other Applications such as pipe bedding, clay bricks, and landfill drainage layers.

270

Safety management system of subcontractors’ works in foundry companies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Most companies use the services of subcontractors, either in their core business, or to support the work – e.g. maintenance. This poses the need for effective and systematic monitoring of the work of subcontractors, especially if they perform it on the premises of an enterprise. In some industries such as construction, energy, petrochemicals, metallurgy and foundry additional system requirements appear, particularly with regard to safety and the environment, a compliance with which is necessary to obtain an order. Often, conformity with these requirements must be confirmed with a certificate. The article presents examples of standardised special requirements, such as SCC /VCA, SCT / VCU, SQAS used for sub-contractors of construction work, maintenance, scaffolding etc. in the European Union member states.

M. R?czka

2010-07-01

271

Classification of foundry clients using business rules approach  

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Full Text Available The paper presents the application of business rules approach for the classification of foundry clients taking into account t he economic and technological attributes. Business Rules Management (BRM systems allow non-technical business people to change the rules, analyze them for errors, and test and simulate them for impact analysis. Although BRM is focused on business processes improvement, it is possible to use this approach in technology management. The model of classification problem, and the knowledge base as a set of decision tables are presented in the paper.The results indicate that the proposed business rules tool REBIT, developed by AGH team as the project co-funded by the European Union, is feasible as a complete knowledge base and technology management method.

A. Stawowy

2011-10-01

272

Research and application of enterprise resource planning system for foundry enterprises  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

PPDB issues - four aspects of current management issues of foundry enterprises are discussed in this paper, including Production Management, Process Control, Duration Monitoring and Business Intelligence Data Analysis. Also a whole Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) solution for foundry enterprises is proposed. The solution contains many models, four of which are used to solve the PPDB issues. These are called SPDB models, which separately are the Single-piece management model (based on casti...

2013-01-01

273

Compressed Air System Improvement Project Saves Foundry Energy and Increases Production  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This case study highlights International Truck and Engine Corporation's optimization project on the compressed air system that serves its foundry, Indianapolis Casting Corporation. Due to the project's implementation, the system's efficiency was greatly improved, allowing the foundry to operate with less compressor capacity, which resulted in reduced energy consumption, significant maintenance savings, and more reliable production.

2002-05-01

274

Hexachlorobenzene and octachlorostyrene in plasma of aluminium foundry workers using hexachloroethane for degassing.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OBJECTIVES: To study the load of selected organochlorine compounds in the blood of aluminium foundry workers who use hexachloroethane as a degassing agent for aluminium and to measure some possible effects on internal organs. METHODS: Plasma from nine male aluminium foundry workers with past experience of use of hexachloroethane and 18 controls (two controls per exposed case) matched for residence, sex, age, and socioeconomic status was analysed for hexachlorobenzene (HCB), (P-HCB), and octac...

Selde?n, A. I.; Nygren, Y.; Westberg, H. B.; Bodin, L. S.

1997-01-01

275

Historical cohort study of a New Zealand foundry and heavy engineering plant  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the mortality of workers who had been exposed to asbestos, machining fluids and foundry work in a foundry and heavy engineering plant in the railway rolling stock manufacturing industry in New Zealand. METHODS: Historical cohort study design. RESULTS: For the total workforce of 3522 men employed between 1945 and 1991, follow up was 90% of person-years to 31 December 1991. Significantly increased standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) were found for all causes of...

Firth, H. M.; Elwood, J. M.; Cox, B.; Herbison, G. P.

1999-01-01

276

The new foundry line for magnesium alloys high-pressure die-casting  

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Full Text Available The new foundry line for high-pressure die-casting of magnesium alloys constructed in the “SILUM” Foundry (Opojowice, Poland is described. In the process cold chamber die-casting machines are used. The experimental casts and the radiators fabricated using the new cold chamber die-casting line are presented as the final results. The new production line allows to obtain good quality magnesium casts.

K.N Braszczy?ska-Malik

2008-04-01

277

Process for preparing sand cores and molds  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An improved process for preparing foundry cores and molds using a foundry aggregate and a binder therefor wherein the aggregate is mixed with an aqueous suspension of cereal flour and then with a core oil, the improvement comprising mixing the aggregate with phosphoric acid or sulfuric acid before mixing with the aqueous suspension of the cereal flour.

Varnum, N.C.; Kraemer, J.F.

1984-11-27

278

Problems of bentonite rebonding of synthetic system sands in turbine mixers  

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Full Text Available Turbine (rotor mixers are widely used in foundries for bentonite rebonding of synthetic system sands. They form basic equipment in modern sand processing plants. Their major advantage is the short time of the rebond mixing cycle.Until now, no complete theoretical description of the process of mixing in turbine mixers has been offered. Neither does it seem reasonable to try to adapt the theoretical backgrounds of the mixing process carried out in mixers of other types, for example, rooler mixers [1], to the description of operation of the turbine mixers. Truly one can risk the statement that the individual fundamental operations of mixing in rooler mixers, like kneading, grinding, mixing and thinning, are also performed in turbine mixers. Yet, even if so, in turbine mixers these processes are proceeding at a rate and intensity different than in the roller mixers. The fact should also be recalled that the theoretical backgrounds usually relate to the preparation of sand mixtures from new components, and this considerably restricts the field of application of these descriptions when referred to rebond mixing of the system sand. The fundamentals of the process of the synthetic sand rebonding with bentonite require determination and description of operations, like disaggregation, even distribution of binder and water within the entire volume of the rebonded sand batch, sand grains coating, binder activation and aeration.This study presents the scope of research on the sand rebonding process carried out in turbine mixers. The aim has been to determine the range and specific values of the designing and operating parameters to get optimum properties of the rebonded sand as well as energy input in the process.

A. Fedoryszyn

2008-12-01

279

Sand, Plants and Pants  

Science.gov (United States)

In this activity, learners explore how the application of nano-sized particles or coatings can change a bigger materialâs properties. Learners investigate the hydrophobic properties of plants, nano-fabric pants and magic sand.

Network, Nanoscale I.; Houston, Children'S M.

2014-06-04

280

Oil sands report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This work is the annual review of oil sands and heavy oil projects. An analysis is provided of the Peace River in situ project, its technical feasibility, and its development stages. A review is presented of the 4 major oil sands deposits in Alberta: Athabasca, Wabasca, Peace River, and Cold Lakes. Active experimental project data for each of these areas are provided in tabular form providing the following information: effective date, approval number, expiration, operator, area, and location. Maps provide information on the Alberta oil sands, oil recovery projects in the Cold Lake region, and tertiary recovery projects in the Lloydminster area. A summary is also provided of surface geophysical methods in support of oil sands mining.

1982-03-22

 
 
 
 
281

City-swallowing Sand Dunes  

Science.gov (United States)

At this Science at NASA site, you'll learn about the physics of sand movement and the research done to understand mechanisms of dune migration. The physics and the landforms are interesting because granular materials like sand show properties of both solids and fluids, including saltation, sheet flow, and avalanches. This site provides a summary of the physics involved along with photographs of sand dunes on Mars, close-ups of sand particles, and a sand dune advancing on a town.

Bell, Trudy E.

2007-06-19

282

Influence of moulding sands grain size on the effectiveness of quality control systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One of the modern methods of the production optimisation are artificial neural networks. Neural networks owe their popularity to the fact that they constitute convenient tools, which can be applied in an extremely broad research scope. This is caused by their ability to represent complex functions. Their non-linearity should be specially emphasised. Neural networks are gaining broader and broaderapplication in the foundry industry, among others for controlling melting processes in cupolas and in arc furnaces, for designing castings and supply systems, for controlling moulding sand processing, for predicting properties of cast alloys or selecting parameters of pressure castings. An attempt to apply neural networks for controlling the quality of bentonite moulding sands is presented in this paper. This is the assessment method of sands suitability by means of detecting correlations between their individual parameters. The presented investigations were obtained by using the Statistica 9.0 program.The aim of the investigations was to select the neural network suitable for prediction the moulding sand moisture on the basis of thedetermined sand properties such as: permeability, compactibility, friability and compressive strength in dependence on the matrix grainsize.

J. Jakubski

2011-04-01

283

Cleanup under Airlock of an Old Uranium Foundry - 13273  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since 2004, AREVA's subsidiary SICN has been conducting the cleanup and dismantling of an old uranium foundry located in the town of Annecy (France). The first operations consisted in the removal of the foundry's production equipment, producing more than 300 metric tons (MT) of waste. The second step consisted in performing the radiological characterization of the 1,600 m2 (17,200 ft2) building, including underground trenches and galleries. The building was precisely inventoried, based on operations records and direct measurements. All sub-surfaces, which needed to be cleaned up were characterized, and a determination of the contamination migration was established, in particular with trenches and galleries. The wall thicknesses to be treated were empirically justified, knowing that the maximal migration depth inside concrete is 5 mm for a liquid transfer vector. All singularities such as cracks, anchoring points, etc. were spotted for a complete and systematic treatment. Building structures not laying directly on the soil, such as floor slabs, were not cleaned up but directly deconstructed and disposed of as waste. The facility was located within the town of Annecy. Therefore, in order to avoid the risk of dusts dispersion and public exposure during the building deconstruction and the soil treatment, a third of the building's surface was confined in a sliding airlock built from a metal structure capable of resisting to wind and snow, which are frequent in this area. This particular structure provided a static confinement over the half of the building which was covered and a dynamic confinement using a ventilation and high efficiency air filtration system, sized to provide 2.5 air changes per hour. The enclosure and its metallic structure is 33 m long (108 feet), 25 m wide (82 feet), and 13 m high (42 feet), for a volume of 10,000 m3 (353,000 ft3). It was made up of a double skin envelope, allowing the recycling of its structure and outside envelope. After cleaning up and dismantling the first portion of the building, the enclosure was repositioned on the second and the last third of the building, by sliding it on support pads. Almost 7,000 m2 of concrete surface has been treated with no dust dispersion outside the enclosure. After treatment, all the remaining surfaces were controlled by an independent entity to verify their acceptability with regards to residual contamination (less than 0.4 Bq/cm2 (24 DPM) for alpha contamination and less than 1 Bq/g of total uranium). Approximately 1,900 MT of equipment and waste were generated in batches of 1m3, in order to be staged on site, and then characterized and packaged in 20 foot containers for shipment to the final ANDRA repository. The package certification included the verification of the physical and chemical characteristics and the radiological characteristics (mass activity, dose rate, and residual outside surface contamination). Finally, after cleanup and dismantling of the foundry, a concrete slab was poured on the free surface as a clean base for implementation of new activities. (authors)

2013-02-24

284

Cleanup under Airlock of an Old Uranium Foundry - 13273  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Since 2004, AREVA's subsidiary SICN has been conducting the cleanup and dismantling of an old uranium foundry located in the town of Annecy (France). The first operations consisted in the removal of the foundry's production equipment, producing more than 300 metric tons (MT) of waste. The second step consisted in performing the radiological characterization of the 1,600 m{sup 2} (17,200 ft{sup 2}) building, including underground trenches and galleries. The building was precisely inventoried, based on operations records and direct measurements. All sub-surfaces, which needed to be cleaned up were characterized, and a determination of the contamination migration was established, in particular with trenches and galleries. The wall thicknesses to be treated were empirically justified, knowing that the maximal migration depth inside concrete is 5 mm for a liquid transfer vector. All singularities such as cracks, anchoring points, etc. were spotted for a complete and systematic treatment. Building structures not laying directly on the soil, such as floor slabs, were not cleaned up but directly deconstructed and disposed of as waste. The facility was located within the town of Annecy. Therefore, in order to avoid the risk of dusts dispersion and public exposure during the building deconstruction and the soil treatment, a third of the building's surface was confined in a sliding airlock built from a metal structure capable of resisting to wind and snow, which are frequent in this area. This particular structure provided a static confinement over the half of the building which was covered and a dynamic confinement using a ventilation and high efficiency air filtration system, sized to provide 2.5 air changes per hour. The enclosure and its metallic structure is 33 m long (108 feet), 25 m wide (82 feet), and 13 m high (42 feet), for a volume of 10,000 m{sup 3} (353,000 ft{sup 3}). It was made up of a double skin envelope, allowing the recycling of its structure and outside envelope. After cleaning up and dismantling the first portion of the building, the enclosure was repositioned on the second and the last third of the building, by sliding it on support pads. Almost 7,000 m{sup 2} of concrete surface has been treated with no dust dispersion outside the enclosure. After treatment, all the remaining surfaces were controlled by an independent entity to verify their acceptability with regards to residual contamination (less than 0.4 Bq/cm{sup 2} (24 DPM) for alpha contamination and less than 1 Bq/g of total uranium). Approximately 1,900 MT of equipment and waste were generated in batches of 1m{sup 3}, in order to be staged on site, and then characterized and packaged in 20 foot containers for shipment to the final ANDRA repository. The package certification included the verification of the physical and chemical characteristics and the radiological characteristics (mass activity, dose rate, and residual outside surface contamination). Finally, after cleanup and dismantling of the foundry, a concrete slab was poured on the free surface as a clean base for implementation of new activities. (authors)

Thuillier, Daniel; Houee, Jean-Marie [AREVA D and D BU, Paris La Defense (France); Chambon, Frederic [AREVA FEDERAL SERVICES, Columbia MD (United States)

2013-07-01

285

Pre-SPC Math for Foundry Workers. A Lesson Developed for Robinson Foundry and Bodine-Robinson as Part of a National Workplace Literacy Program.  

Science.gov (United States)

Developed as part of a National Workplace Literacy Program, this lesson focuses on terms and mathematical operations associated with Statistical Process Control (SPC) in the foundry industry. With appropriate assistance and preparatory work, workers testing between grades 4 and 9 on the Test of Adult Basic Education Locator should be able to use…

Rasmussen, Bonnie

286

Oil sands tax expenditures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The oil sands are a strategic Canadian resource for which federal and provincial governments provide financial incentives to develop and exploit. This report describes the Oil Sands Tax Expenditure Model (OSTEM) developed to estimate the size of the federal income tax expenditure attributed to the oil sands industry. Tax expenditures are tax concessions which are used as alternatives to direct government spending for achieving government policy objectives. The OSTEM was developed within the business Income Tax Division of Canada's Department of Finance. Data inputs for the model were obtained from oil sands developers and Natural Resources Canada. OSTEM calculates annual revenues, royalties and federal taxes at project levels using project-level projections of capital investment, operating expenses and production. OSTEM calculates tax expenditures by comparing taxes paid under different tax regimes. The model also estimates the foregone revenue as a percentage of capital investment. Total tax expenditures associated with investment in the oil sands are projected to total $820 million for the period from 1986 to 2030, representing 4.6 per cent of the total investment. 10 refs., 2 tabs., 7 figs

2001-01-01

287

In vitro characterization of DNA adducts formed by foundry air particulate matter.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study is part of an ongoing investigation of biomarkers in iron foundry workers exposed to polycyclic aromatic compounds. Foundry workers with the highest exposures had elevated levels of DNA adducts in their white blood cells in previous studies. The purpose of this study was to characterize the nature of DNA reactive chemicals in foundry air samples through incubating the foundry filter extract with DNA and activation enzymes. Calf thymus DNA was incubated with foundry filter extract and activated by either rat liver activation mixture (S9 mix) or xanthine oxidase. A complex pattern of adducts was observed on thin-layer chromatography (TLC) by the 32P-postlabeling assay. Two selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)--1-NP-and anti(+/-)benzo[a]pyrene-trans-7,8-dihydrodiol-9,10-epoxide [anti(+/-) BPDE]-DNA adducts--were used as marker compounds in characterizing the postlabeled DNA adducts by TLC combined with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). After an initial separation of DNA adducts by TLC, individual spots were isolated and separated further on HPLC. HPLC analysis and spiking with anti(+/-)BPDE-DNA standard confirmed the co-migration of the anti(+/-)BPDE-DNA standard with one PAH adduct formed by the S9 mix-activated DCM extract in calf thymus DNA. PMID:8781406

Savela, K; Kohan, M J; Walsh, D; Perera, F P; Hemminki, K; Lewtas, J

1996-05-01

288

Oxidative damage in foundry workers occupationally co-exposed to PAHs and metals.  

Science.gov (United States)

Occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has been reported in foundries. A higher risk for DNA damage or oxidative damage lesions was also found in occupationally PAH-exposed groups. The aim of this study was to assess PAH exposure by urinary excretion of 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP), a biological exposure marker. Furthermore, we aimed to evaluate the oxidative damage of foundry workers with different job tasks and the association between 1-OHP, metal exposure and oxidative damage in foundry workers exposed to pervasive carcinogens. A higher concentration of 1-OHP was found in the exposed group (0.322+/-0.289 microg/g creatinine) relative to the control group (0.178+/-0.289 microg/g creatinine) (pfoundry workers were considered based on their specific job categories, a similar trend for 1-OHP and three oxidative damage markers was only found for DNA strand breakage, but not for 8-OH-dG or MDA. Other factors such as furnace equipment, PAH types, and job categories may contribute to different PAH emissions. The study also suggested that co-exposure to metal and PAHs, and smoking status in foundry industries may also cause the oxidative damage in foundry workers. PMID:20153695

Liu, Hung-Hsin; Lin, Ming-Hsiu; Chan, Chia-I; Chen, Hsiu-Ling

2010-03-01

289

Influence of material granularity on micro-pore structure of foundry formed coke produced with char  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Foundry formed coke technology is an effective method to solve environmental pollution problem and enlarge coking coal resources in the coking industry. The macroscopically quality and reactivity in furnace of the foundry formed coke are dependent on the micro-pore structure of the coke. The foundry formed coke was produced in a specific process, using different sizes of semi-coke and prime coking coal as main materials. The Influence of material granularity on micro-pore structure of foundry formed coke was studied by micro-pore structure analyzer and SEM. The results showed that with the increasing of semi-coke granularity, pore size of the maximum mercury rate has a little increase, while the peak value of the maximum mercury rate decreased and the number large pores increased obviously. The peak in the pore size distribution map changed under the semi-coke granularity variation. The variations under different semi-coke granularity of porosity, pore cubage and the average pore size of the coke were almost the same. With the increase of semi-coke granularity, density of foundry formed coke and thickness of pore wall of coke decreased, while the number of large pore and crack increased. The effect tendency of prime coking coal granularity is consistent with the semi-coke's. 3 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

Zhiyuan Gao; Jianjun Wu; Guoli Zhou; Jingru Zu; Jun Qiao

2009-07-01

290

Expanding paradigm of foundry engineering; Chuzo kogaku/chuzo gijutsu no paradaimu no kakudai  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The amount of foundry products in Japan was 10.8 million ton in all (1994), and the details of it were as follows: cast products 6.78 million ton (63%), forged products 2.7 million ton (25%), pressed products 1.13 million ton (10%) and power metallurgy products 0.19 million ton (2%). On the occasion of renaming of this society from `casting` to `foundry engineering`, expansion of paradigm for foundry engineering and the same technology must be promoted. In this paper, `paradigm` means framework of a subject realm. Foundry engineering, being considered to be separated into three spheres those of which are cast materials, foundry processes and constituent elements, must be assigned naturally as the unified technology which get these spheres tied in with one another. For that purpose, simulation technology, constructing of data-bases using computers, environmental harmonization and recycle technology, etc. are must be pursued. And besides, education for engineers and students who will perform various elements mentioned above is indispensable. 5 figs.

Kamio, A. [Tokyo Inst. of Tech. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

1996-01-25

291

Signalling a foundry mould filling degree with infrared sensors  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A contactless method of measuring a foundry mould filling degree in course of its pouring with liquid metal is suggested. The concept is based on infrared radiation of molten metal appearing in venting and flow-off holes. As the detector, an infrared channel receiving diode is applied. Three solutions were tested. In the first solution, the diode is placed at the calculated distance from the radiation source, in a housing that suppresses the scattered signal. The housing contains the electronics, while power supply and control signals are delivered by conductors. A diode actuation threshold is established in order to obtain high resolution and repeatability of the results. On the output, a miniature relay transmits the signal to the control system. In the second solution, the measuring system is supplied with a battery and the signal in transmitted through a plastic optical fibre. In the third solution, the optical fibre serves as an energy carrier. The optical system focuses the infrared radiation and introduces the energy to the optical fibre. On the other end of the fibre, a phototransistor amplifies the signal, forms it and transmits to the control system. Some experiments were carried out. Their results permitted noting disadvantages and advantages of individual solutions. It was evidenced that the measurement results obtained using the infrared radiation are independent on a constructional design. The solutions utilising optical fibres proved to be more useful in industrial conditions. Targets and further directions of research works using transceivers for wireless data transmission are presented.

M. Bogdan

2008-07-01

292

Ganges Chasma Sand Sheet  

Science.gov (United States)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Our topic for the weeks of April 4 and April 11 is dunes on Mars. We will look at the north polar sand sea and at isolated dune fields at lower latitudes. Sand seas on Earth are often called 'ergs,' an Arabic name for dune field. A sand sea differs from a dune field in two ways: 1) a sand sea has a large regional extent, and 2) the individual dunes are large in size and complex in form. Today's sand sheet is located in the Ganges Chasma portion of Valles Marineris. As with yesterday's image, note that the dune forms are seen only at the margin and that the interior of the sand sheet at this resolution appears to completely lack dune forms. Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -6.4, Longitude 310.7 East (49.3 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution. Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

2005-01-01

293

Sound-Producing Sand Avalanches  

Science.gov (United States)

This site presents an analysis of the theories and experiments done so far on sound-producing (e.g., roaring, booming) sand avalanches. Several reference articles are cited, and a link to the summary of an article, "Booming Sand", in Scientific American volume 277, number 3, is provided. An on site version of another article, "Sound Producing Sand Avalanches", in Contemporary Physics, volume 38, number 5, is also presented in three different formats: PDF, HTML, and Postscript Preprint.The other main features of this site are sound recordings of booming sand, compressed squeaking sand, and croaking sand, as well as, and images and micrographs of booming dunes.

Bretz, Michael; Nori, Franco; Sholtz, Paul

2007-05-18

294

Gas percolation through sand  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous research has determined the shock properties of quartz sand. The effect of the physical processes occurring with varying moisture content and particle size were shock presented. In this study the same quartz sand, in a column is subjected to blast waves over a range of pressure. The diagnostics used are pressure sensors and high-speed photography. The effect of grain size on propagation time and the effect of moisture content are determined. Aspects of particle and liquid movement are also discussed. While the velocity of the percolation through the bed is primarily controlled by grain size the effect of moisture and liquids reveals a more complex dependence.

Proud, W. G.

2014-05-01

295

Sand Dunes with Frost  

Science.gov (United States)

9 May 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a suite of frost-covered sand dunes in the north polar region of Mars in early spring, 2004. The dunes indicate wind transport of sand from left to right (west to east). These landforms are located near 78.1oN, 220.8oW. This picture is illuminated by sunlight from the lower left and covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) across.

2004-01-01

296

Comparison of Energy Consumption in the Classical (PID and Fuzzy Control of Foundry Resistance Furnace  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Foundry resistance furnaces are thermal devices with a relatively large time delay in their response to a change in power parameters.Commonly used in automation classical PID controllers do not meet the requirements of high-quality control. Developed in recent years,fuzzy control theory is increasingly being used in various branches of economy and industry. Fuzzy controllers allow to introduce newdevelopments in control systems of foundry furnaces as well. Correctly selected fuzzy controller can significantly reduce energyconsumption in a controlled thermal process of heating equipment. The article presents a comparison of energy consumption by controlsystem of foundry resistance furnace, equipped with either a PID controller or fuzzy controller optimally chosen.

E. Zió?kowski

2012-09-01

297

Simulation by the method of inverse cumulative distribution function applied in optimising of foundry plant production  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study discusses application of computer simulation based on the method of inverse cumulative distribution function. The simulationrefers to an elementary static case, which can also be solved by physical experiment, consisting mainly in observations of foundryproduction in a selected foundry plant. For the simulation and forecasting of foundry production quality in selected cast iron grade, arandom number generator of Excel calculation sheet was chosen. Very wide potentials of this type of simulation when applied to theevaluation of foundry production quality were demonstrated, using a number generator of even distribution for generation of a variable ofan arbitrary distribution, especially of a preset empirical distribution, without any need of adjusting to this variable the smooth theoreticaldistributions.

J. Szymszal

2009-01-01

298

Ganges Chasma Sands  

Science.gov (United States)

8 July 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows dark, windblown sand in the form of dunes and a broad, relatively flat, sand sheet in Ganges Chasma, part of the eastern Valles Marineris trough complex. The winds responsible for these dunes blew largely from the north. Sand dunes on Mars, unlike their Earthly counterparts, are usually dark in tone. This is a reflection of their composition, which includes minerals that are more rich in iron and magnesium than the common silica-rich dunes of Earth. Similar dark sands on Earth are found in volcanic regions such as Iceland and Hawaii. A large dune field of iron/magnesium-rich grains, in the form fragments of the volcanic rock, basalt, occurs south of Moses Lake, Washington, in the U.S. Location near: 7.7oS, 45.3oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Southern Spring

2005-01-01

299

Erosion phenomena in sand moulds  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Authors studicd the erosion phcnorncna in sand moulds pured with cast iron. Thc study comprises an evaluation of erosionresistance of thc three sands: grccn sand. sand bondcd with inorganic or organic bindcr. It was concluded that thc most resistant is [heclassic green sand with thc addition of 5 B coal dust. Resistance of the sand with organic binder is generally weak and dcvnds onkind of used raisin. Spccinl nztcntion was paid to the sands with no organic bindcr watcr glass and phospha~c. It was Sound that thcirrcsistance depends on dehydratation conditions. When the mould is stored in law humidity of atmosphcrc the very strong crosion canbe expected. It rcsul ts hrn thc micro fractures in the bridges of binders, joining the grains of the sable. This phcnomcna facilitates thetearing away of fragments of sand [tom the surface

A. Chojecki

2008-03-01

300

Criteria for an advanced assessment of quality of moulding sands with organic binders and reclamation process products  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Reclamation of used moulding and core sands has been defined as a treatment of waste moulding refractory materials, enabling a recovery of at least one of the components having properties similar to those of the fresh component, and reuse for production of casting moulds and cores. However, at present, there is a lack of a reclaimed material assessment index, which could be applied to each type of moulding sand and reclaim. Modern investigation methods and equipment for the estimation of the quality of the moulding sands matrices with organic binders, in their circulation process, are presented in this paper. These methods, utilizing the special equipment combined with the author’s investigation methods developed in the Faculty of Foundry Engineering, AGH - University of Science and Technology, allow the better estimation of the matrix quality both in an aspect of its application as a fresh sand substitute in the preparation of moulding sands, and also with regard to the environmental protection. The most important criteria for the technological assessment of the reclaimed materials and the quality of sands with organic binders are presented in this paper.

R. Da?ko

2013-05-01

 
 
 
 
301

Technology development towards a generic InP-based photonic-integration foundry  

Science.gov (United States)

The main goal of this work is to create a generic foundry service that allows outside users (i.e., universities and small- and-medium enterprises) that do not have fabrication facilities to obtain their own custom-made InP-based photonic-integrated chips (or ASPIC, application-specific photonic-integrated circuits, similar to ASIC in electronics). In this approach, the foundry supplies the user with the cross-section of the interconnect waveguide structure, and the mask layout dimensions and performance of several pre-defined- and wellcharacterized building blocks (BB) such as photodiodes, phase modulators, and spot-size converters (for lowloss fiber-chip coupling). Using this information, the user can generate a mask layout for the foundry by placing the building blocks onto his layout canvas and interconnecting them with the interconnect waveguides. Furthermore, since the material cross-section of the interconnect waveguide is known, the user can design, simulate, and include a mask layout for a desired passive devices such as MMIs, and AWGs, which can subsequently be fabricated at the foundry. We describe the technology development towards obtaining a versatile generic-foundry platform which gives users the freedom to design a large variety of photonic-integrated- devices and circuits. Our generic-foundry technology is based on the fabrication process of our commercially-available high-speed- photodiodes and balanced photodiodes (high-frequency response up to and beyond 100 GHz). We have expanded this fabrication process to include a total of three different types of interconnecting waveguides: a low-contrast-, a medium-contrast, and a high-contrast waveguide, as well as transition BBs to couple light from one waveguide type into the other.

Soares, F. M.; Janiak, K.; Broeke, R. G.; Grote, N.

2011-05-01

302

Sand transport in multiphase pipelines  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Over the life of an oil and gas reservoir, it is likely to encounter sand production. In offshore production fields, as there are lack of processing facilities nearby, gas, liquid and sand are often transported together in long distance pipelines. The existence of sand could accumulate in the pipelines under inappropriate operation condition and eventually will lead to a blockage. Thus, to design such systems requires knowledge on how sand is transported, when and where it will accumulate.&#x...

Yan, Wei

2010-01-01

303

Cancer mortality in a cohort of United Kingdom steel foundry workers: 1946-85.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The mortality experienced by a cohort of 10,491 United Kingdom steel foundry workers during the period 1946-85 has been investigated. These workers were all male operatives first employed in any one of the 10 participating foundries in 1946-65; all had worked in the industry for a minimum period of one year. Compared with the general population of England and Wales, statistically significant excesses relating to cancer mortality were found for cancer of the stomach (E = 77.4, O = 106, SMR = 1...

Sorahan, T.; Cooke, M. A.

1989-01-01

304

MODELS AND METHODS OF CONTROL SYSTEMS OF ECOLOGICAL SAFETY OF FOUNDRY MANUFACTURE ?????? ? ?????? ?????? ?????????? ????????????? ????????????? ????????? ????????????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The given developments are devoted to modeling of control systems by ecological safety of foundry manufacture. In a working zone of foundry shops except for a dust the significant amount of polluting substances is allocated. The most unsuccessful sites from a position of allocation of a dust are chambers and lattices. The experimental analysis shows, that in structure of a dust the weight maintenance of fractions with a diameter up to 20 microns reaches 43,8 % on weight. The given dust is most dangerous to health of the working personnel and creates problems when clearing the air

Manohin V. J.

2011-12-01

305

Determination of dimethylethylamine in air samples from iron foundries by isotachophoresis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A method for the determination of dimethylethylamine in workroom air has been developed. Static gas standards of the amine in air were used to evaluate different sampling techniques. The analysis was performed by isotachophoresis. The sampling equipment of choice was midget impinger flasks of glass or polystyrene containing 10 ml of hydrochloric acid (50 mmol/l). The method was used in a field study of three different iron foundries where air samples were taken. The dimethylethylamine concentration found was in the range 0.5-155 mg//sup 3/. No pretreatment of the samples was necessary, and no interfering substances from the air in the foundries affected the analysis.

Hansen, L.; Sollenberg, J.; Uggla, C.

1985-08-01

306

Highly Unidirectional Uniform Optical Grating Couplers, Fabricated in Standard 45nm SOI-CMOS Foundry Process  

CERN Document Server

This paper defines new structures of highly unidirectional uniform optical grating couplers which are all within constraints of the standard 45nm SOI-CMOS foundry process. Analysis in terms of unidirectivity and coupling efficiency is done. Maximum achieved unidirectivity (power radiation in one direction) is 98%. Unidirectional uniform gratings are fabricated in the standard 45nm SOI-CMOS foundry process. These gratings are measured and compared, using the new method of comparison, with typical bidirectional uniform gratings fabricated in the same process, in terms of coupling efficiency (in this case unidirectivity) with the standard singlemode fiber. For both types of gratings spectrum is given, measured with optical spectrum analyzer.

Uroševi?, Stevan Lj

2014-01-01

307

On Pluvial Compaction of Sand  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

At the Institute of Civil Engineering in Aalborg model tests on dry sand specimens have been carried out during the last five years. To reduce deviations in test results, the sand laying technique has been carefully studied, and the sand mass spreader constructed. Preliminary results have been mentioned at the "Nordisk Geoteknikermøde 1975" in Copenhagen.

Jacobsen, Moust

2010-01-01

308

Simulating the deformation of dies in the foundry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Digital simulation (QuikCAST, ProCAST) is already used extensively when designing metallic dies for founding, in particular to design filling and gating systems. Simulation of the steady-state temperature cycles of dies has also been mastered. With large castings, the temperature gradient induced between the moulding surface and the rear surfaces of the die leads to deformations that may be large enough to measure, and incompatible with the required dimensional accuracy. The temperature gradient also creates thermal fatigue stresses that cause crazing of the die surface. In the study conducted by CTIF, aimed at measuring tooling deformations, various ways of measuring displacements at high temperatures (with and without contact) were investigated in order to evaluate their capabilities and limitations. An experimental device was designed - a test bench combining a metallic die having a simple geometry, in which an aluminium part could be cast, and instrumentation (temperature and displacement sensors). The deformations of the die were measured during first cycles of temperature homogenization. Concurrently, thermomechanical calculations were carried out on the same geometry using PROCAST. The calculation results are well correlated with the experimental measurements and validate the tools and the calculation methods. This thermomechanical approach makes it possible to optimize die design in the foundry and to predict high-temperature deformations as early as the design stage. Knowledge of these deformations makes it possible in turn to anticipate the geometrical and dimensional variations undergone by the castings themselves and so to improve their accuracy. The designer can act on the temperature of the die or the design of the casting, or create a die in which the expected thermal deformation is reversed so as to produce a casting having the correct dimensions. In short, thermomechanical simulation can be applied to this problem to achieve a better understanding of the phenomena and to test solutions in advance.

2012-07-03

309

Simulating the deformation of dies in the foundry  

Science.gov (United States)

Digital simulation (QuikCAST, ProCAST) is already used extensively when designing metallic dies for founding, in particular to design filling and gating systems. Simulation of the steady-state temperature cycles of dies has also been mastered. With large castings, the temperature gradient induced between the moulding surface and the rear surfaces of the die leads to deformations that may be large enough to measure, and incompatible with the required dimensional accuracy. The temperature gradient also creates thermal fatigue stresses that cause crazing of the die surface. In the study conducted by CTIF, aimed at measuring tooling deformations, various ways of measuring displacements at high temperatures (with and without contact) were investigated in order to evaluate their capabilities and limitations. An experimental device was designed - a test bench combining a metallic die having a simple geometry, in which an aluminium part could be cast, and instrumentation (temperature and displacement sensors). The deformations of the die were measured during first cycles of temperature homogenization. Concurrently, thermomechanical calculations were carried out on the same geometry using PROCAST. The calculation results are well correlated with the experimental measurements and validate the tools and the calculation methods. This thermomechanical approach makes it possible to optimize die design in the foundry and to predict high-temperature deformations as early as the design stage. Knowledge of these deformations makes it possible in turn to anticipate the geometrical and dimensional variations undergone by the castings themselves and so to improve their accuracy. The designer can act on the temperature of the die or the design of the casting, or create a die in which the expected thermal deformation is reversed so as to produce a casting having the correct dimensions. In short, thermomechanical simulation can be applied to this problem to achieve a better understanding of the phenomena and to test solutions in advance.

Chabod, A.; Longa, Y.; Dracon, J. M.; Chailler, K.; Hairy, P.; Da Silva, A.

2012-07-01

310

Updated oil sands supply outlook  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This conference presentation provided an introduction to Canada's oil sands, resources and reserves and discussed the Canadian Energy Research Institute's (CERI) oil sands industry outlook and what has changed. It provided an update for oil sands supply costs (capital and operating) for thermal in situ projects, mining and bitumen extraction, mining, extraction and upgrading. It also included updated oil sands supply projections for potential production and expected cases. An update on cogeneration opportunities for oil sands projects was presented along with a study on the economic impact of Alberta's oil sands industry. It was concluded that Canada's oil sands are one of the world's largest and most economically attractive hydrocarbon accumulations and that the industry is well developed and growing rapidly. tabs., figs.

Dunbar, B. [Strategy West Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

2005-07-01

311

Magic Sand: Nanosurfaces  

Science.gov (United States)

This is an activity/demo in which learners are exposed to the difference bewteen hydrophobic surfaces (water repelling) and hydrophilic surfaces (water loving). This activity also demonstrates how changing the size of material to nanoscale changes its behavior at the macroscale. The instructions assume that Magic Sand is performed as a demonstration, but it works great a a hands-on activity as well.

Network, Nanoscle I.; Wisconsin-Madison, University O.

2012-06-26

312

Moving sand dunes  

CERN Document Server

In several desert areas, the slow motion of sand dunes can be a challenge for modern human activities and a threat for the survival of ancient places or archaeological sites. However, several methods exist for surveying the dune fields and estimate their migration rate. Among these methods, the use of satellite images, in particular of those freely available on the World Wide Web, is a convenient resource for the planning of future human settlements and activities.

Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

2011-01-01

313

Oil sands supply outlook  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In March 2004, The Canadian Energy Research Institute released a report on the expected future supply from Alberta's oil sands. The report indicates that the future for the already well-established oil sands industry is promising, particularly given the outlook for oil prices. The challenges facing the industry include higher industry supply costs and the need for innovative commercial and technological solutions to address the risks of irregularities and changes in crude oil prices. In 2003, the industry produced 874 thousand barrels per day of synthetic crude oil and unprocessed crude bitumen. This represents 35 per cent of Canada's total oil production. Current production capacity has increased to 1.0 million barrels per day (mbpd) due to new projects. This number may increase to 3.5 mbpd by 2017. Some new projects may be deferred due to the higher raw bitumen and synthetic crude oil supply costs. This presentation provided supply costs for a range of oil sands recovery technologies and production projections under various business scenarios. tabs., figs

2004-03-28

314

Intricately Rippled Sand Deposits  

Science.gov (United States)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for Intricately Rippled Sand Deposits (QTVR) NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit welcomed the beginning of 2006 on Earth by taking this striking panorama of intricately rippled sand deposits in Gusev Crater on Mars. This is an approximate true-color rendering of the 'El Dorado' ripple field provided by Spirit over the New Year's holiday weekend. The view spans about 160 degrees in azimuth from left to right and consists of images acquired by Spirit's panoramic camera on Spirit's 708th and 710th Martian days, or sols, (Dec. 30, 2005 and Jan. 1, 2006). Spirit used the Pancam's 750-nanometer, 530-nanometer and 430-nanometer filters to capture the colors on Mars. Scientists have eliminated seams between individual frames in the sky portion of the mosaic to better simulate the vista a person standing on Mars would see. Spirit spent several days acquiring images, spectral data, and compositional and mineralogical information about these large sand deposits before continuing downhill toward 'Home Plate.'

2006-01-01

315

A feasibility study on the reuse of iron-foundry sludges as land application  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective of this study is to evaluate the applicability of sewage and iron-foundry sludge mixture as landfilling soil. Secondary sewage sludge and iron-foundry sludge were used for this study. Extracted amount of heavy metals and nitrogen with soil and sewage sludge were analyzed to determine the mixture ratio of soil and sewage sludge. Permeability test carried out to assess the mixing ratio of iron-foundry sludge. The growth rate of plants were also examined to test the applicability of sludge mixture as landfilling soil. Extracted copper and nitrogen as well as heavy metals and organic pollutants could meet the level of the recommended environmental guideline. Optimum mixing ratio of soil, sewage, and iron-foundry sludge was 1:0.6:0.2. Some of plants grew up well in sludge mixture and absorbed metals in plant were negligible. Applying sludge mixture to the land will be considered as an effective method for sludge disposal and reuse. (author). 13 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.

Lee, M.W. [Department of Horticulture, Anseong National Polytechnical University, Anseong (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Y.K. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Anseong National Polytechnical University, Anseong (Korea, Republic of)

1998-01-01

316

Siempelkamp foundry specializes in big components; Siempelkamp Giesserei: Spezialisten fuer grosse Gussteile  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Siempelkamp foundry at Krefeld, Germany, is the world's biggest producer of modular graphite castings, e.g. engine blocks for passenger vessels, grinding vats for cement mills, spars and big pulleys. For ENERCON, Siempelkamp are fabricating the cast iron components of the E-70/E-82 series and components of the E-126 like supports and rotor hubs. (orig.)

Anon.

2007-07-01

317

Risk assessment of chemicals in foundries: The International Chemical Toolkit pilot-project  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In Brazil, problems regarding protection from hazardous substances in small-sized enterprises are similar to those observed in many other countries. Looking for a simple tool to assess and control such exposures, FUNDACENTRO has started in 2005 a pilot-project to implement the International Chemical Control Toolkit. During the series of visits to foundries, it was observed that although many changes have occurred in foundry technology, occupational exposures to silica dust and metal fumes continue to occur, due to a lack of perception of occupational exposure in the work environment. After introducing the Chemical Toolkit concept to the foundry work group, it was possible to show that the activities undertaken to improve the management of chemicals, according to its concept, will support companies in fulfilling government legislations related to chemical management, occupational health and safety, and environmental impact. In the following meetings, the foundry work group and FUNDACENTRO research team will identify 'inadequate work situations'. Based on the Chemical Toolkit, improvement measures will be proposed. Afterwards, a survey will verify the efficency of those measures in the control of hazards and consequently on the management of chemicals. This step is now in course

2006-08-25

318

Occupational Exposure to Infrared Radiation in Aluminum and Cast-Iron Foundries in Zanjan, Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The harmful effects of the long-term ocular exposure to cumulative levels of infrared radiation (IR in glassblowing and foundries have been recognized since the late 19th century. These effects include cataracts, keratitis, and chronic dry eye problems. Therefore, infrared radiation measurements are critical and need to be assessed regularly in the industries and workplaces where there are high temperature furnaces, such as in the glass industries and foundries. However, IR measurement is not very simple, especially when the range of interest is one in which radiometers are not available, as for the IR-B and IR-C ranges, and commonly available radiometers have a limited sensitivity range. The present article deduce a calculation method for evaluating of IR irradiance based on Planck's radiation law for black body radiation and using an IR detector sensitive in the spectral range 750-1150 nm. Based on this method, workers exposure was assessed to all harmful wavelength ranges of IR radiation in three foundries (two aluminums and one cast-iron. The results suggested that IR-A and IR-B radiation (wavelength from 770 nm to 3000 nm in the mentioned foundries were more than TLVs (threshold limit values given by ACGIH. There were significant risks of health hazards due to IR radiation exposure. Personal protective equipment should be used in order to prevent serious damage to eyes and skin, and selection of appropriate equipment should be on an individual basis due to different radiation exposure.

Faramarz Majidi

2011-01-01

319

Maths and Science in the Foundry: Integral Components of Accredited Training.  

Science.gov (United States)

A workplace literacy project involved complex math and science concepts and applications integral to foundry operations. It demonstrates that, despite lack of formal schooling or English proficiency, workers can learn complex concepts through practical experience and reflection, using their knowledge and skills with contextual cues. (SK)

Deakin, Rosemary

1995-01-01

320

APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 8: Industrialist's Manual No. 3, Rusty's Iron Foundry.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Industrialist's Manual No. 3, Rusty's Iron Foundry is part of a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise), a computerized college and professional level "real world" game simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties. The first two sections,…

Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

 
 
 
 
321

METRO-APEX Volume 13.1: Industrialist's Manual No. 3, Rusty's Iron Foundry. Revised.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Industrialist's Manual No. 3 (Rusty's Iron Foundry) is one of a set of twenty-one manuals used in METRO-APEX 1974, a computerized college and professional level, computer-supported, role-play, simulation exercise of a community with "normal" problems. Stress is placed on environmental quality considerations. APEX 1974 is an expansion of…

University of Southern California, Los Angeles. COMEX Research Project.

322

Production of foundry coke from Kuzbas lump SS coals in annular ovens  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

High quality foundry coke can be made from weakly or non-caking Kuzbas coals by controlled heating in continuous ovens. Tests were carried out using a pilot-commercial annular oven; improvements in lump-coal carbonization using this kind of oven are suggested. Melting trials demonstrated that coke made from Kuzbas lump coals is an effective cupola fuel.

Ryabichenko, A.D.

1974-01-01

323

Booming Sand Dunes  

Science.gov (United States)

"Booming" sand dunes are able to produce low-frequency sound that resembles a pure note from a music instrument. The sound has a dominant audible frequency (70-105 Hz) and several higher harmonics and may be heard from far distances away. A natural or induced avalanche from a slip face of the booming dune triggers the emission that may last for several minutes. There are various references in travel literature to the phenomenon, but to date no scientific explanation covered all field observations. This thesis introduces a new physical model that describes the phenomenon of booming dunes. The waveguide model explains the selection of the booming frequency and the amplification of the sound in terms of constructive interference in a confined geometry. The frequency of the booming is a direct function of the dimensions and velocities in the waveguide. The higher harmonics are related to the higher modes of propagation in the waveguide. The experimental validation includes quantitative field research at the booming dunes of the Mojave Desert and Death Valley National Park. Microphone and geophone recordings of the acoustic and seismic emission show a variation of booming frequency in space and time. The analysis of the sensor data quantifies wave propagation characteristics such as speed, dispersion, and nonlinear effects and allows the distinction between the source mechanism of the booming and the booming itself. The migration of sand dunes results from a complicated interplay between dune building, wind regime, and precipitation. The morphological and morphodynamical characteristics of two field locations are analyzed with various geophysical techniques. Ground-penetrating radar images the subsurface structure of the dunes and reveal a natural, internal layering that is directly related to the history of dune migration. The seismic velocity increases abruptly with depth and gradually increases with downhill position due to compaction. Sand sampling shows local cementation of sand grains within the discrete layers that explains the increase in velocity and decrease in porosity. The subsurface layering may influence the speed of dune migration and therefore have important consequences on desertification. The positive qualitative and quantitative correlation between the subsurface layering in the dune and the manifestation of the booming sound implies a close relation between environmental factors and the booming emission. In this thesis, the frequency of booming is correlated with the depth of the waveguide and the seismic velocities. The variability on location and season suggests that the waveguide theory successfully unravels the phenomenon of booming sand dunes.

Vriend, Nathalie

324

Interaction of smoking, uptake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and cytochrome P450IA2 activity among foundry workers.  

Science.gov (United States)

An increased lung cancer risk has been described among foundry workers. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and silica are possible aetiological factors. This study describes a urinary PAH metabolite, 1-hydroxypyrene (hpU), as well as the degree of cytochrome P450IA2 activity/induction as reflected by the urinary caffeine ratio (IA2) in 45 foundry workers and 52 controls; IA2 was defined as the ratio of paraxanthine 7-demethylation products to a paraxanthine 8-hydroxylation product (1,7-dimethyluric acid). Mean exposure concentrations for foundry workers were defined by breathing zone hygienic samples (respirable dust 1.2 to 3.52 mg/m3 (93 samples)) and as total PAH (0.46 micrograms/m3) and pyrene concentrations (0.28 micrograms/m3) (six samples). Non-smoking controls and foundry workers had similar IA2 ratios (5.63, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 4.56-6.70 and 4.40, 95% CI 3.56-5.24). The same was true for smoking controls and foundry workers (9.10, 95% CI 8.00-10.20 and 8.69, 95% CI 7.37-10.01). Both smoking groups had raised IA2 ratios compared with non-smokers (p less than 0.01). Non-smoking controls and foundry workers had similar hpU concentrations (0.16, 95% CI 0.10-0.22 and 0.11, 95% CI 0.09-0.13 mumol/mol creatinine). Smoking foundry workers had raised hpU concentrations (0.42, 95% CI 0.25-0.59) compared with smoking controls (0.26, 95% CI 0.18-0.34) (p less than 0.01). A small subgroup of smoking foundry workers with the highest exposures to both silica and PAH also had the highest hpU concentrations (0.70, 95% CI - 0.07-1.47 mumol/mol creatinine) (p less than 0.04). Increased hpU concentrations in smoking foundry workers suggest a more than additive effect from smoking and foundry exposures resulting in increased PAH uptake. Increased P450IA2 enzyme activity was only found in smokers and no additional effect of foundry exposures was seen. These data suggest that smoking as well as work related PAH exposure may be casually related to increased risk of lung cancer in foundry workers.

Sherson, D; Sigsgaard, T; Overgaard, E; Loft, S; Poulsen, H E; Jongeneelen, F J

1992-01-01

325

Interaction of smoking, uptake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and cytochrome P450IA2 activity among foundry workers.  

Science.gov (United States)

An increased lung cancer risk has been described among foundry workers. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and silica are possible aetiological factors. This study describes a urinary PAH metabolite, 1-hydroxypyrene (hpU), as well as the degree of cytochrome P450IA2 activity/induction as reflected by the urinary caffeine ratio (IA2) in 45 foundry workers and 52 controls; IA2 was defined as the ratio of paraxanthine 7-demethylation products to a paraxanthine 8-hydroxylation product (1,7-dimethyluric acid). Mean exposure concentrations for foundry workers were defined by breathing zone hygienic samples (respirable dust 1.2 to 3.52 mg/m3 (93 samples)) and as total PAH (0.46 micrograms/m3) and pyrene concentrations (0.28 micrograms/m3) (six samples). Non-smoking controls and foundry workers had similar IA2 ratios (5.63, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 4.56-6.70 and 4.40, 95% CI 3.56-5.24). The same was true for smoking controls and foundry workers (9.10, 95% CI 8.00-10.20 and 8.69, 95% CI 7.37-10.01). Both smoking groups had raised IA2 ratios compared with non-smokers (p less than 0.01). Non-smoking controls and foundry workers had similar hpU concentrations (0.16, 95% CI 0.10-0.22 and 0.11, 95% CI 0.09-0.13 mumol/mol creatinine). Smoking foundry workers had raised hpU concentrations (0.42, 95% CI 0.25-0.59) compared with smoking controls (0.26, 95% CI 0.18-0.34) (p less than 0.01). A small subgroup of smoking foundry workers with the highest exposures to both silica and PAH also had the highest hpU concentrations (0.70, 95% CI - 0.07-1.47 mumol/mol creatinine) (p less than 0.04). Increased hpU concentrations in smoking foundry workers suggest a more than additive effect from smoking and foundry exposures resulting in increased PAH uptake. Increased P450IA2 enzyme activity was only found in smokers and no additional effect of foundry exposures was seen. These data suggest that smoking as well as work related PAH exposure may be casually related to increased risk of lung cancer in foundry workers. PMID:1554617

Sherson, D; Sigsgaard, T; Overgaard, E; Loft, S; Poulsen, H E; Jongeneelen, F J

1992-03-01

326

Natural-gas-fuelled heating-up systems in a modern foundry; Erdgasbeheizte Anwaermsysteme in einer modernen Giesserei  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The following article describes the heavy demands made on pre-heating systems in foundries. Well pre-heated containers for accommodation and onward transmission of liquids are essential preconditions for casting quality and foundry cost-efficiency. The crucibles and other equipment are pre-heated and brought to thermal equilibrium before the liquid iron is cast at around 1400 C, thus also reducing the rejection rate for casting. This article demonstrates the way natural gas is used in practice for heating of foundry equipment. (orig.)

Runkel, H. [Hans Runkel Erdgas-Heizsysteme, Wuppertal (Germany); Gorski, R. [Giesserei Heunisch GmbH, Bad Windsheim (Germany)

2001-12-01

327

Imperial Sand Dunes  

Science.gov (United States)

The Bureau of Land Management presents the current news, projects, and the geologic and cultural history of the Imperial Sand Dunes at this website. Users can easily search through an abundance of remarkable images of dunes as well as other Californian landscapes. The website offers links to the current rules, regulations, and management plans. Individuals, who will be traveling to the area, can find the weather forecast, an events calendar, and information on volunteering. Visitors can locate archives of Federal Register Notices as well as news releases.

328

Determination of application possibilities of microwave heating in the curing process of water glass molding sands with fluid esters. Part 1  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article presents results of the experimental trial of combination of the chemical method of water glass molding sands’ curing, used in foundry industry, with an innovative microwave heating. The research objective was to indicate at new areas of microwave energy application. The sands prepared, according to recommendations for curing technology, with the use of ethylene glycol diacetate, have been subject to microwave influence. The attempt at determination of microwave influence on qualitative changes of the binding bridges created during the curing process concerned such parameters as: bending and tensile strength, permeability as well as wear resistance. Moreover,we also determined the influence of microwave curing on the phenomena accompanying the process as well as bond stability (storage time of the prepared molding and core sands. It has been found, basing on the result analysis, that the innovative microwave heating might constitute a very good supplementation of the ester curing method. The advantages of the combined chemical and microwave gelation process include, among others, improvement of the described resistance and technological parameters as well as significant decrease of preparation time of foundry moulds and cores. The subject discussed in this article will be continued in its second part.

K. Granat

2009-01-01

329

Design process optimization, virtual prototyping of manufacturing, and foundry-portable DFM (Invited Paper)  

Science.gov (United States)

We consider modern design for manufacturing (DFM) as a manifestation of IC industry re-integration and intensive cost management dynamics. In that regard DFM is somewhat different from so-called design for yield (DFY) which essentially focuses on productivity (yield) management (that is not to say that DFM and DFY do not have significant overlaps and interactions). We clearly see the shaping of a new "full-chip DFM" infrastructure on the background of the "back to basics" design-manufacturing re-integration dynamics. In the presented work we are focusing on required DFM-efficiencies in a "foundry-fabless" link. Concepts of "virtual prototyping of manufacturing", "design process optimization", and "foundry-portable DFM" models are explored. Both senior management of the industry and leading design groups finally realize the need for a radical change of design styles. Some of the DFM super-goals are to isolate designers from process details and to make designs foundry portable. It requires qualification of designs at different foundries. In their turn, foundries specified and are implementing a set of DFM rules: "action-required", "recommended", and "guidelines" while asking designers to provide netlist and testing information. Also, we observe strong signs of innovation coming back to the mask industry. Powerful solutions are emerging and shaping up toward mask-centered IP as a business. While it seems that pure-play foundries have found their place for now in the "IDM+" model (supporting manufacturing capacity of IDMs) it is not obvious how sustainable the model is. Wafer as a production unit is not sufficient anymore; foundries are being asked by large customers to price products in terms of good die. It brings back the notion of the old ASIC business model where the foundry is responsible for dealing with both random and systematic yield issues for a given design. One scenario of future development would be that some of the leading foundries might eventually transform themselves into IDMs. Another visible trend: some of the manufacturing capacities started to diversify business by providing services for new emerging markets (for example, new energy and medicine applications). Finally it is very unclear what"s going to happen to fabless players. We continue building on the "Think SPICE again!" methodology introduced last year and expanding on previous platforms' discussion. Model expression of DFM, most probably, will be supplied by the equipment suppliers and yield management community. Actual content for a design intent model will be provided by manufacturing. Much like SPICE it describes the behavior and not what the actual measurement in manufacturing is. When the model is available and populated, a design automation solution can be created that will allow a designer to extract, analyze, simulate, and optimize the circuit prior to handoff to manufacturing.

Hogan, James; Progler, Christopher; Chatila, Ahmad; Bruggeman, Bert; Heins, Mitchell; Pack, Robert; Boksha, Victor

2005-05-01

330

Optimization of Mold Yield in MultiCavity Sand Castings  

Science.gov (United States)

The productivity of ductile iron foundries engaging in mass production of castings for the automobile and other engineering sectors depends on the number of cavities per mold. A denser packing of cavities, however, results in slower heat transfer from adjacent cavities, leading to delayed solidification, possible shrinkage defects, and lower mechanical properties. In this article, we propose a methodology to optimize mold yield by selecting the correct combination of the mold box size and the number of cavities based on solidification time and mold temperature. Simulation studies were carried out by modeling solid and hollow cube castings with different values of cavity-wall gap and finding the minimum value of the gap beyond which there is no change in casting solidification time. Then double-cavity molds were modeled with different values of cavity-cavity gap, and simulated to find the minimum value of gap. The simulation results were verified by melting and pouring ductile iron in green sand molds instrumented with thermocouples, and recording the temperature in mold at predetermined locations. The proposed approach can be employed to generate a technological database of minimum gaps for various combinations of part geometry, metal and process, which will be very useful to optimize the mold cavity layouts.

Shinde, Vasudev D.; Joshi, Durgesh; Ravi, B.; Narasimhan, K.

2013-06-01

331

A new evaluation method for coking coal for foundry coke manufacturing in terms of hydrogen transfer ability of coal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A new evaluation method for coking coals has been proposed for foundry coke manufacturing. The distribution of optical textures in coke was evaluated by an automatic image analysis system. Hydrogen donor and acceptor abilities of coals and pitch were also measured. The extent of the development of anisotropic texture in the coke correlates closely to hydrogen transfer ability of coal and pitch mixture. The hydrogen transfer ability in the raw material is one of the most important parameters for foundry coke manufacturing.

Nakamura, K. (Torishima Plants, Osaka Gas Co. Ltd., 5-11-151 Torishima, Konohana-ku, Osaka 554 (JP)); Yokono, T.; Sanada, Y. (Hokkaido Univ., N13 W8 Kita-ku, Sapporo 060 (JP))

1990-01-01

332

Sand, jams and jets  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Granular media are offering new insights into problems in condensed-matter physics and materials science, as Heinrich Jaeger explains. The remarkable properties of granular materials are so familiar that most of us do not even notice them. It is clear, for example, that we cannot walk on water unless the temperature has dropped below freezing. However, we take it for granted that sand will support our weight as if it were a solid, even though it can also be poured like a liquid under the same ambient conditions. From breakfast cereal, sugar and flour to construction materials, mining products and pharmaceuticals, granular media are present everywhere in our daily lives. (U.K.)

2005-12-01

333

Sand swimming lizard: sandfish  

CERN Document Server

We use high-speed x-ray imaging to reveal how a small (~10cm) desert dwelling lizard, the sandfish (Scincus scincus), swims within a granular medium [1]. On the surface, the lizard uses a standard diagonal gait, but once below the surface, the organism no longer uses limbs for propulsion. Instead it propagates a large amplitude single period sinusoidal traveling wave down its body and tail to propel itself at speeds up to ~1.5 body-length/sec. Motivated by these experiments we study a numerical model of the sandfish as it swims within a validated soft sphere Molecular Dynamics granular media simulation. We use this model as a tool to understand dynamics like flow fields and forces generated as the animal swims within the granular media. [1] Maladen, R.D. and Ding, Y. and Li, C. and Goldman, D.I., Undulatory Swimming in Sand: Subsurface Locomotion of the Sandfish Lizard, Science, 325, 314, 2009

Maladen, Ryan D; Kamor, Adam; Goldman, Daniel I

2009-01-01

334

2010 oil sands performance report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

With the depletion of traditional energy resources and the rising demand for energy, oil sands have become an important energy resource for meeting energy needs. Oil sands are a mixture of water, sand, clay and bitumen which is recovered either through open pit mining or in situ drilling techniques. The bitumen is then converted into syncrude or sold to refineries for the production of gasoline, diesel or other products. Shell has oil sands operations in Alberta and the aim of this report is to present its 2010 performance in terms of CO2, water, tailings, land, and reclamation and engagement. This document covers several of Shell's operations in the Muskeg River and Jackpine mines, Scotford upgrader, Peace River, Orion, Seal, Cliffdale and Chipmunk. It provides useful information on Shell's oil sands performance to governments, environmental groups, First Nations, local communities and the public.

NONE

2011-07-01

335

Oil sands industry update  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An Oil Sands Update was published in September 2001 and a brief overview of the changes that have taken place since then is included with this document. Significant increases in shipment volumes resulted from the industry expansion: in late 2001, Project Millennium from Suncor came into effect, increasing production to 220,000 barrels per day in early April 2002, compared to 123,000 barrels per day in 2001. The design output of the plant in the Syncrude 21 suite of project was raised to 255,000 barrels per day in 2001, compared to 200,000 barrels per day in 1996. Project Voyageur was announced by Suncor, which is expected to increase production from 225,000 barrels per day to 500,000 to 550,000 barrels per day by 2012. Additional information was provided by Syncrude concerning Stages 3 to 5. It is expected that completion of the Athabasca Oil Sands Project (Muskeg River Mine and Scotford Upgrader) will take place late in 2002. Construction is proceeding on other projects: Imperial Oil's Mahkeses Project (phases 11-13), Petro-Canada's MacKay River Project, Suncor's Project Firebag Phase 1, EnCana's Christina Lake Project (formerly PanCanadian). A number of projects are in the planning stages, and some highlights are provided. The Fort McMurray region represents the area where most of the activity in the sector is located. Socio-economic issues remain to be addressed, such as affordable housing, child care, traffic within Fort McMurray, the involvement of Aboriginals, and increasing costs. Some mechanisms are in place to deal with the numerous challenges facing the industry, which is an important generator of economic growth. refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs.

NONE

2002-04-01

336

Development of method for identification of compounds emitted during thermal degradation of binders used in foundry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of the research was to develop a method for identification of compounds emitted during thermal degradation of binders used in foundry. Research were performed with the use of Certified Reference Materials mixtures of semi-volatiles compounds with furfuryl alcohol and aldehyde. Furfuryl-urea resin samples were also used. Station for thermal degradation of materials used in foundry was designed and made. Thermal degradation process conditions and gas chromatograph coupled with high resolution mass spectrometry operating conditions were established. Organic compounds emitted during degradation were identified. The paper briefly represents the range of study and the results obtained for furfuryl-urea resin thermal degradation. Significant information about volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds emitted in different temperatures is also discussed.

A. Bobrowski

2011-07-01

337

Magnetic and GPR surveys of a former munitions foundry site at the Denver Federal Center  

Science.gov (United States)

We made magnetometer and ground penetrating radar (GPR) surveys over part of the foundation of a World War II-era foundry located on the Denver Federal Center. The site contains a number of highly magnetic source bodies, concrete foundation walls, and underground openings, buried under a clay cap. The cap is several feet thick and has a conductivity of about 35 mS/m, making the features underneath it a poor target for conventional GPR. Indeed, the raw data look unlike typical GPR data, but rather show reverberation (?) bands under sidewalks and other shallow buried sources. Using a newly-written computer package, we made plan maps of the GPR response at different time slices. The sliced GPR data did not outline buried foundry foundations, as we had hoped it might. The resulting plan maps of the sliced data show sidewalks and other blobby features, some of which correspond to magnetometer highs.

Campbell, David L.; Beanland, Shay; Lucius, Jeffrey E.; Powers Michael H.

2000-01-01

338

VACLAIM, a method to remove pollution, reclaim Nobake moldsand, convert binder waste into fuel, and recover casting heat in foundry molds during casting  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The development program was carried out at the Experimental Foundry at the Abex Research Center, Mahwah, NJ. Objectives were met and data collected to design VACLAIM systems. Feasibility was established and several configurations of equipment used with success. The experiments included test and commercial castings. VACLAIM reduces foundry energy needs, materials, investment costs, operating costs, and improves foundry atmospheres and casting quality in a single step. The system is expected to be installed in 60 or more foundries in the next ten years to save up to $27 million per year in investment and processing costs.

Scheffer, K.D.

1983-06-21

339

Monitoring of power demand of foundry machinery, using the example of paddle mixers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study outlines the basic features of a newly-designed computer-supported system for monitoring and recording the instantaneous power consumption, used to control the operating parameters of foundry machinery. Explored are potential applications of the module for fast recording of instantaneous currents and voltages in a triple phase power supply system in a paddle mixer. Further research areas are indicated, to extend the system and the range of its potential applications.

R. Wrona

2008-04-01

340

In-depth Evaluation of Energy Management Practices in a Swedish Iron Foundry  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Energy efficiency in industry is became important issue in this century considering cost of energy, energy crisis in the world and environmental issue of using energy sources. To solve this problem energy management can be successful tools due to it positive impact on reduction of energy use and also reduction of energy use environmental impacts. The aim of this thesis is to present results of a successful energy managing practices in a Swedish iron foundry and explain the possibilities to im...

Rahimi Ardkapan, Siamak; Rahimi, Maral

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Uniaxial and triaxial compression test series on two types of foundry stone  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Uniaxial and triaxial compression experiments were performed on ten cylindrical samples of foundry stone. All of the test samples were nominally 50.8 mm in diameter, with a 2:1 length to diameter ratio. The experiments were run on room dry samples in compression, at room temperature, four confining pressures, and a nominal axial displacement rate of 10"-"4 mm/s. 3 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs

1985-01-01

342

Electromagnet Gripping in Iron Foundry Automation Part I: Principles and Framework  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Robot grippers are employed to position and retain parts in automated assembly operations. This paper presents an overview of electromagnet part handling framework in an iron foundry and an equivalent electromagnet circuit model. The manner in which this whole concept of automated gripping system operates will be discussed in this paper. The material handling system uses machine vision system coupled with conveyor motion and Ethernet communication strategy to assist the material handling syst...

Rhythm Suren Wadhwa; Terje-Lien

2011-01-01

343

Integration of “QES” systems on the small and medium size foundry companies in Portugal  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper presents the present situation concerning the integration of the quality, environment and safety systems on industrial companies. A case study performed by the authors on the Portuguese foundry is presented. The present situation of this activity sector, on what concerns the application of the quality, environment and safety (QES) systems, is characterized, and the short time needs, procedures and initiatives that are being taken, or will be taken in a near future, to accomplish...

Santos, Gilberto; Barbosa, J.; Pedro, Claudia

2004-01-01

344

COMBINED EFFECTS OF HEAT STRESS AND SHIFT WORK ON PHYSIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS IN FOUNDRY WORKERS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In order to investigate the combined effects of shift work and heat stress on the physiological parameters, such as heart rate (HR) and body temperature (BT), a hot-dry working environment was investigated for 53 workers in foundry workshops. In this study Wet Bulb Globe Temperature index (WBGT) was measured and along with that simultaneously heart rate and oral temperature were checked in 3 shifts. The results indicated that the physiological responses of workers changed whenever the shift c...

Nassiri, P.; Taheri, M.; Golbabaie, F.; Mohammadzadeh, M.

1990-01-01

345

Barriers to and drivers for energy efficiency in the Swedish foundry industry  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Despite the need for increased industrial energy efficiency, studies indicate that cost-efficient energy conservation measures are not always implemented, explained by the existence of barriers to energy efficiency. This paper investigates the existence of different barriers to and driving forces for the implementation of energy efficiency measures in the energy intensive Swedish foundry industry. The overall results from a questionnaire show that limited access to capital constitutes by far ...

Rohdin, Patrik; Thollander, Patrik; Solding, Patrik

2007-01-01

346

Survey-based naming conventions for use in OBO Foundry ontology development  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background A wide variety of ontologies relevant to the biological and medical domains are available through the OBO Foundry portal, and their number is growing rapidly. Integration of these ontologies, while requiring considerable effort, is extremely desirable. However, heterogeneities in format and style pose serious obstacles to such integration. In particular, inconsistencies in naming conventions can impair the readability and navigability of ontology class hie...

Schober Daniel; Smith Barry; Lewis Suzanna E; Kusnierczyk Waclaw; Lomax Jane; Mungall Chris; Taylor Chris F; Rocca-Serra Philippe; Sansone Susanna-Assunta

2009-01-01

347

Occupational eosinophilic bronchitis in a foundry worker exposed to isocyanate and a baker exposed to flour  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Eosinophilic bronchitis without asthma may occur as a consequence of occupational exposure. The cases of a foundry worker and a baker who developed symptoms, respectively, due to exposure to isocyanate and flour, are reported. Cough was not associated with variable airflow obstruction or with airway hyper?responsiveness and was responsive to inhaled corticosteroids. The eosinophilia detectable in their sputum was causally related to the occupational exposure in the workplace. The examinatio...

Stefano, Fabio Di; Giampaolo, Luca Di; Verna, Nicola; Gioacchino, Mario Di

2007-01-01

348

Respiratory symptoms and lung function in foundry workers exposed to low molecular weight isocyanates  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Some foundries use the Hot Box method, which involves use of a nitrogen-containing binder system to produce cores for hollow castings. During the process, low molecular weight isocyanates such as isocyanic acid (ICA) and methyl isocyanate (MIC) are formed, which are potentially toxic. However, data regarding exposure to these agents, and their health effects, were sparse. Aims: The objectives of the studies were to characterise levels of exposure to low molecu...

Lo?fstedt, Ha?kan

2012-01-01

349

Hydrogen porosity in Al-Si foundry alloys  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Aluminium alloys based on the aluminium-silicon system are popular for automotive and aerospace applications, thanks to their high strength to weight ratio, excellent castability, and corrosion resistance. Microporosity is widely acknowledged to affect both static and dynamic properties of structural aluminium alloy castings. Formation of microporosity is a complex phenomenon and depends upon various factors but mainly hydrogen content and melt cleanliness, i.e., oxide films and inclusions. In the past few decades numerous studies on microporosity formation have been reported. However, several aspects of this subject are not fully understood. The motivation of this doctoral thesis has been to improve the knowledge of porosity formation and its affect of the mechanical properties of the cast products. This study aimed at understanding the effect of hydrogen and defects on microporosity of aluminium-silicon based castings. A literature review of the theories of porosity formation, and previously reported results on the factors affecting the microporosity formation in aluminium alloys is reported briefly in order to establish a basis of the present study. The research presented in this thesis is divided in five phases. In the first phase, lab scale directional solidification experiments were carried out with an A 356 alloy. Six hydrogen levels from 0.48 to 0.07 mL/100 g melt were reached by various up-gassing and de-gassing treatments of the melt. The melt quality was assessed by porous disc filtration apparatus (PoDFA) and reduced pressure test (RPT) methods. Microporosity distribution in the castings was characterized by the Archmedian method, image analysis and X-ray radiography. The results show that the porosity distribution is strongly dependent on the cooling rate and hydrogen content in the presence of the oxide films type defects. In the next phase, casting experiments with an A356 melt were carried by using a step mould die and castings were produced with and without filtration. The experiments were divided into series I and series II. In the first series 70 kg of the A356 ingots were melted in an electric resistance furnace. Three hydrogen levels namely 0.1, 0.2, and 0.4 mL/100 g melt were reached first by Ar-degassing, and up-gassing with Ar-10 % H2 and Ar-water vapour mixture, respectively. In the second series of experiments similar procedure was applied to another melt but in the reverse order. The castings were characterized in terms of microporosity and mechanical properties distribution. In addition high pressure die casting of an A380 alloy was carried out with different processing parameters like plunger speed, commutation point between first and second phase and pouring temperature. The results shows that tensile properties in both gravity and high pressure die castings were affected by the amount and distribution of casting defects. A series of casting experiments were carried out with the same type of step mould and with two hydrogen levels, namely 0.1 and 0.2 mL/100 g melt, in the third phase of the project. The main focus of these trials was to carefully control the variables during melt preparation, casting and solidification and keep the variations at minimum. Experiments were performed in two different days in order to check the reproducibility of the measurements. For the low gas level (0.1 mL/100 g melt) higher porosity levels are observed in the thinnest step, while the trend is opposite with the medium gas level (0.2 mL/100 g melt) castings. The data obtained form these trials where casting variables were controlled in a reproducible way form a basis for evaluating the results of simulated microporosity distributions using recent modelling approaches. The reproducibility of the step mould used was calculated to be 10-15 %. In the fourth phase, a study in an automotive casting plant was targeted to address the problem of high rejection rate of a cylinder head casting made from an A354 alloy. In the foundry, the castings under investigation were usually made from the mixture of A 354 alloys fro

Akhtar, Shahid

2010-01-15

350

[Indicators of pulmonary epithelial damage among workers at a foundry exposed to airborne pollutants].  

Science.gov (United States)

Foundry ambient air contains very high concentrations of noxious substances, such as particulate matter and gaseous pollutants, which can target the respiratory epithelium. Serum concentrations of the 16-kDa Clara cell protein (CC16-S) may reflect both the integrity of the epithelial barrier and smoke-induced Clara cell toxicity. To evaluate whether CC16-S is a sensitive biomarker of early respiratory disturbances, it was determined in a group of 35 foundry male workers (aged 41.1 +/- 6.9 years) examined both prior to and at the end of their work-shift (06:00 a.m.-02:00 p.m.). Exposure to inhalable/respirable dusts and PAH was characterized; urinary excretion of 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OH-P) and naphtol was measured to assess exposure to pyrene and naphthalene, respectively. CC16 serum levels decreased at the end of the shift (10.7 +/- 3.82 micrograms/L vs. 8.39 +/- 3.05 micrograms/L; p foundry workers exposed to complex mixtures. PMID:14979105

Bergamaschi, E; Apostoli, P; Catalani, S; Festa, D; Folesani, G; Andreoli, R; Manini, P; Schenato, S; DePalma, G; Franchini, I; Bernard, A; Mutti, A

2003-01-01

351

Occupational exposure to volatile nitrosamines in foundries using the Ashland core-making process  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Eight foundries using the Ashland process for the production of cores were surveyed to assess the occupational exposure to carcinogenic volatile nitrosamines. Personal and area samples were collected by means of artifact-free cartridges during the core-making and the molding/casting/shake-out operations. Analyses were carried out with gas chromatography/Hall detector and gas chromatography/TEA (thermal energy analyzer) for validation. The core-making workshops had the highest concentration for at least two nitrosamines, N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) and N-nitrosoethylmethylamine (NEMA), but the levels of NDMA never exceeded 0.35 microgram/m3 with an arithmetic mean between 0.23 and 0.02 microgram/m3. In a number of samplings, two other peaks, both on TEA and Hall detector, could not be identified. The foundries per se (molding/casting/shake-out) had lower nitrosamine levels (CNDMAmax = 0.15 microgram/m3, CNDMA less than 0.03 microgram/m3). For the first time NEMA was identified as an industrial contaminant in foundries but its concentration was always lower than that of NDMA. The nitrosamines found were presumably produced from dimethylethylamine (DMEA). Industries producing or using tertiary or secondary amines should be controlled for their possible nitrosamine contamination.

Ducos, P.; Gaudin, R.; Maire, C.; Mavelle, T.; Bouchikhi, B.; Derby, G.

1988-10-01

352

Saving energy in the foundry by using computer simulation of solidification  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Shrinkage during the solidification phase of casting is a major contributor to defects in the finished casting. However, predicting where and how much shrinkage there is going to be in the solidified metal has evolved over the years into the skill, one might almost say art, of methoding. At this stage in the cycle the methods engineer's experience and knowledge comes to the forefront. A good methods engineer can keep a foundry profitable, an exceptional method's engineer can make the business a star. However, mistakes can be extremely costly. This latter point has had the effect of making the majority of foundry methods engineers fairly conservative in their approach. Solidification simulation software can therefore have the effect of freeing up the restrictions on the foundry methods engineer enabling him to be more adventurous without the risk of costing the company an excessive amount of money. The program which is described here, is a sophisticated CAD/CAM system which simulates the casting solidification processes and predicts where shrinkage and associated defects are likely to occur. It can be used to test design and production methods of casting shapes, thus minimising the need for expensive sampling procedures. The program runs on an IBM compatible Personal Computer and results can often be obtained within minutes. (author)

Jolly, M. (Foseco International Ltd., Birmingham (United Kingdom))

1993-04-23

353

Evaluation and Verification of Time and Costs of Production Activities in Foundry Industry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This work presents the possibility of using technology of modelling and simulation of productive systems in the management of cast iron production by means of automated foundry lines to maximize assembly line structure. The computer model of foundry has been planed and conducted in order to compile the schedule of cast production. The variants of solution have been estimated talking into account time limitations imposed by clients and the criterion for prime costs appointed on the basis of the ZAR by means of aided detailed calculation according to planes of their formation. In the research, problem connected with exploitation of automatic foundry lines have been taken into consideration. Moreover, the analysis of line work stoppage has been conducted and construction of schedule of the planned service of line device has been undertaken on the basis of the knowledge of timetables of correct work of these devices. Furthermore, the operational database has been prepared so as to assemble and process data about the damaged and other line work stoppage. It should be noted that the database will give the possibility of working out the schedule of planned service. The problems has been presented by using the pocket for modelling and the simulation of productive systems – ARENA

S. Kukla

2007-07-01

354

Direct Chlorination of Zircon Sand  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It was investigated the direct chlorination of zircon sand in a unit chlorination equipment. The process was in semi batch. The product gas was scrubbed in aqueous NaOH. It was search the influence of time, ratio of reactant and size of particle sand to the concentration of Zr and Si in the product. From these research it was found that as the times, ratio of reactant increased, the concentration of Zr increased, but the concentration of Si decreased, while as grain size of zircon sand decreased the concentration of Zr decreased, but the concentration of Si increased. (author)

2002-06-27

355

Qualidade Superficial de Peças de Alumínio Fundidas em Molde de Areia / Surface Quality of Sand Aluminum Pieces Cost  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O presente trabalho consiste basicamente na análise das características físico-químicas de areia-base para fundição e sua influência na qualidade das peças fundidas. Foram coletados cinco diferentes tipos de areia-base, ambas com o mesmo tratamento mineral. A caracterização das areias-base foi reali [...] zada através dos seguintes ensaios de laboratório: distribuição granulométrica, argila AFS, umidade, permeabilidade base, expansão ao choque térmico, perda ao fogo, temperatura de sinterização, teor de finos, caracterização visual e análise química. Foram confeccionados dois modelos diferentes. O primeiro com o formato em espiral, com o objetivo de investigar a fluidez do metal em função das características das diferentes areias-base. O segundo, uma placa escalonada, que permite identificar a qualidade do acabamento superficial da peça fundida para diferentes espessuras. O metal utilizado no processo de fundição foi o alumínio. A partir dos resultados encontrados no ensaio tecnológico, observou-se uma correlação com os resultados de laboratório, verificando que uma correta análise das características identificadas no laboratório permite prever o comportamento da areia-base e seu resultado final observado na peça fundida. Abstract in english The present work consists to analyze the physical and chemical characteristics of sands used to foundry and its influence in the quality of the melted pieces. Five different types of sand were collected, both with the same mineral treatment. The characterization of the sand was carried out through t [...] he following laboratory tests: grain size distribution (sieving), AFS clay content, water content, permeability, thermal expansion, loss on ignition, sinter point, fine contents meshes and chemical composition. The optical microscope was used in order to identify the geometry of the grains of sand. Two different models were made. The first one with a spiral shape was made to investigate the flow’s capacity of the metal with respect the different characteristics of the sands. The second model which is a plate with different thickness was made to investigate the quality of the surface finishing of the melted pieces. The metal used in the foundry process was the aluminum. It was observed a significant correlation between the laboratory and technological results, which means that it is possible to preview the quality of melted pieces from the characteristics of the sand grains.

Juan C. Campos, Rubio; Túlio Hallak, Panzera; Wagner Alves, Nogueira.

356

Sound-producing sand avalanches  

Science.gov (United States)

Sound-producing sand grains constitute one of nature's more puzzling and least understood physical phenomena. They occur naturally in two distinct types: booming and squeaking sands. Although both varieties of sand produce unexpectedly pure acoustic emissions when sheared, they differ in their frequency range and duration of emission, as well as the environment in which they tend to be found. Large-scale slumping events on dry booming dunes can produce acoustic emissions that can be heard up to 10 km away and which resemble hums, moans, drums, thunder, foghorns or the drone of low-flying propeller aircraft. These analogies emphasize the uniqueness of the phenomenon and the clarity of the produced sound. Although reports of these sands have existed in the literature for over one thousand years, a satisfactory explanation for either type of acoustic emission is still unavailable.

Sholtz, Paul; Bretz, Michael; Nori, Franco

1997-05-01

357

Tar Sands: Is Canada a '  

... THE TAR SANDS: A MADE-IN-CANADA PROBLEM by Paul Kellogg PolEcon.net, January 4, 2013 � Paul Kellogg, published with ... Paul Kellogg is a teacher, researcher and writer at the Centre for Interdisciplinary Studies, Athabasca University, Alberta, Canada. ...on November 27, 2011) Category: Canada & Quebec, Corporate polluters, Featured, Tar Sands | Tagged: Paul Kellogg Previous: What if First Nations stopped subsidizing Canada ? ...

358

Foundry industries: environmental aspects and environmental condition indicators; Industrias de fundicion: aspectos ambientales e indicadores de condicion ambiental  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Nowadays, environmental indicators are widely used as effective tools to assist decision-making in both public and private sectors. The lack of literature and research about local and regional Environmental Condition Indicators (ECI), the poor knowledge regarding solid waste generation, effluents and gas emissions from foundry industries, and their particular location in the urban area of Tandil, Argentina are the main reasons for this investigation, aiming to develop a set a of ECI to provide information about the environment in relation to the foundry industry. The study involves all the foundries located in the city between March and April 2010. The set of ECI developed includes 9 indicators for air, 5 for soil and 1 for water. Specific methodology was used for each indicator. (Author) 31 refs.

Sosa, B. s.; Banda-Noriega, R. B.; Guerrero, E. M.

2013-03-01

359

Health assessment for A. Y. McDonald Foundry, Dubuque, Iowa, Region 7. CERCLIS No. IAD005103882. Preliminary report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The A. Y. McDonald Foundry site is listed on the National Priorities List. The site, located in the industrial section of Dubuque, was a brass and iron foundry operated from 1896 until 1983. Environmental contamination consists of all soil on-site and in ground water. Concentrations up to 8200 ppm in soil have been documented. Ground water contamination is reported to exceed the National Interim Primary Drinking Water Standard (actual levels not given). The site is considered to be of potential public health concern because of the risk to human health caused by the possibility of exposure to hazardous substances via inhalation exposure to foundry waste, and because of the potential impact on the Mississippi River and local aquifers if the waste is allowed to migrate off-site. The small particle size of the material from air-cleaning equipment makes inhalation a particularly important pathway.

1988-11-14

360

Oil sands tailings management project  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Oil sands leadership initiative (OSLI) works with the Government of Alberta on the development of the oil sands industry, considering environmental, economical and social aspects. Water management was identified as one of most important areas to focus on. Alberta WaterSMART was requested to support the development and the management of projects resulting from the work done or underway in this field. The development of a regional water management solution stood out as the most interesting solution to obtain significant results. In the Athabasca Region, oil sands producers work independently on their water sourcing and disposal with particular attention to fresh water conservation and economics. The Athabasca River represents a source for mines and distant saline aquifers are the target of steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) operators. As part of a four-phase project aiming to study the environmental and economic footprint (EEF) benefit of alternatives for Athabasca oil sands production water supply and disposal, the purpose of the tailings water management project was to identify tailings treatment technologies that are ready to be implemented, and to design and evaluate solutions in order to improve regional oil sands production water sourcing and disposal. Alternatives were evaluated based on their total EEF, applying a lifecycle assessment methodology with a particular attention on the quantification of important performance indicators. 25 refs., 8 tabs., 40 figs.

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Oil sands tailings management project  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Oil sands leadership initiative (OSLI) works with the Government of Alberta on the development of the oil sands industry, considering environmental, economical and social aspects. Water management was identified as one of most important areas to focus on. Alberta WaterSMART was requested to support the development and the management of projects resulting from the work done or underway in this field. The development of a regional water management solution stood out as the most interesting solution to obtain significant results. In the Athabasca Region, oil sands producers work independently on their water sourcing and disposal with particular attention to fresh water conservation and economics. The Athabasca River represents a source for mines and distant saline aquifers are the target of steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) operators. As part of a four-phase project aiming to study the environmental and economic footprint (EEF) benefit of alternatives for Athabasca oil sands production water supply and disposal, the purpose of the tailings water management project was to identify tailings treatment technologies that are ready to be implemented, and to design and evaluate solutions in order to improve regional oil sands production water sourcing and disposal. Alternatives were evaluated based on their total EEF, applying a lifecycle assessment methodology with a particular attention on the quantification of important performance indicators. 25 refs., 8 tabs., 40 figs.

Godwalt, C. [Alberta WaterSMART, Calgary, AB (Canada); Kotecha, P. [Suncor Energy Inc, Calgary, AB (Canada); Aumann, C. [Alberta Innovates - Technology Futures, Alberta Governement, AB (Canada)

2010-11-15

362

Proposal for the award of a blanket purchase contract for the supply of foundry services for semiconductor technologies  

CERN Document Server

This document concerns the award of a blanket purchase contract for the supply of foundry services for semiconductor technologies. The Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of a blanket purchase contract with IBM SWITZERLAND (CH), the lowest bidder complying with the specification, for the supply of foundry services for semiconductor technologies for a period of four years, for a total amount not exceeding 4 000 000 US dollars, not subject to revision. At the present rate of exchange, the total amount of the blanket purchase contract is equivalent to approximately 5 000 000 Swiss francs. CERN's financial contribution will not exceed 1 000 000 Swiss francs.

2006-01-01

363

Interaction of smoking, uptake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and cytochrome P450IA2 activity among foundry workers.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An increased lung cancer risk has been described among foundry workers. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and silica are possible aetiological factors. This study describes a urinary PAH metabolite, 1-hydroxypyrene (hpU), as well as the degree of cytochrome P450IA2 activity/induction as reflected by the urinary caffeine ratio (IA2) in 45 foundry workers and 52 controls; IA2 was defined as the ratio of paraxanthine 7-demethylation products to a paraxanthine 8-hydroxylation product (1,7-d...

Sherson, D.; Sigsgaard, T.; Overgaard, E.; Loft, S.; Poulsen, H. E.; Jongeneelen, F. J.

1992-01-01

364

On vibration hazards of chipping-hammer operators in an iron foundry. Part 2. Results of the hygienic control  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We previously reported that the working and health conditions of vibrating tool operators in an iron foundry were investigated in 1975 and vibration hazards were observed to occur frequently in workers operating chipping-hammers powered by compressed air. After that, we instituted medical treatment for the afflicted workers and improvement of working conditions in the foundry, and have performed annual medical examinations for four years. In this paper, the course of hygienic control and the change in the medical findings of twenty-four chipping-hammer operators are reported.

Harada, N.; Matsumoto, T.; Yamada, S.; Kobayashi, F.

1982-01-01

365

100% foundry compatible packaging and full wafer release and die separation technique for surface micromachined devices  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A completely foundry compatible chip-scale package for surface micromachines has been successfully demonstrated. A pyrex (Corning 7740) glass cover is placed over the released surface micromachined die and anodically bonded to a planarized polysilicon bonding ring. Electrical feedthroughs for the surface micromachine pass underneath the polysilicon sealing ring. The package has been found to be hermetic with a leak rate of less than 5 x 10{sup {minus}8} atm cm{sup {minus}3}/s. This technology has applications in the areas of hermetic encapsulation and wafer level release and die separation.

OLIVER,ANDREW D.; MATZKE,CAROLYN M.

2000-04-06

366

COMBINED EFFECTS OF HEAT STRESS AND SHIFT WORK ON PHYSIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS IN FOUNDRY WORKERS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In order to investigate the combined effects of shift work and heat stress on the physiological parameters, such as heart rate (HR and body temperature (BT, a hot-dry working environment was investigated for 53 workers in foundry workshops. In this study Wet Bulb Globe Temperature index (WBGT was measured and along with that simultaneously heart rate and oral temperature were checked in 3 shifts. The results indicated that the physiological responses of workers changed whenever the shift changed and the responses were increased by a corresponding increase in heat stress, index.

P.Nassiri

1990-08-01

367

Genoil sand decontamination technology (GSDT)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Genoil sand decontamination technology (GSDT) was described. The GSDT process was designed to clean oil sands using minimal water and energy consumption and is also suitable for a variety of reclamation applications. The innovative process has little to no impact on the environment. Recent upgrades to the technology include energy efficient steam cleaners, re-designed reactors, multiple dewatering stages, and an elutriation water purifying system. The system has moderate water requirements due its recycling capability, and sea water can be used to clean beach sand. This paper outlined the general process and system configuration of the GSDT. A process flow diagram was included, as well as details of field tests conducted to determine the minimum and maximum capacities of the system. 3 figs.

NONE

2010-07-01

368

Chvorinov’s rule and determination of coefficient of heat accumulation of moulds with non-quartz base sands  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Application of the „Chvorinov’s rule“ for calculation of the total time of casting solidification made also possible to determine chilling effect of foundry moulds (coefficient of heat accumulation of the mould, bf with use of mixtures with new kinds of non-quartz base sands (Magnesite, Chromite, Olivine, Dunite, Kerphalit. Processes by several authors (G. Halbart, A. I. Vejnik, G. A. Anisovich were used for mathematical treatment of measurement results and determination of bf. The highest values were achieved for magnesite moulds followed by chromite ones; the lowest values, approximately half-ones, represented the Dunite moulds. At the same time the results made possible to determine „the Chvorinov’s mean solidification constants“ (k that are in direct proportional dependence on bf and indirect proportional to solidification time (?1.

T. Elbel

2010-10-01

369

Sands at Gusev Crater, Mars  

Science.gov (United States)

environments, and the energy associated with the transport and deposition of sand at Gusev Crater are characterized at the microscopic scale through the comparison of statistical moments for particle size and shape distributions. Bivariate and factor analyses define distinct textural groups at 51 sites along the traverse completed by the Spirit rover as it crossed the plains and went into the Columbia Hills. Fine-to-medium sand is ubiquitous in ripples and wind drifts. Most distributions show excess fine material, consistent with a predominance of wind erosion over the last 3.8 billion years. Negative skewness at West Valley is explained by the removal of fine sand during active erosion, or alternatively, by excess accumulation of coarse sand from a local source. The coarse to very coarse sand particles of ripple armors in the basaltic plains have a unique combination of size and shape. Their distribution display significant changes in their statistical moments within the ~400 m that separate the Columbia Memorial Station from Bonneville Crater. Results are consistent with aeolian and/or impact deposition, while the elongated and rounded shape of the grains forming the ripples, as well as their direction of origin, could point to Ma'adim Vallis as a possible source. For smaller particles on the traverse, our findings confirm that aeolian processes have dominated over impact and other processes to produce sands with the observed size and shape patterns across a spectrum of geologic (e.g., ripples and plains soils) and aerographic settings (e.g., wind shadows).

Cabrol, Nathalie A.; Herkenhoff, Kenneth; Knoll, Andrew H.; Farmer, Jack; Arvidson, Raymond; Grin, Edmond; Li, Ronxing; Fenton, Lori; Cohen, Barbara; Bell, James F.; Aileen Yingst, R.

2014-05-01

370

Strange phenomena in Cuban sands  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Several unusual phenomena that occur in certain Cuban sands flows (and some other parts of the world) are presented . First, the phenomenon occurs revolving rivers, explained by a phenomenological model. Several open questions were discussed on the 'microscopic' causes of the phenomenon. Uphill lonely waves are shown in second, in streams of the same type of sand that occur in a cell in Hele-Shaw. The 'microscopic' necessary conditions are explored for these waves emerge as solution of Saint-Venant equations modified hydrodynamic type. (author)

2008-06-11

371

Eastern Scheldt Sand, Baskarp Sand No. 15 : part 1  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The present data report contains data from 13 drained triaxial tests, performed on two different sand types in the Soil Mechanics Laboratory at Aalborg University in March, 1997. Two tests have been performed on Baskarp Sand No. 15, which has already ken extensively tested in the Soil Mechanics Laboratory. The remaining 11 triaxial tests have ben performed on Eastern Scheldt Sand, which is a material not yet investigated at the Soil Mechanics Laboratory. In the first pari of this data report, the characteristics of the two sand types in question will be presented. Next, a description of the features of the Danish triaxial apparatus will be given, and the performed test series will be outlined. Furthermore, selected results from the performed triaxial tests will be given in the shape of a number of tables. In the next part of the report, the procedure for execution of the triaxial tests will described. In this connection, the procedure for preparation of the soil specimens will be presented, and the actual performance of the tests will be briefly outlined. Finally, the procedure for processing of the measurements from the laboratory in order to obtain usable data will be described. The final part of the report is dedicated to a presentation of the individual triaxial tests. Here, the details of the individual tests are given, and the resulting relevant stress-strain curves and volumetric strain curves are presented.

Andersen, A. T; Madsen, E. B.

1998-01-01

372

Factors predictive of ischemic heart disease mortality in foundry workers exposed to carbon monoxide.  

Science.gov (United States)

The potential predictors of ischemic heart disease mortality were studied for 931 male foundry workers in Finland who participated in a health examination in 1973. These workers were followed up to 1993 through registers and by using a questionnaire. In 1973, the systolic and diastolic blood pressures of workers exposed to carbon monoxide (CO) were slightly higher than those of unexposed workers. The prevalence of angina pectoris showed a clear dose-response relation to CO exposure. Electrocardiogram (ECG) findings indicating past myocardial infarction or suggesting coronary artery disease as a function of smoking and/or CO exposure were not evident. In the 1987 follow-up, the rate ratio for ischemic heart disease mortality was estimated as 4.4 for CO-exposed smokers compared with unexposed nonsmokers. Ischemic heart disease mortality in 1973-1993 was analyzed by using the Cox proportional hazards model. The statistically significant predictors were age, pathologic ECG findings in 1973, regular CO exposure, and abundant alcohol drinking. Of the ECG findings, changes in Q or QS and ST-J or ST waves and in ventricular extrasystoles were statistically significant. The risk of mortality from ischemic heart disease was increased by working in iron foundries, by hypertension, and by smoking. PMID:11032157

Koskela, R S; Mutanen, P; Sorsa, J A; Klockars, M

2000-10-01

373

Tools and Strategies for Product Life Cycle Management ñ A Case Study in Foundry  

Science.gov (United States)

Advances in information and communication technology (ICT) have opened new possibilities of collaborations among the customers, suppliers, manufactures and partners to effectively tackle various business challenges. Product Life Cycle Management(PLM) has been a proven approach for Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) to increase their productivity, improve their product quality, speed up delivery, and increase their profit and to become more efficient. However, their Tier 2 and Tier 3 suppliers like foundry industries are still in their infancy without adopting PLM. Hence to enhance their understanding, the basic concepts, the tools and strategies for PLM are presented is this paper. By selecting and implementing appropriate PLM strategies in a small foundry, an attempt was also made to understand the immediate benefits of using PLM tools (commercial PLM software and digital manufacturing tools). This study indicated a reduction in lead time and improved utilization of organizational resources in the production of automobile impeller. These observations may be further extrapolated to other multiproduct, multi-discipline and multi-customer companies to realize the advantages of using PLM technology

Patil, Rajashekar; Kumar, S. Mohan; Abhilash, E.

2012-08-01

374

Optical coordinate scanners applied for the inspection of large scale housings produced in foundry technology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper presents possibilities of the dimensional and geometry measurement of the large scale casting details with a coordinate measuring technique. In particular, the analysis has been devoted to the measurement strategy in case of the measurement of large scale detail (larger than 1000 mm made in foundry technology, with the 3D optical scanner. The attention was paid on the possibility created by the advanced software attached to the scanner for measurement data processing. Preparation to the geometrical accuracy analysis of the measured objects consisted of the identification of particular geometrical features based on the large number of probing points, as well as the creation of the coordinate systems derived from the best-fitting algorithms which calculate the inscribed or circumscribed geometrical elements. Analysis of accuracy in every probing point has been performed through the comparison of their coordinates with nominal values set by 3D model. Application of the 3D optical coordinate scanner with advanced measurement software for the manufacturing accuracy inspection is very useful in case of large scale details produced with foundry technologies and allows to carry out full accuracy analysis of the examined detail.

M. Grzelka

2010-01-01

375

Benefits of master alloy melt treatments in the aluminum foundry industry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The general benefits of the master alloy approach to foundry melt treatment in terms of environmental and technical advantages are reviewed. New data on the environmental impact of master alloy treatments compared with other addition methods are provided. It is shown that use of master alloy grain refiners and modifiers can significantly reduce emissions from the foundry, thus reducing the need for capital investment in extraction or fume treatment equipment. New application areas for melt treatment are described with reference to strontium in gravity and high pressure die castings. The results of controlled trials on high pressure die cast A380 and gravity die cast A319 alloys are presented. It is shown that strontium offers benefits in terms of the redistribution of gross porosity and improvements to the consistency of casting properties as measured using Weibull statistics. Strontium modifies the microstructure, particularly of thicker section castings, virtually removing gross porosity leading to improved mechanical properties and a reduction in the variability of castings.

Cook, R.; Cooper, P.S.; Kearns, M.A. [London and Scandinavian Metallurgical Co. Ltd., Rotherham (United Kingdom)

1996-10-01

376

Biological Clogging of Sand Columns  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Increased microbial activity leads to biological clogging (or bioclogging), i.e., the pore space is clogged by microbes and saturated hydraulic conductivity of porous media decreases. A series of column experiments were carried out to study the bioclogging of sand columns. Hydraulic conductivity remained unchanged when a sterilizing agent was applied; however, it decreased when a glucose solu...

Katsutoshi Seki

2013-01-01

377

Loose sand habitat at the Mojave desert  

Science.gov (United States)

Loose sand soil lacks moisture but contains adequate moisture and nutrients for drought tolerant plants. Loose sand soil is insufficient for animals to find or make shelter. Organisms find shade and shelter under the large shrubs.

Katie Hale (California State University, Fullerton;Student. Biological Sciences)

2007-01-06

378

Laboratory test preparation of fluorescent sand tracer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper described the preparation procedure of fluorescent sand tracer. The materials that used in this experiment were beach sand, Rhodamine-B, Araldite CY-245, hardener Hy-248, toluene and ethyl alcohol. Three solutions were prepared at certain formula i.e. solution A (Rhodamine-B + ethyl alcohol + toluene), solution B (Araldite + ethyl alcohol + toluene) and solution C (Hardener + ethyl alcohol + toluene) in order to produce the fluorescent sand. These solutions were mixed together with sand and blended slowly until the surface of the sand grain dried. Fluorescent monitor and UV cabinet viewer were used to measure and monitor the intensity of fluorescent sand. Results show that various intensity of fluorescent sand can be obtained depending on the formulation. Laboratory test has been carried out purposely to identify the suitable sand for the field test. (Author)

2005-08-15

379

2003/2004 STATISTICALLY VALID NONCOMPLIANCE RATE (SVNR) INSPECTIONS FOR THE FOUNDRY SECTOR IN EPA REGION 4  

Science.gov (United States)

The SVNR initiative involves the determination of a compliance rate for the foundry sector in EPA Region 4. A compliance rate is an estimate of the percentage of all the facilities in a population in compliance. The actual rate could be determined if all facilities were inspect...

380

On the measurement of surface tension in binders used for moulding sands  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The surface tension of foundry binders is a very important parameter affecting the properties of a sand-binder system. Combined with other parameters, its value determines an outcome of the process of moulding sand preparation and the mechanical properties of the ready moulding composition. The problem of how to measure the surface tension of binders used in preparation of moulding sands is discussed only occasionally. Indirectly, the surface tension is characterised by the value of a contact angle, but it never means that these two parameters can be considered identical. Numerous methods are available and used at present to measure the surface tension, among others, the capillary rise method, the spinning drop method, the sessile drop method, the pendant drop method, the method of pulled out ring (or plate, or frame. There is also a rich variety of devices offered with different measuring methods. The devices are modern and represent a high level of the technical skill and art. Unfortunately, also their price is high. It is, however, possible to obtain the reliable results of the surface tension measurement using relatively simple methods, viz. the stalagmometric method and the capillary rise method. What is necessary are proper conditions of the measurement, directly related with the specific properties of binders. The present paper gives examples of the results obtained during measurement of the surface tension of some selected binders. Attention was drawn to the methods of taking measurements, and the obtained results were discussed and analysed. The possibilities of detemining the surface tension of the examined binders from the results of the contact angle measurements using the “sessile drop” and “pendant drop” methods were outlined.

B. Hutera

2008-07-01

 
 
 
 
381

Treating tar sands formations with karsted zones  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. The tar sands formation may have one or more karsted zones. Methods may include providing heat from one or more heaters to one or more karsted zones of the tar sands formation to mobilize fluids in the formation. At least some of the mobilized fluids may be produced from the formation.

Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Karanikas, John Michael (Houston, TX)

2010-03-09

382

AOSTRA oil sands 2000: Energy, environment, enterprise  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Oil Sands 2000 Conference organized by Albert Oil Sands Technology and Research Authority (AOSTRA) focused on oil sands and heavy oils development with major emphasis on upgrading technology in the areas of recovery and site assessment. The environmental impacts of these developments were also presented. Separate abstracts have been prepared for 25 papers.

1990-01-01

383

Effect of water glass modification with nanoparticles of zinc oxide on selected physical and chemical properties of binder and mechanical properties of sand mixture  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper, an attempt was made to use the ZnO nanoparticles as a modifier of foundry binder - water glass. The modifier was a colloidal suspension of the ZnO zinc oxide nanoparticles in propanol. A thermal method to obtain metal oxide nanoparticles was adopted. The modifier was product of the thermal decomposition of the basic zinc carbonate ([ZnCO3]2•[Zn(OH2]3, and was introduced into the water glass in an amount of 1 and 3 wt%. To determine the interfacial reactions taking place in a quartz - modified water glass system, the binder wettability of the quartz grains was measured. The effect of water glass modification on the mechanical properties of moulding sands was verified by testing the tensile strength Rm u of moulding sands with the modified binders. Water glass modification with the colloidal solution of ZnO nanoparticles in propanol confirmed the effect of modifier on the water glass wettability of sand grains and on the mechanical properties of the sand mixtures with this additive.

A. Kmita

2012-12-01

384

Testing sand used in hydraulic fracturing operations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Recommended practices for testing sand used in hydraulic fracturing operations are outlined as developed by the Task Group on Evaluation of Hydraulic Fracturing Sand under the API Subcommittee on Evaluation of Well Completion Materials. The tests recommended were developed to improve the quality of frac sand delivered to the well site, and are for use in evaluating certain physical properties of sand used in hydraulic fracturing operations. The tests suggested enable users to compare physical characteristics of various sands and to select materials most useful for such applications. Parameters to be tested include turbidity, clay and soft particle content, crush resistance, and mineralogic analysis.

1983-03-01

385

Aqueous sand-control processes conserve fuels  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The shortage of diesel fuel and organic solvents is responsible, in part, for the development of new sand-control processes that show promise in field tests. Halliburton Services now has 2 sand-control techniques that use water-based solutions for preflush, spacer, and catalyst. One of these, called Hydrofix, is a sand consolidation process. The other--Hydropac--is a method for controlling sand by placing a high concentration of pack sand through the perforations and against the sand face. It uses a viscous water gel. A third aqueous process, a resin-consolidated sand pack, is developed and awaiting suitable field trials. Typical Hydrofix and Hydropac jobs are listed in tabular data.

Bleakley, W.B.

1974-04-15

386

Flowability in crushed sand mortar  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The present experimental study explored the relationship between mortar flowability and the voids content in crushed sand to determine the effect of grain shape and surface texture as well as dust content on the behaviour of fresh mortar. The findings revealed a close correlation between voids content and the volume of paste needed for mortar to begin to flow as a continuous material, mortar flowability and the water content needed to attain a given flowability. The comparison of the empirica...

Cabrera, O. A.; Traversa, L. P.; Ortega, N. F.

2010-01-01

387

Sea sand for reactive barriers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Some phosphates have the property to suck in radioactive metals in solution, what it is taken in advance to make reactive barriers which are placed in the nuclear waste repositories. In an effort for contributing to the study of this type of materials, it has been obtained the zirconium silicate (ZrSiO4) and the alpha zirconium hydrogen phosphate (Zr(HPO4) 2H2O) starting from sea sand in an easy and economic way. (Author)

2002-12-04

388

Thermal Properties of oil sand  

Science.gov (United States)

Thermal recovery methods such as Cyclic Steam Injection or Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) are the effective methods for producing heavy oil or bitumen. In any thermal recovery methods, thermal properties (e.g., thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, and volumetric heat capacity) are closely related to the formation and expansion of steam chamber within a reservoir, which is key factors to control efficiency of thermal recovery. However, thermal properties of heavy oil or bitumen have not been well-studied despite their importance in thermal recovery methods. We measured thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, and volumetric heat capacity of 43 oil sand samples from Athabasca, Canada, using a transient thermal property measurement instrument. Thermal conductivity of 43 oil sand samples varies from 0.74 W/mK to 1.57 W/mK with the mean thermal conductivity of 1.09 W/mK. The mean thermal diffusivity is 5.7×10-7 m2/s with the minimum value of 4.2×10-7 m2/s and the maximum value of 8.0×10-7 m2/s. Volumetric heat capacity varies from 1.5×106 J/m3K to 2.11×106 J/m3K with the mean volumetric heat capacity of 1.91×106 J/m3K. In addition, physical and chemical properties (e.g., bitumen content, electric resistivity, porosity, gamma ray and so on) of oil sand samples have been measured by geophysical logging and in the laboratory. We are now proceeding to investigate the relationship between thermal properties and physical/chemical properties of oil sand.

LEE, Y.; Lee, H.; Kwon, Y.; Kim, J.

2013-12-01

389

Psychological test performance in foundry workers exposed to low levels of manganese  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A sample of 30 manganese-exposed foundry workers from two Swedish plants were examined with a partly computerized psychological test battery, comprised of 10 performance tests. Performance of the manganese-exposed workers was compared to that of a matched control group of 60 workers. Matching criteria were age, geographical area, type of work, and the results on a test of verbal comprehension. Performance of the exposed workers was inferior to that of the control group on tests of simple reaction time, digit span, and finger tapping. No correlations were found between performance and the present manganese exposure levels or the number of years employed in manganese work. The results seem to indicate that the present exposure standards for manganese, in Sweden 2.5 mg/m3 and in most other countries 5 mg/m3, are not sufficient to protect workers from negative effects on performance capacity.

Iregren, A. (National Institute of Occupational Health, Solna (Sweden))

1990-11-01

390

Psychological test performance in foundry workers exposed to low levels of manganese.  

Science.gov (United States)

A sample of 30 manganese-exposed foundry workers from two Swedish plants were examined with a partly computerized psychological test battery, comprised of 10 performance tests. Performance of the manganese-exposed workers was compared to that of a matched control group of 60 workers. Matching criteria were age, geographical area, type of work, and the results on a test of verbal comprehension. Performance of the exposed workers was inferior to that of the control group on tests of simple reaction time, digit span, and finger tapping. No correlations were found between performance and the present manganese exposure levels or the number of years employed in manganese work. The results seem to indicate that the present exposure standards for manganese, in Sweden 2.5 mg/m3 and in most other countries 5 mg/m3, are not sufficient to protect workers from negative effects on performance capacity. PMID:2255315

Iregren, A

1990-01-01

391

Montmorillonite: A comparison of methods for its determination in foundry bentonites  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A comparison and estimation of usefulness of a quantitative analysis of montmorillonite in foundry bentonites, was the aim of this research. The investigations were made by means of three different techniques: methylene blue (MB adsorption method, Cu(II-triethylenetetramine complex (Cu(II-TET adsorption method, and infrared spectroscopy (FTIR method. Tests were performed for 9 kinds of bentonites originated from various producers. The achieved results indicated that, the results obtained by the FTIR method were, in general, even 10% lower than the ones obtained by other methods. The best correlation with the data given by the producers were obtained for the Cu(II-TET method. In addition, this method was characterised by the smallest value of standard deviations. A very essential advantage of the Cu(II-TET method is a much shorter time needed for the analysis and its easier execution, which is important under production conditions.

M. Holtzer

2011-04-01

392

Elimination of permanent deformation of travelling cranes box girders operating in foundry shops  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The serious problem in travelling cranes maintenance, crane supporting beams and other carrying elements of material handling facilities in foundry shops is phenomenon of permanent deformations. There are known many ways to eliminate these deformations like mechanical compression by tension members however a disadvantage of such methods is work consuming process of railways rectification. One of technological methods relies on application of shrinkage of compression plates welded with box girder. Regeneration with the use of such method can be executed for the travelling cranes box girders but also with travelling crane support beams that have permanent deformations in both vertical or horizontal planes. In this paper different variants of such process execution are presented, depending on the kind and dimension of the permanent deformation.

St. Wolny

2008-07-01

393

Comparison of selected tools for generation of knowledge for foundry production  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Two types of data mining tools, suitable for semi-automatic generation of knowledge in a form of logic rules, are presented in the paper: decision (classification trees and rough sets theory algorithms. A comparative evaluation of rules obtained by these two methods, used for decision concerning application of feeders for grey iron castings, is performed. Data sets obtained as readouts form a semi-empirical nomograph of Holzmüller and Wlodawer were used for the testing. It was found that both methods lead to similar rules, which are also in agreement with the foundry practice. However, the decision trees were unable to provide some important and reliable rules, which were generated by the rough sets theory algorithm and they can also generate rules which are not supported by the training data.

M. Perzyk

2008-12-01

394

Elemental composition of dust in an iron foundry as determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the workplace of an iron foundry total and respirable suspended particulate matter was daily collected with a network of stationary filtration systems, with Andersen cascade impactors and with personal samplers. The performances of the different sampling systems are evaluated. All samples were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis. More than 30 elements were determined. The composition of the particulate samples is compared to that of the major emission sources. For visualising and interpretation of the data computer programs for contour plotting, classification and clustering of the elements can be divided in a number of groups, for which easily determined elements are proposed as indicator elements. The results allow an estimate of the impact of the major emission sources on the air quality in the entire workroom. Suggestions for representative sampling techniques and locations are made. (author) 8 refs.; 7 figs

1987-03-01

395

Virtual Factory as a Method of Foundry Design and Production Management  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper outlines the methodology of virtual design of a foundry plant as a system. The most important stage in the procedure involvesthe development of a model defined as a set of data about the system. Model development involves two stages: defining the model’sarchitecture and specifying the model data in the form of parameters and input-output relationships. The structure is understood asconfiguration of machines and transport units, representing the sub-systems and system components. As the main purpose of thesimulation procedure is to find the characteristics of the system’s behaviour, the merits of the iterative method involving analysis,synthesis and evaluation of results are fully explored.

A. Stawowy

2013-01-01

396

The effect of main alloying elements on the physical properties of Al–Si foundry alloys  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this study we describe the effect of the main alloying elements Si, Cu and Ni on the thermal properties of hypoeutectic and near-eutectic Al–Si foundry alloys. By means of systematic variations of the chemical composition, the influence of the amount of ‘second phases’ on the thermal conductivity, thermal expansion coefficient, and thermal shock resistance is evaluated. Thermodynamic calculations predicting the phase formation in multi-component Al–Si cast alloys were carried out and verified using SEM, EDX and XRD analysis. The experimentally obtained data are discussed on a systematic basis of thermodynamic calculations and compared to theoretical models for the thermal conductivity and thermal expansion of heterogeneous solids.

2013-01-10

397

The effect of main alloying elements on the physical properties of Al-Si foundry alloys  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this study we describe the effect of the main alloying elements Si, Cu and Ni on the thermal properties of hypoeutectic and near-eutectic Al-Si foundry alloys. By means of systematic variations of the chemical composition, the influence of the amount of 'second phases' on the thermal conductivity, thermal expansion coefficient, and thermal shock resistance is evaluated. Thermodynamic calculations predicting the phase formation in multi-component Al-Si cast alloys were carried out and verified using SEM, EDX and XRD analysis. The experimentally obtained data are discussed on a systematic basis of thermodynamic calculations and compared to theoretical models for the thermal conductivity and thermal expansion of heterogeneous solids.

Stadler, F. [Institute of Nonferrous Metallurgy, Montanuniversitaet Leoben, Franz-Josef-Strasse 18, A-8700 Leoben (Austria); Antrekowitsch, H., E-mail: helmut.antrekowitsch@unileoben.ac.at [Institute of Nonferrous Metallurgy, Montanuniversitaet Leoben, Franz-Josef-Strasse 18, A-8700 Leoben (Austria); Fragner, W. [AMAG Casting GmbH, Postfach 32, A-5282 Ranshofen (Austria); Kaufmann, H. [AMAG Austria Metall AG, Postfach 32, A-5282 Ranshofen (Austria); Pinatel, E.R. [Dipartimento di Chimica and NIS, Universita degli Studi di Torino, via Giuria 7/9, Torino 10125 (Italy); Uggowitzer, P.J. [Laboratory of Metal Physics and Technology, Department of Materials, ETH Zurich, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland)

2013-01-10

398

The analysis of the wax foundry models fabrication process for the CPX3000 device  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper presents possibilities of creating wax founding models by means of CPX3000 device. The device is used for Rapid Prototypingof models made of foundry wax in an incremental process. The paper also presents problems connected with choosing technologicalparameters for incremental shaping which influence the accuracy of created models. Issues connected with post-processing are alsodescribed. This process is of great importance for obtaining geometrically correct models. The analysis of parameters of cleaning models from supporting material is also presented. At present CPX3000 printer is the first used in Poland device by 3D Systems firm for creating wax models. The printer is at The Faculty of Mechanical Engineering at Rzeszów University of Technology.

G. Budzik

2011-04-01

399

Hydrometallurgical treatment of brass foundry and EAF steelmaking dusts for zinc recovery  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Pyrometallurgical treatments are commonly used to recover zinc from oxidic residues generated in metallurgical plants. This study showed how hydrometallurgy offers a more versatile ensemble of technologies to face the challenge of metal recovery from both primary and secondary sources. Solvent extraction, in particular, is a promising technology for various fields in non-ferrous metallurgy. A process was described to treat zinc oxide containing residues, such as Waelz kiln oxides and plasma smelting oxides. The process can be applied to the treatment of brass foundry dusts, and is based on leaching with concentrated ammonium chloride solution and media exchange by solvent extraction. The process can also be applied to electric arc furnace dust with some modifications. 17 refs., 10 tabs., 4 figs.

Ducati, U.; Bestetti, M. [Politechnico di Milano, Milano (Italy); Colombo, D. [Univ. di Trento, Mesiano (Italy); Nodari, L.; Belitrandi, L. [Colmetal Combiago S.p.A., Cambiago (Italy); Cagol, A. [Nordeco S.p.A., Pergine Valsugana (Italy)

1998-12-31

400

The OBO Foundry: coordinated evolution of ontologies to support biomedical data integration  

Science.gov (United States)

The value of any kind of data is greatly enhanced when it exists in a form that allows it to be integrated with other data. One approach to integration is through the annotation of multiple bodies of data using common controlled vocabularies or ‘ontologies’. Unfortunately, the very success of this approach has led to a proliferation of ontologies, which itself creates obstacles to integration. The Open Biomedical Ontologies (OBO) consortium is pursuing a strategy to overcome this problem. Existing OBO ontologies, including the Gene Ontology, are undergoing coordinated reform, and new ontologies are being created on the basis of an evolving set of shared principles governing ontology development. The result is an expanding family of ontologies designed to be interoperable and logically well formed and to incorporate accurate representations of biological reality. We describe this OBO Foundry initiative and provide guidelines for those who might wish to become involved.

Smith, Barry; Ashburner, Michael; Rosse, Cornelius; Bard, Jonathan; Bug, William; Ceusters, Werner; Goldberg, Louis J; Eilbeck, Karen; Ireland, Amelia; Mungall, Christopher J; Leontis, Neocles; Rocca-Serra, Philippe; Ruttenberg, Alan; Sansone, Susanna-Assunta; Scheuermann, Richard H; Shah, Nigam; Whetzel, Patricia L; Lewis, Suzanna

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
401

Models and Algorithms for Production Planning and Scheduling in Foundries – Current State and Development Perspectives  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mathematical programming, constraint programming and computational intelligence techniques, presented in the literature in the field of operations research and production management, are generally inadequate for planning real-life production process. These methods are in fact dedicated to solving the standard problems such as shop floor scheduling or lot-sizing, or their simple combinations such as scheduling with batching. Whereas many real-world production planning problems require the simultaneous solution of several problems (in addition to task scheduling and lot-sizing, the problems such as cutting, workforce scheduling, packing and transport issues, including the problems that are difficult to structure. The article presents examples and classification of production planning and scheduling systems in the foundry industry described in the literature, and also outlines the possible development directions of models and algorithms used in such systems.

A. Stawowy

2012-04-01

402

Exposure of iron foundry workers to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: benzo(a)pyrene-albumin adducts and 1-hydroxypyrene as biomarkers for exposure.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in foundry workers has been evaluated by determination of benzo(a)pyrene-serum albumin adducts and urinary 1-hydroxypyrene. Benzo(a)pyrene binding to albumin and 1-hydroxypyrene were quantitatively measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), respectively. 70 male foundry workers and 68 matched controls were investigated. High and low exposure groups were defined from ...

Omland, O.; Sherson, D.; Hansen, A. M.; Sigsgaard, T.; Autrup, H.; Overgaard, E.

1994-01-01

403

Compressed Air System Retrofitting Project Improves Productivity at a Foundry. Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) Metal Casting BestPractices Project Case Study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This case study highlights International Truck and Engine Corporation's optimization project on the compressed air system that serves its foundry, Indianapolis Casting Corporation. Due to the project's implementation, the system's efficiency was greatly improved, allowing the foundry to operate with less compressor capacity, which resulted in reduced energy consumption, significant maintenance savings, and more reliable production.

2002-01-01

404

Beyond barriers – A case study on driving forces for improved energy efficiency in the foundry industries in Finland, France, Germany, Italy, Poland, Spain, and Sweden  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Energy management plays an important role in the transformation of industrial energy systems towards improved energy efficiency and increased sustainability. This paper aims to study driving forces for improved energy efficiency in some European energy-intensive foundry industries. The investigation has been conducted as a multiple case study involving 65 foundries located in Finland, France, Germany, Italy, Poland, Spain, and Sweden. The most relevant perceived driving forces were found to b...

Thollander, Patrik; Backlund, Sandra; Trianni, Andrea; Cagno, Enrico

2013-01-01

405

Riser and gating system design at the USIMINAS foundry; Metodo de dimensionamento de sistema de massalotes e canais na fundicao da USIMINAS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The design stage could be considered one of the most important steps of the production in a foundry process, affecting both yield and product quality. The systematization of methodology used in riser and gate design, within the operation conditions of the USIMINAS foundry, have allowed design optimization and reduced the service time. The risk and defects was eliminated and metallic yield was increased. (author). 4 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

Camey, Maria E.F.; Alvim, Marcos R. [USIMINAS, Ipatinga, MG (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas; Azevedo, Newton D. [USIMINAS, Ipatinga, MG (Brazil)

1991-12-31

406

CMOS detectors for space applications: from R&D to operational program with large volume foundry  

Science.gov (United States)

Nowadays, CMOS image sensors are widely considered for space applications. The use of CIS (CMOS Image sensor) processes has significantly enhanced their performances such as dark current, quantum efficiency and conversion gain. However, in order to fulfil specific space mission requirements, dedicated research and development work has to be performed to address specific detector performance issues. This is especially the case for dynamic range improvement through output voltage swing optimisation, control of conversion gain and noise reduction. These issues have been addressed in a 0.35?m CIS process, based on a large volume CMOS foundry, by several joint ISAE- EADS Astrium R&D programs. These results have been applied to the development of the visible and near-infrared multi-linear imager for the SENTINEL 2 mission (LEO Earth observation mission for the Global Measurement Environment and Security program). For this high performance multi-linear device, output voltage swing improvement is achieved by process optimisation done in collaboration with foundry. Conversion gain control is also achieved for each spectral band by managing photodiode capacitance. A low noise level at sensor output is reached by the use of an architecture allowing Correlated Double Sampling readout in order to eliminate reset noise (KTC noise). KTC noise elimination reveals noisy pixels due to RTS noise. Optimisation of transistors's dimensions, taking into account conversion gain constraints, is done to minimise these noisy pixels. Additional features have been also designed: 1) Due to different integration times between spectral bands required by mission, a specific readout mode was developed in order to avoid electrical perturbations during the integration time and readout. This readout mode leads to specific power supply architecture. 2)Post processing steps can be achieved by alignment marks design allowing a very good accuracy. These alignment marks can be used for a black coating deposition between spectral bands (pixel line) in order to minimise straight light effects. In conclusion a review of design improvements and performances of the final component is performed.

Martin-Gonthier, P.; Magnan, P.; Corbiere, F.; Rolando, S.; Saint-Pe, O.; Breart de Boisanger, M.; Larnaudie, F.

2010-10-01

407

Sand’s electrical parameters vary with frequency  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents the results of two types of test in one kind of sand to obtain resistivity and permittivity values for frequency ranging from Hz to MHz. One test involved wave generation at specific frequencies and the other an impulse generator (continuous fre-quency spectrum. Tests were made for three humidity values. The results of both test revealed non-linear performance on test elec-trode surface. Such non-linearity was modelled and eliminated to give the permittivity and resistivity values in frequency domain.

Oscar Germán Duarte Velasco

2012-08-01

408

Impact to groundwater resources by landfill foundry industries waste in Tandil, Buenos Aires, Argentina. A preliminary study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In Tandil city, in Buenos Aires province, Argentina, the foundry industry is one of the most important production lines. The waste generated by these industries has historically been disposed as fill material in pit quarries and brick works of the likelihood that some of his constituents leach contacting the underground water resources. The aim of this paper is to present the preliminaries results hydrochemical and hydrodynamic study conducted in a landfill of waste foundry industries. The work is around developing a disposal site with the measurement of groundwater levels and taking water samples along an annual hydrological cycle (November 2007 - November 2008). The hydrodynamic analysis shows that the groundwater flow is from the west from a rocky area where high variance across the study area. Hydrochemistry in relation to concentrations of nitrate and electrical conductivity vary significantly upstream and downstream of the landfill. (Author) 9 refs.

2009-01-01

409

Moving Sand Dunes on Mars  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

It was recently announced that the sand dunes on Mars can move. This important result was obtained by means of the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE), the camera onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. The images, recorded three years apart, of the dunes in the Nili Patera caldera show that they move. Here we compare an image HiRISE of 2007 with an image of 1999 recorded by the Mars Global Surveyor. Therefore, with the help of Gimp, the GNU image processing software to enhan...

Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

2013-01-01

410

Biological Clogging of Sand Columns  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Increased microbial activity leads to biological clogging (or bioclogging, i.e., the pore space is clogged by microbes and saturated hydraulic conductivity of porous media decreases. A series of column experiments were carried out to study the bioclogging of sand columns. Hydraulic conductivity remained unchanged when a sterilizing agent was applied; however, it decreased when a glucose solution was applied. In most cases, bioclogging proceeded from the inlet of the solution; but, in some cases, it started from the bottom or outlet of the column. In this experiment, the reduction of hydraulic conductivity was better explained by microcolony models compared to biofilm models.

Katsutoshi Seki

2013-06-01

411

Crest line minimal model for sand dune  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In desert, complex patterns of dunes form. Under unidirectional wind, transverse rectilinear dunes or crescent shaped dunes called barchan dunes can appear, depending on the amount of sediment available. Most rectilinear transverse sand dunes are observed to fragment, for example at White Sands (New Mexico, United States of America) or Walvis Bay (Namibia). We develop a reduced complexity model to investigate the morphodynamics of sand dunes migrating over a non-erodible bed under unidirectio...

Guignier, Lucie; Valance, Alexandre; Lague, Dimitri

2013-01-01

412

Pilot Project Sand Groynes Delfland Coast:  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In October and November 2009 a pilot project has been executed at the Delfland Coast in the Netherlands, constructing three small sandy headlands called Sand Groynes. Sand Groynes are nourished from the shore in seaward direction and anticipated to redistribute in the alongshore due to the impact of waves and currents to create the sediment buffer in the upper shoreface. The results presented in this paper intend to contribute to the assessment of Sand Groynes as a commonly applied nourishmen...

Hoekstra, R.; Walstra, D. J. R.; Swinkels, C. S.

2012-01-01

413

Severe sand aspiration: a case report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We report here on a case of sand aspiration in a 32-year-old man who had been accidentally buried in the deep pile of sand for four hours. Chest radiograph showed bilateral fluffy consolidations and nodular lesions with a typical 'sand bronchogram' in both lower lung zones, and these findings were more clearly visualized on the HRCT. The patient recovered completely with conservative treatment that included mechanical ventilation and postural drainage.

Kim, Ho Kyun; Jung, Kyung Jae [School of Medicine, Catholic University of Daegu, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

2006-03-15

414

Severe sand aspiration: a case report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We report here on a case of sand aspiration in a 32-year-old man who had been accidentally buried in the deep pile of sand for four hours. Chest radiograph showed bilateral fluffy consolidations and nodular lesions with a typical 'sand bronchogram' in both lower lung zones, and these findings were more clearly visualized on the HRCT. The patient recovered completely with conservative treatment that included mechanical ventilation and postural drainage

2006-03-01

415

Influence of sanding in spectrometric chemical analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This work analyse the influence of sample preparation in X-ray fluorescence and optical emission spectrometry. Carbon steel, low alloy steel, stainless steel and manganese steel samples, prepared using circular sanding with 40, 60, 150 and 400 granulometry, were studied. This work concludes that depending upon the analytical technique and for certain chemical elements, sanding influence exists and some elements remain without definite trend, and other elements becoming independent of sanding granulometry

1993-10-04

416

Dust exposure and impairment of lung function at a small iron foundry in a rapidly developing country  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OBJECTIVES—A cross sectional prospective study was carried out among iron foundry workers (exposed) and soft drink bottling and supply company workers (unexposed) to assess their occupational exposure to ambient respiratory dust in their work environment and its effect on their lung function profile.?PARTICIPANTS—Lung function was measured in 81 exposed and 113 unexposed workers. Personal respirable dust concentrations were measured for all the exposed and the unexposed workers. I...

Gomes, J.; Lloyd, O.; Norman, N.; Pahwa, P.

2001-01-01

417

Emission of organic compounds from mould and core binders used for casting iron, aluminium and bronze in sand moulds  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Emissions from mould and core sand binders commonly used in the foundry industry have been investigated. Degradation of three different types of binders was investigated: Furfuryl alcohol (FA), phenolic urethane (PU) and resol-CO2 (RC). In each group of binders at least two different binder compositions were tested. A test method that provides uniform test conditions is described. The method can be used as general test method to analyse off gasses from binders. Moulds containing a standard size casting were produced and the amount and type of organic compounds resulting from thermal degradation of binders was monitored when cast iron, bronze and aluminium was poured in the moulds. Binder degradation was measured by collecting off gasses in a specially designed ventilation hood at a constant flow rate. Samples were taken from the ventilation system and analysed for hydrocarbons and CO content. It is shown how off gasses vary with time after pouring and shake out. Also the composition of off-gasses is analysed and shown. It is further shown how the composition of off-gasses varies between different types of binders and with varying composition of the binders as well as function of the thermal load on the moulding sand.

Tiedje, Niels Skat; Crepaz, Rudolf

2010-01-01

418

Emission of organic compounds from mould and core binders used for casting iron, aluminium and bronze in sand moulds.  

Science.gov (United States)

Emissions from mould and core sand binders commonly used in the foundry industry have been investigated. Degradation of three different types of binders was investigated: Furfuryl alcohol (FA), phenolic urethane (PU) and resol-CO2 (RC). In each group of binders, at least two different binder compositions were tested. A test method that provides uniform test conditions is described. The method can be used as a general test method to analyse off gases from binders. Moulds, containing a standard size casting, were produced and the amount and type of organic compounds, resulting from thermal degradation of binders, was monitored when cast iron, bronze and aluminium was poured in the moulds. Binder degradation was measured by collecting off gases in a specially designed ventilation hood at a constant flow rate. Samples were taken from the ventilation system and analysed for hydrocarbons and CO content. It is shown how off-gases vary with time after pouring and shake out. Also the composition of off-gases is analysed and shown. It is further shown how the composition of off-gasses varies between different types of binders and with varying composition of the binders as well as function of the thermal load on the moulding sand. PMID:20954042

Tiedje, Niels; Crepaz, Rudolf; Eggert, Torben; Bey, Niki

2010-12-01

419

Mechanism of impulse compacting of moulding sands  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A mathematicat 3D modcl or impulsc compaction process. developed in the Basic Automalion Laboratory of thc Instimtc oFProductionEngineering and Automation is prcscnted. Experimental and simulation rcscarch analysis allowcd to dctcrminc mechanism or impulsecompacting of moulding sands. Mcchanisrn and dynamics of this proccss cvaluatcd on t hc grounds of relationships p, =I(d rrprcscnringtime functions of total prcssurc in thc sand 1aytrs Pocatcd at different heights of thc compactcd sand column. Presented expcrimcntal andsimrilation scscarch provcd that dcvclopcd 3D mathematical model of impulse compaction proccss of moulding sand describes [his proccssin dctail.

T. MikuIczy?ski

2008-03-01

420

How the tar sands produce dirty coal  

...How the tar sands produce dirty coal Climate & Capitalism An ecosocialist journal Home About Ecosocialist Notebook Book Reviews Archives Articles By Subject ...MR Press MRzine Economist’s Travelogue You are here: Home / 2013 / January / 18 / How the tar sands produce dirty coal Posted on January 18, 2013 How ...the tar sands produce dirty coal Ever heard of petcoke? It’s nasty climate-destroying stuff, left over from refining tar sands bitumen. ...It’s sold as coal, but it’s cheaper and dirtier, so it helps keep coal-fired plants running and destroying our atmosphere This is ...