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1

Radial flow heat exchanger  

Science.gov (United States)

A radial flow heat exchanger (20) having a plurality of first passages (24) for transporting a first fluid (25) and a plurality of second passages (26) for transporting a second fluid (27). The first and second passages are arranged in stacked, alternating relationship, are separated from one another by relatively thin plates (30) and (32), and surround a central axis (22). The thickness of the first and second passages are selected so that the first and second fluids, respectively, are transported with laminar flow through the passages. To enhance thermal energy transfer between first and second passages, the latter are arranged so each first passage is in thermal communication with an associated second passage along substantially its entire length, and vice versa with respect to the second passages. The heat exchangers may be stacked to achieve a modular heat exchange assembly (300). Certain heat exchangers in the assembly may be designed slightly differently than other heat exchangers to address changes in fluid properties during transport through the heat exchanger, so as to enhance overall thermal effectiveness of the assembly.

Valenzuela, Javier (Hanover, NH)

2001-01-01

2

Heat exchanger with oscillating flow  

Science.gov (United States)

Various heat exchange apparatuses are described in which an oscillating flow of primary coolant is used to dissipate an incident heat flux. The oscillating flow may be imparted by a reciprocating piston, a double action twin reciprocating piston, fluidic oscillators or electromagnetic pumps. The oscillating fluid flows through at least one conduit in either an open loop or a closed loop. A secondary flow of coolant may be used to flow over the outer walls of at least one conduit to remove heat transferred from the primary coolant to the walls of the conduit.

Scotti, Stephen J. (inventor); Blosser, Max L. (inventor); Camarda, Charles J. (inventor)

1993-01-01

3

Cryogenic fluid flow instabilities in heat exchangers  

Science.gov (United States)

Analytical and experimental investigation determines the nature of oscillations and instabilities that occur in the flow of two-phase cryogenic fluids at both subcritical and supercritical pressures in heat exchangers. Test results with varying system parameters suggest certain design approaches with regard to heat exchanger geometry.

Fleming, R. B.; Staub, F. W.

1969-01-01

4

Cryogenic heat exchanger with turbulent flows  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An evaporator-type cryogenic heat exchanger is designed and built for introducing fluid-solid heat exchange phenomena to undergraduates in a practical and efficient way. The heat exchanger functions at liquid nitrogen temperature and enables cooling of N2 and He gases from room temperatures. We present first the experimental results of various parameters which characterize the heat exchanger (efficiency, number of transfer units, heat exchange coefficient, etc) as a function of the mass flow rate of the gas to be cooled. An analysis of the Nu-Re diagram is also presented. All experiments were conducted with N2 gas. The scope of this tool is readily extended to research purposes. (paper)

5

Stirling Engine With Radial Flow Heat Exchangers  

Science.gov (United States)

Conflict between thermodynamical and structural requirements resolved. In Stirling engine of new cylindrical configuration, regenerator and acceptor and rejector heat exchangers channel flow of working gas in radial direction. Isotherms in regenerator ideally concentric cylinders, and gradient of temperature across regenerator radial rather than axial. Acceptor and rejector heat exchangers located radially inward and outward of regenerator, respectively. Enables substantial increase in power of engine without corresponding increase in diameter of pressure vessel.

Vitale, N.; Yarr, George

1993-01-01

6

Counter flow heat exchanger between two fluids  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This invention concerns a counter flow heat exchanger between a primary fluid which cools down inside tubes having the general shape of an inverted J, or in any other self expanding form, a tube bundle and a secondary fluid which heats up around this tube bundle. The latter extends between a tube plate of a central area and an annular tube plate of a peripheral area. The invention described relates in particular to a steam generator in which the secondary water is heated and vaporized, and possibly superheated, by counter flow exchange with the primary fluid

7

Cryogenic Heat Exchanger with Turbulent Flows  

Science.gov (United States)

An evaporator-type cryogenic heat exchanger is designed and built for introducing fluid-solid heat exchange phenomena to undergraduates in a practical and efficient way. The heat exchanger functions at liquid nitrogen temperature and enables cooling of N[subscript 2] and He gases from room temperatures. We present first the experimental results of…

Amrit, Jay; Douay, Christelle; Dubois, Francis; Defresne, Gerard

2012-01-01

8

Buoyancy driven flow in counter flow heat exchangers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The temperature distribution, the buoyancy head and the flow rate have been studied in a counter flow heat exchanger having buoyancy driven flow on at least one side. The assumptions made for heat flux distribution are varied and the resulting effects on the flow rate and fluid temperatures are studied. A network model is used to simulate the temperature distribution and oil flow rates in an oil-filled power transformer cooled by radiators. It is found that for operating conditions normally found for mineral oil the counter flow assumptions for heat flux distribution gives approximately the same results as assuming uniform heat flux. When a more viscous oil type is used or the radiators are placed lower than normal relative to the heat generating parts, the counter flow assumptions give more reliable results.

9

Cross-flow countercurrent involute-tube heat exchangers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The value of giving an involute form to the tubes of a cross-flow countercurrent heat exchanger (tubes all identical in shape and developed length), both for heat exchange and to absorb differential expansion is demonstrated. Two applications pertaining to nuclear heat exchangers, involving steam generators, one heated by gaseous helium (superheated steam 5330C, 112 bar) and the second by liquid sodium (superheated steam 4870C, 181 bar) are discussed. The thermal power exchanged is calculated respectively for the superheater, evaporator and economizer, together with the heat transfer area, developed length of a tube, general dimensions, and pressure drop of both heat exchanger fluids

10

Simulation Studies on A Cross Flow Plate Fin Heat Exchanger  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Compact heat exchangers which were initially developed for the aerospace industries in the1940s have been considerably improved in the past few years. The main reasons for the goodperformance of compact heat exchangers are their special design which includes turbulent which inturn use high heat transfer coefficient and resists fouling, and maximum temperature driving forcebetween the hot and cold fluids. Numerous types use special enhancement techniques to achieve therequired heat transfer in smaller plot areas and, in many cases, less initial investment. One such type ofcompact heat exchanger is the Plate-fin heat exchanger. The complexity of compact heat exchangerdesign equations results from the exchangers unique ability to transfer heat between multiple processstreams and a wide array of possible flow configurations. This paper presents the performanceevaluation of cross flow plate fin heat exchanger with several different Gas-Liquid systems.Experimental results such as exchanger effectiveness, overall heat transfer coefficients were calculatedfor the flow systems of Cross flow Heat Exchangers. A steady state model for the outlet temperature ofboth the cold and hot fluid and overall heat transfer coefficient of a plate-fin cross flow heat exchangerwas developed and simulated using MATLAB, which was verified with the experiments conducted.

M. Thirumarimurugan

2008-01-01

11

Flow and heat-transfer at the intake of a radially symmetrical longitudinal flow heat exchanger  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

At the admission section of a radially symmetrical longitudinal flow heat exchanger, cross flow of the tubes occurs. The cross flow is followed by an inclined flow, which turns over to a well-balanced longitudinal flow along the tubes. At two heat exchanger models (tube pitch S? = 1.5, S? = 2.0) the velocity distribution, the pressure-drop and the heat-transfer is determined experimentally. By the variation of the boundary-conditions, the influence of the geometry, the mass flow, the tube pitch and the position of the first spacer is shown in this investigation. Finally the experimental datas are compared with results of calculations. (orig.)

12

Entropy resistance analyses of a two-stream parallel flow heat exchanger with viscous heating  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Heat exchangers are widely used in industry, and analyses and optimizations of the performance of heat exchangers are important topics. In this paper, we define the concept of entropy resistance based on the entropy generation analyses of a one-dimensional heat transfer process. With this concept, a two-stream parallel flow heat exchanger with viscous heating is analyzed and discussed. It is found that the minimization of entropy resistance always leads to the maximum heat transfer rate for the discussed two-stream parallel flow heat exchanger, while the minimizations of entropy generation rate, entropy generation numbers, and revised entropy generation number do not always. (general)

13

Measurement of flow field and local heat transfer distribution on a scraped heat exchanger crystalliser surface  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In a cylindrical scraped heat exchanger crystallizer geometry the flow field influence on the local heat transfer distribution on an evenly cooled scraped heat exchanger surface has been studied by direct measurements of the heat exchanger surface temperature and the fluid velocity field inside the crystallizer. Liquid Crystal Thermometry revealed that the local heat transfer is higher in the middle area of the scraped surface. Stereoscopic PIV measurements demonstrated that the secondary flo...

Rodriguez, Marcos; Ravelet, Florent; Delfos, Rene; Witkamp, Geert-jan

2008-01-01

14

Geothermal heat exchanger with coaxial flow of fluids  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The paper deals with a heat exchanger with coaxial flow. Two coaxial pipes of the secondary part were placed directly into a geothermal boring in such a way that geothermal water flows around the outer pipe. Starting from the energy balance of the exchanger formed in this way and the assumption of a study-state operating regime, a mathematical model was formulated. On the basis of the model, the secondary circle output temperature was determined as a function of the exchanger geometry, the co...

Peji? Dragan M.; Stojiljkovi? Dragan T.; Stojiljkovi? Staniša T.; ?urovi?-Petrovi? Maja; Miti? Nebojša

2005-01-01

15

Temperatures and Heat Flows in a Soil Enclosing a Slinky Horizontal Heat Exchanger  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Temperature changes and heat flows in soils that host “slinky”-type horizontal heat exchangers are complex, but need to be understood if robust quantification of the thermal energy available to a ground-source heat pump is to be achieved. Of particular interest is the capacity of the thermal energy content of the soil to regenerate when the heat exchangers are not operating. Analysis of specific heat flows and the specific thermal energy regime within the soil, including that captured by ...

Pavel Neuberger; Radomír Adamovský; Michaela Še?ová

2014-01-01

16

Fabrication and Analysis of Counter Flow Helical Coil Heat Exchanger  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Heat recovery is the capture of energy contained in fluids otherwise that would be lost from a facility. Heat sources may include heat pumps, chillers, steam condensate lines, hot flue gases from boiler, hot air associated with kitchen and laundry facilities, exhaust gases of the engines, power-generation equipment. Helical coil heat exchanger is one of the devices which are used for the heat recovery system. A heat exchanger is a device used to transfer heat between two or more fluids with different temperatures for various application including power plants, nuclear reactors, refrigeration & air condition system, automotive industries, heat recovery system, chemical processing and food industries. Common examples of heat exchangers in everyday use are air pre-heaters and conditioners, automobile radiators, condensers, evaporators, and coolers In present paper analysis of counter flow heat exchanger is done and then variations of various dimensionless numbers i.e. Reynolds Number, Nusselt’s Number and Dean’s number are studied.

Swapnil Ahire

2014-09-01

17

Optimization of cross flow heat exchangers for thermoelectric waste heat recovery  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Thermoelectric waste heat recovery is investigated for current thermoelectric materials with advanced heat exchangers. Numerical heat exchanger models integrated with models for Bi2Te3 thermoelectric modules are validated against experimental data from previous cross flow heat exchanger studies as well as experiments using thermoelectrics between counterflow hot water and cooling air flow channels. The models are used in optimization studies of thermoelectric waste heat recovery with air cooling in a cross flow heat exchanger. Power losses from an air fan and a fluid pump result in an optimal configuration at intermediate cooling air and hot fluid flows. Results show that heat exchangers with Bi2Te3 thermoelectrics can achieve net power densities over 40 W/l

18

Flow-induced vibration of component cooling water heat exchangers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents an evaluation of flow-induced vibration problems of component cooling water heat exchangers in one of Taipower's nuclear power stations. Specifically, it describes flow-induced vibration phenomena, tests to identify the excitation mechanisms, measurement of response characteristics, analyses to predict tube response and wear, various design alterations, and modifications of the original design. Several unique features associated with the heat exchangers are demonstrated, including energy-trapping modes, existence of tube-support-plate (TSP)-inactive modes, and fluidelastic instability of TSP-active and -inactive modes. On the basis of this evaluation, the difficulties and future research needs for the evaluation of heat exchangers are identified. 11 refs., 19 figs., 3 tabs

19

Segmented heat exchanger  

Science.gov (United States)

A segmented heat exchanger system for transferring heat energy from an exhaust fluid to a working fluid. The heat exchanger system may include a first heat exchanger for receiving incoming working fluid and the exhaust fluid. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the first heat exchanger in a parallel flow configuration. In addition, the heat exchanger system may include a second heat exchanger for receiving working fluid from the first heat exchanger and exhaust fluid from a third heat exchanger. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the second heat exchanger in a counter flow configuration. Furthermore, the heat exchanger system may include a third heat exchanger for receiving working fluid from the second heat exchanger and exhaust fluid from the first heat exchanger. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the third heat exchanger in a parallel flow configuration.

Baldwin, Darryl Dean (Lafayette, IN); Willi, Martin Leo (Dunlap, IL); Fiveland, Scott Byron (Metamara, IL); Timmons, Kristine Ann (Chillicothe, IL)

2010-12-14

20

Temperatures and Heat Flows in a Soil Enclosing a Slinky Horizontal Heat Exchanger  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Temperature changes and heat flows in soils that host “slinky”-type horizontal heat exchangers are complex, but need to be understood if robust quantification of the thermal energy available to a ground-source heat pump is to be achieved. Of particular interest is the capacity of the thermal energy content of the soil to regenerate when the heat exchangers are not operating. Analysis of specific heat flows and the specific thermal energy regime within the soil, including that captured by the heat-exchangers, has been characterised by meticulous measurements. These reveal that high concentrations of antifreeze mix in the heat-transfer fluid of the heat exchanger have an adverse impact on heat flows discharged into the soil.

Pavel Neuberger

2014-02-01

 
 
 
 
21

Applications of two-phase flow and heat transfer in compact heat exchangers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Three applications of two-phase flow and heat transfer in plate-fin heat exchangers have been studied. A dephlegmator is a heat exchanger in which reflux condensation of a vapour mixture occurs, and plate-fln versions have importance in cryogenic gas separation processes. Numerical calculations for different binary mixtures show that the number of transfer units can be expressed as a simple function of the inlet vapour state and flow rate, heat load, and channel geometry. Th...

Lintern, Andrew Charles

2008-01-01

22

Analysis of heat transfers inside counterflow plate heat exchanger augmented by an auxiliary fluid flow.  

Science.gov (United States)

Enhancement of heat transfers in counterflow plate heat exchanger due to presence of an intermediate auxiliary fluid flow is investigated. The intermediate auxiliary channel is supported by transverse conducting pins. The momentum and energy equations for the primary fluids are solved numerically and validated against a derived approximate analytical solution. A parametric study including the effect of the various plate heat exchanger, and auxiliary channel dimensionless parameters is conducted. Different enhancement performance indicators are computed. The various trends of parameters that can better enhance heat transfer rates above those for the conventional plate heat exchanger are identified. Large enhancement factors are obtained under fully developed flow conditions. The maximum enhancement factors can be increased by above 8.0- and 5.0-fold for the step and exponential distributions of the pins, respectively. Finally, counterflow plate heat exchangers with auxiliary fluid flows are recommended over the typical ones if these flows can be provided with the least cost. PMID:24719572

Khaled, A-R A

2014-01-01

23

Effect of nanoparticles on heat transfer in mini double-pipe heat exchangers in turbulent flow  

Science.gov (United States)

In this work, heat transfer of a fluid containing nanoparticles of aluminum oxide with the water volume fraction (0.1-0.3) percent has been reported. Heat transfer of the fluid containing nano water aluminum oxide with a diameter of about 20 nm in a horizontal double pipe counter flow heat exchanger under turbulent flow conditions was studied. The results showed that the heat transfer of nanofluid in comparison with the heat transfer of fluid is slightly higher than 12 percent.

Aghayari, Reza; Maddah, Heydar; Ashori, Fatemeh; Hakiminejad, Afshin; Aghili, Mehdi

2014-07-01

24

A simplified method of calculating heat flow through a two-phase heat exchanger  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A simplified method of calculating the heat flow through a heat exchanger in which one or both heat carrying media are undergoing a phase change is proposed. It is based on enthalpies of the heat carrying media rather than their temperatures. The method enables the determination of the maximum rate of heat flow provided the thermodynamic properties of both heat-carrying media are known. There will be no requirement to separately simulate each part of the system or introduce boundaries within the heat exchanger if one or both heat-carrying media undergo a phase change. The model can be used at the pre-design stage, when the parameters of the heat exchangers may not be known, i.e., to carry out an assessment of a complex energy scheme such as a steam power plant. One such application of this model is in thermal simulation exercises within the TRNSYS modeling environment

25

Heat transfer enhancement in cross-flow heat exchanger using vortex generator  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fouling is very serious problem in heat exchanger because it rapidly deteriorates the performance of heat exchanger. Cross-flow heat exchanger with vortex generators is developed, which enhance heat transfer and reduce fouling. In the present heat exchanger, shell and baffle are removed from the conventional shell-and-tube heat exchanger. The naphthalene sublimation technique is employed to measure the local heat transfer coefficients. The experiments are performed for single circular tube, staggered array tube bank and in-line array tube bank with and without vortex generators. Local and average Nusselt numbers of single tube and tube bank with vortex generator are investigated and compared to those of without vortex generator

26

Analysis of the flow structure and heat transfer in a vertical mantle heat exchanger  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The flow structure inside the inner tank and inside the mantle of a vertical mantle heat exchanger was investigated using a full-scale tank designed to facilitate flow visualisation. The flow structure and velocities in the inner tank and in the mantle were measured using a Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) system. A Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model of the vertical mantle heat exchanger was also developed for a detailed evaluation of the heat flux at the mantle wall and at the tank wall. The flow structure was evaluated for both high and low temperature incoming flows and for both initially mixed and initially stratified inner tank and mantle. The analysis of the heat transfer showed that the flow in the mantle near the inlet is mixed convection flow and that the heat transfer is dependent on the mantle inlet temperature relative to the core tank temperature at the mantle level. (C) 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Knudsen, SØren; Morrison, GL

2005-01-01

27

Thermal induced flow oscillations in heat exchangers for supercritical fluids  

Science.gov (United States)

Analytical model has been developed to predict possible unstable behavior in supercritical heat exchangers. From complete model, greatly simplified stability criterion is derived. As result of this criterion, stability of heat exchanger system can be predicted in advance.

Friedly, J. C.; Manganaro, J. L.; Krueger, P. G.

1972-01-01

28

Numerical simulation of two phase flows in heat exchangers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The author gives an overview of his research activity since 1981. He first gives a detailed presentation of properties and equations of two-phase flows in heat exchangers, and of their mathematical and numerical investigation: semi-local equations (mass conservation, momentum conservation and energy conservation), homogenized conservation equations (mass, momentum and enthalpy conservation, boundary conditions), equation closures, discretization, resolution algorithm, computational aspects and applications. Then, he reports the works performed in the field of turbulent flows, hyperbolic methods, low Mach methods, the Neptune project, and parallel computing

29

Laminar fluid flow and heat transfer in a fin-tube heat exchanger with vortex generators  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Development of heat transfer enhancement techniques for fin-tube heat exchangers has great importance in industry. In recent years, heat transfer augmentation by vortex generators has been considered for use in plate fin-tube heat exchangers. The present work describes a numerical investigation about the influence of delta winglet pairs of vortex generators on the flow structure and heat transfer of a plate fin-tube channel. The Navier-Stokes and Energy equations are solved by the finite volume method using a boundary-fitted coordinate system. The influence of vortex generators parameters such as position, angle of attack and aspect ratio were investigated. Local and global influences of vortex generators in heat transfer and flow losses were analyzed by comparison with a model using smooth fin. The results indicate great advantages of this type of geometry for application in plate fin-tube heat exchangers, in terms of large heat transfer enhancement and small pressure loss penalty. (author)

Yanagihara, J.I.; Rodriques, R. Jr. [Polytechnic School of Univ. of Sao Paolo, Sao Paolo (Brazil). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

1996-12-31

30

Heat exchanger  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The heat exchanger described is adapted to be installed between an existing domestic or commercial boiler, to remove heat from the boiler flue gases to the extent that their temperature drops below their dew point. It has its outlet port directly above its inlet port, a canopy above the inlet port to deflect corrosive condensate into a receptacle surrounding the inlet port and a plurality of heat exchange surfaces in the form of blanked-off pipes cantilevered forwards from the rear face of the heat exchanger cavity. The zig-zag upward flow of the flue gases over the pipes tends to keep them clear of deposited soot and, in any case, the pipe surfaces are rendered accessible for cleaning by detaching the front wall of the cavity.

Cairns, S.

1985-10-16

31

Heat exchange during the forced flow of hydrocarbon fuels at supercritical pressures in heated tubes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Heat transfer coefficients have been measured during the turbulent flow of hydrocarbon fuels at supercritical pressures under conditions in which no deposits occur. In this paper it is shown that a regime of impaired heat exchange can occur when the stream and wall temperature values are lower than the pseudocritical temperature of the fuel. The boundaries of this regime are established and empirical relationships are proposed for calculating the impaired and normal heat exchange

32

Experimental study on the cross flow air cooled plate heat exchanger using fin with electric pump.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Experimental study on the cross flow air cooled plate heat exchanger using fin with electric pump was performed. Two prototype plate heat exchanger were manufactured in a stack of single wave plates and double plates in parallel. Cooling air flows through the plate heat exchanger in across wise direction against internal cooling water. In this study prototype heat exchanger were tested in a laboratoryscale experiments. From test double wave plates heatexchanger shows approximately 52.50 % enhanced heat transfer performance compare to single wave plates heat exchanger . However double wave heat exchanger costs 30%additional pressure drop .

Pankaj kumar mishra

2013-03-01

33

Investigation of heat exchange at the laminar flow of liquids in the pipe  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The results of the experimental investigation of heat exchange of various liquids at the laminar flow in pipes are presented in the paper. The design formula is received. Possibilities of heat exchange intensification are shown.

Ilyin Roman Albertovich

2011-12-01

34

Study on drop pressure and flow distribution of double-tube heat exchanger  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The parallel connection channel pressure drop characters of the double-tube bundle heat exchange were experimentally investigated in this paper in order to find out how the flow of the heat exchanger is distributed and then to optimize the structure of heat exchanger according to the flow distribution. A double-tube bundle heat exchanger was built according to the similarity criteria. The experiment system was also built to test the optimization of the heat exchanger. The experiment results reveal that the calculating model is reliable and decreasing pipe space to optimize the heat exchanger is reasonable. (authors)

35

Ribbed tubed heat exchanger with multiple flow through it  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This exchanger is designed to give a reduction of the previously very high cost of manufacture and monitoring in operation. For this purpose the usual large number of small bore tubes is reduced to only 2 tubes. Three long coaxial cylindrical bodies of different diameters form an inner and an outer annular space with the media flowing through them, by their spacing. Four long bars installed on a horizontal diametral plane divide these annular spaces into an upper and a lower half each over the whole length. For example, oil enters at the left hand of the heat exchanger into the upper half of the outer annular space, passes into a reversing area at the right hand end and leaves the lower half at the left hand end. Fuel flows from the right hand end of the upper half of the inner annular space, reverses its flow direction in the second reversing area at the left hand end and leaves the lower half at the right hand end. Many radial rubs inside the annular spaces forster heat transfer. (RW)

36

Experimental study on the cross flow air cooled plate heat exchanger using fin with electric pump.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Experimental study on the cross flow air cooled plate heat exchanger using fin with electric pump was performed. Two prototype plate heat exchanger were manufactured in a stack of single wave plates and double plates in parallel. Cooling air flows through the plate heat exchanger in across wise direction against internal cooling water. In this study prototype heat exchanger were tested in a laboratoryscale experiments. From test double wave plates heatexchanger shows approximately 52.50 % enh...

Pankaj kumar mishra

2013-01-01

37

Flow length effect in heat exchangers with turbulent flow at low Prandtl number  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This work brings out the effect of energy length on the mean overall heat transfer coefficient of a heat exchanger for turbulent flow with low Prandtl number. For this purpose simple heat transfer correlations are proposed in the thermal energy length region and with these correlations the correction factors are calculated for selected special cases. The effect of flow parameters and total heat exchanger length has also been investigated. Finally comments are made regarding thermal boundary conditions and in its light the commonly used design method is assessed

38

Woven heat exchanger  

Science.gov (United States)

In a woven ceramic heat exchanger using the basic tube-in-shell design, each heat exchanger consisting of tube sheets and tube, is woven separately. Individual heat exchangers are assembled in cross-flow configuration. Each heat exchanger is woven from high temperature ceramic fiber, the warp is continuous from tube to tube sheet providing a smooth transition and unitized construction.

Piscitella, Roger R. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1987-01-01

39

Simulation Studies on A Cross Flow Plate Fin Heat Exchanger  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Compact heat exchangers which were initially developed for the aerospace industries in the1940s have been considerably improved in the past few years. The main reasons for the goodperformance of compact heat exchangers are their special design which includes turbulent which inturn use high heat transfer coefficient and resists fouling, and maximum temperature driving forcebetween the hot and cold fluids. Numerous types use special enhancement techniques to achieve therequired heat transfer in...

Thirumarimurugan, M.; Kannadasan, T.; Ramasamy, E.

2008-01-01

40

Heat transfer in tube bundles of heat exchangers with flow baffles induced forced mixing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Thermal analysis of shell-and-tube heat exchangers is being investigated through geometric modeling of the unit configuration in addition to considering the heat transfer processes taking place within the tube bundle. The governing equations that characterize the heat transfer from the shell side fluid to the tube side fluid across the heat transfer tubewalls are indicated. The equations account for the heat transfer due to molecular conduction, turbulent thermal diffusion, and forced fluid mixing among various shell side fluid channels. The analysis, though general in principle, is being applied to the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant-Intermediate Heat Exchanger, which utilizes flow baffles appropriately designed for induced forced fluid mixing in the tube bundle. The results of the analysis are presented in terms of the fluid and tube wall temperature distributions of a non-baffled and baffled tube bundle geometry. The former case yields axial flow in the main bundle region while the latter is associated with axial/cross flow in the bundle. The radial components of the axial/cross flow yield the necessary fluid mixing that results in reducing the thermal unbalance among the heat transfer to the allowable limits. The effect of flow maldistribution, present on the tube or shell sides of the heat exchangers, in altering the temperature field of tube bundles is also noted

 
 
 
 
41

Nonstationary convective heat exchange in the turbulent flow of gases and liquids in channels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The analysis and summarisation of the experimental data on nonstationary heat exchange during gas and liquid flows in tubes and noncircular channels under heating and cooling conditions by change in the flow-rate, heat release in the channel walls and flow temperature at the inlet are obtained. Summarized dependences for calculations of the heat exchange nonstationary coefficients in the channels of various form are presented. Engineering methods for calculation of real nonstationary heat processes are presented

42

Effectiveness-ntu computation with a mathematical model for cross-flow heat exchangers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Due to the wide range of design possibilities, simple manufactured, low maintenance and low cost, cross-flow heat exchangers are extensively used in the petroleum, petrochemical, air conditioning, food storage, and others industries. In this paper a mathematical model for cross-flow heat exchangers with complex flow arrangements for determining epsilon -NTU relations is presented. The model is based on the tube element approach, according to which the heat exchanger outlet temperatures are ob...

Navarro, H. A.; Cabezas-go?mez, L. C.

2007-01-01

43

The black box model of a double-tube counter-flow heat exchanger  

Science.gov (United States)

Variable working conditions of a double-tube counter-flow heat exchanger were analysed. During operation of the heat exchanger, the parameters (temperatures and mass flow rates) of both fluids at its inlet change, which leads to a change in its performance. Heat transfer effectiveness is commonly used to assess the heat exchanger performance, defined as the ratio of the actual to the maximum heat flow rate. In the present paper, the heat exchanger was considered to be a `black box', and the aim was to investigate how the inlet parameters (temperatures and mass flow rates of both fluids) affect the outlet ones (temperatures of both fluids), and thus to attempt to introduce a new relation for the heat transfer effectiveness of a counter-flow heat exchanger as a function of only inlet parameters. Following the analysis, a relation for the heat transfer effectiveness as a function of inlet parameters with five constant coefficients was obtained. These coefficients depend on the heat exchanger geometry and on the properties of the heat transfer fluids; they are not general-purpose, but specific to a counter-flow heat exchanger. The form of the proposed relation for the heat transfer effectiveness of a counter-flow heat exchanger is not satisfactory as it involves five constant coefficients; therefore, a new approach was chosen, consisting in analysing a parameter defined as the ratio of the minimum to the actual arithmetic mean temperature difference. Using the parameter defined in this way, the relation for the heat transfer effectiveness of a counter-flow heat exchanger was obtained as a function of two parameters: the ratio of the heat capacity rates of both fluids, and NTU, with no constant coefficients. The proposed relations were verified against the data produced by a simulator of a double-tube counter-flow heat exchanger.

Laskowski, Rafa?

2014-12-01

44

Heat exchanger  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This invention concerns a heat exchanger between a fluid flowing through a tube and a gas. Such an exchanger can be used, inter alia, for removing calories that cannot be used for generating electricity in a thermal or nuclear power station. This exchanger can withstand any pressure surges in the system and even the use of a high vapour pressure coolant such as ammonia, since the fluid flows in a round tube with low pressure drops (both with respect to the fluid to be cooled and the cooling air). It is rigid enough to stand up to being moved and handled as well as to gusts of wind. It is formed of units that can be handled without difficulty and that are easily dismantable and interchangeable, even in service, and it is easily maintained. The exchange area is high for a minimum frontal area and this enables the size of the supporting frame to be reduced and makes it easy to hide it behind a screen of trees should this prove necessary. Finally, it is composed of a small number of standard units thus reducing the industrial production cost. These units are rectangular plates, each one being a flat tubular coil fitted between two flat parallel sheet metal plates having on their outer sides flat top raised bosses. These units are assembled together by the tops of the bosses so as to form an exchanger bank, each bank comprising two collectors to which the bank coils are tightly connected

45

Heat exchanger  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The construction of this heat exchanger will avoid the disadvantages of the conventional constructions, which are listed in detail, in particular with regard to material and space requirements. The heat exchanger, which is especially suitable for gas-cooled reactors, consists of a number of similar elements, preferably with rectangular configurations, arranged side by side. These elements in the shape of boxes which are open top and bottom have the gaseous cooling medium flowing through them which transfers the reactor heat to the pipe coils lying at right angles to the flow direction. These elements are installed for this below the cove of the reactor in the downward current of the cooling medium. Between the sides of the vertically situated elements there are extension gaps for the absorption of heat expansion over the whole height. According to invention these extension gaps contain blocking elements on several levels and openings in the sides of the elements which create a gap. Graded pressure reduction of the first medium is achieved by means of the thus created chambers and canals over the height of the elements avoiding an otherwise necessary strengthening of the element walls. A better balance of temperature inside the elements is also brought about by means of the partial cross current of the cooling gas. (HP)

46

Flow vibrations and dynamic instability of heat exchanger tube bundles  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents a review of external-flow-induced vibration of heat exchanger tube bundles. Attention is focused on a dynamic instability, known as ''fluidelastic instability'', which can develop when flow is transverse to the tube axis. The main physical models proposed in the literature are successively reviewed in a critical way. As a consequence, some concepts are clarified, some a priori plausible misinterpretations are rejected and finally, certain basic mechanisms, induced by the flow-structure interaction and responsible for the ultimate onset of fluidelastic instability, are elucidated. Design tools and methods for predictive analysis of industrial cases are then presented. The usual design tool is the ''stability map'', i.e. an empirical correlation which must be interpreted in a conservative way. Of course, when using this approach, the designer must also consider reasonable safety margins. In the area of predictive analysis, the ''unsteady semi-analytical models'' seem to be a promising and efficient methodology. A modern implementation of these ideas mix an original experimental approach for taking fluid dynamic forces into account, together with non-classical numerical methods of mechanical vibration. (authors). 20 refs., 9 figs

47

Heat exchangers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A heat exchanging apparatus comprises an elongate chamber which is part filled with a heat transfer medium, and a pair of U-shaped pipes. The pipes are spaced from one another, but are generally mutually adjacent so that heat from a liquid flowing in one pipe can be transferred through a medium to the liquid in the other pipe. If one or other of the pipes ruptures the escaping liquid can be vented and will not intermix with the liquid in the other pipe. A level detector detects a rise in the level of the material in the chamber when a pipe ruptures and closes valves to prevent further loss of liquid. The apparatus is particularly suitable for use in the food industry or where one of the liquids is toxic or radioactive. (author)

48

Heat transfer enhancement in cross-flow heat exchangers using oval tubes and multiple delta winglets  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A three-dimensional study of laminar flow and heat transfer in a channel with built-in oval tube and delta winglets is carried out through the solution of the complete Navier-Stokes and energy equations using a body-fitted grid and a finite-volume method. The geometrical configuration represents an element of a gas-liquid fin-tube cross-flow heat exchanger. The size of such heat exchangers can be reduced through enhancement of transport coefficients on the air (gas) side, which are usually small compared to the liquid side. In a suggested strategy, oval tubes are used in place of circular tubes, and delta-winglet type vortex generators in various configuration's are mounted on the fin-surface. An evaluation of the strategy is attempted in this investigation. The investigation is carried out for different angles of attack of the winglets to the incoming flow for the case of two winglet pairs. The variation of axial location of the winglets is also considered for one pair of winglets mounted in common-flow-down configuration. The structures of the velocity field and the heat transfer characteristics have been presented. The results indicate that vortex generators in conjunction with the oval tube show definite promise for the improvement of fin-tube heat exchangers. (author)

Tiwari, S.; Maurya, D.; Biswas, G.; Eswaran, V. [Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur (India). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

2003-07-01

49

Heat exchanger  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A heat exchanger for fluids, such as liquids, steam, gases, etc. The heat exchanger has a closed container provided with an inlet and an outlet for one fluid and heat exchanging means for the other fluid provided in the container. The heat exchanging means are in connection with closed inlet and outlet sections separated from the interior of the container. The heat exchanging means comprise an element with two separate channels elongated in relation to the container interior, the channels at one end being connected to sealed inlet and outlet sections. The heat exchanging means have at the other end a reversion compartment for transferring the other fluid from one channel to the other channel. (author)

50

Heat exchanger  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A heat exchanger for fluids, such as liquids, steam, gases, etc. The heat exchanger has a closed container provided with an inlet and an outlet for one fluid and heat exchanging means for the other fluid provided in the container. The heat exchanging means are in connection with closed inlet and outlet sections separated from the interior of the container. The heat exchanging means comprise an element with two separate channels elongated in relation to the container interior, the channels at one end being connected to sealed inlet and outlet sections. The heat exchanging means have at the other end a reversion compartment for transferring the other fluid from one channel to the other channel. (author).

Grunditz, S.

1996-04-03

51

Heat transfer in intermediate heat exchanger under low flow rate conditions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present paper describes the heat transfer in intermediate heat exchangers (IHXs) of liquid metal cooled fast reactors when flow rate is low such as a natural circulation condition. Although empirical correlations of heat transfer coefficients for IHX were derived using test data at the fast reactor 'Monju' and 'Joyo' and also at the 50 MW steam generator facility, the heat transfer coefficient was very low compared to the well known correlation for liquid metals proposed by Seban-Shimazaki. The heat conduction in IHX was discussed as a possible cause of the low Nusselt number. As a result, the heat conduction is not significant under the natural circulation condition, and the heat conduction term in the energy equation can be neglected in the one-dimensional plant dynamics calculation. (authors)

52

Heat transfer in thin, compact heat exchangers with circular, rectangular, or pin-fin flow passages  

Science.gov (United States)

Heat transfer and pressure drop have been measured of three thin, compact heat exchangers in helium gas at 3.5 MPa and higher, with Reynolds numbers of 450 to 36,000. The flow geometries for the three heat exchanger specimens were: circular tube, rectangular channel, and staggered pin fin with tapered pins. The specimens were heated radiatively at heat fluxes up to 77 W/sq cm. Correlations were developed for the isothermal friction factor as a function of Reynolds number, and for the Nusselt number as a function of Reynolds number and the ratio of wall temperature to fluid temperature. The specimen with the pin fin internal geometry had significantly better heat transfer than the other specimens, but it also had higher pressure drop. For certain conditions of helium flow and heating, the temperature more than doubled from the inlet to the outlet of the specimens, producing large changes in gas velocity, density, viscosity, and thermal conductivity. These changes in properties did not affect the correlations for friction factor and Nusselt number in turbulent flow.

Olson, D. A.

1992-01-01

53

Modeling of turbulent heat transfer and thermal dispersion for flows in flat plate heat exchangers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper, heat transfer and dispersion for both laminar and turbulent regimes in heat exchangers and nuclear cores are considered. Such hydraulic systems might be seen as spatially periodic porous media. The existence of a turbulent flow within a porous medium structure suggests the use of a spatial average operator, combined to a statistical average operator. Previous works [M.H.J. Pedras, M.J.S. De Lemos, Macroscopic turbulence modeling for incompressible flow through un-deformable porous media, Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 44 (2001) 1081-1093; F. Kuwahara, A. Nakayama, H. Koyama, A numerical study of thermal dispersion in porous medium, J. Heat Transfer 118 (1996) 756-761] have applied a double average procedure to the thermal balance equation, which led to a macroscopic turbulent transport and a subsequent macro-scale equation featuring dynamic dispersion. Considering the heat flux at the solid surfaces as a boundary condition for the fluid energy balance, the model proposed in this paper allows one to take into account this dispersion as the sum of two contributions. The first one is the classical dispersion due to velocity heterogeneities [G. Taylor, Dispersion of solute matter in solvent flowing slowly through a tube, Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond. A 219 (1953) 186-203] and the second one is due to wall heat transfer. Applying Whitaker up-scaling method [S. Whitaker, Theory and. applications of transport in porous media: the method of volume averaging, Kluwer Academimethod of volume averaging, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1999], a 'closure problem' is then derived for a representative elementary volume, using the so-called Boussinesq approximation to account for small scale turbulence. The model is used to compute macro-scale heat transfer properties for turbulent flows inside a flat plate heat exchanger. It is shown that, for such flows, both dispersive fluxes strongly predominate over the macroscopic turbulent. heat flux. (authors)

54

Modeling of turbulent heat transfer and thermal dispersion for flows in flat plate heat exchangers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this paper, heat transfer and dispersion for both laminar and turbulent regimes in heat exchangers and nuclear cores are considered. Such hydraulic systems might be seen as spatially periodic porous media. The existence of a turbulent flow within a porous medium structure suggests the use of a spatial average operator, combined to a statistical average operator. Previous works [M.H.J. Pedras, M.J.S. De Lemos, Macroscopic turbulence modeling for incompressible flow through un-deformable porous media, Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 44 (2001) 1081-1093; F. Kuwahara, A. Nakayama, H. Koyama, A numerical study of thermal dispersion in porous medium, J. Heat Transfer 118 (1996) 756-761] have applied a double average procedure to the thermal balance equation, which led to a macroscopic turbulent transport and a subsequent macro-scale equation featuring dynamic dispersion. Considering the heat flux at the solid surfaces as a boundary condition for the fluid energy balance, the model proposed in this paper allows one to take into account this dispersion as the sum of two contributions. The first one is the classical dispersion due to velocity heterogeneities [G. Taylor, Dispersion of solute matter in solvent flowing slowly through a tube, Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond. A 219 (1953) 186-203] and the second one is due to wall heat transfer. Applying Whitaker up-scaling method [S. Whitaker, Theory and. applications of transport in porous media: the method of volume averaging, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1999], a 'closure problem' is then derived for a representative elementary volume, using the so-called Boussinesq approximation to account for small scale turbulence. The model is used to compute macro-scale heat transfer properties for turbulent flows inside a flat plate heat exchanger. It is shown that, for such flows, both dispersive fluxes strongly predominate over the macroscopic turbulent. heat flux. (authors)

Pinson, F.; Gregoire, O. [CEA Saclay, DEN, DM2S, SFME, F-91192 Gif Sur Yvette (France); Quintard, M.; Prat, M.; Simonin, O. [UPS, CNRS, INP, UMR, IMFT, F-31400 Toulouse (France)

2007-04-15

55

Flow boiling heat transfer of ammonia/water mixture in a plate heat exchanger  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective of this work is to contribute to the development of plate heat exchangers as desorbers for ammonia/water absorption refrigeration machines driven by waste heat or solar energy. In this study, saturated flow boiling heat transfer and the associated frictional pressure drop of ammonia/water mixture flowing in a vertical plate heat exchanger is experimentally investigated. Experimental data is presented to show the effects of heat flux between 20 and 50 kW m{sup -2}, mass flux between 70 and 140 kg m{sup -2} s{sup -1}, mean vapour quality from 0.0 to 0.22 and pressure between 7 and 15 bar, for ammonia concentration between 0.42 and 0.62. The results show that for the selected operating conditions, the boiling heat transfer coefficient is highly dependent on the mass flux, whereas the influence of heat flux and pressure are negligible mainly at higher vapour qualities. The pressure drop increases with increasing mass flux and quality. However, the pressure drop is independent of the imposed heat flux. (author)

Taboas, Francisco [Universidad de Cordoba, Campus de Rabanales, Edificio Leonardo da Vinci, 14014 Cordoba (Spain); Valles, Manel; Bourouis, Mahmoud; Coronas, Alberto [CREVER - Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Av. Paisos Catalans No. 26, 43007 Tarragona (Spain)

2010-06-15

56

Thermal design of multi-fluid mixed-mixed cross-flow heat exchangers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A fast analytical calculation method is developed for the thermal design and rating of multi-fluid mixed-mixed cross-flow heat exchangers. Temperature dependent heat capacities and heat transfer coefficients can iteratively be taken into account. They are determined at one or two special reference temperatures. Examples are given for the application of the method to the rating of special multi-fluid multi-pass shell-and-tube heat exchangers and multi-fluid cross-flow plate-fin heat exchangers. The accuracy of the method is tested against numerical calculations with good results. (orig.)

Roetzel, W. [Helmut Schmidt University, Institute of Thermodynamics, Hamburg (Germany); Luo, X. [Helmut Schmidt University, Institute of Thermodynamics, Hamburg (Germany); University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, Institute of Thermal Engineering, Shanghai (China)

2010-11-15

57

Thermal design of multi-fluid mixed-mixed cross-flow heat exchangers  

Science.gov (United States)

A fast analytical calculation method is developed for the thermal design and rating of multi-fluid mixed-mixed cross-flow heat exchangers. Temperature dependent heat capacities and heat transfer coefficients can iteratively be taken into account. They are determined at one or two special reference temperatures. Examples are given for the application of the method to the rating of special multi-fluid multi-pass shell-and-tube heat exchangers and multi-fluid cross-flow plate-fin heat exchangers. The accuracy of the method is tested against numerical calculations with good results.

Roetzel, W.; Luo, X.

2010-11-01

58

Numerical Analysis of Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow in Heat Exchangers with Emphasis on Pin Fin Technology  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

One of the most important industrial processes is heat transfer, carried out by heat exchangers in single and multiphase flow applications. Despite the existence of well-developed theoretical models for different heat transfer mechanisms, the expanding need for industrial applications requiring the design and optimization of heat exchangers, has created a solid demand for experimental work and effort. This thesis concerns the use of numerical approaches to analyze and optimize heat transfer a...

Nabati, Hamid

2012-01-01

59

The combined effects of wall longitudinal heat conduction and inlet fluid flow maldistribution in crossflow plate-fin heat exchangers  

Science.gov (United States)

An analysis of a crossflow plate-fin compact heat exchanger, accounting for the combined effect of two-dimensional longitudinal heat conduction through the exchanger wall and nonuniform inlet fluid flow distribution on both hot and cold fluid sides is carried out using a finite element method. Using the fluid flow maldistribution models, the exchanger effectiveness and its deterioration due to the combined effects of longitudinal heat conduction and flow nonuniformity are calculated for various design and operating conditions of the exchanger. It was found that the performance deteriorations are quite significant in some typical applications due to the combined effects of wall longitudinal heat conduction and inlet fluid flow nonuniformity on crossflow plate-fin heat exchanger.

Ranganayakulu, Ch.; Seetharamu, K. N.

60

Heat transfer and flow characteristics around a finned-tube bank heat exchanger in fluidized bed  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Principal heat transfer mechanisms in a fluidized bed have been classified into three categories, i.e. solid convection, gas convection and radiation. Among these mechanisms, the solid convection is a dominant mechanism in the bubbling fluidized bed. This solid convection is substantially caused by the bubble movement, thus the visualization of the void fraction distribution becomes a very useful method to understand the characteristics of the fluidized-bed heat exchanger. In this study, the heat transfer coefficient and the void fraction around the heat transfer tube with annuler fin were measured. For the quantitative measurement of the void fraction, neutron radiography and image processing technique were employed. Owing to the existence of the annuler fin, the restriction of the particle movements was put. This restriction suppressed the disturbance caused by tubes, and the influence of the tube arrangement on the flow and heat transfer characteristics could be clearly expressed.

Honda, Ryosuke [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kansai University, 3-3-35 Yamate-cho, Suita, Osaka 564-8680 (Japan); Umekawa, Hisashi [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kansai University, 3-3-35 Yamate-cho, Suita, Osaka 564-8680 (Japan)], E-mail: umekawa@kansai-uac.jp; Ozawa, Mamoru [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kansai University, 3-3-35 Yamate-cho, Suita, Osaka 564-8680 (Japan)

2009-06-21

 
 
 
 
61

New counter flow heat exchanger designed for ventilation systems in cold climates  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In cold climates, mechanical ventilation systems with highly efficient heat recovery will experience problems with condensing water from the extracted humid indoor air. If the condensed water changes to ice in the heat exchanger, the airflow rate will quickly fall due to the increasing pressure drop. Preheating the inlet air (outdoor air) to a temperature above 0 degrees C before it enters the exchanger is one solution often used to solve the problem, however, this method reduces the energy saving potential significantly. To minimize the energy cost, a more efficient way to solve the freezing problem is therefore desirable. In this paper, the construction and test measurements of a new counter flow heat exchanger designed for cold climates are presented. The developed heat exchanger is capable of continuously defrosting itself without using supplementary heating. Other advantages of the developed beat exchanger are low pressure loss, cheap materials and a simple construction. The disadvantage is that the exchanger is big compared with other heat exchangers. In this paper, the new heat exchanger's efficiency is calculated theoretically and measured experimentally. The experiment shows that the heat exchanger is capable of continuously defrosting itself at outside air temperatures well below the freezing point while still maintaining a very high efficiency. Further analysis and development of a detailed simulation model of a counter flow air-to-air heat exchanger will be described in future articles.

Kragh, Jesper; Rose, JØrgen

2007-01-01

62

Degradation of the performance of microchannel heat exchangers due to flow maldistribution  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The effect of flow maldistribution on the performance of microchannel parallel plate heat exchangers is investigated using an established single blow numerical model and cyclic steady-state regenerator experiments. It is found that as the variation of the individual channel thickness in a particular stack (heat exchanger) increases the actual performance of the heat exchanger decreases significantly, deviating from the expected nominal performance. We show that this is due to both the varying fluid flow velocities in each individual channel and the thermal cross talk between the channels transverse to the direction of the flow.

Nielsen, Kaspar Kirstein; Engelbrecht, Kurt

2012-01-01

63

Borehole Heat Exchangers: heat transfer simulation in the presence of a groundwater flow  

Science.gov (United States)

The correct design of the Borehole Heat Exchanger is crucial for the operation and the energy performance of a Ground Source Heat Pump. Most design methods and tools are based on the assumption that the ground is a solid medium where conduction is the only heat transfer mechanism. In turn in regions rich in groundwater the groundwater flow influence has to be assessed, by including the convection effects. In this paper a numerical model of a 100 m U-pipe in a saturated porous medium is presented. The model is created adopting MT3DMS coupled to MODFLOW. A Darcy flow is imposed across the medium. The typical operation of a Borehole Heat Exchanger operating both in winter and in summer is simulated for two years, under different groundwater velocities. The energy injected to and extracted from the ground is derived as a function of the Darcy velocity and compared with the purely conductive case. Temperature fields in the ground at key moments are shown and discussed. From both the energy and the aquifer temperature field points of view, the velocity ranges for respectively negligible and relevant influence of the groundwater flow are identified.

Angelotti, A.; Alberti, L.; La Licata, I.; Antelmi, M.

2014-04-01

64

Cross-flow heat exchangers for anti-freezing of liquid nitrogen  

Science.gov (United States)

Cross-flow heat exchangers are proposed and experimentally investigated as an anti-freezing scheme of liquid nitrogen. The possibility of freeze-out of liquid nitrogen is an important design issue in developing long superconducting cables, as the supply temperature of liquid nitrogen is close to its freezing temperature (63.3 K). Plate-fin heat exchangers are fabricated as typical counter-flow and newly proposed two-pass cross-flow in laboratory scale, and tested with cold helium gas at temperatures below 60 K. The experimental results show that the cross-flow heat exchanger is less vulnerable to the freeze-out condition, since the temperature distribution is basically two-dimensional. The cross-flow heat exchangers are effective in avoiding a complete clog-up of all passages and reducing the risk of freeze-out of liquid nitrogen.

Chang, Ho-Myung; Gwak, Kyung Hyun; Yang, Hyung Suk; Hwang, Si-Dole

2013-10-01

65

Analysis of a double pipe heat exchanger performance by use of porous baffles and pulsating flow  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: • A double pipe heat exchanger performance is numerically studied. • Use of porous baffles and pulsating flow to enhance heat exchanger efficiency. • The governing equations are solved by the control volume method. • The efficiency increases with the amplitude and frequency of pulsation. • The highest values of are obtained when only hot fluid is pulsating (Case3). - Abstract: A numerical investigation is carried out to analyze the effect of porous baffles and flow pulsation on a double pipe heat exchanger performance. The hot fluid flows in the inner cylinder, whereas the cold fluid circulates in the annular gap. The Darcy–Brinkman–Forchheimer model is adopted to describe the flow in the porous regions and the finite volume method is used to solve the governing equations with the appropriate boundary conditions. The effects of the amplitude and frequency of pulsation, as well as the porous baffles permeability on the flow structure and the heat exchanger efficiency are analyzed. The results reveal that the addition of an oscillating component to the mean flow affects the flow structure, and enhances the heat transfer in comparison to the steady non pulsating flow. The highest heat exchanger performance is obtained when only the flow of the hot fluid is pulsating

66

Experimental and numerical analyses of finned cross flow heat exchangers efficiency under non-uniform gas inlet flow conditions  

Science.gov (United States)

The work deals with experimental and numerical thermodynamic analyses of cross-flow finned tube heat exchangers of the gas-liquid type. The aim of the work is to determine an impact of the gas non-uniform inlet on the heat exchangers performance. The measurements have been carried out on a special testing rig and own numerical code has been used for numerical simulations. Analysis of the experimental and numerical results has shown that the range of the non-uniform air inlet to the considered heat exchangers may be significant and it can significantly affect the heat exchanger efficiency.

Bury, Tomasz; Sk?adzie?, Jan; Widziewicz, Katarzyna

2010-10-01

67

Study on heat transfer of heat exchangers in the Stirling engine - Heat transfer in a heated tube under the periodically reversing flow condition  

Science.gov (United States)

Heat transfer characteristics in heated tubes under periodically reversing flow conditions have been experimentally investigated, using a test apparatus that simulates heat exchangers for an actual Stirling engine. It is shown that the heat transfer characteristics under these conditions are greatly affected by the piston phase difference that generates the reversing flow of working fluid, and this phenomenon is peculiar to heat transfer under periodically reversing flow. The experimental correlation for the heat transfer coefficient under these conditions is obtained through the use of the working gas velocity evaluated from the Schmidt cycle model, which is one of the ideal Stirling cycles concerning the influence of the piston phase difference.

Kanzaka, Mitsuo; Iwabuchi, Makio

1992-11-01

68

Transient response of plate heat exchangers considering effect of flow maldistribution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Plate heat exchangers have been playing important role in the power and process industries in the recent past. Hence, it is important to develop simulation strategies for plate heat exchangers accurately. This analysis represents the dynamic behaviour of the single pass plate heat exchangers, considering flow maldistribution from port to channel. In addition to maldistribution the fluid axial dispersion is used to characterise the back mixing and other deviations from plug flow. Due to unequal distribution of the fluid, the velocity of the fluid varies from channel to channel and hence the heat transfer coefficient variation is also taken into consideration. Solutions to the governing equations have been obtained using the method of Laplace transform followed by numerical inversion from frequency domain. The results are presented on the effects of flow maldistribution and conventional heat exchanger parameters on the temperature transients of both U-type and Z-type configurations. It is found that the effect of flow maldistribution is significant and it deteriorates the thermal performance as well as the characteristic features of the dynamic response of the heat exchanger. In contrast to the previous studies, here the axial dispersion describes the inchannel back mixing alone, not maldistribution, which is physically more appropriate. Present method is an efficient and consistent way of describing maldistribution and back mixing effects on the transient response of plate heat exchangers using an analytical method without performing intensive computation by complete numerical simulation. (author)

Srihari, N.; Das, S.K. [Indian Institute of Technology, Madras (India). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Rao, B.P.; Sunden, B. [Lund Institute of Technology (Sweden). Dept. of Heat and Power Engineering

2005-07-01

69

The concept of a new approximate relation for heat transfer effectiveness for a cross-flow heat exchanger with unmixed fluids  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper presents an approximate relation for the heat transfer effectiveness for a counter-flow heat exchanger, which was compared with the exact solution. Based on the obtained approximate relation for a counter-flow heat exchanger the approximate heat transfer effectiveness for a cross-flow heat exchanger in which both fluids do not mix is proposed. This approximate heat transfer effectiveness was compared with the exact solution proposed by Mason, the most well-known relation. A compari...

Rafal Marcin Laskowski

2011-01-01

70

Forced convective and subcooled flow boiling heat transfer to pure water and n-heptane in an annular heat exchanger  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? The cooling performance of water and n-heptane is compared during subcooled flow boiling. ? Although n-heptane leaves the heat exchanger warmer it has a lower heat transfer coefficient. ? Flow rate, heat flux and degree of subcooling have direct effect on heat transfer coefficient. ? The predictions of some correlations are evaluated against experimental data. - Abstract: In this research, subcooled flow boiling heat transfer coefficients of pure n-heptane and distilled water at different operating conditions have been experimentally measured and compared. The heat exchanger consisted of vertical annulus which is heated from the inner cylindrical heater with variable heat flux (less than 140 kW/m2). Heat flux is varied so that two different flow regimes from single phase forced convection to nucleate boiling condition are created. Meanwhile, liquid flow rate is changed in the range of 2.5 × 10?5–5.8 × 10?5 m3/s to create laminar up to transition flow regimes. Three subcooling levels including 10, 20 and 30 °C are also considered. Experimental results demonstrated that subcooled flow boiling heat transfer coefficient increases when higher heat flux, higher liquid flow rate and greater subcooling level are applied. Furthermore, influence of the operating conditions on the bubbles generation on the heat transfer surface is also discussed. It is also shown that water is better cooling fluid in comparison with n-heptane

71

Heat exchange in transient and turbulent flow of liquid hydrocarbon of supercritical parameters in pipes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The hydrodynamic and heat exchange process are numerically simulated for transient and turbulent conditions of organic coolant flows of supercritical conditions of state in heated channels. The data are obtained on of temperature profiles, rate, tangential pressure, turbulent viscosity coefficient as well as on heat removal, hydraulic resistance, friction resistance, inertia under transient flow conditions. The calculated and experimental data on wall temperature in the domain of transient and turbulent Reynolds numbers are compared. 9 refs.; 12 figs

72

Heat exchanger  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This patent describes a method to increase the surface area of a plate or pipe used in a gas-liquid heat exchanger. 6% of the gas side is covered with strands of aluminium or any other good heat conducting material. The strands are 2mm long and have a diameter of 0.1mm. A tenfold increase in surface area is obtained by this method. (Th.P.)

73

Heat exchanger  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of the invention is to construct a heat exchanger for nuclear reactors that shows no premature heating up of the secondary coolant in the feedwater pipe. According to the invention, this can be achieved by enveloping the feedwater pipe with a shielding that is attached in the pipe plates. This is done because the feedwater pipe passes through the steam chamber to establish a fluid connection with the feedwater chamber. (orig.)

74

Heat and mass exchanger  

Science.gov (United States)

A mass and heat exchanger includes at least one first substrate with a surface for supporting a continuous flow of a liquid thereon that either absorbs, desorbs, evaporates or condenses one or more gaseous species from or to a surrounding gas; and at least one second substrate operatively associated with the first substrate. The second substrate includes a surface for supporting the continuous flow of the liquid thereon and is adapted to carry a heat exchange fluid therethrough, wherein heat transfer occurs between the liquid and the heat exchange fluid.

Lowenstein, Andrew (Princeton, NJ); Sibilia, Marc J. (Princeton, NJ); Miller, Jeffrey A. (Hopewell, NJ); Tonon, Thomas (Princeton, NJ)

2011-06-28

75

Experimental investigation of stabilization of flowing water temperature with a water-PCM heat exchanger  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Experiments have been carried out in order to investigate the stabilization of water temperature with a water-PCM heat exchanger. The water-PCM heat exchanger was of a rather simple design. It was a round tube, through which the water flowed, surrounded with an annular layer of PCM. The heat exchanger was divided into one meter long segments (modules) and the water temperature was monitored at the outlet of each of the segments. A paraffin-based PCM with the melting temperature of 42 °C was ...

Charvat Pavel; Stetina Josef; Pech Ondrej; Klimes Lubomir; Ostry Milan

2014-01-01

76

HEAT TRANSFER AND FLUID FLOW ANALYSIS IN PLATE-FIN AND TUBE HEAT EXCHANGERS WITH DIFFERENT SHAPED VORTEX GENERATORS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Numerical analyses were carried out to study the heat transfer and flow in the plate-fin and tube heat exchangers with different shaped vortex generators mounted behind the tubes. The effects of different span angles a (? = 30°, 45° and 60°) are investigated in detail for the Reynolds number ranging from 500 to 2500. Numerical simulation was performed by computational fluid dynamics of the heat transfer and fluid flow. The results indicated that the triangle shaped winglet is able to gene...

Thirumalai Kannan, K.; Senthil Kumar, B.

2012-01-01

77

Heat transfer coefficient in a shallow fluidized bed heat exchanger with a continuous flow of solid particles  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english This work shows the experimental study of a continuous gas-solid fluidized bed with an immersed tube where cold water is heated by fluidized solid particles presenting inlet temperature from 450 to 700°C. Experiments were carried out in order to verify the influence of solid particle flow rate and d [...] istance between baffles immersed in a shallow fluidized bed. The solid material was 254µm diameter silica sand particles, fluidized by air in a 0.90m long and 0.15m wide heat exchanger. The measurements were taken at steady state conditions for solid mass flow rate from 10 to 100 kg/h, in a heat exchanger with the presence of 5 or 8 baffles. Bed temperature measurements along the length of the heat exchanger were experimentally obtained and heat balances for differential control volumes of the heat exchanger were made in order to obtain the axial profile of the bed-to-tube heat transfer coefficient. The results showed that heat transfer coefficient increases with the solid particle mass flow rate and with the presence of baffles, suggesting that these are important factors to be considered in the design of such heat exchanger.

Araí A. Bernárdez, Pécora; Maria Regina, Parise.

2006-09-01

78

Heat transfer coefficient in a shallow fluidized bed heat exchanger with a continuous flow of solid particles  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This work shows the experimental study of a continuous gas-solid fluidized bed with an immersed tube where cold water is heated by fluidized solid particles presenting inlet temperature from 450 to 700degreesC. Experiments were carried out in order to verify the influence of solid particle flow rate and distance between baffles immersed in a shallow fluidized bed. The solid material was 254µm diameter silica sand particles, fluidized by air in a 0.90m long and 0.15m wide heat exchanger. The measurements were taken at steady state conditions for solid mass flow rate from 10 to 100 kg/h, in a heat exchanger with the presence of 5 or 8 baffles. Bed temperature measurements along the length of the heat exchanger were experimentally obtained and heat balances for differential control volumes of the heat exchanger were made in order to obtain the axial profile of the bed-to-tube heat transfer coefficient. The results showed that heat transfer coefficient increases with the solid particle mass flow rate and with the presence of baffles, suggesting that these are important factors to be considered in the design of such heat exchanger.

Pécora Araí A. Bernárdez

2006-01-01

79

Experimental investigation of stabilization of flowing water temperature with a water-PCM heat exchanger  

Science.gov (United States)

Experiments have been carried out in order to investigate the stabilization of water temperature with a water-PCM heat exchanger. The water-PCM heat exchanger was of a rather simple design. It was a round tube, through which the water flowed, surrounded with an annular layer of PCM. The heat exchanger was divided into one meter long segments (modules) and the water temperature was monitored at the outlet of each of the segments. A paraffin-based PCM with the melting temperature of 42 °C was used in the experiments. The experimental set-up consisted of two water reservoirs kept at different temperatures, the water-PCM heat exchanger, PC controlled valves and a data acquisition system. As the first step a response to a step change in the water temperature at the inlet of the heat exchanger was investigated. Subsequently, a series of experiments with a square wave change of temperature at the inlet of the exchanger were carried out. The square wave temperature profile was achieved by periodic switching between the two water reservoirs. Several amplitudes and periods of temperature square wave were used. The results of experiments show that a water-PCM heat exchanger can effectively be used to stabilize the flowing water temperature when the inlet temperature changes are around the melting range of the PCM.

Charvat, Pavel; Stetina, Josef; Pech, Ondrej; Klimes, Lubomir; Ostry, Milan

2014-03-01

80

Analysis of flow boiling of ammonia and R-114 in a matrix heat exchanger  

Science.gov (United States)

An analysis is carried out for flow boiling in a vertical matrix aluminum heat exchanger. The prediction model, developed for thin film evaporation in a previous study, is extended to include heat transfer in the slug-flow regime that exists at low mass qualities. Appropriate criteria is used to switch from slug-flow to thin-film annular-flow analysis. The two-phase-flow convective heat transfer enhancement for the slug-flow is correlated with inclusion of fluid Reynolds and Prandtl numbers in addition to commonly used Martinelli parameter. This approach reflects transient nature of heat transfer in the slug-flow regime. The thin-film annular-flow analysis developed in the previous study is refined with inclusion of a reliable two-phase friction factor correlation. The experimentally measured pressure drop is used to validate the friction factor correlation. The resulting prediction method is used to predict exit mass qualities for ammonia and R-114. The experimental analysis includes flow boiling of ammonia and R-114 in a vertical brazed-aluminum matrix heat exchanger. The test unit has straight perforated fins on the fluid side and extruded rectangular channels on the single-phase (water) heating-media side. Only two parameters are adjusted to validate the analytical prediction method, the constant in the friction factor correlation, and the constant in the slug-flow heat transfer correlation. The results show that the combination of slug-flow and thin-film annular-flow model gives better prediction of the overall performance of the matrix heat exchanger than a single model applied for the whole range of mass qualities.

Panchal, C. B.

1989-05-01

 
 
 
 
81

Development of a compact laminar flow heat exchanger with stainless steel micro-tubes  

Science.gov (United States)

The present paper describes the design concept and manufacturing of a new compact laminar flow heat exchanger with stainless-steel micro-tubes for helium refrigerators. In the temperature range of less than 20 K, aluminum plate fin type heat exchangers exhibit a remarkable fall of performance characteristics as a compact heat exchanger. We presented in a previous paper that some compact heat exchangers with good performance in the temperature range of less than 4 K are required for a subcooled He II refrigerator cycle to be worked with 3He turbo-compressors (F. Doty, et al., A new look at the closed brayton cycle, Proceedings, IECEC-90 Reno, NV, 1991, p. 116). For this requirement, we developed a micro-tube strip counter flow type heat exchanger, which consists of 12 elements with a total of 4800 stainless steel micro-tubes. Each element is formed with 400 tubes and a newly developed vacuum brazing method was applied for the bonding to the side plate. Each tube has an inner diameter of 0.5 mm, an outer diameter of 0.7 mm and is 310 mm long. We developed a cladding plate with two layers of gold brazing sheet sandwiched inside. In aerodynamic and thermal design of the element, the laminar flow conditions were adopted for the flows of inner and outer tubes to keep a high heat transfer rate and a low pressure loss.

Saji, N.; Nagai, S.; Tsuchiya, K.; Asakura, H.; Obata, M.

2001-05-01

82

Flow distribution analysis in nuclear heat exchangers with application to CRBRP-IHX  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The shell side flow distribution of a shell-and-tube heat exchanger, in which the shell side fluid moves downwards in an axial/cross flow combination dictated by the design of the flow baffles, is examined. Depending on the degree of overlapping and perforation of the baffles, the magnitude of the cross flow component can be controlled in a manner compatible with the unit design. Axial/cross flow field would yield a relatively small pressure drop on the shell side, and in the meantime it creates sufficient fluid mixing to minimize any thermal unbalance among the heat transfer tubes. Such requirements are essential in the design of nuclear heat exchangers similar to the CRBRP-IHX. The present flow distribution analysis utilizes two models: The lumped model and the detailed model. The lumped model employs an overall flow distribution and pressure drop approach to determine the magnitudes of the axial and cross flow components as a function of the baffle overlapping and baffle perforation. The detailed model utilizes more of a fundamental approach in solving the governing equations for the conservation of mass and momentum of a turbulent flowing fluid in a nodal mesh. The mesh incorporates distributed resistances resulting from the presence of the heat transfer tubes and the flow baffles in the tube bundle. The model employs a modified version of the computer code VARR II tailored specifically to the analysis of the shell side flow of heat exchangers. The results of bothow of heat exchangers. The results of both models are indicated and compared with emphasis on demonstrating the influence of the baffle overlapping and baffle perforation on the flow field and the pressure distribution

83

Two-phase gas-liquid flow characteristics inside a plate heat exchanger  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the present study, the air-water two-phase flow characteristics including flow pattern and pressure drop inside a plate heat exchanger are experimentally investigated. A plate heat exchanger with single pass under the condition of counter flow is operated for the experiment. Three stainless steel commercial plates with a corrugated sinusoidal shape of unsymmetrical chevron angles of 55 and 10 are utilized for the pressure drop measurement. A transparent plate having the same configuration as the stainless steel plates is cast and used as a cover plate in order to observe the flow pattern inside the plate heat exchanger. The air-water mixture flow which is used as a cold stream is tested in vertical downward and upward flow. The results from the present experiment show that the annular-liquid bridge flow pattern appeared in both upward and downward flows. However, the bubbly flow pattern and the slug flow pattern are only found in upward flow and downward flow, respectively. The variation of the water and air velocity has a significant effect on the two-phase pressure drop. Based on the present data, a two-phase multiplier correlation is proposed for practical application. (author)

Nilpueng, Kitti [Department of Mechanical Engineering, South East Asia University, Bangkok 10160 (Thailand); Wongwises, Somchai [Fluid Mechanics, Thermal Engineering and Multiphase Flow Research Lab (FUTURE), Department of Mechanical Engineering, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, Bangmod, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand)

2010-11-15

84

Heat Exchanger  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A liquid metal heated tube and shell heat exchanger where straight tubes extend between upper and lower tube sheets. In order to prevent thermal stress problems, one tube sheet is fixed to the shell, and the other tube sheet is sealed to the shell by means of a flexible bellows. In the event of a catastrophic bellows failure, a housing that utilizes a packing gland sliding seal is used to enclose and back-up the bellows. Also, a key and slot arrangement is provided for preventing relative rotation between the shell and tube sheet which could damage the bellows and cause failure thereof. This exchanger is seen to be of use in sodium cooled reactors between the liquid sodium circuit on the steam generator

85

Heat exchanger  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A heat exchanger such as forms, for example, part of a power steam boiler is made up of a number of tubes that may be arranged in many different ways, and it is necessary that the tubes be properly supported. The means by which the tubes are secured must be as simple as possible so as to facilitate construction and must be able to continue to function effectively under the varying operating conditions to which the heat exchanger is subject. The arrangement described is designed to meet these requirements, in an improved way. The tubes are secured to a member extending past several tubes and abutment means are provided. At least some of the abutment means comprise two abutment pieces and a wedge secured to the supporting member, that acts on these pieces to maintain the engagement. (U.K.)

86

Dynamic model of counter flow air to air heat exchanger for comfort ventilation with condensation and frost formation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In cold climates heat recovery in the ventilation system is essential to reduce heating energy demand. Condensation and freezing occur often in efficient heat exchangers used in cold climates. To develop efficient heat exchangers and defrosting strategies for cold climates, heat and mass transfer must be calculated under conditions with condensation and freezing. This article presents a dynamic model of a counter flow air to air heat exchanger taking into account condensation and freezing and...

Nielsen, Toke Rammer; Rose, Jørgen; Kragh, Jesper

2007-01-01

87

Plate-fin heat exchanger performance reduction in special two-phase flow conditions  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper discusses the occurrence of various flow patterns of a cold, upflowing two-phase stream in an aluminium plate-fin heat exchanger (PFHE) and their impact on the overall heat exchanger performance. Various flow patterns were observed in a flow visualization rig comprising a single PFHE passage. At high gas mass fluxes both phases flow uniformly upwards. When decreasing the gas flow, a reversing slug flow becomes more and more pronounced. In this flow pattern fluid particles of significantly different temperatures can mix within the same passage. If the number of transfer units (NTU) is high, the effective temperature difference against a hot stream of the exchanger decreases. At very low gas mass fluxes a sudden static instability with liquid logging was observed. The liquid zones thus appearing can cover and thus deactivate large portions of the heating area. In PFHE design both phenomena should be taken into account, particularly for exchangers with low mean temperature differences and heated multicomponent streams with large boiling ranges.

Müller-Menzel, T.; Hecht, T.

88

Improvements in heat exchangers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The invention concerns improvements for heat exchangers for e.g. reactor-cooling systems using liquid sodium and water as primary and secondary coolants. The construction is designed so as to base the fluid flow of the sodium on natural convection where stagnation of the sodium flow and corrosion by impurities at the bottom of the heat exchanger are avoided. In addition, a fast leakage-warning system is possible in this construction

89

Air side flow analysis of fin-tube heat exchanger with vortex generator  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fin-tube heat exchangers are widely used in refrigeration systems. To improve the performance of fin-tube heat exchangers, the shape of plain fin was developed in slit fin and louver fin. These pins have higher heat transfer performance as well as larger pressure drop. Recent studies of a Delta Winglet Vortex Generator (DWVG) show less heat transfer capacity than louver fin. However, the DWVG has very small pressure drop. This paper compares the performance for the plain fin and DWVG fin in terms of flow characteristics and heat transfer based on CFD analyses. The DWVG generates vortex and delayed flow separation and leads to a reduction of a wake region behind a tube. The results show that the DWVG produces improved heat transfer and reduced pressure drop compared to a plain fin. This result is opposite to the Reynolds analogy.

90

Microscale Regenerative Heat Exchanger  

Science.gov (United States)

The device described herein is designed primarily for use as a regenerative heat exchanger in a miniature Stirling engine or Stirling-cycle heat pump. A regenerative heat exchanger (sometimes called, simply, a "regenerator" in the Stirling-engine art) is basically a thermal capacitor: Its role in the Stirling cycle is to alternately accept heat from, then deliver heat to, an oscillating flow of a working fluid between compression and expansion volumes, without introducing an excessive pressure drop. These volumes are at different temperatures, and conduction of heat between these volumes is undesirable because it reduces the energy-conversion efficiency of the Stirling cycle.

Moran, Matthew E.; Stelter, Stephan; Stelter, Manfred

2006-01-01

91

Corrosive resistant heat exchanger  

Science.gov (United States)

A corrosive and errosive resistant heat exchanger which recovers heat from a contaminated heat stream. The heat exchanger utilizes a boundary layer of innocuous gas, which is continuously replenished, to protect the heat exchanger surface from the hot contaminated gas. The innocuous gas is conveyed through ducts or perforations in the heat exchanger wall. Heat from the heat stream is transferred by radiation to the heat exchanger wall. Heat is removed from the outer heat exchanger wall by a heat recovery medium.

Richlen, Scott L. (Annandale, VA)

1989-01-01

92

Flow and heat transfer characteristics of indirect dry cooling system with horizontal heat exchanger A-frames at ambient winds  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ambient winds are key issues in the operation of indirect dry cooling system in power plants, so it is of use to make clear the thermo-hydraulic performances of indirect dry cooling system at ambient winds. On the basis of two indirect dry cooling systems with horizontally arranged heat exchanger bundles in the patterns of radial and rectangular A-frames, the computational models of air-side flow and heat transfer coupled with the performances of the circulating water and exhaust steam are developed. The velocity, pressure and temperature fields of cooling air in the absence and presence of winds are presented and the average mass flow rate of cooling air, inlet air temperature as well as the heat rejection for the A-frames of each cooling sector of the air-cooled heat exchanger are calculated, by which the outlet water temperature of heat exchanger and the back pressure of turbine are obtained. The results show that the wind effects on the thermo-hydraulic performances of indirect dry cooling system differ completely from those with vertically arranged air-cooled heat exchanger outside. The velocity and temperature fields present central symmetric characteristics for the heat exchanger in the radial pattern, however, the differences are observed for the heat exchanger A-frames in the rectangular pattern. The thermo-hydraulic performances of the upwind A-frames are most deteriorated by the adverse impacts of ambient winds, but they are improved for the downwind ones, just similar to those of direct dry cooling system. As the wind speed increases, the mass flow rate and heat rejection of the downwind A-frames increase, but they are reduced for the upwind ones. The outlet water temperature of the heat exchanger and back pressure of turbine increase with increasing wind speed. The investigation of wind effects on the flow and heat transfer characteristics of indirect dry cooling system with horizontal heat exchanger A-frames is of benefit to the design and operation of air-cooled heat exchangers and cooling towers. (authors)

93

Intermediate heat exchanger tube vibration induced by cross and parallel mixed flow  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The characteristics of pool type LMFBR intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) tube vibrations induced by cross and parallel mixed flow were basically investigated. Secondary coolant in IHX tube bundle is mixed flow of parallel jit flow along the tube axis through flow holes in baffle plates and cross flow. By changing these two flow rate, flow distributions vary in the tube bundle. Mixed flow also induces vibrations which cause fretting wear and fatigue of tube. It is therefore very important to evaluate the tube vibration characteristics for estimating the tube integrity. The results show that the relationships between tube vibrations and flow distributions in the tube bundle were cleared, and mixed flow induced tube vibration could be evaluated on the base of the characteristics of both parallel and cross flow induced vibration. From these investigations it could be concluded that the characteristics of tube vibration for various flow distributions can be systematically evaluated. (author)

94

Effectiveness-ntu computation with a mathematical model for cross-flow heat exchangers  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Due to the wide range of design possibilities, simple manufactured, low maintenance and low cost, cross-flow heat exchangers are extensively used in the petroleum, petrochemical, air conditioning, food storage, and others industries. In this paper a mathematical model for cross-flow heat exchangers [...] with complex flow arrangements for determining epsilon -NTU relations is presented. The model is based on the tube element approach, according to which the heat exchanger outlet temperatures are obtained by discretizing the coil along the tube fluid path. In each cross section of the element, tube-side fluid temperature is assumed to be constant because the heat capacity rate ratio C*=Cmin/Cmax tends toward zero in the element. Thus temperature is controlled by effectiveness of a local element corresponding to an evaporator or a condenser-type element. The model is validated through comparison with theoretical algebraic relations for single-pass cross-flow arrangements with one or more rows. Very small relative errors are obtained showing the accuracy of the present model. epsilon -NTU curves for several complex circuit arrangements are presented. The model developed represents a useful research tool for theoretical and experimental studies on heat exchangers performance.

H. A., Navarro; L. C., Cabezas-Gómez.

2007-12-01

95

Analysis of loss-of-flow transients in the intermediate heat exchanger using the COMMIX code  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) is an important component of the liquid-metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR). It plays a very important role in the safe and reliable operation of a nuclear plant. Evaluation of thermal-hydraulic conditions are important in the design and development of a reliable and economical heat exchanger. These evaluations would provide complete maps of the temperature field of both the working fluids and the heat transfer tube. The maps are used for a large range of operating conditions, including nominal as well as off-nominal. Knowledge of temperature and flow distribution in both the shell and the tube side will ensure that the unit will meet its thermal performance requirements. Moreover, information is needed to provide proper evaluation of the thermal performance characteristics of a heat exchanger under the natural circulation conditions that result from a loss of coolant. The flow pattern and the thermal map of a shell-and-tube heat exchanger may be obtained either through actual testing of a scale model or by using analytical methods. To provide these evaluations multidimensional thermal-hydraulic codes are assessed for heat exchanger applications. The purpose of this paper is to present the thermal performance evaluation of the IHX of the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) during a loss-of-coolant transient using the COMMIX-1B code and to compare the results with experimental data

96

Calculation of temperature field and flow field in 200 MW NHR's primary heat exchanger  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Primary Heat Exchanger (PHE) is a key component of the Nuclear Heating Reactor (NHR), which transfers heat from the primary circuit to the secondary circuit. The temperature field and the flow field in the PHE are very important for the PHE design. the flow field and the temperature field were analyzed numerically. The U-tubes are first divided into 4 regions in a planar network. The calcination can be divided into two parts, calculating the temperature field with a given flow field and calculating the flow field with a given temperature field. The temperature field is calculated using the energy balance equation. The flow field is calculated using pressure drop balance equations. Newton iteration is used to solve the non-linear equations. The results describe the thermal power distribution and the heat transfer coefficient

97

Study of flow distribution and its improvement on the header of plate-fin heat exchanger  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to enhance the uniformity of flow distribution, an improved header configuration of plate-fin heat exchanger is put forward in this paper. Based on the analysis of the fluid flow maldistribution for the conventional header used in industry, a baffle with small holes of three different kinds of diameters is recommended to install in the header. The flow maldistribution parameter S is obtained under different header configuration. When the baffle is properly installed with an optimum length, with stagger arranged and suitably distributed holes from axial line to baffle boundary, the ratio of the maximum flow velocity to the minimum flow velocity drops from 3.44-3.04 to 1.57-1.68 for various Reynolds numbers. The numerical results indicate that the improved header configuration can effectively improve the performance. The conclusion of this paper is of great significance in the improvement of plate-fin heat exchanger.

Wen, Jian; Li, Yanzhong

2004-11-01

98

Numerical simulation of two phase flows in heat exchangers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report presents globally the works done by the author in the thermohydraulic applied to nuclear reactors flows. It presents the studies done to the numerical simulation of the two phase flows in the steam generators and a finite element method to compute these flows. (author)

99

Dynamic model of counter flow air to air heat exchanger for comfort ventilation with condensation and frost formation  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In cold climates heat recovery in the ventilation system is essential to reduce heating energy demand. Condensation and freezing occur often in efficient heat exchangers used in cold climates. To develop efficient heat exchangers and defrosting strategies for cold climates, heat and mass transfer must be calculated under conditions with condensation and freezing. This article presents a dynamic model of a counter flow air to air heat exchanger taking into account condensation and freezing and melting of ice. The model is implemented in Simulink and results are compared to measurements on a prototype heat exchanger for cold climates.

Nielsen, Toke Ramme; Rose, JØrgen

2009-01-01

100

Turbulent temperature profiles and heat exchange law in single-phase flow in pipes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Some continuous relationships are presented for the description of velocity and temperature laws of the wall in a turbulent fluid flow together with a new formula for the calculation of heat exchange of a single-phase fluid in pipes. From the laws of the wall structural characteristics of turbulent flow can be derived: the profiles of turbulent viscosity and Reynolds shear stress, the turbulent conductivity and turbulent heat flux density, and the turbulent Prandtl number over the whole pipe radius. The universal heat transfer correlations which is deduced from the logarithmic descriptions of the velocity and temperature profiles is valid for Prandtl numbers exceeding 0.7. (orig.)

 
 
 
 
101

Experimental study on corrugated cross-flow air-cooled plate heat exchangers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Experimental study on cross-flow air-cooled plate heat exchangers (PHEs) was performed. The two prototype PHEs were manufactured in a stack of single-wave plates and double-wave plates in parallel. Cooling air flows through the PHEs in a crosswise direction against internal cooling water. The heat exchanger aims to substitute open-loop cooling towers with closed-loop water circulation, which guarantees cleanliness and compactness. In this study, the prototype PHEs were tested in a laboratory scale experiments. From the tests, double-wave PHE shows approximately 50% enhanced heat transfer performance compared to single-wave PHE. However, double-wave PHE costs 30% additional pressure drop. For commercialization, a wide channel design for air flow would be essential for reliable performance. (author)

Kim, Minsung; Baik, Young-Jin; Park, Seong-Ryong; Ra, Ho-Sang [Solar Thermal and Geothermal Research Center, Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon 305-343 (Korea); Lim, Hyug [Research and Development Center, LHE Co., Ltd., Gimhae 621-874 (Korea)

2010-11-15

102

HEAT TRANSFER AND FLUID FLOW ANALYSIS IN PLATE-FIN AND TUBE HEAT EXCHANGERS WITH DIFFERENT SHAPED VORTEX GENERATORS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Numerical analyses were carried out to study the heat transfer and flow in the plate-fin and tube heat exchangers with different shaped vortex generators mounted behind the tubes. The effects of different span angles a (? = 30°, 45° and 60° are investigated in detail for the Reynolds number ranging from 500 to 2500. Numerical simulation was performed by computational fluid dynamics of the heat transfer and fluid flow. The results indicated that the triangle shaped winglet is able to generate longitudinal vortices and improve the heat transfer performance in the wake regions. The case of ? = 45° provides the best heat transfer augmentation than rectangle shape winglet generator in case of inline tubes. Common flow up configuration causes significant separation delay, reduces form drag, and removes the zone of poor heat transfer from the near wake of the tubes.

K.Thirumalai kannan

2012-03-01

103

The influence of flow maldistribution on the performance of inhomogeneous parallel plate heat exchangers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The heat transfer performance of inhomogeneous parallel plate heat exchangers in transient operation is investigated using an established model. A performance parameter, denoted the Nusselt-scaling factor, is used as benchmark and calculated using a well-established single blow technique. A sample of 50 random stacks having equal average channel thicknesses with 20 channels each are used to provide a statistical base. The standard deviation of the stacks is varied as are the flow rate (Reynol...

Nielsen, Kaspar Kirstein; Engelbrecht, Kurt; Bahl, Christian

2013-01-01

104

Theoretical and experimental investigation of wickless heat pipes flat plate solar collector with cross flow heat exchanger  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this work, a wickless heat pipes flat plate solar collector with a cross flow heat exchanger was investigated theoretically and experimentally under the meteorological conditions of Cairo, Egypt. The author's earlier simulation program of wickless heat pipes flat plate solar water heaters was modified to be valid for the present type of wickless heat pipes solar collector by including the solution of the dimensionless governing equations of the present analysis. For verifying the modified simulation program, a wickless heat pipes flat plate solar collector with a cross flow heat exchanger was designed, constructed, and tested at different meteorological conditions and operating parameters. These parameters include different cooling water mass flow rates and different inlet cooling water temperatures. The comparison between the experimental results and their corresponding simulated ones showed considerable agreement. Under different climatic conditions, the experimental and theoretical results showed that the optimal mass flow rate is very close to the ASHRAE standard mass flow rate for testing conventional flat plate solar collectors. Also, the experimental and theoretical results indicated that the number of wickless heat pipes has a significant effect on the collector efficiency

105

Non-newtonian flow and pressure drop of pineapple juice in a plate heat exchanger  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The study of non-Newtonian flow in plate heat exchangers (PHEs) is of great importance for the food industry. The objective of this work was to study the pressure drop of pineapple juice in a PHE with 50º chevron plates. Density and flow properties of pineapple juice were determined and correlated w [...] ith temperature (17.4

R. A. F., Cabral; J. A. W., Gut; V. R. N., Telis; J., Telis-Romero.

2010-12-01

106

PIV experimental investigation of entrance configuration on flow maldistribution in plate-fin heat exchanger  

Science.gov (United States)

Flow characteristics of flow field in the entrance of plate-fin heat exchanger have been investigated by means of particle image velocimetry (PIV). The velocity fields were measured using the two-frame cross-correlation technique. A series of velocity vector and streamline graphs of different cross-sections are achieved in the experiment. The experimental results indicate that performance of fluid maldistribution in conventional entrance configuration is very serious, while the improved entrance configuration with punched baffle can effectively improve the performance of fluid flow distribution in the entrance. Based on the analysis of the fluid flow maldistribution, a baffle with small holes is recommended to install in the entrance configuration in order to improve the performance of flow distribution. When the punched baffle is proper in length, the small holes is distributed in staggered arrangement, and the punched ratio gradually increases from central axis to the boundary along with the baffle length, the performance of flow distribution in plate-fin heat exchanger is effectively improved by the optimum design of the entrance configuration. The flow maldistribution parameter S in plate-fin heat exchanger has been reduced from 1.21 to 0.209 and the ratio of the maximum velocity to the minimum ? is reduced from 23.2 to 1.76 by installing the punched baffle. The results validate that PIV is well suitable to investigate complex flow pattern and the conclusion of this paper is of great significance in the optimum design of plate-fin heat exchanger.

Wen, Jian; Li, Yanzhong; Zhou, Aimin; Zhang, Ke; Wang, Jiang

2006-01-01

107

INTENSIFICATION OF HEAT TRANSFER AND FLOW IN HEAT EXCHANGER WITH SHELL AND HELICALLY COILED TUBE BY USING NANO FLUIDS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article presents an experimental study on enhancement of heat transfer and pressure drop of nanofluids flow. In this study the method using to enhancement of heat transfer and pressure drop, by used the helically coiled tube heat exchange and the nanofluids instead of the base fluid (oil. The concentrations of nanofluid used are ranging from (5 – 30 wt%. The shell of the heat exchanger is constant wall temperature (CWT . Two types of nanoparticles used in this paper silver (Ag (30nm and Titanium Oxide (TiO2 (50nm as well as the base fluid (oil. The effect of different parameters such as flow Reynolds number, nanofluid temperature, concentration and type of nanoparticle on heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop of the flow are studied at constant wall temperature. The obtained results show an increase in heat transfer coefficient of 45.35% for Ag + oil and 32.29% for TiO2 + oil at concentration of 30 wt % compared with base fluid (oil. The heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop is increased by using nanofluids (Ag, TiO2 – oil instead of the base fluid (oil. In addition the results indicated that by using heat exchanger with shell and helically coiled tube, the heat transfer performance is improved as well as the pressure drop enhancement due to the curvature of the tube. Furthermore, a maximum increase of 34.15% (Ag + Oil and 27.23% (TiO2+ Oil in Nusselt number ratio for a range of Reynolds numbers between 20 and 200. This paper decided that the nanofluid behaviors are close to typical Newtonian fluids through the relationship between viscosity and shear rate. Moreover to performance index are used to present the corresponding flow and heat transfer technique. The type and size nanoparticles play an important role in enhancement of heat transfer rate

Dr. Khalid Faisal Sultan

2015-01-01

108

The Design of Heat Exchangers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A relation between heat transferred and energy loss, for turbulent flow. In different tube arrangements, is made. The conditions are determined which decide the dimensions and velocities for a heat exchanger. Also, a reference to the economic dimensioning of heat exchangers is presented. In this study, the conditions which a heat exchanger must satisfy represent the best balance between the amounts of material employed. The investigation is restricted to the case of turbulent flow.

Arturo Reyes-León

2011-09-01

109

The Design of Heat Exchangers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A relation between heat transferred and energy loss, for turbulent flow. In different tube arrangements, is made. The conditions are determined which decide the dimensions and velocities for a heat exchanger. Also, a reference to the economic dimensioning of heat exchangers is presented. In this study, the conditions which a heat exchanger must satisfy represent the best balance between the amounts of material employed. The investigation is restricted to the case of turbulent flow.

Arturo Reyes-León; Miguel Toledo Velázquez; Pedro Quinto-Diez; Florencio Sánchez-Silva; Juan Abugaber-Francis; Celerino Reséndiz-Rosas

2011-01-01

110

Additions to compact heat exchanger technology: Jet impingement cooling & flow & heat transfer in metal foam-fins  

Science.gov (United States)

Compact heat exchangers have been designed following the same basic methodology for over fifty years. However, with the present emphasis on energy efficiency and light weight of prime movers there is increasing demand for completely new heat exchangers. Moreover, new materials and mesoscale fabrication technologies offer the possibility of significantly improving heat exchanger performance over conventional designs. This work involves fundamental flow and heat transfer experimentation to explore two new heat exchange systems: in Part I, large arrays of impinging jets with local extraction and in Part II, metal foams used as fins. Jet impingement cooling is widely used in applications ranging from paper manufacturing to the cooling of gas turbine blades because of the very high local heat transfer coefficients that are possible. While the use of single jet impingement results in non-uniform cooling, increased and more uniform mean heat transfer coefficients may be attained by dividing the total cooling flow among an array of smaller jets. Unfortunately, when the spent fluid from the array's central jets interact with the outer jets, the overall mean heat transfer coefficient is reduced. This problem can be alleviated by locally extracting the spent fluid before it is able to interact with the surrounding jets. An experimental investigation was carried out on a compact impingement array (Xn/Djet = 2.34) utilizing local extraction of the spent fluid (Aspent/Ajet = 2.23) from the jet exit plane. Spatially resolved measurements of the mean velocity field within the array were carried out at jet Reynolds numbers of 2300 and 5300 by magnetic resonance velocimetry, MRV. The geometry provided for a smooth transition from the jet to the target surface and out through the extraction holes without obvious flow recirculation. Mean Nusselt number measurements were also carried out for a Reynolds number range of 2000 to 10,000. The Nusselt number was found to increase with the Reynolds number to the 0.6 power with peak Nusselt numbers near 75 at a Reynolds number of 10,000. Open-celled metallic foams offer three important characteristics which enable them to perform well in heat exchange applications. They contain a very large surface area to volume ratio, a highly complex flow passage through the foam, and in many cases, significant thermal conductivity in the solid phase. Unfortunately, difficulty arises when metal foams are implemented in heat exchanger designs. The performance of the foam has not been characterized in a way which is conducive to analytical design of high performance heat exchangers. The second part of this work provides both flow and heat transfer measurements for metal foam geometries. Full-field velocity measurements through a foam sample were acquired using MRV. The measurements show transverse velocities on the order of 25-30% of the Darcy velocity, UD, which produce enhanced thermal dispersion within the foam matrix. A mechanical dispersion coefficient, DM, was formed which demonstrates the transverse dispersion to be 13 times the kinematic viscosity and 9 times the thermal diffusivity of air at 20°C and 1 atm. To describe the heat transfer performance of the foam as a fin, we have developed a new method that utilizes a well documented, periodic heat exchanger core test and a new one heated wall (OHW) test which when used in conjunction are shown to determine the convective performance (hmAc), the conductive performance (ksAc), and the effective bond resistance associated to attaching metal foams to primary heat transfer surfaces (RBond). Small pore diameter foams, d ? 1 mm, where found to perform approximately a factor of 2 greater per unit volume than a comparable fine-fin heat exchanger surface at the same pumping power which points to the fact the foam as a system is conduction limited not convection limited.

Onstad, Andrew J.

111

Heat pipe array heat exchanger  

Science.gov (United States)

A heat pipe arrangement for exchanging heat between two different temperature fluids. The heat pipe arrangement is in a ounterflow relationship to increase the efficiency of the coupling of the heat from a heat source to a heat sink.

Reimann, Robert C. (Lafayette, NY)

1987-08-25

112

Modeling pressure drop of inclined flow through a heat exchanger for aero-engine applications  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the present work further numerical predictions for the flow field through a specific type of a heat exchanger, which is planned to be used in the exhaust nozzle of aircraft engines. In order to model the flow field through the heat exchanger, a porous medium model is used based on a simple quadratic relation, which connects the pressure drop with the inlet air velocity in the external part of the heat exchanger. The aim of this work is to check the applicability of the quadratic law in a variety of velocity inlet conditions configured by different angles of attack. The check is performed with CFD and the results are compared with new available experimental data for these inlet conditions. A detailed qualitative analysis shows that although the quadratic law has been derived for a zero angle of attack, it performs very well for alternative non-zero angles. These observations are very helpful since this simple pressure drop law can be used for advanced computations where the whole system of the exhaust nozzle together with the heat exchangers can be modeled within a holistic approach

113

Improving thermal performances of a counter flow microchannel heat exchanger by using nanofluid  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A counter-flow microchannel heat exchanger (CFMCHE) with Cu-Water and Al{sub 2}0{sub 3}-Water nanofluids was simulated. The nanofluid fraction volumes were in the range of 1 to 5 per cent. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) were used to calculate flow velocity distribution, pressure and temperature. The finite volume method was used to convert the governing equations into algebraic equations. A SIMPLE algorithm was used to enforce mass conservation and obtain pressure fields. The study showed that the thermal performance of the CFMCHE increased using the nanofluids. No extra increase in pressure drop was caused by the ultra-fine solid particles and low volume fraction concentrations. The nanofluid-cooled CFMCHE absorbed more energy than water-cooled CFMCHE when flow rates were low. Heat transfer in high flow rates was dominated by volume flow rates. The nanoparticles did not increase heat absorption. However, the effect of the nanofluids was higher in the heat exchanger opening due to the effect of the solid particles on the development of the boundary layer. It was concluded that the performance of the CFMCHE improved when nanofluids with higher thermal conductivities were used. 16 refs., 3 tabs., 9 figs.

Hasan, M.I. [Thi-Qar Univ., Nassiriya (Iraq). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Yaghoubi, M. [Academy of Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rageb, A.M.A. [Basra Univ., Basra (Iraq). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering

2009-07-01

114

Study of two-phase flow redistribution between two passes of a heat exchanger  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The object of the present thesis deals with the study of two-phase flow redistribution between two passes of a heat exchanger. Mass flow rate measurements of each component performed at each channel outlet of the second pass allowed us to determine the influence of mass flow, gas quality, flow direction (upward or downward) and common header geometry upon flow redistribution. Local void fraction inside common header was measured with an optical probe. A two-dimensional two-phase flow computational code was developed from a two-fluid model. Modelling of interfacial momentum transfer was used in order to take into account twp-phase flow patterns in common headers. Numerical simulation results show qualitative agreement with experimental results. Present theoretical model limitations are analysed and future improvements are proposed

115

A 2-D oscillating flow analysis in Stirling engine heat exchangers  

Science.gov (United States)

A two-dimensional oscillating flow analysis was conducted, simulating the gas flow inside Stirling heat exchangers. Both laminar and turbulent oscillating pipe flow were investigated numerically for Re(max) = 1920 (Va = 80), 10800 (Va = 272), 19300 (Va = 272), and 60800 (Va = 126). The results are compared with experimental results of previous investigators. Also, predictions of the flow regime on present oscillating flow conditions were checked by comparing velocity amplitudes and phase differences with those from laminar theory and quasi-steady profile. A high Reynolds number k-epsilon turbulence model was used for turbulent oscillating pipe flow. Finally, performance evaluation of the K-epsilon model was made to explore the applicability of quasi-steady turbulent models to unsteady oscillating flow analysis.

Ahn, Kyung H.; Ibrahim, Mounir B.

1991-01-01

116

Numerical computations on flow and heat transfer characteristics of a helically coiled heat exchanger using different turbulence models  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: • This study investigates thermal–hydraulic behaviors of helically coiled tube HXs. • Three turbulence models are incorporated with N–S equations in simulations. • Flow and heat transfer characteristics in a helically coiled tube HX are captured. • Existing experimental data on Nu number validate the present CFD model. -- Abstract: This study investigates the thermal–hydraulic characteristics of helically coiled tube heat exchangers applied in high temperature gas reactors. In the heat exchanger, the high-temperature helium and the low-temperature water flow through the shell side and the coiled tube, respectively. Three turbulence models are incorporated with Navier–Stokes equations in the numerical simulations: realizable k–?, low-Reynolds k–? and Reynolds stress. Existing experimental data on the Nusselt (Nu) number validate the present CFD simulations using these turbulence models

117

Numerical computations on flow and heat transfer characteristics of a helically coiled heat exchanger using different turbulence models  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: • This study investigates thermal–hydraulic behaviors of helically coiled tube HXs. • Three turbulence models are incorporated with N–S equations in simulations. • Flow and heat transfer characteristics in a helically coiled tube HX are captured. • Existing experimental data on Nu number validate the present CFD model. -- Abstract: This study investigates the thermal–hydraulic characteristics of helically coiled tube heat exchangers applied in high temperature gas reactors. In the heat exchanger, the high-temperature helium and the low-temperature water flow through the shell side and the coiled tube, respectively. Three turbulence models are incorporated with Navier–Stokes equations in the numerical simulations: realizable k–?, low-Reynolds k–? and Reynolds stress. Existing experimental data on the Nusselt (Nu) number validate the present CFD simulations using these turbulence models.

Lin, Wei-Cheng [Department of Engineering and System Science, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30043, Taiwan (China); Ferng, Yuh-Ming, E-mail: ymferng@ess.nthu.edu.tw [Department of Engineering and System Science, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30043, Taiwan (China); Institute of Nuclear Engineering and Science, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30043, Taiwan (China); Chieng, Ching-Chang [Department of Engineering and System Science, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30043, Taiwan (China); Department of Mechanical and Biomedical Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

2013-10-15

118

Laminar-flow Liquid-to-air Heat Exchangers - Energy-efficient Display Cabinet Applications  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Provisions are stored and displayed in supermarkets and grocery stores, at a temperature lower than the ambient, in display cabinets, which are responsible for a significant amount of the energy use in this sector. During the 1990s, major changes in the regulations governing the use of synthetic refrigerants took place in Sweden. This resulted in many refrigeration systems being converted to systems with indirect cooling by means of a liquid secondary refrigerant. The cooling coil is an important component in a display cabinet and traditionally, different kinds of tube-coils, with aluminium fins on expanded circular copper tubes, have been used. Many secondary heat transfer media have relatively high viscosities at low temperatures, and so the flow regime is often laminar, which may lead to poor heat transfer. However, it is possible to achieve high heat transfer coefficients even for laminar flows if an appropriate design of the heat exchanger is applied. Flat-tube heat exchangers have been used for a long time in automotive applications, where compactness is important. The display cabinet application involves low air velocities in combination with condensation of water vapour, and sometimes even frosting, and is therefore different from other applications where flat-tube heat exchangers have been used earlier. The objective of this research work has been to find a suitable, more energy efficient, heat exchanger design for indirectly cooled display cabinets. An efficiency that would mean that temperature differences would be so small that frosting could be avoided was aimed for. This research work has sandwiched experimental investigations with theoretical modelling and parameter studies. Initially, the heat transfer and pressure drop performance of conventional cooling coils operating with liquid secondary refrigerants was studied in fullscale experiments. Thereafter, the liquid-side (or tube-side) heat transfer was studied experimentally in small-scale experiments on three single multiport extruded flat tubes with different cross-sections. In both studies, the best agreement was found with predictions using the Gnielinski correlation for thermally developing laminar flows with the constant temperature boundary condition. After this, two different heat exchangers having flat tubes and plain fins on the air side were evaluated experimentally - one with continuous plate fins and one with serpentine fins. The results show that, for conditions similar to those of display cabinets, the heat transfer and pressure drop performance is affected to little or no extent by the occurrence of condensate water. Models for different types of flat-tube heat exchangers were thereafter created using the results from the experimental studies. In order to find appropriate optimising criteria for the display cabinet heat exchangers, the energy efficiency of a complete cooling system of an imagined supermarket has been studied. Finally, different designs of flat-tube heat exchangers with plain fins have been evaluated theoretically in a parameter study. The results show that considerable savings in the required electric drive power can be obtained in comparison with the traditional cooling coil. The savings can be up to 15 %. In addition, the flat-tube heat exchangers could operate with a minimum temperature difference of around 1 K. This makes frost-free operation possible for many display cabinet applications and thereby the savings potential even larger

Haglund Stignor, Caroline

2009-02-15

119

Numerical simulation of flow field in a fin tube heat exchanger  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reports on the computation of the flow field and heat transfer between two plate fins of a compact cross flow heat exchanger with staggered arrangement of tubes that has been carried out in Reynolds number range of 40 to 2000. Three Nusselt number plots on the fin show deterioration of heat transfer by 50%, or more in the stagnation zone of the rear tube due to the wake of the preceding tube. The Nusselt number distributions on the tube near the juncture of the tube and the fin deviates substantially from the two dimensional prediction. The Nusselt numbers on the midplane of the first tube in stagnation area compares well available experimental results of Nusselt number distribution on a cylinder in unbounded cross flow

120

Heat transfer and flow studies of the liquid droplet heat exchanger  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes a lightweight, highly effective liquid droplet heat exchanger (LDHX) concept for thermal management in space. Heat is transferred by direct contact between fine droplets (100 to 300 micron diameter) of a low vapor pressure liquid and an inert working gas. Complete separation of the droplet and gas media in the microgravity environment is accomplished by configuring the LDHX as a vortex chamber. A quasi-one-dimensional, two-phase heat transfer model of the LDHX is developed and used to investigate the potential use of the LDHX for both heating and cooling the working gas in a 100-k W(e) Brayton cycle. Experimental studies on a small scale LDHX chamber, using air and water as the two media, show excellent agreement with the theoretical model. 21 references

 
 
 
 
121

Simulation of Cross Flow Heat Exchanger for Multi Tubes Using FLUENT 6.3.26  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In chemical engineering a lot of work is done to improve the results of the equipment to make its widespread applications be possible. Simulation is extensively used as the power of the computer is well known nowadays. Simulation is frequently used to study both real and virtual behavior. In this paper experimentation, simulation and development of mathematical models are performed. Practical experiments are made on a cross flow heat exchanger for a multi tube layout with staggered arrange...

Suneela Sardar; Shahid Raza Malik

2013-01-01

122

Influence of the Flow from an Axial Fan on the Performance of a Heat Exchanger  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Limited water supplies in arid regions that have abundant solar resources eliminates the use of water as a feasible means of cooling condensers in a Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) plant condenser. This has triggered the need to optimise existing air-cooled condenser technology, which is currently extremely inefficient. This paper aims to investigate the influence of various fan parameters on the performance of a cross-flow heat exchanger. The study first focuses on the effect of varying the d...

Moore, J.; Grimes, R.; Walsh, E.

2012-01-01

123

169 kelvin cryogenic microcooler empoying a condenser, evaporator, flow restriction and counterflow heat exchangers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper presents the first cryogenic micromachined cooler that is suitable to cool from ambient temperature to 169 kelvin and below. The cooler operates with the vapor compression cycle. It consists of a silicon micromachined condenser, a flow restriction/evaporator and two miniature glass-tube counterflow heat exchangers, which are integrated with the silicon components using a novel gluing technique. The system was tested with ethylene gas from 20 to 1 bar, and produces a cooling power o...

Burger, Johannes; Holland, Harry; Berenschot, Erwin; Seppenwolde, Jan-henry; Brake, Marcel Ter; Gardeniers, Han; Elwenspoek, Miko

2001-01-01

124

A review of heat exchanger tube bundle vibrations in two-phase cross-flow  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Flow-induced vibration is an important concern to the designers of heat exchangers subjected to high flows of gases or liquids. Two-phase cross-flow occurs in industrial heat exchangers, such as nuclear steam generators, condensers, and boilers, etc. Under certain flow regimes and fluid velocities, the fluid forces result in tube vibration and damage due to fretting and fatigue. Prediction of these forces requires an understanding of the flow regimes found in heat exchanger tube bundles. Excessive vibrations under normal operating conditions can lead to tube failure. Relatively little information exists on two-phase vibration. This is not surprising as single-phase flow induced vibration; a simpler topic is not yet fully understood. Vibration in two-phase is much more complex because it depends upon two-phase flow regime, i.e. characteristics of two-phase mixture and involves an important consideration, which is the void fraction. The effect of characteristics of two-phase mixture on flow-induced vibration is still largely unknown. Two-phase flow experiments are much more expensive and difficult to carry out as they usually require pressurized loops with the ability to produce two-phase mixtures. Although convenient from an experimental point of view, air-water mixture if used as a simulation fluid, is quite different from high-pressure steam-water. A reasonable compromise between experimental convenience and simulation of steam-water two-phase flow is desired. This pam-water two-phase flow is desired. This paper reviews known models and experimental research on two-phase cross-flow induced vibration in tube bundles. Despite the considerable differences in the models, there is some agreement in the general conclusions. The effect of tube bundle geometry, random turbulence excitations, hydrodynamic mass and damping ratio on tube response has also been reviewed. Fluid-structure interaction, void fraction modeling/measurements and finally Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association (TEMA) considerations have also been highlighted

125

Heat exchanger restart evaluation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On December 24, 1991, the K-Reactor was in the shutdown mode with full AC process water flow and full cooling water flow. Safety rod testing was being performed as part of the power ascension testing program. The results of cooling water samples indicated tritium concentrations higher than allowable. Further sampling and testing confirmed a Process Water System to Cooling Water System leak in heat exchanger 4A (HX 4A). The heat exchanger was isolated and the plant shutdown. Heat exchanger 4A was removed from the plant and moved to C-Area prior to performing examinations and diagnostic testing. This included locating and identifying the leaking tube or tubes, eddy current examination of the leaking tube and a number of adjacent tubes, visually inspecting the leaking tube from both the inside as well as the area surrounding the identified tube. The leaking tube was removed and examined metallurgically to determine the failure mechanism. In addition ten other tubes that either exhibited eddy current indications or would represent a baseline condition were removed from heat exchanger 4A for metallurgical examination. Additional analysis and review of heat exchanger leakage history was performed to determine if there are any patterns which can be used for predictive purposes. Compensatory actions have been taken to improve the sensitivity and response time to any future events of this type. The results of these actions are summarized

126

Heat exchanger restart evaluation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On December 24, 1991, the K-Reactor was in the shutdown mode with full AC process water flow and full cooling water flow. Safety rod testing was being performed as part of the power ascension testing program. The results of cooling water samples indicated tritium concentrations higher than allowable. Further sampling and testing confirmed a Process Water System to Cooling Water System leak in heat exchanger 4A (HX 4A). The heat exchanger was isolated and the plant shutdown. Heat exchanger 4kA was removed from the plant and moved to C-Area prior to performing examinations and diagnostic testing. This included locating and identifying the leaking tube or tubes, eddy current examination of the leaking tube and a number of adjacent tubes, visually inspecting the leaking tube from both the inside as well as the area surrounding the failure mechanism. In addition ten other tubes that either exhibited eddy current indications or would represent a baseline condition were removed from heat exchanger 4A for metallurgical examination. Additional analysis and review of heat exchanger leakage history was performed to determine if there are any patterns which can be used for predictive purposes. Compensatory actions have been taken to improve the sensitivity and response time to any future events of this type. The results of these actions are summarized herein

127

Heat exchanger restart evaluation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On December 24, 1991, the K-Reactor was in the shutdown mode with full AC process water flow and full cooling water flow. Safety rod testing was being performed as part of the power ascension testing program. The results of cooling water samples indicated tritium concentrations higher than allowable. Further sampling and testing confirmed a Process Water System to Cooling Water System leak in heat exchanger 4A (HX 4A). The heat exchanger was isolated and the plant shutdown. Heat exchanger 4A was removed from the plant and moved to C-Area prior to performing examinations and diagnostic testing. This included locating and identifying the leaking tube or tubes, eddy current examination of the leaking tube and a number of adjacent tubes, visually inspecting the leaking tube from both the inside as well as the area surrounding the identified tube. The leaking tube was removed and examined metallurgically to determine the failure mechanism. In addition ten other tubes that either exhibited eddy current indications or would represent a baseline condition were removed from heat exchanger 4A for metallurgical examination. Additional analysis and review of heat exchanger leakage history was performed to determine if there are any patterns which can be used for predictive purposes. Compensatory actions have been taken to improve the sensitivity and response time to any future events of this type. The results of these actions are summary herein

128

Heat exchanger restart evaluation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

On December 24, 1991, the K-Reactor was in the shutdown mode with full AC process water flow and full cooling water flow. Safety rod testing was being performed as part of the power ascension testing program. The results of cooling water samples indicated tritium concentrations higher than allowable. Further sampling and testing confirmed a Process Water System to Cooling Water System leak in heat exchanger 4A (HX 4A). The heat exchanger was isolated and the plant shutdown. Heat exchanger 4kA was removed from the plant and moved to C-Area prior to performing examinations and diagnostic testing. This included locating and identifying the leaking tube or tubes, eddy current examination of the leaking tube and a number of adjacent tubes, visually inspecting the leaking tube from both the inside as well as the area surrounding the failure mechanism. In addition ten other tubes that either exhibited eddy current indications or would represent a baseline condition were removed from heat exchanger 4A for metallurgical examination. Additional analysis and review of heat exchanger leakage history was performed to determine if there are any patterns which can be used for predictive purposes. Compensatory actions have been taken to improve the sensitivity and response time to any future events of this type. The results of these actions are summarized herein.

Morrison, J.M.; Hirst, C.W.; Lentz, T.F.

1992-02-28

129

Tubular heat exchanger for a nuclear reactor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Heat exchanger appliance, featuring a first heat exchanger to bring the heating fluid and a heated fluid into thermal communication by flow of the fluids inside this exchanger, and a pre-cooling heat exchanger arranged in one unit inside the first heat exchanger for the purpose of bringing the heating fluid into thermal communication with the heating fluid flowing in the first heat exchanger, so that the temperature of the heating fluid is lowered before it is placed in thermal communication with the heated fluid

130

Modeling free convection flow of liquid hydrogen within a cylindrical heat exchanger cooled to 14 K  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A liquid hydrogen in a absorber for muon cooling requires that up to 300 W be removed from 20 liters of liquid hydrogen. The wall of the container is a heat exchanger between the hydrogen and 14 K helium gas in channels within the wall. The warm liquid hydrogen is circulated down the cylindrical walls of the absorber by free convection. The flow of the hydrogen is studied using FEA methods for two cases and the heat transfer coefficient to the wall is calculated. The first case is when the wa...

Yang, Sq; Green, Ma; Lau, W.

2005-01-01

131

Nuclear research reactor IEA-R1 heat exchanger inlet nozzle flow - a preliminary study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As a computational fluid mechanics training task, a preliminary model was developed. ANSYS-CFXR code was used in order to study the flow at the inlet nozzle of the heat exchanger of the primary circuit of the nuclear research reactor IEA-R1. The geometry of the inlet nozzle is basically compounded by a cylinder and two radial rings which are welded on the shell. When doing so there is an offset between the holes through the shell and the inlet nozzle. Since it is not standardized by TEMA, the inlet nozzle was chosen for a preliminary study of the flow. Results for the proposed model are presented and discussed. (author)

132

Non-newtonian flow and pressure drop of pineapple juice in a plate heat exchanger  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The study of non-Newtonian flow in plate heat exchangers (PHEs) is of great importance for the food industry. The objective of this work was to study the pressure drop of pineapple juice in a PHE with 50º chevron plates. Density and flow properties of pineapple juice were determined and correlated with temperature (17.4 < T < 85.8ºC) and soluble solids content (11.0 < Xs < 52.4 ºBrix). The Ostwald-de Waele (power law) model described well the rheological behavior. The friction factor for n...

Cabral, R. A. F.; Gut, J. A. W.; Telis, V. R. N.; Telis-romero, J.

2010-01-01

133

Parametric study of gross flow maldistribution in a single-pass shell and tube heat exchanger in turbulent regime  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: • A potential means of reducing flow maldistribution in exchangers. • In turbulent flows, maldistribution is but only tube number. • A Gaussian function can also express flow maldistribution in the exchanger. -- Abstract: Uniform distribution of flow in tube bundle of shell and tube heat exchangers is an arbitrary assumption in conventional heat exchanger design. Nevertheless, in practice, flow maldistribution may be an inevitable occurrence which may have severe impacts on thermal and mechanical performance of heat exchangers i.e. fouling. The present models for flow maldistribution in the tube-side deal only with the maximum possible velocity deviation. Other flow maldistribution models propose and recommend the use of a probability distribution, e.g. Gaussian distribution. None of these, nevertheless, estimate quantitatively the number of tubes that suffer from flow maldistribution. This study presents a mathematical model for predicting gross flow maldistribution in the tube-side of a single-pass shell and tube heat exchanger. It can quantitatively estimate the magnitude of flow maldistribution and the number of tubes which have been affected. The validation of the resultant model has been confirmed when compared with similar study using computational fluid dynamics (CFD)

134

Investigation and application of reduced-order methods for flows study in heat exchanger tube bundles  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this thesis is to study the ability of model reduction for investigations of flow-induced vibrations in heat exchangers tube bundle systems.These mechanisms are a cause of major concern because heat exchangers are key elements of nuclear power plants and on-board stoke-holds.In a first part, we give a recall on heat exchangers functioning and on vibratory problems to which they are prone. Then, complete calculations leaded with the CFD numerical code Code-Saturne are carried out, first for the flow around a single circular cylinder (fixed then elastically mounted) and then for the case of a tube bundle system submitted to cross-flow. Reduced-order method POD is applied to the flow resolution with fixed structures. The obtained results show the efficiency of this technique for such configurations, using stabilization methods for the dynamical system resolution in the tube-bundle case. Multiphase-POD, which is a method enabling the adaptation of POD to fluid-structure interactions, is applied. Large displacements of a single cylinder elastically mounted under cross-flow, corresponding to the lock-in phenomenon,are well reproduced with this reduction technique. In the same way, large displacements of a confined moving tube in a bundle are shown to be faithfully reconstructed.Finally, the use of model reduction is extended to parametric studies. First, we propose to use the method which consists in projecting Navier-Stokes equations for several values of the Reynolds number on to a unique POD basis. The results obtained confirm the fact that POD predictability is limited to a range of parameter values. Then, a basis interpolation method, constructed using Grassmann manifolds and allowing the construction of a POD basis from other pre-calculated basis, is applied to basic cases. (author)

135

Heat exchange effectiveness and pressure drop for air flow through perforated plates with and without crosswind  

Science.gov (United States)

Low-porosity perforated plates are being used as absorbers for heating ambient air in a new type of unglazed solar collector. This paper investigates the convective heat transfer effectiveness for low-speed air flow through thin, isothermal perforated plates with and without a crosswind on the upstream face. The objective of this work is to provide information that will allow designers to optimize hole size and spacing. In order to obtain performance data, a wind tunnel and small lamp array were designed and built. Experimental data were taken for a range of plate porosities from 0.1 to 5 percent, hole Reynolds numbers from 100 to 2000, and wind speeds from 0 to 4 m/s. Correlations were developed for heat exchange effectiveness and also for pressure drop. Infrared thermography was used to visualize the heat transfer taking place at the surface.

Kutscher, C. F.

1994-05-01

136

Non-newtonian flow and pressure drop of pineapple juice in a plate heat exchanger  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study of non-Newtonian flow in plate heat exchangers (PHEs is of great importance for the food industry. The objective of this work was to study the pressure drop of pineapple juice in a PHE with 50º chevron plates. Density and flow properties of pineapple juice were determined and correlated with temperature (17.4 < T < 85.8ºC and soluble solids content (11.0 < Xs < 52.4 ºBrix. The Ostwald-de Waele (power law model described well the rheological behavior. The friction factor for non-isothermal flow of pineapple juice in the PHE was obtained for diagonal and parallel/side flow. Experimental results were well correlated with the generalized Reynolds number (20 < Re g < 1230 and were compared with predictions from equations from the literature. The mean absolute error for pressure drop prediction was 4% for the diagonal plate and 10% for the parallel plate.

R. A. F. Cabral

2010-12-01

137

Experimental and numerical investigation of the flow field through a heat exchanger for aero-engine applications  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An experimental and computational study for the flow development through a heat exchanger for aero-engine applications is presented. The heat exchanger consists of elliptic tubes in a U formation, the ends of which are attached to the collector pipe, which has a cylindrical cross section. In this way, two identical packages (named as matrices) are formed and located at a certain distance between them. The elliptic tubes are placed in a staggered arrangement. Detailed flow measurements using a 3-hole pitot-static probe were carried out on a 1:1 scale model of the heat exchanger in order to measure the pressure drop through the heat exchanger and the velocity distribution behind it. The flow through the heat exchanger was modeled with a computational fluid dynamics approach. The heat exchanger matrices were modeled using a porous medium assumption. The pressure drop through each element of the porous medium was linked to an effective local velocity. In order to check the validity of the computational modeling, the results were compared to the measured flow parameters such as pressure and velocity distributions. Two sets of modeling were performed assuming a laminar and a turbulent flow. The results showed that the laminar approach gave better results and this is supported by the corresponding Reynolds numbers, which indicated that the global flow field is transitional. (author)

Missirlis, D.; Yakinthos, K.; Palikaras, A.; Goulas, A. [Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (Greece). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Katheder, K. [MTU Aero Engines GmbH, Munich (Germany)

2005-06-01

138

Experimental and numerical investigation of the flow field through a heat exchanger for aero-engine applications  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An experimental and computational study for the flow development through a heat exchanger for aero-engine applications is presented. The heat exchanger consists of elliptic tubes in a U formation, the ends of which are attached to the collector pipe, which has a cylindrical cross section. In this way, two identical packages (named as matrices) are formed and located at a certain distance between them. The elliptic tubes are placed in a staggered arrangement. Detailed flow measurements using a 3-hole pitot-static probe were carried out on a 1:1 scale model of the heat exchanger in order to measure the pressure drop through the heat exchanger and the velocity distribution behind it. The flow through the heat exchanger was modeled with a computational fluid dynamics approach. The heat exchanger matrices were modeled using a porous medium assumption. The pressure drop through each element of the porous medium was linked to an effective local velocity. In order to check the validity of the computational modeling, the results were compared to the measured flow parameters such as pressure and velocity distributions. Two sets of modeling were performed assuming a laminar and a turbulent flow. The results showed that the laminar approach gave better results and this is supported by the corresponding Reynolds numbers, which indicated that the global flow field is transitional

139

A study on performance improvement of corrugated type total heat exchanger considering the structure of flow passage on surface  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Three types of flow passage structure of a total heat exchanger (perforated type, slit type, and embossed and perforated type ) are studied to enhance the heat exchange performance of a heat recovery ventilation system (total heat exchanger). The perforated type has four punched rows of 6mm holes in the flow passage channel, and the slit type has six processed rows of 40mm length. The embossed and perforated type has holes of about 1mm diameter and protrusions of about 0.2mm height on all surfaces. The heat exchange efficiency of the modified total heat exchanger was compared to that of a general total heat exchanger with a smooth surface. The Korean Standard (KS) heat recovery ventilator test condition was applied for tests. In the case of cooling operation based on a typical Reynolds number of 140 (typical air flow rate of 100 m3/hr), the perforated type, slit type, and embossed and perforated type showed temperature efficiency improvement of 1.2%, 2.5%, and 5.0%: latent efficiency improvement of 18.0%, 32.3%, and 24.5%: and enthalpy efficiency improvement of 7.9%, 11.5%, and 11.2%, respectively. The corresponding improvements of heating operation were 3.0%, 3.4%, and 4.0%: 5.0%, 6.6%, and 18.7%: 3.2%, 4.3%, and 7.7%, respectively. On the other hand, the air pressure drop throughout the modified flow passage of the total heat exchanger increased by up to 1.7% at the typical Reynolds number of 140, from the air pressure drop of the regular total heat exchassure drop of the regular total heat exchanger

140

Experimental study of the flow induced vibration of multi-span heat exchanger tube bundles in liquid cross-flow  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is well known that flow induced vibration is one of the factors which imposes limits on the design of heat exchangers and steam generators employed in the Nuclear Power Industry. The results of numerous liquid cross-flow tests conducted on single span laboratory tube bundles have already been reported by the author. These test results have been utilized to develop criterion for design purposes. It remains a fact, nevertheless, that there exists a strong need for test results acquired on multi-span bundles. Such bundles much more closely approximate real heat exchangers and steam generators. Like real heat exchangers, their resonant frequencies are clustered close together, thereby overcoming one of the principal shortcomings of single span test facilities. In this paper, the design of a new four span test facility along with the results of a series of vibration tests are discussed in detail. Using spectral analysis equipment the tube response is carefully examined for the resonant frequencies which it contains and fluidelastic instability measurements have been made. To the author's knowledge, this constitutes one of the first reports in the literature of the results of systematic laboratory vibration tests conducted on a realistic multi-span tube bundle facility subjected to liquid cross-flow. It is expected that these test results, coupled with the results of tests planned for the future, will throw significant new light on this important industrial problem. (orion this important industrial problem. (orig.)

 
 
 
 
141

Oscillating-Coolant Heat Exchanger  

Science.gov (United States)

Devices useful in situations in which heat pipes inadequate. Conceptual oscillating-coolant heat exchanger (OCHEX) transports heat from its hotter portions to cooler portions. Heat transported by oscillation of single-phase fluid, called primary coolant, in coolant passages. No time-averaged flow in tubes, so either heat removed from end reservoirs on every cycle or heat removed indirectly by cooling sides of channels with another coolant. Devices include leading-edge cooling devices in hypersonic aircraft and "frost-free" heat exchangers. Also used in any situation in which heat pipe used and in other situations in which heat pipes not usable.

Scotti, Stephen J.; Blosser, Max L.; Camarda, Charles J.

1992-01-01

142

The concept of a new approximate relation for heat transfer effectiveness for a cross-flow heat exchanger with unmixed fluids  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents an approximate relation for the heat transfer effectiveness for a counter-flow heat exchanger, which was compared with the exact solution. Based on the obtained approximate relation for a counter-flow heat exchanger the approximate heat transfer effectiveness for a cross-flow heat exchanger in which both fluids do not mix is proposed. This approximate heat transfer effectiveness was compared with the exact solution proposed by Mason, the most well-known relation. A comparison between the most frequently used approximate formula and the exact solution proposed by Mason was made, too. The heat transfer effectiveness was analyzed for the ratio of the heat capacity of fluids C in the range from 0 to 1 and the number of transfer units NTU from the most common range 0 – 5.

Rafal Marcin Laskowski

2011-01-01

143

Hydrodynamics and heat exchange during electro-conducting liquid flow in a round tube in a transversal magnetic field  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The review of existing experimental data on hydrodynamics and heat exchange, as well as on experimental studies on heat exchange during liquid metal flow in a horizontal tube in a transversal magnetic field is presented. The comparison of available data on flows in a round tube and a plane channel is carried out. The formula for calculation of the heat transfer coefficient, average by perimeter, by turbulent flow of electro-conducting liquids in a round tube in a transversal magnetic field is obtained

144

Optimization of zigzag flow channels of a printed circuit heat exchanger for nuclear power plant application  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Printed circuit heat exchanger (PCHE) is recently considered as a recuperator for the high-temperature gas cooled reactor. In this study, shape optimization of zigzag flow channels in a PCHE has been performed to enhance heat transfer performance and reduce the friction loss based on three-dimensional Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes analysis with the Shear Stress Transport Turbulence model. A multi-objective genetic algorithm is used for the multi-objective optimization. Two non-dimensional objective functions related to heat transfer performance and friction loss are employed. The shape of a flow channel is defined by two geometric design variables, viz. the cold channel angle and the ellipse aspect ratio of the cold channel. The experimental points within the design space are selected using Latin hypercube sampling as the design of the experiment. The response surface approximation model is used to approximate the Pareto-optimal front. Five optimal designs on the Pareto-optimal front have been selected using k-means clustering. The flow and heat transfer characteristics, as well as the objective function values, of these designs have been compared with those of the reference design. (author)

145

Assessment of flow induced vibration in a sodium-sodium heat exchanger  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The 500 MWe Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) is under construction at Kalpakkam. It is a liquid metal sodium cooled pool type fast reactor with all primary components located inside a sodium pool. The heat produced due to fission in the core is transported by primary sodium to the secondary sodium in a sodium to sodium Intermediate Heat Exchanger (IHX), which in turn is transferred to water in the steam generator. PFBR IHX is a shell and tube type heat exchanger with primary sodium on shell side and secondary sodium in the tube side. Since IHX is one of the critical components placed inside the radioactive primary sodium, trouble-free operation of the IHX is very much essential for power plant availability. To validate the design and the adequacy of the support system provided for the IHX, flow induced vibration (FIV) experiments were carried out in a water test loop on a 60 deg. sector model. This paper discusses the flow induced vibration measurements carried out in 60 deg. sector model of IHX, the modeling criteria, the results and conclusion.

Prakash, V. [Fast Reactor Technology Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam, Tamil Nadu (India)], E-mail: prakash@igcar.gov.in; Thirumalai, M.; Prabhakar, R.; Vaidyanathan, G. [Fast Reactor Technology Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam, Tamil Nadu (India)

2009-01-15

146

Assessment of flow induced vibration in a sodium-sodium heat exchanger  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The 500 MWe Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) is under construction at Kalpakkam. It is a liquid metal sodium cooled pool type fast reactor with all primary components located inside a sodium pool. The heat produced due to fission in the core is transported by primary sodium to the secondary sodium in a sodium to sodium Intermediate Heat Exchanger (IHX), which in turn is transferred to water in the steam generator. PFBR IHX is a shell and tube type heat exchanger with primary sodium on shell side and secondary sodium in the tube side. Since IHX is one of the critical components placed inside the radioactive primary sodium, trouble-free operation of the IHX is very much essential for power plant availability. To validate the design and the adequacy of the support system provided for the IHX, flow induced vibration (FIV) experiments were carried out in a water test loop on a 60 deg. sector model. This paper discusses the flow induced vibration measurements carried out in 60 deg. sector model of IHX, the modeling criteria, the results and conclusion

147

Air flow test of MK-III dump heat exchanger tube arrays for JOYO  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The reactor thermal power of JOYO MK-III is to be increased from 100MWt to 140MWt due to high performance of reactor core. So, Dump Heat Exchanger(DHX) of MK-III was designed to improve its heat removal capability by changing U type heat transport tube arrays to {Sigma} type tube arrays and increasing air flow. Natural frequency between support and support of MK-III DHX`s tube arrays was about 15Hz, and Karman vortex shedding frequency of tube arrays was about 90Hz by Y.N.Chen`s report. Then, a possibility of piling up of Karman vortex shedding frequency in high frequency mode was to be considered. And, air velocity of flow tube arrays is also increased compared to the MK-II DHX. Sodium leak accident of MONJU was caused by a flow-induced vibration of thermometer well. Therefore, the air flow test to tube arrays of MK-III DHX was conducted. High cycles fatigue damage of tube arrays was evaluated. Since, peak stress is below 2kg/mm{sup 2}, it can be said that high cycles fatigue damage of tube arrays by Karman vortex shedding vibration will not be caused. (J.P.N.)

Isozaki, Kazunori; Kawahara, Hirotaka; Tomita, Naoki [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center

1997-07-01

148

Air flow test of MK-III dump heat exchanger tube arrays for JOYO  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The reactor thermal power of JOYO MK-III is to be increased from 100MWt to 140MWt due to high performance of reactor core. So, Dump Heat Exchanger(DHX) of MK-III was designed to improve its heat removal capability by changing U type heat transport tube arrays to ? type tube arrays and increasing air flow. Natural frequency between support and support of MK-III DHX's tube arrays was about 15Hz, and Karman vortex shedding frequency of tube arrays was about 90Hz by Y.N.Chen's report. Then, a possibility of piling up of Karman vortex shedding frequency in high frequency mode was to be considered. And, air velocity of flow tube arrays is also increased compared to the MK-II DHX. Sodium leak accident of MONJU was caused by a flow-induced vibration of thermometer well. Therefore, the air flow test to tube arrays of MK-III DHX was conducted. High cycles fatigue damage of tube arrays was evaluated. Since, peak stress is below 2kg/mm2, it can be said that high cycles fatigue damage of tube arrays by Karman vortex shedding vibration will not be caused. (J.P.N.)

149

Heat exchanger with packing element between flow shield and the wall of the housing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The heat exchanger comprises a housing with a supply duct and an outlet duct for a first medium, a pipe bundle installed in the housing, the pipes being in connection with the supply duct, and an exit duct for a second medium, and round the pipe bundle over a greater part of the length thereof is placed a flow shield with a smaller spacing on the outer side than on the inner side of the housing, also one or more spacing elements between the flow shield and the inner wall of the inner shield of the housing, which elements substantially restrict the passage of the first medium through the space between the flow shield on the inner wall of the housing characterised in that the spacing element(s) is (are) composed of parts made of different metals, which metals have different expansion coefficients. (G.C.)

150

Liquid metal operated heat exchanger  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This invention relates to a heat exchanger arrangement of the shell and tube type especially adapted for the use of high temperature liquid metal as a heating medium. The arrangement incorporates a tube bundle comprising a plurality of bayonet tube assemblies through which the liquid metal is circulated in indirect heat exchange relation with vaporizable fluid that flows through the shell. The tube assemblies incorporate a double walled bayonet tube containing a gas space which provides a thermal barrier to minimize heat loss from the heating medium. Various embodiments of evaporator and evaporator-superheater organizations utilizing the heat exchanger arrangement are described. (U.S.)

151

Heat transfer and pressure drop of supercritical carbon dioxide flowing in several printed circuit heat exchanger channel patterns  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Closed-loop Brayton cycles using supercritical carbon dioxide (SCO2) show potential for use in high-temperature power generation applications including High Temperature Gas Reactors (HTGR) and Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactors (SFR). Compared to Rankine cycles SCO2 Brayton cycles offer similar or improved efficiency and the potential for decreased capital costs due to a reduction in equipment size and complexity. Compact printed-circuit heat exchangers (PCHE) are being considered as part of several SCO2 Brayton designs to further reduce equipment size with increased energy density. Several designs plan to use a gas cooler operating near the pseudo-critical point of carbon dioxide to benefit from large variations in thermophysical properties, but further work is needed to validate correlations for heat transfer and pressure-drop characteristics of SCO2 flows in candidate PCHE channel designs for a variety of operating conditions. This paper presents work on experimental measurements of the heat transfer and pressure drop behavior of miniature channels using carbon dioxide at supercritical pressure. Results from several plate geometries tested in horizontal cooling-mode flow are presented, including a straight semi-circular channel, zigzag channel with a bend angle of 80 degrees, and a channel with a staggered array of extruded airfoil pillars modeled after a NACA 0020 airfoil with an 8.1 mm chord length facing into the flow. Heat t chord length facing into the flow. Heat transfer coefficients and bulk temperatures are calculated from measured local wall temperatures and local heat fluxes. The experimental results are compared to several methods for estimating the friction factor and Nusselt number of cooling-mode flows at supercritical pressures in millimeter-scale channels. (authors)

152

Experiments on vibration of heat exchanger tube arrays in cross flow  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A series of tests have been made at the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique, in cooperation with General Atomic Company, SAN DIEGO (U.S.A.) on the flow-induced vibration of heat exchanger tube bundles in cross flow. These tests were made in air on tube bundles which simulated heat exchangers in the high temperature gas cooled reactors. The tests were of two types. In the first type, an instrumented tube was inserted at various locations into a tube bundle. Measurements were made of pressure at a number of points along the tube and about the circumference of the tube. These measurements were processed to obtain the spectra of turbulent pressure fluctuations on the tube, the spanwise correlation and the lift force. The second set of tests was made on tube bundles with flexible tubes. As the flow velocity was increased, these tests clearly show an instability. Nine tube configurations were tested with both plastic and metallic tubes and the effect of tube-to-tube difference in natural frequency was investigated

153

Local convective heat exchanges and flow structure in a rotor-stator system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This work deals with an experimental study of the flow structure and the local convective exchanges in the air-gap of a rotor-stator system. The experimental technique uses infrared thermography to measure the surface temperatures of the rotor and the numerical solution of the steady state heat equation to determine the local heat transfer coefficients. The analysis of the flow structure between the rotor and the stator is obtained by PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry). Tests are carried out for rotational Reynolds numbers ranging from 5.87 x 10{sup 4} to 1.76 x 10{sup 5} and for gap ratios ranging from 0.01 to 0.17. Analysis of the experimental results has determined the influence of the rotational Reynolds number and the gap ratio on the flow structure and the convective exchanges in the gap between the rotor and the stator. Some correlations expressing the local Nusselt number as a function of the rotational Reynolds number and the gap ratio are proposed. (authors)

Boutarfa, Rachid; Harmand, Souad [Laboratoire de Mecanique et Energetique, Universite de Valenciennes et du Hainaut Cambresis, Le Mont Houy, 59313 cedex 9, Valenciennes (France)

2003-12-01

154

Heat exchanger with ceramic elements  

Science.gov (United States)

An annular heat exchanger assembly includes a plurality of low thermal growth ceramic heat exchange members with inlet and exit flow ports on distinct faces. A mounting member locates each ceramic member in a near-annular array and seals the flow ports on the distinct faces into the separate flow paths of the heat exchanger. The mounting member adjusts for the temperature gradient in the assembly and the different coefficients of thermal expansion of the members of the assembly during all operating temperatures.

Corey, John A. (North Troy, NY)

1986-01-01

155

3D Numerical heat transfer and fluid flow analysis in plate-fin and tube heat exchangers with electrohydrodynamic enhancement  

Science.gov (United States)

Three-dimensional laminar fluid flow and heat transfer over a four-row plate-fin and tube heat exchanger with electrohydrodynamic (EHD) wire electrodes are studied numerically. The effects of different electrode arrangements (square and diagonal), tube pitch arrangements (in-line and staggered) and applied voltage (VE=0-16 kV) are investigated in detail for the Reynolds number range (based on the fin spacing and frontal velocity) ranging from 100 to 1,000. It is found that the EHD enhancement is more effective for lower Re and higher applied voltage. The case of staggered tube pitch with square wire electrode arrangement gives the best heat transfer augmentation. For VE=16 kV and Re = 100, this study identifies a maximum improvement of 218% in the average Nusselt number and a reduction in fin area of 56% as compared that without EHD enhancement.

Lin, Chia-Wen; Jang, Jiin-Yuh

2005-05-01

156

Experimental investigation of heat exchange development along the tube length during liquid metal flow in transverse magnetic field under conditions of uniform heating  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Paper presents the results of the experimental study of heat exchange at a liquid-metal coolant flow along the horizontally heated tube at thermal flow constant density at the wall in a transverse magnetic field. One measured three-dimensional fields of the averaged temperature and calculated coefficients of heat transfer along the tube length within the Reynolds and the Hartmann number wide range for various values of thermal flow density

157

Double barrier heat exchanger  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This invention concerns a double barrier heat exchanger, between a radioactive primary fluid and a secondary fluid, enabling a possible leak of primary fluid in the exchanger to be detected in particular. As the primary fluid flows through a primary ducting and the secondary fluid through a secondary ducting, a joint matrix is placed between the primary and secondary ductings and in contact with them. The matrix includes at least on element, for example silver, able to be made radioactive when it diffuses in the primary fluid which carries it to an activation source. The application concerns sampling systems of water cooled nuclear reactors

158

Tubed heat exchanger  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A tubed heat exchanger is described, which has at least one tube with transverse flow over it. The invention concerns the improvement of efficiency by avoiding thick boundary layers on the tube. It has transverse ribs set on it with special projections, which, according to the invention lie only on one side of the main plane of the ribs. Eight pictures illustrate the proposal. (RW)

159

Nuclear installation comprising an integrated heat exchanger with primary coolant flowing tubes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A description is given of a nuclear reactor system having the following characteristics: a pressure vessel cylindrical in shape; a nuclear reactor core located in the centre of the pressure vessels; a heat exchanger inside a pressure vessel; a multiplicity of tubes located in the heat exchanger pressure vessel; an inlet nozzle for the water that passes through the cylindrical pressure vessel and provides communication for a fluid with the existing capacity between the heat exchanger pressure vessel and the outer surface of the tubes; a steam outlet pipe enabling the steam to leave the heat exchanger pressure vessel

160

Liquid-Metal/Water Direct Contact Heat Exchange: Flow Visualization, Flow Stability, and Heat Transfer Using Real-Time X-Ray Imaging  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Advanced reactor system designs are being considered with liquid-metal cooling connected to a steam power cycle. In addition, current reactor safety systems are considering auxiliary cooling schemes that assure ex-vessel debris coolability utilizing direct water injection into molten material pools to achieve core quenching and eventual coolability. The phenomenon common in both applications is direct contact heat exchange. The current study focuses on detailed measurements of liquid-metal/water direct contact heat exchange that is directly applicable to improvements in effective heat transfer in devices that are being considered for both of these purposes.In this study, a test facility was designed at the University of Wisconsin-Madison to map the operating range of liquid-metal/water direct contact heat exchange. The test section (184-cm height, 45.75-cm width, and 10-cm depth) is a rectangular slice of a larger heat exchange device. This apparatus was used not only to provide measurements of integral thermal performance (i.e., volumetric heat transfer coefficient), but also local heat transfer coefficients in a bubbly flow regime with X-ray imaging based on measured parameters such as bubble formation time, bubble rise velocity, and bubble diameters.To determine these local heat transfer coefficients, a complete methodology of the X-ray radiography for two-phase flow measurement has been developed. With this methodology, a high-energy X-ray imaging system is optimihigh-energy X-ray imaging system is optimized for our heat exchange experiments. With this real-time, large-area, high-energy X-ray imaging system, the two-phase flow was quantitatively visualized. An efficient image processing strategy was developed by combining several optimal digital image-processing algorithms into a software computational tool written in MATLAB called T-XIP. Time-dependent heat transfer-related variables such as bubble volumes and velocities, were determined. Finally, an error analysis associated with these measurements has been given based on two independent procedures. This methodology will allow one to utilize X-ray attenuation for imaging vapor bubbles with acceptable errors (bubbles ?1 to 5 cm ± 5 to 20%).Subcooled water (Tsat - Twater [approximately equal to] 10 deg. C) was brought into contact with liquid lead (or lead alloys) at an elevated temperature (Tlm = 500 deg. C and Tlm - Tmelting [approximately equal to] 200 deg. C). The study was conducted over a range of ambient pressures (1 to 10 bar) with four different water injection rates (1.5 to 8 g/s; 0.1 to 1 kg/m2.s). The results showed that the system pressure has a slight effect on volumetric heat transfer coefficient, the bubble formation time, and the bubble rise velocity. Increasing the system pressure, however, resulted in an increase in the bubble average heat transfer coefficient. Increasing the water injection rate directly had only a small effect on the bubble rise velocity or formation rate. Increasing the water injection rate resulted in a decrease in the local bubble heat transfer coefficient.Direct contact heat transfer also has some key disadvantages; e.g., flow instabilities caused by local vapor explosion is one of the issues related to direct contact heat exchange, particularly for liquid/liquid exchange with high temperature differences. In this study, the region of stable heat transfer was mapped and the effects of the liquid metal temperature, the water injection rate, and the operating pressure were investigated. The pressure required to stabilize the heat exchange process was found to be a function of the water injection rate but generally increasing the system pressure helped stabilize the system. It was also found that the larger the injection rate, the higher the pressure required to stabilize the system

 
 
 
 
161

Nuclear research reactor IEA-R1 heat exchanger inlet nozzle flow - a preliminary study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As a computational fluid mechanics training task, a preliminary model was developed. ANSYS-CFX{sup R} code was used in order to study the flow at the inlet nozzle of the heat exchanger of the primary circuit of the nuclear research reactor IEA-R1. The geometry of the inlet nozzle is basically compounded by a cylinder and two radial rings which are welded on the shell. When doing so there is an offset between the holes through the shell and the inlet nozzle. Since it is not standardized by TEMA, the inlet nozzle was chosen for a preliminary study of the flow. Results for the proposed model are presented and discussed. (author)

Angelo, Gabriel; Andrade, Delvonei Alves de; Fainer, Gerson [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: gabriel.angelos@gmail.com, e-mail: delvonei@ipen.br, e-mail: gfainer@ipen.br; Angelo, Edvaldo [Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia. Grupo de Simulacao Numerica], e-mail: eangelo@mackenzie.com.br

2009-07-01

162

Heat exchanger optimization  

Science.gov (United States)

A computer code was developed which would analyze a shell-and-tube heat exchanger, and it was used in conjunction with a computer code for numerical optimization program. The problem is to find the smallest shell-and-tube heat exchanger with the minimum number of exchangers in series and parallel which will satisfy the heat duty and pressure drop requirements within the constraints imposed. The MINOS (Modular In-core Nonlinear Optimization System) programming code was used in the optimization of a shell-and-tube heat exchanger. MINOS purpose is to optimize a user written objective function. For heat exchanger design, it is necessary to develop two FORTRAN subroutines in order to analyze a heat exchanger. To get the generalized optimal heat exchanger design, the calculation method and data in Process Heat Transfer by Kern, was used. All the data, including material specifications were given as typical. Three types of case studies were studied and are discussed.

Lee, Ik-Sang

163

Investigations of flow characteristics in a plate fin and tube heat exchanger model composed of single cylinder  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The flow structure in a plate fin and tube heat exchanger model composed of single cylinder located between two parallel plates for duct height-to-cylinder diameter ratio of 0.365 for Reynolds numbers of 4000 and 7500 is investigated experimentally. Particle image velocimetry (PIV) technique is employed to obtain instantaneous, time-averaged and phase-averaged turbulent flow characteristics in the heat exchanger flow passage. Interactions between the main flow and the secondary flow are examined in detail in the horizontal and vertical planes of the flow passage. Horseshoe vortex system formed in close region of cylinder-plate junction and convected downstream in the main flow direction and its evolution in the circumference of the cylinder is also investigated in detail

164

Direct fired heat exchanger  

Science.gov (United States)

A gas-to-liquid heat exchanger system which transfers heat from a gas, generally the combustion gas of a direct-fired generator of an absorption machine, to a liquid, generally an absorbent solution. The heat exchanger system is in a counterflow fluid arrangement which creates a more efficient heat transfer.

Reimann, Robert C. (Lafayette, NY); Root, Richard A. (Spokane, WA)

1986-01-01

165

Impact of Groundwater Flow and Energy Load on Multiple Borehole Heat Exchangers.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of array configuration, that is, number, layout, and spacing, on the performance of multiple borehole heat exchangers (BHEs) is generally known under the assumption of fully conductive transport. The effect of groundwater flow on BHE performance is also well established, but most commonly for single BHEs. In multiple-BHE systems the effect of groundwater advection can be more complicated due to the induced thermal interference between the boreholes. To ascertain the influence of groundwater flow and borehole arrangement, this study investigates single- and multi-BHE systems of various configurations. Moreover, the influence of energy load balance is also examined. The results from corresponding cases with and without groundwater flow as well as balanced and unbalanced energy loads are cross-compared. The groundwater flux value, 10(-7) m/s, is chosen based on the findings of previous studies on groundwater flow interaction with BHEs and thermal response tests. It is observed that multi-BHE systems with balanced loads are less sensitive to array configuration attributes and groundwater flow, in the long-term. Conversely, multi-BHE systems with unbalanced loads are influenced by borehole array configuration as well as groundwater flow; these effects become more pronounced with time, unlike when the load is balanced. Groundwater flow has more influence on stabilizing loop temperatures, compared to array characteristics. Although borehole thermal energy storage (BTES) systems have a balanced energy load function, preliminary investigation on their efficiency shows a negative impact by groundwater which is due to their dependency on high temperature gradients between the boreholes and surroundings. PMID:25227154

Emad Dehkordi, S; Schincariol, Robert A; Olofsson, Bo

2014-09-16

166

Numerical simulation of a three-layered radiant porous heat exchanger including lattice Boltzmann simulation of fluid flow  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper deals with the hydrodynamic and thermal analysis of a new type of porous heat exchanger. This system operates based on energy conversion between gas enthalpy and thermal radiation. The proposed porous heat exchanger has one high temperature and two heat recovery (HR1 and HR2) sections. In high temperature section, the enthalpy of flowing high temperature gas that is converted to thermal radiation emitted towards the two heat recovery sections where the reverse energy conversion from thermal radiation to gas enthalpy takes place. In each section, a 2-D rectangular porous segment which is assumed to be absorbing, emitting and scattering is present. For theoretical analysis of the porous heat exchanger, the gas and solid are considered in non-local thermal equilibrium and separate energy equations are used for the two phases. Besides, in the gas flow simulation, the lattice Boltzmann method is applied to obtain the velocity distribution through the porous segments. For the purpose of thermal analysis of the proposed porous heat exchanger, volume-averaged velocities through the porous matrix obtained by lattice Boltzmann method are used in the gas energy equation, and then the coupled energy equations for gas and porous medium of each section are numerically solved using finite difference method. The radiative transfer equation is solved by discrete ordinates method to calculate the distribution of radiative heat flux in the porous medium. radiative heat flux in the porous medium. The numerical results consist of the gas and porous media temperature distributions. The variation of radiative heat flux are also presented. Furthermore, the effects of scattering albedo, optical thickness and inlet gas temperature on the efficiency of the proposed porous heat exchanger are investigated. It is revealed that this type of heat exchanger has high efficiency in comparison to conventional one. Also, the present numerical results for a porous radiant burner are compared with theoretical finding by the other investigator and good agreement is found.

167

Spatial vibrations of helical heat-exchanger tubes excited by internal coolant flow  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A complete system of differential equations for vibrations of screw spiral heat-exchange tubes excited by the inner flow of a coolant as well as an analytical formulation of a set of permissible boundary conditions are obtained on the basis of the Hamilton-Ostrogradsky variation principle. Many results obtained earlier by different authors as applied to curvilinear and linear pipe-lines and spatial rods are shown to follow from the above system as particular cases. Depending on fixation conditions of the heat ecxchange tube ends the system is established to be either conservative or nonconservative one. In the first case when the flow velocity exceeds its critical value a bending form of the stability loss is possible, while in the second case - a flatter one. Particular examples of conservative and nonconservative systems are considered with boundary problems formulated for them. The obtained equations and dependences with their essen-- tial common character may be widely applied in the engineer design of power-generating equipment elements

168

Thermal modeling of a greenhouse integrated to an aquifer coupled cavity flow heat exchanger system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A thermal model is developed for heating and cooling of an agricultural greenhouse integrated with an aquifer coupled cavity flow heat exchanger system (ACCFHES). The ACCFHES works on the principal of utilizing deep aquifer water available at the ground surface through an irrigation tube well already installed in every agricultural field at constant year-round temperature of 24 C. The analysis is based on the energy balance equations for different components of the greenhouse. Using the derived analytical expressions, a computer program is developed in C{sup ++} for computing the hourly greenhouse plant and room air temperature for various design and climatic parameters. Experimental validation of the developed model is carried out using the measured plant and room air temperature data of the greenhouse (in which capsicum is grown) for the winter and summer conditions of the year 2004-2005 at Chandigarh (31 N and 78 E), Punjab, India. It is observed that the predicted and measured values are in close agreement. Greenhouse room air and plant temperature is maintained 6-7 K and 5-6 K below ambient, respectively for an extreme summer day and 7-8 K and 5-6 K above ambient, respectively for an extreme winter night. Finally, parametric studies are conducted to observe the effect of various operating parameters such as mass of the plant, area of the plant, mass flow rate of the circulating air and area of the ACCFHES on the greenhouse room air and plant temperature. (author)

Sethi, V.P. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana 141 008, Punjab (India); Sharma, S.K. [Energy Research Centre, Panjab University, Chandigarh 160 017, Punjab (India)

2007-06-15

169

A relaxation-projection method for compressible flows. Part II: Artificial heat exchanges for multiphase shocks  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The relaxation-projection method developed in Saurel et al. [R. Saurel, E. Franquet, E. Daniel, O. Le Metayer, A relaxation-projection method for compressible flows. Part I: The numerical equation of state for the Euler equations, J. Comput. Phys. (2007) 822-845] is extended to the non-conservative hyperbolic multiphase flow model of Kapila et al. [A.K. Kapila, Menikoff, J.B. Bdzil, S.F. Son, D.S. Stewart, Two-phase modeling of deflagration to detonation transition in granular materials: reduced equations, Physics of Fluids 13(10) (2001) 3002-3024]. This model has the ability to treat multi-temperatures mixtures evolving with a single pressure and velocity and is particularly interesting for the computation of interface problems with compressible materials as well as wave propagation in heterogeneous mixtures. The non-conservative character of this model poses however computational challenges in the presence of shocks. The first issue is related to the Riemann problem resolution that necessitates shock jump conditions. Thanks to the Rankine-Hugoniot relations proposed and validated in Saurel et al. [R. Saurel, O. Le Metayer, J. Massoni, S. Gavrilyuk, Shock jump conditions for multiphase mixtures with stiff mechanical relaxation, Shock Waves 16 (3) (2007) 209-232] exact and approximate 2-shocks Riemann solvers are derived. However, the Riemann solver is only a part of a numerical scheme and non-conservative variables pose extra difficulties for the projection or cell a difficulties for the projection or cell average of the solution. It is shown that conventional Godunov schemes are unable to converge to the exact solution for strong multiphase shocks. This is due to the incorrect partition of the energies or entropies in the cell averaged mixture. To circumvent this difficulty a specific Lagrangian scheme is developed. The correct partition of the energies is achieved by using an artificial heat exchange in the shock layer. With the help of an asymptotic analysis this heat exchange takes a similar form as the 'pseudoviscosity' introduced by Von Neumann and Richtmyer [J. Von Neumann, R.D. Richtmyer, A method for the numerical calculation of hydrodynamic shocks, J. Appl. Phys. 21 (1950) 232-237]. The present Lagrangian numerical scheme thus combines Riemann solvers and artificial heat exchanges. An Eulerian variant is then obtained by using the relaxation-projection method developed earlier by the authors for the Euler equations. The method is validated against exact solutions based on the multiphase shock relations as well as exact solutions of the Euler equations in the context of interface problems. The method is able to solve interfaces separating pure fluids or heterogeneous mixtures with very large density ratio and with very strong shocks

170

Heat exchange apparatus  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present invention relates to heat exchangers used for transferring heat from the gas cooled core of a nuclear reactor to a secondary medium during standby and emergency conditions. The construction of the heat exchanger described is such that there is a minimum of welds exposed to the reactor coolant, the parasitic heat loss during normal operation of the reactor is minimized and the welds and heat transfer tubes are easily inspectable. (UK)

171

Wound tube heat exchanger  

Science.gov (United States)

What is disclosed is a wound tube heat exchanger in which a plurality of tubes having flattened areas are held contiguous adjacent flattened areas of tubes by a plurality of windings to give a double walled heat exchanger. The plurality of windings serve as a plurality of effective force vectors holding the conduits contiguous heat conducting walls of another conduit and result in highly efficient heat transfer. The resulting heat exchange bundle is economical and can be coiled into the desired shape. Also disclosed are specific embodiments such as the one in which the tubes are expanded against their windings after being coiled to insure highly efficient heat transfer.

Ecker, Amir L. (Duncanville, TX)

1983-01-01

172

Transient Thermal Behavior of a Vertical Solar Storage Tank with a Mantle Heat Exchanger During No-Flow Operation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Transient thermal behavior of a vertical storage tank of a domestic solar heating system with a mantle heat exchanger has been investigated numerically in the charging mode. It is assumed that the tank is initially filled with uniform cold water. At an instant of time, the hot fluid from collector outlet is uniformly injected in the upper section of the mantle heat exchanger and after heat transfer with the fluid inside the tank, withdrawn from the bottom part of the heat exchanger. The conservation equations in the cylindrical coordinate and in axis-symmetric condition have been used according to the geometry under investigation. Governing equations have been discretized by employing the finite volume method and the SIMPLER algorithm has been used for coupling between momentum and pressure equations. The Low Reynolds Number (LRN k ?? model is utilized for treating turbulence in the fluid. First, the transient thermal behavior of heat storage tank and the process of formation of thermal stratification in the heat storage tank were investigated. Then, the influence of Rayleigh number in the heat storage tank, Reynolds number in the mantle heat exchanger and vertical positioning of mantle on the flow and thermal fields and the formation of the thermal stratification was investigated. It is found that for higher values of Rayleigh number, a more suitable thermal stratification is established inside the tank. Also it is noticed that increasing the incoming fluid velocity through the mantle heat exchanger causes a faster formation of the thermal stratification. A superior thermal performance was achieved when the mantle heat exchanger is positioned at the middle height of the storage tank.

A. Barzegar

2009-01-01

173

Optimization of Heat Exchangers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective of this research is to develop tools to design and optimize heat exchangers (HE) and compact heat exchangers (CHE) for intermediate loop heat transport systems found in the very high temperature reator (VHTR) and other Generation IV designs by addressing heat transfer surface augmentation and conjugate modeling. To optimize heat exchanger, a fast running model must be created that will allow for multiple designs to be compared quickly. To model a heat exchanger, volume averaging theory, VAT, is used. VAT allows for the conservation of mass, momentum and energy to be solved for point by point in a 3 dimensional computer model of a heat exchanger. The end product of this project is a computer code that can predict an optimal configuration for a heat exchanger given only a few constraints (input fluids, size, cost, etc.). As VAT computer code can be used to model characteristics )pumping power, temperatures, and cost) of heat exchangers more quickly than traditional CFD or experiment, optimization of every geometric parameter simultaneously can be made. Using design of experiment, DOE and genetric algorithms, GE, to optimize the results of the computer code will improve heat exchanger disign.

Ivan Catton

2010-10-01

174

Simulation of Cross Flow Heat Exchanger for Multi Tubes Using FLUENT 6.3.26  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In chemical engineering a lot of work is done to improve the results of the equipment to make its widespread applications be possible. Simulation is extensively used as the power of the computer is well known nowadays. Simulation is frequently used to study both real and virtual behavior. In this paper experimentation, simulation and development of mathematical models are performed. Practical experiments are made on a cross flow heat exchanger for a multi tube layout with staggered arrangement to study the rate of heat transfer. Simulation is carried out when experimental results are obtained. For designing and meshing of plate geometries GAMBIT 2.3.16 is used and then solution and analysis are accomplished on FLUENT 6.3.26. By comparing experimental and simulated results, it is found that both validate each other with minor differences. Empirical relationships have been also developed. Re and Nu relationships are developed mathematically and compared to the models found in literature concerned. The developed models are found in good agreement with theoretically available models. The future research in this regard can be done by using viscous fluids and an advanced version of the software like Cubit for designing and meshing the plate geometry.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.erem.65.3.4453

Suneela Sardar

2013-10-01

175

Non-Newtonian flows in laminar regime in chevron plate heat exchangers: the influence of geometrical configuration  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Physical processing brings about irreversible textural and sensorial properties of nearly all the fluids on the food industry. In liquid food processing, plate heat exchangers (PHEs) are commonly used in the heating or cooling stages due to their advantages, such as high efficiency, ease of maintenance and cleaning and flexibility on account of the modular design. Although, laminar or low Reynolds number flows are usually obtained when liquid foods are processed in PHEs, the behaviour is s...

Fernandes, Carla S.; Dias, Ricardo P.; No?brega, Joa?o M.; Maia, Joa?o M.

2007-01-01

176

Annular flow enhanced two-phase evaporative heat exchanger for space-based systems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The development of multi-kilowatt space-based systems requires the transport of waste heat loads over long distances in micro-gravity conditions. In this context two-phase heat transport systems are attractive enabling a high rate of heat transport with low pump powers compared to single phase systems. In this context the design of a two-phase heat exchanger to transfer heat from a single-phase fluid (water) to a two-phase fluid (Freon 114) is discussed. Until relia...

Nikanpour, D.

1991-01-01

177

Cascade reactor: heat exchanger design  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The authors examined four heat-exchanger concepts: fluid-bed immersed-tube, fluid-bed direct contact, gravity-flow cascade (with helium gas in the interstices), and gravity-flow cascade (with vacuum in the interstices). Heat-transfer models and correlations can be applied with reasonable confidence for the case of a moving granule bed flowing over heat exchanger surfaces that are under vacuum, or with interstitial helium gas. Fluid-bed heat-transfer correlations are also available for immersed-tube heat-exchange surfaces. The secondary fluid can be either helium or water, but for this study, they evaluated the heat exchangers for uniform secondary steam-side conditions of conventional, superheated steam turbine cycles of modern fossil-fired power plants. All concepts use double-walled tubes to minimize tritium permeation into the steam and to reduce the possibility of water leaks into the blanket. They chose granule inlet and outlet temperatures to the heat exchanger as 1200 K and 800 K. The resulting designs are summarized in a table and discussed

178

Comparative Study of Heat Exchangers Using CFD  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A parallel flow heat exchanger and a corresponding ribbed tube heat exchanger is modeled and numerically analysed using a commercial finite volume CFD package. Pro-E & ANSYS 14.5 softwares are used for the designing and the analysis. CFD predictions of effectiveness of the two heat exchangers are obtained and compared. After selecting the best modeling approach, the sensitivity of the results to particular flow rate is investigated. It is observed that the flow and the tempera...

Melvinraj C R; Vishal Varghese C

2014-01-01

179

Nature's Heat Exchangers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Discusses the heat-transfer systems of different animals. Systems include heat conduction into the ground, heat transferred by convection, heat exchange in lizards, fish and polar animals, the carotid rete system, electromagnetic radiation from animals and people, and plant and animal fiber optics. (MDH)

Barnes, George

1991-01-01

180

Modelling of Multistream LNG Heat Exchangers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The main goal of this thesis is to find out if a liquefied natural gas multistream heat exchanger numerical model is achievable. This should include several features usually neglected in nowadays available heat exchanger models, such as flow maldistribution, changes in fluid properties and heat exchanger dynamic behaviour. In order to accomplish that objective a simpler case is modelled. Efforts are put in achieving numerical stability.A counter flow natural gas and mixed refrigerant heat exc...

Soler Fossas, Joan

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Experimental Research on Gas-Solid Flow in an External Heat Exchanger with Double Outlets  

Science.gov (United States)

A new type scaling-up scheme of CFB boiler that takes separator as center and furnaces are laid around was put forward in this paper. In the recycle system, a new type heat exchanger device with double outlets was designed for this disposal scheme. As we know, the external heat exchanger is very important for the CFB, which be able no only to adjust the steam temperature, but also to adjust the bed temperature. In this paper, through the adjustment of air speed in different room of the heat exchanger, the adjusting performance of the new type heat exchanger was analyzed. Moreover, the test of the pressure in the whole recycle system was analyzed. The pressure balance system of the circulating circuit with this new arrangement scheme was realized. Through this test research, the main conclusions were got as follows: The external heat exchanger, which has two recycled solid outlets, could run flexibly and stably and could successfully discharge the materials from the standpipe into either of the furnaces. This test device has a good pressure and material balance system.

Liu, H. Z.; Lu, X. F.

182

Active microchannel heat exchanger  

Science.gov (United States)

The present invention is an active microchannel heat exchanger with an active heat source and with microchannel architecture. The microchannel heat exchanger has (a) an exothermic reaction chamber; (b) an exhaust chamber; and (c) a heat exchanger chamber in thermal contact with the exhaust chamber, wherein (d) heat from the exothermic reaction chamber is convected by an exothermic reaction exhaust through the exhaust chamber and by conduction through a containment wall to the working fluid in the heat exchanger chamber thereby raising a temperature of the working fluid. The invention is particularly useful as a liquid fuel vaporizer and/or a steam generator for fuel cell power systems, and as a heat source for sustaining endothermic chemical reactions and initiating exothermic reactions.

Tonkovich, Anna Lee Y. (Pasco, WA) [Pasco, WA; Roberts, Gary L. (West Richland, WA) [West Richland, WA; Call, Charles J. (Pasco, WA) [Pasco, WA; Wegeng, Robert S. (Richland, WA) [Richland, WA; Wang, Yong (Richland, WA) [Richland, WA

2001-01-01

183

Nuclear heat exchangers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents general design features and characteristics of nuclear heat exchangers including nuclear steam generators. In particular, the heat exchangers in the pressurized light or heavy water reactor and the liquid metal fast breeder reactor plants, and their thermal and hydraulic characteristics are discussed in detail

184

Support for heat exchangers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The very large heat exchangers which are typical of many nuclear power plants place great demands on their supports. The support here described is for a vertical heat exchanger. A convex Lubrit plate allows a certain amount of transverse and rotational movement of the heat exhanger relative to the foundation. Taps engaging in the support surface of the heat exchanger and between the support box and the concrete foundation ensure that relative movement is restricted to those surfaces where it is intended. A steel box structure embedded in the concrete foundation dissipates heat transferred through the support system and avoids overheating the concrete. Horizontal stays support the heat exchanger against the concrete walls. (JIW)

185

Analytical study of two-phase-flow heat exchangers for OTEC Systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The work began in July 1975. Prior in-house research at the Laboratory had spanned two years and had yielded a preliminary design for a low-cost OTEC plant--ship intended for operation in tropical oceans for producing ammonia or other energy-intensive products. Because the heat exchanger concept represented an extrapolation from existing experience, a comprehensive analytical study followed by an essentially full-scale experiment with the basic heat exchanger elements is needed. The analytical study reported herein is believed to meet the first requirement, and a plan for the experiment is included. (WDM)

Olsen, H.L.; Pandolfini, P.P.

1975-07-01

186

Overview of numerical methods for predicting flow-induced vibration and wear of heat-exchanger tubes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Practical interest in performing predictive analysis of vibration and wear risks of industrial tube bundles, e.g. in nuclear reactor heat exchangers, subjected to cross flow is broadly recognized. A predictive analysis of an heat-exchanger design against severe vibration and wear has to cope with experimental data on FIV and fretting wear, together with the use of analytical and numerical methods for predicting linear and nonlinear tube response. This paper describes a general approcah of the problem currently under development at C.E.A. Attention is especially paid to some key aspects of the numerical techniques, namely, the modelisation of flow-induced forcing functions and the modelisation of impact and sliding at tube-support gaps. These topics are exemplified by numerical results related to some typical situations including the case of random vibration induced by flow turbulence and fluid-elastic vibration

187

Determining the heat exchanger capacity of the 6.5/10 MW reactor as a function of temperature and water coolant flow  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes the possibility of increasing the thermal power of the RA reactor, since there is a possibility to increase the heat flow of the heat exchanger. It is shown that the heat flow of the heat exchanger can be represented as a function of flow and the temperature of the incoming cooling fluid: Q = f (Q',t1'). Calculated values of the heat transfer coefficient are reduced by 25% because it has been found that the measured value was 25% higher than the real value of the heat transfer coefficient. Obtained data and diagrams can be used for determining the heat exchanger operating conditions for specific reactor operation regimes. The diagram shows that the the existing heat exchanger enables reactor operation at 10 MW power under any cooling condition, and even at 15 MW power under some conditions

188

Performance evaluation on an air-cooled heat exchanger for alumina nanofluid under laminar flow  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract This study analyzes the characteristics of alumina (Al2O3)/water nanofluid to determine the feasibility of its application in an air-cooled heat exchanger for heat dissipation for PEMFC or electronic chip cooling. The experimental sample was Al2O3/water nanofluid produced by the direct synthesis method at three different concentrations (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 wt.%). The experiments in this study measured the thermal conductivity and vi...

Teng Tun-Chien; Teng Tun-Ping; Hung Yi-Hsuan; Chen Jyun-Hong

2011-01-01

189

A study of heat and fluid flow phenomena on the gas side of circular-tube plate-fin heat exchangers  

Science.gov (United States)

The heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics of a circular-tube, plate-fin heat exchanger geometry were investigated. These parameters, expressed as the Colburn J factor and a friction factor f, are presented for Reynolds numbers from 100 to 3200, for exchanger samples with 1, 2 and 4 tube rows and 8, 10 and 12 fins per inch. These results are presented graphically and as a mathematical predictor model. The Taylor first order expansion and a Monte-Carlo numerical simulation of data were used to estimate the uncertainty in the values of J and f due to instrument discretization and random error. Comparisons with earlier work by other authors using simplified equations were undertaken. Dye-streak flow visualization was undertaken to study the flow field in four times scale models of circular-tube exchanger geometries with louvred and un-louvred plate-fins. Local heat transfer coefficients were obtained for the plain exchanger using a phase change paint in a transient condition. Correlations between the flow field and local heat transfer coefficient distribution were identified on the plain geometry and used to estimate the trends in heat transfer coefficient distribution for a louvred geometry. Numerical prediction of the flow fields present in a three dimensional plain circular-tube, plate-fin exchanger geometry, and two designs of multi-fin louvre bank were undertaken using the PHOENICS 81 code. Comparisons of predicted flow fields and experimental flow visualization showed good qualitative agreement. The development and manufacture of the various rigs, tools, and techniques used in the investigation are described.

Baldwin, Stephen

190

Modular Heat Exchanger With Integral Heat Pipe  

Science.gov (United States)

Modular heat exchanger with integral heat pipe transports heat from source to Stirling engine. Alternative to heat exchangers depending on integrities of thousands of brazed joints, contains only 40 brazed tubes.

Schreiber, Jeffrey G.

1992-01-01

191

Flow-induced vibration specifications for steam generators and liquid heat exchangers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is desirable to avoid vibration problems by following appropriate guidelines and specifications at the design stage. Accordingly, design specifications were developed to prevent tube failures due to vibration in nuclear steam generators and liquid heat exchangers. These specifications are outlined in this report. (author). 14 refs., 2 figs

192

Plate-Type Heat Exchanger  

International Science & Technology Center (ISTC)

Conduction of Experimental Studies of Heat Exchange Element of Plate-Type Heat Exchanger Aiming at Enhancement of its Effectiveness Owing to Design Improvement and Optimization of Used Heat Exchange Intensifiers

193

A corrosive resistant heat exchanger  

Science.gov (United States)

A corrosive and erosive resistant heat exchanger which recovers heat from a contaminated heat stream. The heat exchanger utilizes a boundary layer of innocuous gas, which is continuously replenished, to protect the heat exchanger surface from the hot contaminated gas. The innocuous gas is pumped through ducts or perforations in the heat exchanger wall. Heat from the heat stream is transferred by radiation to the heat exchanger wall. Heat is removed from the outer heat exchanger wall by a heat recovery medium. 3 figs., 3 tabs.

Richlen, S.L.

1987-08-10

194

Heat exchanger design handbook  

CERN Document Server

Completely revised and updated to reflect current advances in heat exchanger technology, Heat Exchanger Design Handbook, Second Edition includes enhanced figures and thermal effectiveness charts, tables, new chapter, and additional topics--all while keeping the qualities that made the first edition a centerpiece of information for practicing engineers, research, engineers, academicians, designers, and manufacturers involved in heat exchange between two or more fluids.See What's New in the Second Edition: Updated information on pressure vessel codes, manufacturer's association standards A new c

Thulukkanam, Kuppan

2013-01-01

195

Design evaluation of flow-induced vibrations for a large shell and tube type nuclear heat exchanger  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Increased flow requirements for a large sized shell and tube type nuclear heat exchanger during advanced stage of manufacturing required re-evaluation of the Design to withstand flow-induced vibrations and suggest suitable Design alternatives within the constraints imposed at this advanced stage of manufacturing. Detailed flow-induced vibration analysis was done and two design alternatives offered. The first one consisted in attaching a wire-netted grid mounted alongside the baffle supports and the second considered removal of tubes from the vibration prone double span window region, which was counter-checked for heat-transfer adequacy requirement. Of the two alternatives, the second one was accepted due to its easy application at the advanced manufacturing stage. While the application of the wire-netted grid was not considered in the specific case, this might find application wherever the vibration prone double span tubes cannot be removed due to heat transfer requirements of Design

196

Proactive heat exchanger program  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes the proactive heat exchanger program at Pickering Nuclear Generating Station. The objectives, methodology, benefits and costs are presented. Examples of initial results are included. 4 refs, 2 figs

197

Determination of optimum aspect ratio for laminar flow heat transfer of dilute viscoelastic solutions in flattened tube heat exchangers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Heat transfer of viscoelastic liquids in five flattened tubes with aspect ratios ranging from 1.4 to 5.7 were presented. Water was used as the heating medium; and solutions of polyacrylamide were used as the viscoelastic solutions. Heat transfer increase from flattening was 101% higher while secondary flow contributed a maximum increase of 65% for the 250 ppm solution and about 85% for the 500 ppm solutions at an aspect ratio of 1.6. (orig.)

Ismail, Z. [Universiti Malaya, Civil Engineering Department, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Karim, R. [TTDI, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

2012-08-15

198

Counterflow Regolith Heat Exchanger  

Science.gov (United States)

A problem exists in reducing the total heating power required to extract oxygen from lunar regolith. All such processes require heating a great deal of soil, and the heat energy is wasted if it cannot be recycled from processed material back into new material. The counterflow regolith heat exchanger (CoRHE) is a device that transfers heat from hot regolith to cold regolith. The CoRHE is essentially a tube-in-tube heat exchanger with internal and external augers attached to the inner rotating tube to move the regolith. Hot regolith in the outer tube is moved in one direction by a right-hand - ed auger, and the cool regolith in the inner tube is moved in the opposite direction by a left-handed auger attached to the inside of the rotating tube. In this counterflow arrangement, a large fraction of the heat from the expended regolith is transferred to the new regolith. The spent regolith leaves the heat exchanger close to the temperature of the cold new regolith, and the new regolith is pre-heated close to the initial temperature of the spent regolith. Using the CoRHE can reduce the heating requirement of a lunar ISRU system by 80%, reducing the total power consumption by a factor of two. The unique feature of this system is that it allows for counterflow heat exchange to occur between solids, instead of liquids or gases, as is commonly done. In addition, in variants of this concept, the hydrogen reduction can be made to occur within the counterflow heat exchanger itself, enabling a simplified lunar ISRU (in situ resource utilization) system with excellent energy economy and continuous nonbatch mode operation.

Zubrin, Robert; Jonscher, Peter

2013-01-01

199

Performance Investigation of Plate Type Heat Exchanger (A Case Study)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Heat exchanger is a thermodynamic system which is most commonly used in the process industry for exchanging heat energy between the fluids. flowing in the same or opposite direction. It is desired that effectiveness of heat exchanger should remain as large as possible. Heat exchanger's performance may be improved by the addition of fins or corrugations. These investigations include design of plate type heat exchanger, heat transfer enhancement, flow phenomenon and cleanliness ...

Simarpreet Singh; Sanjeev Jakhar

2014-01-01

200

Shell side numerical analysis of a shell and tube heat exchanger considering the effects of baffle inclination angle on fluid flow using CFD  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this present study, attempts were made to investigate the impacts of various baffle inclination angles on fluid flow and the heat transfer characteristics of a shell-and-tube heat exchanger for three different baffle inclination angles namely 0°,10° and 20°. The simulation results for various shell and tube heat exchangers, one with segmental baffles perpendicular to fluid flow and two with segmental baffles inclined to the direction of fluid flow are compared for their performance. The shell side design has been investigated numerically by modeling a small shell-and-tube heat exchanger. The study is concerned with a single shell and single side pass parallel flow heat exchanger. The flow and temperature fields inside the shell are studied using non-commercial CFD software tool ANSYS CFX 12.1. For a given baffle cut of 36 %, the heat exchanger performance is investigated by varying mass flow rate and baffle inclination angle. From the CFD simulation results, the shell side outlet temperature, pressure drop, recirculation near the baffles, optimal mass flow rate and the optimum baffle inclination angle for the given heat exchanger geometry are determined.

Raj Karuppa Thundil R.

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Testing and analysis of immersed heat exchangers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objectives were to determine the performance of four immersed, ''supply-side'' heat exchangers used in solar domestic-hot-water systems; to examine the effects of flow rate, temperature difference, and coil configuration on performance; and to develop a simple model to predict the performance of immersed heat exchangers. We tested four immersed heat exchangers: a smooth coil, a finned spiral, a single-wall bayonet, and a double-wall bayonet. We developed two analyticl models and a simple finite difference model. We experimentally verified that the performance of these heat exchangers depends on the flow rate through them; we also showed that the temperature difference between the heat exchanger's inlet and the storage tank can strongly affect a heat exchanger's performance. We also compared the effects of the heat exchanger's configuration and correlated Nusselt and Rayleigh numbers for each heat exchanger tested. The smooth coil had a higher effectiveness than the others, while the double-wall bayonet had a very low effectiveness. We still do not know the long-term effectiveness of heat exchangers regarding scale accumulation, nor do we know the effects of very low flow rates on a heat exchanger's performance.

Farrington, R.B.; Bingham, C.E.

1986-08-01

202

CROSSMIX; A mathematical model of a multi-pass cross-flow heat exchanger with primary fluid mixing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A two-dimensional model of a multi-pass cross-flow heat exchanger incorporating the interaction between primary and secondary fluids has been developed. Turbulent mixing and the cross flows due to temperature induced density gradients in the primary fluid are also included. The modelling equations are solved numerically using finite difference methods. The model is applicable to either serpentine or helical boilers and enables the effects of blanked-off tubes and other asymmetries to be predicted. An essential input to the model is the turbulent diffusivity within the relevant boiler geometry and the acquisition of these experimental data is discussed. (author)

203

NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF VERTICAL GROUND HEAT EXCHANGERS FOR GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMPS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract: This paper presents the numerical simulation of several types of vertical ground heat exchangers. The ground heat exchangers (GHEs) such as U-tube, double-tube and multi-tube were simulated using the commercial CFD software FLUENT. Water flows through the heat exchangers and exchanges the heat to the ground. The inlet and outlet water temperatures, flow rate, and heat exchange rate are presented. The heat exchange rates in discontinuous short-time period of operation ...

Jalaluddin

2011-01-01

204

PIPO-FE: an updated computer code to evaluate heat exchanger and steam generator flow-induced vibration  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

PIPO-FE is the latest version of a computer code that has been developed over the past 30 years to assess the flow-induced vibration of heat exchanger and steam generator tubes due to fluidelastic instability, random-turbulence excitation and vortex shedding. The code has recently been updated to include design guidelines prepared by Chalk River Laboratories of Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. and the Department of Mechanical Engineering of Ecole Polytechnique, Montreal, and to estimate fretting-wear damage caused by random-turbulence vibration. This paper provides a general description of the updated code and includes examples to illustrate how the code can be used to support the design and modification of power plant heat exchangers and related research activities. (author)

205

Probe Measures Fouling As In Heat Exchangers  

Science.gov (United States)

Combustion deposits reduce transfer of heat. Instrument measures fouling like that on gas side of heat exchanger in direct-fired boiler or heat-recovery system. Heat-flux probe includes tube with embedded meter in outer shell. Combustion gases flow over probe, and fouling accumulates on it, just as fouling would on heat exchanger. Embedded heat-flow meter is sandwich structure in which thin Chromel layers and middle alloy form thermopile. Users determine when fouling approaches unacceptable levels so they schedule cleaning and avoid decreased transfer of heat and increased drop in pressure fouling causes. Avoids cost of premature, unnecessary maintenance.

Marner, Wilbur J.; Macdavid, Kenton S.

1990-01-01

206

Microgravity condensing heat exchanger  

Science.gov (United States)

A heat exchanger having a plurality of heat exchanging aluminum fins with hydrophilic condensing surfaces which are stacked and clamped between two cold plates. The cold plates are aligned radially along a plane extending through the axis of a cylindrical duct and hold the stacked and clamped portions of the heat exchanging fins along the axis of the cylindrical duct. The fins extend outwardly from the clamped portions along approximately radial planes. The spacing between fins is symmetric about the cold plates, and are somewhat more closely spaced as the angle they make with the cold plates approaches 90.degree.. Passageways extend through the fins between vertex spaces which provide capillary storage and communicate with passageways formed in the stacked and clamped portions of the fins, which communicate with water drains connected to a pump externally to the duct. Water with no entrained air is drawn from the capillary spaces.

Thomas, Christopher M. (Inventor); Ma, Yonghui (Inventor); North, Andrew (Inventor); Weislogel, Mark M. (Inventor)

2011-01-01

207

Modular heat exchanger  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A heat exchanger for use in nuclear reactors is disclosed which includes a heat exchange tube bundle formed from similiar modules each having a hexagonal shroud containing a large number of thermally conductive tubes which are connected with inlet and outlet headers at opposite ends of each module, the respective headers being adapted for interconnection with suitable inlet and outlet manifold means. In order to adapt the heat exchanger for operation in a high temperature and high pressure environment and to provide access to all tube ports at opposite ends of the tube bundle, a spherical tube sheet is arranged in sealed relation across the chamber with an elongated duct extending outwardly therefrom to provide manifold means for interconnection with the opposite end of the tube bundle

208

Visualization and void fraction measurement of gas-liquid two-phase flow in plate heat exchanger  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Adiabatic and boiling gas-liquid two-phase flows in a simulated plate heat exchanger with a single-ribbed channel were visualized by a thermal neutron radiography method. In the experiments under adiabatic condition, the air-water two-phase flows in an aluminum test section were visualized. In the boiling two-phase flow experiments, chlorofluorocarbon R141b was used as the working fluid. Two-dimensional distributions of void fraction were measured from visualized images via some image processing techniques. As a result, it was shown that both the phases tended to flow straight in the ribbed channel, and mixing of gas and liquid phases was weak. Moreover, when working fluids flew into the test section as a gas-liquid mixture, the phase distributions were strongly affected by a liquid pool at the test section inlet.

Asano, H. E-mail: asano@mech.kobe-u.ac.jp; Takenaka, N.; Fujii, T.; Maeda, N

2004-10-01

209

Heat exchanger panel  

Science.gov (United States)

The present invention relates to a heat exchanger panel which has broad utility in high temperature environments. The heat exchanger panel has a first panel, a second panel, and at least one fluid containment device positioned intermediate the first and second panels. At least one of the first panel and the second panel have at least one feature on an interior surface to accommodate the at least one fluid containment device. In a preferred embodiment, each of the first and second panels is formed from a high conductivity, high temperature composite material. Also, in a preferred embodiment, the first and second panels are joined together by one or more composite fasteners.

Warburton, Robert E. (Inventor); Cuva, William J. (Inventor)

2005-01-01

210

Heat exchanger materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This chapter reviews recent research into corrosion mechanisms and suggests potential remedies for PWR steam generators. The key aspects of the data base assembled in support of the reference LMFBR steam generator and IHX are summarized. The author reviews early field experience and discusses the development of alternative or advanced LMFBR heat exchanger materials, reviews corrosion problems in condensers (exclusively LWR) and searches for improved tubing materials. Typical designs and materials of construction for these heat exchanger components are described and the modifications to conventional designs necessitated by the emerging CTR concepts are also included

211

Tube boiler heat exchanger  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The tube boiler heat exchanger has been designed for use in a steam generator circuit of a sodium cooled fast breeder reactor. U-type heat exchanger tubes with legs of different lengths are suspended within the boiler. They are made of steel with 9% chrome content. Each tube is passed through an opening in the tube wall with some clearance and then tightly sealed to the tube wall by means of a sleeve. This seal is achieved by a brazed connection using Nicrobraz 135 brazing metal (nickel base alloy) applied by means of a high frequency induction technique. (GL/DG)

212

Heat exchanger for a nuclear reactor with gaseous primary medium flowing around it  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The helium cooling gas enters the helical bundle of pipes from below in the heat exchanger. The helical bundle of pipes is surrounded by an outer and inner jacket. There are practically no different expansions from the support pipe in the area of the upper edge of the pipe bundle. By connecting the upper live steam part of the pipe to the outer pipe via a thermal expansion compensator, a gradual transition is created from the live steam temperature to the feedwater temperature. (DG)

213

Vortex structure of a flow in a heat exchanger with twisted tubes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Experimental study on the intensity of longitudinal rate pulsations, autocorrelation function, spectral density and turbulence macroquantities in twisted tube beams with relative twisting pitches S/d=12.5 and 25 is carried out, therewith analogue thermoanemometric equipment, computers and digital signal analyser with tape interrecording, that allows an accurate X-ray analysis, was used. It is noticed that in the flow core an appreciable anisotropy of properties is detected that is due to presence of open channels and places of the tube contact. With high Reynolds numbers turbulent structure in this flow region yields to isotropic that may be used in designing heat mass transfer calculations in such beams

214

Straight tube heat exchanger for hot gases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The hot helium gas entering the heat exchanger flows through several units with the gas pipes being arranged in crosscounter flow. The second cold gas entering surrounds these units in a duct, which is in turn surrounded by a duct, in which the cooled helium gas flows back. Entry and outlet of both gases are situated at the same end of the heat exchanger, so that it can expand freely from one end to the other. (GL)

215

Experimental study of heat exchange coefficients, critical heat flux and charge losses, using water-steam mixtures in turbulent flow in a vertical tube  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two stainless steel tubes were used (with diameters of 5 and 10 mm, lengths 400 and 600 mm respectively), heated electrically (50 Hz). The mixture flows from top to bottom. The work was carried out mainly on mixtures of high concentration (x > 0.1), at pressures between 50 and 60 kg/cm2, flowing as a liquid film on the walls of the tube with droplets suspended in the central current of steam. By analysis of the heat transfer laws the exchange mechanisms were established, and the conditions under which the critical heat flux may be exceeded without danger of actual burnout were determined. In this way high output concentrations (xs > 0.9) may be obtained. An attempt has been made to find out to what extent existing correlation formulae can be used to account for the phenomena observed. It is shown that those dealing with exchange coefficients can only be applied in a first approximation in cases where exchange by convection is preponderant, and only below the critical flux. The formulae proposed by WAPD and CISE do not give a satisfactory estimation of the critical heat flux, and the essential reasons for this inadequacy are explained. Lastly, the Martinelli and Nelson method may be used to an approximation of 30 per cent for the calculation of charge losses. (author)

216

Compact ceramic heat-exchangers: design, fabrication and testing  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The efficiency, application and production of ceramic compact heat exchangers made from silicon infiltrated silicon carbide is discussed. Processing techniques for plate type heat exchangers, component design, the design of the testing facility for ceramic heat exchanger elements and performance data of the standard design of ceramic cross flow heat exchanger are outlined.

Heinrich, J.; Huber, J.; Schelter, H.; Ganz, R.; Golly, R.; Foerster, S.; Quell, P.

217

Tubular heat exchanger  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The invention concerns a heat exchanger of which the tubes, placed in a long casing, cross the casing cover in a sealed manner. These tubes are fixed to the tube plate forming this cover or to the branch tubes it comprises by means of compression joints. These joints make it possible to do away with welds that are sources of defects and to improve the operational safety of the apparatus. An advantageous form of the heat exchanger under the invention includes a manifold for each thermal exchange fluid, and one end of each tube is connected to this manifold by a pipe that is itself connected to the tube by a threaded connection. The latter provides for easy disconnection of the pipe in order to introduce a probe for inspecting the state of the tubes

218

Technical heat and flow investigations into heat exchangers made out of synthetic materials, for use in dry cooling towers  

Science.gov (United States)

Bare tube and flat heat exchangers (HE) made out of synthetic materials were investigated for use in dry cooling towers with natural draft. The advantages of synthetic maternals are higher corrosion resistance, easier workability and lower cost. Suitability tests were performed designing the total system based on HE and tower construction. It is shown that bare tube bundles composed of tube walls or hollow plates separated by plastic strips with wall thicknesses less than 0.6 mm are an alternative to finned tube HE's of metal. Assuming specific building costs of 330 DM/sqm for the tower shell and HE manufacturing costs of 20 DM/kg, several solutions can be found with slight differences in heat transfer conditions and total costs between 22 and 25.10E6 DM.

Pollack, H.

1981-01-01

219

Transient Thermal Behavior of a Vertical Solar Storage Tank with a Mantle Heat Exchanger During No-Flow Operation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Transient thermal behavior of a vertical storage tank of a domestic solar heating system with a mantle heat exchanger has been investigated numerically in the charging mode. It is assumed that the tank is initially filled with uniform cold water. At an instant of time, the hot fluid from collector outlet is uniformly injected in the upper section of the mantle heat exchanger and after heat transfer with the fluid inside the tank, withdrawn from the bottom part of the heat excha...

Barzegar, A.; Dehghan, A. A.

2009-01-01

220

An Empirical Study of Helical Coil Heat Exchanger Used in Liquid Evaporization and Droplet Disengagement for a Laminar Fluid Flow  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Heat exchanger is an important component in industrial systems especially in process industries. Many commercial designs and types of heat exchangers are available in market for transfer of heat as well as for recovery of waste heat for the process plants. As helical coil have compact size and higher heat transfer coefficient they are widely used in industrial applications such as food preservation, refrigeration, process plant, power generation, etc. An attempt has been made ...

Kapil Dev*1,

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Heat exchange at supercritical pressures and the boundaries of heat exchange deterioration  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

One analyzed some relations for calculation of the normal heat exchange mode at upward flow of water and at supercritical pressure. One compared them with the latest experimental data. One evaluated the accuracy of the heat transfer calculation recommendations. One introduced a dependence to determine the boundary of deteriorated heat exchange generalizing data for various coolants (water, CO2, freon-12)

222

Evaluation of the flow around the contraction of a heat exchanger. Pt. 1. Difference in flow due to the contraction geometry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In heat exchangers of power plants, scale deposition may occur, especially at the leading edge of the contraction. Since the growth of scale can lead to an increase of pressure loss and a reduction of heat transfer coefficient, the mechanism of this phenomenon should be clarified. Among many factors which are assumed to be the causes of this phenomenon, electrochemical factors have been mainly analyzed while mechanical factors, such as fluid dynamics and heat transfer, have been scarcely investigated. In this study, the flow around the contraction was analyzed numerically and empirically. Two typical contraction configurations were compared, and considerable differences in pressure drop and turbulent kinetic energy were confirmed at the leading edge. It was clarified that the contraction ratio of the hydraulic diameter of the flow path contributes greatly to the possibility of adiabatic flashing due to pressure drop, which is assumed to be one of the causes of scale deposition. (author)

223

Heat exchanger with transpired, highly porous fins  

Science.gov (United States)

The heat exchanger includes a fin and tube assembly with increased heat transfer surface area positioned within a hollow chamber of a housing to provide effective heat transfer between a gas flowing within the hollow chamber and a fluid flowing in the fin and tube assembly. A fan is included to force a gas, such as air, to flow through the hollow chamber and through the fin and tube assembly. The fin and tube assembly comprises fluid conduits to direct the fluid through the heat exchanger, to prevent mixing with the gas, and to provide a heat transfer surface or pathway between the fluid and the gas. A heat transfer element is provided in the fin and tube assembly to provide extended heat transfer surfaces for the fluid conduits. The heat transfer element is corrugated to form fins between alternating ridges and grooves that define flow channels for directing the gas flow. The fins are fabricated from a thin, heat conductive material containing numerous orifices or pores for transpiring the gas out of the flow channel. The grooves are closed or only partially open so that all or substantially all of the gas is transpired through the fins so that heat is exchanged on the front and back surfaces of the fins and also within the interior of the orifices, thereby significantly increasing the available the heat transfer surface of the heat exchanger. The transpired fins also increase heat transfer effectiveness of the heat exchanger by increasing the heat transfer coefficient by disrupting boundary layer development on the fins and by establishing other beneficial gas flow patterns, all at desirable pressure drops.

Kutscher, Charles F. (Golden, CO); Gawlik, Keith (Boulder, CO)

2002-01-01

224

Manufacture of heat exchangers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A tube bundle for use in a heat exchanger has a series of spaced parallel tubes supported by tube plates and is manufactured by depositing welding material around the end of each tube, machining the deposited material to form an annular flange around the end of the tube and welding the flange into apertures in the tube plate. Preferably the tubes have a length which is slightly less than the distance between the outer surfaces of the tube plates and the deposited material is deposited so that it overlaps and protects the end surfaces of the tubes. A plug may be inserted in the bore of the tubes during the welding material deposition which, as described, is effected by manual metal arc welding. One use of heat exchangers incorporating a tube bundle manufactured as above is in apparatus for reducing the volume of, and recovering nitric acid from, radioactive effluents from a nuclear reprocessing plant. (author)

225

Membrane Based Heat Exchanger  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Reduction of the energy used to acclimatise buildings is a huge challenge simultaneously with the implementation of air tight low energy buildings. In residential buildings with several living units centralised air handling units are the most energy efficient system. However, in a centralised system there is important to avoid leakages of pollutions between the exhaust air and the supply air. This leads to that flat plate heat exchangers are used instead of the more energy efficient rotary he...

Aarnes, Sofie Marie

2012-01-01

226

The numerical analysis of the flow fields near fin surface of a plate fin-oval tube heat exchanger with delta wing vortex generators  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In present study, the flow field near the fin surface of plate fin - oval tube heat exchanger with delta wing vortex generator was numerically analyzed. As results, the well developed vortex behind delta wing was observed. These vortex can improve heat transfer fin surface behind delta wing vortex generators

227

The effect of flow-hole structure and water chemistry on scale adhesion at the leading edge of a flow hole in a heat exchanger  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the heat exchangers of power plants, scale deposition may occur, especially at the leading edge of contraction. The growth of scale can lead to an increase in pressure and cause oscillation of the water level. In our previous study, the dependence of flow on contraction geometry was analyzed numerically and empirically. It was shown that the contraction ratio of hydraulic diameter of the flow path contributed greatly to the difference in pressure drop and turbulent kinetic energy at the leading edge of the flow path. In this study, the effect of contraction geometry and flow rate on scale adhesion was studied in AVT chemistry at 270degC using a high-velocity scale-adhesion test loop. The differential pressure and the amount of scale deposited due to scale adhesion at the leading edge of the flow path increased more in a quatrefoil-type flow path than in drill-type flow path. The differential pressure and the amount of scale deposited also increased with increasing flow rate. Based on the results of the previous study, the flow behavior around the two different contractions under the above test conditions was also analyzed numerically. The test and analysis results indicated that the increase in scale adhesion at the leading edge of a quatrefoil-type flow path might be correlated with the localized increase in turbulent kinetic energy and pressure drop at the contraction inlet. (author)

228

Heat Exchangers Analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Current research performs mathematics correlations between engine speed, coolant flow, vehicle speed and driving gear. A step-by-step procedure is described to obtain the engine cooling system parameters mathematically (include a CFD model. After obtaining the parameters, the thermal equilibrium of engine cooling system is studied thoroughly. The study of thermal equilibrium provides some insights on how to reduce engine cooling load and when the interference of cooling fan is required. A segmented spread sheet model is developed in order to explain the phenomenon which air flow driven by uniform ram air could dissipate higher amount of heat flow than air flow driven by cooling fan. The segmentation analysis concluded that minimum mCp fluid is switched to coolant when the air flow is concentrated at small portion of area.

S.C. Pang

2013-01-01

229

Numerical Simulation of Passive Residual Heat Removal Heat Exchanger  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

FLUENT software was employed to simulate the temperature-field and flow-field of AP1000 passive residual heat removal heat exchanger (PRHR HX), and investigate its heat-transferring and flow characteristics. Through comparative analysis of the distributions of temperature-field and flow-field in different locations at the same time, and the variations of temperature-field and flow-field in the same location at different time, heat-transferring process and natural convection situation of PRHR HX were understood deeply. It contributes to analyze the natural circulation capacity of PRHR HX, and provides some references for the effective operation of passive residual heat removal system. (authors)

230

Simulation of the heat exchange between the supersonic flow and the stationary body in a gas centrifuge  

Science.gov (United States)

We have made comparative calculations of the heat exchange in the subpersonic flow of gaseous UF6 around the stationary cylindrical body inside the rotating rotor of the gas centrifuge. It has been revealed that the integral heat flux from the gas to the body calculated with the use of the ANSYS-CFX program complex from the viewpoint of the continuum model is much smaller than the heat flow calculated by the Monte Carlo method of direct statistical simulation. Estimates show that under the conditions being considered the boundary layer on the surface of the body has no time to be formed and has a thickness of the order of the mean free path of the gas molecules and, therefore, the use of the methods of continuum mechanics in this region is incorrect. On the contrary, the method of direct statistical simulation permits taking into account the interaction of gas molecules directly with the surface of the streamline body and obtaining more correct results.

Zvonarev, K. V.; Seleznev, V. D.; Tokmantsev, V. I.; Abramov, Yu. V.

2012-11-01

231

CHARACTERIZATION OF HEAT TRANSFER AND EVAPORATIVE COOLING OF HEAT EXCHANGERS FOR SORPTION BASED SOLAR COOLING APPLICATIONS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The content of this Master thesis is the characterization of three different cross unmixed flow heat exchangers. All of the heat exchangers have different inner geometries and dimensions. In order to perform the characterization of these heat exchangers, measurements of heat transfer were done under different conditions: five different temperatures at the inlet of the sorption side, different mass flow for both inlet sides of the heat exchangers.The heat transfer measurements were done with a...

Gonza?lez Morales, Ce?sar Augusto

2013-01-01

232

Fault-Tolerant Heat Exchanger  

Science.gov (United States)

A compact, lightweight heat exchanger has been designed to be fault-tolerant in the sense that a single-point leak would not cause mixing of heat-transfer fluids. This particular heat exchanger is intended to be part of the temperature-regulation system for habitable modules of the International Space Station and to function with water and ammonia as the heat-transfer fluids. The basic fault-tolerant design is adaptable to other heat-transfer fluids and heat exchangers for applications in which mixing of heat-transfer fluids would pose toxic, explosive, or other hazards: Examples could include fuel/air heat exchangers for thermal management on aircraft, process heat exchangers in the cryogenic industry, and heat exchangers used in chemical processing. The reason this heat exchanger can tolerate a single-point leak is that the heat-transfer fluids are everywhere separated by a vented volume and at least two seals. The combination of fault tolerance, compactness, and light weight is implemented in a unique heat-exchanger core configuration: Each fluid passage is entirely surrounded by a vented region bridged by solid structures through which heat is conducted between the fluids. Precise, proprietary fabrication techniques make it possible to manufacture the vented regions and heat-conducting structures with very small dimensions to obtain a very large coefficient of heat transfer between the two fluids. A large heat-transfer coefficient favors compact design by making it possible to use a relatively small core for a given heat-transfer rate. Calculations and experiments have shown that in most respects, the fault-tolerant heat exchanger can be expected to equal or exceed the performance of the non-fault-tolerant heat exchanger that it is intended to supplant (see table). The only significant disadvantages are a slight weight penalty and a small decrease in the mass-specific heat transfer.

Izenson, Michael G.; Crowley, Christopher J.

2005-01-01

233

Magnetic heat pump flow director  

Science.gov (United States)

A fluid flow director is disclosed. The director comprises a handle body and combed-teeth extending from one side of the body. The body can be formed of a clear plastic such as acrylic. The director can be used with heat exchangers such as a magnetic heat pump and can minimize the undesired mixing of fluid flows. The types of heat exchangers can encompass both heat pumps and refrigerators. The director can adjust the fluid flow of liquid or gas along desired flow directions. A method of applying the flow director within a magnetic heat pump application is also disclosed where the comb-teeth portions of the director are inserted into the fluid flow paths of the heat pump.

Howard, Frank S. (inventor)

1995-01-01

234

Comparative Study of Heat Exchangers Using CFD  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A parallel flow heat exchanger and a corresponding ribbed tube heat exchanger is modeled and numerically analysed using a commercial finite volume CFD package. Pro-E & ANSYS 14.5 softwares are used for the designing and the analysis. CFD predictions of effectiveness of the two heat exchangers are obtained and compared. After selecting the best modeling approach, the sensitivity of the results to particular flow rate is investigated. It is observed that the flow and the temperature fields obtained from CFD simulations provide valuable information about the parts of the heat exchanger design that need improvement. Correlation based approaches may indicate the existence of the weakness but CFD simulations can also pin point the source and the location of it. Using CFD may speed up the design process and may improve the final design.

Melvinraj C R

2014-05-01

235

The combined effects of inlet fluid flow and temperature nonuniformity in cross flow plate-fin compact heat exchanger using finite element method  

Science.gov (United States)

An analysis of a crossflow plate-fin heat exchanger accouning for the combined effects of inlet fluid flow nonuniformity and temperature nonuniformity on both hot and cold fluid sides is carried out using a Finite Element Model. A mathematical equation is developed to generate different types of fluid flow/temperature maldistribution models considering the possible deviations in inlet fluid flow. Using these fluid flow maldistribution models, the exchanger effectiveness and its deteriorations due to flow/temperature nonuniformity are calculated for entire range of design and operating conditions. It was found that the performance deteriorations are quite significant in some typical applications due to inlet fluid flow/temperature nonuniformity. Zusammenfassung Mit Hilfe der Finitelement-Methode wird der zusammenwirkende Einfluß ungleichförmiger Strömungs- und Temperaturverteilungen am Eintritt des kalten, wie des warmen Fluids eines kreuzstrombetriebenen, berippten Kompakt-Plattenwärmetauschers untersucht. Über eine mathematische Beziehung lassen sich verschiedene Arten ungleichmäßiger Strömungs bzw. Temperaturverteilungen in den Eintrittsquerschnitten generieren. Unter Verwendung dieser Fehlverteilungsmodelle wird deren Einfluß auf den Austauscher-Gütegrad im gesamten Auslegungs- und Betriebsbereich ermittelt. Es zeigte sich, daß diese Auswirkungen bei typischen Ungleichförmigkeiten der Strömungs- bzw. Temperaturfelder in den Eintrittsquerschnitten erheblich sein können.

Ranganayakulu, C.; Seetharamu, K. N.

236

Triple loop heat exchanger for an absorption refrigeration system  

Science.gov (United States)

A triple loop heat exchanger for an absorption refrigeration system is disclosed. The triple loop heat exchanger comprises portions of a strong solution line for conducting relatively hot, strong solution from a generator to a solution heat exchanger of the absorption refrigeration system, conduit means for conducting relatively cool, weak solution from the solution heat exchanger to the generator, and a bypass system for conducting strong solution from the generator around the strong solution line and around the solution heat exchanger to an absorber of the refrigeration system when strong solution builds up in the generator to an undesirable level. The strong solution line and the conduit means are in heat exchange relationship with each other in the triple loop heat exchanger so that, during normal operation of the refrigeration system, heat is exchanged between the relatively hot, strong solution flowing through the strong solution line and the relatively cool, weak solution flowing through the conduit means. Also, the strong solution line and the bypass system are in heat exchange relationship in the triple loop heat exchanger so that if the normal flow path of relatively hot, strong solution flowing from the generator to an absorber is blocked, then this relatively, hot strong solution which will then be flowing through the bypass system in the triple loop heat exchanger, is brought into heat exchange relationship with any strong solution which may have solidified in the strong solution line in the triple loop heat exchanger to thereby aid in desolidifying any such solidified strong solution.

Reimann, Robert C. (Lafayette, NY)

1984-01-01

237

Tube bundle heat exchanger  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The heat exchanger described includes a combined heavy external structure composed of an outside cylindrical envelope fixed by its ends to an annular inlet head and an annular head for removing one of the fluids, an internal light structure then fitted in the heavy structure and formed by an annular bundle of tubes inserted and welded by their ends into holes drilled in the end plates and arranged in concentric layers leaving a large central passage accessible for fitting up. It can be used as steam generator in PWR and LMFBR type reactors

238

Cryogenic regenerative heat exchangers  

CERN Document Server

An in-depth survey of regenerative heat exchangers, this book chronicles the development and recent commercialization of regenerative devices for cryogenic applications. Chapters cover historical background, concepts, practical applications, design data, and numerical solutions, providing the latest information for engineers to develop advanced cryogenic machines. The discussions include insights into the operation of a regenerator; descriptions of the cyclic and fluid temperature distributions in a regenerator; data for various matrix geometries and materials, including coarse and fine bronze, stainless steel-woven wire mesh screens, and lead spheres; and unique operating features of cryocoolers that produce deviations from ideal regenerator theory.

Ackermann, Robert A

1997-01-01

239

Hybrid Heat Exchangers  

Science.gov (United States)

A hybrid light-weight heat exchanger concept has been developed that uses high-conductivity carbon-carbon (C-C) composites as the heat-transfer fins and uses conventional high-temperature metals, such as Inconel, nickel, and titanium as the parting sheets to meet leakage and structural requirements. In order to maximize thermal conductivity, the majority of carbon fiber is aligned in the fin direction resulting in 300 W/m.K or higher conductivity in the fin directions. As a result of this fiber orientation, the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of the C-C composite in both non-fiber directions matches well with the CTE of various high-temperature metal alloys. This allows the joining of fins and parting sheets by using high-temperature braze alloys.

Tu, Jianping Gene; Shih, Wei

2010-01-01

240

The heat pipe exchanger with controllable heat exchanging area  

Science.gov (United States)

The heat transfer rate through the heat exchanger in an industrial boiler that burns heavy oils must be controlled so as not to decrease the exhaust gas temperature below the dew point of sulfuric acid. Two systems of heat pipe exchangers are examined: one controls the heat exchange area of the condenser section of the heat pipes and the other uses the variable conductance heat pipes. The characteristics of these two systems are described. The temperatures at various points and the gas quantity are plotted against the boiler loads. The maintainability and operational reliability of both systems are demonstrated.

Oshiro, M.; Takasu, S.; Kurihara, M.; Taneda, K.; Nakamoto, T.; Nakayama, H.

1984-03-01

 
 
 
 
241

Heat exchanger for liquid metals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The heat exchanger is for liquid metals, such as sodium, whereby the secondary liquid metal is fed through parallel pipes in one or more pipe bundles, and wherein the pipes, between pipe plates or other assembly pieces, are introduced, and the primary liquid metal flows or circulates along the outside of the pipes, characterised by that the pipes of the pipe handles consist of molybdenum, tantalum or niobium, or alloys thereof, and the outside diameter lies between 6 and 16 mm at least. (G.C.)

242

Matrix-type heat exchangers  

Science.gov (United States)

Problems related to the analysis, design, and fabrication of compact matrix-type heat exchangers are discussed. Particular attention is given to the general characteristics describing the intensity of heat transfer and the hydrodynamic resistance of the matrices, an analysis of the efficiency of perforated ribs, and an evaluation of the efficiency of the matrix heat exchange surfaces. The effect of longitudinal heat conduction on heat transfer in the heat exchanger is examined, and a method is proposed whereby this factor can be allowed for in the analysis.

Mikulin, E. I.; Shevich, Iu. A.

243

Design study of plastic film heat exchanger  

Science.gov (United States)

This report presents the results of an effort to develop and design a unique thermoplastic film heat exchanger for use in an industrial heat pump evaporator system and other energy recovery applications. The concept for the exchanger is that of individual heat exchange elements formed by two adjoining and freely hanging plastic films. Liquid flows downward in a regulated fashion between the films due to the balance of hydrostatic and frictional forces. The fluid stream on the outside of film may be a free-falling liquid film, a condensing gas, or a noncondensing gas. The flow and structural principles are similar to those embodied in an earlier heat exchange system developed for use in waste water treatment systems (Sanderson). The design allows for high heat transfer rates while working within the thermal and structural limitations of thermoplastic materials. The potential of this new heat exchanger design lies in the relatively low cost of plastic film and the high inherent corrosion and fouling resistance. This report addresses the selection of materials, the potential heat transf er performance, the mechanical design and operation of a unit applied in a low pressure steam recovery system, and the expected selling price in comparison to conventional metallic shell and tube heat exchangers.

Guyer, E. C.; Brownell, D. L.

1986-02-01

244

The effect of inlet and outlet shell-side flow and heat transfer on the performance of HTGR straight tube heat exchangers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since the mid-1970s, various high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) steam generator, auxiliary heat exchanger (AHE), recuperator, and intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) designs have been proposed that use straight tube configurations. Each of these designs requires 90-deg turns in the helium gas flow at the inlet and/or outlet of the tube bundle. The design of the steam generator for the HTGR steam cycle/cogeneration lead plant includes a straight tube superheater (STSH) which incorporates both a 90-deg inlet and outlet turn across the tube bundle. The AHE includes a 90-deg outlet turn across the tube bundle. Previous GA Technologies Inc. (GA) recuperator and IHX designs for gas turbine and process heat HTGRs have also considered straight tube designs with 90-deg bends at the inlet and outlet. To evaluate the effect of these turns on the tube bundle performance, two model air flow tests have been performed, and a third is being planned. Fluid flow and heat transfer computer models have also been used to try to determine the effect of these 90-deg turns on the tube bundle performance. As a result of these studies, the following conclusions can be made: 1. For all of the designs investigated, the 90-deg turns reduced the bundle performance. 2. In designs where the tube pitch-to-diameter ratio is small (less than 1.3), the 90-deg turns can have a critical effect on the performance. However, use of design concepts such a flow baffles or small modular bundle designs can greatly reduce or eliminate these problems. 3. The inlet turns are more critical to the design than the outlet turns. 4. The non-uniform temperature profiles resulting from poor inlet design can result in high thermal stresses in the tubes. 5. Testing to correlate the shell-side heat transfer in the region of a 90-deg bend across a tube bundle is required to more fully understand the characteristics of this problem. 6. Although the 90-deg turns are not desirable, they are frequently necessary in realistic plant and component designs. However, with the proper analysis and testing, the designs can be developed so as to minimize their adverse effects on tube bundle performance and thermal stress. (author)

245

Next Generation Microchannel Heat Exchangers  

CERN Document Server

In Next Generation Microchannel Heat Exchangers, the authors’ focus on the new generation highly efficient heat exchangers and presentation of novel data and technical expertise not available in the open literature.  Next generation micro channels offer record high heat transfer coefficients with pressure drops much less than conventional micro channel heat exchangers. These inherent features promise fast penetration into many mew markets, including high heat flux cooling of electronics, waste heat recovery and energy efficiency enhancement applications, alternative energy systems, as well as applications in mass exchangers and chemical reactor systems. The combination of up to the minute research findings and technical know-how make this book very timely as the search for high performance heat and mass exchangers that can cut costs in materials consumption intensifies.

Ohadi, Michael; Dessiatoun, Serguei; Cetegen, Edvin

2013-01-01

246

Tube bundle assembly for a heat exchanger  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An improved type of tube bundle assembly for a heat exchanger is described which can be used as a reheater section of a vapour generator in a gas-cooled nuclear reactor. The assembly has a compact annular configuration while providing effective heat exchange capabilities, maintains minimum gas flow resistance and allows for differential expansion without the use of unheated cross-over connections. (U.K.)

247

Heat exchanger bypass test report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This test report documents the results that were obtained while conducting the test procedure which bypassed the heat exchangers in the HC-21C sludge stabilization process. The test was performed on November 15, 1994 using WHC-SD-CP-TC-031, ''Heat Exchanger Bypass Test Procedure.'' The primary objective of the test procedure was to determine if the heat exchangers were contributing to condensation of moisture in the off-gas line. This condensation was observed in the rotameters. Also, a secondary objective was to determine if temperatures at the rotameters would be too high and damage them or make them inaccurate without the heat exchangers in place

248

Appendix to the thesis an experimental and numerical study of a jetfire stop material and a new helical flow heat exchanger  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This thesis consists of two parts. Part 1: Experimental and numerical study of jetfire stop, and Part 2: Experimental and numerical study of a new kind of shell and tube heat exchanger with helical flow on shell side. Part 1 describes the development of the model for simulation of the temperature development through Viking jetfirestop. A simulation program is developed that calculates the temperature development through Viking jetfirestop. In the development of the model, measurements of reaction energy, pyrolysis and heat conductivity at low temperatures are made. The conductivity at higher temperatures and when pyrolysis reactions are going on is estimated experimentally and by numerical calculations. Full-scale jet fire test and small-scale xenon lamp experiments are made to test the simulation model. Part 2 contains the development of a model that simulate the fluid flow and heat transfer in a helical flow shell and tube heat exchanger. It consists of the development of a porosity model and a model for pressure drop and heat transfer as well as experiments in non-standard tube layouts. Results from the simulation program are compared with experiments on a helical flow shell and tube heat exchanger. This is a separate appendix volume, including computer codes and simulated results. 316 figs., 11 tabs.

Austegard, Anders

1997-12-31

249

Mathematical Modeling of Spiral Heat Exchanger  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Compact Heat Exchangers (CHEs are increasingly being used on small and medium scale industries. Due to their compact size and efficient design, they facilitate more efficient heat transfer. Better heat transfer would imply lesser fuel consumption for the operations of the plant, giving improvement to overall efficiency. This reduction in consumption of fuel is a step towards sustainable development. This report exclusively deals with the study the spiral heat exchanger.The design considerations for spiral heat exchanger is that the flow within the spiral has been assumed as flow through a duct and by using Shah London empirical equation for Nusselt number design parameters are further optimized.This is accompanied by a detailed energy balance to generate a concise mathematical model

Probal Guha , Vaishnavi Unde

2014-04-01

250

Heat exchanger repair  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There are two ways to rapir heater tubes in tubular heat exchangers, partial replacement of tubes and a technique called sleeving. In the former case, the defective tube section is cut out, removed, and replaced by a new section butt welded to the old piece of tube which remained in place. In the sleeving technique, a tube sleeve is slid into the defective tube and, after expansion, welded to the original tube. In this case, the welding technique employed is not laser welding, as is often maintained in the literature, but TIG pulsation welding. The results of preliminary tests and the qualification of both processes are outlined in the article; an account is given also of the replacement of the tube sections when repairing condensate coolers. (orig.)

251

Heat transfer in SiC compact heat exchanger  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For development of a compact SiC heat exchanger, numerical heat transfer analysis was conducted to investigate its performance for a wide range of thermal media, liquid LiPb and helium gas, flow rates. The numerical model used was based on the heat exchanger test module developed by the authors. Within the authors' experimental range, the heat quantity transferred from high temperature liquid LiPb to helium gas and the overall heat transfer coefficients obtained numerically are in agreement with the experimental results. Therefore, the numerical model has proved to be valid for estimation of heat transfer phenomena in the heat exchanger in incompressible regime. The heat quantity transferred from LiPb to He amounts up to 3.7 kW at helium pressure of 0.5 MPa. On the basis of the numerical results, a correlation for helium forced convection heat transfer in the heat exchanger is presented, which describes numerical results with an error of 1%. For heat transfer in LiPb, the Nusselt numbers calculated from an existing correlation for liquid metal heat transfer agree well with the present numerical results. The heat transfer of LiPb in the SiC compact heat exchanger would possibly be predicted from the conventional correlations based on the studies of liquid metal convective heat transfer. A concept of SiC compact heat exchanger studied could be applied to a design of intermediate heat exchangers operating at high temperatures in fusion reactor, as well as HTTR and VHTR sfusion reactor, as well as HTTR and VHTR systems.

252

Heat transfer in SiC compact heat exchanger  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

For development of a compact SiC heat exchanger, numerical heat transfer analysis was conducted to investigate its performance for a wide range of thermal media, liquid LiPb and helium gas, flow rates. The numerical model used was based on the heat exchanger test module developed by the authors. Within the authors' experimental range, the heat quantity transferred from high temperature liquid LiPb to helium gas and the overall heat transfer coefficients obtained numerically are in agreement with the experimental results. Therefore, the numerical model has proved to be valid for estimation of heat transfer phenomena in the heat exchanger in incompressible regime. The heat quantity transferred from LiPb to He amounts up to 3.7 kW at helium pressure of 0.5 MPa. On the basis of the numerical results, a correlation for helium forced convection heat transfer in the heat exchanger is presented, which describes numerical results with an error of 1%. For heat transfer in LiPb, the Nusselt numbers calculated from an existing correlation for liquid metal heat transfer agree well with the present numerical results. The heat transfer of LiPb in the SiC compact heat exchanger would possibly be predicted from the conventional correlations based on the studies of liquid metal convective heat transfer. A concept of SiC compact heat exchanger studied could be applied to a design of intermediate heat exchangers operating at high temperatures in fusion reactor, as well as HTTR and VHTR systems.

Takeuchi, Y., E-mail: y-takeuchi@iae.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Gokasho Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Park, C. [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Gokasho Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Noborio, K. [Institute of Sustainability Science, Kyoto University, Gokasho Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Yamamoto, Y.; Konishi, S. [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Gokasho Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan)

2010-12-15

253

Regenerative heat exchangers. Regeneratiivinen kuulalaemmoensiirrin  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The aim of this research was to develop a computer program that could be used for simulating heat transfer and pressure drop in a regenerative particle heat exchanger for gases. Particles were considered spherical. Two cases were studied, counterflow- and crossbow heat exchangers. Heat transfer by conduction and radiation were considered small compared to heat transfer by forced convection. The convection heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop are calculated by using empirical correlations developed for packed beds. In the program there is a possibility to choose different correlations in different cases. The heat transfer equation in spherical coordinates is discretized by using implicit difference method and solved by the matrix inversion method. (orig.)

Vaittinen, P.

1998-01-01

254

Regenerative heat exchangers; Regeneratiivinen kuulalaemmoensiirrin  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The aim of this research was to develop a computer program that could be used for simulating heat transfer and pressure drop in a regenerative particle heat exchanger for gases. Particles were considered spherical. Two cases were studied, counterflow- and crossbow heat exchangers. Heat transfer by conduction and radiation were considered small compared to heat transfer by forced convection. The convection heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop are calculated by using empirical correlations developed for packed beds. In the program there is a possibility to choose different correlations in different cases. The heat transfer equation in spherical coordinates is discretized by using implicit difference method and solved by the matrix inversion method. (orig.)

Vaittinen, P.

1998-12-31

255

Experimental research on heat transfer in a coupled heat exchanger  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The heat exchanger is a devise used for transferring thermal energy between two or more different temperatures. The widespreadly used heat exchanger can only achieve heat exchange between two substances. In this paper, a coupled heat exchanger is proposed, which includes a finned heat exchanger and a double pipe heat exchanger, for multiple heat exchange simultaneously. An experiment is conducted, showing that the average heating capacity increases more tha...

Liu Yin; Ma Jing; Zhou Guang-Hui; Guan Ren-Bo

2013-01-01

256

Evaluation of heat transfer performance on drum side of orthogonal flow type Na heat exchanger. Application of inviscid vortex-free flow model to zig-zag tube arrangement system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recently, for the purpose of heightening the economical efficiency and performance of FBRs, it has been attempted to evaluate the performance of intermediate heat exchangers and steam generators with large computation codes. If the heat transfer characteristics of individual heating tubes can be grasped with the required accuracy by numerical analysis, it is most economical and realistic. There is the possibility of being able to forecast the heat transfer coefficient using the inviscid vortex-free flow model considering only the basic features of flow fields with the practical accuracy. In this research, first, the visualization experiment on the flow orthogonally crossing the tube nest of zig-zag arrangement using water was carried out to elucidate the features. Based on the observed results, the analysis of the heat transfer coefficient of alkali metals orthogonally crossing the tube nest of zig-zag arrangement was carried out for single tube heating and whole tube heating systems, using the inviscid vortex-free flow model. The visualization experiment and the numerical analysis are reported. (K.I.)

257

Computation of two-dimensional isothermal flow in shell-and-tube heat exchangers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A computational procedure is outlined whereby two-dimensional isothermal shell-side flow distributions can be calculated for tube bundles having arbitrary boundaries and flow blocking devices, such as sealing strips, defined in arbitrary locations. The procedure is described in some detail and several computed results are presented to illustrate the robustness and generality of the method

258

Prediction of the outlet temperatures in triple concentric—tube heat exchangers in laminar flow regime: case study  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study there has been developed a numerical model of predicting outlet temperatures in a triple concentric-tube heat exchanger. For the model elaboration there have been used the equations of heat transfer and of fluid-dynamics, as well as a numerical algorithm to solve systems of non-linear equations. Based on experimental data, the obtained model has been practically tested to cool a petroleum product with water in a triple concentric-tube heat exchanger. The results obtained using the numerical simulation have been compared with the experimental data and data from literature in order to validate the proposed numerical model.

P?tr??cioiu, Cristian; R?dulescu, Sînziana

2015-01-01

259

Dynamic Behaviour of a Continuous Heat Exchanger/Reactor after Flow Failure  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The intensified technologies offer new prospects for the development of hazardous chemical syntheses in safer conditions: the idea is to reduce the reaction volume by increasing the thermal performances and preferring the continuous mode to the batch one. In particular, the Open Plate Reactor (OPR) type “reactor/ exchanger” also including a modular block structure, matches these characteristics perfectly. The aim of this paper is to study the OPR behaviour during a normal operation, that ...

Benaissa, Wassila; Elgue, Se?bastien; Gabas, Nadine; Cabassud, Michel; Carson, Douglas; Demissy, Michel

2008-01-01

260

Heat pipes in modern heat exchangers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Heat pipes are very flexible systems with regard to effective thermal control. They can easily be implemented as heat exchangers inside sorption and vapour-compression heat pumps, refrigerators and other types of heat transfer devices. Their heat transfer coefficient in the evaporator and condenser zones is 103-105 W/m2 K, heat pipe thermal resistance is 0.01-0.03 K/W, therefore leading to smaller area and mass of heat exchangers. Miniature and micro heat pipes are welcomed for electronic components cooling and space two-phase thermal control systems. Loop heat pipes, pulsating heat pipes and sorption heat pipes are the novelty for modern heat exchangers. Heat pipe air preheaters are used in thermal power plants to preheat the secondary-primary air required for combustion of fuel in the boiler using the energy available in exhaust gases. Heat pipe solar collectors are promising for domestic use. This paper reviews mainly heat pipe developments in the Former Soviet Union Countries. Some new results obtained in USA and Europe are also included

 
 
 
 
261

40 CFR 63.11499 - What are the standards and compliance requirements for heat exchange systems?  

Science.gov (United States)

...standards and compliance requirements for heat exchange systems? (a) If the cooling water flow rate in your heat exchange system is equal to or...reactor as the surrogate indicator of heat exchanger system leaks when complying...

2010-07-01

262

Improvements in or relating to heat exchangers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

According to the present invention there is provided a method of producing superheated steam by use of the heat in liquid sodium, in which liquid sodium is caused to flow through a space having boundaries of which no part is common with the boundaries of a space in which vapour is produced, a fluid that is inert to sodium is heated by heat exchange at the boundaries of the space through which the liquid sodium flows and serves as the heating medium for the production of vapour, and the vapour is subsequently heated to the final degree of superheat by heat exchange with liquid sodium in a space that has a common boundary with a space through which liquid sodium is passed. (U.K.)

263

High Temperature Heat Exchanger Project  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The UNLV Research Foundation assembled a research consortium for high temperature heat exchanger design and materials compatibility and performance comprised of university and private industry partners under the auspices of the US DOE-NE Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative in October 2003. The objectives of the consortium were to conduct investigations of candidate materials for high temperature heat exchanger componets in hydrogen production processes and design and perform prototypical testing of heat exchangers. The initial research of the consortium focused on the intermediate heat exchanger (located between the nuclear reactor and hydrogen production plan) and the components for the hydrogen iodine decomposition process and sulfuric acid decomposition process. These heat exchanger components were deemed the most challenging from a materials performance and compatibility perspective

Anthony E. Hechanova, Ph.D.

2008-09-30

264

Expanded microchannel heat exchanger: design, fabrication and preliminary experimental test  

CERN Document Server

This paper first reviews non-traditional heat exchanger geometry, laser welding, practical issues with microchannel heat exchangers, and high effectiveness heat exchangers. Existing microchannel heat exchangers have low material costs, but high manufacturing costs. This paper presents a new expanded microchannel heat exchanger design and accompanying continuous manufacturing technique for potential low-cost production. Polymer heat exchangers have the potential for high effectiveness. The paper discusses one possible joining method - a new type of laser welding named "forward conduction welding," used to fabricate the prototype. The expanded heat exchanger has the potential to have counter-flow, cross-flow, or parallel-flow configurations, be used for all types of fluids, and be made of polymers, metals, or polymer-ceramic precursors. The cost and ineffectiveness reduction may be an order of magnitude or more, saving a large fraction of primary energy. The measured effectiveness of the prototype with 28 micro...

Denkenberger, David C; Pearce, Joshua M; Zhai, John; 10.1177/0957650912442781

2012-01-01

265

Thermodynamic Optimization of GSHPS Heat Exchangers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

In this paper, a new method for determining the optimized dimensions of a ground source heat pump system (GSHPS heat exchanger is presented. Using the GSHPS is one of the ways for utilization of infinite, clean and renewable energies in the environment. In recent years, due to limitation of physical space for installing the heat exchangers and avoiding the environmental effects on heat exchanger operation, vertical GSHP systems are used more than the other ones. Determination of optimum heat exchanger size is one of the most important parameters in the optimization of the heat exchanger design. In this study, optimum length and diameter for the heat exchanger is determined for different mass flows by using the second law of thermodynamics. The optimal length and diameter minimize entropy generation and therefore result in increased efficiency of the heat pump.

  • An initial version of this pa per was published in May of 2004 in the proceedings of Second International Applied Thermodynamics Conference, Istanbul, Turkey.

Ahmad Kahrobaeian

2007-09-01

266

Method for removing coronene from heat exchangers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A method for removing a coronene deposit in a reforming process is described that consists of (A) contacting a hydrocarbonacous feedstock with a catalyst in the presence of added hydrogen at reforming conditions in a reforming zone; (B) splitting the total reforming zone effluent into a first stream and a second stream; (C) passing said first stream into a first train of heat exchangers arranged in parallel with a second train of heat exchangers; (D) passing said second stream into said second train of heat exchangers, said reforming zone effluent comprising coronene, at least a portion of which deposits in said heateexchangers; (E) separating the heat exchanged total reforming zone effluent into a hydrogen-rich gaseous phase and a liquid hydrocarbon phase comprising normally liquid hydrocarbons and normally gaseous hydrocarbons, the improvement which comprises reducing the flow of said first stream in said first train of heat exchangers to produce a temperature sufficient to condense at least a portion of said reformer effluent therein such that the resulting condensate contacts said coronene deposit, and simultaneously increasing the flow of said second stream in said second train of heat exchangers

267

An Experimental Study to Show the Effect of Time of Opening and Closing the Solenoid Valve on Effectiveness of Finned Cross Flow Heat Exchanger  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available   In this research an experimental study was carried out to show the effect of time of opening and closing the solenoid valve on the effectiveness of finned cross flow heat exchanger, which has changed the time of opening and closing the solenoid valve (2, 4, 6 sec. with change the mass flow rate of water each time and the range values between (0.027-0.0816 kg/s with constant of mass flow rate of air at (0.032 kg/s.                     The results obtained from experiment works that the decreasing in the time of opening and closing the solenoid valve from (6 sec. to (2 sec. leads to increase internal heat transfer coefficient (hi the highest increase was by (18.37% at mass flow rate of water (0.027 kg/s and increase the overall heat transfer coefficient (U and the highest percentage of increase (7.36% at mass flow rate of water (0.027 kg/s.                                   The experimental results obtained show that the increasing both the number of units transmitted (NTU and effectiveness of the finned heat exchanger when decrease the time of opening and closing the solenoid valve from (6 sec. to (2 sec. and the highest percentage of the increase occurring is (8.4% and (1.74% respectively at mass flow rate of water (0.027 kg/s.

Saad Farhan

2013-04-01

268

Heat transfer analysis of flat and louvered fin-and-tube heat exchangers using CFD  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper analyzes the fluid flow and heat exchange on the air side of a multi-row fin-and-tube heat exchanger. A comparison is given between fin-and-tube heat exchanger characteristics with flat and louvered fins in a wider range of operating conditions defined by Reynolds number (based on fin spacing and air frontal velocities). The detailed representation of calculated data for the louvered heat exchanger shows significantly better heat transfer characteristics and a ...

Carija, Z.; Frankovic, B.

2008-01-01

269

Materials for gasifier heat exchangers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Gasification systems were originally developed to be fired on coal, but there is now interest in co-firing coal with waste or biomass or using low-grade coals and heavy fuel oils in order to reduce environmental impact and fuel costs. All gasification technologies require a heat exchanger between the gasifier and the gas cleaning system. However, gasifier hot gas path environments are potentially very aggressive for materials both during plant operation and downtime periods. The potential corrosive effects of deposits formed on coal-fired and co-fired gasifier heat exchangers in ABGC and IGCC systems have been assessed. Data on the formation of deposits on gasifier heat exchangers have been gathered and a literature survey of downtime corrosion testing relating to gasifier heat exchangers carried out. Laboratory studies have been carried out to investigate the potential response of current and candidate gasifier heat exchanger materials (such as Alloy 800 and Sanicro 28) to such deposits. Electrochemical tests in aqueous solutions are being used to give a ranking of the materials in typical environments anticipated for ABGC and IGCC heat exchangers. A modified EPRI downtime corrosion test has been employed which involves exposing candidate materials covered with a simulated deposit to a humid atmosphere. Preliminary results from baseline tests are given. This work is leading towards the identification of combinations of fuels, operating conditions and materials that could produce rapid heat exchanger failures due to interactions with the deposits formed during operation. (orig.)

Kilgallon, P.; Simms, N.J.; Norton, J.F.; Oakey, J.E. [Power Generation Technology Centre, Cranfield Univ. (United Kingdom)

2002-07-01

270

Heat exchanger using graphite foam  

Science.gov (United States)

A heat exchanger is disclosed. The heat exchanger may have an inlet configured to receive a first fluid and an outlet configured to discharge the first fluid. The heat exchanger may further have at least one passageway configured to conduct the first fluid from the inlet to the outlet. The at least one passageway may be composed of a graphite foam and a layer of graphite material on the exterior of the graphite foam. The layer of graphite material may form at least a partial barrier between the first fluid and a second fluid external to the at least one passageway.

Campagna, Michael Joseph; Callas, James John

2012-09-25

271

Random excitation of heat exchanger tubes by two-phase cross-flows  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reports the results of several experimental studies performed at CEA, which concern the random forces exerted on tube arrays subjected to two-phase cross-flows. A rather large data base was obtained in air-water at various void fractions. The data obtained in steam-water and freon refer to the high void fraction range which is typically that of PWR steam generators at nominal conditions. From this information an empirical correlation between the random forces exerted on the tubes and the homogeneous void fraction is derived which is found to hold over a large range of mass-flux. Furthermore the data referring to the distinct fluid mixtures explored here, are found to collapse reasonably well on the same correlation curve

272

High-temperature self-circulating thermoacoustic heat exchanger  

Science.gov (United States)

Thermoacoustic and Stirling engines and refrigerators use heat exchangers to transfer heat between the oscillating flow of their thermodynamic working fluids and external heat sources and sinks. An acoustically driven heat-exchange loop uses an engine's own pressure oscillations to steadily circulate its own thermodynamic working fluid through a physically remote high-temperature heat source without using moving parts, allowing for a significant reduction in the cost and complexity of thermoacoustic and Stirling heat exchangers. The simplicity and flexibility of such heat-exchanger loops will allow thermoacoustic and Stirling machines to access diverse heat sources and sinks. Measurements of the temperatures at the interface between such a heat-exchange loop and the hot end of a thermoacoustic-Stirling engine are presented. When the steady flow is too small to flush out the mixing chamber in one acoustic cycle, the heat transfer to the regenerator is excellent, with important implications for practical use.

Backhaus, S.; Swift, G. W.; Reid, R. S.

2005-07-01

273

Computer program for performance and sizing analysis of compact counter-flow plate-fin heat exchangers, research and development report  

Science.gov (United States)

This report presents a computer program for preliminary design analysis of counter-flow, compact, plate-fin heat exchangers. The program method is based on the effectiveness-NTU relationship analysis. The heat exchanger design begins with assumptions for counter-flow length, total frontal flow area and core matrix fin geometry. Using these constraints, the program proceeds to calculate the resulting effectiveness and pressure drop based on specified air-side and gas-side fin types; the pressures, temperatures, and mass flows of the air and gas streams; fuel-air ratio; as well as, the maximum air-side inlet header velocity. Heat exchanger designs may be generated based on four different fin types (i.e., plain, louvered, strip/offset or wavy fins) over a varied number of core dimensions. Program output includes inlet and exit conditions on air and gas sides, effectiveness, fin characteristics, core length and volume, total frontal units, overall weight, and air-side header diameters and velocities. This report presents the analysis method, description of input and output with sample cases, and a program listing.

Ness, J. C.

1982-12-01

274

Analysis of Heat Transfer Enhancement in Spiral Plate Heat Exchanger  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the present study, the heat transfer coefficients of benzene in a spiral plate heat exchanger are investigated. The test section consists of a Plate of width 0.3150 m, thickness 0.001 m and Mean hydraulic diameter of 0.01 m. The mass flow rate of water (Hot fluid is varying from 0.5 kg sec-1 to 0.8 kg sec-1 and the mass flow rate of benzene (cold fluid varies from 0.4 kg sec-1 to 0.7 kg sec-1. Experiments have been conducted by varying the mass flow rate, temperature and pressure of cold fluid, keeping the mass flow rate of hot fluid constant. The effects of relevant parameters on spiral plate heat exchanger are investigated. The data obtained from the experimental study are compared with the theoretical data. Besides, a new correlation for the nusselt number which can be used for practical applications is proposed.

Kaliannan Saravanan

2009-02-01

275

Group of modular heat exchangers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In modular heat exchangers, undesirable stresses may occur in various parts of the installation because of differences in temperature. The purpose of the invention is to obviate these stresses by connecting at least the feedwater pipes of the heat exchangers with the feedwater distributor by means of spiral pipes. By the spiral construction of the pipes, they may more easily expand and contract under temperature changes. (Auth.)

276

The dry heat exchanger calorimeter system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A radiometric isothermal heat flow calorimeter and preconditioner system that uses air instead of water as the heat exchange medium has been developed at Mound. The dry heat exchanger calorimeter is 42 inches high by 18 inches in diameter and the preconditioner is a 22 inch cube, making it extremely compact compared to existing units. The new system is ideally suited for transportable, stand-alone, or glovebox applications. Preliminary tests of the system have produced sample measurements with standard deviations less than 0.25% and sample errors less than 0.50%. These tests have shown that the dry heat exchanger system will yield acceptance data with an accuracy comparable to those of Mound water bath systems now in use. 4 figs., 1 tab

277

Tube in shell heat exchangers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An improved tube-in-shell heat exchanger to be used between liquid metal and water is described for use in the liquid metal coolant system of fast breeder reactors. It is stated that this design is less prone to failures which could result in sodium water reactions than previous exchangers. (UK)

278

Vibration damping in multispan heat exchanger tubes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Heat exchanger tubes can be damaged or fail if subjected to excessive flow-induced vibration, either from fatigue or fretting-wear. Good heat exchanger design requires that the designer understands and accounts for the vibration mechanisms that might occur, such as vortex shedding, turbulent excitation or fluidelastic instability. To incorporate these phenomena into a flow-induced vibration analysis of a heat exchanger requires information about damping. Damping in multispan heat exchanger tubes largely consists of three components: viscous damping along the tube, and friction and squeeze-film damping at the supports. Unlike viscous damping, squeeze-film damping and friction damping are poorly understood and difficult to measure. In addition, the effect of temperature-dependent fluid viscosity on tube damping has not been verified. To investigate these problems, a single vertical heat exchanger tube with multiple spans was excited by random vibration. Tests were conducted in air and in water at three different temperatures (25, 60, and 90oC). At room temperature, tests were carried out at five different preloads. Frequency response spectra and resonant peak-fitted damping ratios were calculated for all tests. Energy dissipation rates at the supports and the rate of excitation energy input were also measured. Results indicate that damping does not change over the range of temperatures tested and friction damping is very dependent on preload. (author)ery dependent on preload. (author)

279

Materials for gasifier heat exchangers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The project has assessed the potential corrosive effects of deposits formed on coal-fired and coal/waste co-fired gasifier fuel-gas/syngas heat exchangers in ABGC and IGCC systems. This has included determining the ranges of deposit compositions formed on heat exchangers with different fuels and quantitatively assessing the effects of such deposits on downtime corrosion (including the effects of potential preventative measures) and synergistic interactions. These activities have lead to the identification of combinations of fuels, operating conditions and materials that could produce rapid heat exchanger failures due to interactions with the deposits formed during the heat exchanger operation. The following candidate gasifier heat exchanger alloys were investigated: AISI 316L, AISI 310, AISI 347H, Alloy 800, Sanicro 28, Haynes 160, Esshete 1250, Haynes 556, IN625, and T23. In terms of cost and performance Sanicro 28 appears to be the best choice for evaporative heat exchangers in the range of test conditions investigated. 48 refs., 59 figs., 28 tabs.

Kilgallon, P.; Simms, N.J.; Oakey, J.E. [Cranfield University, Cranfield (United Kingdom). Power Generation Technology Centre

2004-11-01

280

Experimental research on heat transfer in a coupled heat exchanger  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The heat exchanger is a devise used for transferring thermal energy between two or more different temperatures. The widespreadly used heat exchanger can only achieve heat exchange between two substances. In this paper, a coupled heat exchanger is proposed, which includes a finned heat exchanger and a double pipe heat exchanger, for multiple heat exchange simultaneously. An experiment is conducted, showing that the average heating capacity increases more than 35%, and the average heating efficiency increases more than 55%, compared with the ordinary air-source heat pump.

Liu Yin

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Multidimensional numerical modeling of heat exchangers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A comprehensive, multidimensional, thermal-hydraulic model is developed for the analysis of shell-and-tube heat exchangers for liquid-metal services. For the shellside fluid, the conservation equations of mass, momentum, and energy for continuum fluids are modified using the concept of porosity, surface permeability and distributed resistance to account for the blockage effects due to the presence of heat-transfer tubes, flow baffles/shrouds, the support plates, etc. On the tubeside, the heat-transfer tubes are connected in parallel between the inlet and outlet plenums, and tubeside flow distribution is calculated based on the plenum-to-plenum pressure difference being equal for all tubes. It is assumed that the fluid remains single-phase on the shell side and may undergo phase-change on the tube side, thereby simulating the conditions of Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) intermediate heat exchangers (IHX) and steam generators (SG)

282

Nonstationary heat exchange in channels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Results are reported for investigations of nonstationary processes of heat transfer to a single-phase heat-transport medium in tube-type channels in the presence of various types of disturbances. Two characteristic stages are distinguished for processes with aperiodic variation in flow rate: in the first, both the flow rate and heat flux vary and in the second, only the heat flux changes. A formula for calculating the reduced coefficient of nonstationary heat transfer has been obtained on the basis of experiments carried out with constant flow rate and variable heat flux and experiments with the flow rate changing in accordance with different laws. The universality of the formula has been confirmed by a series of experiments in which the transport-medium flow rate and the channel thermal power were varied simultaneously. 12 refs

283

The Circulating Balls Heat Exchanger (CIBEX)  

Science.gov (United States)

The CIBEX heat exchanger consists of a gas cooling section (gas generator) and an air heating section (air preheater) coupled with a stream of solid particles. The stream of particles falls through a hot gas stream, picking up heat and cooling the gas, then through the air stream, heating the latter. The cooled particles are then returned to the top of the device and the heating/cooling cycle repeated. The paper describes the two-phase equations of motion for the flow of the spherical particles through the fluid. The solid phase is treated as a pseudo-gas by using concentrations instead of density. The equations are then non-dimensionalized and solved by numerical integration. The solution gives temperature and velocity profiles for the two phases for parametric variations in the solid loading and the fluid flux rate. The solution is applied for the design of a heat exchanger for a hypothetical 2500 tons/day coal gasification plant. The dimensions of the CIBEX heat exchanger are much smaller than those of a comparable conventional heat exchanger.

Gat, N.

1986-06-01

284

Heat transfer with phase change in plate-fin heat exchangers  

Science.gov (United States)

A theoretical and experimental study was conducted for convective evaporation and condensation in plate-fin compact heat exchangers. The overall performance of a brazed-aluminum heat exchanger in the evaporation mode with ammonia and in the condensation mode with both ammonia and refrigerant R-22 as working fluids. The heat exchanger has straight perforated fins on the working-fluid side and extruded rectangular channels on the single-phase (water) side. The two-phase flow in narrow channels of the heat exchanger is modeled using a triangular relationship between pressure gradient, liquid film flow rate, and film thickness. The overall performance of the heat exchanger is calculated by employing local heat-transfer analysis and integrating mass- and heat-balance equations along the heat-exchanger length. Theoretical predictions are found to agree favorably with experimental results for a prototypical heat exchanger unit.

Panchal, C. B.

1984-08-01

285

Flow-induced vibration and fretting-wear specifications to ensure steam-generator and heat exchanger lifetime performance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The current interest in refurbishment, life extension and new-build activity has meant a renewed emphasis on technical specifications that will ensure improved reliability and longer life. Preventing vibration and fretting-wear problems in steam generators and heat exchangers requires design specifications that bring together specific guidelines, analysis methods, requirements and appropriate performance criteria. The specifications must be firmly based on experimental data and field inspections. In addition, the specifications must be supported by theoretical analyses and fundamental scaling correlations, to cover conditions and geometries over the wide range applicable to existing components and probable future designs. The specifications are expected to evolve to meet changing industry requirements. This paper outlines the steps required to generate and support design specifications, and relates them to typical steam-generator design features and computer modeling capabilities. It also describes current issues that are driving changes to flow-induced vibration and fretting-wear specifications that can be applied to the design process for component refurbishment, replacement or new designs. These issues include recent experimental or field evidence for new excitation mechanisms, e.g., the possibility of in-plane fluidelastic instability of U-tubes, the demand for longer reactor and component lifetimes, the need for better predictions of dynamic properties and vibration response, e.g., two-phase random-turbulence excitation, and requirements to consider system 'excursions' or abnormal scenarios, e.g., a main steam line break in the case of steam generators. The paper describes steps being taken to resolve these issues. (author)

286

Comparative study of the performance of the M-cycle counter-flow and cross-flow heat exchangers for indirect evaporative cooling – Paving the path toward sustainable cooling of buildings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper provides a comparative study of the performance of cross-flow and counter-flow M-cycle heat exchangers for dew point cooling. It is recognised that evaporative cooling systems offer a low energy alternative to conventional air conditioning units. Recently emerged dew point cooling, as the renovated evaporative cooling configuration, is claimed to have much higher cooling output over the conventional evaporative modes owing to use of the M-cycle heat exchangers. Cross-flow and counter-flow heat exchangers, as the available structures for M-cycle dew point cooling processing, were theoretically and experimentally investigated to identify the difference in cooling effectiveness of both under the parallel structural/operational conditions, optimise the geometrical sizes of the exchangers and suggest their favourite operational conditions. Through development of a dedicated computer model and case-by-case experimental testing and validation, a parametric study of the cooling performance of the counter-flow and cross-flow heat exchangers was carried out. The results showed the counter-flow exchanger offered greater (around 20% higher) cooling capacity, as well as greater (15%–23% higher) dew-point and wet-bulb effectiveness when equal in physical size and under the same operating conditions. The cross-flow system, however, had a greater (10% higher) Energy Efficiency (COP). As the increased cooling effectiveness will lead to reduced air volume flow rate, smaller system size and lower cost, whilst the size and cost are the inherent barriers for use of dew point cooling as the alternation of the conventional cooling systems, the counter-flow system is considered to offer practical advantages over the cross-flow system that would aid the uptake of this low energy cooling alternative. In line with increased global demand for energy in cooling of building, largely by economic booming of emerging developing nations and recognised global warming, the research results will be of significant importance in terms of promoting deployment of the low energy dew point cooling system, helping reduction of energy use in cooling of buildings and cut of the associated carbon emission. -- Highlights: ? Quantitatively identify benefits of the counter-flow M-cycle heat exchangers over the cross-flow parallels for dew point cooling processing. ? Seeking the way to overcome the barriers in building application of the low energy evaporative dew point cooling system. ? Reduce size/cost of the dew point evaporative cooling system by increasing its cooling effectiveness and cooling capacity. ? Enable alternation of the conventional vapour compression refrigeration system by the low energy cost dew point evaporative cooling. ? Significantly reduce fossil fuel energy use in cooling of buildings and cut the associated carbon emission.

287

Heat Exchanger for Motor Vehicle Cooling System  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Heat exchanger for a motor vehicle cooling system including a sleeve-like meter hermetically mounted on, and surrounding, a hollow tubular chassis meter of the vehicle. The sleeve is provided with inlets and outlets communicating with the space between the sleeve and the chassis meter and vehicle coolant flows through the inlet and outlet. Air, flowing over the outside surface of the sleeve and the inside surface of the chassis meter, cools the vehicle coolant. SMH - MCC Smart, car concepts (...

Thuliez, Jean-luc; Chevroulet, Tristan; Stoll, Daniel

1997-01-01

288

Fluid circulation system for heat exchangers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A fluid circulation system for heat exchangers has two groups of tubes through which primary and secondary fluids flow, the tubes of one group being interdigitated with the tubes of the other group, and a heat transfer material interposed between the two groups of tubes, whereby heat is transferred from the primary fluid through the heat transfer material to the secondary fluid. A shell forms a closure around the tubes and the heat transfer material, and the shell has tertiary fluid inlet and outlet means. Openings in the heat transfer material form passageways through which the tertiary fluid can flow from the inlet means, through the heat exchanger, to the outlet means. Piping connects the tertiary fluid outlet means to the tertiary fluid inlet means , forming a complete cycle. Installed in this piping is a heat removal system. If the secondary fluid flow is interrupted, the tertiary fluid provides a redundant means by which the heat of the primary fluid can be removed from the heat exchanger. Monitoring means can be inserted into the piping, to detect any leakages which may occur in the primary and secondary tubes. Condensers or desiccating material can be installed in the heat removal means to remove any liquids which may leak into the tertiary fluid. Additionally, if the tertiary fluid is a gas or vapor, a turbine can be inserted into the piping and the tertiary fluid's power utilized to provide energy to power the compressor or pump which is circulating the tertssor or pump which is circulating the tertiary fluid. In an emergency, this turbine can be connected to an electrical generator and provide emergency power to the rest of the plant

289

Experimental evaluation of sodium to air heat exchanger performance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? Sodium to air heat exchangers are used to remove the decay heat produced in fast breeder reactor after shutdown. ? Finned tube sodium to air heat exchanger with sodium on tube side was tested for its heat transfer performance. ? A one dimensional computer code was validated by the experimental data obtained. ? Non uniform sodium and air flow distribution was present in the heat exchanger. - Abstract: Sodium to air heat exchangers (AHXs) is used in Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) circuits to reject the decay heat produced by the radioactive decay of the fission products after reactor shutdown, to the atmospheric air. The heat removal through sodium to air heat exchanger maintains the temperature of reactor components in the pool within safe limits in case of non availability of normal heat transport path. The performance of sodium to air heat exchanger is very critical to ensure high reliability of the decay heat removal systems in sodium cooled fast breeder reactors. Hence experimental evaluation of the adequacy of the heat transfer capability gives confidence to the designers. A finned tube cross flow sodium to air heat exchanger of 2 MW heat transfer capacity with sodium on tube side and air on shell side was tested in the Steam Generator Test Facility at Indira Gandhi Center for Atomic Research, India. Heat transfer experiments were carried out with forced circulation of sodium and air, which confirmed the adequacy of heat removal capacity of the heat exchanger. The testing showed that 2.34 MW of heat power is transferred from sodium to air at nominal flow and temperature conditions. A one dimensional computer code developed for design and analysis of the sodium to air heat exchanger was validated by the experimental data obtained. An equivalent Nusselt number, Nueq is derived by approximating that the resistance of heat transfer from sodium to air is contributed only by the film resistance of air. The variation of Nueq with respect to the Reynolds number was studied

290

Optimal Pin Fin Heat Exchanger Surface  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This research presents the results of numerical study of heat transfer and pressure drop in a heat exchanger that is designed with different shape pin fins. The heat exchanger used for this research consists of a rectangular duct fitted with different shape pin fins, and is heated from the lower plate. The pin shape and the compact heat exchanger (CHE) configuration were numerically studied to maximize the heat transfer and minimize the pressure drop across the heat exchanger. A three dimensi...

Nabati, Hamid

2008-01-01

291

Analysis of compact heat exchanger performance  

Science.gov (United States)

Many cryogenic heat exchangers employ high-conductance metallic screens or perforated plates separated by insulating spacers normal to the fluid flow direction. Packed-bed regenerators employing wire screens, perforated plates, or granular particles also have a similar structure. The temperature profile along the length consists of many steps. The ineffectiveness due to axial conduction adds to that due to finite number of plates and finite heat transfer coefficient. A closed form expression is derived for the efficiency of a compact heat exchanger with given design N sub tu where the exchanger consists of layers of metallic screens, plates, or particle layers. It is observed that the effect of discrete temperature profile becomes significant when the per stage design N sub tu exceeds about 0.5.

Sarangi, S.; Barclay, J. A.

1984-12-01

292

Effect of the Moments of Probability Density Function for Non-uniform Air Flow Distribution on the Hydraulic Performance of a Fin-tube Heat Exchanger  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The work presented in this paper examines the effect of a non-uniform airflow velocity distribution on the air pressure drop through the fin passages of a single row fin-tube heat exchanger. Water flow rate through the tubes and its temperature are taken as constant. Maldistribution of the airflow increases the average pressure drop with respect to that of a uniform flow. As a result of this, the pumping power required by the fan or blower will also increase. The increase of the pumping power...

Wai Meng Chin; Raghavan, Vijay R.

2011-01-01

293

Planning heat exchange systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Following a discussion on heating or cooling media, the possible faults arising when not keeping to the required technical specifications are firstly indicated. The soiling and cleaning, vibration and selection of material are discussed, as well as preventive planning measures recommended to avoid later trouble. Finally, some practical tips are given which should not be overlooked. (orig./HP)

294

AP600 passive residual heat removal heat exchanger test  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The AP600 reactor is a pressurized water reactor being designed to utilize a passive residual heat removal (PRHR) heat exchanger as the safety grade means for residual heat removal. The PRHR heat exchanger is utilized during many design basis events and is especially important in mitigating non-loss-of-coolant accidents such as loss of normal feedwater and feedwater line break. The PRHR system transfers decay heat from the reactor coolant system to the containment by heating and boiling the water in the in-containment refueling water storage tank (IRWST). The steam produced transfers heat to the atmosphere by condensing on the inside of the containment shell. The condensate is collected by gutters on the containment shell and is returned to the IRWST, which provides a heat sink for an indefinite amount of time. The PRHR test facility is a prototypical representation of the PRHR heat exchanger with respect to tube material, diameter, pitch, and tube length, such that the gravity-induced flow characteristics in the pool are representative of the design. The main scaling parameter for the pool is the pool volume per tube, which preserves the buoyancy and pool mixing effects. A generalized PRHR boiling correlation was developed using the approach given by Rohsenow such that pressure effects can be induced

295

Heat exchanger including an auxiliary cooling system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It comprises a vertical envelope, heat transfer tubes mainted in this envelope, inlet and outlet windows for a primary coolant flowing between the tubes and inlet and outlet collectors to make the secondary coolant circulate inside the tubes, and an auxiliary cooling system situated in the inlet window, inside a shell. This shell is opened at its upper part and connected to the heat exchanger envelope at its lower part. This system cools the primary coolant when it is not in forced circulation, what creates a natural circulation of this primary coolant to the bottom. The invention can be applied to fast nuclear reactors cooled by sodium. This heat exchanger extracts the heat produced by the core operating normally, and besides, the residual power in case of pump shutdown reactor accident

296

Micro-Scale Regenerative Heat Exchanger  

Science.gov (United States)

A micro-scale regenerative heat exchanger has been designed, optimized and fabricated for use in a micro-Stirling device. Novel design and fabrication techniques enabled the minimization of axial heat conduction losses and pressure drop, while maximizing thermal regenerative performance. The fabricated prototype is comprised of ten separate assembled layers of alternating metal-dielectric composite. Each layer is offset to minimize conduction losses and maximize heat transfer by boundary layer disruption. A grating pattern of 100 micron square non-contiguous flow passages were formed with a nominal 20 micron wall thickness, and an overall assembled ten-layer thickness of 900 microns. Application of the micro heat exchanger is envisioned in the areas of micro-refrigerators/coolers, micropower devices, and micro-fluidic devices.

Moran, Matthew E.; Stelter, Stephan; Stelter, Manfred

2004-01-01

297

Membrane and plastic heat exchangers performance  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The performance of a membrane-based heat exchanger utilizing porous paper as the heat and moisture transfer media is presented. The measured performance is compared with a plastic film heat exchanger. This novel heat exchanger is used in ventilation energy recovery systems. The results show that the sensible effectiveness is higher than the latent effectiveness. When a similar experiment was conducted using a plastic film heat exchanger surface instead of paper, where only heat is transferred...

Masud Behnia; Mohammad Shakir Nasif; Morrison, Graham L.

2005-01-01

298

Three-component heat exchanger  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A three-component heat exchanger is proposed in which two media are carried in separate tube systems designed as approximately vertical, concentric, cylindrical (or plane) tube walls arranged in a vessel filled with a stagnant fluid compatible with the two media in such a way that a small clearance is left between the two tube walls. Such heat exchangers can be employed in nuclear power plants equipped with circuits carrying sodium and water(vapor). If the two media have very different enthalpies, the cross section or the arrangement of the different tubes relative to each other is balanced out. A lead-bismuth eutectic is proposed as the contact medium. (UWI)

299

Predict the temperature distribution in gas-to-gas heat pipe heat exchanger  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A theoretical model has been developed to investigate the thermal performance of a continuous finned circular tubing of an air-to-air thermosyphon-based heat pipe heat exchanger. The model has been used to determine the heat transfer capacity, which expresses the thermal performance of heat pipe heat exchanger. The model predicts the temperature distribution in the flow direction for both evaporator and condenser sections and also the saturation temperature of the heat pipes. The approach used for the present study considers row-by-row heat-transfer in evaporator and condenser sections of the heat pipe heat exchanger. (orig.)

Azad, E. [Iranian Research Organization for Science and Technology, Department of Advanced Materials and Renewable Energy, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2012-07-15

300

Experimental study of peripheral problems related to liquid flow induced vibration in heat exchangers and steam generators  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Real prototype heat exchangers deviate from laboratory tube bundles. In the work reported here, numerous experimental tests have been conducted to determine the effect on permissible design velocity limits of these deviations. All tests have been conducted in a horizontal water tunnel containing tube bundles of contemporary interest. Tests have been conducted to determine whether or not open tube lanes will serve to trigger hydroelastic instabilities at abnormally low velocities. It is found that, in fact, they do not. Further tests were conducted to investigate the effect of varying the clearance between the bundle and the tunnel wall. Results indicate that a clearance of not less than half a tube diameter prevents local vibration problems. The effect on vibration of various shapes of baffle plates located along the tunnel wall was investigated. Preferred baffle plate designs have been established. Clearances of one tube bundle gap width between baffle plates and adjacent tubes are shown to be desirable. Mixed bundles of tubes of different frequencies were tested. Vibration test demonstrated that this is not the way to improve heat exchanger design. The effects of locating baffles in the bundle inlet region were tested. It was found that the distance between the plate and the bundle was not of critical importance. Other geometric effects were studied. The first hydroelastic tests on clamped-simply supported tube bundles have now been completed. The new data are foundnow been completed. The new data are found to fit remarkably well on the previously used stability diagram. At the time of writting, the effect of clearances at the tube end supports is being studied. With controlled clearances in the laboratory, it is found that a knocking action occurs at these supports even at extremely low velocities. The implication of these tests, as they pertain to multi-span heat exchangers is discussed

 
 
 
 
301

Heat exchangers and methods of construction thereof  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A heat exchanger is described comprising a shell having first inlet means and first outlet means for the flow of a first fluid therethrough, a plurality of tubes within the shell to provide a path for flow of a second fluid in heat exchange relation to the first fluid, second inlet means and second outlet means for flow of the second fluid to and from the tubes respectively, a tubular member concentric with at least a portion of the length of one of the tubes to define a space between the tube and the tubular member, at least one radially outwardly projecting portion on the tubular member, and a plurality of tube support means spaced apart and disposed generally perpendicular to the tube axes, wherein the tubular member is fixedly attached at one end to one of the tube support means and at the other end to an adjacent one of the tube support means, the space between the tube and the tubular member is closed to flow of both the first fluid and the second fluid, and the radially outwardly projecting portion on the tubular member extends longitudinally to allow flexing of the tubular member and expanding thereof radially outwardly during construction of the heat exchanger so as to allow insertion of the tube into the tubular member, the radially outwardly projecting portion defining a gap which contributes to the space between the tube and the tubular member. 6 figs

302

Numerical Analysis of Tube-Fin Heat Exchanger using Fluent  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Three-dimensional CFD simulations are carried out to investigate heat transfer and fluid flow characteristics of two-row plain Tube and Fin heat exchanger using FLUENT software. Heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics of the heat exchanger are investigated for Reynolds numbers ranging from 330 to 7000. Model geometry is created and meshed by using GAMBIT software. Fluid flow and heat transfer are simulated and results compared using both laminar and turbulent flow models k-, and SST k-omega, with steady-state solvers to calculate pressure drop, flow, and temperature fields. Model validation is carried out by comparing the simulated value friction factor f and Colburn factor j to experimental results investigate by Wang. Reasonable agreement is found between the simulations and experimental data, and the fluent software has been sufficient for simulating the flow fields in tube-fin heat exchangers.

M. V. Ghori

2012-08-01

303

Influence of Ship Vibrations on Heat Exchangers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The effect of vibrations on heat transfer has been described. The study made on a double pipe counterflow heat exchanger clearly shows that vibrations of heat exchnagers cause increase in heat transfer coefficients. The maximum increase in overall heat transfer coefficient achieved is 165%. In places where vibrations are inherently present like in ships, the onboard heat exchangers can make use of this phenomenon and increase the effectiveness of heat exchangers.

H.S.N. Sastry

2014-03-01

304

Tubular heat exchanger, for nuclear installations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The description is given of a heat exchanger comprising an elongated heat exchanger module suitable for group mounting with other similar modules. The module includes a long casing having a hexagonal cross section configuration to make it easy to group together a set of modules in an appreciably continuous set. A set of thermally conducting tubes is arranged in the casing and extends through its entire length. An intake collector is fitted to one end of the casing and communicates with one end of the tubes and an outlet collector is fitted to the other end of the casing and communicates with the other end of the tubes, a fluid passage being made inside the casing for the flow of primary fluid through it around the thermally conducting tubes. The intake and outlet collectors are each fitted for their respective coupling to an intake manifold and an outlet manifold for the flow of a primary fluid through the tubes in the casing

305

A Simulation Tool for Radiative Heat Exchangers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In order to minimize the large fan power demand from low temperature lift heat pump systems, a radiative heat exchanger is proposed as an indoor heat exchanger design in such systems. The radiative heat exchanger utilizes both natural convection and radiation so that it is capable of reducing fan power consumption while simultaneously providing an improved thermal comfort. A software tool has been developed to simulate the operative temperature field created by a radiative heat exchanger inst...

Hwang, Yunho; Ling, Jiazhen; Radermacher, Reinhard

2012-01-01

306

Effect of the Moments of Probability Density Function for Non-uniform Air Flow Distribution on the Hydraulic Performance of a Fin-tube Heat Exchanger  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The work presented in this paper examines the effect of a non-uniform airflow velocity distribution on the air pressure drop through the fin passages of a single row fin-tube heat exchanger. Water flow rate through the tubes and its temperature are taken as constant. Maldistribution of the airflow increases the average pressure drop with respect to that of a uniform flow. As a result of this, the pumping power required by the fan or blower will also increase. The increase of the pumping power is calculated by means of a discretization technique and it is analyzed with respect to the non-uniform distribution statistical moments of probability density function, i.e., the mean, standard deviation, skew and kurtosis. The analysis reveals that the increase of pumping power is dependent on the exchanger NTU, standard deviation and skew of the velocity distribution. Kurtosis has no effect on the pressure drop. Correlations have been developed to predict this increase of pumping power from known statistical moments and resulting air temperatures. These can then be used as design tools to optimize the sizing of the heat exchanger within the air-conditioning unit, hence giving the best energy efficiency performance.

Wai Meng Chin

2011-01-01

307

Simultaneous Heat and Mass Transfer in a Wetted Heat Exchanger, Part II: Modeling  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An analytical model for a condenser with a wetted surface is developed by applying the governing conservations and rate equations and invoking the heat and mass transfer analogy. The heat exchanger is discretized in both the air-flow and refrigerant-flow directions for a cross-flow configuration. Axial conduction along the tube walls is neglected and uniform distribution of water is assumed at the heat exchanger front fin surface. Any water not evaporated in a finite control volume is assumed...

Bock, Jessica; Zhang, Feini; Jacobi, Anthony M.; Wu, Hailing

2012-01-01

308

Air duct heat exchanger; Luftkanal-Waermetauscher  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A mechanical building ventilation unit that brings together two functions - fluid transport and heat recovery - is presented. Aluminium fins in the supply air duct and in the adjacent extract air duct increase the heat flow from fluid to fluid. This unit is mainly intended to be used for residential ventilation and was investigated by means of experiments and simulations. Air flow rates, temperatures, air humidities and pressure differences were measured in an experimental set-up. Additionally, using a program for two-dimensional heat conduction analyses and a simple model, the efficiency of the heat recovery was calculated and compared with measurements. Afterwards, the influence of variations of the heat exchanger geometry was investigated by means of simulations. It was shown that by using this concept, it is possible to realise a ventilation unit in which heat is exchanged with high efficiency, e.g. temperature efficiency of 0.7 at a duct length of 6 m. At the same time, low pressure-drops occur, typically 20 Pa, which leads to low rates of electrical energy input. (author)

Huber, H.; Helfenfinger, D. [Berner Fachhochschule, Hochschule fuer Technik und Architektur (HTA), Lucerne (Switzerland); Manz, H. [EMPA Eidgenoessischen Materialpruefungs- und Forschungsanstalt, Duebendorf (Switzerland)

2000-07-01

309

Experimental investigation of passive residual heat removal system with air cooled heat exchanger  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this work is to obtain the Performance test data for the passive residual heat removal (RHR) heat exchanger in the advanced PWR. The RHR heat exchanger is designed to remove the decay heat with combined effects of the natural circulation of water by means of the thermosyphon at the inside and the natural convection of the air at the outside. Two test models were made to simulate the RHR heat exchanger. The one is the single bundle test model which consisted of a finned tubular heat exchanger unit. The other is the multi-bundle test model which has the finned tubular heat exchanger consisting of ten bundles of tubular units. The Maximum heat removal capabilities of each model were investigated. The cooling water flow rates by the thermosyphon were measured and were in good agreement with the theoretical predictions. The effects of chimney and elevation between the heater and the heat exchanger were investigated

310

Analysis of flow-induced vibration of heat exchanger and steam generator tube bundles using the AECL computer code PIPEAU-2  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

PIPEAU-2 is a computer code developed at the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories for the flow-induced vibration analysis of heat exchanger and steam generator tube bundles. It can perform this analysis for straight and 'U' tubes. All the theoretical work underlying the code is analytical rather than numerical in nature. Highly accurate evaluation of the free vibration frequencies and mode shapes is therefore obtained. Using the latest experimentally determined parameters available, the free vibration analysis is followed by a forced vibration analysis. Tube response due to fluid turbulence and vortex shedding is determined, as well as critical fluid velocity associated with fluid-elastic instability

311

Industrial applications for LIGA-fabricated micro heat exchangers  

Science.gov (United States)

One of the well-known benefits of micro scale is enhanced heat transfer. This fact provides the motivation for fabricating a variety of micro heat exchangers using derivatives of the LIGA micromachining process. These heat exchangers can be made of polymers, nickel (electroplated or electroless), or ceramics (Si3N4 and alumina are presently being investigated). These heat exchangers are envisioned for applications such as gas turbine blades, mechanical seals and/or bearings, boilers, condensers, radiators, evaporators, electronic component cooling, and catalytic converters. In this paper, methods to fabricate an array of heat exchangers for different applications are described. In addition, simple analytic models that illustrate the motivation for fabricating micro cross flow heat exchanges are shown to compare favorably with experimental heat transfer results.

Kelly, Kevin W.; Harris, Chad; Stephens, Lyndon S.; Marques, Christophe; Foley, Dan

2001-10-01

312

Pressurized bellows flat contact heat exchanger interface  

Science.gov (United States)

Disclosed is an interdigitated plate-type heat exchanger interface. The interface includes a modular interconnect to thermally connect a pair or pairs of plate-type heat exchangers to a second single or multiple plate-type heat exchanger. The modular interconnect comprises a series of parallel, plate-type heat exchangers arranged in pairs to form a slot therebetween. The plate-type heat exchangers of the second heat exchanger insert into the slots of the modular interconnect. Bellows are provided between the pairs of fins of the modular interconnect so that when the bellows are pressurized, they drive the plate-type heat exchangers of the modular interconnect toward one another, thus closing upon the second heat exchanger plates. Each end of the bellows has a part thereof a thin, membrane diaphragm which readily conforms to the contours of the heat exchanger plates of the modular interconnect when the bellows is pressurized. This ensures an even distribution of pressure on the heat exchangers of the modular interconnect thus creating substantially planar contact between the two heat exchangers. The effect of the interface of the present invention is to provide a dry connection between two heat exchangers whereby the rate of heat transfer can be varied by varying the pressure within the bellows.

Voss, Fred E. (inventor); Howell, Harold R. (inventor); Winkler, Roger V. (inventor)

1990-01-01

313

Analyzing the effect on heat transfer due to nonuniform distribution of liquid flow among the tubes of a shell-and-tube heat exchanger  

Science.gov (United States)

A method is proposed using which nonuniform distribution of liquid flow among the tubes of a shell-and-tube apparatus can be taken into account by means of a statistical distribution function. A formula showing interrelation of this function with the indicator of heat transfer intensity in the apparatus tube space is given.

Zinkevich, A. I.; Sharifullin, V. N.; Sharifullin, A. V.

2010-09-01

314

Modeling water and heat flows through a mulch allowing for radiative and long-distance convective exchanges in the mulch  

Science.gov (United States)

This work aims at modeling quantitatively the effects of a mulch on the water and heat transfers in the soil-mulch-atmosphere system. The developed model TECmulch derives from the mechanistic model TEC, designed for bare soil. TECmulch accounts for (1) free convection, (2) forced convection, and (3) radiative transfer in the mulch. The mulch formalism does not rely on the classical local gradients theory but on long-distance exchanges. It is based on four parameters that are calibrated on experimental data for two different mulches (corn residue and crushed glass). Experimental data come from la Tinaja's station (Mexico) for corn mulch and Avignon's station (France) for glass mulch. Measurements concern the physical characterization of the soil and the mulch, the evolution of soil water content and temperature, and the radiative balance plus usual climatic data. TECmulch is validated on independent data, compared to the classical theory, and each modeled process is analyzed in detail.

Findeling, A.; Chanzy, A.; de Louvigny, N.

2003-09-01

315

Heat Exchanger Design in Combined Cycle Engines  

Science.gov (United States)

Combined cycle engines employing both pre-cooled air-breathing and rocket modes of operation are the most promising propulsion system for achieving single stage to orbit vehicles. The air-breathing phase is purely for augmentation of the mission velocity required in the rocket phase and as such must be mass effective, re-using the components of the rocket cycle, whilst achieving adequate specific impulse. This paper explains how the unique demands placed on the air-breathing cycle results in the need for sophisticated thermodynamics and the use of a series of different heat exchangers to enable precooling and high pressure ratio compression of the air for delivery to the rocket combustion chambers. These major heat exchanger roles are; extracting heat from incoming air in the precooler, topping up cycle flow temperatures to maintain constant turbine operating conditions and extracting rejected heat from the power cycle via regenerator loops for thermal capacity matching. The design solutions of these heat exchangers are discussed.

Webber, H.; Feast, S.; Bond, A.

316

Liquid metal/air heat exchanger  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of the invention is a liquid metal/air heat exchanger which can resist to thermal expansion of tubes for which a supporting system is provided in the present case; this supporting system does not involve excessive stresses. Such heat exchangers apply to LMFBR type reactors. They are used as emergency heat exchangers when there is a failure of the reactor cooling circuits to cool the primary liquid sodium, or as heat exchangers in test or experimental circuits of reactors

317

21 CFR 870.4240 - Cardiopulmonary bypass heat exchanger.  

Science.gov (United States)

...false Cardiopulmonary bypass heat exchanger. 870.4240 Section 870...4240 Cardiopulmonary bypass heat exchanger. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass heat exchanger is a device, consisting...

2010-04-01

318

Study of transient behavior of finned coil heat exchangers  

Science.gov (United States)

The status of research on the transient behavior of finned coil cross-flow heat exchangers using single phase fluids is reviewed. Applications with available analytical or numerical solutions are discussed. Investigation of water-to-air type cross-flow finned tube heat exchangers is examined through the use of simplified governing equations and an up-wind finite difference scheme. The degenerate case of zero air-side capacitance rate is compared with available exact solution. Generalization of the numerical model is discussed for application to multi-row multi-circuit heat exchangers.

Rooke, S. P.; Elissa, M. G.

1993-01-01

319

Comparative thermal analysis of theoretical and experimental studies of modified indirect evaporative cooler having cross flow heat exchanger with one fluid mixed and the other unmixed  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The comparative thermal analysis of theoretical and experimental studies of modified indirect evaporative cooler having cross flow heat exchanger with one fluid mixed and the other unmixed is presented in this research paper. A heat and mass transfer mathematical model is developed to simulate the properties of indirect evaporative cooler. The theoretical result analysis was done by plotting the curves between various performance parameters. This work presents the fabrication and experiments carried out on the indirect evaporative cooler at various outdoor air conditions. The data acquired by experiment were analyzed by plotting the curves between various performance parameters. The theoretical and experimental results were compared and analyzed. The theoretical model can be used to predict the performance of modified indirect evaporative cooler.

Trilok Singh Bisoniya, S.P.S. Rajput, Anil Kumar

2011-09-01

320

The resistance and heat transfer in zigzag duct and the performance of plate heat exchangers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A comprehensive experimental set-up for investigation of heat transfer, resistance and flow visualization as well as a full scale heat exchanger experiment system to test plate heat exchangers are described in the present work. The set-up and the system are cooperated to make developmental researches of the plate heat exchanges. The experiment data to relate the resistance factors in various zigzag ducts with the Reynolds number are obtained. It shows that the resistance factors of flow in the zigzag ducts do not depend on both the length-height ratio and the Reynolds number. The flow visualization reveals that the critical Reynolds number at which the laminar flow in the ducts will translate into turbulent flow is about 100 to 150. The experiment results and the preliminary analysis on eleven plate heat exchanges are given in the present paper

 
 
 
 
321

Predicting particle deposition on HVAC heat exchangers  

Science.gov (United States)

Particles in indoor environments may deposit on the surfaces of heat exchangers that are used in heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. Such deposits can lead to performance degradation and indoor air quality problems. We present a model of fin-and-tube heat-exchanger fouling that deterministically simulates particle impaction, gravitational settling, and Brownian diffusion and uses a Monte Carlo simulation to account for impaction due to air turbulence. The model predicts that <2% of submicron particles will deposit on heat exchangers with air flows and fin spacings that are typical of HVAC systems. For supermicron particles, deposition increases with particle size. The dominant deposition mechanism for 1-10 ?m particles is impaction on fin edges. Gravitational settling, impaction, and air turbulence contribute to deposition for particles larger than 10 ?m. Gravitational settling is the dominant deposition mechanism for lower air velocities, and impaction on refrigerant tubes is dominant for higher velocities. We measured deposition fractions for 1-16 ?m particles at three characteristic air velocities. On average, the measured results show more deposition than the model predicts for an air speed of 1.5 m s -1. The amount that the model underpredicts the measured data increases at higher velocities and especially for larger particles, although the model shows good qualitative agreement with the measured deposition fractions. Discontinuities in the heat-exchanger fins are hypothesized to be responsible for the increase in measured deposition. The model and experiments reported here are for isothermal conditions and do not address the potentially important effects of heat transfer and water phase change on deposition.

Siegel, Jeffrey A.; Nazaroff, William W.

322

Design of intermediate heat exchanger for PFBR  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Prototype fast breeder reactor (PFBR) is a sodium cooled 500 MWe pool type reactor. It has three heat transfer circuits viz. primary sodium circuit, secondary sodium circuit and water- steam circuit. The main vessel contains the pool of sodium and houses all the components of the primary sodium circuit. Two numbers of primary sodium pumps and four numbers of intermediate heat exchangers (IHX) have been provided. The nuclear heat generated in the core is transferred to secondary sodium in IHX by circulation of primary sodium. There are two secondary sodium circuits. Each circuit contains one sodium pump, one surge tank and four steam generators (in parallel) and is connected to two IHXs in the reactor. The secondary sodium circuits transfer the heat to water/steam in steam generators (SG). Super heated steam produced in the SGs is used to drive the turbo-alternator set to generate power. The IHX is a very important component of the reactor because it forms the boundary between radioactive primary sodium in the reactor pool and non-radioactive secondary sodium. The IHX is a counter flow shell-and-tube heat exchanger. The IHX is designed to meet the specified design requirements and constraints. This involves thermal, hydraulic, and structural design. In this paper, the design features, design conditions and design of IHX for PFBR are described. 4 figs., 3 tabs

323

Test results of a Stirling engine utilizing heat exchanger modules with an integral heat pipe  

Science.gov (United States)

The Heat Pipe Stirling Engine (HP-1000), a free-piston Stirling engine incorporating three heat exchanger modules, each having a sodium filled heat pipe, has been tested at the NASA-Lewis Research Center as part of the Civil Space Technology Initiative (CSTI). The heat exchanger modules were designed to reduce the number of potential flow leak paths in the heat exchanger assembly and incorporate a heat pipe as the link between the heat source and the engine. An existing RE-1000 free-piston Stirling engine was modified to operate using the heat exchanger modules. This paper describes heat exchanger module and engine performance during baseline testing. Condenser temperature profiles, brake power, and efficiency are presented and discussed.

Skupinski, Robert C.; Tower, Leonard K.; Madi, Frank J.; Brusk, Kevin D.

1993-01-01

324

Test results of a Stirling engine utilizing heat exchanger modules with an integral heat pipe  

Science.gov (United States)

The Heat Pipe Stirling Engine (HP-1000), a free-piston Stirling engine incorporating three heat exchanger modules, each having a sodium filled heat pipe, has been tested at the NASA-Lewis Research Center as part of the Civil Space Technology Initiative (CSTI). The heat exchanger modules were designed to reduce the number of potential flow leak paths in the heat exchanger assembly and incorporate a heat pipe as the link between the heat source and the engine. An existing RE-1000 free-piston Stirling engine was modified to operate using the heat exchanger modules. This paper describes heat exchanger module and engine performance during baseline testing. Condenser temperature profiles, brake power, and efficiency are presented and discussed.

Skupinski, Robert C.; Tower, Leonard K.; Madi, Frank J.; Brusk, Kevin D.

1993-04-01

325

SAFE gas turbine cycle primary heat exchangers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Los Alamos National Laboratory and Marshall Space Flight Center are jointly developing two modular heat pipe heat exchangers, collectively named FIGMENT (Fission Inert Gas Metal Exchanger for Non-nuclear Testing). The FIGMENT heat exchangers are designed to transfer power from the SAFE nuclear reactor cores to gas turbine energy converters. A stainless steel prototype heat exchanger will be built during 2002 in preparation for the construction of a larger refractory metal version. Two promising FIGMENT stainless steel heat exchanger concepts are reviewed here

326

Preliminary SP-100/Stirling heat exchanger designs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Analytic modeling of several heat exchanger concepts to couple the SP-100 nuclear reactor primary lithium loop and the Space Stirling Power Convertor (SSPC) was performed. Four 25 kWe SSPC's are used to produce the required 100 kW of electrical power. This design work focused on the interface between a single SSPC and the primary lithium loop. Manifolding to separate and collect the four channel flow was not modeled. This work modeled two separate types of heat exchanger interfaces (conductive coupling and radiative coupling) to explore their relative advantages and disadvantages. The minimum mass design of the conductively coupled concepts was 18 kg or 0.73 kg/kWe for a single 25 kWe convertor. The minimum mass radiatively coupled concept was 41 kg or 1.64 kg/kWe. The direct conduction heat exchanger provides a lighter weight system because of its ability to operate the Stirling convertor evaporator at higher heat fluxes than those attainable by the radiatively coupled systems. Additionally the conductively coupled concepts had relatively small volumes and provide potentially simpler assembly. Their disadvantages were the tight tolerances and material joining problems associated with this refractory to superalloy interface. The advantages of the radiatively coupled designs were the minimal material interface problems

327

Preliminary SP-100/Stirling heat exchanger designs  

Science.gov (United States)

Analytic modeling of several heat exchanger concepts to couple the SP-100 nuclear reactor primary lithium loop and the Space Stirling Power Convertor (SSPC) was performed. Four 25 kWe SSPC's are used to produce the required 100 kW of electrical power. This design work focused on the interface between a single SSPC and the primary lithium loop. Manifolding to separate and collect the four channel flow was not modeled. This work modeled two separate types of heat exchanger interfaces (conductive coupling and radiative coupling) to explore their relative advantages and disadvantages. The minimum mass design of the conductively coupled concepts was 18 kg or 0.73 kg/kWe for a single 25 kWe convertor. The minimum mass radiatively coupled concept was 41 kg or 1.64 kg/kWe. The direct conduction heat exchanger provides a lighter weight system because of its ability to operate the Stirling convertor evaporator at higher heat fluxes than those attainable by the radiatively coupled systems. Additionally the conductively coupled concepts had relatively small volumes and provide potentially simpler assembly. Their disadvantages were the tight tolerances and material joining problems associated with this refractory to superalloy interface. The advantages of the radiatively coupled designs were the minimal material interface problems.

Schmitz, Paul; Tower, Leonard; Dawson, Ronald; Blue, Brian; Dunn, Pat

1993-01-01

328

Preliminary SP-100/Stirling heat exchanger designs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Analytic modeling of several heat exchanger concepts to couple the SP-100 nuclear reactor lithium loop and the Space Stirling Power Convertor (SSPC) was performed. Four 25 kWe SSPC's are used to produce the required 100 kW of electrical power. This design work focused on the interface between a single SSPC and the primary lithium loop. Manifolding to separate and collect the four channel flow was not modeled. This work modeled two separate types of heat exchanger interfaces (conductive coupling and radiative coupling) to explore their relative advantages and disadvantages. The minimum mass design of the conductively coupled concepts was 18 kg or 0.73 kg/kWe for a single 25 kWe convertor. The minimum mass radiatively coupled concept was 41 kg or 1.64 kg/kWe. The direct conduction heat exchanger provides a lighter weight system because of its ability to operate the Stirling convertor evaporator at higher heat fluxes than those attainable by the radiatively coupled systems. Additionally the conductively coupled concepts had relatively small volumes and provide potentially simpler assembly. Their disadvantages were the tight tolerances and material joining problems associated with this refractory to superalloy interface. The advantages of the radiatively coupled designs were the minimal material interface problems

329

Preliminary SP-100/Stirling heat exchanger designs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Analytic modeling of several heat exchanger concepts to couple the SP-100 nuclear reactor lithium loop and the Space Stirling Power Convertor (SSPC) was performed. Four 25 kWe SSPC`s are used to produce the required 100 kW of electrical power. This design work focused on the interface between a single SSPC and the primary lithium loop. Manifolding to separate and collect the four channel flow was not modeled. This work modeled two separate types of heat exchanger interfaces (conductive coupling and radiative coupling) to explore their relative advantages and disadvantages. The minimum mass design of the conductively coupled concepts was 18 kg or 0.73 kg/kWe for a single 25 kWe convertor. The minimum mass radiatively coupled concept was 41 kg or 1.64 kg/kWe. The direct conduction heat exchanger provides a lighter weight system because of its ability to operate the Stirling convertor evaporator at higher heat fluxes than those attainable by the radiatively coupled systems. Additionally the conductively coupled concepts had relatively small volumes and provide potentially simpler assembly. Their disadvantages were the tight tolerances and material joining problems associated with this refractory to superalloy interface. The advantages of the radiatively coupled designs were the minimal material interface problems.

Schmitz, P.; Tower, L. [Sverdrup Technology, Inc., Brook Park, OH (United States). Lewis Research Center Group; Dawson, R. [Aerospace Design and Fabrication Inc., Brook Park, OH (United States); Blue, B.; Dunn, P. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Cleveland, OH (United States). Lewis Research Center

1994-09-01

330

Fluidized bed heat exchanger utilizing angularly extending heat exchange tubes  

Science.gov (United States)

A fluidized bed heat exchanger in which air is passed through a bed of particulate material containing fuel disposed in a housing. A steam/water natural circulation system is provided and includes a steam drum disposed adjacent the fluidized bed and a series of tubes connected at one end to the steam drum. A portion of the tubes are connected to a water drum and in the path of the air and the gaseous products of combustion exiting from the bed. Another portion of the tubes pass through the bed and extend at an angle to the upper surface of the bed.

Talmud, Fred M. (Berkeley Heights, NJ); Garcia-Mallol, Juan-Antonio (Morristown, NJ)

1980-01-01

331

NGNP Process Heat Utilization: Liquid Metal Phase Change Heat Exchanger  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

One key long-standing issue that must be overcome to fully realize the successful growth of nuclear power is to determine other benefits of nuclear energy apart from meeting the electricity demands. The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) will most likely be producing electricity and heat for the production of hydrogen and/or oil retrieval from oil sands and oil shale to help in our national pursuit of energy independence. For nuclear process heat to be utilized, intermediate heat exchange is required to transfer heat from the NGNP to the hydrogen plant or oil recovery field in the most efficient way possible. Development of nuclear reactor--process heat technology has intensified the interest in liquid metals as heat transfer media because of their ideal transport properties. Liquid metal heat exchangers are not new in practical applications. An important rational for considering liquid metals is the potential convective heat transfer is among the highest known. Thus explains the interest in liquid metals as coolant for intermediate heat exchange from NGNP. For process heat it is desired that, intermediate heat exchangers (IHX) transfer heat from the NGNP in the most efficient way possible. The production of electric power at higher efficiency via the Brayton Cycle, and hydrogen production, requires both heat at higher temperatures and high effectiveness compact heat exchangers to transfer heat to either the power or process cycle. Compact heat exchangers maximize t cycle. Compact heat exchangers maximize the heat transfer surface area per volume of heat exchanger; this has the benefit of reducing heat exchanger size and heat losses. High temperature IHX design requirements are governed in part by the allowable temperature drop between the outlet and inlet of the NGNP. In order to improve the characteristics of heat transfer, liquid metal phase change heat exchangers may be more effective and efficient. This paper explores the overall heat transfer characteristics and pressure drop of the phase change heat exchanger with Na as the heat exchanger coolant. In order to design a very efficient and effective heat exchanger one must optimize the design such that we have a high heat transfer and a lower pressure drop, but there is always a trade-off between them. Based on NGNP operational parameters, a heat exchanger analysis with the sodium phase change will be presented to show that the heat exchanger has the potential for highly effective heat transfer, within a small volume at reasonable cost

332

Heat exchange phenomena and COP evaluation in heat pump systems coupled to single borehole heat exchangers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In recent years a growing interest in Borehole Heat Exchangers (BHEs) has been shown in Europe thanks to the increase of installations in systems connected to Ground Source Heat Pumps (GSHPs) used for heating and cooling needs. Different geometries and technical solutions have been de- veloped in order to improve heat exchange with the ground, accompanied by several descriptive models. Recently, innovative technologies as optical fiber for a new Distributed Thermal Response Test (DTRT) have b...

Casellato, Francesco

2013-01-01

333

Heat exchanger for solar water heaters  

Science.gov (United States)

Proposed efficient double-walled heat exchanger prevents contamination of domestic water supply lines and indicates leakage automatically in solar as well as nonsolar heat sources using water as heat transfer medium.

Cash, M.; Krupnick, A. C.

1977-01-01

334

Optimization of heat exchanger for indirectly heated water heater  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Due to the optimization of geometrical parameters of the heat exchanger in indirect heated water heaters created a mathematical model of heating hot water, by which I have subsequently made the simulation of the device to change its geometrical parameters. Based on these results, the impacts of the geometrical parameters affect the performance of the heat exchanger. The results of the optimization to create a CFD model which watched at the behavior of optimized heat exchanger for indirect hea...

Kaduchová Katarína; Lenhard Richard; Janda?ka Jozef

2012-01-01

335

Online performance assessment of heat exchanger using artificial neural networks  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Heat exchanger is a device in which heat is transferred from one medium to another across a solid surface. The performance of heat exchanger deteriorates with time due to fouling on the heat transfer surface. It is necessary to assess periodically the heat exchanger performance, in order to maintain at high efficiency level. Industries follow adopted practices to monitor but it is limited to some degree. Online monitoring has an advantage to understand and improve the heat exchanger performance. In this paper, online performance monitoring system for shell and tube heat exchanger is developed using artificial neural networks (ANNs. Experiments are conducted based on full factorial design of experiments to develop a model using the parameters such as temperatures and flow rates. ANN model for overall heat transfer coefficient of a design/ clean heat exchanger system is developed using a feed forward back propagation neural network and trained. The developed model is validated and tested by comparing the results with the experimental results. This model is used to assess the performance of heat exchanger with the real/fouled system. The performance degradation is expressed using fouling factor (FF, which is derived from the overall heat transfer coefficient of design system and real system. It supports the system to improve the performance by asset utilization, energy efficient and cost reduction interms of production loss.

C. Ahilan, S. Kumanan, N. Sivakumaran

2011-09-01

336

Membrane and plastic heat exchangers performance  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The performance of a membrane-based heat exchanger utilizing porous paper as the heat and moisture transfer media is presented. The measured performance is compared with a plastic film heat exchanger. This novel heat exchanger is used in ventilation energy recovery systems. The results show that the sensible effectiveness is higher than the latent effectiveness. When a similar experiment was conducted using a plastic film heat exchanger surface instead of paper, where only heat is transferred, the sensible effectiveness values were lower than the effectiveness values recorded when the paper heat exchanger is used. Furthermore, energy analysis shows that utilizing a paper surface heat exchanger in a standard air conditioning system will lead to significant energy savings.

Masud Behnia

2005-09-01

337

Rational Efficiency of a Heat Exchanger  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The authors propose a new and unique definition for the rational efficiency of a heat exchanger. This new rational efficiency is defined in terms of its sub-rational efficiencies: a heat transfer rational efficiency and a friction rational efficiency for each of the fluid systems comprising the heat exchanger. The heat transfer rational efficiency is based on the definition of a mean temperature for the heat source and a mean temperature for the heat sink and reflects the exergy supplied and ...

Mcgovern, Jim; Smyth, Brian P.

2011-01-01

338

Microchannel crossflow fluid heat exchanger and method for its fabrication  

Science.gov (United States)

A microchannel crossflow fluid heat exchanger and a method for its fabrication are disclosed. The heat exchanger is formed from a stack of thin metal sheets which are bonded together. The stack consists of alternating slotted and unslotted sheets. Each of the slotted sheets includes multiple parallel slots which form fluid flow channels when sandwiched between the unslotted sheets. Successive slotted sheets in the stack are rotated ninety degrees with respect to one another so as to form two sets of orthogonally extending fluid flow channels which are arranged in a crossflow configuration. The heat exchanger has a high surface to volume ratio, a small dead volume, a high heat transfer coefficient, and is suitable for use with fluids under high pressures. The heat exchanger has particular application in a Stirling engine that utilizes a liquid as the working substance.

Swift, Gregory W. (Los Alamos, NM); Migliori, Albert (Santa Fe, NM); Wheatley, John C. (Los Alamos, NM)

1985-01-01

339

NGNP Process Heat Utilization: Liquid Metal Phase Change Heat Exchanger  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

One key long-standing issue that must be overcome to fully realize the successful growth of nuclear power is to determine other benefits of nuclear energy apart from meeting the electricity demands. The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) will most likely be producing electricity and heat for the production of hydrogen and/or oil retrieval from oil sands and oil shale to help in our national pursuit of energy independence. For nuclear process heat to be utilized, intermediate heat exchange is required to transfer heat from the NGNP to the hydrogen plant or oil recovery field in the most efficient way possible. Development of nuclear reactor - process heat technology has intensified the interest in liquid metals as heat transfer media because of their ideal transport properties. Liquid metal heat exchangers are not new in practical applications. An important rational for considering liquid metals is the potential convective heat transfer is among the highest known. Thus explains the interest in liquid metals as coolant for intermediate heat exchange from NGNP. For process heat it is desired that, intermediate heat exchangers (IHX) transfer heat from the NGNP in the most efficient way possible. The production of electric power at higher efficiency via the Brayton Cycle, and hydrogen production, requires both heat at higher temperatures and high effectiveness compact heat exchangers to transfer heat to either the power or process cycle. Compact heat exchangers maximize the heat transfer surface area per volume of heat exchanger; this has the benefit of reducing heat exchanger size and heat losses. High temperature IHX design requirements are governed in part by the allowable temperature drop between the outlet and inlet of the NGNP. In order to improve the characteristics of heat transfer, liquid metal phase change heat exchangers may be more effective and efficient. This paper explores the overall heat transfer characteristics and pressure drop of the phase change heat exchanger with Na as the heat exchanger coolant. In order to design a very efficient and effective heat exchanger one must optimize the design such that we have a high heat transfer and a lower pressure drop, but there is always a trade-off between them. Based on NGNP operational parameters, a heat exchanger analysis with the sodium phase change will be presented to show that the heat exchanger has the potential for highly effective heat transfer, within a small volume at reasonable cost.

Piyush Sabharwall; Mike Patterson; Vivek Utgikar; Fred Gunnerson

2008-09-01

340

Thermal and hydrodynamic considerations of ice slurry in heat exchangers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article focuses on the behavior in heat exchangers of an ice slurry composed of fine ice particles inside an ethanol-water solution. The heat transfer and friction characteristics were studied in two double pipe heat exchangers, one with a smooth surface and another with an improved surface. Heat transfer coefficients and pressure drops were experimentally investigated for the slurry flowing in the internal tube with ice mass fractions ranging from 0 to 30% and with flow velocities between 0.3 and 1.9 m s{sup -1}. For some flow velocities, the results showed that an increase in the ice fractions caused a change in the slurry flow structure influencing the evolution of the pressure drops and the heat transfer coefficients. Critical ice fraction values were determined corresponding to a change flow structure from laminar to turbulent motion revealed by the evolution of the friction factor. (author)

Bedecarrats, Jean-Pierre; Strub, Francoise; Peuvrel, Christophe [Laboratoire de Thermique, Energetique et Procedes, Equipe Energetique, Universite de Pau et des Pays de l' Adour, Avenue de l' Universite, BP 1155, 64013 Pau Cedex (France)

2009-11-15

 
 
 
 
341

Microchannel Heat Exchangers with Carbon Dioxide  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective of the present study was to determine the performance of CO{sub 2} microchannel evaporators and gas coolers in operational conditions representing those of residential heat pumps. A set of breadboard prototype microchannel evaporators and gas coolers was developed and tested. The refrigerant in the heat exchangers followed a counter cross-flow path with respect to the airflow direction. The test conditions corresponded to the typical operating conditions of residential heat pumps. In addition, a second set of commercial microchannel evaporators and gas coolers was tested for a less comprehensive range of operating conditions. The test results were reduced and a comprehensive data analysis, including comparison with the previous studies in this field, was performed. Capacity and pressure drop of the evaporator and gas cooler for the range of parameters studied were analyzed and are documented in this report. A gas cooler performance prediction model based on non-dimensional parameters was also developed and results are discussed as well. In addition, in the present study, experiments were conducted to evaluate capacities and pressure drops for sub-critical CO{sub 2} flow boiling and transcritical CO{sub 2} gas cooling in microchannel heat exchangers. An extensive review of the literature failed to indicate any previous systematic study in this area, suggesting a lack of fundamental understanding of the phenomena and a lack of comprehensive data that would quantify the performance potential of CO{sub 2} microchannel heat exchangers for the application at hand. All experimental tests were successfully conducted with an energy balance within {+-}3%. The only exceptions to this were experiments at very low saturation temperatures (-23 C), where energy balances were as high as 10%. In the case of evaporators, it was found that a lower saturation temperature (especially when moisture condensation occurs) improves the overall heat transfer coefficient significantly. However, under such conditions, air side pressure drop also increases when moisture condensation occurs. An increase in airflow rate also increases the overall heat transfer coefficient. Air side pressure drop mainly depends on airflow rate. For the gas cooler, a significant portion of the heat transfer occurred in the first heat exchanger module on the refrigerant inlet side. The temperature and pressure of CO{sub 2} significantly affect the heat transfer and fluid flow characteristics due to some important properties (such as specific heat, density, and viscosity). In the transcritical region, performance of CO{sub 2} strongly depends on the operating temperature and pressure. Semi-empirical models were developed for predictions of CO{sub 2} evaporator and gas cooler system capacities. The evaporator model introduced two new factors to account for the effects of air-side moisture condensate and refrigerant outlet superheat. The model agreed with the experimental results within {+-}13%. The gas cooler model, based on non-dimensional parameters, successfully predicted the experimental results within {+-}20%. Recommendations for future work on this project include redesigning headers and/or introducing flow mixers to avoid flow mal-distribution problems, devising new defrosting techniques, and improving numerical models. These recommendations are described in more detail at the end of this report.

Zhao, Y.; Ohadi, M.M.; Radermacher, R.

2001-09-15

342

Heat exchanger thermal insulation system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The heat exchanger insulation system described includes an outer ring, a bundle of circulation tubes connected at their ends to a tube plate and comprising a coaxial cylindrical sleeve around each tube with play along a part of its length near the ends connected to the tube plate. The sleeves are suspended by their upper ends to a perforated plate with holes into which the sleeves fit, the perforated plate being fixed to a ring fitted by its base to the tube plate by means of tie rods between the tube plate and the perforated plate. This system has been particularly designed for liquid sodium cooled reactors

343

Compact heat exchanger for fluids  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The invention concerns a welded heat exchanger with two or more fluids which can be used counter current. The principle of the apparatus allows the use of rolled welded concentric metal strips as well as spiral rolled metal strips. The ring sheets are kept apart either by their rigidity due to the cylindrical shape or by deformations in the sheets themselves or yet again by spacers or chequered and/or perforated sheets forming for instance corrugated spacers, the end sheet being thick enough to take the pressure strain

344

A prototype heat pipe heat exchanger for the capillary pumped loop flight experiment  

Science.gov (United States)

A Capillary Pumped Two-Phase Heat Transport Loop (CAPL) Flight Experiment, currently planned for 1993, will provide microgravity verification of the prototype capillary pumped loop (CPL) thermal control system for EOS. CAPL employs a heat pipe heat exchanger (HPHX) to couple the condenser section of the CPL to the radiator assembly. A prototype HPHX consisting of a heat exchanger (HX), a header heat pipe (HHP), a spreader heat pipe (SHP), and a flow regulator has been designed and tested. The HX transmits heat from the CPL condenser to the HHP, while the HHP and SHP transport heat to the radiator assembly. The flow regulator controls flow distribution among multiple parallel HPHX's. Test results indicated that the prototype HPHX could transport up to 800 watts with an overall heat transfer coefficient of more than 6000 watts/sq m-deg C. Flow regulation among parallel HPHX's was also demonstrated.

Ku, Jentung; Yun, Seokgeun; Kroliczek, Edward J.

1992-01-01

345

Screen heat exchanger performance comparison  

Science.gov (United States)

The performance of stainless steel screen regenerator stacks (500 mesh) has been investigated at relatively small flow rates in comparison to conventional operation close to the laminar-turbulent transition range. A modified 'single blow' technique was used initially, and an additional comparative procedure is employed to deduce heat transfer rate ratios with respect to a single-wire reference case of heat transfer. The data obtained are two orders of magnitude below 'classical' room temperature values at low Reynolds number (Re); (Re based on the Darcy law-related characteristic length; Re less than 1). The fluid is cold nitrogen from a liquid bath at atmospheric pressure.

Luna, J.; Ravikumar, K. V.; Frederking, T. H. K.

346

Performance of a shell-and-tube heat exchanger with spiral baffle plates  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In a conventional shell-and-tube heat exchanger, fluid contacts with tubes flowing up and down in a shell, therefore there is a defect in the heat transfer with tubes due to the stagnation portions. Fins are attached to the tubes in order to increase heat transfer efficiency, but there exists a limit. Therefore, it is necessary to improve heat exchanger performance by changing the fluid flow in the shell. In this study, a highly efficient shell-and-tube heat exchanger with spiral baffle plates is simulated three-dimensionally using a commercial thermal-fluid analysis code, CFX4.2. In this type of heat exchanger, fluid contacts with tubes flowing rotationally in the shell. It could improve heat exchanger performance considerably because stagnation portions in the shell could be removed. It is proved that the shell-and-tube heat exchanger with spiral baffle plates is superior to the conventional heat exchanger in terms of heat transfer

347

Analytical Study on Thermal and Mechanical Design of Printed Circuit Heat Exchanger  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The analytical methodologies for the thermal design, mechanical design and cost estimation of printed circuit heat exchanger are presented in this study. In this study, three flow arrangements of parallel flow, countercurrent flow and crossflow are taken into account. For each flow arrangement, the analytical solution of temperature profile of heat exchanger is introduced. The size and cost of printed circuit heat exchangers for advanced small modular reactors, which employ various coolants such as sodium, molten salts, helium, and water, are also presented.

Su-Jong Yoon; Piyush Sabharwall; Eung-Soo Kim

2013-09-01

348

CFD simulation of air to air enthalpy heat exchanger  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: • A CFD model capable of modelling conjugate heat and mass transfer processes. • A mesh independence studies and a CFD model validation have been conducted. • Effects of flow direction on the effectiveness have been examined. • Performance parameters were sensible and latent effectiveness and pressure drop. - Abstract: A CFD model which supports conjugate heat and mass transfer problem representation across the membrane of air-to-air energy recovery heat exchangers has been developed. The model consists of one flow passage for the hot stream and another for the adjacent cold stream. Only half of each flow passage volume has been modelled on each side of the membrane surface. Three dimensional, steady state and laminar flow studies have been conducted using a commercial CFD package. The volumetric species transport model has been adopted to describe the H2O and air gas mixtures. Mesh dependency has been examined and followed by validation of the CFD model against published data. Furthermore, effects of flow direction at the inlet of the heat exchanger on its thermal effectiveness have been investigated. Simulation results are presented and analysed in terms of sensible effectiveness, latent effectiveness and pressure drop across the membrane heat exchanger. Results have shown that counter-flow configuration has greater sensitivity to the mesh centre perpendicular distance from the membrane when compared to the other two flow configurations (cross-/parallel-flow). However, the lateral mesh element length has shown minimal effect on the thermal effectiveness of the enthalpy heat exchanger. For the quasi-flow heat exchanger, a perpendicular flow direction to the inlets has been found to produce a higher performance in contrast to the non-perpendicular flow

349

Conceptualizations for cleaning OTEC heat exchangers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A critical operating aspect of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) plants is the maintenance of clean surfaces on the seawater-side of the heat exchangers. The objective of this program was to assess the state of the art of biofouling control techniques and to evaluate the potential of these existing methods for solving the biofouling problems in the OTEC system. The first task of the program involved an in-depth review and discussion of various fouling control methods including water treatment, surface conditioning, and cleaning techniques. The methods considered applicable to OTEC were identified. This volume summarizes the second task of the program. The compatibility of the various cleaning and fouling control techniques with the different proposed heat exchanger designs and materials are discussed. Also provided are conceptual illustrations for adapting and incorporating the methods into an OTEC power plant. These conceptual designs suggest means for overcoming some of the shortcomings of the techniques which are considered suitable, however, detailed designs of the modified systems are beyond the scope of this report. Chlorination, chemical cleaning, Amertap recirculating sponge rubber balls, and MAN flow-driven brushes are the methods considered applicable for tubular heat exchangers with seawater inside the tubes. Water jets are suggested for the open-cycle and the ''trombone'' (Applied Physics Laboratory) heat exchanger designs. Although none of the methods are immediately applicable to OTEC in their present configuration, in several cases only minor developmental efforts should produce designs which can satisfy the stringent OTEC cleanliness requirements. Further research and development appear warranted for a number of other methods which indicate promise for long-range applicability. Specific recommendations are included.

Rice, M.S.; Hagel, D.; Conn, A.F.

1978-09-01

350

Improved ceramic heat exchange material  

Science.gov (United States)

Improved corrosion resistant ceramic materials that are suitable for use as regenerative heat exchangers for vehicular gas turbines is reported. Two glass-ceramic materials, C-144 and C-145, have superior durability towards sulfuric acid and sodium sulfate compared to lithium aluminosilicate (LAS) Corning heat exchange material 9455. Material C-144 is a leached LAS material whose major crystalline phase is silica keatite plus mullite, and C-145 is a LAS keatite solid solution (S.S.) material. In comparison to material 9455, material C-144 is two orders of magnitude better in dimensional stability to sulfuric acid at 300 C, and one order of magnitude better in stability to sodium sulfate at 1000 C. Material C-145 is initially two times better in stability to sulfuric acid, and about one order of magnitude better in stability to sodium sulfate. Both C-144 and C-145 have less than 300 ppm delta L/L thermal expansion from ambient to 1000 C, and good dimensional stability of less than approximately 100 ppm delta L/L after exposure to 1000 C for 100 hours. The glass-ceramic fabrication process produced a hexagonal honeycomb matrix having an 85% open frontal area, 50 micrometer wall thickness, and less than 5% porosity.

Mccollister, H. L.

1977-01-01

351

Fluid dynamical considerations on heat exchanger networks  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The synthesis and analysis of heat exchanger networks are issues of great industrial interest due to the possibilities of decreasing plant costs, through the reduction of the utilities consumption and/or the number of equipments, in a grassroot design or retrofitting an existent network. The present paper explores a new design algorithm based on the Total Annual Cost (TAC optimization for a thermal equipment, with mean tubeside and shellside flow velocities constraints, studying also the influence of pumping cost in the network?s final cost.

Vieira A. J. M.

2000-01-01

352

Fluid dynamical considerations on heat exchanger networks  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The synthesis and analysis of heat exchanger networks are issues of great industrial interest due to the possibilities of decreasing plant costs, through the reduction of the utilities consumption and/or the number of equipments, in a grassroot design or retrofitting an existent network. The present [...] paper explores a new design algorithm based on the Total Annual Cost (TAC) optimization for a thermal equipment, with mean tubeside and shellside flow velocities constraints, studying also the influence of pumping cost in the network’s final cost.

A. J. M., Vieira; F. L. P., Pessoa; E. M., Queiroz.

2000-03-01

353

Enhancement of heat transfer and structure of flow in a double-pipe heat exchanger with uniformly distributed perforated-plate baffles in the inner pipe  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of the number of baffles per meter of length on the average heat transfer coefficient and on the hydraulic drag coefficient of a 70 mm I.D. inner pipe at Re between 9 . 103 and 50 . 103 was investigated. The test data were correlated in dimensionless form. The length of the inlet stabilization zone proved to be two to three pipe diameters. The profiles of velocity and of the longitudinal component of fluctuations, and also the development of the flow through the baffles are analyzed

354

Thermal behavior of a heat exchanger module for seasonal heat storage  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Experimental and theoretic investigations are carried out to study the heat transfer capacity rate of a heat exchanger module for seasonal heat storage with sodium acetate trihydrate (SAT) supercooling in a stable way. A sandwich heat storage test module has been built with the phase change material (PCM) storage box in between two plate heat exchangers. Charge of the PCM storage is investigated experimentally with solid phase SAT as initial condition. Discharge of the PCM storage with the presence of crystallization is studied experimentally. Fluid flow and heat transfer in the PCM module are theoretically investigated by Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) calculations. The heat transfer rates between the PCM storage and the heating fluid/cooling fluid in the plate heat exchangers are determined. The CFD calculated temperatures are compared to measured temperatures. Based on the studies, recommendations on how best to transfer heat to and from the seasonal heat storage module are given.

Fan, Jianhua; Furbo, Simon

2012-01-01

355

Hydraulic and thermal design of a gas microchannel heat exchanger  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper investigations on the design of a gas flow microchannel heat exchanger are described in terms of hydrodynamic and thermal aspects. The optimal choice for thermal conductivity of the solid material is discussed by analysis of its influences on the thermal performance of a micro heat exchanger. Two numerical models are built by means of a commercial CFD code (Fluent). The simulation results provide the distribution of mass flow rate, inlet pressure and pressure loss, outlet pressure and pressure loss, subjected to various feeding pressure values. Based on the thermal and hydrodynamic analysis, a micro heat exchanger made of polymer (PEEK) is designed and manufactured for flow and heat transfer measurements in air flows. Sensors are integrated into the micro heat exchanger in order to measure the local pressure and temperature in an accurate way. Finally, combined with numerical simulation, an operating range is suggested for the present micro heat exchanger in order to guarantee uniform flow distribution and best thermal and hydraulic performances.

356

A heat exchanger between forced flow helium gas at 14 to 18 K and liquid hydrogen at 20 K circulated by natural convection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) has three 350-mm long liquid hydrogen absorbers to reduce the momentum of 200 MeV muons in all directions. The muons are then re-accelerated in the longitudinal direction by 200 MHz RF cavities. The result is cooled muons with a reduced emittance. The energy from the muons is taken up by the liquid hydrogen in the absorber. The hydrogen in the MICE absorbers is cooled by natural convection to the walls of the absorber that are in turn cooled by helium gas that enters at 14 K. This report describes the MICE liquid hydrogen absorber and the heat exchanger between the liquid hydrogen and the helium gas that flows through passages in the absorber wall

357

Heat exchanger for cooling a liquid metal by air  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

According to the invention, the heat exchanger has an array of vertical tubes arranged along one or, preferentially, several cylindrical and coaxial rows and two toroidal collectors; the tubes are extending between the upper and the lower toroidal collectors. A deflector and a casing enveloping the tubes allow the cooling air to flow in contact with the tubes between a vertical inlet conduit and a vertical outlet conduit. The invention applies, more particularly, to heat exchangers used for cooling the secondary liquid sodium coming from a sodium-sodium heat exchanger immerged in the vessel of a fast neutron reactor

358

Comparison of natural convection heat exchangers for solar water heating systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Thermosyphon heat exchangers are used in indirect solar water heating systems to avoid using a pump to circulate water from the storage tank to the heat exchanger. In this study, the authors consider the effect of heat exchanger design on system performance. They also compare performance of a system with thermosyphon flow to the same system with a 40W pump in the water loop. In the first part of the study, the authors consider the impact of heat exchanger design on the thermal performance of both one- and two-collector solar water heaters. The comparison is based on Solar Rating and Certification Corporation (SRCC) OG300 simulations. The thermosyphon heat exchangers considered are (1) a one-pass, double wall, 0.22 m{sup 2}, four tube-in-shell heat exchanger manufactured by AAA Service and Supply, Inc., (the Quad-Rod); (2) a two-pass, double wall, 0.2 m{sup 2}, tube-in-shell made by Heliodyne, Inc., but not intended for commercial development; (3) a one-pass, single wall, 0.28 m{sup 2}, 31 tube-in-shell heat exchanger from Young Radiator Company, and (4) a one-pass single-wall, 0.61 m{sup 2}, four coil-in-shell heat exchanger made by ThermoDynamics Ltd. The authors compare performance of the systems with thermosyphon heat exchangers to a system with a 40 W pump used with the Quad-Rod heat exchanger. In the second part of the study, the effects of reducing frictional losses through the heat exchanger and/or the pipes connecting the heat exchanger to the storage tank, and increasing heat transfer area are evaluated in terms of OG300 ratings.

Davidson, J.; Liu, W.

1998-09-15

359

Spacecraft Radiator Freeze Protection Using a Regenerative Heat Exchanger  

Science.gov (United States)

An active thermal control system architecture has been modified to include a regenerative heat exchanger (regenerator) inboard of the radiator. Rather than using a radiator bypass valve a regenerative heat exchanger is placed inboard of the radiators. A regenerator cold side bypass valve is used to set the return temperature. During operation, the regenerator bypass flow is varied, mixing cold radiator return fluid and warm regenerator outlet fluid to maintain the system setpoint. At the lowest heat load for stable operation, the bypass flow is closed off, sending all of the flow through the regenerator. This lowers the radiator inlet temperature well below the system set-point while maintaining full flow through the radiators. By using a regenerator bypass flow control to maintain system setpoint, the required minimum heat load to avoid radiator freezing can be reduced by more than half compared to a radiator bypass system.

Ungar, Eugene K.; Schunk, Richard G.

2011-01-01

360

Double tube heat exchanger with novel enhancement: Part II - single phase convective heat transfer  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The study is conducted to evaluate the heat transfer characteristics of two new and versatile enhancement configurations in a double tube heat exchanger annulus. The novelty is that they are usable in single phase forced convection, evaporation and condensation. Heat transfer coefficients are determined by the Wilson Plot technique in laminar and turbulent flow and correlations are proposed for Nusselt numbers. Comparisons are then made between heat transfer and flow friction. (orig.)

Tiruselvam, R.; Chin, W.M.; Raghavan, Vijay R. [OYL Sdn. Bhd., Research and Application Department, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

2012-08-15

 
 
 
 
361

Ceramic heat exchangers and turbine blades - Theory and experimental results  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of ceramics both for heat exchangers, to obtain high-efficiency low-specific-fuel-consumption gas turbine cycles, and for fixed or moving turbine blades is discussed. Experimental results for two-circuit and three-circuit barrel-type ceramic heat exchangers are compared with the predictions of a simple theoretical model. Although ceramics turbine blades show decreased cooling flow and improved blade performance compared with traditional blades, they have only limited applicability.

Avran, P.; Boudigues, S.

362

Dynamics of flow exchange and heat transport in hyporheic zone due to the dam-induced river temperature fluctuations  

Science.gov (United States)

Hyporheic zone (HZ) plays a dominant role in maintaining the ecosystem equilibrium on the river catchment scale. Assessing the temperature changes occurring in the HZ is critical although it is likely to be more important than other factors. As metabolic activity within HZ may be strongly affected by the thermal regime of the stream water, and also plenty of literatures have already showed that the surface water temperature may be changed greatly by the low temperature water (LTW) discharged from the lower part of a deep reservoir; especially the elevation of water-intakes of electronic station is within the mid-lower layer of deep reservoirs. However, how and to what extent the LTW in stream will impact on the HZ temperature regime and ulteriorly, on the full range of the river ecosystem are still not understood widely. This work focuses on the temperature changes and flow rates of infiltration and seepages in the HZ as the stream water influenced by LTW. Water discharged from up reservoir usually contains less sediment and the sediments within the water need to get saturated when it is running along the downstream. Therefore, the hyporheic zone porous structure will be much different at large scale due to the scour activities. Three kinds of HZ structure conception models were built for analysis due to the sediments transport and settlement characteristics along the downstream. VS2DH simulations shows water infiltrates into HZ then laterally mixes with the groundwater, gradually causing a low temperature environment in the HZ. The extent of temperature changes varies with different particle size distribution within the riverbed but it is generally according to the temperature period of stream water. We also examine the grade of infiltration surface impacts on the heat transfer and water velocity distribution in the three different models. The heat and water transport rate increases with the infiltration surface slope angle increasing, it indicates that the local riverbed topography has an assignable on the hydrodynamics in the HZ as well as the thermal phenomenon. The sensitivity of the sediment distribution regime to the hydrodynamic conditions increases with increasing water pressure head and with the sediment permeability.

Chen, X.; Zhao, J.; Chen, L.

2011-12-01

363

Heat exchangers in heavy water reactor systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Important features of some major heat exchange components of pressurized heavy water reactors and DHRUVA research reactor are presented. Design considerations and nuclear service classifications are discussed

364

High temperature heat exchange: nuclear process heat applications  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The unique element of the HTGR system is the high-temperature operation and the need for heat exchanger equipment to transfer nuclear heat from the reactor to the process application. This paper discusses the potential applications of the HTGR in both synthetic fuel production and nuclear steel making and presents the design considerations for the high-temperature heat exchanger equipment.

Vrable, D.L.

1980-09-01

365

Slotting Fins of Heat Exchangers to Provide Thermal Breaks  

Science.gov (United States)

Heat exchangers that include slotted fins (in contradistinction to continuous fins) have been invented. The slotting of the fins provides thermal breaks that reduce thermal conduction along flow paths (longitudinal thermal conduction), which reduces heat-transfer efficiency. By increasing the ratio between transverse thermal conduction (the desired heat-transfer conduction) and longitudinal thermal conduction, slotting of the fins can be exploited to (1) increase heat-transfer efficiency (thereby reducing operating cost) for a given heat-exchanger length or to (2) reduce the length (thereby reducing the weight and/or cost) of the heat exchanger needed to obtain a given heat transfer efficiency. By reducing the length of a heat exchanger, one can reduce the pressure drop associated with the flow through it. In a case in which slotting enables the use of fins with thermal conductivity greater than could otherwise be tolerated on the basis of longitudinal thermal conduction, one can exploit the conductivity to make the fins longer (in the transverse direction) than they otherwise could be, thereby making it possible to make a heat exchanger that contains fewer channels and therefore, that weighs less, contains fewer potential leak paths, and can be constructed from fewer parts and, hence, reduced cost.

Scull, Timothy D.

2003-01-01

366

Heat transfer processes of serpentine tubular heat exchangers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The focus of the research described herein was to study the heat transfer behavior of tubular serpentine heat exchangers commonly used in residential non-condensing furnaces. The main task was to develop a computer model of the furnace heat exchanger that accurately simulates furnace performance. The purpose of the model is to provide design engineers a tool that can predict performance trends for given design changes. Many of the relevant heat transport processes found within these heat exch...

Harris, Daniel Kevin

1997-01-01

367

Condensate removal device for heat exchanger  

Science.gov (United States)

A set of perforated tubes disposed at the gas output side of a heat exchanger, in a position not to affect the rate of flow of the air or other gas is described. The tubes are connected to a common manifold which is connected to a sucking device. Where it is necessary to conserve and recirculate the air sucked through the tubes, the output of the manifold is run through a separator to remove the condensate from the gas. The perforations in the slurper tubes are small, lying in the range of 0.010 inch to 0.100 inch. The tubes are disposed in contact with the surfaces of the heat exchanger on which the condensate is precipitated, whether fins or plates, so that the water may be directed to the tube openings by means of surface effects, together with the assistance of the air flow. Only about 5 percent of the air output need be thus diverted, and it effectively removes virtually all of the condensate.

Trusch, R. B.; Oconnor, E. W. (inventors)

1975-01-01

368

Numerical simulation of two phase flows in heat exchangers; Simulation numerique des ecoulements diphasiques dans les echangeurs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The report presents globally the works done by the author in the thermohydraulic applied to nuclear reactors flows. It presents the studies done to the numerical simulation of the two phase flows in the steam generators and a finite element method to compute these flows. (author)

Grandotto Biettoli, M

2006-04-15

369

Design of heat exchangers by numerical methods  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Differential equations describing the heat tranfer in shell - and tube heat exchangers are derived and solved numerically. The method of ?T sub(lm) is compared with the proposed method in cases where the specific heat at constant pressure, Cp and the overall heat transfer coefficient, U, vary with temperature. The error of the method of ?T sub (lm) for the computation of the exchanger lenght is less than + 10%. However, the numerical method, being more accurate and at the same time easy to use and economical, is recommended for the design of shell-and-tube heat exchangers. (Author)

370

Plate heat exchangers design, applications and performance  

CERN Document Server

Heat exchangers are important, and used frequently in the processing, heat and power, air-conditioning and refrigeration, heat recovery, transportation and manufacturing industries. Such equipment is also important in electronics cooling and for environmental issues like thermal pollution, waste disposal and sustainable development.The present book concerns plate heat exchangers (PHEs), which are one of the most common types in practice. The overall objectives are to present comprehensive descriptions of such heat exchangers and their advantages and limitations, to provide in-depth thermal and

Wang, L; Manglik, R M

2007-01-01

371

Analysis of performance of heat exchangers used in practical micro miniature refrigerators  

Science.gov (United States)

Micro miniature refrigerators are employed to cool small infra-red sensors and other electronic devices in a number of applications. In a micro miniature refrigerator the heat exchanger, expansion valve and evaporator are all machined on a thin glass or stainless steel sheet (typically about 1 mm thick). Unlike normal heat exchangers, the volume of the flow channels of the heat exchanger is much smaller than that of the walls of the heat exchanger. Also, a large temperature gradient (up to 200 K) is sustained between the two ends of the exchanger which are typically 50-100 mm long. The performance of the heat exchanger is therefore largely controlled by the heat conduction that takes place through the walls of the heat exchanger. In this paper the governing equations of practical micro miniature refrigerator heat exchanger are solved numerically to understand the complex convection-conduction interactions. Some guidelines are presented for the design of these heat exchangers.

Narayanan, S. Pradeep; Venkatarathnam, G.

1999-09-01

372

Experimental study on R-134a evaporation heat transfer characteristics in plate and shell heat exchanger  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An experiment was carried out to investigate the characteristics of the evaporation heat transfer for refrigerant R-134a flowing in a plate and shell heat exchanger. The data are useful in designing more compact and effective evaporators for various refrigeration and air conditioning systems. Two vertical counterflow channels were formed in the exchanger. The R-134a flows up in one channel exchanging heat with the hot water flowing down in the other channel. The effects of the average heat flux, mass flux, saturation temperature and vapor quality were examined in detail. The present data show that the evaporation heat transfer coefficient increases with the vapor quality. A rise in the refrigerant mass flux causes an increase in the hr value. A rise in the average imposed heat flux causes an increase in the hr value at the low quality. Finally, at a higher refrigerant saturation temperature the hr value is found to be lower

373

Bank of heat exchangers intended for liquid cooling or heating  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The invention concerns the heat exchangers cooling a significant volume of water, by straight natural air draught, such as the towers or the draught ducts of dry type air coolers. In a compact form, they enable water cooling problems to be solved in certain industrial installations such as isotope separation plants. The design of this bank of exchangers is also such that its cost is considerably diminished in relation to that of conventional banks. To this effect, this bank is composed of one or several rows of thin flexible plastic pockets forming as many water or other liquid sheets, connected to intake and discharge collectors and arranged one after the other and separated by air flow gaps. These pockets are suspended from one of their ends to hangers fixed to the assembly frame whilst restrictors prevent the pockets from swelling so avoiding any contact between them in order to maintain the air circulation gaps between them

374

Optimization of parameters of heat exchangers vehicles  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The relevance of the topic due to the decision of problems of the economy of resources in heating systems of vehicles. To solve this problem we have developed an integrated method of research, which allows to solve tasks on optimization of parameters of heat exchangers vehicles. This method decides multicriteria optimization problem with the program nonlinear optimization on the basis of software with the introduction of an array of temperatures obtained using thermography. The authors have developed a mathematical model of process of heat exchange in heat exchange surfaces of apparatuses with the solution of multicriteria optimization problem and check its adequacy to the experimental stand in the visualization of thermal fields, an optimal range of managed parameters influencing the process of heat exchange with minimal metal consumption and the maximum heat output fin heat exchanger, the regularities of heat exchange process with getting generalizing dependencies distribution of temperature on the heat-release surface of the heat exchanger vehicles, defined convergence of the results of research in the calculation on the basis of theoretical dependencies and solving mathematical model.

Andrei MELEKHIN

2014-09-01

375

Experimental testing and analytical analysis of a plastic panel heat exchanger for greenhouse heating  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The performance of a plastic panel-type heat exchanger, suitable for greenhouse heating using low-grade (25 to 60/sup 0/C water) power plant reject heat, was investigated theoretically and experimentally. The theoretical analysis showed that a plastic panel heat exchanger would have an overall heat transfer coefficient, U/sub 0/, of about 18 w/m/sup 2/-/sup 0/C compared to about 12 w/m/sup 2/-/sup 0/C for a fin-tube heat exchanger, under typical greenhouse conditions. Furthermore the plastic heat exchanger would require less fan power due to reduced air pressure losses. The experimental data revealed a similar functional relationship for U/sub 0/ and air flow when compared with the theoretical calculations, however the experimental values of U/sub 0/ were consistently larger by 20 to 30%. It was concluded that a properly designed plastic heat exchanger can compete with metal fin tube type exchangers on a performance basis, but the plastic heat exchangers are 3 to 4 times larger by volume. However, because of the lower cost of plastic, a substantial cost reduction is expected. It appears that further study, examining heat exchanger lifetime, performance and costs, is warranted.

Olszewski, M.; Thomas, J.F.

1980-02-01

376

Graphite Foam Heat Exchangers for Thermal Management  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Improved thermal management is needed to increase the power density of electronic and more effectively cool electronic enclosures that are envisioned in future aircraft, spacecraft and surface ships. Typically, heat exchanger cores must increase in size to more effectively dissipate increased heat loads, this would be impossible in many cases, thus improved heat exchanger cores will be required. In this Phase I investigation, MRi aimed to demonstrate improved thermal management using graphite foam (Gr-foam) core heat exchangers. The proposed design was to combine Gr-foams from POCO with MRi's innovative low temperature, active metal joining process (S-Bond{trademark}) to bond Gr-foam to aluminum, copper and aluminum/SiC composite faceplates. The results were very favorable, so a Phase II SBIR with the MDA was initiated. This had primarily 5 tasks: (1) bonding, (2) thermal modeling, (3) cooling chip scale packages, (4) evaporative cooling techniques and (5) IGBT cold plate development. The bonding tests showed that the ''reflow'' technique with S-Bond{reg_sign}-220 resulted in the best and most consistent bond. Then, thermal modeling was used to design different chip scale packages and IGBT cold plates. These designs were used to fabricate many finned graphite foam heat sinks specifically for two standard type IC packages, the 423 and 478 pin chips. These results demonstrated several advantages with the foam. First, the heat sinks with the foam were lighter than the copper/aluminum sinks used as standards. The sinks for the 423 design made from foam were not as good as the standard sinks. However, the sinks made from foam for the 478 pin chips were better than the standard heat sinks used today. However, this improvement was marginal (in the 10-20% better regime). However, another important note was that the epoxy bonding technique resulted in heat sinks with similar results as that with the S-bond{reg_sign}, slightly worse than the S-bond{reg_sign}, but still better than the standard heat sinks. Next, work with evaporative cooling techniques, such as heat pipes, demonstrated some unique behavior with the foam that is not seen with standard wick materials. This was that as the thickness of the foam increased, the performance got better, where with standard wick materials, as the thickness increases, the performance decreases. This is yet to be completely explained. Last, the designs from the thermal model were used to fabricate a series of cold plates with the graphite foam and compare them to similar designs using high performance folded fin aluminum sinks (considered standard in the industry). It was shown that by corrugating the foam parallel to fluid flow, the pressure drop can be reduced significantly while maintaining the same heat transfer as that in the folded fin heat sink. In fact, the results show that the graphite foam heat sink can utilized 5% the pumping power as that required with the folded fin aluminum heat sink, yet remove the same amount of heat.

Klett, J.W.

2004-06-07

377

Heat exchange intensification in evaporators of the ship refrigerating machinery with application of belt turbulence promoters  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The search of methods of intensification of the heat exchange process at boiling in evaporators of refrigerators is made to decrease mass-dimension pa-rameters of heat exchange equipment. The heat exchange process at boiling within belt six-ray turbulence promoter, made as a six-ray star is investigated. The results of the model experiment for hydrodynamics and heat exchange of two-phase flow observation are presented.

Proshkin Oleg Vladimirovich

2009-10-01

378

Tube in-shell heat exchanger  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A tube-in-shell heat exchanger is described. It comprises a bundle of heat exchange tubes extending within an elongate shell. The tubes pass through a tube sheet and are connected thereto by means comprising branch pipes and compression pipe couplings

379

Shell & Tube Type Heat Exchangers: An Overview  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper is concerned with the study of shell & tube type heat exchangers along with its applications and also refers to several scholars who have given the contribution in this regard. Moreover the constructional details, design methods and the reasons for the wide acceptance of shell and tube type heat exchangers has been described in details inside the paper.

Vindhya Vasiny Prasad Dubey; Raj Rajat Verma; Piyush Shanker Verma; Srivastava, A. K.

2014-01-01

380

Research of characteristics slot-hole heat exchanger with the developed surface of heat exchange  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Thermal characteristics of multichannel slot-hole heat exchanger with the developed surface of heat exchange inside the opened-cycle water cooling system are experimentally investigated. Graphic dependences of average value of temperature of the simulator of a heat current and temperatures of the heat exchanger base are presented on tapped-off power. Dependences of tapped-off power and hydraulic losses on the of water consumption are given. It is shown, that use of developed slot-hole heat ex...

Malkin E. C.; Nikolaenko Yu. E.; Djachkov M. I.; Yu, Nikolaienko T.

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
381

Compact interior heat exchangers for CO{sub 2} mobile heat pumping systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The natural refrigerant carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) offers new possibilities for design of flexible, efficient and environmentally safe mobile heat pumping systems. As high-efficient car engines with less waste heat are developed, extra heating of the passenger compartment is needed in the cold season. A reversible transcritical CO{sub 2} system with gliding temperature heat rejection can give high air delivery temperature which results in rapid heating of the passenger compartment and rapid defogging or defrosting of windows. When operated in cooling mode, the efficiency of transcritical CO{sub 2} systems is higher compared to common (HFC) air conditioning systems, at most dominant operating conditions. Several issues were identified for the design of compact interior heat exchangers for automotive reversible CO{sub 2} heat pumping systems. Among theses issues are: (1) Refrigerant flow distribution, (2) Heat exchanger fluid flow circuiting, (3) Air temperature uniformity downstream of the heat exchanger, (4) Minimization of temperature approach, (5) Windshield flash fogging due to retained water inside the heat exchanger, (6) Internal beat conduction in heating mode operation, and (7) Refrigerant side pressure drop In order to provide a basis for understanding these issues, the author developed a calculation model and set up a test facility and investigated different prototype heat exchangers experimentally.

Hafner, Armin

2003-07-01

382

Heat transfer of high thermal energy storage with heat exchanger for solar trough power plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

High temperature thermal energy storage was studied by a lab-scale cylindrical storage tank experiment. A heat exchanger of thermal energy storage is used for separating two fluids, storage medium, and heat transfer fluid (HTF). There are two types of pipe in the heat exchanger, a vertical straight pipe and a helical coiled pipe. The experimental results were validated with the created mathematical model of nonsteady state heat exchanger. The highest storage efficiency is 0.631 at the HTF flow rate of 0.1 kg/s in a helical coiled pipe heat exchanger. The HTF and storage medium temperatures were measured for validating the model at various HTF flow rates. The agreement between model and experiment was presented with the error below 10%. This model is able to calculate the storage temperature of solar thermal power plants that performs in the liquid temperature range of selected HTF and storage medium

383

Natural convection heat exchangers for solar water heating systems. Technical progress report, May 15, 1996--July 14, 1996  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This progress report very briefly summarizes study results and includes an experimental plan developed for the fundamental study of heat transfer in thermosyphon side-arm heat exchangers. The study will investigate the influence of the Reynolds and Grashof numbers on the thermosyphon flow side of the heat exchanger, and the influence of the flow rate on the forced flow side of the heat exchanger. Detailed temperature, flow rate, and pressure data will be obtained for four, seven, and nine tube-in-shell heat exchanger designs. Correlations will be developed for the heat transfer and friction coefficients, and a semi-empirical model will be developed to predict the performance of thermosyphon heat exchangers in solar water heaters.

Davidson, J.H.

1998-06-01

384

Testing and plugging power plant heat exchangers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Heat Exchanger tubes fail for any number of reasons including but certainly not limited to the cumulative effects of corrosion, erosion, thermal stress and fatigue. This presentation will attempt to identify the most common techniques for determining which tubes are leaking and then introduce the products in use to plug the leaking tubes. For the sake of time I will limit the scope of this presentation to include feedwater heaters and secondary system heat exchangers such as Hydrogen Coolers, Lube Oil Coolers, and nuclear Component Cooling Water, Emergency Cooling Water, Regenerative Heat Recovery heat exchangers

385

High temperature alloys and ceramic heat exchanger  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

From the standpoint of energy saving, the future operating temperatures of process heat and gas turbine plants will become higher. For this purpose, ceramics is the most promissing candidate material in strength for application to high-temperature heat exchangers. This report deals with a servey of characteristics of several high-temperature metallic materials and ceramics as temperature-resistant materials; including a servey of the state-of-the-art of ceramic heat exchanger technologies developed outside of Japan, and a study of their application to the intermediate heat exchanger of VHTR (a very-high-temperature gas-cooled reactor). (author)

386

Testing and plugging power plant heat exchangers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Heat Exchanger tubes fail for any number of reasons including but certainly not limited to the cumulative effects of corrosion, erosion, thermal stress and fatigue. This presentation will attempt to identify the most common techniques for determining which tubes are leaking and then introduce the products in use to plug the leaking tubes. For the sake of time I will limit the scope of this presentation to include feedwater heaters and secondary system heat exchangers such as Hydrogen Coolers, Lube Oil Coolers, and nuclear Component Cooling Water, Emergency Cooling Water, Regenerative Heat Recovery heat exchangers.

Sutor, F. [Expando Seal Tools, Inc., Montgomeryville, PA (United States)

1994-12-31

387

Damping of multispan heat exchanger tubes. Pt. 2: in liquids  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Damping information is required for flow-induced vibration analyses of heat exchanger tubes. This paper treats the question of damping of multispan heat exchanger tubes in liquids. There are three important energy dissipation mechanisms that contribute to damping in liquids. These are: viscous damping between tube and liquid, squeeze-film damping in the clearance between tube and tube-support and friction damping at the tube-support. These mechanisms are discussed and formulated in terms of heat exchanger tube parameters. The available experimental data on damping in liquids are reviewed and analysed. Semi-empirical expressions have been developed to formulate damping. These expressions are recommended for design purposes. This study is interesting in the nuclear industry for it often uses heat exchangers

388

Device for reducing thermal stresses on a heat exchanger  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This invention concerns a system for reducing thermal stresses on a heat exchanger between two alkaline liquid metal flows moving counter current. It includes an annular cylindrical nest of tubes around a central pipe for introducing the alkaline liquid metal to be heated and extended by an annular pipe for removing the heated alkaline liquid metal. This result is achieved by radially homogenizing the temperature of the alkaline metal relatively hotter on the outside of its flow and which brings it into its flow area closer of the centre

389

Experimental study of heat transfer in a heat exchanger with rectangular channels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents the results of an experimental study related to characterisation of a mini channel heat exchanger. Such heat exchanger may be used in water cooling of electronic components. The results obtained show the efficiency of this exchanger even with very low water flow rates. Indeed, in spite of the importance of the extracted heat fluxes which can reach about 50Kw/m2, the temperature of the cooled Aluminium bloc remained always lower than the tolerated threshold of 80 degree in electronic cooling. Moreover, several thermal characteristics such as equivalent thermal resistance of the exchanger, the average internal convective heat transfer coefficient and the increase in the temperature of the cooling water have been measured. The results presented have been obtained with in quinconcerectangular mini-channel heat exchanger, with a hydraulic diameter Dh = 2mm. NOMENCLATURE h D Hydraulic diameter (mm). int

390

Heat transfer analysis of short helical borehole heat exchangers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? Vertical ground heat exchanger with a helical shaped pipe is analyzed. ? The model considers the interaction between the ground and the environment. ? The results of the model are in good agreement with the experimental values. ? The weather conditions considerably affect the fluid heat carrier temperature. ? The pitch between the turns does not affect the behaviour of the heat exchanger. -- Abstract: In this paper a numerical model to analyze the thermal behaviour of vertical ground heat exchangers with a helical shaped pipe is presented. This type of configuration can be a suitable alternative to conventional ground heat exchangers, especially when the heating and cooling loads of the building are very low. The model describes the heat transfer problem by means of a network of interconnected thermal resistances and capacitances. Moreover, as the investigated ground heat exchanger is usually installed in shallow depth, the model takes into account the interaction between the ground and the ambient environment which affects the fluid heat carrier temperature into the heat exchanger and, as a consequence, the energy efficiency of the heat pump. After a sensitivity analysis on the mesh parameters, the presented model is compared with experimental data and the simulation results show good agreement with the measurements. Finally, analyses to investigate the influence of the weather conditions, of the axial heat transfer and of the pitch between the turns of the helical pipe for two types of ground are carried out.

391

Heat exchanger efficiently operable alternatively as evaporator or condenser  

Science.gov (United States)

A heat exchanger adapted for efficient operation alternatively as evaporator or condenser and characterized by flexible outer tube having a plurality of inner conduits and check valves sealingly disposed within the outer tube and connected with respective inlet and outlet master flow conduits and configured so as to define a parallel flow path for a first fluid such as a refrigerant when flowed in one direction and to define a serpentine and series flow path for the first fluid when flowed in the opposite direction. The flexible outer tube has a heat exchange fluid, such as water, flowed therethrough by way of suitable inlet and outlet connections. The inner conduits and check valves form a package that is twistable so as to define a spiral annular flow path within the flexible outer tube for the heat exchange fluid. The inner conduits have thin walls of highly efficient heat transfer material for transferring heat between the first and second fluids. Also disclosed are specific materials and configurations.

Ecker, Amir L. (Dallas, TX)

1981-01-01

392

Heat exchanger device and method for heat removal or transfer  

Science.gov (United States)

Systems and methods for a forced-convection heat exchanger are provided. In one embodiment, heat is transferred to or from a thermal load in thermal contact with a heat conducting structure, across a narrow air gap, to a rotating heat transfer structure immersed in a surrounding medium such as air.

Koplow, Jeffrey P

2013-12-10

393

Improved ceramic heat exchanger materials  

Science.gov (United States)

The development and evaluation of materials for potential application as heat exchanger structures in automotive gas turbine engines is discussed. Test specimens in the form of small monolithic bars were evaluated for thermal expansion and dimensional stability before and after exposure to sea salt and sulfuric acid, followed by short and long term cycling at temperatures up to 1200 C. The material finally selected, GE-7808, consists of the oxides, ZrO2-MgO-Al2O3-S1O2, and is described generically as ZrMAS. The original version was based on a commercially available cordierite (MAS) frit. However, a clay/talc mixture was demonstrated to be a satisfactory very low cost source of the cordierite (MAS) phase. Several full size honeycomb regenerator cores, about 10.2 cm thick and 55 cm diameter were fabricated from both the frit and mineral versions of GE-7808. The honeycomb cells in these cores had rectangular dimensions of about 0.5 mm x 2.5 mm and a wall thickness of approximately 0.2 mm. The test data show that GE-7808 is significantly more stable at 1100 C in the presence of sodium than the aluminosilicate reference materials. In addition, thermal exposure up to 1100 C, with and without sodium present, results in essentially no change in thermal expansion of GE-7808.

Rauch, H. W.

1980-01-01

394

Optimisation of intermediate heat exchanger for PFBR  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) intermediate heat exchangers (IHX) enable the transfer of thermal power from the active primary sodium to inactive secondary sodium which in turn transfers the heat to produce steam. The IHX is a vertical shell and tube heat exchanger with primary sodium on the shell side and secondary sodium on the tube side. For sizing the IHX parametric studies have been carried out and the results are given

395

Hierarchic modeling of heat transfer processes in heat exchangers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An alternate approach based on hierarchic modeling is proposed to simulate fluid and heat flow in heat exchangers. On the first level, the direct simulations have been performed for the geometry that is similar to a segment of the examined heat sink. Based on the obtained results, the Reynolds number dependencies of the scaling factors f and StPr{sup 2/3} have been established. On the second level, the integral model of the whole heat sink has been built using the volume averaging technique (VAT). The averaging of the transport equations leads to a closure problem. The direct model Reynolds number dependencies f and StPr{sup 2/} {sup 3} have been used to calculate the local values of the drag coefficient C-circumflex{sub d} and the heat transfer coefficient {theta}-circumflex, which are needed in the integral model. The example calculations have been performed for 14 different pressure drops {delta}p-bar across the aluminum heat sink. The whole-section drag coefficient C-bar{sub d} and Nusselt number Nu-bar have been calculated and compared with the experimental data [M. Rizzi, M. Canino, K. Hu, S. Jones, V. Travkin, I. Catton, Experimental investigation of pin fin heat sink effectiveness, in: Proc. of the 35th National Heat Transfer Conference Anaheim, California, 2001]. A good agreement between the modeling results and the experiment data has been reached with same discrepancies in the transitional regime. The constructed computational algorithm offers possibilities for geometry improvements and optimization, to achieve higher thermal effectiveness. (author)

Horvat, A.; Mavko, B. [Jozef Stefan Inst., Ljubljana (Slovenia). Reactor Engineering Division

2005-01-01

396

Intermediate heat exchanger project for Super Phenix  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Super Phenix (1200 MWe) intermediate heat exchangers are derived directly from those of Phenix (250 MWe). The intermediate exchangers are housed in the reactor vessel annulus: as this annulus must be of the smallest volume possible, these IHX are required to work at a high specific rating. The exchange surface is calculated for nominal conditions. A range is then defined, consistent with the above requirements and throughout which the ratio between bundle thickness and bundle length remains acceptable. Experimental technics and calculations were used to determine the number of tube constraint systems required to keep the vibration amplitude within permissible limits. From a knowledge of this number, the pressure drop produced by the primary flow can be calculated. The bundle geometry is determined together with the design of the corresponding tube plates and the way in which these plates should be joined to the body of the IHX. The experience (technical and financial) acquired in the construction of Phenix is then used to optimize the design of the Super Phenix project. An approximate definition of the structure of the IHX is obtained by assuming a simplified load distribution in the calculations. More sophisticated calculations (e.g. finite element method) are then used to determine the behaviour of the different points of the IHX, under nominal and transient conditions

397

Stationary free-convection heat exchange in a cylindrical tank with uniform heat supply and simultaneous heat removal through local sinks  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Numerical modeling of free convection in a vertical cylindrical tank, heated from the side, at presence of local heat flows in a side wall is carried out. The conditions of statistical heat exchange for a wide range of determining factors are studied in detail. An approximate model of heat exchange between the walls and liquid is proposed for summarizing the results obtained

398

Heat exchanger for reactor core and the like  

Science.gov (United States)

A compact bayonet tube type heat exchanger which finds particular application as an auxiliary heat exchanger for transfer of heat from a reactor gas coolant to a secondary fluid medium. The heat exchanger is supported within a vertical cavity in a reactor vessel intersected by a reactor coolant passage at its upper end and having a reactor coolant return duct spaced below the inlet passage. The heat exchanger includes a plurality of relatively short length bayonet type heat exchange tube assemblies adapted to pass a secondary fluid medium therethrough and supported by primary and secondary tube sheets which are releasibly supported in a manner to facilitate removal and inspection of the bayonet tube assemblies from an access area below the heat exchanger. Inner and outer shrouds extend circumferentially of the tube assemblies and cause the reactor coolant to flow downwardly internally of the shrouds over the tube bundle and exit through the lower end of the inner shroud for passage to the return duct in the reactor vessel.

Kaufman, Jay S. (Del Mar, CA); Kissinger, John A. (Del Mar, CA)

1986-01-01

399

Numerical studies of an eccentric tube-in-tube helically coiled heat exchanger for IHEP-ADS helium purification system  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The tube-in-tube helically coiled (TTHC) heat exchanger is preferred in the purifier of IHEP-ADS helium purification system. The position of an internal tube is usually eccentric in a TTHC heat exchanger in practice, while most TTHC heat exchangers in the literature studied are concentric. In this paper, TTHC heat exchangers with different eccentricity ratios are numerically studied for turbulent flow and heat transfer characteristics under different flow rates. The fluid co...

Zhang, Jianqin; Li, Shaopeng

2014-01-01

400

Forced convection heat exchange inside porous sintered metals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Methods and results of investigating heat exchange in the process of liquid flow inside porous sintered metals have been analyzed. It has been shown that experimental data available include extremely conflicting correlations between heat transfer coefficient and Reynolds number, porosity, and relative wall thickness. Scattering of the data can attain one order of magnitude. The volume coefficient of heat transfer inside pores determined in papers does not correspond to its real value in the initial equations of the inner problem of porous cooling. Calculating and experimental method of determining the heat transfer coefficient has been developed and realized on the unit of radiation heating. More accurate experimental data on intraporous heat exchange have been obtained. It has been established that relative wall thickness does not affect the intensity of heat transfer inside pores

 
 
 
 
401

Heat exchanger, head and shell acceptance criteria  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Instability of postulated flaws in the head component of the heat exchanger could not produce a large break, equivalent to a DEGB in the PWS piping, due to the configuration of the head and restraint provided by the staybolts. Rather, leakage from throughwall flaws in the head would increase with flaw length with finite leakage areas that are bounded by a post-instability flaw configuration. Postulated flaws at instability in the shell of the heat exchanger or in the cooling water nozzles could produce a large break in the Cooling Water System (CWS) pressure boundary. An initial analysis of flaw stability for postulated flaws in the heat exchanger head was performed in January 1992. This present report updates that analysis and, additionally, provides acceptable flaw configurations to maintain defined structural or safety margins against flaw instability of the external pressure boundary components of the heat exchanger, namely the head, shell, and cooling water nozzles. Structural and flaw stability analyses of the heat exchanger tubes, the internal pressure boundary of the heat exchangers or interface boundary between the PWS and CWS, were previously completed in February 1992 as part of the heat exchanger restart evaluation and are not covered in this report.

Lam, P.S.; Sindelar, R.L.

1992-09-01

402

Heat exchanger, head and shell acceptance criteria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Instability of postulated flaws in the head component of the heat exchanger could not produce a large break, equivalent to a DEGB in the PWS piping, due to the configuration of the head and restraint provided by the staybolts. Rather, leakage from throughwall flaws in the head would increase with flaw length with finite leakage areas that are bounded by a post-instability flaw configuration. Postulated flaws at instability in the shell of the heat exchanger or in the cooling water nozzles could produce a large break in the Cooling Water System (CWS) pressure boundary. An initial analysis of flaw stability for postulated flaws in the heat exchanger head was performed in January 1992. This present report updates that analysis and, additionally, provides acceptable flaw configurations to maintain defined structural or safety margins against flaw instability of the external pressure boundary components of the heat exchanger, namely the head, shell, and cooling water nozzles. Structural and flaw stability analyses of the heat exchanger tubes, the internal pressure boundary of the heat exchangers or interface boundary between the PWS and CWS, were previously completed in February 1992 as part of the heat exchanger restart evaluation and are not covered in this report

403

Heat exchanger and its manufacturing method  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A plurality of helical type double-walled heat transfer tubes are disposed in an outer cylinder. Each of the helical type double-walled heat exchange tubes has an outer tube in a state where a gap is formed at the outer circumference of an inner tube. A porous metal is disposed in the gap between the inner tube and the outer tube. A leakage detection means is disposed for detecting leakage of fluid circulating in the heat exchange tubes by way of the gap between the inner and the outer tubes. The helical type double-walled heat transfer tube is formed by cold helical fabrication, and then heat treatment is applied in an argon gas atmosphere. Since a helical type double-walled heat transfer tube is used, a great heat transfer area per unit volume can be provided. Accordingly, the capacity of the heat exchanger can be increased without enlarging the size of the heat exchanger and increasing the number of the heat transfer tubes. In addition, since heat treatment is applied, the close bondability between the inner or the outer tube and the porous metal is restored, thereby enabling to make heat transfer performance satisfactory. (I.N.)

404

14 CFR 29.1125 - Exhaust heat exchangers.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-01-01 false Exhaust heat exchangers. 29.1125 Section 29...System § 29.1125 Exhaust heat exchangers. For reciprocating engine...apply: (a) Each exhaust heat exchanger must be constructed and...

2010-01-01

405

40 CFR 63.1435 - Heat exchanger provisions.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Heat exchanger provisions. 63.1435 Section...Polyols Production § 63.1435 Heat exchanger provisions. (a) The owner...requirements of § 63.104 for heat exchange systems, with the...

2010-07-01

406

14 CFR 23.1125 - Exhaust heat exchangers.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-01-01 false Exhaust heat exchangers. 23.1125 Section 23...System § 23.1125 Exhaust heat exchangers. For reciprocating engine...apply: (a) Each exhaust heat exchanger must be constructed and...

2010-01-01