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Sample records for fat graft myringoplasty

  1. Hyaluronic acid fat graft myringoplasty vs fat patch fat graft myringoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzahrani, Musaed; Saliba, Issam

    2015-08-01

    We aim to compare the hyaluronic acid to fat graft myringoplasty (HAFGM) technique to a recently described modified-FGM (M-FGM) in the repair of tympanic membrane perforation (TMP). We also aim to evaluate the hearing level improvement postoperatively. We conducted a prospective study in an adult tertiary care center between 2012 and 2013. Adult patients presenting with simple TMP were operated on randomly using either HAFGM or M-FGM under local anesthesia in outpatients' settings. Success was considered when complete closure is achieved. Audiometric parameters were evaluated pre and postoperatively. Twenty-four patients were included in the study (HAFGM: 10 patients and M-FGM: 14 patients). Complete closure was achieved in 80 % in HAFGM vs 42.8 % in the M-FGM (p = 0.03). The study was abandoned due to the low success rate in first 14 patients of the M-FGM group. The pure tone audiometry was improved postoperatively in the HAFGM only. The study was aborted because of the unsatisfactory obtained results using the MFGM. It also shows the beneficial effect of hyaluronic acid application to FGM for a successful TMP repair. PMID:24633245

  2. Primary Breast Augmentation with Fat Grafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Sydney R; Saboeiro, Alesia P

    2015-07-01

    The controversy over fat grafting to the breasts has now been settled. In 2009, the American Society of Plastic Surgeons Fat Graft Task Force stated that "Fat grafting may be considered for breast augmentation and correction of defects associated with medical conditions and previous breast surgeries; however, results are dependent on technique and surgeon expertise." This article discusses the history, indications, planning, complications, and present technique of fat grafting to the breast using the Coleman technique. PMID:26116935

  3. Structural fat grafting in complex reconstructive surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clauser, Luigi; Polito, Jessica; Mandrioli, Stefano; Tieghi, Riccardo; Denes, Stefano A; Galiè, Manlio

    2008-01-01

    The use of adipous tissue transfer for the correction of maxillo-facial defects was reported for the first time at the end of the 19 century and has been the subject of numerous studies. Grafted fat tissue has been used for years as an excellent filler during facial enhancement and recontouring. Several techniques have been proposed for harvesting and grafting the fat. However, due to the damage caused by excessive adipose tissue during these maneuvers, the results were not satisfying. The situation required a larger amount of fat to be harvested even for small corrections. In 1988, the American plastic surgeon Sydney R. Coleman personally developed a technique called Structural Fat Grafting (SFG), which allows the fat to be harvested and injected with minimal risk of necrosis and reabsorption. PMID:18216687

  4. Strategic sequences in fat graft survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jimmy; Widgerow, Alan D; Banyard, Derek; Toranto, Jason; Wirth, Garrett A; Paydar, Keyianoosh; Tussardi, Ilaria Tocco; Evans, Gregory R D

    2015-03-01

    Although lipotransfer, or fat grafting, is a commonly used procedure in aesthetic and reconstructive surgery, there is still variability in graft survival and neoadipogenesis from one procedure to the next. A better understanding of the sequential molecular events occurring with grafting would allow us to strategize methods to improve the regenerative potency of the grafted tissue. These steps begin with an autophagic process, followed by the inclusion of stromal vascular fraction and matrix components. By tailoring and modifying each of these steps for a particular type of aesthetic or reconstructive procedure, strategic sequencing represents a dynamic approach to lipotransfer with the aim of maximizing adipocyte viability and growth. In the implementation of the strategic sequence, it remains important to consider the clinical viability of each step and its compliance with the US Food and Drug Administration regulations. This review highlights the basic science behind clinically translatable approaches to supplementing various fat grafting procedures. PMID:25643185

  5. Autologous Fat Grafting for Whole Breast Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin H. L. Howes, MBBS

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary: This is the first reported case of a patient who had a single-stage large-volume breast reconstruction with autologous fat grafting, following rotation flap approach (RoFA mastectomy. The purpose of this case study was to evaluate the viability of reconstruction of the breast by autologous fat grafting alone, in the context of RoFA mastectomy. The hypothesis was that there would be minimal interval loss of autologous fat on the whole breast reconstruction side. Right RoFA mastectomy was used for resection of an invasive primary breast cancer and resulted in the right breast skin envelope. Eleven months later, the patient underwent grafting of 400?ml of autologous fat into the skin envelope and underlying pectoralis major muscle. Outcome was assessed by using a validated 3D laser scan technique for quantitative breast volume measurement. Other outcome measures included the BREAST-Q questionnaire and 2D clinical photography. At 12-month follow-up, the patient was observed to have maintenance of volume of the reconstructed breast. Her BREAST-Q scores were markedly improved compared with before fat grafting, and there was observable improvement in shape, contour, and symmetry on 2D clinical photography. The 2 new techniques, RoFA mastectomy and large-volume single-stage autologous fat grafting, were used in combination to achieve a satisfactory postmastectomy breast reconstruction. Novel tools for measurement of outcome were the 3D whole-body laser scanner and BREAST-Q questionnaire. This case demonstrates the potential for the use of fat grafting for reconstruction. Outcomes in a larger patient populations are needed to confirm these findings.

  6. How does fat survive and remodel after grafting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashiko, Takanobu; Yoshimura, Kotaro

    2015-04-01

    Autologous fat grafting has become an important procedure for volumization and revitalization, although clinical outcomes depend greatly on technique. It was revealed recently how grafted fat tissue survives, regenerates, or dies. Experimental results provided the underlying mechanism and clinical implications for therapeutic strategies to maximize the effects of fat grafting, minimize necrosis, and avoid oil cyst formation. PMID:25827562

  7. A STUDY ON EFFICACY OF AUTOLOGOUS PLATELET RICH PLASMA IN MYRINGOPLASTY

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    Sankaranarayanan Gopalakrishnan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the efficacy and advantage in using autologus platelet rich plasma during myringoplasty in closure of tympanic membrane perforation preventing the graft displacement, promoting quicker healing & improving overall outcome.Methods : Platelet rich plasma(PRP is an autologus platelet rich concentrate prepared from patients own blood with growth factors up to 8 times that of normal serum and its efficacy when used during myringoplasty is studied.50 patients with chronic otitis media inactive mucosal disease were randomly chosen and 25 of them was the study group and other 25 were the control group. Both group patients underwent myringoplasty and PRP was used in the study group and the results were evaluated.Results: In our study among 25 cases that underwent myringoplasty with use of platelet rich fibrin, 24 had complete tympanic membrane closure and only one failure has been noticed. In controls 5 out of 25 cases had failure. The graft take up rate in our study is comparable with the reference studies. Use of PRP accelerates graft uptake.Conclusion: Platelet rich plasma is a cheap and cost effective platelet concentrate with enriched growth factors. It accelerates the tympanic membrane closure following myringoplasty.

  8. The Fate of Nonvascularized Fat Grafts: Histological and Bioluminescent Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ataru Sunaga, MD

    2013-09-01

    Conclusions: Our study showed the process of survival and regeneration of nonvascularized fat grafts and suggested that graft-derived stromal cells proliferated within 7 days after transplantation and differentiated into adipocytes after postoperative week 3.

  9. Facial fat grafting with a prototype injection control device

    OpenAIRE

    Hetherington HE; Block JE

    2013-01-01

    Hugh E Hetherington,1 Jon E Block2 1Bozeman Deaconess Health Group, Bozeman, MT, USA; 2The Jon Block Group, San Francisco, CA, USA Objective: To evaluate the initial clinical performance of a prototype injection control device (ICD) to facilitate fat grafting by injection. Methods: An ICD, which mechanically couples the act of withdrawing the cannula with the act of depressing the plunger, was fabricated for the purpose of facial fat grafting. The action of the device results in deposition of...

  10. Importance of mesenchymal stem cells in autologous fat grafting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trojahn Kølle, Stig-Frederik; Oliveri, Roberto S; Glovinski, Peter Viktor; Elberg, Jens Jørgen; Fischer-Nielsen, Anne; Drzewiecki, Krzysztof Tadeusz

    2012-01-01

    Autologous fat grafting (lipofilling) enables repair and augmentation of soft tissues and is increasingly used both in aesthetic and reconstructive surgery. Autologous fat has several advantages, including biocompatibility, versatility, natural appearance, and low donor site morbidity. The main limitation is unpredictable graft resorption, which ranges from 25%-80%, probably as a result of ischaemia and lack of neoangiogenesis. To obviate these disadvantages, several studies have searched for ne...

  11. PRIMARY DERMIS FAT GRAFT IMPLANTATION IN ORBIT AFTER EVISCERATION

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    Sandeep K

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Orbital implants allow for cosmesis and volume replacement of an eviscerated eye. Dermis fat graft is a viable alternative to alloplastic implants as a primary orbital implant following ocular evisceration. Aim/Objectives: To provide evidence for dermal fat graft as a safe and stable orbital volume replacement following ocular evisceration. Methodology: A prospective, interventional, non-comparative case series of patients who had an primary autologous dermis graft after evisceration.All the patients fulfilling the criteria were identified. At 6 weeks post-operatively, patients received an ocular prosthesis. The volume of the dermis-fat grafted globe was measured at 1 month and 9 months post-operatively by plain magnetic resonance imaging of the orbit. Results: Ten patients underwent ocular evisceration and dermis fat graft implant.Nine patients completed the study.Out of 10 patients 60% (6 were males and 40% (4 were females.Suture abscess was noted in 20% patients, hair growth in the dermis in 10%, sub conjunctival cysts in 10% patients.Cosmetic outcome showed very good result in 50% patients with good prosthetic motility in 60%. Conclusion: This case series shows that the use of a dermis graft is a safe and effective new technique to facilitate orbital rehabilitation. It is hypothesised that the extra surface area produced with a dermis graft preserves the fornices and allows a larger implant.

  12. Autologous Fat Grafting: The Science Behind the Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielins, Elizabeth R; Brett, Elizabeth A; Longaker, Michael T; Wan, Derrick C

    2016-04-01

    An invaluable part of the plastic surgeon's technical arsenal for soft tissue contouring, fat grafting continues to be plagued by unpredictable outcomes, resulting in either reoperation and/or patient dissatisfaction. Thus, extensive research has been conducted into the effects of adipose tissue procurement, processing, and placement on fat graft quality at both the cellular level and in terms of overall volume retention. Herein, we present an overview of the vast body of literature in these areas, with additional discussion of cell-assisted lipotransfer as a therapy to improve volume retention, and on the controversial use of autologous fat in the setting of prior irradiation. PMID:26961989

  13. Free epidural fat-grafting after lumbar laminectomy using MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Free epidural fat-grafting was performed to prevent adhesion between scar tissue of the epidural space and dura and nerve root after lumbar laminectomy. The results were evaluated using MRI. Fifteen cases were operated upon with an average follow-up period of 7.5 months. MRI was recorded and the findings were classified into four types as follow: I, equally high signal case; II, slight fibrosis case; III, severe fibrosis case; IV, high signal disappeared case. The results showed 3 cases of type I, 7 cases of type II, 3 cases of type III, and 2 cases of type IV. According to MRI findings, free epidural fat is supposed to be still viable and alive, although slightly fibroses but the dural side remains a high signal area. Free epidural fat-grafting was useful for preventing adhesion around the epidural space. There was high relationship to age and sex with regard to viability of the free fat graft. (author)

  14. Combined Use of Implant and Fat Grafting for Breast Augmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auclair, Eric; Anavekar, Namrata

    2015-07-01

    Composite breast augmentation is a simple procedure combining the ability of an implant to provide increased volume with the reshaping possibilities offered by fat grafting. The ability to camouflage the implant allows use of a premuscular, retrofascial pocket, avoiding the disadvantages and morbidity associated with retromuscular positioning. PMID:26116936

  15. Fat Grafting: A Citation Analysis of the Seminal Articles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cormac W. Joyce, MB, BCh

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: The scientific relevance of a published work is reflected in the number of citations from peers that it receives. Therefore, the 100 most-cited papers in fat grafting have been the most influential articles on this field, and they are likely to be the ones that are remembered most.

  16. Three-Dimensional Volumetric Restoration by Structural Fat Grafting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clauser, Luigi C.; Consorti, Giuseppe; Elia, Giovanni; Galié, Manlio; Tieghi, Riccardo

    2013-01-01

    The use of adipose tissue transfer for correction of maxillofacial defects was reported for the first time at the end of the 19th century. Structural fat grafting (SFG) was introduced as a way to improve facial esthetics and in recent years has evolved into applications in craniomaxillofacial reconstructive surgery. Several techniques have been proposed for harvesting and grafting the fat. However, owing to the damage of many adipocytes during these maneuvers, the results have not been satisfactory and have required several fat injection procedures for small corrections. The author's (L.C.) overview the application of SFG in the management of volumetric deficit in the craniomaxillofacial in patients treated with a long-term follow-up. PMID:24624259

  17. Three-dimensional volumetric restoration by structural fat grafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clauser, Luigi C; Consorti, Giuseppe; Elia, Giovanni; Galié, Manlio; Tieghi, Riccardo

    2014-03-01

    The use of adipose tissue transfer for correction of maxillofacial defects was reported for the first time at the end of the 19th century. Structural fat grafting (SFG) was introduced as a way to improve facial esthetics and in recent years has evolved into applications in craniomaxillofacial reconstructive surgery. Several techniques have been proposed for harvesting and grafting the fat. However, owing to the damage of many adipocytes during these maneuvers, the results have not been satisfactory and have required several fat injection procedures for small corrections. The author's (L.C.) overview the application of SFG in the management of volumetric deficit in the craniomaxillofacial in patients treated with a long-term follow-up. PMID:24624259

  18. Breast fistula repair after autologous fat graft: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Luca Maione; Giorgio Pajardi; Valeriano Vinci; Davide Forcellini; Fabio Caviggioli; Francesco Maria Klinger; Marco Klinger

    2011-01-01

    We report the case of a 55-year-old female patient who attended our clinic for the presence of a scar retraction in the upper pole of the left breast as a complication of breast augmentation. In the scar area, we observed an orifice that probing revealed to be a fistula. The patient was referred to surgical intervention under general anesthesia to obtain scar contracture release using autologous fat graft; one month after autologous fat injection, following healing of the fistula, the patient...

  19. Lipoenxertia em reconstrução mamária / Fat grafting in breast reconstruction

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Francisco José Fontenele, Bezerra; Rosely Moraes Gonçalves de, Moura; José Dalvo, Maia Neto.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Frequentemente, a reconstrução mamária requer um segundo tempo cirúrgico para corrigir visíveis irregularidades no contorno da mama. A lipoenxertia constitui-se em uma técnica cirúrgica que pode melhorar ou corrigir essas deformidades em substituição a outras técnicas convencionais de ma [...] ior morbidade ou complexidade. O objetivo deste estudo é demonstrar um método de correção de defeitos de contorno de mamas reconstruídas previamente pelas técnicas convencionais com enxerto de gordura, após 8 anos de experiência. MÉTODO: Todas as pacientes incluídas neste estudo foram previamente submetidas a mastectomia (total ou parcial) e a algum tipo de reconstrução mamária. A gordura foi obtida por meio de método clássico de lipoaspiração com seringa, delicadamente lavada com solução salina em uma peneira de aço inoxidável, decantada em uma seringa de 60 cc e enxertada após alguns minutos. RESULTADOS: Foram operadas 112 pacientes no período de 2005 a 2012. Houve 1 (8,9%) caso de perda total do enxerto de gordura, 22 (19,6%) pacientes apresentaram pequenos nódulos palpáveis, o volume médio enxertado foi de 100 cc e foram necessários múltiplos procedimentos para se alcançar o volume desejado. CONCLUSÕES: A lipoenxertia constitui-se em uma técnica segura, com baixa morbidade e altos índices de satisfação do cirurgião e das pacientes, apesar de necessitar de múltiplos procedimentos cirúrgicos para atingir bom resultado. Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Breast reconstruction often requires a second surgical procedure to correct visible irregularities of the breast contour. Lipofilling (fat grafting) consists of a surgical technique that improves or corrects such deformities, and serves as an alternative to other conventional techniques [...] that have higher morbidity rates and complexity. In the present study, we aimed to describe our 8-year experience with a fat grafting method for correcting contour deformities of breasts that were previously reconstructed using conventional techniques. METHODS: All patients in this study previously underwent mastectomy (total or partial) and some degree of breast reconstruction. The fat was obtained by liposuction using a syringe, and was gently rinsed with a saline solution in a stainless steel sieve, poured into a 60 cc syringe, and grafted after a few minutes. RESULTS: In total, 112 patients underwent surgery between 2005 and 2012. There was one (8.9%) case of total loss of the fat graft, while 22 (19.6%) patients had small palpable nodules. The average graft volume was 100 cc, and multiple procedures were required to achieve the desired volume. CONCLUSIONS: Fat grafting is a safe technique with low morbidity rates that demonstrates high surgeon and patient satisfaction levels, despite the need for multiple procedures to achieve good results.

  20. Liver fat accumulation after islet transplantation and graft survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitão, Cristiane Bauermann; Peixoto, Eduardo Moraes Leao; Westphalen, Antonio C; Mireles-Zavala, Leonor G; Lauriola, Vincenzo; Bernetti, Karina; Corrales, Andrea; Ricordi, Camillo; Alejandro, Rodolfo

    2014-01-01

    Our objective is to evaluate if there is an association between liver fat accumulation after islet transplantation (ITx) and graft survival. A cohort study was conducted in 34 subjects with type 1 diabetes postallogeneic ITx. Liver fat content was evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (change in liver signal intensity on in-phase and opposed-phase images). Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox regression analysis were performed with islet dysfunction duration as the dependent variable and fat liver content as an independent one. Values of p SSPS(®)18.0 and MedCalc(®)12.5). Patients' mean age was 40 ± 8 years (diabetes duration: 31 ± 12 years; male: 41%). Islet survival did not differ in patients without (51 months, 95% CI 40-62 months) or with steatosis (48 months, 95% CI 38-58 months; p = 0.55) during islet dysfunction period. Nevertheless, survival curves appear to separate late in the follow-up, and after 40 months steatosis was associated with shorter graft survival (p log rank = 0.049). This association remained (RR 23.5, 95% CI 1.1-516.0; p = 0.045) after adjustments for possible confounding factors. In this sample of subjects with type 1 diabetes submitted to ITx, steatosis was not associated with islet failure in the whole cohort. However, in subjects with functional islets after 40 months, a shorter graft survival was observed in those with steatosis during the islet dysfunction period, even after adjustments to variables known to be associated with islet failure. PMID:23803321

  1. Fast and simple fat grafting of the breast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Rasmus Nygård; Gunnarsson, Gudjon L; Børsen-Koch, Mikkel; Reddy, Ashwin; Ømark, Henrik; Sørensen, Jens Ahm; Thomsen, Jørn Bo

    2015-01-01

    techniques and furthermore there are still questions about the oncologic safety in using adipose derived stem cells (ADSC). Simple fat harvesting using low vacuum and preparation by sedimentation is a fast and effective method to perform FG successfully for correction of shape and volume deficits of the......Fat grafting (FG) is being used at an escalating rate for correction of shape and volume of all types of breast surgery in order to optimize the aesthetic result in spite of an ongoing debate of the oncologic safety. In this paper we demonstrate our simple and fast sedimentation based FG technique...... in the attached video as visualized surgery. We have used this simple approach for 348 procedures in 176 women to optimize and correct the aesthetic result following all types of breast surgery. We prefer this simple technique as no technique has been shown to be superior to other more costly...

  2. Facial fat grafting with a prototype injection control device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hetherington HE

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Hugh E Hetherington,1 Jon E Block2 1Bozeman Deaconess Health Group, Bozeman, MT, USA; 2The Jon Block Group, San Francisco, CA, USA Objective: To evaluate the initial clinical performance of a prototype injection control device (ICD to facilitate fat grafting by injection. Methods: An ICD, which mechanically couples the act of withdrawing the cannula with the act of depressing the plunger, was fabricated for the purpose of facial fat grafting. The action of the device results in deposition of consistent threads of fat having a volume of approximately 33 uL per cm that the cannula is withdrawn, which is slightly less than the internal volume of a 12-gauge cannula. A total of 26 patients underwent 30 procedures, and the results were subjectively evaluated using pre- and postoperative photographs, with a minimum follow-up of 4 months. Results: The desired degree of correction was more consistent, recovery was faster, and procedural efficiency was improved when performing the procedure with the ICD compared to historical use of the manual method of injection. Minor irregularities were the only complications encountered. Conclusion: The ICD optimally distributes fat as a uniform thread along the withdrawal tract of the cannula, thereby eliminating clumping and minimizing tissue trauma, resulting in reduced recovery time as well as more consistent and predictable clinical results. Since the ICD automates the injection process, it provides a notable and easily attainable efficiency in procedural time and minimal learning curve for the user. Keywords: dermal fillers, liposuction, facial rejuvenation, threading

  3. Breast Reconstruction after a Bilateral Mastectomy Using the BRAVA Expansion System and Fat Grafting

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    Ondrej Mestak, MD

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Fat graft breast reconstruction following a mastectomy is always limited by the size of the skin envelope, which affects the amount of graft that can be injected in 1 session. Because the fat graft naturally resorbs in all patients, several sessions of fat grafting are necessary. BRAVA’s negative pressure causes a “reverse” expansion of the skin envelope, thus permitting more space for the fat graft. This allows decreasing number of required procedures for an adequate breast reconstruction. We operated on a 38-year-old patient 4 years after bilateral mastectomy without irradiation for breast cancer. Before the procedure, the patient was instructed to wear the BRAVA system for 12 hours daily for 2 months before the first session, at all times between the sessions and for 1 month following the last fat grafting session. We performed 3 fat grafting sessions, as planned. Altogether, we injected 840 cm3 of fat on the right side and 790?cm3 of fat on the left side. Four months after the last operation, the patient was very satisfied with her new breasts. The breasts were soft, with good sensation and a natural feel. Using the BRAVA external expansion system for the enhancement of fat grafting is a suitable technique for breast reconstruction after a mastectomy. This technique produces soft and natural feeling breasts in fewer operative sessions, with a minimal risk of complications. Patient compliance, however, is greatly needed to achieve the desired results.

  4. Particle size, temperature, and released amount of fat for safe periorbital fat grafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seong Kee; Hwang, Kun; Huan, Fan; Hwang, Se Ho

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the particle size, temperature, and amount of released fat for safe periorbital fat grafts. From 28 patients, fat was suctioned from the abdomen (large particles [LPs]) and from the inner thigh (small particles [SPs]) using a 2.1-mm harvesting cannula with a diameter 3.2 × 1.4-mm hole and a 1-mm hole, respectively. The 10-mL syringes full of fat were then put into a centrifuge for 3 minutes (LP) and 1 minute (SP) at 3000 revolutions/min. Fat was then transferred to a 1-mL syringe with Luer-Lock adapters and a blunt cannula of 0.9-mm diameter. The force needed to push the fat out of the cannula was measured with a force gauge. The force was measured within the different groups according to particle size of the fat, temperature of the fat, and released amount of fat. The force needed to push the SP fat out of the cannula into the air with minimal amount (MA) (0.01-0.02 mL) injected at room temperature (25 °C) (1.75 ± 0.82 N) was significantly greater (P = 0.000 [t test]) than at body temperature (BT, 33 °C) (1.27 ± 0.38 N). At BT, the force needed to push the SP fat into subcutaneous pig tissue (2.30 ± 1.46 N) was significantly lesser (P = 0.000 [t test]) than LP fat (6.54 ± 2.39 N). At BT, the force needed to push the MA of SP fat into pig subcutaneous tissue (1.38 ± 0.26 N) was significantly lesser (P = 0.000 [t test]) than the force needed to push the usual amount (0.03-0.04 mL) of SP fat (3.83 ± 1.78 N). The force needed to push the fat into human lower eyelids at room temperature (4.06 ± 2.26 N) was significantly greater (P = 0.000 [t test]) than at BT (2.11 ± 0.96 N). At BT, the force needed to inject an MA of SP fat into human lower eyelids (1.55 ± 0.83 N) was significantly lesser (P = 0.000 [t test]) than the force needed to inject a usual amount of fat (2.78 ± 1.03 N). We suggest injections of the SP (1-mm hole diameter harvesting cannula) fat with MAs (0.01-0.02 mL) by means of fragmented incremental injections stored at BT (33°C) to reduce the injection pressure. PMID:24036787

  5. Application of fascia of the temporal muscle and cartilage of the auricular tragus in myringoplasty in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baljoševi? Ivan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Perforation of the tympanic membrane in children may be the cause of recurrent middle ear infection and loss of hearing. Objective. The aim of this study was to analyze the application of different reconstructive materials in surgical technique myringoplasty. Methods. We performed 88 myringoplasties due to auricular tragus perforation in 76 children (aged 4 to 16 years, mean 11.9 years from July 2001 to July 2009. Age, gender, size and the site of perforation, status of the contra lateral ear, underlying cause of the perforations, surgical technique, preoperative and postoperative hearing levels and postoperative complications were recorded and analyzed. In performing myringoplasty we used fascia of the temporal muscle and cartilage of the auricular tragus. Results. In 43 (48% patients we used fascia of the temporal muscle and in 45 (52% cartilage of the auricular tragus. Graft success was defined as an intact eardrum at 12 months postoperatively and improvement in the perception of air-bone gap of 10 dB, which we recorded in 73 (83% cases. Re-perforations were recorded in 12 (13% patients, of whom in 8 (18.6% cases we used the temporal fascia and in 4 (9.3% cases a tragal cartilage. Retraction of the tympanic membrane was recorded in 3 (4% cases with the temporal fascia. Conclusion. Myringoplasty is a reasonably successful method with good functional results in pediatric patients. Risk factors of surgical failure are young age, the size of auricular tragus perforation and pathological conditions of the contra lateral ear. The tragal cartilage gives better results in cases with bilateral perforations because the possibility of retractions and re-perforations is lower. Relatively small number of patients is probably the reason that, except for young age, differences between the two groups did not reach the level of statistical significance.

  6. Autologous fat grafting: use of closed syringe microcannula system for enhanced autologous structural grafting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander RW

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Robert W Alexander,1 David Harrell2 1Department of Surgery, School of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA; 2Harvest-Terumo Inc, Plymouth, MA, USA Objectives: Provide background for use of acquiring autologous adipose tissue as a tissue graft and source of adult progenitor cells for use in cosmetic plastic surgery. Discuss the background and mechanisms of action of closed syringe vacuum lipoaspiration, with emphasis on accessing adipose-derived mesenchymal/stromal cells and the stromal vascular fraction (SVF for use in aesthetic, structural reconstruction and regenerative applications. Explain a proven protocol for acquiring high-quality autologous fat grafts (AFG with use of disposable, microcannula systems. Design: Explain the components and advantage of use of the patented super luer-lock and microcannulas system for use with the closed-syringe system. A sequential explanation of equipment selection for minimally traumatic lipoaspiration in small volumes is presented, including use of blunt injection cannulas to reduce risk of embolism. Results: Thousands of AFG have proven safe and efficacious for lipoaspiration techniques for large and small structural fat grafting procedures. The importance and advantages of gentle harvesting of the adipose tissue complex has become very clear in the past 5 years. The closed-syringe system offers a minimally invasive, gentle system with which to mobilize subdermal fat tissues in a suspension form. Resulting total nuclear counting of undifferentiated cells of the adipose-derived -SVF suggests that the yield achieved is better than use of always-on, constant mechanical pump applied vacuum systems. Conclusion: Use of a closed-syringe lipoaspiration system featuring disposable microcannulas offers a safe and effective means of harvesting small volumes of nonmanipulated adipose tissues and its accompanying progenitor cells within the SVF. Closed syringes and microcannulas are available as safe, sterile, disposable, compact systems for acquiring high-quality AFG. Presented is a detailed, step-by-step, proven protocol for performing quality autologous structural adipose transplantation. Keywords: autologous fat grafting, closed syringe lipoaspiration, adipose-derived adult stem-stromal cell, bioscaffolds, lipoaspiration/liposuction, stromal vascular fraction (SVF

  7. Fast and simple fat grafting of the breast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Rasmus Nygård; Gunnarsson, Gudjon L.; Børsen-Koch, Mikkel; Reddy, Ashwin; Ømark, Henrik; Sørensen, Jens Ahm

    2015-01-01

    Fat grafting (FG) is being used at an escalating rate for correction of shape and volume of all types of breast surgery in order to optimize the aesthetic result in spite of an ongoing debate of the oncologic safety. In this paper we demonstrate our simple and fast sedimentation based FG technique in the attached video as visualized surgery. We have used this simple approach for 348 procedures in 176 women to optimize and correct the aesthetic result following all types of breast surgery. We prefer this simple technique as no technique has been shown to be superior to other more costly techniques and furthermore there are still questions about the oncologic safety in using adipose derived stem cells (ADSC). Simple fat harvesting using low vacuum and preparation by sedimentation is a fast and effective method to perform FG successfully for correction of shape and volume deficits of the breast following both ablative surgery as well as benign conditions with a high margin of safety. PMID:26645013

  8. Calf Contouring with Endoscopic Fascial Release, Calf Implant, and Structural Fat Grafting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ercan Karacaoglu, MD

    2013-08-01

    Conclusions: A novel endoscopic approach for lower leg contouring is discussed. Endoscopic fasciotomy technique with calf implant and structural fat grafting for improved lower leg aesthetics is a simple, effective, reliable, and predictable technique for calf contouring.

  9. Importance of mesenchymal stem cells in autologous fat grafting : a systematic review of existing studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trojahn KØlle, Stig-Frederik; Oliveri, Roberto S

    2012-01-01

    Autologous fat grafting (lipofilling) enables repair and augmentation of soft tissues and is increasingly used both in aesthetic and reconstructive surgery. Autologous fat has several advantages, including biocompatibility, versatility, natural appearance, and low donor site morbidity. The main limitation is unpredictable graft resorption, which ranges from 25%-80%, probably as a result of ischaemia and lack of neoangiogenesis. To obviate these disadvantages, several studies have searched for new ways of increasing the viability of the transplanted tissue. One promising approach has been to enrich the fat graft with adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASC) before transplantation. We have reviewed original studies published on fat transplantation enriched with ASC. We found four murine and three human studies that investigated the subject after a sensitive search of publications. In the human studies, so-called cell assisted lipotransfer (CAL) increased the ASC concentration 2-5 times compared with non-manipulated fat grafts, which caused a questionable improvement in survival of fat grafts, compared with that of traditional lipofilling. In contrast, in two of the murine studies ASC-concentrations were increased 1250 and 6250 times, respectively, by ASC ex vivo expansion, which resulted in considerably improved fat transplant survival as well as quality. This effect of high-level enrichment with ASC is thought to have been caused by paracrine signalling, cellular differentiation, or both. The surgical and tissue handling techniques used in lipofilling are well proved, but the added effect of high-level enrichment with ex vivo expanded ASC still needs to be investigated properly in human lipofilling studies, combined with a thorough follow up and matched control groups. In conclusion, ASC-enriched lipofilling theoretically has the potential for transforming lipofilling from a relatively unpredictable intervention into one in which the resorption rate, quality of tissue, and safety can be predicted, and possibly superior to prosthetic implantation.

  10. Importance of mesenchymal stem cells in autologous fat grafting: a systematic review of existing studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trojahn Kølle, Stig-Frederik; Oliveri, Roberto S; Glovinski, Peter Viktor; Elberg, Jens Jørgen; Fischer-Nielsen, Anne; Drzewiecki, Krzysztof Tadeusz

    2012-04-01

    Autologous fat grafting (lipofilling) enables repair and augmentation of soft tissues and is increasingly used both in aesthetic and reconstructive surgery. Autologous fat has several advantages, including biocompatibility, versatility, natural appearance, and low donor site morbidity. The main limitation is unpredictable graft resorption, which ranges from 25%-80%, probably as a result of ischaemia and lack of neoangiogenesis. To obviate these disadvantages, several studies have searched for new ways of increasing the viability of the transplanted tissue. One promising approach has been to enrich the fat graft with adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASC) before transplantation. We have reviewed original studies published on fat transplantation enriched with ASC. We found four murine and three human studies that investigated the subject after a sensitive search of publications. In the human studies, so-called cell assisted lipotransfer (CAL) increased the ASC concentration 2-5 times compared with non-manipulated fat grafts, which caused a questionable improvement in survival of fat grafts, compared with that of traditional lipofilling. In contrast, in two of the murine studies ASC-concentrations were increased 1250 and 6250 times, respectively, by ASC ex vivo expansion, which resulted in considerably improved fat transplant survival as well as quality. This effect of high-level enrichment with ASC is thought to have been caused by paracrine signalling, cellular differentiation, or both. The surgical and tissue handling techniques used in lipofilling are well proved, but the added effect of high-level enrichment with ex vivo expanded ASC still needs to be investigated properly in human lipofilling studies, combined with a thorough follow up and matched control groups. In conclusion, ASC-enriched lipofilling theoretically has the potential for transforming lipofilling from a relatively unpredictable intervention into one in which the resorption rate, quality of tissue, and safety can be predicted, and possibly superior to prosthetic implantation. PMID:22471250

  11. [Viability of autologous fat grafts harvested with the Coleman technique and the tissu trans system (shippert method): a comparative study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herold, C; Pflaum, M; Utz, P; Wilhelmi, M; Rennekampff, H-O; Vogt, P M

    2011-12-01

    Various methods for harvesting and refining autologous fat grafts have been described. One of the standard procedures, the Coleman technique, is based on manual aspiration to reduce the negative presssure and the centrifugation of the grafts. The Shippert technique uses automatic liposuction with reduced negative pressure and abstains from centifugation in order not to reduce viability of the graft by exposing it to centrifugal forces. This study intends to compare the viability of fat grafts processed with the above-mentioned methods.Fat grafts were obtained in 9 patients by using both the Tissu Trans system (Shippert technique) and the Coleman technique. To evaluate the impact of centrifugation forces, the grafts harvested with the Coleman technique were treated with standard adjustment of the centrifuge and also with doubled g-force. Viability of fat grafts was analysed with the WST-8 test and with annexin V/PI assay FACS analysis.The viability of fat grafts processed by the Coleman technique was significantly higher compared to the Shippert technique on applying the WST-8 test. Applying the annexin V/PI analysis, the viability of fat grafts was almost equal with both techniques. Whereas the fat grafts processed with the Tissu Trans system are injected without condensation, the grafts refined with the Coleman technique were concentrated 3 times by centrifugation compared to the primary liposuctioned graft volumes.The Coleman technique allows the preparation of a fat graft containing more viable cells than the Shippert technique. This is in part due to the condensation of the graft by centrifugation using the Coleman technique. The factor of condensation of the grafts harvested and refined with the Coleman technique exceeds the factor of increased fat graft viability in comparison to the Shippert technique. The Tissu Trans system is more than twice as fast and easier to use with a preferential use for large volume grafts like in breast augmentation, whereas the Coleman technique produces a more condensed graft, favouring it for fat grafting to the face where less volume is needed. PMID:22241519

  12. Autologous Fat Grafting as a Novel Approach to Parastomal Soft-tissue Volume Deficiencies

    OpenAIRE

    Robert C. Wu, MD; Ian Maxwell, MD; Ilun Yang, MD, FRCSC; Mario B. Jarmuske, MD, FRCSC; Robin P. Boushey, MD, PhD, FRCSC

    2014-01-01

    Summary: The aim of this study is to describe a novel approach to revise maladaptive soft-tissue contour around an ileostomy. A patient with permanent ileostomy suffered from significant defects in soft-tissue contour due to scarring and wound contraction. He underwent autologous fat grafting to achieve sealing of his stoma appliance and improve cosmesis. Due to numerous surgeries, the stoma appliance would not seal and required daily appliance changes. The patient received autologous fat gra...

  13. Importance of mesenchymal stem cells in autologous fat grafting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trojahn Kølle, Stig-Frederik; Oliveri, Roberto S; Glovinski, Peter Viktor; Elberg, Jens Jørgen; Fischer-Nielsen, Anne; Drzewiecki, Krzysztof Tadeusz

    2012-01-01

    limitation is unpredictable graft resorption, which ranges from 25%-80%, probably as a result of ischaemia and lack of neoangiogenesis. To obviate these disadvantages, several studies have searched for new ways of increasing the viability of the transplanted tissue. One promising approach has been to enrich...

  14. Persistent Reduced Pigmentation of Areola after Breast Reconstruction with Brava-assisted Autologeous Fat Grafting

    OpenAIRE

    Anders Klit, MD; Caroline H. Olsen, MD; Christina S. Gramkow, MD

    2015-01-01

    Summary: A 17-year-old healthy woman treated for unilateral hypoplastic breast anomaly with Brava-assisted fat grafting experienced persistent reduced pigmentation of the areola on the treated breast. The reduced pigmentation was confirmed at 6-month postoperative follow-up and verified by histological examination of comparable biopsies from both areolas.

  15. Autologous Fat Grafting as a Novel Approach to Parastomal Soft-tissue Volume Deficiencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert C. Wu, MD

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary: The aim of this study is to describe a novel approach to revise maladaptive soft-tissue contour around an ileostomy. A patient with permanent ileostomy suffered from significant defects in soft-tissue contour due to scarring and wound contraction. He underwent autologous fat grafting to achieve sealing of his stoma appliance and improve cosmesis. Due to numerous surgeries, the stoma appliance would not seal and required daily appliance changes. The patient received autologous fat grafting to augment the contour around stoma. A complete fitting of stoma was achieved. The patient is satisfied with stoma sealing and is changing his stoma appliance every 5–7 days without skin excoriation. Autologous fat transfer is an effective approach to treat a subset of stoma patients with complex subcutaneous defects.

  16. Importance of mesenchymal stem cells in autologous fat grafting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trojahn Kølle, Stig-Frederik; Oliveri, Roberto S; Glovinski, Peter Viktor; Elberg, Jens Jørgen; Fischer-Nielsen, Anne; Drzewiecki, Krzysztof Tadeusz

    2012-01-01

    ASC-concentrations were increased 1250 and 6250 times, respectively, by ASC ex vivo expansion, which resulted in considerably improved fat transplant survival as well as quality. This effect of high-level enrichment with ASC is thought to have been caused by paracrine signalling, cellular...

  17. Outcomes of structural fat grafting for paralytic and non-paralytic dysphonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantarella, G; Baracca, G; Forti, S; Gaffuri, M; Mazzola, R F

    2011-06-01

    Aims of this prospective study were to evaluate the results of vocal fold structural fat grafting for glottic insufficiency and to compare the outcomes obtained in unilateral vocal fold paralysis (UVFP) and congenital or acquired soft tissue defects in vocal folds. Sixty-six consecutive patients with breathy dysphonia, in 43 cases (aged 16-79 years) related to UVFP and in 23 cases (aged 16-67 years) related to vocal fold iatrogenic scar or sulcus vocalis, underwent autologous structural fat grafting into vocal folds. Lipoaspirates were centrifuged at 1200 g for 3 min to separate and remove blood, cell debris and the oily layer. The refined fat was injected under direct microlaryngoscopy in a multilayered way. The main outcome measures were grade, roughness, breathiness, asthenicity and strain (GRBAS) perceptual evaluation, maximum phonation time (MPT), self-assessed Voice Handicap Index (VHI), and voice acoustic analysis, considered pre-operatively and at 3 and 6 months after fat grafting. After surgery, MPT, VHI, G and B improved in both groups (p < 0.05). In particular, G and VHI functional subscales showed a significantly greater decrease in patients with UVFP (p < 0.05). The acoustic variables improved significantly only in the UVFP group (p < 0.005). From 3 to 6 months postoperatively, most variables showed a trend with further improvement. Vocal fold structural fat grafting was significantly effective in treating glottic insufficiency due to UVFP or soft tissue defects. Perceptual, acoustic and subjective assessments confirmed that patients with UVFP had better outcomes than those with soft tissue defects. PMID:22064781

  18. A study on the relevance of preoperative assessment of Eustachian tube function in myringoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apoorva Kumar Pandey

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim : Pathophysiology of Eustachian tube significantly affects the result of middle ear reconstructive surgery. The aim of this study is to ascertain the relevance of preoperative assessment of tubal function on the results of myringoplasty and to correlate the outcome of surgery with the tubal function gradings. Materials and Methods : A total of 58 cases of dry central perforation of tympanic membrane were divided into two groups. In control group A, pre-operative Eustachian tube function was not checked. In Test group B, pre-operative Eustachian tube function was checked by modified inflation-deflation test using impedance audiometer. Results : Success was assessed at 4th month postoperatively on the basis of intact drum. The results between both groups were compared using Chi-square test. There was no statistically significant difference (P< 0.05 between the control and the test group. Conclusion : The capability to reduce an applied negative pressure correlates well with the successful result of a tympanic membrane graft. However, failure to equilibrate negative pressure does not discriminate between success and failure of this operative procedure.

  19. Success and pitfalls in myringoplasty: follow-up study of 404 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vartiainen, E; Nuutinen, J

    1993-05-01

    Results of 404 primary myringoplasty operations were critically analyzed. Patients who underwent tympanic membrane repair as the only procedure were included. In all cases, temporal muscle fascia was used as graft material. Mean follow-up period was 5.5 years. Overall success rate was found to be 88 percent. Welding injuries did not heal as well as other traumatic perforations or perforations caused by otitis media. Age of the patient, size or site of perforation, or surgical technique (underlay or overlay) did not affect success rate. Twenty-five percent of the failures were considered to be attributable to eustachian tube insufficiency. One percent (5 cases) failed as a result of chronic mastoiditis overlooked by the surgeon. Postoperative cholesteatoma developed in three ears (0.7%). Postoperative air-bone gap within 10 dB was achieved in 61 percent and within 20 dB in 87 percent of patients. In 11 of the audiologic failures, the cause of persistent conductive hearing loss was found to be fixation or erosion of the ossicles overlooked by the surgeon. The most decisive factor influencing results appeared to be the surgeon's experience. PMID:8372930

  20. Selective augmentation of stem cell populations in structural fat grafts for maxillofacial surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clauser, Luigi; Ferroni, Letizia; Gardin, Chiara; Tieghi, Riccardo; Galiè, Manlio; Elia, Giovanni; Piattelli, Adriano; Pinton, Paolo; Bressan, Eriberto; Zavan, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Structural fat grafting utilizes the centrifugation of liposuction aspirates to create a graded density of adipose tissue. This study was performed to qualitatively investigate the effects of centrifugation on stem cells present in adipose tissue. Liposuction aspirates were obtained from healthy donors and either not centrifuged or centrifuged at 1,800 rpm for 3 minutes. The obtained fat volumes were divided into three layers and then analyzed. The results demonstrate that centrifugation induces a different distribution of stem cells in the three layers. The high-density layer displays the highest expression of mesenchymal stem cell and endothelial markers. The low-density layer exhibits an enrichment of multipotent stem cells. We conclude that appropriate centrifugation concentrates stem cells. This finding may influence the clinical practice of liposuction aspirate centrifugation and enhance graft uptake. PMID:25375632

  1. Selective Augmentation of Stem Cell Populations in Structural Fat Grafts for Maxillofacial Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardin, Chiara; Tieghi, Riccardo; Galiè, Manlio; Elia, Giovanni; Piattelli, Adriano; Pinton, Paolo; Bressan, Eriberto; Zavan, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Structural fat grafting utilizes the centrifugation of liposuction aspirates to create a graded density of adipose tissue. This study was performed to qualitatively investigate the effects of centrifugation on stem cells present in adipose tissue. Liposuction aspirates were obtained from healthy donors and either not centrifuged or centrifuged at 1,800 rpm for 3 minutes. The obtained fat volumes were divided into three layers and then analyzed. The results demonstrate that centrifugation induces a different distribution of stem cells in the three layers. The high-density layer displays the highest expression of mesenchymal stem cell and endothelial markers. The low-density layer exhibits an enrichment of multipotent stem cells. We conclude that appropriate centrifugation concentrates stem cells. This finding may influence the clinical practice of liposuction aspirate centrifugation and enhance graft uptake. PMID:25375632

  2. Lipoenxertia nas mamas: procedimento consagrado ou experimental? Breast fat grafting: experimental or established procedure?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Roriz Blumenschein

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Atualmente vem ocorrendo aumento da incidência de utilização de enxertia de gordura para correção de defeitos mamários congênitos ou adquiridos e para tratamento mamário estético. Esse aumento é decorrente do surgimento de novas técnicas de lipoenxertia, que produzem resultados mais duradouros e confiáveis, apesar da crença de alguns autores de que o procedimento possa dificultar o rastreamento do câncer mamário. Esta revisão de literatura tem como objetivo identificar as técnicas de lipoenxertia mamárias mais utilizadas, avaliá-las quanto à eficácia e à segurança, e relatar as principais complicações associadas. A revisão foi realizada nas bases de dados PubMed e LILACS, e os fatores de inclusão foram: artigos em idioma inglês, publicados nos últimos cinco anos. Como resultado observou-se aumento do número de trabalhos abordando o tema nos últimos anos, e predomínio de uma técnica de lipoenxertia específica. A maioria dos trabalhos demonstra que a lipoenxertia mamária não prejudica o rastreamento radiológico para câncer mamário, e alguns sugerem que a gordura enxertada potencializa o desenvolvimento de câncer nas mamas. Apesar do aumento do número de trabalhos, existem ainda poucos com bom nível de evidência científica. Esta revisão permitiu concluir que a lipoenxertia é uma técnica alternativa para reparação de defeitos mamários e discreto aumento estético das mamas, devendo ser utilizada por cirurgiões com treinamento adequado e acompanhada por equipe de radiologia experiente em imagenologia mamária. Mais trabalhos com metodologia científica adequada são necessários para avaliar a lipoenxertia mamária.There has recently been an increase in the use of fat grafting for the correction of congenital or acquired breast deformities and for aesthetic breast treatment. This increase is due to the emergence of novel fat grafting techniques that produce lasting and reliable results despite some authors' beliefs that the procedure might hinder breast cancer screening. This literature review aims to identify the most frequently used breast fat grafting techniques, evaluate their efficacy and safety, and report their major complications. The review was performed after a search in the PubMed and LILACS databases, and only English-language articles published over the past 5 years were assessed. There have been an increased number of studies on the topic in recent years, and a specific fat grafting technique has been primarily reported. Most studies in this area have shown that breast fat grafting does not affect radiological breast cancer screening, whereas some studies have suggested that the use of grafted fat may enhance the development of breast cancer. Despite the increased number of published studies, few have a good level of scientific evidence. This review concludes that fat grafting is an alternative technique for the correction of breast deformities and moderate aesthetic breast enlargement and should be performed by properly trained surgeons accompanied by a radiology team that is experienced in breast imaging. Further studies with appropriate scientific methodologies are needed to evaluate breast fat grafting.

  3. Lipoenxertia nas mamas: procedimento consagrado ou experimental? / Breast fat grafting: experimental or established procedure?

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alexandre Roriz, Blumenschein; Ruffo, Freitas-Junior; Andrea Thomazine, Tuffanin; Danielle Isadora, Blumenschein.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Atualmente vem ocorrendo aumento da incidência de utilização de enxertia de gordura para correção de defeitos mamários congênitos ou adquiridos e para tratamento mamário estético. Esse aumento é decorrente do surgimento de novas técnicas de lipoenxertia, que produzem resultados mais duradouros e con [...] fiáveis, apesar da crença de alguns autores de que o procedimento possa dificultar o rastreamento do câncer mamário. Esta revisão de literatura tem como objetivo identificar as técnicas de lipoenxertia mamárias mais utilizadas, avaliá-las quanto à eficácia e à segurança, e relatar as principais complicações associadas. A revisão foi realizada nas bases de dados PubMed e LILACS, e os fatores de inclusão foram: artigos em idioma inglês, publicados nos últimos cinco anos. Como resultado observou-se aumento do número de trabalhos abordando o tema nos últimos anos, e predomínio de uma técnica de lipoenxertia específica. A maioria dos trabalhos demonstra que a lipoenxertia mamária não prejudica o rastreamento radiológico para câncer mamário, e alguns sugerem que a gordura enxertada potencializa o desenvolvimento de câncer nas mamas. Apesar do aumento do número de trabalhos, existem ainda poucos com bom nível de evidência científica. Esta revisão permitiu concluir que a lipoenxertia é uma técnica alternativa para reparação de defeitos mamários e discreto aumento estético das mamas, devendo ser utilizada por cirurgiões com treinamento adequado e acompanhada por equipe de radiologia experiente em imagenologia mamária. Mais trabalhos com metodologia científica adequada são necessários para avaliar a lipoenxertia mamária. Abstract in english There has recently been an increase in the use of fat grafting for the correction of congenital or acquired breast deformities and for aesthetic breast treatment. This increase is due to the emergence of novel fat grafting techniques that produce lasting and reliable results despite some authors' be [...] liefs that the procedure might hinder breast cancer screening. This literature review aims to identify the most frequently used breast fat grafting techniques, evaluate their efficacy and safety, and report their major complications. The review was performed after a search in the PubMed and LILACS databases, and only English-language articles published over the past 5 years were assessed. There have been an increased number of studies on the topic in recent years, and a specific fat grafting technique has been primarily reported. Most studies in this area have shown that breast fat grafting does not affect radiological breast cancer screening, whereas some studies have suggested that the use of grafted fat may enhance the development of breast cancer. Despite the increased number of published studies, few have a good level of scientific evidence. This review concludes that fat grafting is an alternative technique for the correction of breast deformities and moderate aesthetic breast enlargement and should be performed by properly trained surgeons accompanied by a radiology team that is experienced in breast imaging. Further studies with appropriate scientific methodologies are needed to evaluate breast fat grafting.

  4. Jejunal perforation after abdominal liposuction, bilateral breast augmentation and facial fat grafting

    OpenAIRE

    Coronado-Malagón, Martin; Tauffer-Carrion, Luis Tomas

    2012-01-01

    A 54-year-old woman presented to the emergency department 24 h after undergoing abdominal liposuction, bilateral breast augmentation and facial fat grafting at a private plastic surgery clinic. She presented with the classic evolution of a bowel perforation secondary to abdominal liposuction. A computed tomography (CT) scan found free air in her abdominal cavity. Based on the CT scan and the persistent pain experienced by the patient, an abdominal laparatomy was urgently performed. A jejunum ...

  5. Outcomes of structural fat grafting for paralytic and non-paralytic dysphonia

    OpenAIRE

    Cantarella, G; BARACCA, G.; FORTI, S.; GAFFURI, M.; MAZZOLA, R.F.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Aims of this prospective study were to evaluate the results of vocal fold structural fat grafting for glottic insufficiency and to compare the outcomes obtained in unilateral vocal fold paralysis (UVFP) and congenital or acquired soft tissue defects in vocal folds. Sixty-six consecutive patients with breathy dysphonia, in 43 cases (aged 16-79 years) related to UVFP and in 23 cases (aged 16-67 years) related to vocal fold iatrogenic scar or sulcus vocalis, underwent autologous structur...

  6. Breast reconstruction de novo by water-jet assisted autologous fat grafting – a retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoppe, Delia Letizia

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available [english] Background: Autologous fat grafting has become a frequent, simple, reproducible and low-risk technique for revisional or partial breast reconstruction. The presented European multicenter study describes an optimized treatment and follow-up protocol for the de novo breast reconstruction after total mastectomy by lipotransfer alone.Methods: A retrospective European multicenter trial included 135 procedures on 28 (35 breasts postmastectomy patients (mean 52.4 years. All women were treated with the water-jet assisted fat grafting method (BEAULI™ combined with additional procedures (NAC reconstruction, contralateral mastoplasty and evaluated with at least 6 months follow-up (mean 2.6 years. Sonography or mammography, clinical examination, patient questionnaire (10-point Likert scale and digital photographs were carried out.Results: On average the patients received 4 to 6 procedures each with a single volume of 159 ml (±61 ml over 21 months (range 9 months to 2.5 years. In total 1,020 ml (±515 ml fat were grafted till a complete breast reconstruction was achieved. Irradiated patients needed a significantly higher volume than non-irradiated (p<0.041. Main treatment complications were liponecrosis (2.59%, infection (0.74% and granuloma (0.74%. Patient satisfaction was overall high to very high (96% and confirmed the good aesthetic results (68% and the natural softness, contour and shape of the reconstructed breast.Conclusions: A complete breast reconstruction with large volume fat grafting is alternatively possible to standard techniques in selected cases. It takes at least 4 to 6 lipotransfers in the course of 2 years. Patients with prior radiotherapy may require even up to 8 sessions over nearly 3 years of treatment.

  7. Breast reconstruction de novo by water-jet assisted autologous fat grafting - a retrospective study

    OpenAIRE

    Hoppe, DL; Ueberreiter, K; Surlemont, Y; Peltoniemi, H; Stabile, M; Kauhanen, S.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Autologous fat grafting has become a frequent, simple, reproducible and low-risk technique for revisional or partial breast reconstruction. The presented European multicenter study describes an optimized treatment and follow-up protocol for the de novo breast reconstruction after total mastectomy by lipotransfer alone.Methods: A retrospective European multicenter trial included 135 procedures on 28 (35 breasts) postmastectomy patients (mean 52.4 years). All women were treated wi...

  8. Management of an irradiated anophthalmic socket following dermis-fat graft rejection: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raizada Kuldeep

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Dermis-fat graft (DFG is often the only promising option in cases of severely contracted sockets. However, there is an increased risk of graft failure in irradiated sockets with decreased vascularity. In such difficult cases, repeat DFG implantation also has higher risks of graft failure. We describe an ingenious method of successful management of an irradiated anophthalmic socket following DFG infection and necrosis, with acceptable cosmetic results. At surgery, an orbital impression was taken with ophthalmic grade alginate. Based on this measurement, a custom-made stem pressure socket-expander made up of high density polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA was fitted, a week post surgery and kept in situ for six weeks. On review, the fornices had considerably deepened. The expander device was removed and the patient was now fitted with a custom-made thicker prosthesis made up of high-density PMMA. The patient has followed up for a year subsequently and the prosthesis has remained stable.

  9. Orbital Dermis-Fat Graft Transplantation: Results in Primary and Secondary Implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müge Çoban Karata?

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Autologous dermis fat graft (DFG is being used in both primary and secondary socket surgeries. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate patients’ satisfaction and possible intra- and postoperative complications in patients who had DFG transplantation. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective study, the results of 17 patients who were operated between October 2008 and October 2012 were evaluated. Of these cases, 7 had primary and 10 had secondary DFG. Patient satisfaction was evaluated by asking the patients to fill out a questionnaire graded from 1 (not satisfied to 4 (very satisfied. Additionally, the incidence of complications and requirement for another operation was noted. Results: The average patient age was 30.5±17.9 years. Patients with primary grafts were 100% satisfied with the outcome and could wear their prosthesis without any discomfort. In this group, one patient had delay in epithelialisation of the graft and ptosis, which was treated with frontal sling surgery and artificial tears. In patients with secondary grafts, 6 patients (60% were satisfied with the outcome. Four patients were not satisfied from the result. One had inferior lid laxity; however, after lateral tarsal strip surgery, she could wear her prosthesis. Another patient developed inferior forniceal adhesion. He was treated with mucous membrane grafting and artificial tears and could wear his prosthesis. One patient had infection and contraction of the socket due to inappropriate postoperative medication use. Following repeated DFG transplantation, he was able to wear his prosthesis. Another patient had fat atrophy prior to secondary DFG transplantation and developed atrophy of the graft following surgery. Her family refused additional surgery. This patient could not wear any prosthesis. Conclusion: According to our results, we believe that DFG transplantation is successful in primary implantation. In secondary cases, correct patient selection is important to achieve good outcome. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2015; 45: 65-70

  10. Autologous fat grafting: use of closed syringe microcannula system for enhanced autologous structural grafting

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander RW; Harrell DB

    2013-01-01

    Robert W Alexander,1 David Harrell2 1Department of Surgery, School of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA; 2Harvest-Terumo Inc, Plymouth, MA, USA Objectives: Provide background for use of acquiring autologous adipose tissue as a tissue graft and source of adult progenitor cells for use in cosmetic plastic surgery. Discuss the background and mechanisms of action of closed syringe vacuum lipoaspiration, with emphasis on accessing adipose-derived mesenchymal/stroma...

  11. A Prospective and Controlled Clinical Trial on Stromal Vascular Fraction Enriched Fat Grafts in Secondary Breast Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tissiani, L. A. L.; Alonso, N.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Fat grafting is a tremendous tool in secondary breast reconstruction. Stromal vascular fraction (SVF) enriched fat grafts have been presenting promising results regarding volume maintenance. Methods. We developed a method that produces a superior SVF enrichment rate (2?:?1) in the operating theatre. This prospective and controlled trial analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively fat grafts with (stem cells group, SG) and without (control group, CG) SVF enrichment in secondary breast reconstruction, through MRI-based volumetry, immunophenotyping, and cell counting. Also, patient satisfaction, aesthetic outcomes, and complications were analyzed. Results. Volumetric persistence in the SG was 78,9% and 51,4% in the CG; however it did not reach statistical significant difference. CD90 was the only marker highly expressed in the SG and showed a positive correlation with volumetric persistence (r = 0.651, p = 0.03). Fat necrosis occurred in 4 patients in the SG and in none in the CG. Patients in the CG showed a trend to be more satisfied. Considering aesthetics, both groups presented improvements. No locoregional recurrences were observed. Conclusions. Results are encouraging despite the fact that SVF enrichment in a higher supplementation rate did not improve, with statistical significance, fat graft volumetric persistence. Enriched fat grafts have proven to be safe in a 3-year follow-up.

  12. Fat Grafting in Burn Scar Alleviates Neuropathic Pain via Anti-Inflammation Effect in Scar and Spinal Cord

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shu-Hung; Wu, Sheng-Hua; Lee, Su-Shin; Chang, Kao-Ping; Chai, Chee-Yin; Yeh, Jwu-Lai; Lin, Sin-Daw; Kwan, Aij-Lie; David Wang, Hui-Min; Lai, Chung-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Burn-induced neuropathic pain is complex, and fat grafting has reportedly improved neuropathic pain. However, the mechanism of fat grafting in improving neuropathic pain is unclear. Previous investigations have found that neuroinflammation causes neuropathic pain, and anti-inflammatory targeting may provide potential therapeutic opportunities in neuropathic pain. We hypothesized that fat grafting in burn scars improves the neuropathic pain through anti-inflammation. Burn-induced scar pain was confirmed using a mechanical response test 4 weeks after burn injuries, and autologous fat grafting in the scar area was performed simultaneously. After 4 weeks, the animals were sacrificed, and specimens were collected for the inflammation test, including COX-2, iNOS, and nNOS in the injured skin and spinal cord dorsal horns through immunohistochemistry and Western assays. Furthermore, pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1 ? and TNF-?) in the spinal cord were collected. Double immunofluorescent staining images for measuring p-I?B, p-NF?B, p-JNK, and TUNEL as well as Western blots of AKT, Bax/Bcl-2 for the inflammatory process, and apoptosis were analyzed. Fat grafting significantly reduced COX2, nNOS, and iNOS in the skin and spinal cord dorsal horns, as well as IL-1? and TNF-?, compared with the burn group. Moreover, regarding the anti-inflammatory effect, the apoptosis cells in the spinal cord significantly decreased after the fat grafting in the burn injury group. Fat grafting was effective in treating burn-induced neuropathic pain through the alleviation of neuroinflammation and ameliorated spinal neuronal apoptosis. PMID:26368011

  13. Parry-Romberg syndrome: volumetric regeneration by structural fat grafting technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clauser, Luigi C; Tieghi, Riccardo; Consorti, Giuseppe

    2010-12-01

    The use of adipose tissue transfer for correction of maxillo-facial defects was reported for the first time at the end of the 19th century and has since been the subject of numerous studies. Structural Fat Grafting (SFG) differs from other fat grafting techniques in both the harvesting and placement of the fat. The main indications for SFG are for the restoration and rejuvenation of the face. Recent applications include the correction of localised tissue atrophy, loss of substance due to trauma, post-tumour, congenital complex craniofacial deformities, burns, and hemifacial atrophy. The authors describe a case of a 20-year-old woman with right Parry-Romberg syndrome (PRS) treated over many years with many different surgical reconstructive techniques with poor results. After five SFG (three complete procedures and two minor revisions) over three years, the authors obtained a good aesthetic result with complete patient satisfaction. SFG can be an excellent technique for facial reconstruction and re-contouring, with natural and long-lasting results. PMID:20541429

  14. Is the Resorption of Grafted Fat Reduced in Cell-Assisted Lipotransfer for Breast Augmentation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin; Luo, Xuan; Lu, Yi; Fan, Zhi-Hong; Hu, Xiang

    2015-08-01

    Cell-assisted lipotransfer (CAL) is a cotransplantation of adipose tissue and stromal vascular fraction (SVF) including adipose-derived stem cells. But although CAL can get satisfactory outcomes in breast augmentation, the resorption of the grafted fat is still unclear. A total of 12 patients received breast augmentation using CAL. All of them completed 6 months of follow-up. In 1 mini-CAL case, 500-mL liposuction fluid was used to harvest the SVF cells. In 11 full-CAL cases, 250-mL aspirated fat was needed apart from 500-mL liposuction fluid. The percentage of adipose-derived stem cells in SVF cells was detected using flow cytometry and their multilineage potential ability was assessed with in vitro induction. The volumes of breasts and pectoral muscle were measured, and radiological image change was analyzed using magnetic resonance imaging before the operation and 3 and 6 months after the operation. Additionally, the subjective evaluation on the cosmetic outcomes was determined by surgeons and patients. Adipose-derived stem cells in SVF cells accounted for 40.27% and 3.34% in full-CAL cases and mini-CAL cases, respectively. Postoperative atrophy occurred within the first 3 months. At the 6 months postoperatively, breast volume is augmented, ranging from 60.71 to 197 mL, with a mean value of 125.35 (45.49) mL. The ultimate resorption of grafted fat at the 6 months postoperatively is 51.84% (16.74%). Newly formed cysts and nodules were detected in 2 cases. No calcification was found in all magnetic resonance images. Only 1 patient was unsatisfied with the cosmetic outcome. Our preliminary study displayed a satisfactory augmented volume with little complications using CAL for breast augmentation. But the resorption at the 6 months postoperatively [51.84% (16.74%)] showed no significant advantage over non-CAL technique (40%-60% reported), which suggested that SVF cells harvested from 250-mL aspirated fat and 500-mL liposuction fluid were insufficient to average 250-mL grafted fat for each breast in this study. More SVF cells are needed to achieve lower resorption. PMID:24691331

  15. Use of genetically modified muscle and fat grafts to repair defects in bone and cartilage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CH Evans

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available We report a novel technology for the rapid healing of large osseous and chondral defects, based upon the genetic modification of autologous skeletal muscle and fat grafts. These tissues were selected because they not only possess mesenchymal progenitor cells and scaffolding properties, but also can be biopsied, genetically modified and returned to the patient in a single operative session. First generation adenovirus vector carrying cDNA encoding human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (Ad.BMP-2 was used for gene transfer to biopsies of muscle and fat. To assess bone healing, the genetically modified (“gene activated” tissues were implanted into 5mm-long critical size, mid-diaphyseal, stabilized defects in the femora of Fischer rats. Unlike control defects, those receiving gene-activated muscle underwent rapid healing, with evidence of radiologic bridging as early as 10 days after implantation and restoration of full mechanical strength by 8 weeks. Histologic analysis suggests that the grafts rapidly differentiated into cartilage, followed by efficient endochondral ossification. Fluorescence in situ hybridization detection of Y-chromosomes following the transfer of male donor muscle into female rats demonstrated that at least some of the osteoblasts of the healed bone were derived from donor muscle. Gene activated fat also healed critical sized defects, but less quickly than muscle and with more variability. Anti-adenovirus antibodies were not detected. Pilot studies in a rabbit osteochondral defect model demonstrated the promise of this technology for healing cartilage defects. Further development of these methods should provide ways to heal bone and cartilage more expeditiously, and at lower cost, than is presently possible.

  16. Evaluation of healing potential of autogenous, macroscopic fat deposited or fat free, omental graft in experimental radius bone defect in rabbit: Radiological study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was designed for evaluation of the difference between the ability of greater omentum graft with or without macroscopic fat deposition in acceleration of bone healing process. Adult female New Zealand white rabbits (n=15) were randomly divided into three equal groups. In groups A and B, the drilled hole on the left radius was filled by the omentum without and with macroscopic fat deposition, respectively while drilled hole on the right radius left intact for consideration as control. In group C, the drilled hole on the left and right radius was filled by the omentum sample with and without macroscopic fat deposition, respectively. Experimental bone defects on the radiuses were secured by the pieces of greater omentum, with or without macroscopic fat deposition, which obtained as an autogenous graft from each rabbit in accompany with control samples. Standardized serial radiography for evaluation of bone healing was performed and the difference in bone healing process in three groups of study was determined. According to the obtained data, the radius bones which filled by omentum without macroscopic fat deposition showed faster healing process than the radius bones which filled by omentum with macroscopic fat deposition (P<0.05). (author)

  17. Supervivencia a largo plazo de los injertos grasos Long-term survival with fat grafting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Planas

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Presentamos varios casos de pérdida de volumen de diferentes etiologías y en distintas regiones corporales y faciales tratadas mediante injertos de tejido graso autólogo según la técnica de lipoestructura. En ningún caso se realizó sobrecorrección del defecto en ningún caso. La evolución con un seguimiento máximo de 7 años y mínimo de 1 año no mostró disminución del volumen obtenido en el acto quirúrgico en la gran mayoría de los casos. Debido a los resultados obtenidos creemos que el injerto de grasa autólogo es el método de elección para restaurar volúmenes con fines estéticos o reconstructivos.Volume loss in several facial and body areas was treated by means of autologous fatty tissue grafts with lipostructure technique. There were no cases of overcorrection. The patients’ course, with a maximum follow-up of 7 years and a minimum of 1 year did not evidence any loss of the surgically restored tissue volume in the majority of cases. The above results suggest that autologous fat grafts are the method of choice to restore volume for both cosmetic and reconstructive purposes.

  18. Effects of Expanded Human Adipose Tissue-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells on the Viability of Cryopreserved Fat Grafts in the Nude Mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myung-Soon Ko, Ji-Youl Jung, Il-Seob Shin, Eun-Wha Choi, Jae-Hoon Kim, Sung Keun Kang, Jeong Chan Ra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AdMSCs augment the ability to contribute to microvascular remodeling in vivo and to modulate vascular stability in fresh fat grafts. Although cryopreserved adipose tissue is frequently used for soft tissue augmentation, the viability of the fat graft is poor. The effects of culture-expanded human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hAdMSCs on the survival and quality of the cryopreserved fat graft were determined. hAdMSCs from the same donor were mixed with fat tissues cryopreserved at -70°C for 8 weeks and injected subcutaneously into 6-week-old BALB/c-nu nude mice. Graft volume and weight were measured, and histology was evaluated 4 and 15 weeks post-transplantation. The hAdMSC-treated group showed significantly enhanced graft volume and weight. The histological evaluation demonstrated significantly better fat cell integrity compared with the vehicle-treated control 4 weeks post-transplantation. No significant difference in graft weight, volume, or histological parameters was found among the groups 15 weeks post-transplantation. The hAdMSCs enhanced the survival and quality of transplanted cryopreserved fat tissues. Cultured and expanded hAdMSCs have reconstructive capacity in cryopreserved fat grafting by increasing the number of stem cells.

  19. The use of a laryngeal mask airway after a prolonged suspension laryngoscopy to preserve a vocal cord fat graft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidani, Daniel C H; Shah, Nitin K

    2007-12-01

    A 62-yr-old man presented for a microdirect laryngoscopy and vocal cord fat grafting under jet ventilation. After a prolonged laryngoscopy, the patient developed hypercapnea and upper airway obstruction secondary to traumatic epiglottitis. The placement of a laryngeal mask airway provided ventilation and allowed for direct visualization of the patient's inflamed epiglottis without disruption of the patient's fat graft. Because of its placement above the cords and its effectiveness in providing adequate ventilation, we propose intermittent laryngeal mask airway ventilation as a bridge, in lieu of endotracheal intubation, in microdirect laryngoscopy cases in which ventilation during emergence may be difficult and the insertion of an endotracheal tube would disrupt the surgical procedure. PMID:18042880

  20. MR angiography of coronary artery bypass graft with fat cine MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seven patients with 14 coronary artery bypass grafts (9 saphenous vein graft, SVG and 5 internal mammary artery graft, IMAG) were evaluated by MR angiography with fast cine MR imaging technique for determining graft patency compared with conventional arteriography. MR angiography correctly diagnosed 8 of 9 patent SVGs and all patent IMAGs. One graft stenosis was also detected by MR angiography. This study suggests that MR angiography with fast cine MR imaging is a useful noninvasive technique to evaluate coronary artery bypass graft patency. (author)

  1. A study on the relevance of preoperative assessment of Eustachian tube function in myringoplasty

    OpenAIRE

    Apoorva Kumar Pandey; Subhash Chandra Gupta; Mangal Singh; Debashish Sharma

    2011-01-01

    Aim : Pathophysiology of Eustachian tube significantly affects the result of middle ear reconstructive surgery. The aim of this study is to ascertain the relevance of preoperative assessment of tubal function on the results of myringoplasty and to correlate the outcome of surgery with the tubal function gradings. Materials and Methods : A total of 58 cases of dry central perforation of tympanic membrane were divided into two groups. In control group A, pre-operative Eustachian tube function w...

  2. Injertos de tejido adiposo en cirugía estética mamaria / Fat grafts in aesthetic breast surgery

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J., Benito-Ruiz.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available El injerto de tejido adiposo se ha convertido en una de las principales herramientas con la que contamos en Cirugía Plástica y, como no podía ser de otra forma, la mama es el principal órgano diana de nuestra actuación. Desde que introdujimos la técnica en nuestra práctica privada en el año 2009 hem [...] os ido incrementando las indicaciones de su uso. Las tres principales son el aumento mamario, la corrección de defectos y asimetrías y más recientemente el aumento con combinación de ambas técnicas. El aumento mamario con tejido adiposo está indicado en pacientes que quieran incrementar el volumen sin usar implantes. Hay que explicar muy bien a la paciente lo que podemos conseguir en cuanto a volumen y proyección de la mama, además de los problemas potenciales de aparición en las mamografías de quistes y microcalcificaciones. El tejido adiposo, en cambio, es un gran complemento de los implantes mamarios, ya que permite corregir deformidades y asimetrías que con los implantes son más difíciles de resolver. El aumento de mamas combinando ambas técnicas es la consecuencia final y evidente de esta evolución terapéutica, ya que aúna las ventajas de ambas: la firmeza y volumen estables que proporcionan los implantes y la plasticidad que aporta el tejido adiposo para lograr una mayor simetría. Abstract in english Fat grafting has become one of the main tools in Plastic Surgery and as it could only be, the breast is the main target organ of our performance. Since we introduced the technique in our private practice in 2009 we have been increasing its use. The top three indications are: breast augmentation, cor [...] rection of defects and asymmetries and more recently breast augmentation combining both techniques. Breast enhancement with fat is indicated for patients who want to increase the volume without using implants. It must be explained very well to the patient what we can achieve in terms of volume and projection of the breast, along with the potential problems of cysts and microcalcifications in mammograms. Adipose tissue is a great complement to the implants, and we can correct deformities and asymmetries that with implants are much more difficult to solve. Breast augmentation combining both techniques is the final result of the therapeutic evolution as we combine the advantages of both: the firmness and stable volume supported by the implants and the plasticity of the adipose tissue to achieve greater symmetry.

  3. Meningitis due to Enterobacter aerogenes subsequent to resection of an acoustic neuroma and abdominal fat graft to the mastoid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fida A. Khan

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Meningitis is an uncommon complication of neurosurgical procedures, with an incidence of 1.1% to 2.5%. Although unusual, the frequency of nosocomial Gram-negative meningitis appears to be increasing. Gram-negative meningitis has been documented following disruption of the dura-arachnoid barrier secondary to trauma or surgery. The association of Gram-negative bacillary meningitis with neurosurgical procedures was first reported in the 1940's. Wolff et al. described the association between Enterobacter species and post-neurosurgical infection. More recently, risk factors for nosocomial Enterobacter meningitis have been characterized by Parodi et al. Adipose graft, as an independent risk factor has not yet been reported. A patient with acoustic neuroma resection, who developed bacterial meningitis from an abdominal fat pad graft to a mastoidectomy bed is described. A brief overview was made of post-neurosurgical Gram-negative meningitis.

  4. The Subfascial Approach to Primary and Secondary Breast Augmentation with Autologous Fat Grafting and Form-Stable Implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio Goes, João Carlos; Munhoz, Alexandre Mendonça; Gemperli, Rolf

    2015-10-01

    This article presents an overview of the subfascial approach to primary and secondary breast augmentation with form-stable implants associated with autologous fat grafting. Although breast augmentation is a well-studied procedure, there are few previous reports concerning the subfascial technique and, especially, this technique associated with lipofilling. Consequently, the authors present their experience with a form-stable, anatomically shaped silicone gel breast implant, which has recently been approved in the United States following FDA clinical trials. Primary and secondary breast augmentations using form-stable implants resulted in satisfactory outcomes. PMID:26408443

  5. Frontal linear scleroderma: long-term result in volumetric restoration of the fronto-orbital area by structural fat grafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consorti, Giuseppe; Tieghi, Riccardo; Clauser, Luigi C

    2012-05-01

    Frontal linear scleroderma (also known as "en coup de sabre") is a congenital deformity characterized by a linear band of atrophy and a furrow in the skin that occurs in the frontal or frontoparietal area. The authors present a case of a 34-year-old woman with history of en coup de sabre. In different steps, volumetric restoration of the fronto-orbital region has been obtained by structural fat grafting technique. After 3 reconstructive surgeries, morphologic, functional, and aesthetic long-term results have been obtained. PMID:22627454

  6. Fat embolism in liposuction and intramuscular grafts in rabbits Embolia gordurosa na lipoaspiração e enxertia intramuscular em coelhos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Araujo Felzemburgh

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of fat embolism in organs such as lung and liver. METHODS: Twenty rabbits underwent autologous intramuscular fat grafting in the right thigh after liposuction. The groups were determined according to the postoperative day that occurred in euthanasia: 60, 90 and 120 day. Then, lung and liver were excised and sent to the histopathology laboratory for analysis in search of late injury secondary to a prior event of fat embolism in the tissues. RESULTS: The results showed a change in the macroscopic sample with discoloration of the liver tissue heterogeneously. There were no changes consistent with embolic effect under the microscope. CONCLUSION: The option of performing a technique of fat grafting with a less traumatic surgical procedure can be considered protective against embolic events, with no impact to late embolic events on the tissues.OBJETIVO: Avaliar a repercussão da embolia gordurosa em órgãos como pulmão e fígado. MÉTODOS: Vinte coelhos foram submetidos à enxertia autóloga intramuscular de gordura em coxa direita após lipoaspiração. Os grupos foram determinados conforme os dias pós-operatórios (DPO em que ocorreu a eutanásia: 60 DPO, 90DPO, 120 DPO. Em seguida, o pulmão e o fígado foram ressecados e encaminhados ao laboratório de histopatologia para análise em busca de lesão tardia secundária a evento de embolia gordurosa prévia nos tecidos. RESULTADOS: Foi evidenciada uma alteração na amostra a analise macroscópica com alteração da coloração do tecido hepático de forma heterogênea. Não houve alterações compatíveis com repercussão de processo embólico à microscopia. CONCLUSÃO: A opção pela realização de uma técnica de lipoenxertia menos traumática e com pequeno tempo cirúrgico pode ser considerada protetora para eventos embólicos, não havendo repercussão embólica a tardiamente.

  7. The Oncologic Safety of Breast Fat Grafting and Contradictions Between Basic Science and Clinical Studies: A Systematic Review of the Recent Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charvet, Heath J; Orbay, Hakan; Wong, Michael S; Sahar, David E

    2015-10-01

    Fat grafting is increasingly popular and is becoming a common practice in plastic surgery for postmastectomy breast reconstruction and aesthetic breast augmentation; however, concerns over the oncologic safety remains a controversial and hot topic among scientists and surgeons. Basic science and laboratory research repeatedly show a potentially dangerous effect of adipose-derived stem cells on breast cancer cells; however, clinical research, although limited, continually fails to show an increase in breast cancer recurrence after breast fat grafting, with the exception of 1 small study on a subset patient population with intraepithelial neoplasm of the breast. The aim of this review is to summarize the recent conflicting basic science and clinical data to better understand the safety of breast fat grafting from an oncological perspective. PMID:26360655

  8. Fat graft-assisted internal auditory canal closure after retrosigmoid transmeatal resection of acoustic neuroma: Technique for prevention of cerebrospinal fluid leakage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azad, Tareq; Mendelson, Zachary S; Wong, Anni; Jyung, Robert W; Liu, James K

    2016-02-01

    The retrosigmoid transmeatal approach remains an important strategy in the surgical management of acoustic neuromas. Gross total resection of acoustic neuromas requires removal of tumor within the cerebellopontine angle as well as tumor involving the internal auditory canal (IAC). Drilling into the petrous bone of the IAC can expose petrous air cells, which can potentially result in a fistulous tract to the nasopharynx manifesting as cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) rhinorrhea. We describe our method of IAC closure using autologous fat graft and assessed the rates of postoperative CSF leakage. We performed a retrospective study of 24 consecutive patients who underwent retrosigmoid transmeatal resection of acoustic neuroma who underwent our method of fat graft-assisted IAC closure. We assessed rates of postoperative CSF leak (incisional leak, rhinorrhea, or otorrhea), pseudomeningocele formation, and occurrence of meningitis. Twenty-four patients (10 males, 14 females) with a mean age of 47years (range 18-84) underwent fat graft-assisted IAC closure. No lumbar drains were used postoperatively. There were no instances of postoperative CSF leak (incisional leak, rhinorrhea, or otorrhea), pseudomeningocele formation, or occurrence of meningitis. There were no graft site complications. Our results demonstrate that autologous fat grafts provide a safe and effective method of IAC defect closure to prevent postoperative CSF leakage after acoustic tumor removal via a retrosigmoid transmeatal approach. The surgical technique and operative nuances are described. PMID:26482457

  9. Fatness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne Katrine Kleberg

    In 1727, the English physician Thomas Short wrote: “I believe no Age did ever afford more instances of Corpulency than our own.” Even in the 18th century, fatness was addressed as an issue of special contemporary concern. This thesis probes concepts and perceptions of fatness in Western European...... Medicine c. 1700–1900. It has been written with particular attention to whether and how fatness has been regarded as a disease during that period in history. One purpose of the thesis is to investigate the immediate period before fatness allegedly became problematized. Another purpose has been to grasp...

  10. Comparative analysis of use of porous orbital implant with mucus membrane graft and dermis fat graft as a primary procedure in reconstruction of severely contracted socket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasturi Bhattacharjee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of our study is to present a surgical technique of primary porous orbital ball implantation with overlying mucus membrane graft (MMG for reconstruction of severely contracted socket and to evaluate prosthesis retention and motility in comparison to dermis fat graft (DFG. Study Design: Prospective comparative study. Materials and Methods: A total of 24 patients of severe socket contracture (Grade 2-4 Krishna?s classification were subdivided into two groups, 12 patients in each group. In Group I, DFG have been used for reconstruction. In Group II, porous polyethylene implant with MMG has been used as a primary procedure for socket reconstruction. In Group I DFG was carried out in usual procedure. In case of Group II, vascularized scar tissues were separated 360° and were fashioned into four strips. A scleral capped porous polyethylene implant was placed in the intraconal space and four strips of scar tissue were secured to the scleral cap and extended part overlapped the implant to make a twofold barrier between the implant and MMG. Patients were followed-up as per prefixed proforma. Prosthesis motility and retention between the two groups were measured. Results: In Group I, four patients had recurrence of contracture with fall out of prosthesis. In Group II stable reconstruction was achieved in all the patients. In terms of prosthesis motility, maximum in Group I was 39.2% and Group II, was 59.3%. The difference in prosthesis retention (P = 0.001 and motility (P = 0.004 between the two groups was significant. Conclusion: Primary socket reconstruction with porous orbital implant and MMG for severe socket contracture is an effective method in terms of prosthesis motility and prosthesis retention.

  11. Dermal fat graft from simultaneous abdominoplasty as an adjunct to revision aesthetic and reconstructive breast surgery: A poor man's acellular dermal matrix?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Xie

    2014-01-01

    CONCLUSION: We herein report the use of free dermal fat graft in revision aesthetic and reconstructive surgery in a manner akin to recent acellular dermal matrix use. The comparable enhanced aesthetic outcomes, minimal complication rate and substantial cost savings merit dissemination to a global audience and encourage surgeons to consider this economic alternative.

  12. Análise da lipoenxertia estruturada na redefinição do contorno facial / Analysis of structured fat grafting for redefining facial contours

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marco Túlio Junqueira, Amarante.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A enxertia de gordura como preenchimento no rejuvenescimento e melhoria do contorno facial vem sendo usada por alguns autores e demonstra um potencial excelente como método de escolha para essa finalidade, uma vez que tem como premissa o princípio básico de corrigir as deformidades com o [...] tecido mais semelhante possível. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar clinicamente a eficiência da enxertia de gordura estruturada na redefinição do contorno facial. MÉTODO: Foi realizada análise retrospectiva de 39 pacientes submetidos a lipoenxertia estruturada para a redefinição do contorno facial, entre 2002 e 2012. A seleção de pacientes incluiu correção de deformidades, assimetrias, harmonização do contorno e aumento da projeção óssea, mas excluiu o rejuvenescimento per se. A avaliação do resultado clínico foi realizada pelo paciente e pelo cirurgião, com auxílio de documentação fotográfica pré e pós-operatória. O resultado clínico foi classificado pelo paciente e cirurgião, empregando escala que variava de 1 a 3: (1) o objetivo não foi alcançado de forma alguma; (2) o objetivo foi alcançado parcialmente; ou (3) o objetivo foi alcançado totalmente. Foi realizado, também, levantamento de prontuários para obtenção dos seguintes dados: idade, alteração ponderal, volume enxertado por área, número de sessões de enxertia realizadas, história de tabagismo e complicações. RESULTADOS: As médias das avaliações do cirurgião e paciente foram, respectivamente, 2,6 ± 0,6 e 2,7 ± 0,5, havendo correlação estatisticamente significante (P Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: Fat grafting as a filling method for the rejuvenation and enhancement of facial contours was demonstrated by some authors to be an excellent alternative method for redefining facial contours, based on the premise that the donor tissue used in the correction of the deformities has simil [...] ar characteristics as the recipient tissue. The objective of the present study was to clinically evaluate the efficiency of structured fat grafting when redefining facial contours. METHODS: A retrospective evaluation was performed in 39 patients who underwent structured fat grafting to redefine their facial contours between 2002 and 2012. The patients selected included those who underwent corrections of deformities, asymmetrical features, contour smoothing, and increased bone projection. Patients who underwent facial contour rejuvenation were excluded. The clinical outcome assessment was performed by the patient and surgeon, with the aid of preoperative and postoperative photographic documentation. The clinical outcome was rated by the patient and surgeon, using a scale ranging from 1 to 3, defined as follows: 1, the objective has not been achieved in any way; 2, the objective was partially achieved; or 3, the objective was fully achieved. In addition, a survey was conducted using the patients' medical charts to obtain the following data: age, weight change, volume grafted by area, number of grafting sessions performed, history of smoking, and complications. RESULTS: The mean surgeon and patient assessment scores were 2.6 ± 0.6 and 2.7 ± 0.5, respectively, with a statistically significant correlation (P

  13. Lipoestructura y relleno del polo superior de la mama frente a implantes Structural fat graft and lipofilling of mammary upper pole versus mammary implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M. Cervilla Lozano

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available La lipoestructura mamaria ofrece nuevas alternativas de tratamiento en la cirugía estética de aumento mamario, cumpliendo en algunos casos las expectativas esperadas y en otros no. Analizamos este hecho en 4 tipos de aplicación de lipoestructura mamaria que hemos venido realizando en los últimos años, centrándonos en un aspecto importante de esta cirugía que es el relleno del polo superior de la mama. Los tipos de aplicación empleados son: aumento mamario simple mediante lipoestructura en comparación con implantes; pexia más lipoestructura frente a pexia más implantes mamarios; reconstrucción de mama tuberosa mediante lipoestructura o implantes y finalmente, relleno periprotésico mediante lipoestructura en mamas sometidas a cirugía de aumento mamario con implantes. En definitiva, podríamos resumir este trabajo en una frase diciendo que la lipoestructura mamaria, a nuestro juicio, no sirve si lo que prima es conseguir el relleno del polo superior de la mama, siendo en este caso de elección la colocación de implantes mamarios. No obstante, en alguno de los casos señalados no solo es una alternativa, sino que obtiene resultados superiores a los logrados sólamente con implantes.The mammary structural fat graft offers news treatment options in breast augmentation cosmetic surgery, but it sometimes meets expectations and sometimes doesn´t. We analyze 4 different types of lipostructure mammary applications that we have been using in the last years, focused in an important aspect of this surgery as it´s the filling of the upper mammary pole. These applications are: mammary augmentation by simple structural fat compared with the use of mammary implants; structural fat graft and mastopexy versus implants and mastopexy; tuberous breast reconstruction using structural fat graft or implants and finally, periprosthetic filling in breast augmentation with mammary implants using structural fat graft. In short, we could summarize this paper telling that in our opinion, structural fat graft doesn´t work if our intention is to fill the upper mammary pole. However, structural fat graft is not only an alternative; in some cases it exceeds the expected results using mammary implants.

  14. Lipoestructura y relleno del polo superior de la mama frente a implantes / Structural fat graft and lipofilling of mammary upper pole versus mammary implants

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J.M., Cervilla Lozano.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available La lipoestructura mamaria ofrece nuevas alternativas de tratamiento en la cirugía estética de aumento mamario, cumpliendo en algunos casos las expectativas esperadas y en otros no. Analizamos este hecho en 4 tipos de aplicación de lipoestructura mamaria que hemos venido realizando en los últimos año [...] s, centrándonos en un aspecto importante de esta cirugía que es el relleno del polo superior de la mama. Los tipos de aplicación empleados son: aumento mamario simple mediante lipoestructura en comparación con implantes; pexia más lipoestructura frente a pexia más implantes mamarios; reconstrucción de mama tuberosa mediante lipoestructura o implantes y finalmente, relleno periprotésico mediante lipoestructura en mamas sometidas a cirugía de aumento mamario con implantes. En definitiva, podríamos resumir este trabajo en una frase diciendo que la lipoestructura mamaria, a nuestro juicio, no sirve si lo que prima es conseguir el relleno del polo superior de la mama, siendo en este caso de elección la colocación de implantes mamarios. No obstante, en alguno de los casos señalados no solo es una alternativa, sino que obtiene resultados superiores a los logrados sólamente con implantes. Abstract in english The mammary structural fat graft offers news treatment options in breast augmentation cosmetic surgery, but it sometimes meets expectations and sometimes doesn´t. We analyze 4 different types of lipostructure mammary applications that we have been using in the last years, focused in an important asp [...] ect of this surgery as it´s the filling of the upper mammary pole. These applications are: mammary augmentation by simple structural fat compared with the use of mammary implants; structural fat graft and mastopexy versus implants and mastopexy; tuberous breast reconstruction using structural fat graft or implants and finally, periprosthetic filling in breast augmentation with mammary implants using structural fat graft. In short, we could summarize this paper telling that in our opinion, structural fat graft doesn´t work if our intention is to fill the upper mammary pole. However, structural fat graft is not only an alternative; in some cases it exceeds the expected results using mammary implants.

  15. Fat Grafting as a Vehicle for the Delivery of Recombinant Adeno-Associated Viral Vectors to Achieve Gene-Modification of Muscle Flaps*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carruthers, Katherine H.; During, Matthew J.; Muravlev, Alexander; Wang, Chuansong; Kocak, Ergun

    2013-01-01

    Background The combination of gene therapy and plastic surgery may have the potential to improve the specificity that is needed to achieve clinically applicable treatment regimens. Our goal was to develop a method for gene-modification that would yield sustainable production of gene products but would be less time consuming than existing protocols. Methods An adeno-associated virus (AAV) was used to deliver gene products to pectoralis muscle flaps. Gene-modification was accomplished via either direct injection or novel fat grafting techniques. Results Gene product production was observable by both in vivo imaging and immunohistochemical staining. Gene products were not detected in tissues that were not in contact with the fat grafts that were incubated with the viral vector, indicating that the transduction stayed local to the flap. Conclusions Using novel recombinant AAV vectors, we have developed a method for gene delivery that is highly efficient and applicable to muscle flaps. PMID:23403543

  16. Experiencia en miringoplastía transcanal con pericondrio tragai inlay / Experience in transcanal myringoplasty with inlay tragal perichondrium

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mauricio, Calderón R; Carmen, Meléndez P; Cristian, Morales S; Danisa, Torres M.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La timpanoplastía está orientada a la reconstrucción anatomofuncional del oído medio que realizada en la membrana timpánica se denomina miringoplastía. Objetivo: Evaluar los resultados anatomofuncionales de la miringoplastía transcanal con pericondrio tragal inlay en pacientes interven [...] idos en el Servicio de Otorrinolaringología del Hospital San Camilo entre 2004 y 2009. Material y método: Estudio retrospectivo descriptivo de fichas de 56 pacientes entre 7 y 77 años. Universo: 60 oídos, muestra: 48 oídos con edad promedio de 34 años. Se evaluaron resultados anatómicos según sexo, edad, ubicación, causa de perforación y mejoría funcional objetivada por audiometría. Resultados: La integridad anatómica posquirúrgica es de 81,3% sin diferencias según género. Según edad existe diferencia significativa de 93,3% para el tramo 7-19 años respecto del total. Las perforaciones centrales tuvieron un éxito de 100%. La causa más frecuente de perforación fue por otitis media crónica simple (75%) con una integridad posquirúrgica del 80,5%. El 97,6% logró mejorar o mantener el nivel de audición, estableciéndose diferencialmente mejoría funcional en 52,4%, y una mantención en 45,2%. Conclusión: Los mejores resultados para esta técnica se obtienen en menores de 20 años con perforaciones centrales, siendo una técnica ideal que conserva la estructura de la membrana timpánica para futuras intervenciones. Abstract in english Introduction: Tympanoplasty is orientated to the anatomofunctional reconstruction of the middle ear, which is named myringoplasty, when performed in the tympanic membrane. Aim: To evaluate the anatomofunctional results of transcanal myringoplasty with inlay tragal perichondrium in patients controlle [...] d in the Otorhinolaryngology Unit of San Camilo Hospital, between 2004 and 2009. Material and method: Retrospective descriptive study on files of 56 patients between 7 and 77 years of age. Universe: 60 ears, sample: 48 ears with average age 34 years. Anatomical results were evaluated according to sex, age, location, cause of perforation and functional improvement measured by audiometry. Results: The overall anatomical postsurgical integrity is 81,3 % without differences between sexes. According to age there is a significant difference for the section between 7-19 years of age respect of the total (93,3 %). Central perforations had a 100% success rate. The most frequent reason of perforation was simple chronic otitis media (75%) with a postsurgical integrity of 80,5 %. 97,6 % managed to improve or maintain hearing level, (52,4 % gained functional improvement, and 45,2 % maintained hearing level). Conclusion: Using this technique, best results are obtained in patients younger than 20 years of age, with central perforations. It is an ideal method that preserves the structure of the tympanic membrane for future interventions.

  17. Experiencia en miringoplastía transcanal con pericondrio tragai inlay Experience in transcanal myringoplasty with inlay tragal perichondrium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Calderón R

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La timpanoplastía está orientada a la reconstrucción anatomofuncional del oído medio que realizada en la membrana timpánica se denomina miringoplastía. Objetivo: Evaluar los resultados anatomofuncionales de la miringoplastía transcanal con pericondrio tragal inlay en pacientes intervenidos en el Servicio de Otorrinolaringología del Hospital San Camilo entre 2004 y 2009. Material y método: Estudio retrospectivo descriptivo de fichas de 56 pacientes entre 7 y 77 años. Universo: 60 oídos, muestra: 48 oídos con edad promedio de 34 años. Se evaluaron resultados anatómicos según sexo, edad, ubicación, causa de perforación y mejoría funcional objetivada por audiometría. Resultados: La integridad anatómica posquirúrgica es de 81,3% sin diferencias según género. Según edad existe diferencia significativa de 93,3% para el tramo 7-19 años respecto del total. Las perforaciones centrales tuvieron un éxito de 100%. La causa más frecuente de perforación fue por otitis media crónica simple (75% con una integridad posquirúrgica del 80,5%. El 97,6% logró mejorar o mantener el nivel de audición, estableciéndose diferencialmente mejoría funcional en 52,4%, y una mantención en 45,2%. Conclusión: Los mejores resultados para esta técnica se obtienen en menores de 20 años con perforaciones centrales, siendo una técnica ideal que conserva la estructura de la membrana timpánica para futuras intervenciones.Introduction: Tympanoplasty is orientated to the anatomofunctional reconstruction of the middle ear, which is named myringoplasty, when performed in the tympanic membrane. Aim: To evaluate the anatomofunctional results of transcanal myringoplasty with inlay tragal perichondrium in patients controlled in the Otorhinolaryngology Unit of San Camilo Hospital, between 2004 and 2009. Material and method: Retrospective descriptive study on files of 56 patients between 7 and 77 years of age. Universe: 60 ears, sample: 48 ears with average age 34 years. Anatomical results were evaluated according to sex, age, location, cause of perforation and functional improvement measured by audiometry. Results: The overall anatomical postsurgical integrity is 81,3 % without differences between sexes. According to age there is a significant difference for the section between 7-19 years of age respect of the total (93,3 %. Central perforations had a 100% success rate. The most frequent reason of perforation was simple chronic otitis media (75% with a postsurgical integrity of 80,5 %. 97,6 % managed to improve or maintain hearing level, (52,4 % gained functional improvement, and 45,2 % maintained hearing level. Conclusion: Using this technique, best results are obtained in patients younger than 20 years of age, with central perforations. It is an ideal method that preserves the structure of the tympanic membrane for future interventions.

  18. Síndrome da angústia respiratória do adulto por embolia gordurosa no período pós-operatório de lipoaspiração e lipoenxertia / Adult respiratory distress syndrome due to fat embolism in the postoperative period following liposuction and fat grafting

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    André Nathan, Costa; Daniel Melo, Mendes; Carlos, Toufen; Gino, Arrunátegui; Pedro, Caruso; Carlos Roberto Ribeiro de, Carvalho.

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available A embolia gordurosa é definida como a ocorrência de bloqueio mecânico da luz vascular por gotículas circulantes de gordura. Acomete principalmente o pulmão, podendo afetar também o sistema nervoso central, a retina e a pele. A síndrome da embolia gordurosa é uma disfunção desses órgãos causada pelos [...] êmbolos gordurosos. As causas mais comuns de embolia gordurosa e síndrome da embolia gordurosa são as fraturas de ossos longos, mas há relatos de sua ocorrência após procedimentos estéticos. O diagnóstico é clínico, e o tratamento ainda se restringe a medidas de suporte. Apresentamos o caso de uma paciente que evoluiu com síndrome da angústia respiratória do adulto por embolia gordurosa no período pós-operatório de lipoaspiração e lipoenxertia e respondeu bem às manobras de recrutamento alveolar e à ventilação mecânica protetora.Apresentamos também uma análise epidemiológica e fisiopatológica da síndrome da embolia gordurosa após procedimentos estéticos. Abstract in english Fat embolism is defined as mechanical blockage of the vascular lumen by circulating fat globules. Although it primarily affects the lungs, it can also affect the central nervous system, retina, and skin. Fat embolism syndrome is a dysfunction of these organs caused by fat emboli. The most common cau [...] ses of fat embolism and fat embolism syndrome are long bone fractures, although there are reports of its occurrence after cosmetic procedures. The diagnosis is made clinically, and treatment is still restricted to support measures. We report the case of a female patient who developed adult respiratory distress syndrome due to fat embolism in the postoperative period following liposuction and fat grafting. In this case, the patient responded well to alveolar recruitment maneuvers and protective mechanical ventilation. In addition, we present an epidemiological and pathophysiological analysis of fat embolism syndrome after cosmetic procedures.

  19. Oroantral communication closure using a pedicled buccal fat pad graft / Fechamento de comunicação buco-sinusal utilizando enxerto pediculado de corpo adiposo da bochecha

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ruy de Oliveira, Veras Filho; Fernando, Giovanella; Rafael Machado, Karsburg; Marcos Antonio, Torriani.

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O objetivo desde artigo foi relatar um caso clínico de fechamento de fístula buco-sinusal tardia utilizando rotação de enxerto de tecido adiposo pediculado do corpo adiposo da bochecha. DESCRIÇÃO DO CASO: Paciente do sexo masculino, 66 anos, leucoderma, em boas condições de saúde geral, fo [...] i encaminhado para fechamento de extensa comunicação buco-sinusal. Ao exame clínico, observou-se uma fístula de aproximadamente 10 mm de diâmetro comunicando a cavidade oral com o seio maxilar. A cirurgia foi realizada em nível ambulatorial, sob anestesia local, para fechar a fístula buco-sinusal com um enxerto de tecido adiposo pediculado do corpo adiposo da bochecha. A reparação da ferida e o fechamento do defeito foram observados no pós-operatório de 30 dias, com completa epitelização. CONCLUSÃO: O enxerto pediculado de tecido do corpo adiposo da bochecha mostrou-se uma alternativa simples, eficaz e segura no fechamento mediato da fístula buco-sinusal apresentada neste caso clínico. Abstract in english PURPOSE: This paper reports the procedure used to close a late oroantral fistula using rotating flaps of the pedicled buccal fat pad. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 66-year-old, male patient with leukoderma, in good general health, was referred for closure of an extensive late oroantral communication. Upon cli [...] nical examination, an approximately 10-mm fistula was observed connecting the oral cavity to the maxillary sinus. An outpatient surgical procedure was performed with the use of local anesthetics to close the oroantral fistula with a rotating pedicled buccal fat pad flap. The healing of the wound and closure of the defect could be seen after a 30-day postoperative period, with complete epithelialization. CONCLUSION: Grafting of the pedicled buccal fat pad is thought to be an efficient, safe and easy alternative to a larger oroantral fistula closure. Pedicled buccal fat pad grafting corrected the defect without generating any sequelae and/or great postoperative discomfort to the patient.

  20. Utilidad del los injertos de tejido adiposo en la reconstrucción estética del miembro inferior / Use of autologous fat grafting in aesthetic lower extremity reconstruction

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J., Monreal..

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available La reconstrucción del miembro inferior constituye, probablemente, una de las disciplinas más complejas y de más difícil ejecución en el ámbito de la Cirugía Plástica Estética, independientemente de la etiología inicial del problema (postraumática, oncológica o congénita) y, normalmente, tras varios [...] tratamientos quirúrgicos, el paciente puede solicitar la mejora estética de las secuelas residuales. Estas pueden consistir, entre otras, en problemas de trofismo, asimetrías o distorsiones cicatriciales. Los injertos de tejido adiposo suponen una opción extremadamente válida y segura en los casos en los que estos pacientes solicitan una mejora estética de sus secuelas. Dado su potencial para crear volúmenes y para mejorar el trofismo de los tejidos afectados por diversas formas de fibrosis o atrofias, su utilidad debe ser considerada como una seria opción a considerar. Presentamos en este artículo 3 casos de reconstrucción estética del miembro inferior, por diversas causas, resueltos mediante el uso de injertos de tejido adiposo y revisados durante al menos un año. En todos ellos fueron necesarias al menos 2 sesiones para conseguir un resultado aceptable para el paciente. Abstract in english Lower extremity reconstruction is probably one of the most challenging and difficult disciplines in Plastic and Aesthetic Surgery. With independence of the original ethiology (postraumatic, oncologic or congenital), and after various surgical steps, this group of patients usually looks for some aest [...] hetic improvement of residual sequel. These may consist of diverse forms of trophic changes, asymmetries or distortions. Autologous fat grafting represent an extremely reliable and safe technique in those cases in which patients ask for some aesthetic improvement of their residual sequels. Due to their potential to create volumes and improve the quality of tissues affected from different kinds of atrophy or fibrosis, the use of fat grafting in these cases should be seriously considered as an alternative. Three cases of aesthetic improvement of lower extremity sequels of diverse origin and treated with autologous fat grafting are presented. The follow up period was at least of one year after last treatment. All of them needed at least 2 treatments to achieve an acceptable result for the patient.

  1. De la biología al injerto de tejido adiposo: cómo mejorar el lipoinjerto / From biology to fat grafting: how to improve lipofilling

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A.C., Girard; S., Mirbeau; M., Atlan; F., Festy; R., Roche; L., Hoareau.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A pesar de que el uso del injerto de grasa ha ganado popularidad, no hay consenso sobre la mejor manera de manejar el tejido adiposo. Los protocolos difieren y los resultados son a menudo variables. Diversos factores influyen en la calidad de la grasa inyectada, entre los que encontramos las molécul [...] as tóxicas provenientes de la infiltración, procedimiento previo a la liposucción. En este trabajo, hemos confirmado el efecto nocivo de los anestésicos sobre las células madre derivadas del tejido adiposo, determinando el efecto del lavado y la centrifugación en el tejido graso con el fin de proponer un protocolo simple y optimizado para mejorar la supervivencia del injerto. Evaluamos la citotoxicidad de la lidocaína sobre las células madre derivadas de tejido adiposo (ADSC) mediante ensayo de LDH. Sometimos el tejido adiposo conjunto a varios tipos de centrifugación (de 1 segundo a 10 minutos y desde 0 g a 1800 g), y el volumen de líquido y el aceite liberado se midió inmediatamente después de la centrifugación. Tras la determinación de las condiciones óptimas para la manipulación de tejidos (400 g/1 minuto), inyectamos el tejido adiposo de liposucción sin o con lidocaína en ratones inmunodeficientes. Un mes después de la inyección, evaluamos la calidad de los injertos mediante histología, y en comparación con los injertos obtenidos a partir de un protocolo convencional: una simple sedimentación. La lidocaína ejerce un efecto citotóxico sobre las ADSC, y este efecto depende del tiempo de incubación y de las concentraciones. En cuanto al tejido adiposo, una centrifugación intensa (900 g, 1800 g) es perjudicial en comparación con una centrifugación suave (100 g, 400 g). Además, las secciones histológicas de los injertos de tejido adiposo no centrifugados mostraron la presencia de grandes vacuolas de aceite mientras que los injertos resultantes de lavado con protocolo de centrifugación suave (400g/1minuto) no lo hacen. En conclusión, creemos que se debe emplear un manejo adecuado del tejido adiposo, incluyendo lavado y centrifugación, con el fin de eliminar el líquido de infiltración y las moléculas tóxicas asociadas que son perjudiciales para los injertos. Sin embargo, no recomendamos una centrifugación intensa ya que conduce muy rápidamente a una mayor muerte celular. Por lo tanto, una centrifugación suave (400 g/1 minuto) precedida de lavados, parece ser el protocolo más apropiado para la reinyección del tejido adiposo. Abstract in english While fat grafting for soft tissue filling has gained popularity, there is no consensus on the best way how to handle adipose tissue. Protocols differ and results are often highly variable. Various factors influence the quality of injected fat, among which the toxic molecules coming from infiltratio [...] n procedure prior to liposuction. In this work, we have confirmed the deleterious effect of anesthetics on adipose-derived stem cells, and determined the effect of washing and centrifugation on adipose tissue, in order to propose a simple and optimized protocol to improve graft survival. Lidocaine cytotoxicity on adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) was evaluated by LDH assay. Then, whole adipose tissue was subjected to various centrifugation types (from 1 sec to 10 min and from 0 g to 1800 g), and volume of liquid and oil released were measured immediately after centrifugation. After determination of the optimal conditions for tissue handling (400 g/1 min), adipose tissue from liposuction made without or with lidocaine was injected into immunodeficient mice. One month after injection, quality of the grafts was evaluated by histology, and compared with grafts obtained from one conventional protocol: a simple settling. Lidocaine exerts a cytotoxic effect on ADSCs, and this effect is dependent on the incubation time and concentrations. Concerning adipose tissue, strong centrifugation (900 g, 1800 g) is deleterious compared to the low centrifugation (100 g, 400 g). In addition, histological sections of the non-centrifuged a

  2. Lipoenxertia autóloga periorbitária no rejuvenescimento facial: análise retrospectiva da eficácia e da segurança em 31 casos / Autologous periorbital fat grafting in facial rejuvenation: a retrospective analysis of efficacy and safety in 31 cases

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Chang Yung, Chia; Diego Antonio, Rovaris.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Os sulcos periorbitários e zigomático e o malar flácido estão entre as características mais marcantes de envelhecimento ou de desarmonia facial. A reposição do volume é um método simples e eficiente, e o lipoenxerto pode ser o melhor material. O presente trabalho traz uma análise de 31 p [...] acientes submetidos a autolipoenxertia, com ênfase na eficácia e na segurança da técnica. MÉTODO: Análise retrospectiva de 31 pacientes consecutivos, submetidos a lipoenxertias periorbitária e malar, concomitantemente ou não a outros procedimentos estéticos. A avaliação foi feita por meio de comparação entre fotografias pré e pós-operatória, bem como pelo grau de satisfação dos pacientes. RESULTADOS: Dos 31 pacientes, 26 (83,9%) classificaram o resultado pós-operatório como ótimo, 3 (9,7%), bom, e 2 (6,4%), regular. Na avaliação dos autores, 24 (77,5%) pacientes apresentaram resultado ótimo, 5 (16,1%), bom, e 2 (6,4%), regular. Houve necessidade de retoque de lipoenxertia em apenas 4 pacientes, por sugestão do cirurgião. As complicações foram mínimas e passageiras. CONCLUSÕES: A lipoenxertia facial é fácil e eficaz, e as complicações são mínimas quando realizada por cirurgiões qualificados. Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Periorbital and zygomatic hollows as well as flaccid cheeks are among the most evident characteristics of aging or facial disharmony. Volume replacement is a simple and efficient procedure, and fat grafting is considered as the best treatment for these characteristics. This study evaluat [...] es 31 patients who underwent autologous fat grafting and emphasizes the safety and efficacy of this procedure. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of 31 consecutive patients who underwent periorbital and zygomatic fat grafting, alone or in combination with other cosmetic procedures, was carried out. Final evaluation was performed by assessing pre- and postoperative photographs as well as the degree of patient satisfaction. RESULTS: Of 31 patients, 26 (83.9%) reported excellent postoperative outcomes; 3 (9.7%), satisfactory outcomes; and 2 (6.4%), poor outcomes. According to the authors' evaluation, 24 (77.5%) patients had excellent outcomes, 5 (16.1%) had satisfactory outcomes, and 2 (6.4%) had poor outcomes. Retouching of the fat graft was recommended for only 4 patients. The complications observed were minimal and transient. CONCLUSIONS: Facial fat grafting is a simple and effective procedure that presents minimal complications when performed by skilled surgeons.

  3. Differential fat harvesting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Torres Farr

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Volume replacement with fillers is regularly performed with the use of diverse volumetric materials to correct different structures around the face, depending on the volume enhancement required and the thickness of the soft tissue envelope. Differential fat harvesting and posterior grafting is performed to place the correct fat parcel size for each target area, expanding the potential applications of fat. Methods: Sixty patients consecutively recruited on a first come basis undergone a facial fat grafting procedure, in private practice setting between March 2012 and October 2013. Fat grafting quantity and quality was predicted for each case. Differential harvesting was performed, with 2 fat parcels size. Processing was performed through washing. Fat infiltration was carried out through small cannulas or needles depending on the treated area. Outcomes were analysed both by the physicians and the patients at 7 days, 1 month, 3 months and 6 months through a perceived satisfaction questionnaire. Parameters considered were downtime or discomfort, skin benefits, volume restoration, reabsorption rate estimated and overall improvement. Results: Full facial differential fat grafting procedure lasted an average of 1.5-2.5 h. Average downtime was 3-4 days. Follow-up was performed to a minimum of 6 months. Both patient and physician overall satisfaction rates were mostly excellent. Adverse events like lumps or irregularities were not encountered. Conclusion: Differential fat harvesting and posterior grafting is a valid alternative, to expand the repertoire of fat use, allow a more homogeneous effect, reduce the potential complications, speed up the process, improve graft survival, and to enhance overall aesthetic outcome.

  4. Uso de factores de crecimiento plaquetar unidos a injertos de grasa para lipofiling facial en ritidectomía Use of fat grafts enriched with platelet growth factors for facial lipofiling in ritidectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M. Serra Renom

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Presentamos una serie de pacientes a los que hemos realizado infiltraciones de grasa enriquecida con Factores de Crecimiento Plaquetario (F.C.P. como único procedimiento. Igualmente presentamos casos donde las infiltraciones van acompañadas con otros procedimientos (lifting temporal, lifting cérvico-frontal, etc.. También usamos el plasma rico en F.C.P. en forma de coágulo para rellenar el surco de la cuenca orbitaria (“Tear Through”, y como mesoterapia facial enriquecida con nutrientes. El objetivo de este trabajo es presentar una revisión detallada de los pasos a seguir para la realización de éste procedimiento, que van desde la simple extracción de sangre para la posterior obtención de F.C.P. hasta la técnica de infiltración de grasa enriquecida con dichos factores a nivel facial. Con esta técnica de enriquecimiento de la grasa hemos logrado tener mejores resultados y con mayor permanencia. Evaluando los postoperatorios de pacientes sometidos a este procedimiento, hemos observado que el volumen infiltrado en áreas como la región malar, se mantiene entre un 90% a 95%. En otras áreas como labios y surcos nasogenianos (áreas de gran movilidad, solo permanece entre el 50% a 60% del volumen infiltrado.We present a serie of patients with facial fat infiltration enriched with platelet-derived growth factors, some of them associated to other surgical procedures (temporal lifting, cervico-frontal lifting, etc. We explain how to use this platelet - rich plasma to fill the tear - through and as a facial mesotherapy. Our purpose is to present a detailled review of our method: since blood extraction to the last obtention of the platelet - derived growth factors and the use of this plasma combined with fat infiltration in the facial area. With this methodology we have got better and more permanent results. We have evaluated 90-95 % fat grafts survival in malar region. In other facial areas such as lips or nasogenian folds (big movement areas, we only report about 50 to 60% fat graft survival.

  5. Injertos de tejido adiposo: variables que influyen en la viabilidad del adipocito y de las células madre mesenquimales / Fat grafting: variables that influence the viability of the adipocyte and mesenchimal stem cells

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J., Benito Ruiz.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Si bien los injertos de tejido adiposo se han venido utilizando durante décadas a lo largo del siglo pasado, la técnica se venía considerando como poco útil dado que el injerto tendía a la reabsorción. Fue Coleman quien introdujo un sistema de obtención-procesamiento-infiltración atraumático que aum [...] entó el porcentaje de supervivencia del injerto y la obtención de resultados positivos similares en su aplicación en todo el mundo. Aún así, la publicación de resultados dispares en la literatura respecto a la supervivencia del injerto, con diferentes porcentajes de reabsorción y el descubrimiento de las células madre en el tejido adiposo, han llevado a la realización de numerosos trabajos de investigación encaminados a comprender la biología del injerto de tejido adiposo, a estudiar el papel de las células madre en este proceso y la influencia que sobre la viabilidad celular tienen los distintos pasos a los que los cirujanos plásticos sometemos al tejido adiposo para su trasplante. Hemos hecho una revisión de la literatura científica al respecto para reunir la información disponible sobre estas controversias. Abstract in english Though adipose tissue grafts have been used for decades in last century, the technique has been considered as slightly usefull provided that the graft was tending to reabsorption. It was Coleman who introduced a system of atraumatic harvesting-processing-infiltration that increased the percentage of [...] survival of the graft obtaining positive similar results in its application all over the world. Nonetheless, publication of unlike results in the literature regarding survival of the graft with different percentages of reabsorption and the discovery of stem cells in the adipose tissue, have led to the accomplishment of numerous research works directed to understanding the biology of the fat graft, the role of the stem cells in this process and the influence that the different steps for transplantation have on the cellular viability. We present a review of the scientific literature about the theme to bring together the available information about these controversies.

  6. ¿Cuál es la supervivencia de los injertos de grasa en la cara? ¿Cómo cuantificarla?: medicina basada en la evidencia / Which is the survival of fat grafts on the face? How to quantify it?: evidence based medicine

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    E., Serna-Cuéllar; L., Santamaría-Solís.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Muchos de los artículos publicados acerca del éxito de los injertos autólogos de grasa (IAG) en humanos son muy subjetivos o, en el mejor de los casos, semicuantitativos Hasta hoy, se necesitan estudios adicionales, tanto clínicos como básicos, antes de que podamos llegar a precisar el valor de esta [...] técnica. Diseñamos un estudio prospectivo y randomizado con el objetivo de cuantificar la supervivencia de los autoinjertos de grasa en cara, en una serie seleccionada de 71 pacientes con defectos subcutáneos de partes blandas faciales que cumplieron criterios de inclusión, en dos grupos, según fueran casos de Cirugía Reconstructiva o de Cirugía Estética. El procedimiento quirúrgico estándar empleado fue la técnica de lipoestructura facial; se tomó biopsia del tejido adiposo injertado a los 14 meses de seguimiento. Empleamos el método estereológico para medir los parámetros volumétricos cuantitativos de la grasa en el momento de la inyección y en el momento de la biopsia. Por medio de simples ecuaciones matemáticas, pudimos extraer las tasas de prendimiento tanto volumétrica como numérica. También se practicaron análisis estadísticos descriptivos y cuantitativos de todos los datos. Los injertos de grasa autólogos en la cara sobreviven en dos tercios del volumen inyectado a los 14 meses de seguimiento. La única prueba confirmatoria de supervivencia de los autoin-jertos de grasa es la evidencia y demostración histológica de tejido adiposo viable en las zonas receptoras y su cuantificación mediante un método de evaluación volumétrico, preciso y objetivo, como el que permite la Estereología. Abstract in english Many reports concerning the success of fat auto-grafts in humans are widely subjective or semi-quantitative in best of cases. Even today, additional studies, clinical or basic, are ne-cessary before the value of this technique can be calculated. With the aim of quantifying the survival of fat auto-g [...] rafts on the face, a prospective randomized study was designed, selecting 71 patients suffering facial soft tissue subcutaneous defects fulfilling the inclusion criteria. Two groups were descri-bed according to reconstructive and aesthetic surgery. Facial lipostructure technique was used as the standard surgical procedure and a biopsy of the grafted adipose tissue was taken at 14 months follow-up. The stereological method was used to measure the quantitative volumetric parameters of the fat at the injection time and at the biopsy time. By means of simple mathematical equations, the volumetric and numerical take rate could be obtained. Descriptive and quantitative statistical analyses of all data were performed. Fat auto-grafts on the face survive two thirds of the injec-ted volume at 14 months follow-up. The unique confirmation proof of survival of fat auto-grafts is the histological evidence and demonstration of viable adipose tissue in recipient sites and its quantification by a volumetric, accurate and objective valuation method, as it is provided by Stereology.

  7. Audiological and graft take results of cartilage reinforcement tympanoplasty (a new technique) versus fascia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tek, Arman; Karaman, Murat; Uslu, Celil; Habe?o?lu, Tülay; K?l?çarslan, Yasin; Durmu?, Ruhi; Esen, Senem; Egeli, Erol

    2012-04-01

    Our objective is to compare hearing and graft take results of temporal muscle fascia tympanoplasty and cartilage reinforcement tympanoplasty. Seventy seven patients are classified into two groups: Group 1 included 37 patients for whom cartilage graft, harvested from symba concha, is used as reinforcement under temporalis muscle fascia anteriorly and Group 2 included 40 patients for whom only temporalis muscle fascia is used in type 1 tympanoplasty. A pure-tone audiometry is done within 1 week prior to surgery and at 6 months postoperatively. There is statistically significant difference between postoperative graft take results among groups. In both groups postoperative anterior TM perforation is encountered most commonly. Success rate of cartilage reinforcement tympanoplasty in revision patients is 100% but temporal muscle fascia tympanoplasty's is 66%. There is no statistically significant difference between preoperative and postoperative air conduction gain of TM intact patients. The results indicated that Cartilage reinforcement myringoplasty technique under anterior of the temporal muscle fascia significantly increases the graft take ratios in high-risk perforations and it also does not affect hearing levels. Therefore, the authors suggest usage of cartilage reinforcement tympanoplasty technique under anterior of the temporal muscle fascia which is an easy and applicable technique to increase graft take ratios, particularly in patients with preoperative anterior and subtotal TM perforations. PMID:21968630

  8. Facial fat necrosis following autologous fat transfer and its management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sweta Rai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Autologous fat transfer (AFT is an increasingly popular cosmetic procedure practiced by dermatologic surgeons worldwide. As this is an office based procedure performed under local or tumescent anaesthesia with fat transferred within the same individual and limited associated down time its is considered relatively safe and risk free in the cosmetic surgery arena. We describe a case of AFT related fat necrosis causing significant facial dysmorphia and psychosocial distress. We also discuss the benefits and risks of AFT highlighting common causes of fat graft failure.

  9. Plant grafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnyk, Charles W; Meyerowitz, Elliot M

    2015-03-01

    Since ancient times, people have cut and joined together plants of different varieties or species so they would grow as a single plant - a process known as grafting (Figures 1 and 2). References to grafting appear in the Bible, ancient Greek and ancient Chinese texts, indicating that grafting was practised in Europe, the Middle East and Asia by at least the 5(th) century BCE. It is unknown where or how grafting was first discovered, but it is likely that natural grafting, the process by which two plants touch and fuse limbs or roots in the absence of human interference (Figure 3), influenced people's thinking. Such natural grafts are generally uncommon, but are seen in certain species, including English ivy. Parasitic plants, such as mistletoe, that grow and feed on often unrelated species may have also contributed to the development of grafting as a technique, as people would have observed mistletoe growing on trees such as apples or poplars. PMID:25734263

  10. Cartilage Tympanoplasty: Is it more effective than temporalis fascia grafting for tympanoplasty?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyamakant Prasad

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Chronic suppurative otitis media is a disease which is a major cause of morbidity in our country. A large proportion of these patients have safe (mucosal chronic suppurative otitis media. It leads to otorrhoea and deafness which hampers productivity of many individuals. Otolaryngologist play an important role in its correction and amelioration by con-servative or operative procedures. One such procedure is tympanoplasty. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES 1. To evaluate improvement in hearing following tympanoplasty using temporalis fascia graft and cartilage island graft at 8 weeks after surgery. 2. Graft status after tympanoplasty using temporalis fascia graft and cartilage island graft. 3. Assess other complications after surgery in both groups. This study was conducted in the Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Sur-gery, ST. STEPHEN’S HOSPITAL, DELHI between November 2010 to November 2012. INCLUSION CRITERIA 1. Includes patient in the age group of 20-40 years, having good general physical condition. 2. No evidence of active infection in nose, throat or paranasal sinuses, central perforation of pars tensa of the tympanic membrane with dry ear for a minimum period of 3 weeks be-fore the day of operation. 3. Patients having good eustachian tube function with good cochlear reserve. Exclusion criteria: 1. Patients having blocked eustachian tube, with polyp, granulations or cholesteatoma 2. Failed myringoplasty in the same ear 3. Otogenic intra cranial complications in the past 4. Evidence of otitis externa or otomycosis 5. Per operative ossicular discontinuity, fixed foot plate 6. Patients with evidence of focal sepsis

  11. Assessment of viability of human fat injection into nude mice with micro-computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atashroo, David A; Paik, Kevin J; Chung, Michael T; McArdle, Adrian; Senarath-Yapa, Kshemendra; Zielins, Elizabeth R; Tevlin, Ruth; Duldulao, Christopher R; Walmsley, Graham G; Wearda, Taylor; Marecic, Owen; Longaker, Michael T; Wan, Derrick C

    2015-01-01

    Lipotransfer is a vital tool in the surgeon's armamentarium for the treatment of soft tissue deficits of throughout the body. Fat is the ideal soft tissue filler as it is readily available, easily obtained, inexpensive, and inherently biocompatible.(1) However, despite its burgeoning popularity, fat grafting is hampered by unpredictable results and variable graft survival, with published retention rates ranging anywhere from 10-80%. (1-3) To facilitate investigations on fat grafting, we have therefore developed an animal model that allows for real-time analysis of injected fat volume retention. Briefly, a small cut is made in the scalp of a CD-1 nude mouse and 200-400 µl of processed lipoaspirate is placed over the skull. The scalp is chosen as the recipient site because of its absence of native subcutaneous fat, and because of the excellent background contrast provided by the calvarium, which aids in the analysis process. Micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) is used to scan the graft at baseline and every two weeks thereafter. The CT images are reconstructed, and an imaging software is used to quantify graft volumes. Traditionally, techniques to assess fat graft volume have necessitated euthanizing the study animal to provide just a single assessment of graft weight and volume by physical measurement ex vivo. Biochemical and histological comparisons have likewise required the study animal to be euthanized. This described imaging technique offers the advantage of visualizing and objectively quantifying volume at multiple time points after initial grafting without having to sacrifice the study animal. The technique is limited by the size of the graft able to be injected as larger grafts risk skin and fat necrosis. This method has utility for all studies evaluating fat graft viability and volume retention. It is particularly well-suited to providing a visual representation of fat grafts and following changes in volume over time. PMID:25590561

  12. Fat heaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmasry, Amr Ahmed Abd Elmoneim; Katajainen, Jyrki

    This report is an electronic appendix to our paper \\Fat heaps without regular counters". In that paper we described a new variant of fat heaps that is conceptually simpler and easier to implement than the original version. We also compared the practical performance of this data structure to that of...

  13. Stent graft placement for dysfunctional arteriovenous grafts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Gyeong Sik [Dept. of Radiology, CHA Bundang Medical Center, College of Medicine, CHA University, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Byung Seok; Ohm, Joon Young; Ahn, Moon Sang [Chungnam National University Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-07-15

    This study aimed to evaluate the usefulness and outcomes of stent graft use in dysfunctional arteriovenous grafts. Eleven patients who underwent stent graft placement for a dysfunctional hemodialysis graft were included in this retrospective study. Expanded polytetrafluoroethylene covered stent grafts were placed at the venous anastomosis site in case of pseudoaneurysm, venous laceration, elastic recoil or residual restenosis despite the repeated angioplasty. The patency of the arteriovenous graft was evaluated using Kaplan-Meier analysis. Primary and secondary mean patency was 363 days and 741 days. Primary patency at 3, 6, and 12 months was 82%, 73%, and 32%, respectively. Secondary patency at the 3, 6, 12, 24, and 36 months was improved to 91%, 82%, 82%, 50%, and 25%, respectively. Fractures of the stent graft were observed in 2 patients, but had no effect on the patency. Stent graft placement in dysfunctional arteriovenous graft is useful and effective in prolonging graft patency.

  14. Stent graft placement for dysfunctional arteriovenous grafts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study aimed to evaluate the usefulness and outcomes of stent graft use in dysfunctional arteriovenous grafts. Eleven patients who underwent stent graft placement for a dysfunctional hemodialysis graft were included in this retrospective study. Expanded polytetrafluoroethylene covered stent grafts were placed at the venous anastomosis site in case of pseudoaneurysm, venous laceration, elastic recoil or residual restenosis despite the repeated angioplasty. The patency of the arteriovenous graft was evaluated using Kaplan-Meier analysis. Primary and secondary mean patency was 363 days and 741 days. Primary patency at 3, 6, and 12 months was 82%, 73%, and 32%, respectively. Secondary patency at the 3, 6, 12, 24, and 36 months was improved to 91%, 82%, 82%, 50%, and 25%, respectively. Fractures of the stent graft were observed in 2 patients, but had no effect on the patency. Stent graft placement in dysfunctional arteriovenous graft is useful and effective in prolonging graft patency

  15. An alternative method of skin grafting: the scalp microdermis graft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, T W

    1995-08-01

    Although microskin grafting has been used successfully to treat major burns, when the donor skin areas are inadequate, it is still not in popular use because of the difficulties of mincing and floating procedures. Floating is expected to produce more microskin patches with the dermal side upwards than with the epidermal side upwards. Another problem is that many microskin patches will be lost in the container during floating. This problem may be solved by preparing the microskin from the second layer scalp skin. This will be a graft of hair follicle cells, which can be sowed on the wound no matter which side is upwards. Grafting was carried out on well-prepared granulation beds, or on the fat surface after tangential excision, or on the bed after fascial excision of the burn. Allograft and Biobrane were used as cover dressings. The combination of fascial excision and allograft overlay gave an acceptable result. This can be an alternative method of skin grafting for burns with very limited donor skin areas when the scalp skin is not burned. PMID:7546262

  16. Macro fat and micro fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yanjun; Gaillard, Jonathan R; McLaughlin, Tracey; Sørensen, Thorkild Ia; Periwal, Vipul

    2015-01-01

    metabolic syndrome. Changes in fat mass can be induced by altered energy intake or even diet composition. These macroscopic changes must manifest themselves as dynamic adipose cell-size distribution alterations at the microscopic level. The dynamic relationship between these 2 independent measurements of...... body fat is unknown. In this study, we investigate adipose tissue dynamics in response to various isocaloric diet compositions, comparing gender- and insulin sensitivity-dependent differences. A body composition model is used to predict fat mass changes in response to changes in diet composition for 28...... relative change of fat mass for each diet composition, respectively. We find that adipose cell-size dynamics are associated with different modulations dependent on gender and insulin resistance. Larger turnover and growth/shrinkage rates in insulin resistant individuals suggest they may be more sensitive...

  17. Macro fat and micro fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yanjun; Gaillard, Jonathan R; McLaughlin, Tracey; Sørensen, Thorkild Ia; Periwal, Vipul

    2015-01-01

    relative change of fat mass for each diet composition, respectively. We find that adipose cell-size dynamics are associated with different modulations dependent on gender and insulin resistance. Larger turnover and growth/shrinkage rates in insulin resistant individuals suggest they may be more sensitive...... metabolic syndrome. Changes in fat mass can be induced by altered energy intake or even diet composition. These macroscopic changes must manifest themselves as dynamic adipose cell-size distribution alterations at the microscopic level. The dynamic relationship between these 2 independent measurements of...... body fat is unknown. In this study, we investigate adipose tissue dynamics in response to various isocaloric diet compositions, comparing gender- and insulin sensitivity-dependent differences. A body composition model is used to predict fat mass changes in response to changes in diet composition for 28...

  18. Long-term outcomes using vascular grafts sealed with fragmented autologous adipose tissue for aortoiliac occlusive disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Ichiya; Karube, Norihisa; Soma, Tamitaro; Noishiki, Yasuharu; Ichikawa, Yukio

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test the safety and efficacy of fragmented autologous adipose tissue (FAT) grafts for revascularization in aortoiliac occlusive disease. Twenty-seven patients with atherosclerotic aortoiliac occlusive disease underwent surgical treatment using FAT grafts. A piece of adipose connective tissue was obtained from the operative wound, cut into small pieces, and pressed into the wall of a fabric vascular prosthesis. Cumulative primary patency rates were 92% at 1 year, 92% at 3 years, and 86% at 6 years. Cumulative secondary patency rates were 96%, 96%, and 90% for the same intervals. In this clinical study, the FAT grafts demonstrated good long-term patency rates and no particular problems. This is the first clinical report of long-term outcomes using FAT grafts for aortofemoral or aortoiliac bypasses. FAT grafts are thus safe for revascularization in aortoiliac occlusive disease. PMID:15951984

  19. Fecal Fat: The Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Fecal Fat Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Qualitative or Quantitative Stool Fat; Stool Lipids; 72 Hour Fecal Fat; Fat Stain ...

  20. Saturated fat (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fat include whole-milk dairy products, like cheese, ice cream and butter. Animal fats such as beef, pork ... fat include whole-milk dairy products, like cheese, ice cream and butter. Animal fats such as beef, pork ...

  1. Bone Graft Alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... spinal deformity, or who have some types of disc herniations. In certain types of spinal fusion, bone grafts or bone graft alternatives are used to replace the cushioning disc material that lies between the vertebrae. When the ...

  2. Grafting and curing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Progress in radiation grafting and curing is briefly reviewed. The two processes are shown to be mechanistically related. The parameters influencing yields are examined particularly for grafting. For ionising radiation grafting systems (EB and gamma ray) these include solvents, substrate and monomer structure, dose and dose-rate, temperature and more recently role of additives. In addition, for UV grafting, the significance of photoinitiators is discussed. Current applications of radiation grafting and curing are outlined. The recent development of photoinitiator free grafting and curing is examined as well as the potential for the new excimer laser sources. The future application of both grafting and curing is considered, especially the significance of the occurrence of concurrent grafting during cure and its relevance in environmental considerations

  3. AB023. Penile augmentation surgery: characteristics of artificial graft material and preoperative preparation

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Woong Hee

    2015-01-01

    Penile augmentation surgical procedure includes diverse graft materials such as artificial collagen material as well as dermo-fat graft. Important factors of postoperative satisfaction are natural appearance of genitalia at the flaccid state and minimal resorption of graft volume. Artificial collagen materials and acellular dermal matrix are available for surgical procedure with variable size. History of penile augmentation surgery: Pediatric penile surgical procedure for lengthening and reco...

  4. Composite graft tympanoplasty

    OpenAIRE

    S. Mukherjee; Chamyal, P. C.

    1997-01-01

    Seventy six ears with chronic suppurative otitis media and fit for tympanoplasty were subjected to grafting with combination of perichondrium and cartilage (composite graft) for restoration of sound conducting apparatus and reconstruction of canal wall. A comparison with temporal fascia grafting has been done. Composite graft procedure gave better functional improvement, helped in reconstruction of canal wall and was also useful in elimination of retraction pockets.

  5. Bone grafts in dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanna Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone grafts are used as a filler and scaffold to facilitate bone formation and promote wound healing. These grafts are bioresorbable and have no antigen-antibody reaction. These bone grafts act as a mineral reservoir which induces new bone formation.

  6. Dangers of Belly Fat

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home ? Latest Health News ? Dangers of Belly Fat URL of this page: https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/videos/news/Belly_Fat_111015.html Dangers of Belly Fat ...

  7. Dietary Fat and Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... blood clotting, and your immune system response. Linolenic fatty acids are a special type of fat called Omega-3 fats which are known to have many health benefits. Good Sources of Polyunsaturated Fat Include: Canola Oil ...

  8. Dietary lipids: less fat or best fat?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chardigny Jean-Michel

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Obesity and overweight occurrence is growing around the word. This is often considered as a consequence of high fat diets, and some recommendations encourage ‘‘light’’ diets, including low fat intake. However, most trials with low fat intake do not demonstrate any benefit and could be worse than low carbohydrate diets. The key role of insulin could explain that eating fat do not make body fat. On the other hand, several unbalanced fatty acid intake are reported, i.e. saturated/mononunsaturated fatty acids and w6/w3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Thus, fat intake could be improved in this respect. Moreover, the molecular and supramolecular structures of fat in food are new challenges to address in order to ameliorate the recommendations for healthy diets.

  9. Free graft anoplasty

    OpenAIRE

    Fucini C; Caminati F; Basiricò F; Bartolini N.; Mirasolo VM

    2012-01-01

    Aim Reconstruction of a stenotic anal canal and repair of a stenotic perineal colostomy using a free graft foreskin. Method The use of free graft foreskin anoplasty was described by Freeman for the treatment of mucosal prolapse in pediatric patients. The original surgical technique was modified and employed in two adult patients for the reconstruction of the anal region. Results The graft, in both cases, took well with a satisfactory functional and morphological recovery of the anal canal. Co...

  10. Magnitude of muscle wasting early after on-pump coronary artery bypass graft surgery and exploration of aetiology

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Dominique; Linsen, Loes; Verboven, Kenneth; Hendrikx, Marc; Rummens, Jean-Luc; Van Erum, Monique; Op 't Eijnde, Bert; Dendale, Paul

    2015-01-01

    New Findings What is the central question of this study? It remains uncertain whether significant fat-free mass wasting occurs early after coronary artery bypass graft surgery, and the aetiology of this wasting in these particular conditions is unexplored. What is the main finding and its importance? Significant fat-free mass wasting is present after coronary artery bypass graft surgery, and this wasting effect is greater in younger patients and in patients with greater increments in blood co...

  11. Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... location of the heart. Figure B shows how vein and artery bypass grafts are attached to the heart. Overview CABG is ... if blockages form in the grafted arteries or veins or in arteries that weren't blocked before. Taking medicines and making ... NEXT >> Updated: February ...

  12. Sliding grafted polymer layers

    CERN Document Server

    Baulin, V A; Marques, C M; Baulin, Vladimir A.; Johner, Albert; Marques, Carlos M.

    2005-01-01

    We study theoretically the structure of sliding grafted polymer layers or SGP layers. These interfacial structures are built by attaching each polymer to the substrate with a ring-like molecule. Such a topological grafting mode allows the chains to freely slide along the attachment point. Escape from the sliding link is prevented by bulky capping groups. We show that grafts in the mushroom regime adopt mainly symmetric configurations (with comparable branch sizes) while grafts in dense layers are highly dissymmetric so that only one branch per graft participates in the layer. Sliding layers on small colloids or star-like sliding micelles exhibit an intermediate behavior where the number of longer branches participating in the corona is independent of the total number of branches. This regime also exists for sliding surface-micelles comprising less chains but it is narrower.

  13. Dietary fats explained

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... body gets from your food give your body essential fatty acids called linoleic and linolenic acid. They are called " ... fats, which include safflower, sunflower, corn, and soy oil Trans fatty acids are unhealthy fats that form when vegetable oil ...

  14. Facts about saturated fats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Weight gain . Many high-fat foods such as pizza, baked goods, and fried foods have a lot ... FG, Moore HJ, Davey Smith G. Reduced or modified dietary fat for preventing cardiovascular disease. Cochrane Database ...

  15. Learning about Fats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... drink low-fat or skim milk. Doing the Math How much fat should you eat? Experts say ... The Nemours Foundation, iStock, Getty Images, Corbis, Veer, Science Photo Library, Science Source Images, Shutterstock, and Clipart. ...

  16. Controversies in fat perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinze, Jaana M; Preissl, Hubert; Fritsche, Andreas; Frank, Sabine

    2015-12-01

    Nutritional fat is one of the most controversial topics in nutritional research, particularly against the background of obesity. Studies investigating fat taste perception have revealed several associations with sensory, genetic, and personal factors (e.g. BMI). However, neuronal activation patterns, which are known to be highly sensitive to different tastes as well as to BMI differences, have not yet been included in the scheme of fat taste perception. We will therefore provide a comprehensive survey of the sensory, genetic, and personal factors associated with fat taste perception and highlight the benefits of applying neuroimaging research. We will also give a critical overview of studies investigating sensory fat perception and the challenges resulting from multifaceted methodological approaches. In conclusion, we will discuss a multifactorial approach to fat perception to gain a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms that cause varying fat sensitivity which could be responsible for overeating. Such knowledge might be beneficial in new treatment strategies for obesity and overweight. PMID:26340857

  17. Sizing of crimped Dacron grafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, J D; Sladen, J G

    1992-05-01

    The aim of this study was to correlate the stated size of Dacron grafts (Microvel) with their actual internal diameter and to compare this with measurements by ultrasound in the early postoperative period. Grafts of stated diameters of 7, 8, 9, and 10 mm were studied. Grafts were measured by graded probes and by measuring the width of the longitudinally opened graft and calculating the diameter. Each graft accepted a probe 1 mm larger than its stated size very easily and 2 mm greater when stretched. By open measurement, the grafts were 1.3 to 1.8 mm greater than their stated diameter without stretching. Twenty grafts were studied by duplex ultrasound for diameter and peak systolic velocity within 3 months of implantation. The grafts were 12% larger than their stated graft size. Some of the larger grafts showed low velocity and wall thrombus. We conclude that Microvel grafts are larger than their stated diameter. The same size discrepancy was seen in in vitro measurements of Vascutek (Dacron) grafts but not in polytetrafluoroethylene (Gortex) grafts. Since flow velocity is related to the diameter of the graft, this information should be useful when choosing the diameter of a prosthetic vascular graft. PMID:1533494

  18. Rib grafts in septorhinoplasty

    OpenAIRE

    Moretti, A.; Sciuto, S.

    2013-01-01

    Autogenous cartilage has generally been considered the gold standard grafting material in reconstructive septorhinoplasty for volume filling and structural support. In the restructuring of the nasal skeleton, autogenous cartilage can be harvested from the nasal septum, the auricle or the rib, but costal cartilage is considered the best graft material in patients requiring major reconstruction. Rib cartilage is an outstanding material in reconstructive septorhinoplasty, especially in revision ...

  19. Graft pancreatitis: literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labruzzo, Cinzia; El Tayar, Adil R; Hakim, Nadey S

    2006-01-01

    Graft pancreatitis is an inflammatory disease leading to autodigestion of the gland. The failure of the pancreatic graft can be attributed to immunological or nonimmunological causes. It consists of a premature activation of pancreatic proenzymes. When complications such as bleeding or leaks have already occurred, surgical correction should be considered. The aim of this review is to draw the attention of surgeons to the complications that can easily be avoided. PMID:16774182

  20. Perception of fatness

    OpenAIRE

    Ja?kiewicz, Ma?gorzata

    1997-01-01

    The study’s objective was to find out whether there is a relationship between bodily fatness traits described with anthropometric measurements and the assessment of the physical attractiveness of people with different degree of fat deposition. Furthermore, an attempt was made to answer the question whether we perceive the physique of another man as a whole or if we pay more attention to certain parts of the body and whether there is a stereotype of desirable fat deposition.

  1. Facts about polyunsaturated fats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Disease Control and Prevention. Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. Polyunsaturated Fats and Monounsaturated ...

  2. Axillobifemoral bypass grafting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davidovi? Lazar B.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Axillo-femoral bypass (AxF means connecting the axillar and femoral artery with the graft that is placed subcutaneously [1]. Usually, this graft is connected with contralateral femoral artery via one accessory subcutaneous graft, and this connection is known as axillobifemoral bypass (AxFF. This extra-anatomic procedure is an alternative method to the standard reconstruction of aortoiliac region when there are contraindications for general or local reasons. OBJECTIVE The objective of this paper is to show early and late results of AxFF bypass grafting as well as to show the indications for AxFF bypass. METHODS The sample consisted of 37 patients. The procedure was performed in 28 patients who suffered from aortoiliac occlusive disease and who were at high risk due to the comorbidity- in one patient with the rupture of juxtarenal aneurysm of abdominal aorta; in five patients with aortoenteric fistula, in two patients with iatrogenic lesion of abdominal aorta and in one female patient with anus preternaturalis definitivus who was treated for rectovaginal fistula. Donor's right axillary artery was used in 26 cases (70.3%, and donor's left axillary artery was used in 9 cases (29.7%. Dacron graft was used in 34 patients and Polytetrafluo-roethlylene graft was used in three patients. Simultaneously, profundo-plastic was done in four patients and femoro-popliteal bypass was performed in three patients. In five patients who suffered from aortoenteric fistula, simultaneous intervention of gastrointerstinal system has been done, x2 test was used for statistical evaluation and life table method was used for verification of late graft patency. RESULTS The rate of early postoperative mortality was 13.5%. The causes of death were: sepsis -1, MOFS - 3, and infarct myocardium -1. The mean follow up period was 40.1 months, ranging from six months to 17 years. During the follow up period, an early graft thrombosis was identified in two and late graft occlusion was reported in four patients. As the cause of occlusion, the progression of occlusive disease of receptive artery was identified in three patients, while anastomotic neointimae hyperplasia of recipient artery was identified in one patient. Three patients died during the follow up period. As the cause of death, CVI was reported in two patients and malignancy of the urinary tract was fpund in one patient. The other complications were - artery angulation on the level of proximal anastomosis in one patient (Figure 1, false aneurysm in one patient, perigraft seroma in one patient and graft infection in three patients. Life table method has shown that cumulative rate of late graft patency is 80.39% after five years (Graph 1. DISCUSSION Our results were analyzed and compared with the results of the study on 283 patients who had undergone aortobifemoral bypass (AFF operation due to the aortoiliac occlusive disease. This study was completed in 1995 (18. The results showed that there was no statistically significant differences between AxFF and AFF group (p>0.05, considering early mortality rate and late graft patency (Graph 2. The review of mortality and late patency rate after AxFF bypass grafting in a world well known studies has shown the similar results (Table 1. CONCLUSION The authors suggest that axilobifemoral bypass is indicated when there are contraindications or difficulties to perform anatomic reconstruction due to the abdomen condition (infection, adhesion, comorbidity as well as in high risk patients with low life expectancy.

  3. Crosslinked grafted PVC obtained by direct radiation grafting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Direct radiation-induced grafting of 4-vinylpyridine onto both pure and plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) has been studied. The effect of grafting conditions such as solvent, monomer concentration, irradiation dose, and inhibitor concentration on the grafting yield was investigated. The grafting process was enhanced by using distilled water as diluent and higher degrees of grafting were obtained as compared with other solvents used (benzene, methanol, and a mixture of methanol and water). The homopolymerization of 4-vinylpyridine was reduced to a minimum using ammonium ferrous sulfate and the suitable optimum concentration of the inhibitor was found to be 0.25 wt%. It was observed that the degrees of grafting onto plasticized PVC were higher than those onto pure one, at constant grafting conditions. The diffusibility of the monomer solution through the trunk polymers enhanced at higher monomer concentrations. The higher the monomer concentration the higher the degrees of grafting obtained. The dependence of the grafting rate on monomer concentration was found to be 0.15 and 0.4 order for the grafting onto pure and plasticized PVC films, respectively. The gel content in both grafted extracted pure and plasticized PVC films increased with the degree of grafting to reach certain limiting values. (author)

  4. Alveolar bone grafting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilja Jan

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In patients with cleft lip and palate, bone grafting in the mixed dentition in the residual alveolar cleft has become a well-established procedure. The main advantages can be summarised as follows: stabilisation of the maxillary arch; facilitation of eruption of the canine and sometimes facilitation of the lateral incisor eruption; providing bony support to the teeth adjacent to the cleft; raising the alar base of the nose; facilitation of closure of an oro-nasal fistula; making it possible to insert a titanium fixture in the grafted site and to obtain favourable periodontal conditions of the teeth within and adjacent to the cleft. The timing of the ABG surgery take into consideration not only eruption of the canine but also that of the lateral incisor, if present. The best time for bone grafting surgery is when a thin shell of bone still covers the soon erupting lateral incisor or canine tooth close to the cleft.

  5. AB023. Penile augmentation surgery: characteristics of artificial graft material and preoperative preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Woong Hee

    2015-01-01

    Penile augmentation surgical procedure includes diverse graft materials such as artificial collagen material as well as dermo-fat graft. Important factors of postoperative satisfaction are natural appearance of genitalia at the flaccid state and minimal resorption of graft volume. Artificial collagen materials and acellular dermal matrix are available for surgical procedure with variable size. History of penile augmentation surgery: Pediatric penile surgical procedure for lengthening and reconstructive surgery was developed as penile plastic surgical procedure combined with dermo-fat graft. In 1971, Kelly, Eraklis et al. reported preservation of dorsal neurovascular bundle and division of corporal crus from ischiopubic ramus for penile lengthening procedure. In 1974, Johnson reported the surgical cases in epispadias patient as division of crus from ischiopubic ramus and penile skin graft. The procedures include division of suspensory ligament and blunt dissection of fundiform ligament. In 1970’s Horton reported suprapubic fat resection and Z-plasty with anchoring on Scarpa’s fascia for lengthening procedure. In 1980’s several fat injection procedures in Darto’s fascia have been reported for girth enhancement but they were lack of reproducibility. (1year Resorption 50%) Later reports the result of cystic nodule, lump formation and fat migration. In 1990’s V-Y plasty for lengthening was reported. Historically illegal liquid injection materials with non-medical hands were reported as correction or reconstructive procedures for removal and treatment of deformed genitalia. In 1992 Horton reported flank abdominal free dermo-fat graft to Darto’s fascia. This procedure showed fair graft survival rate and developed to buttock skin crease dermo-fat graft. Medical grade silicone; long-term implantable; Gortex plate, polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE); Acelluar dermal graft/(Alloderm, Surederm); Acellular xenogeniccollagen structure/(Lyoplant, Terudermis); Autologous tissue culture procedure with PLGA scaffold; Complex synthetic collagen with elastin (Matriderm); SIS (small intestine submucosa, porcine SIS). 48-72 h; Tissue fluid diffusion, 4 days; circulation and beginning of collagen accumulation. Initial graft survival depends on tissue condition and vascular supply of recipient bed. For stable vascular permeability graft should be anchored to recipient bed tissue. The prerequisites for wound healing; no infection, no hematoma, no seroma. Skin suture with no tension. Dermo-fat thickness less than 1 cm. Minimal incision on Darto’s fascia (external pudendal system). Graft anchoring between internal pudendal system and Buck’s fascia. Successful penile augmentation procedure means not only excellent surgical procedure and good wound healing process, but also patient subjective satisfaction. Preoperative interview with the patient is important for understanding the anatomy, procedure and goal of augmentation surgery. Also the proper selection of graft material is also important factor of successful girth enhancement with graft survival.

  6. The effects of crimping on the healing of prosthetic arterial grafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, M; Dilley, R; Gardner, A; Glover, J

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the crimping of arterial prostheses affected their healing. In ten dogs, 6 mm knitted Dacron grafts were implanted in the infrarenal aortas; 6 grafts were crimped, 4 uncrimped. Each was seeded with venous endothelium to produce a cellular lining. The grafts were removed a month after implantation and compared by light microscopy as to the (1) thickness of the inner lining, (2) completeness of endothelial healing, and (3) patterns of vasa vasorum. (1) and (3) were assessed using H & E sections and (2) by AgNO3 Häutchen preparations. The lining in uncrimped grafts was thinner and more uniform than in crimped grafts: 50.1 +/- 45.7 vs 263 +/- 183 mu, p fat. In the uncrimped grafts, the smaller secondary vasa also were directed along the axis of flow, in contrast to crimped grafts in which they were circumferential to the graft and parallel to the crimps. In all instances vasa penetrated within 500 mu of the lumen. We conclude that crimping causes a change in the pattern of development of vasa vasorum in healing fabric grafts and a thicker inner lining associated with areas of delayed healing which may increase the risk of thrombosis. PMID:7451567

  7. Spinal bone graft - series (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is made over the bone defect, and the bone graft is shaped around and inserted into the defect. The graft is held in place with pins, plates, or screws. The incisions are stitched (sutured) closed. A splint ...

  8. Facts about monounsaturated fats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with higher amounts of monounsaturated fats include: Nuts Avocado Canola oil Olive oil Safflower oil (high oleic) Sunflower oil ... small, as nuts are high in calories Add avocado to salads and sandwiches. Replace butter and solid fats with olive or canola oil.

  9. Fat Emulsions for Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your doctor has ordered fat emulsion to be used as a source of calories and fatty acids to maintain or increase your weight. The medication ... Before you administer fat emulsion, look at the solution closely. It should be free of floating material. Gently squeeze the bag or observe ...

  10. The Influence of Dietary Fat on Liver Fat Accumulation

    OpenAIRE

    Green, Charlotte J; Leanne Hodson

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a known risk factor for the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD); however, it has been suggested that dietary fat, both amount and composition, may play a pivotal role in its development, independent of body fatness. Studies that have investigated the role of dietary fat on liver fat accumulation are reasonably sparse. We review here the available work that has investigated the impact of dietary fat: amount, composition and frequency, on liver fat accumulation i...

  11. Autologous staged fat tissue transfer in post-traumatic lower extremity reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Martin A; Schwarzman, Garrett; Eivazi, Mariet; Zachary, Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    Autologous fat tissue transfer for aesthetic reconstruction has been described in the literature for soft tissue damage as early as 1893. One area that has yet to be described is the role of fat grafting in post-traumatic lower extremity injuries. In this case report, we present a patient who had significant injury to her right lower extremity and presented for reconstruction. The patient is a 52-year-old female who presented to clinic after a right lower extremity traumatic injury that required multiple re-operations, which lead to dense scarring and volume loss along the extremity inferior to the knee joint. The patient received two staged autologous fat injections and reported positive outcomes. Our case report demonstrates the utility of fat transfer in reconstruction of the lower extremity in staged fashion. Further research in the refinement of this technique and patient follow-up will lead to better graft survival and reconstructive outcomes. PMID:26572154

  12. Acrylonitrile grafted to PVDF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jin; Eitouni, Hany Basam

    2015-03-31

    PVDF-g-PAN has been synthesized by grafting polyacrylonitrile onto polyvinylidene fluoride using an ATRP/AGET method. The novel polymer is ionically conducive and has much more flexibility than PVDF alone, making it especially useful either as a binder in battery cell electrodes or as a polymer electrolyte in a battery cell.

  13. Fat burn X: burning more than fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannabass, Kyle; Olsen, Kevin Robert

    2016-01-01

    A 50-year-old man presented with a 2-day history of bilateral lower extremity cramping and dark urine. The patient was found to have a creatine phosphokinase (CPK) elevated of up to 2306?U/L, a serum uric acid of 9.7?mg/dL and 101 red blood cell's per high-powered field on urinalysis. On questioning, the patient endorsed daily exercise with free weights. There were no changes in his regular exercise and medication regimen, no muscle trauma, no recent drug use and no illness. The patient did mention using a new fat burner known as 'Fat Burn X', which he had begun taking 2?days prior to the onset of his muscle cramps. The patient was given normal saline intravenous fluid resuscitation for 48?h with resultant normalisation of his CPK and creatinine, and was discharged with primary care follow-up. PMID:26811412

  14. Alternative fat sources to animal fat for pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Charlotte; Christensen, Thomas Bruun; Halekoh, Ulrich; Jensen, Søren Krogh

    2007-01-01

    The use of fats and oils in diets for pigs is of great importance due to their high energy value. As a consequence of the BSE-crisis in the European Union, the amount of animal fat available for animal feeds has been reduced, and alternative fat sources are of increasing importance. In this paper...... either animal fat, palm oil mix, palm oil, vegetable oil mix, coconut oil, or rapeseed oil were tested in weaned and growing pigs. It was concluded that several vegetable fat sources (palm oil mix, palm oil, coconut oil, rapeseed oil) could be used as alternatives to animal fat in pig feed, whereas fat...

  15. What Are Solid Fats?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... margarine shortening hydrogenated and partially hydrogenated oils* coconut oil* palm and palm kernel oils* * The starred items are ... from fish. A few plant oils, including coconut oil and palm oil, are high in saturated fats and for ...

  16. Fats and Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and fatter cuts of red meat. Of course, fast-food and takeout meals tend to have more fat ... meals for family outings instead of going to fast-food restaurants or relying on your kids to make ...

  17. Fats and Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and you may need to do some supermarket math. Light (lite) and reduced-fat foods may still ... The Nemours Foundation, iStock, Getty Images, Corbis, Veer, Science Photo Library, Science Source Images, Shutterstock, and Clipart. ...

  18. Dietary fat overload reprograms brown fat mitochondria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lettieri Barbato, Daniele; Tatulli, Giuseppe; Vegliante, Rolando; Cannata, Stefano M.; Bernardini, Sergio; Ciriolo, Maria R.; Aquilano, Katia

    2015-01-01

    Chronic nutrient overload accelerates the onset of several aging-related diseases reducing life expectancy. Although the mechanisms by which overnutrition affects metabolic processes in many tissues are known, its role on BAT physiology is still unclear. Herein, we investigated the mitochondrial responses in BAT of female mice exposed to high fat diet (HFD) at different steps of life. Although adult mice showed an unchanged mitochondrial amount, both respiration and OxPHOS subunits were strongly affected. Differently, offspring pups exposed to HFD during pregnancy and lactation displayed reduced mitochondrial mass but high oxidative efficiency that, however, resulted in increased bioenergetics state of BAT rather than augmented uncoupling respiration. Interestingly, the metabolic responses triggered by HFD were accompanied by changes in mitochondrial dynamics characterized by decreased content of the fragmentation marker Drp1 both in mothers and offspring pups. HFD-induced inactivation of the FoxO1 transcription factor seemed to be the up-stream modulator of Drp1 levels in brown fat cells. Furthermore, HFD offspring pups weaned with normal diet only partially reverted the mitochondrial dysfunctions caused by HFD. Finally these mice failed in activating the thermogenic program upon cold exposure. Collectively our findings suggest that maternal dietary fat overload irreversibly commits BAT unresponsiveness to physiological stimuli such as cool temperature and this dysfunction in the early stage of life might negatively modulate health and lifespan. PMID:26483700

  19. Alternative fat sources to animal fat for pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Charlotte; Christensen, Thomas Bruun

    2007-01-01

    The use of fats and oils in diets for pigs is of great importance due to their high energy value. As a consequence of the BSE-crisis in the European Union, the amount of animal fat available for animal feeds has been reduced, and alternative fat sources are of increasing importance. In this paper, we review our main findings on the effects of diets with different fat sources on apparent fat digestibility in pigs. A method for quantitative measurement of fat extraction from feed and faeces has been developed, and this method has been used in a digestibility trial, in which diets added 5% of either animal fat, palm oil mix, palm oil, vegetable oil mix, coconut oil, or rapeseed oil were tested in weaned and growing pigs. It was concluded that several vegetable fat sources (palm oil mix, palm oil, coconut oil, rapeseed oil) could be used as alternatives to animal fat in pig feed, whereas fat blends should be avoided.

  20. Dynamical fat link fermions

    OpenAIRE

    Kamleh, Waseem; Leinweber, Derek B; Williams, Anthony G.

    2004-01-01

    The use of APE smearing or other blocking techniques in fermion actions can provide many advantages. There are many variants of these fat link actions in lattice QCD currently, such as FLIC fermions. Frequently, fat link actions make use of the APE blocking technique in combination with a projection of the blocked links back into the special unitary group. This reunitarisation is often performed using an iterative maximisation of a gauge invariant measure. This technique is ...

  1. Trans-polar-fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Counil, Emilie; Dewailly, Eric; Bjerregaard, Peter; Julien, Pierre

    2008-01-01

    As part of the rapid socio-cultural transition observed in Arctic populations, the Inuit diet is changing. We present original data derived from the baseline Inuit Health in Transition cohort study regarding biological levels of n-3 fatty acids and trans-fatty acids (TFA), lipids with opposite he...... imposed a maximum content of 2 g/100 g fat on industrially produced trans-fats in 2003....

  2. Figuring Out Fat and Calories

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... their oils, and avocados. previous continue Fat and Calories in a Healthy Diet Fats should be eaten in moderation. The American Heart Association recommends that people get as much of their daily fat intake as possible from unsaturated fats and that they ...

  3. Polystyrene modified by grafting

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Avani Maria C, Rocha; Laura Hecker de, Carvalho; Antonio Gouveia de, Souza.

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available Diversos tipos de poliestireno modificados foram obtidos através da polimerização por enxertia (graft polymerization) de estireno na presença dos seguintes modificadores: copolímero de etileno-acetato de vinila (EVA); polietileno de baixa densidade (PE) e polibutadieno (PB). Os modificadores foram u [...] tilizados em separado e combinados. Em todos os casos, manteve-se a concentração de modificador fixa em 8% em peso e foram avaliadas as propriedades dos produtos obtidos em função da sua composição. A técnica de polimerização empregada foi a de massa/suspensão. Os melhores resultados foram obtidos para os sistemas PS/modificadores mistos. Os resultados obtidos para estes sistemas comprovam que a copolimerização por enxertia gera produtos com melhores propriedades de impacto do que as obtidas, a partir de misturas mecânicas dos componentes individuais, em sistemas semelhantes. Abstract in english Several grades of modified polystyrene were obtained through the graft polymerization of styrene in the presence of modifiers such as ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA), low density polyethylene (PE), and polybutadiene (PB). These modifiers were used by themselves and in combination. In all cases, the mod [...] ifier concentration was kept constant at 8% w/w, and the product properties were determined as a function of composition. The polymerization technique employed was that of mass/suspension. The best results were obtained for the PS/mixed modifiers systems. The results confirm that graft copolymers present better impact properties than those of mechanical blends of similar composition.

  4. Are the additional grafts necessary?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ?ur?i? A.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The goals of surgery for spinal deformity are to correct or improve the deformity to get a stable, balanced and fused spine. The long-term success of any procedure for scoliosis depends on a solid arthrodesis. Getting fusion of the instrumented segment with the aid of copious autogenous iliac graft has been the most important goal of treatment. However, harvesting copious graft from teenage iliac bone has its limitation in the quantity of graft, surgical time, and other complications of graft sites. Bone substitute is a promising concept, but there is not ideal bone substitute with all the characteristics of an autogenous bone graft. Several alternative graft materials like tricalcium phosphate, hydroxyapatite, and demineralized bone matrix have osteoinductive properties. Bone morphogenic protein has osteoconductive properties. The limitations with bone substitutes are osteoinduction and osteoconduction properties, sterilization, chances of transmitting infective disease and cost. We consider that the introduction of segmental spinal instrumentation which enables strong and firm correction and fixation of the scoliotic deformity has enabled getting fusion with less graft. We can obtain that quantity of graft after laminae and spinous process decortication. This retrospective study has been done in our hospital from January 2002 to December 2004. A total of 188 patients underwent posterior corrections for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis using segmental fixation by Moss-Miami. No autogenous iliac crest graft was taken or graft substitutes. After meticulous decortication and destruction of facet joints, we used local graft taken from spinous process and laminae. All patients had minimum thirty months follow- up. We have excellent results. Out of these 188 patients, 177 patients have fused spine, no implant failure, no pain, no infection and no loss of correction. Eleven (5.8% patients underwent re-operation; four among them because of infection, three for symptomatic implants and four due to pseudarthrosis. We consider that the use of local harvesting graft is enough for getting good spondylodesis.

  5. Coxiella burnetii vascular graft infection

    OpenAIRE

    Von Segesser Ludwig; Moulin Alexandre; Raoult Didier; Franciolli Mario; Senn Laurence; Calandra Thierry; Greub Gilbert

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Coxiella burnetii, the causative agent of Q fever, may cause culture-negative vascular graft infections. Very few cases of C. burnetii infection of a vascular graft have been reported. All were diagnosed by serology. Case presentation We report the first case of Coxiella burnetii vascular graft infection diagnosed by broad-range PCR and discuss the diagnostic approaches and treatment strategies of chronic C. burnetii infection. Conclusion C. burnetii should be considered a...

  6. Brain fat embolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently CT and MR imaging have demonstrated that cerebral edema is present in cases of fat embolism syndrome. To simulate this we have made a model of brain-fat embolism in rats under MR imaging. In 20 rats, we did intravenous injection of heparinized blood, 1.5 ml·kg-1 taken from femoral bone marrow cavity. Twenty four hours after the injection, we examined the MR images (1.5 tesla, spin-echo method) of brains and histologic findings of brains and lungs were obtained. In 5 of 20 rats, high signal intensity on T2-weighted images and low signal intensity on T1-weighted images were observed in the area of the unilateral cerebral cortex or hippocampus. These findings showed edema of the brains. They disappeared, however, one week later. Histologic examinations showed massive micro-fat emboli in capillaries of the deep cerebral cortex and substantia nigra, but no edematous findings of the brain were revealed in HE staining. In pulmonary arteries, we also found large fat emboli. We conclude that our model is a useful one for the study of brain fat embolism. (author)

  7. Environmental application of radiation grafting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adsorbent having high selectivity against a certain metal ion was synthesized by means of radiation-induced graft polymerization for the purpose of environmental application. The resulting adsorbents were utilized for the removal of toxic metal from scallop waste and the collection of uranium from seawater. As a novel application of grafting, the biodegradability of poly-hydroxybutylate was controlled by grafting. The biodegradability could be depressed by the graft chain and then recovered by external stimuli such as thermal and chemical treatments. (author)

  8. Fat Quality Influences the Obesogenic Effect of High Fat Diets

    OpenAIRE

    Raffaella Crescenzo; Francesca Bianco; Arianna Mazzoli; Antonia Giacco; Rosa Cancelliere; Giovanni di Fabio; Armando Zarrelli; Giovanna Liverini; Susanna Iossa

    2015-01-01

    High fat and/or carbohydrate intake are associated with an elevated risk for obesity and chronic diseases such as diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. The harmful effects of a high fat diet could be different, depending on dietary fat quality. In fact, high fat diets rich in unsaturated fatty acids are considered less deleterious for human health than those rich in saturated fat. In our previous studies, we have shown that rats fed a high fat diet developed obesity and exhibited a decrease i...

  9. Alternative fat sources to animal fat for pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Lauridsen, Charlotte; Christensen, Thomas Bruun; Halekoh, Ulrich

    2007-01-01

    The use of fats and oils in diets for pigs is of great importance due to their high energy value. As a consequence of the BSE-crisis in the European Union, the amount of animal fat available for animal feeds has been reduced, and alternative fat sources are of increasing importance. In this paper, we review our main findings on the effects of diets with different fat sources on apparent fat digestibility in pigs. A method for quantitative measurement of fat extraction from feed and faeces has...

  10. [A new surgical technique combining autologous intracordal transplantation of fat and fascia for sulcus vocalis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyama, K; Hirose, H; Iguchi, Y; Yamamoto, K; Suzuki, T; Yamanaka, J; Hirayama, M; Okamoto, M

    2001-12-01

    We developed a new surgical technique combining autologous intracordal transplantation of fat and fascia for sulcus vocalis. Fat tissue from the abdominal wall and fascia from the postauricular region were obtained and an incision was made on the lateral portion of the vocal cord and a small pocket prepared in the lamina propria using an elevator. After inserting fat tissue into the pocket, fascia was inserted to cover the fat graft to prevent its escape from the pocket. The surgical wound was then sutured using absorbable sutures. No evidence of postoperative absorption of transplanted fat tissue was seen, and vocal function improved postoperatively. This method proved useful as surgical treatment for sulcus vocalis. PMID:11802450

  11. Preparation of anionic fibrous catalyst by radiation graft polymerization for biodiesel synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anionic fibrous catalyst for biodiesel production from vegetable oils and animal fats was synthesized through radiation induced graft polymerization of 4-chloromethylstyrene (CMS) onto a nonwoven polyethylene (NWPE) fabric followed by amination with trimethylamine (TMA). The influence of grafting degree of the TMA-CMS-g-NWPE at 0.25 M TMA concentration was investigated by elemental analyzer, FTIR and TGA. Results show that the density of trimethylammonium group increased with the degree of grafting. However, thermal properties of the TMA-CMS-g-NWPE reduced with the degree of grafting. The preliminary transesterification test on triolein/ethanol/decane solution using selected TMA-CMS-g-NWPE containing 3.01 mmol/g trimethylammonium found that 98% the triolein can be converted into biodiesel within 4 h reaction. High conversion of rapeseed oil into biodiesel provides more information on the capability of TMA-CMS-g-NWPE as ion exchanger for biodiesel production. (Author)

  12. Fat chance for longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kniazeva, Marina; Han, Min

    2013-02-15

    The health benefits of specific fatty acids and physiological roles of fat metabolism are important subjects that are still poorly understood. In this issue of Genes & Development, O'Rourke and colleagues (pp. 429-440) uncovered a role for lipase-generated ?-6 fatty acids in promoting autophagy and, consequently, life span extension under both fed and fasting conditions. The impact of this finding is discussed with regard to the nutritional value of ?-6 fatty acids and regulatory functions of fat metabolism beyond its well-known role in energy storage. PMID:23431052

  13. Pakistan. Graft-Polymerization Under Irradiation and its Effect on Water Repellency and Resistance to Certain Micro-Organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fibre from the jute plants Corchorus capsularis and C. olitorius consists of cellulose (69-78%), lignin (10-15%), furfuraldehyde (9-11%), xylen (10-12%) and fat (1%). Jute fibre is commercially used for making sacks for packing purposes and is an important item of Pakistan's foreign trade. It was intended to graft-copolymerize jute with various monomers with the idea of determining its water absorption and resistance to microorganisms. Such studies would enlarge the scope of the commercial utilization of jute fibre. Graft-copolymerization or graft-polymerization in our studies invariably refers to soaking jute with monomers under the conditions of the experiment

  14. Suction blister grafting - Modifications for easy harvesting and grafting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Suction blister grafting is a simple modality of treatment of patients with resistant and stable vitiligo. But raising the blisters may be time consuming and transferring to the recipient site may be difficult as the graft is ultrathin. By doing some modifications we can make the technique simpler and easier. We can decrease the blister induction time by intradermal injection of saline, exposure to Wood?s lamp, intrablister injection of saline. By these methods we can decrease the blister induction time from 2-3 hrs to 45-90 minutes. After harvesting the graft, it can be transferred to the recipient area by taking the graft on a sterile glass slide, on the gloved finger, rolling the graft over a sterile syringe and then spreading on the recipient area, or taking on the sterile wrapper of paraffin dressing and then placing over the recipient area.

  15. Thermal stability of grafted fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Presented the experimental results on the study of thermal stability of grafted fibers, i.e., polypropylene-, polyester-, and rayon-grafted fibers. These fibers were obtained by radiation grafting processes using hydrophylic monomers such as 1-vinyl 2-pyrolidone, acrylic acid, N-methylol acrylamide, and acrylonitrile. The thermal stability of the fibers was studied using a Shimadzu Thermal Analyzer DT-30. The thermal stability of the fibers, which can be indicated by the value of the activation energy for thermal degradation, was not improved by radiation grafting. The degree of improvement depends on the thermal stability of the monomers used for grafting. The thermal stability of a polypropylene fiber, either a grafted or an ungrafted one, was found to be inferior compared to the polyester of a rayon fiber, which may be due to the lack of C=O and C=C bonds in the polypropylene molecules. The thermal stability of a fiber grafted with acrylonitrile monomer was found to be better than that of an ungrafted one. However, no improvement was detected in the fibers grafted with 1-vinyl 2-pyrrolidone monomer, which may be due to the lower thermal stability of poly(1-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone), compared to the polypropylene or polyester fibers. 17 figures, 3 tables

  16. Asymptotic behavior of grafting rays

    CERN Document Server

    Diaz, Raquel

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we study the convergence behavior of grafting rays to the Thurston boundary of Teichmuller space. When the grafting is done along a weighted system of simple closed curves or along a maximal uniquely ergodic lamination this behavior is the same as for Teichmuller geodesics and lines of minima. We also show that these rays are at bounded distance from Teichmuller geodesics.

  17. That Fat Cat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Phyllis Gilchrist

    2012-01-01

    This activity began with a picture book, Nurit Karlin's "Fat Cat On a Mat" (HarperCollins; 1998). The author and her students started their project with a 5-inch circular template for the head of their cats. They reviewed shapes as they drew the head and then added the ears and nose, which were triangles. Details to the face were added when…

  18. That Fat Cat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Phyllis Gilchrist

    2012-01-01

    This activity began with a picture book, Nurit Karlin's "Fat Cat On a Mat" (HarperCollins; 1998). The author and her students started their project with a 5-inch circular template for the head of their cats. They reviewed shapes as they drew the head and then added the ears and nose, which were triangles. Details to the face were added when…

  19. Dangers of Belly Fat

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... participants who were overweight or obese according to BMI only. Thin women with fat around the mid- ... for healthier living. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Obesity Weight Control About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Contact Us Get ...

  20. Coxiella burnetii vascular graft infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Von Segesser Ludwig

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coxiella burnetii, the causative agent of Q fever, may cause culture-negative vascular graft infections. Very few cases of C. burnetii infection of a vascular graft have been reported. All were diagnosed by serology. Case presentation We report the first case of Coxiella burnetii vascular graft infection diagnosed by broad-range PCR and discuss the diagnostic approaches and treatment strategies of chronic C. burnetii infection. Conclusion C. burnetii should be considered as etiological agent in patients with a vascular graft and fever, abdominal pain, and laboratory signs of inflammation, with or without exposure history. Broad-range PCR should be performed on culture-negative surgical samples in patients with suspected infection of vascular graft.

  1. Big, Fat World of Lipids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Articles | Inside Life Science Home Page The Big, Fat World of Lipids By Emily Carlson Posted August ... the doctor typically provides your levels of three fats found in the blood: LDL, HDL and triglycerides. ...

  2. Radiation grafting on natural films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacroix, M.; Khan, R.; Senna, M.; Sharmin, N.; Salmieri, S.; Safrany, A.

    2014-01-01

    Different methods of polymer grafting using gamma irradiation are reported in the present study for the preparation of newly functionalized biodegradable films, and some important properties related to their mechanical and barrier properties are described. Biodegradable films composed of zein and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) were gamma-irradiated in presence of different ratios of acrylic acid (AAc) monomer for compatibilization purpose. Resulting grafted films (zein/PVA-g-AAc) had their puncture strength (PS=37-40 N mm-1) and puncture deformation (PD=6.5-9.8 mm) improved for 30% and 50% PVA in blend, with 5% AAc under 20 kGy. Methylcellulose (MC)-based films were irradiated in the presence of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) or silane, in order to determine the effect of monomer grafting on the mechanical properties of films. It was found that grafted films (MC-g-HEMA and MC-g-silane) using 35% monomer performed higher mechanical properties with PS values of 282-296 N mm-1 and PD of 5.0-5.5 mm under 10 kGy. Compatibilized polycaprolactone (PCL)/chitosan composites were developed via grafting silane in chitosan films. Resulting trilayer grafted composite film (PCL/chitosan-g-silane/PCL) presented superior tensile strength (TS=22 MPa) via possible improvement of interfacial adhesion (PCL/chitosan) when using 25% silane under 10 kGy. Finally, MC-based films containing crystalline nanocellulose (CNC) as a filling agent were prepared and irradiated in presence of trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate (TMPTMA) as a grafted plasticizer. Grafted films (MC-g-TMPTMA) presented superior mechanical properties with a TS of 47.9 MPa and a tensile modulus (TM) of 1792 MPa, possibly due to high yield formation of radicals to promote TMPTMA grafting during irradiation. The addition of CNC led to an additional improvement of the barrier properties, with a significant 25% reduction of water vapor permeability (WVP) of grafted films.

  3. Percutaneous Intervention of Sequential Coronary Venous Graft

    OpenAIRE

    Dogan, Zeki; Karabulut, Ahmet; Uzunlar, Bulent

    2014-01-01

    We present a case with coronary bypass grafts in which venous graft was anastomosed to obtuse marginal (OM) 1 and OM2 branches sequentially. We performed percutaneous intervention to the proximal circumflex (CX), OM1, and bridging segment of the venous graft. Finally, bridging segment of the venous graft began to function as a CX body extending between the OM1 and OM2.

  4. The trochanteric fat pad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Panettiere

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Technological developments based on the use of autologous white adipose tissue (WAT attracted attention to minor fat depots as possible sources of adipose tissue. In plastic surgery, the trochanteric fatty pad is one of the most used WAT depots for its location and organoleptic characteristics that make it particularly suitable for reconstructive procedures. Despite its wide use in clinic, the structure of this depot has never been studied in detail and it is not known if structural differences exist among trochanteric fat and other subcutaneous WAT depots. The present study was performed on trochanteric fat pad with the aim to clarify the morphology of its adipocytes, stroma and microcirculation, with particular reference to the stem niches. Histological and ultrastructural studies showed that the main peculiar feature of the trochanteric fat concerns its stromal component, which appears less dense than in the other subcutaneous WATs studied. The intra-parenchymal collagen stroma is poor and the extracellular compartment shows large spaces, filled with electron-light material, in which isolated collagen bundles are present. The adipocytes are wrapped in weak and easily detachable collagen baskets. These connective sheaths are very thin compared to the sheaths in other subcutaneous WAT depots. The capillaries are covered by large, long and thin elements surrounded by an external lamina; these perivascular cells are poor in organelles and mainly contain poly-ribosomes. In conclusion, when compared to other WAT deposits, the trochanteric fatty pad shows structural peculiarities in its stroma and microcirculation suggesting a high regenerative potential. Resistance, dissociability, microvascular weft and high regenerative potential make the trochanteric fatty pad a privileged source for harvesting in autologous WAT-based regenerative procedures.

  5. Cerebral fat embolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A case of cerebral fat embolism is reported. A 18-year-old patient with multiple bone fractures was in semiconma immediately after an injury. Brain CT showed no brain swelling or intracranial hematoma. Hypoxemia and alcoholemia were noted on admission, which returned to normal without improvement of consciousness level. In addition, respiratory symptoms with positive radiographic changes, tachycardia, pyrexia, sudden drop in hemoglobin level, and sudden thrombocytopenia developed. These symptoms were compatible with Gurd's criteria of systemic fat embolism. Eight days after injury, multiple low density areas appeared on CT and disappeared within the subsequent two weeks, and subdural effusion with cerebral atrophy developed. These CT findings were not considered due to cerebral trauma. Diagnosis of cerebral fat embolism was made. The subdural effusion was drained. Neurologic and pulmonary recoveries took place slowly and one month following the injury the patient became alert and exhibited fully coordinated limb movement. The CT scans of the present case well corresponded with hitherto reported pathological findings. Petechiae in the white matter must have developed on the day of injury, which could not be detected by CT examination. It is suggested that some petechial regions fused to purpuras and then gradually resolved when they were detected as multiple low density areas on CT. CT in the purpuras phase would have shown these lesions as high density areas. These lesions must have healed with formation of tiny scars and blood pigment which were demonstrated as the disappearance of multiple low density areas by CT examination. Cerebral atrophy and subsequent subdural effusion developed as a result of demyelination. The patient took the typical clinical course of cerebral fat embolism and serial CT scans served for its assessment. (author)

  6. Do we taste fat?

    OpenAIRE

    Laugerette, Fabienne; Gaillard, Dany; Degrace-Passilly, Patricia; Niot, Isabelle; Besnard, Philippe

    2006-01-01

    Sense of taste informs the body about the quality of ingested foods. Five sub-modalities allowing the perception of sweet, salty, sour, bitter, and umami stimuli are classically depicted. However, the inborn attraction of mammals for fatty foods raises the possibility of an additional oro-sensory modality devoted to fat perception. During a long time, dietary lipids were thought to be detected only by trigeminal (texture perception), retronasal olfactory, and post-ingestive cues. This minirev...

  7. Radiation grafting of styrene into PVDF powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polyvinylidene fluoride PVDF powder was chosen as the base material, and grafted with styrene monomer under pre-irradiation graft polymerization method. The styrene grafted PVDF (PVDF-g-PS) powder was characterized by FTIR spectroscopy, DSC, TGA and element analysis. The FTIR spectra demonstrate that the poly-styrene is successfully grafted into PVDF powder. The crystallinity of grafted PVDF powder decreases with the increasing in the degree of grafting according to the DSC curves. The TGA curves of PVDF-g-PS change remarkably with respect to the original PVDF. It further proves the polystyrene is successfully grafted into PVDF powder. (authors)

  8. Sharma's clamp for sequential coronary artery grafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ashok Kumar; Siddiqi, Mohammad Salman; Sabti, Hilal Al

    2015-10-01

    Sequential coronary artery grafting is a common procedure. Holding the graft in the correct alignment and orientation in a limited pericardial space and taking a suture at the correct place on the graft is difficult. Graft slippage from the assistant can be distracting to the surgeon, unnecessarily increasing the anastomosis time and also affecting graft patency due to improperly placed sutures. We describe a simple device (Sharma's clamp) for graft holding and stabilization for sequential bypass grafting in coronary artery bypass surgery. PMID:25931571

  9. Fat Quality Influences the Obesogenic Effect of High Fat Diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crescenzo, Raffaella; Bianco, Francesca; Mazzoli, Arianna; Giacco, Antonia; Cancelliere, Rosa; di Fabio, Giovanni; Zarrelli, Armando; Liverini, Giovanna; Iossa, Susanna

    2015-11-01

    High fat and/or carbohydrate intake are associated with an elevated risk for obesity and chronic diseases such as diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. The harmful effects of a high fat diet could be different, depending on dietary fat quality. In fact, high fat diets rich in unsaturated fatty acids are considered less deleterious for human health than those rich in saturated fat. In our previous studies, we have shown that rats fed a high fat diet developed obesity and exhibited a decrease in oxidative capacity and an increase in oxidative stress in liver mitochondria. To investigate whether polyunsaturated fats could attenuate the above deleterious effects of high fat diets, energy balance and body composition were assessed after two weeks in rats fed isocaloric amounts of a high-fat diet (58.2% by energy) rich either in lard or safflower/linseed oil. Hepatic functionality, plasma parameters, and oxidative status were also measured. The results show that feeding on safflower/linseed oil diet attenuates the obesogenic effect of high fat diets and ameliorates the blood lipid profile. Conversely, hepatic steatosis and mitochondrial oxidative stress appear to be negatively affected by a diet rich in unsaturated fatty acids. PMID:26580650

  10. Fat Quality Influences the Obesogenic Effect of High Fat Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaella Crescenzo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available High fat and/or carbohydrate intake are associated with an elevated risk for obesity and chronic diseases such as diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. The harmful effects of a high fat diet could be different, depending on dietary fat quality. In fact, high fat diets rich in unsaturated fatty acids are considered less deleterious for human health than those rich in saturated fat. In our previous studies, we have shown that rats fed a high fat diet developed obesity and exhibited a decrease in oxidative capacity and an increase in oxidative stress in liver mitochondria. To investigate whether polyunsaturated fats could attenuate the above deleterious effects of high fat diets, energy balance and body composition were assessed after two weeks in rats fed isocaloric amounts of a high-fat diet (58.2% by energy rich either in lard or safflower/linseed oil. Hepatic functionality, plasma parameters, and oxidative status were also measured. The results show that feeding on safflower/linseed oil diet attenuates the obesogenic effect of high fat diets and ameliorates the blood lipid profile. Conversely, hepatic steatosis and mitochondrial oxidative stress appear to be negatively affected by a diet rich in unsaturated fatty acids.

  11. Body fat, abdominal fat and body fat distribution related to cardiovascular risk factors in prepubertal children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, Magnus; Wollmer, Per; Karlsson, Magnus K; Lindén, Christian; Andersen, Lars B; Thorsson, Ola

    2012-01-01

    Aim:? We analysed whether total body fat (TBF), abdominal fat and body fat distribution are associated with higher composite risk factor scores for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in young children. Methods:? Cross-sectional study of 238 children aged 8-11?years. TBF and abdominal fat mass (AFM) were measured by Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry. TBF was expressed as a percentage of body weight (BF%). Body fat distribution was calculated as AFM/TBF. Maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2PEAK) ), systolic and d...

  12. Body fat, abdominal fat and body fat distribution related to cardiovascular risk factors in prepubertal children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, Magnus; Wollmer, Per; Karlsson, Magnus K; Lindén, Christian; Andersen, Lars B; Thorsson, Ola

    2012-01-01

    Aim:? We analysed whether total body fat (TBF), abdominal fat and body fat distribution are associated with higher composite risk factor scores for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in young children. Methods:? Cross-sectional study of 238 children aged 8-11?years. TBF and abdominal fat mass (AFM) were...... measured by Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry. TBF was expressed as a percentage of body weight (BF%). Body fat distribution was calculated as AFM/TBF. Maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2PEAK) ), systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP), and resting heart rate (RHR) were measured. Mean arterial pressure...

  13. Coronary vein graft disease: Pathogenesis and prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Parang, Pirouz; Arora, Rohit

    2009-01-01

    Not long after coronary artery bypass grafting surgery was described, several reports presented follow-up angiographic data on large cohorts of patients, demonstrating that approximately one-half of saphenous vein grafts fail within 10 to 15 years of surgery and that graft failure is associated with worse clinical outcomes. Three processes are responsible for vein graft failure. Thrombosis, intimal hyperplasia and accelerated atherosclerosis contribute to graft failure in the acute, subacute ...

  14. A Reappraisal of Saphenous Vein Grafting

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan Shi-Min; Jing Hua

    2011-01-01

    Autologous saphenous vein grafting has been broadly used as a bypass conduit, interposition graft, and patch graft in a variety of operations in cardiac, thoracic, neurovascular, general vascular, vascular access, and urology surgeries, since they are superior to prosthetic veins. Modified saphenous vein grafts (SVG), including spiral and cylindrical grafts, and vein cuffs or patches, are employed in vascular revascularization to satisfy the large size of the receipt vessels or to obtain a be...

  15. Controlled grafting of cellulose diacetate.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vl?ek, Petr; Janata, Miroslav; Látalová, Petra; K?íž, Jaroslav; ?adová, Eva; Toman, Lud?k

    Gargnano : European Polymer Federation, 2006. s. 1. [European Polymer Conference EUPOC. Branched Macromolecular Structures. 07.05.2006-12.05.2006, Gargnano] R&D Projects: GA AV ?R IAA410820601 Keywords : cellulose diacetate * grafting Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry

  16. Coronary arteries bypass grafting stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Ebrahimi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Coronary artery disease (CAD is a major global problem. In addition, it is higher risk of mortality for women more than men are when develop in female gender Atherosclerotic plaques consist of deposits of fatty material in the tunica intima. The role of inflammatory process in CAD has been known from 1980’s. Several studies investigated the innate immunity and adaptive immunity roles in atherosclerosis and they concluded that it plays a key role in atherosclerosis. Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG is a widely used method for the treatment of CAD. Based on the literature, CABG is the most common surgical operation done worldwide. In During the first 10 years after CABG, up to 50% of saphenous grafts will occlude. Graft restenosis is beginning with acute thrombosis, intima hyperplasia, and plaque formation. In this review, some molecular pathways of graft failure and restenosis such as apoptosis and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B are described.

  17. Body fat, abdominal fat and body fat distribution related to VO(2PEAK) in young children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, Magnus; Wollmer, Per; Karlsson, Magnus K; Lindén, Christian; Andersen, Lars Bo; Thorsson, Ola

    Abstract Objective. Aerobic fitness, defined as maximum oxygen uptake (VO(2PEAK)), and body fat measurements represent two known risk factors for disease. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between VO(2PEAK) and body fat measurements in young children at a population......-based level. Methods. Cross-sectional study of 225 children (128 boys and 97 girls) aged 8-11 years, recruited from a population-based cohort. Total lean body mass (LBM), total fat mass (TBF), and abdominal fat mass (AFM) were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Body fat was also calculated as a...... percentage of body mass (BF%) and body fat distribution as AFM/TBF. VO(2PEAK) was assessed by indirect calorimetry during maximal exercise test. Results. Significant relationships existed between body fat measurements and VO(2PEAK) in both boys and girls, with Pearson correlation coefficients for absolute...

  18. ACL Reconstruction: Choosing the Graft

    OpenAIRE

    CERULLI, GIULIANO; PLACELLA, GIACOMO; Sebastiani, Enrico; Tei, Matteo Maria; Speziali, Andrea; Manfreda, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    Rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament is one of the most common ligament injuries in sports traumatology. The need for surgical anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction is justified by its anatomical characteristics. Key considerations when choosing a graft include the potential for bone integration and the risk of failure. Bone sclerosis around the tunnel affects the integration of the graft. For this reason, one aspect upon which orthopedic surgeons should focus is the biology of the b...

  19. Vascular graft infections with Mycoplasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levi-Mazloum, Niels Donald; Skov Jensen, J; Prag, J; Eiberg, J; Jørgensen, J; Schroeder, T V

    1995-01-01

    Vascular graft infection is one of the most serious complications in vascular surgery. It is associated with mortality rates ranging from 25% to 75% and with morbidity in the form of amputation in approximately 30% of patients. Staphylococcus aureus is the leading pathogen. With conventional laboratory techniques, the percentage of culture-negative yet grossly infected vascular grafts seems to be increasing and is not adequately explained by the prior use of antibiotics. We have recently reporte...

  20. Interventions in Infrainguinal Bypass Grafts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interventional radiologist plays an important role in the detection and prevention of infrainguinal bypass failure. Early detection and evaluation of flow-limiting lesions effectively preserve graft (venous bypass and polyester or expanded polytetrafluoroethylene bypass) patency by identifying stenoses before occlusion occurs. Delay in treatment of the at-risk graft may result in graft failure and a reduced chance of successful revascularization. For this reason, surveillance protocols form an important part of follow-up after infrainguinal bypass surgery. As well as having an understanding of the application of imaging techniques including ultrasound, MR angiography, CT angiography and digital subtraction angiography, the interventional radiologist should have detailed knowledge of the minimally invasive therapeutic options. Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA), or alternatively cutting balloon angioplasty, is the interventional treatment of choice in prevention of graft failure and occlusion. Further alternatives include metallic stent placement, fibrinolysis, and mechanical thrombectomy. Primary assisted patency rates following PTA can be up to 65% at 5 years. When the endovascular approach is unsuccessful, these therapeutic options are complemented by surgical procedures including vein patch revision, jump grafting, or placement of a new graft

  1. All-Inside Anterior Cruciate Ligament Graft Link: Graft Preparation Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Lubowitz, James H.

    2012-01-01

    The anatomic single-bundle, all-inside anterior cruciate ligament graft-link technique requires meticulous graft preparation. The graft choice is no-incision allograft or gracilis-sparing, posterior semitendinosus autograft. The graft is linked, like a chain, to femoral and tibial TightRope cortical suspensory fixation devices with adjustable-length graft loops (Arthrex, Naples, FL) in the following manner: the graft is quadrupled, and the free ends are first whip-stitched and then sutured wi...

  2. The Supersymmetric Fat Higgs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supersymmetric models have traditionally been assumed to be perturbative up to high scales due to the requirement of calculable unification. In this note I review the recently proposed 'Fat Higgs' model which relaxes the requirement of perturbativity. In this framework, an NMSSM-like trilinear coupling becomes strong at some intermediate scale. The NMSSM Higgses are meson composites of an asymptotically-free gauge theory. This allows us to raise the mass of the Higgs, thus alleviating the MSSM of its fine tuning problem. Despite the strong coupling at an intermediate scale, the UV completion allows us to maintain gauge coupling unification.

  3. Radiation grafting on natural films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Different methods of polymer grafting using gamma irradiation are reported in the present study for the preparation of newly functionalized biodegradable films, and some important properties related to their mechanical and barrier properties are described. Biodegradable films composed of zein and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) were gamma-irradiated in presence of different ratios of acrylic acid (AAc) monomer for compatibilization purpose. Resulting grafted films (zein/PVA-g-AAc) had their puncture strength (PS=37–40 N mm?1) and puncture deformation (PD=6.5–9.8 mm) improved for 30% and 50% PVA in blend, with 5% AAc under 20 kGy. Methylcellulose (MC)-based films were irradiated in the presence of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) or silane, in order to determine the effect of monomer grafting on the mechanical properties of films. It was found that grafted films (MC-g-HEMA and MC-g-silane) using 35% monomer performed higher mechanical properties with PS values of 282–296 N mm?1 and PD of 5.0–5.5 mm under 10 kGy. Compatibilized polycaprolactone (PCL)/chitosan composites were developed via grafting silane in chitosan films. Resulting trilayer grafted composite film (PCL/chitosan-g-silane/PCL) presented superior tensile strength (TS=22 MPa) via possible improvement of interfacial adhesion (PCL/chitosan) when using 25% silane under 10 kGy. Finally, MC-based films containing crystalline nanocellulose (CNC) as a filling agent were prepared and irradiated in presence of trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate (TMPTMA) as a grafted plasticizer. Grafted films (MC-g-TMPTMA) presented superior mechanical properties with a TS of 47.9 MPa and a tensile modulus (TM) of 1792 MPa, possibly due to high yield formation of radicals to promote TMPTMA grafting during irradiation. The addition of CNC led to an additional improvement of the barrier properties, with a significant 25% reduction of water vapor permeability (WVP) of grafted films. - Highlights: • Irradiation of zein/PVA/acrylic acid improved the mechanical properties of films. • Irradiation of Methylcellulose/NCC/TMPTMA improved the barrier properties of films. • Irradiation of chitosane/Methylcellulose/HEMA/silane improved the strength of films

  4. Radiation grafting of methyl methacrylate on radiation crosslinked natural rubber film. Part 1. Grafting conditions and grafting yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grafting of methyl methacrylate (MMA) on radiation crosslinked natural rubber (NR) film has been investigated by mutual radiation grafting. The effect of experimental parameters like radiation dose, dose-rate, additives like acids and inorganic salts, solvents, monomer concentration, cross-linking density of the natural rubber film on the grafting extent has been studied.From the kinetic studies, a kinetic equation showing almost parabolic and linear dependence of grafting on concentration and dose rate, respectively, was deduced.Preliminary thermal stability studies of grafted films indicated that grafting of MMA does not enhance the thermal stability of NR. (author)

  5. What’s fat activism?

    OpenAIRE

    Cooper, Charlotte Rachel Mary

    2008-01-01

    In 21st century Western culture, obesity is such a maligned state of being that the notion of fat activism is unthinkable to most people. "Fat" and "activist" are not words that sit together well in the popular imagination. The idea of activism suggests a dynamic engagement with public life that could not be further from couch potato stereotypes associated with fat people, or popular paradigms which typify "the obese" as innately unwholesome, passive recipients of pity and inte...

  6. [Plaque surgery for Peyronie's disease: heterologous grafts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradiso, Matteo; Sedigh, Omid; Milan, Gian Luca

    2003-06-01

    Surgical treatment of Induratio Penis Plastica includes conservative procedures (phalloplasty), substitutive procedures (prosthesis) and combined procedures (phalloplasty plus prosthesis). Our policy for conservative treatment is based on radical removal of the plaque and replacement with biological patches. During a 15 year experience we employed lyophilized dura mater, autologous dermal graft, preputial skin, cadaveric dermal graft (AlloDerm), venous graft and porcine SIS (Small Intestine Submucosa) graft. Our experience confirms the superiority of venous grafts, but preliminary results with SIS grafts are encouraging. PMID:12868152

  7. Saphenous vein forearm grafts and gortex thigh grafts as alternative forms of vascular access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, S; Wilkinson, A; Sellars, L

    1995-11-01

    To compare the survival and complication rates of saphenous vein forearm grafts and gortex thigh grafts. Retrospective study over a twelve-year period with review of case-notes. Saphenous vein forearm grafts were constructed in 17 males and 12 females, mean age 61 years and gortex thigh grafts in 24 males and 22 females (49 grafts), mean age 49 years. Grafts were the primary form of access in 9 patients in each group. Follow-up was 45.6 and 135.2 patient years on dialysis for forearm grafts and thigh grafts respectively. One-year total survival was 89.4% (89.4% at 2 years and 71.5% at 3 years) and 84.9% (82.3% at 2 years and 70.4% at 3 years) for saphenous vein forearm grafts and gortex thigh grafts respectively. The overall complication rates were 0.22 and 0.61 per patient year on dialysis for saphenous vein forearm grafts and gortex thigh grafts respectively. Thrombosis occurred in 10% and 52%, infection in 0% and 35% and no complications in 62% and 24% of saphenous vein forearm grafts and gortex thigh grafts respectively. Both saphenous vein forearm grafts and gortex thigh grafts can provide satisfactory vascular access. The survival is similar at one year but gortex thigh grafts have a higher complication rate. PMID:8605714

  8. Kinetics of vein graft hyperplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human aortocoronary vein grafts fail due to accelerated occlusive disease. The possibility that this is related to cellular hyperplasia was investigated in a rabbit model where kinetics of vein graft thickening, endothelial (EC) repair, and smooth muscle cell (SMC) proliferation were measured from 2 days to 24 weeks after implanting jugular vein segments in the carotid artery. Immediately after graft placement focal EC denudation was observed. These defects were repaired within 1 week and did not recur. By 4 weeks intimal area had increased 30 fold from 0.028 +/- 0.004 to 0.705 +/- 0.021 mm2, and a 24 weeks was 0.93 +/- 0.21 mm2. This response did not produce a reduction in graft lumen area. EC and SMC thymidine-labeling index were measured by en face and cross-section autoradiography after injection of 3H-thymidine and perfusion fixation. Despite rapid EC surface repair EC labeling index remained elevated and only returned to normal levels at 12 weeks; SMC labeling was 10 fold greater than baseline even at 24 weeks (0.22% vs 0.02%). SMC mass demonstrated morphometrically increased between 2 and 12 weeks. Intimal thickening in vein grafts is due to SMC proliferation and develops after the EC layer has been restored. In contrast, intimal SMC proliferate in damaged arteries when the EC layer is absent and cease when the EC layer is regenerated

  9. Plant grafting: new mechanisms, evolutionary implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldschmidt, Eliezer E

    2014-01-01

    Grafting, an old plant propagation practice, is still widely used with fruit trees and in recent decades also with vegetables. Taxonomic proximity is a general prerequisite for successful graft-take and long-term survival of the grafted, composite plant. However, the mechanisms underlying interspecific graft incompatibility are as yet insufficiently understood. Hormonal signals, auxin in particular, are believed to play an important role in the wound healing and vascular regeneration within the graft union zone. Incomplete and convoluted vascular connections impede the vital upward and downward whole plant transfer routes. Long-distance protein, mRNA and small RNA graft-transmissible signals currently emerge as novel mechanisms which regulate nutritional and developmental root/top relations and may play a pivotal role in grafting physiology. Grafting also has significant pathogenic projections. On one hand, stock to scion mechanical contact enables the spread of diseases, even without a complete graft union. But, on the other hand, grafting onto resistant rootstocks serves as a principal tool in the management of fruit tree plagues and vegetable soil-borne diseases. The 'graft hybrid' historic controversy has not yet been resolved. Recent evidence suggests that epigenetic modification of DNA-methylation patterns may account for certain graft-transformation phenomena. Root grafting is a wide spread natural phenomenon; both intraspecific and interspecific root grafts have been recorded. Root grafts have an evolutionary role in the survival of storm-hit forest stands as well as in the spread of devastating diseases. A more fundamental evolutionary role is hinted by recent findings that demonstrate plastid and nuclear genome transfer between distinct Nicotiana species in the graft union zone, within a tissue culture system. This has led to the formation of alloploid cells that, under laboratory conditions, gave rise to a novel, alloploid Nicotiana species, indicating that natural grafts may play a role in plant speciation, under certain circumstances. PMID:25566298

  10. Causes of corneal graft failure in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dandona Lalit

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The success of corneal grafting in visual rehabilitation of the corneal blind in India depends on survival of the grafts. Understanding the causes of graft failure may help reduce the risk of failure. We studied these causes in a series of 638 graft failures at our institution. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the association of particular causes of graft failure with indications for grafting, socioeconomic status, age, sex, host corneal vascularization, donor corneal quality, and experience of surgeon. The major causes of graft failure were allograft rejection (29.2%, increased intraocular pressure (16.9%, infection excluding endophthalmitis (15.4%, and surface problems (12.7%. The odds of infection causing graft failure were significantly higher in patients of lower socioeconomic status (odds ratio 2.45, 95% CI 1.45-4.15. Surface problems as a cause of graft failure was significantly associated with grafts done for corneal scarring or for regrafts (odds ratio 3.36, 95% CI 1.80-6.30. Increased intraocular pressure as a cause of graft failure had significant association with grafts done for aphakic or pseudophakic bullous keratopathy, congenital conditions or glaucoma, or regrafts (odds ratio 2.19, 95% CI 1.25-3.84. Corneal dystrophy was the indication for grafting in 12 of the 13 cases of graft failure due to recurrence of host disease. Surface problems, increased intraocular pressure, and infection are modifiable risk factors that are more likely to cause graft failure in certain categories of patients in India. Knowledge about these associations can be helpful in looking for and aggressively treating these modifiable risk factors in the at-risk categories of corneal graft patients. This can possibly reduce the chance of graft failure.

  11. What to Expect during Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For surgeries with several bypasses, both artery and vein grafts are commonly used. Artery grafts. These grafts are much less likely than vein grafts to become blocked over time. The left internal ...

  12. Percentage Energy from Fat Screener

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 1996, RFMMB staff developed a short assessment instrument to estimate an individual's usual intake of percentage energy from fat. The foods asked about on the instrument were selected because they were the most important predictors of variability in percentage energy from fat among adults in USDA's 1989-91 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes of Individuals (CSFII).

  13. Radiation grafting of acrylamide onto polystyrene beads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiation grafting of acrylamide onto polystyrene beads by peroxide has been studied and the ability for binding immunoglobulin onto chemically-treated grafted beads has been determined. The results show that the grafting reaction basically completes in three hours. At about 60 deg C of grafting reaction temperature the grafting level is the highest. The grafing level is higher in low dose rate than in high dose rate when the total dose is the same. The grafting level is increased with the increasing of irradiation dose and monomer contcentration. The half-life of the peroxide produced on polystyrene beads is about 50 hours under ambient temperature. It is found that the ability for binding immunoglobulin by chemically-treated grafted beads is higher than untreated beads and the ability is increased with the increasing of grafting level

  14. POST CORONARY ARTERY BYPASS GRAFT STUDY (CABG)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Relative effectiveness of moderate versus more aggressive lipid lowering, and of low dose anticoagulation versus placebo, in delaying saphenous vein coronary bypass graft atherosclerosis and preventing occlusion of saphenous grafts of patients with saphenous vein coronary bypass ...

  15. Occlusion of a Rapidly Expanding Hemodialysis Graft Pseudoaneurysm with Placement of a Stent Graft

    OpenAIRE

    Moszkowicz, Arie; Behrens, George; Gueyikian, Sebouh; Patel, Nilesh H.; Ferral, Hector

    2007-01-01

    We describe a 44-year-old man with end-stage renal disease who underwent insertion of a stent graft to repair a hemodialysis graft pseudoaneurysm. The indication for stent graft placement was an acute and rapidly enlarging intragraft pseudoaneurysm. The patient experienced no complications following the procedure, but he presented with two graft occlusions within the 2 months following the procedure.

  16. Prevention of primary vascular graft infection with silver-coated polyester graft in a porcine model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, H; Sandermann, J; Prag, J; Lund, L; Lindholt, Jes S.

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of a silver-coated vascular polyester graft in the prevention of graft infection after inoculation with Staphylococcus aureus in a porcine model.......To evaluate the efficacy of a silver-coated vascular polyester graft in the prevention of graft infection after inoculation with Staphylococcus aureus in a porcine model....

  17. Scoring System for Predicting Saphenous Vein Graft Patency in Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting

    OpenAIRE

    Sarzaeem, Mahmood Reza; Mandegar, Mohammad Hossein; Roshanali, Farideh; Vedadian, Ali; Saidi, Bahare; ALAEDDINI, Farshid; Tabarestani, Nardin

    2010-01-01

    The initial and long-term benefits of coronary artery bypass grafting depend upon maintaining the coronary blood flow supplied by the graft. In order to devise a scoring system for predicting graft patency, we evaluated presumptive correlations between saphenous vein graft patency and the characteristics of saphenous veins that were used as conduits in coronary revascularization.

  18. Recanalization of an Occluded Infrainguinal Vein Graft Complicated by Graft Aneurysm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technique of subintimal angioplasty has been described for the recanalisation of native vessels after occlusion of infrainguinal vascular bypass grafts. We report a case in which an attempt at such treatment resulted in inadvertent but successful recanalisation of the occluded vein graft instead. This was complicated by graft perforation and subsequent graft aneurysm which was successfully treated with a covered stent

  19. Costal Cartilage Grafts in Rhinoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedok, Fred G

    2016-01-01

    Cartilage grafts are regularly used in rhinoplasty. Septal and auricular donor sites are commonly used. Many situations compel the surgeon to use other alternative donor sites, including revision rhinoplasty and trauma. Many patients have a small amount of native septal cartilage and are unable to provide adequate septal cartilage to be used for frequently performed rhinoplasty maneuvers. The rib cage provides an enormous reserve of costal cartilage that can be carved into a variety of necessary grafts. A description of the technique of harvesting costal cartilage, a review of complications and management, and illustrative cases examples are included. PMID:26616708

  20. Autologous Bone-Marrow-Derived-Mononuclear-Cells-Enriched Fat Transplantation in Breast Augmentation: Evaluation of Clinical Outcomes and Aesthetic Results in a 30-Year-Old Female

    OpenAIRE

    Dmitry Bulgin; Erik Vrabic; Enes Hodzic

    2013-01-01

    Autologous fat transfer (lipofilling) is becoming an invaluable tool for breast augmentation as well as for breast reconstruction. Autologous lipofilling has several advantages, including biocompatibility, versatility, natural appearance, and low donor site morbidity. The main limitation is unpredictable fat graft resorption, which ranges from 25% to 80%, probably as a result of ischaemia and lack of neoangiogenesis. To obviate these disadvantages, several studies have searched for new ways o...

  1. Signal transduction by the Fat cytoplasmic domain

    OpenAIRE

    Pan, Guohui; Feng, Yongqiang; Ambegaonkar, Abhijit A.; Sun, Gongping; Huff, Matthew; Rauskolb, Cordelia; Irvine, Kenneth D.

    2013-01-01

    The large atypical cadherin Fat is a receptor for both Hippo and planar cell polarity (PCP) pathways. Here we investigate the molecular basis for signal transduction downstream of Fat by creating targeted alterations within a genomic construct that contains the entire fat locus, and by monitoring and manipulating the membrane localization of the Fat pathway component Dachs. We establish that the human Fat homolog FAT4 lacks the ability to transduce Hippo signaling in Drosophila, but can trans...

  2. How much dietary fat in therapeutic nutrition?

    OpenAIRE

    Simko, V.

    1990-01-01

    Dietary fat has a less prominent role in realimentation than the alternate source of energy, carbohydrate. Presently available therapeutic diets, in typical feeding routines, provide only 3 to 120 g of fat per day. Three major factors contribute to fat underutilization: long-standing belief that fat is to blame for various vague symptoms of indigestion, misconception that daily fecal fat in excess of 7 g represents bowel dysfunction, and fear of fat-induced atherogenesis. None of these apply ...

  3. Spontaneous rupture of a saphenous vein graft

    OpenAIRE

    Davey, P.; Gwilt, D; Forfar, C

    1999-01-01

    We present a case of spontaneous rupture of a right coronary bypass vein graft in a 57-year-old woman 10 years after coronary by-pass surgery. Although rare, this diagnosis should be considered in such patients presenting with appropriate symptoms.???Keywords: coronary artery bypass graft; false aneurysm; saphenous vein graft

  4. Multisaccular Aneurysm in a Coronary Vein Graft

    OpenAIRE

    Pintar, Karl; Barboriak, Joseph J.; Moreno, Miguel

    1988-01-01

    This report describes an unusual multisaccular vein graft aneurysm that developed in a patient who had undergone aortocoronary bypass with a saphenous vein graft. The aneurysm was a complication of an atherosclerotic lesion. This case supports the belief that aortocoronary vein grafts have an increased susceptibility to aneurysm formation. (Texas Heart Institute Journal 1988;15:59-60)

  5. Radiation induced grafting of TMPM onto polypropylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The gamma radiation induced graft copolymerization of 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-piperidinyl-methacrylate (TMPM), a very effective hindered amine light stabilizer (HALS), onto polypropylene was investigated by simultaneous-irradiation technique. the effects of various synthesis conditions on the graft content were studied. It was shown that percent grafting in benzene, CCl4 and petroleum ether were higher than that in other solvents. The percent grafting was higher when graft copolymerization was carried out in argon atmosphere than that in air. For the grafting copolymerization carried out in benzene, percent grafting increased linearly from 10 to 60 kGy and beyond 60 kGy a tendency to level off was appeared. In CCl4, percent grafting increased linearly from 10 to 50 kGy and beyond 50 kGy a tendency to level off was appeared. Percent grafting also increased continuously with increasing monomer concentration up to 2.85 mol/L, but significant increase was observed only up to 1.14 mol/L. the percent grafting decreased when inhibitor was used, the difference of percent grafting between the samples with and without inhibitor became smaller with the increase of irradiation dose. The stabilizing effectiveness of grafted TMPM on the radiation resistance of Polypropylene was found to be better than that of TMPM monomer

  6. New variant for whole pancreas grafting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new variant for whole pancreas grafting is described in which a segment of the duodenum and the spleen is included in the graft. The graft is placed extraperitoneally as in kidney transplantation. The exocrine drainage is with side-to-side anastomosis between duodenum and bladder. The spleen is irradiated to prevent the occurrence of GVHD, as is reported in splenic transplantation

  7. Resisting body dissatisfaction: fat women who endorse fat acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinley, Nita Mary

    2004-05-01

    Fat women who endorsed fat acceptance (N=128) were recruited from Radiance Magazine. Relationships between objectified body consciousness (OBC), body esteem, and psychological well-being for the mostly European American sample were similar to those found in other samples. OBC was independently related to body esteem when weight dissatisfaction was controlled. Those who endorsed the need for social change in attitudes towards fat people had higher body esteem and self-acceptance, and lower body shame, than those who endorsed personal acceptance of body size only. PMID:18089154

  8. Body fat, abdominal fat and body fat distribution related to VO(2PEAK) in young children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, Magnus; Wollmer, Per; Karlsson, Magnus K; Lindén, Christian; Andersen, Lars Bo; Thorsson, Ola

    -based level. Methods. Cross-sectional study of 225 children (128 boys and 97 girls) aged 8-11 years, recruited from a population-based cohort. Total lean body mass (LBM), total fat mass (TBF), and abdominal fat mass (AFM) were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Body fat was also calculated as a...... percentage of body mass (BF%) and body fat distribution as AFM/TBF. VO(2PEAK) was assessed by indirect calorimetry during maximal exercise test. Results. Significant relationships existed between body fat measurements and VO(2PEAK) in both boys and girls, with Pearson correlation coefficients for absolute...... values of VO(2PEAK) (0.22-0.36, P<0.05), and for VO(2PEAK) scaled by body mass (-0.38 - -0.70, P...

  9. Sodium and chloride exclusion and retention by non-grafted and grafted melon and Cucurbita plants

    OpenAIRE

    Edelstein, M.; Plaut, Z.; M. Ben-Hur

    2010-01-01

    The effects of grafting on Na and Cl– uptake and distribution in plant tissues were quantified in a greenhouse experiment using six combinations of melon (Cucumis melo L. cv. Arava) and pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima Duchesne×Cucurbita moschata Duchesne cv. TZ-148): non-grafted, self-grafted, melons grafted on pumpkins, and pumpkins grafted on melons. Total Na concentration in shoots of plants with pumpkin or melon rootstocks was 400?mmol kg?1, respectively, regardless of the scion. In contrast, s...

  10. [Rehabilitation of facial paralysis using autogenous fascia lata graft. Stable results over time].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graillon, N; Colson, T; Bardot, J

    2015-10-01

    Dynamic facial reanimation with free muscle or nerve transfers represents the mainstay of facial paralysis treatments particularly for perioral area and smile. These techniques are not always feasible, in such cases we perform a perioral suspension with fascia lata graft. However many teams blame this technique for short-term recurrence of the deformity. We describe in this paper details of our surgical technique, to improve the aesthetic result and stability over time, and the results and complications encountered. Fascia lata graft was sutured beyond the midline to the contralateral healthy lips, after tunneling through upper and lower orbicularis oris. Fascia lata graft was then tunneled through the buccal fat pad, then under the zygomatic arch to the temporal region, where the temporal aponeurosis was incised to make way for the fascia lata graft, which was fixed to the outer face of the temporal aponeurosis, applying slight overcorrection to the oral commissure. From 2003 to 2012, we performed this procedure on 8 patients. Results showed an immediate aesthetic improvement, stable over time. Perioral suspension with fascia lata graft is a surgical alternative when dynamic reanimation is not feasible. PMID:26143047

  11. Endovascular stent grafting: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endovascular stent grafts are intravascular devices composed of surgical graft material and a metallic frame, (Fig. 1). Their main application has been to treat aneurysms, but they have been used in vascular trauma and are being investigated for use in occlusive disease. Their advantage in treating aneurysms over conventional surgical treatment is that they are loaded into relatively small delivery systems (Fig. 2) and can be introduced to the area of interest from a remote site - usually the femoral artery. This avoids the morbidity of surgical exposure in difficult sites, such as the thoracic aorta, and lessens the cardiovascular stress to patients by eliminating the need to surgically cross-clamp the vessel being treated. The first description of abdominal aortic aneurysm exclusion by an endovascular stent graft was provided by Parodi and colleagues in 1991. Much of the early clinical experience in endovascular stent grafting was obtained from centres in Australia and Europe, and they are now reporting midterm follow-up data. There are now many centres in Canada and the United States involved in endovascular research and practice. (author)

  12. Homogeneous cation exchange membrane by radiation grafting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preparation of a strong cation exchange membrane by radiation grafting of styrene on to polyethylene (LDPE) film by mutual irradiation technique in the presence of air followed by sulfonation is described. The grafting has been carried out in the presence of air and without any additive. Low dose rate has been seen to facilitate the grafting. Further higher the grafting percentage more is the exchange capacity. The addition of a swelling agent during the sulfonation helped in achieving the high exchange capacity. The TGA-MASS analysis confirmed the grafting and the sulfonation. (author)

  13. Treatment of oroantral fistula with autologous bone graft and application of a non-reabsorbable membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adele Scattarella, Andrea Ballini, Felice Roberto Grassi, Andrea Carbonara, Francesco Ciccolella, Angela Dituri, Gianna Maria Nardi, Stefania Cantore, Francesco Pettini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the current report is to illustrate an alternative technique for the treatment of oroantral fistula (OAF, using an autologous bone graft integrated by xenologous particulate bone graft.Background: Acute and chronic oroantral communications (OAC, OAF can occur as a result of inadequate treatment. In fact surgical procedures into the maxillary posterior area can lead to inadvertent communication with the maxillary sinus. Spontaneous healing can occur in defects smaller than 3 mm while larger communications should be treated without delay, in order to avoid sinusitis. The most used techniques for the treatment of OAF involve buccal flap, palatal rotation - advancement flap, Bichat fat pad. All these surgical procedures are connected with a significant risk of morbidity of the donor site, infections, avascular flap necrosis, impossibility to repeat the surgical technique after clinical failure, and patient discomfort.Case presentation: We report a 65-years-old female patient who came to our attention for the presence of an OAF and was treated using an autologous bone graft integrated by xenologous particulate bone graft. An expanded polytetrafluoroethylene titanium-reinforced membrane (Gore-Tex ® was used in order to obtain an optimal reconstruction of soft tissues and to assure the preservation of the bone graft from epithelial connection.Conclusions: This surgical procedure showed a good stability of the bone grafts, with a complete resolution of the OAF, optimal management of complications, including patient discomfort, and good regeneration of soft tissues.Clinical significance: The principal advantage of the use of autologous bone graft with an expanded polytetrafluoroethylene titanium-reinforced membrane (Gore-Tex ® to guide the bone regeneration is that it assures a predictable healing and allows a possible following implant-prosthetic rehabilitation.

  14. Vascularized tissue engineering mouse chamber model supports thymopoiesis of ectopic thymus tissue grafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seach, Natalie; Mattesich, Monika; Abberton, Keren; Matsuda, Ken; Tilkorn, Daniel J; Rophael, John; Boyd, Richard L; Morrison, Wayne A

    2010-06-01

    We have previously established a chamber model of tissue engineering that promotes de novo angiogenesis and vascularization of engrafted cells and tissues when combined with an extracellular matrix. Here we demonstrate that the mouse chamber (MC) model can sustain ectopic grafts of murine fetal thymus lobes and, to a limited degree, human pediatric thymus tissue, resulting in de novo T-cell production. Silicone chambers containing Matrigel((R)) and thymus tissues were placed around exposed epigastric vessels and the ends sealed with bone wax, before implantation into the inguinal fat pad of athymic Balb/c(nu/nu) (nude) mice. Murine, embryonic day 15 (E15) thymus grafts were found to be well vascularized and viable within the MC upon harvest at week 11. In contrast, engraftment of both adult murine and pediatric human thymus tissue was limited, with only one out of the seven human thymus grafts sustaining mature, murine-derived T-cell development. Increased CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cell numbers were observed in the peripheral blood of nude mice within 2 weeks after E15 thymus-MC grafts (n = 8), compared with nude control mice. Peripheral blood T-cell percentage and subset distribution were comparable to mice receiving conventional thymus kidney capsule grafts. T-cell function of both kidney capsule- and MC-E15 thymus grafts was established via successful rejection of major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-mismatched skin grafts. Sustained growth of fetal thymus tissue in the MC provides an alternative model for the study of thymopoiesis and related applications of T-cell-mediated immunity. PMID:19715386

  15. Studies on radiation-induced graft polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation-induced graft polymerization is used extensively to improve physical properties of polymers, but few processes are now commercialized. The reason for this is partly inadequate basic research on the reaction and partly the difficulty in developing the grafting process with large radiation source. Firstly, new techniques are proposed of studying kinetics of the graft polymerization in heterogeneous system. Based on the grafting yield, the molecular weight of graft chains, and the amount of radicals given by ESR and activation analysis, kinetic parameters are obtained and the reaction mechanism of grafting process is discussed. Secondly, the development of grafting process of poly (vinyl chloride)-butadiene is described. By study of the reaction, process design, construction and operation of the pilot plant, and economic analysis of the process, this process with 60Co gamma ray sources is shown to be industrially promising. (author)

  16. Evaluation of the graft flow reserve after coronary artery bypass grafting by stress {sup 201}Tl myocardial SPECT. Comparison between arterial grafts and venous grafts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ichikawa, Akihiro; Taki, Junichi; Nakajima, Kenichi; Kawasuji, Michio; Tonami, Norihisa [Kanazawa Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1997-01-01

    We performed stress {sup 201}Tl myocardial SPECT to evaluate ischemia and perfusion reserve after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). A total of 103 patients was performed stress {sup 201}Tl myocardial SPECT one month after CABG. Each patient`s myocardium was divided into 9 segments and visually evaluated using five grade scoring system (0=defect, 1=severe decrease, 2=moderate decrease, 3=mild decrease, 4=normal uptake). Eleven of 133 (8.27%) segments covered by patent venous grafts showed reversible {sup 201}Tl defect, however, 36 of 117 (30.8%) segments which covered by patent arterial grafts showed reversible {sup 201}Tl defect. This finding was observed more significantly in arterial grafts than in venous grafts (p<0.001). These finding suggests that arterial grafts have lower flow capacity than venous grafts at peak exercise. (author)

  17. Big, Fat World of Lipids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Science Home Page The Big, Fat World of Lipids By Emily Carlson Posted August 9, 2012 Cholesterol ... ways to diagnose and treat lipid-related conditions. Lipid Encyclopedia Just as genomics and proteomics spurred advances ...

  18. Butterfly inlay tympanoplasty: A study in Indian scenario

    OpenAIRE

    Anand, T S; Kathuria, Geeta; Kumar, Sandeep; Wadhwa, Vikram; Pradhan, Tapaswini

    2002-01-01

    Popularly myringoplasty is done by an underlay or an onlay technique using mostly temporalis fascia graft. A new technique of inlay tympanoplasty using composite cartilage perichondrium graft is applied in the present study of 20 patients, for closure of small to medium sized perforations. The results have been analysed in terms of graft take up rate and hearing improvement.

  19. Fat Replacers in Meat Products

    OpenAIRE

    Ozlem Tokusoglu; M. Kemal Unal

    2003-01-01

    There is a great interest regarding demand for foods with health enhancing properties as low-fat meat products due to the human health and nutrition correlation. Various aspects of interest relating to product design and fat reducing strategy has been reported. These aspects concerning nutritional, sensory, technological, safety, appreciation, legal and cost procedures are important to a improved new product design. Due to their different texture properties, processing conditions and differen...

  20. Injection of fat for soft tissue augmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetmore, S J

    1989-01-01

    Perinephric rabbit fat was divided into small particles with scissors and razor blades and then injected subcutaneously into the donor rabbit. The injected fat was compared with surgically implanted fat. Subcutaneous augmentation with both types of fat resulted in similar findings. Grossly, 40% of injection and implantation sites were palpable after 16 to 36 weeks of observation. Histologically, fat was present at practically every site, but with a variable amount of fat cell destruction. This study demonstrates that the author's method for dividing and injecting fat produces comparable results in terms of soft tissue augmentation to those obtained by surgically implanting fat. Although injected fat does not fulfill the criteria as the ideal substance for soft tissue augmentation, fat injection may prove to be a clinically useful means for improving body contour. PMID:2909821

  1. Septal graft in laryngeal reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 62-year-old woman presented with symptoms of dyspnea. Ultrasonography and computed tomography examinations revealed mass extending from the cricoid cartilage to the left lobe of thyroid gland and thyroid cartilage. Cytology revealed possibility of cartilaginous origin, which was proven to be chondrosarcoma (Grade 1) from the biopsy specimen obtained during panendosopy. She underwent one stage radical resection and immediate reconstruction of laryngeal skeleton defect by mucocartilaginous graft from the nasal septum. Her postoperative course was optimal with preservation of the laryngeal functions. Twenty-eight months postoperatively, she had to undergo total laryngectomy as a salvage procedure for the advanced local recurrence. We report on the relatively easy technique for functional reconstruction of the large laryngeal defect with the employment cartilage graft from the nasal septum. (author)

  2. Radiation sterilization of tissue grafts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Tissue Bank at the Tata Memorial Hospital was started in 1989 in collaboration with the Department of Atomic Energy, Government of India, as part of an IAEA project to promote the use of nuclear technology for peaceful purposes. The Bank produces freeze dried, gamma irradiated allografts such as skin, amniotic membrane, dura mater, fascia lata, bone blocks/chips/dust, iliac crest, femoral heads and ribs. Tissues are harvested from cadavers or obtained secondary to surgical procedures. After processing, the grafts are exposed to 25 kGy of gamma radiation. The grafts have found use in a variety of clinical conditions like burns, non-union fractures, periodontal osseous defects and surgical reconstructions. (author)

  3. Ocular Graft Versus Host Disease

    OpenAIRE

    ERDEM, Elif; Yagmur, Meltem

    2014-01-01

    Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) is an important therapeutic procedure for the treatment of hematologic malignancies. Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a common cause of morbidity and mortality after allo-HSCT. Severe systemic form of GVHD may become life threatening. Ocular involvement of GVHD remains the most common cause of long-term morbidity.In this review article, the etiology, pathophysiology, clinical features, and treatment modalities of ocular GVHD a...

  4. Hybrid Graft Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: A Predictable Graft for Knee Stabilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Pinzon, Andres M; Barksdale, Leticia; Krill, Michael K; Leo, Brian M

    2015-06-01

    Trauma to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is a season-ending injury and involves months of activity modification and rehabilitation. The annual incidence of ACL tears in the United States is approximately 200,000, which allows for a broad range of individualized treatment options. Various surgical techniques, including transtibial and independent tunnel drilling, allograft and autograft tissue, and various implants, have been described in the literature. This article describes the indications and technique for a hybrid soft tissue graft for ACL reconstruction. Autologous grafts eliminate the risk of disease transmission and have recently been shown to have a lower rerupture rate, particularly in younger, active patients; however, the harvesting of autologous hamstring grafts carries a risk of donor-site morbidity, iatrogenic injury of the graft, and inadequate graft size. In contrast to a traditional autologous soft tissue graft, the hybrid graft allows for graft size customization for a desired reconstruction, especially in cases where autograft hamstrings may be iatrogenically damaged or of inadequate size when harvested. The goal of a hybrid graft ACL reconstruction is to provide a favorable-sized graft with clinical outcomes comparable with autologous soft tissue grafts. In contrast to a traditional autologous soft tissue graft, this technique provides another option in the event of unforeseen deficiencies or complications associated with harvesting and preparation of the autologous gracilis and semitendinosis soft tissue graft. PMID:26091219

  5. Use of an audible ultrasonic flowmeter to locate deeply buried coronary arteries for off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Keita; Makuuchi, Haruo; Murakami, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Takamaro; Oono, Makoto; Chiba, Kiyoshi

    2006-02-01

    In patients with coronary arteries that are deeply buried in the myocardium and fat, it is difficult and sometimes risky to expose them for off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (OPCAB), leading to unavoidable conversion to conventional coronary artery bypass grafting (C-CABG) to ensure their safety. We have developed a new search procedure for these coronary arteries using a dedicated ultrasonic flowmeter with a small tip probe for OPCAB. This technique enables the identification of intramuscular and intra-fat coronary arteries that are less diseased and thus more suited for bypass surgery instead of switching to C-CABG. We believe this procedure will not only improve the quality of OPCAB but also expand its indication. PMID:16519133

  6. Evaluation of early coronary graft patency after coronary artery bypass graft surgery using multislice computed tomography angiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raissi Kamal

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG surgery is the standard of care in the treatment of advanced coronary artery disease, and its long-term results are affected by the failure of bypass grafts. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the early patency rate in coronary bypass grafts. Methods A total of 107 consecutive patients who underwent CABG were included in this study. Early graft patency was evaluated via computed tomography (CT angiography in the first week after surgery. Results There were a total of 366 grafts, comprised of 250 venous grafts and 116 arterial grafts. Multi-slice CT detected acute graft occlusions in 32 (8.7% of all the grafts, including 26 (10% of the 250 venous grafts and 6 (5% of the 116 arterial grafts. The patency rates obtained were 97.3% for the left internal mammary (IMA grafts, 50% for the radial artery grafts, and 50% for the right IMA grafts. Additionally, 107 (96.4% grafts to the left anterior descending artery (LAD were classified as patent, whereas 1 (30% of the 3 grafts in the left circumflex (LCX region and 1 (50% of the 2 grafts in the right coronary artery (RCA territory were found to be occluded. In the venous category, 8 (13.7% of the 58 grafts to LAD were found to be occluded. In the LCX region, 9 (8.5% of the 106 grafts were classified as occluded, while the remaining 97 (91.5% grafts were patent. The venous grafts to RCA were occluded in 9 (10.4% of the 86 grafts. Amongst the multiple preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative factors, pump time was significantly longer in the patients with occluded grafts than in those with patent grafts (P = 0.04. Conclusion The IMA grafts had the highest early patency rate amongst the coronary bypass grafts. However, the other arterial grafts were associated with a high rate of acute occlusions.

  7. Detection of patent coronary bypass grafts by digital subtraction angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nine aortocoronary bypass graft patients were evaluated by a digital subtraction angiography (DSA) with intravenously administered contrast media to determine graft patency. DSA correctly identified 14 of 15 patent grafts and all of 3 occluded grafts. We conclude that DSA is a new promising relatively noninvasive method for determining patency of aortocoronary bypass graft. (author)

  8. Radiation grafting of styrene onto polyethylene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumi, Yoshinobu; Nagaike, Hiroshi; Tabuse, Shigehiko; Yoshida, Yoichi; Tagawa, Seiichi

    2001-07-01

    In order to improve the radiation stability of aliphatic polymers, radiation-induced graft polymerization of styrene onto low-density polyethylene (LDPE) has been studied. Two methods, namely, simultaneous irradiation and pre-irradiation method, were treated. In the case of simultaneous irradiation, it was indicated from the dependency of percent graft on monomer concentration and absorbed dose that grafting efficiency was reduced by the increase in the homo-polymerization of styrene. On the other hand, more highly grafting polymer could be prepared by the pre-irradiation method. Depth-profile of grafted phenyl ring was also analyzed by means of micro-FT-IR spectroscopy. Recently, radiation stability of the obtained graft polymer was tested.

  9. Study of coronary grafts by MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thirty-one patients with 64 coronary grafts were examined by MR imaging and angiography in a comparative prospective study aimed at evaluating graft patency. The MR imaging examinations were performed using a 0.5-T unit, electrocardiographic gating, a surface coil, 5-mm-thick contiguous transverse sections, and spin-echo pulses (TE = 28, 56 msec,TR < RR interval). Analysis criteria are discussed. MR imaging can be used to establish the patency of coronary grafts, whatever the surgical technique used (mammary or saphenous vein grafting), with 95% accuracy and 97% specificity. Because only a few patients were studied, the diagnostic value of MR imaging cannot be definitively established from the results. Nevertheless, MR imaging was of value in the depiction of graft stenosis, based on slow flow phenomena, and for clear identification of occluded grafts

  10. Fixation of tibial plateau fractures with synthetic bone graft versus natural bone graft: a comparison study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ong, J C Y

    2012-06-01

    The goal of this study was to determine differences in fracture stability and functional outcome between synthetic bone graft and natural bone graft with internal fixation of tibia plateau metaphyseal defects.

  11. Study on polyethylene films grafted with vinyl acetate and ethyl methacrylate by radiation grafting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low density polyethylene (LDPE) films were grafted with a vinyl acetate (VAc) and ethyl methacrylate (EMA) commoner mixture by radiation using a 60Co gamma source. IR spectra and x-ray diffraction (XRD) for the original PE matrix and for the graft copolymers were studied. Electrical conductivity and thermal properties of the prepared grafted materials were also measured. XRD results showed that poly(vinyl acetate/ethyl methacrylate) P(VAc/EMA) graft chains cause a decrease in the crystallinity of the PE polymer substrate. The changes in thermal parameters such as melting (Tm) and crystallization (Tc) temperatures and heats of melting (?Hm) and crystallization (?Hc) of the graft copolymers were followed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and for thermal stability by TGA. These thermal parameters of PE were influenced by grafting, with VAc and EMA and depended on the percent grafting, which reflected the change in crystallinity due to formation of branches via the grafted chains. (author)

  12. FAT TISSUE DISTRIBUTION BETWEEN SUBCUTANEOUS AND INTERMUSCULAR FAT TISSUE IN SIMMENTAL AND BROWN BULLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvester Žgur

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Simmental and Brown bulls from progeny testing station were used to evaluate the effect of breed on fat tissue partition between subcutaneous and intermuscular fat. Bulls (37 Brown and 34 Simmental breed were slaughtered at the same degree of fatness. After slaughter carcasses were first cut into different carcass cuts and further on into lean meat, fat, bones and tendons. Fat was divided up into subcutaneous and intermuscular. Simmental bulls were heavier (average cold carcass side weight from Simmental bulls was 167 kg vs 147 kg from Brown bulls at the same percentage of total carcass fat (10.5 %. Breed has no effect on percentage of subcutaneous and intermuscular fat tissue nor on percentage of subcutaneous fat from total carcass fat. Simmental bulls had higher (p<0.05 subcutaneous fat percentage (subcutaneous fat in the cut /total fat in the cut in brisket and flank and lower (p<0.05 in shoulder than Brown bulls.

  13. Sources of Saturated Fat, Stearic Acid, & Cholesterol Raising Fat among the US Population, 2005–06

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this research was to identify the contributions of specific foods to intake of saturated fat, stearic acid, and "cholesterol raising fat" (defined as saturated fat minus stearic acid) in the US population age 2 years and older.

  14. Bone grafting in total hip replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MRI of ten hip joints in nine patients with total hip replacement and reconstruction of the acetabulum with autologous bone grafts, were reviewed. The viability of inserted bone grafts was clearly documented by MRI. Characteristic differences in signal intensity between autologous and homologous bone grafts are discussed. Despite extended metallic artifacts in the operated region, sufficient diagnostic information was available in most cases. No side effects were reported. (orig.)

  15. Electrokinetic properties of commercial vascular grafts

    OpenAIRE

    Indest, Tea; Strnad, Simona; Stana-Kleinschek, Karin; Ribitsch, Volker; Fras, Lidija

    2012-01-01

    The surface morphology and chemical composition (the presence or absence of surface functional groups) of commercial vascular grafts? surfaces are significant for their interaction abilities with components of polar liquids. This can also be assumed as correct for grafts-blood interactions. In this paper we studied the adsorption characteristics of different grafts? surfaces using an electrokinetic measurement technique. A comparative study was performed on woven, knitted polyethylene terepht...

  16. Simple technique of securing intraoral skin grafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Sajid S; Chaukar, Devendra; Dcruz, Anil K

    2005-02-01

    Small defects following intraoral resection are often resurfaced by skin grafts. Skin grafting has the advantage of ease of harvest with minimal additional operating time and post-operative hospital stay, an acceptable functional cosmetic result, and the ability to survive post-operative radiation 1. In addition to adequate vascularity of the recipient area, the most important aspect for graft survival is immobilization and adherence of the graft to the defect. However, in the oral cavity due to the uneven wound bed and constant mobility of the cheek, the graft is not completely immobilized. In addition, the salivary secretions tend to accumulate beneath the graft, separating the graft from the bed. Graft-failure can be prevented by immobilizing the graft and closing up any potential dead space that might lead to separation 2. A variety of methods have been described for immobilization and bolstering the graft to the wound. Many types of stents have been used varying from the simple cotton balls, resin molds, and foam pads, to complex stents like metal, plastic, and dental liner 34. The traditional tie over bolster technique described by Schramm and Myers involves fixation of the skin graft to the raw area, followed by placement of non-absorbable silk sutures from the adjacent mucosa, which are then tied over the bolster 1. However, the placement of this tie over sutures requires adjacent normal mucosa for anchorage, which may not be sufficient especially in the gingivo-buccal sulcus. Although external fixation of the stents to the cheek has been described, this results in ugly scarring of the cheek 2. We describe a simple technique of fixation of the skin graft in the oral cavity, which avoids the placement of additional tie over sutures and in our opinion results in better anchorage. PMID:15660369

  17. Saphenous vein graft aneurysm: an incidental finding

    OpenAIRE

    Rana, Omar; Greaves, Kim; Shepherd, David; Parvin, Simon; Swallow, Rosie

    2009-01-01

    Saphenous vein graft aneurysm (SVGA) is an uncommon complication of coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG). An 82-year-old man underwent contrast-enhanced computed tomography to investigate aorto-iliac disease. He was coincidentally noted to have an aneurysm of the saphenous vein graft to his right coronary artery. This was visualised on transthoracic echocardiography, computed tomography and coronary angiography. In the absence of symptoms and in view of high surgical risk, conservative...

  18. Coronary steal or large collateral? Three cases of graft failure in sequential and composite grafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morakhia, Jwalit; Ramachandran, Padmakumar; Sanjeeva, Naveen Chandra Ganiga; Thakkar, Ashok

    2014-01-01

    Coronary bypass grafting using conduits with multiple distal anastomoses continues to demand scrutiny. While on one hand these techniques allow the surgeon to avoid or minimise aortic manipulation, the unique flow and pressure characteristics lead to complex forms of graft failure if the anatomy of the target vascular bed is not carefully taken into consideration. We report three cases of graft failure in patients with coronary bypass grafting performed using multiple distal anastomoses, and percutaneous revascularisation in one patient. PMID:25395430

  19. The effect of total arterial grafting on medium-term outcomes following coronary artery bypass grafting

    OpenAIRE

    Buth Karen J; Hassan Ansar; Légaré Jean-Francois; Sullivan John A

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background While it is believed that total arterial grafting (TAG) for coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) confers improved long-term outcomes when compared to conventional grafting with left internal mammary artery and saphenous vein grafts (LIMA+SVG), to date, this has not become the standard of care. In this study, we assessed the impact of TAG on medium-term outcomes after CABG. Methods Peri-operative data was prospectively collected on consecutive first-time, isolated CABG pa...

  20. Nuclear accidents and bone marrow graft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In case of serious contamination, the only efficacious treatment is the bone marrow grafts. The graft types and conditions have been explained. To restrict the nuclear accidents consequences, it is recommended to: - take osseous medulla of the personnel exposed to radiations and preserve it , that permits to carry out rapidly the auto-graft in case of accidents; - determine, beforehand, the HLA group of the personnel; - to register the voluntary donors names and addresses, and their HLA group, that permits to find easily a compatible donar in case of allo-graft. (author)

  1. Membrane rigidity induced by grafted polymer brush.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Zhen; Yang, Shuang; Chen, Er-Qiang

    2015-02-01

    The contribution of neutral polymer brush to the curvature elasticity of the grafting surface is investigated theoretically. Using self-consistent field theory, we accurately evaluate the dependence of bending modulus on parameters including chain length, Flory-Huggins parameter and grafting density and reveal the importance of solvent. The results show that the brush-induced bending modulus follows a complex dependence on grafting density and Flory-Huggins parameter, while it obeys a simple power law with chain length as N(3). The method is further applied to calculate the polymer brush's contribution to the elastic properties of PEG-grafted lipid monolayers. PMID:25575082

  2. Radiation induced graft copolymerization of jute fibre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graft copolymerized jute fibres (GCJF) were prepared by ?-ray induced graft copolymerization of various monomers onto bleached and de-waxed jute samples. The effect of ?-ray dose on the tendency of various monomers to form graft co-polymer was studied. It was found that the tendency decreases as follows: methylmethacrylate (MMA)>acrylonitrile (AN)>styrene (STY)>vinylacetate (VA). When the effect of monomer concentration on the formation of graft co-polymer was studied, it was found that a mixture of AN and STY gave a higher amount of grafting than what was observed for STY or AN alone, when used at a comparable concentration. A study on the effect of concentration of methyl alcohol (a swelling agent for jute) on the tendency of the monomers to form graft co-polymer showed that although there is no effect when only AN is used, an appreciable effect is observed if AN is mixed with STY. In the later case the tendency of graft co-polymerization increases with the increase of CH3OH concentration. It was further observed that the increase of CH3OH also has a positive influence on MMA to form graft co-polymer in the range of 40-90% CH3OH. The affinity of GCJF towards moisture has been found to decrease with the increase of polymer loading onto jute. The presence of swelling agents during graft copolymer formation was also found to decrease the affinity of GCJF towards moisture. (author)

  3. The autologus graft of epithelial tissue culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minaee B

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available With the intention of research about culture and autologus graft of epithelial tissue we used 4 french Albino Rabbits with an average age of 2 months. After reproduction on the support in EMEM (Eagle's Minimum Essential Medium we used this for graft after 4 weeks. This region which grafted total replaced. After fixation of this sample and passing them through various process, histological sections were prepared. These sections were stained with H & E and masson's trichrome and studied by light microscope. We succeeded in graft. We hope in the near future by using the method of epithelium tissue culture improving to treat burned patients.

  4. Industrial application of electron beams for grafting and vulcanization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The topics discussed are radiation graft polymerization; industrial application of radiation grafting - ion exchange membrane for a battery separator, ammonia adsorbent, non-flammable PE (polyethylene) foam; R and D on radiation grafting, radiation vulcanization of natural rubber

  5. Gravity separation of pericardial fat in cardiotomy suction blood: an in vitro model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinard, M Rhett; Shackelford, Anthony G; Sistino, Joseph J

    2009-06-01

    Fat emboli generated during cardiac surgery have been shown to cause neurologic complications in patients postoperatively. Cardiotomy suction has been known to be a large generator of emboli. This study will examine the efficacy of a separation technique in which the cardiotomy suction blood is stored in a cardiotomy reservoir for various time intervals to allow spontaneous separation of fat from blood by density. Soybean oil was added to heparinized porcine blood to simulate the blood of a patient with hypertriglyceridemia (> 150 mg/dL). Roller pump suction was used to transfer the room temperature blood into the cardiotomy reservoir. Blood was removed from the reservoir in 200-mL aliquots at 0, 15, 30 45, and 60 minutes. Samples were taken at each interval and centrifuged to facilitate further separation of liquid fat. Fat content in each sample was determined by a point-of-care triglyceride analyzer. Three trials were conducted for a total of 30 samples. The 0-minute group was considered a baseline and was compared to the other four times. Fat concentration was reduced significantly in the 45- and 60-minute groups compared to the 0-, 15-, and 30-minute groups (p Gravity separation of cardiotomy suction blood is effective; however, it may require retention of blood for more time than is clinically acceptable during a routing coronary artery bypass graft surgery. PMID:19681306

  6. The role of autologous fat and alternative fillers in the aging face.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucky, Louis P; Kanchwala, Suhail K

    2007-11-01

    Soft-tissue fillers can be used successfully to restore volume loss caused by facial aging. Injectable fillers can be used in isolation or in conjunction with other facial rejuvenation procedures. To achieve a superior aesthetic result, the plastic surgeon must understand the key components of facial aging: soft-tissue atrophy, gravitational descent, and loss of skin tone. An accurate assessment of the relationship of these factors will determine the role of soft-tissue augmentation through the use of fillers. Because the majority of facial volume loss through aging is attributable to fat loss, the authors believe that autologous fat represents the ideal soft-tissue replacement. The authors describe the appropriate use of autologous fat and improvements in technique that have enhanced the predictability of facial fat grafting. When autologous fat is not an option, alternative facial fillers including calcium hydroxylapatite and hyaluronic acid may provide excellent results. The authors' algorithm for filler selection is based on relative morbidity, recipient-site characteristics, and the physical characteristics of each filler. This algorithm is discussed in the following anatomical regions: the nasolabial folds, glabellar crease, malar region, nasojugal groove, and lips. When used appropriately, soft-tissue fillers can contribute significantly to overall facial rejuvenation. PMID:18090347

  7. Graft-versus-host disease versus graft-versus-leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrin, Robert S

    2015-12-01

    Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a significant clinical problem after allogenic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) associated with substantial morbidity and mortality that limits the potential utility of transplantation. Associated with GVHD is the well-recognized phenomenon of the graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) effect that results in reduced risk of disease relapse. GVL effects have been observed after treatment for a broad range of hematological malignancies. Both GVHD and GVL are the results of T cell-effector functions that frames a major question in the field of how linked are these two phenomena. A major goal of basic science and translational research has been to develop strategies to reduce the risk of GVHD while maintaining or enhancing GVL. In this review, a number of different strategies developed from preclinical animal models will be explored with a focus on those approaches that have been extended to the clinic in an attempt to achieve this goal. Needless to say, there is no proven strategy; however, with the use of modern technology and clinical translation, there has been substantial progress toward this goal of reducing the risks of GVHD while promoting and enhancing GVL responses. PMID:26637726

  8. Design and development of multilayer vascular graft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhavan, Krishna

    2011-07-01

    Vascular graft is a widely-used medical device for the treatment of vascular diseases such as atherosclerosis and aneurysm as well as for the use of vascular access and pediatric shunt, which are major causes of mortality and morbidity in this world. Dysfunction of vascular grafts often occurs, particularly for grafts with diameter less than 6mm, and is associated with the design of graft materials. Mechanical strength, compliance, permeability, endothelialization and availability are issues of most concern for vascular graft materials. To address these issues, we have designed a biodegradable, compliant graft made of hybrid multilayer by combining an intimal equivalent, electrospun heparin-impregnated poly-epsilon-caprolactone nanofibers, with a medial equivalent, a crosslinked collagen-chitosan-based gel scaffold. The intimal equivalent is designed to build mechanical strength and stability suitable for in vivo grafting and to prevent thrombosis. The medial equivalent is designed to serve as a scaffold for the activity of the smooth muscle cells important for vascular healing and regeneration. Our results have shown that genipin is a biocompatible crosslinker to enhance the mechanical properties of collagen-chitosan based scaffolds, and the degradation time and the activity of smooth muscle cells in the scaffold can be modulated by the crosslinking degree. For vascular grafting and regeneration in vivo, an important design parameter of the hybrid multilayer is the interface adhesion between the intimal and medial equivalents. With diametrically opposite affinities to water, delamination of the two layers occurs. Physical or chemical modification techniques were thus used to enhance the adhesion. Microscopic examination and graft-relevant functional characterizations have been performed to evaluate these techniques. Results from characterization of microstructure and functional properties, including burst strength, compliance, water permeability and suture strength, showed that the multilayer graft possessed properties mimicking those of native vessels. Achieving these FDA-required functional properties is essential because they play critical roles in graft performances in vivo such as thrombus formation, occlusion, healing, and bleeding. In addition, cell studies and animal studies have been performed on the multilayer graft. Our results show that the multilayer graft support mimetic vascular culture of cells and the acellular graft serves as an artery equivalent in vivo to sustain the physiological conditions and promote appropriate cellular activity. In conclusion, the newly-developed hybrid multilayer graft provides a proper balance of biomechanical and biochemical properties and demonstrates the potential for the use of vascular tissue engineering and regeneration.

  9. Improvement of polymer stability by radiation grafting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Losses of the stabilizer due to extractability or volatility immediately affect ultimate performance of polymer product. A new approach to increase the persistence of the stabilizer in the final product is to chemically bind it to the polymer backbone. Radiation grafting or crosslinking could be an efficient method for this, when the stabilizer is polymerizable. By a mutual gamma irradiation method, photoprotector 2-hydroxy-4-(3-methacryloxy-2- hydroxy-propoxy) benzophenone (HMB) has been readily grafted to low density polyethylene (LDPE) in benzene, tetrahydrofuran and methanol solution, respectively. Surface grafting occurs in a methanol solution of stabilizer, while in benzene and tetrahydrofuran solutions of stabilizer, grafting proceeds more or less in the inner parts of the polymeric film as well. The grafted LDPE film in methanol and tetrahydrofuran (containing 1 w/w % of grafted HMB), 1 w/w % blended HMB with LDPE and nongrafted LDPE film, were all exposed to accelerated aging and natural weathering and their spectral changes, expressed by the carbonyl index, were then compared. The change of elongation at break and tensile strength were measured in the course of aging. UV stability tests on aged films and change in mechanical properties indicate a pronounced protective effect achieved by grafted stabilizer. Grafting in methanol solution appears to be an efficient photostabilization treatment and the most economical with respect to the consumption of monomer, the grafting yield being less than 0.5%. Surface grafting is an efficient photostabilization method since grafted stabilizer is chemically bound to a polymeric surface and in this way the problem of evaporation of blended stabilizers during the prolonged use of polymeric materials is eliminated. (author)

  10. Mega-Volume Fat Transplantation to the Breast and Buttocks: A New Surgical Technique That Brings New Anesthetic Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander D. Shapeton; Michael Semenovski; Daniel Del Vecchio

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Autologous fat-grafting for the purpose of breast augmentation has gained widespread acceptance as a viable and safe alternative to classical breast implant procedures and has recently been successfully applied to buttock augmentation. Due to the numerous patient re-positionings and widely variable OR time, these procedures present unique challenges for anesthesiologists. Our goal is to discuss the current surgical methods, anesthetic methods, risks and benefits of this procedure. ...

  11. Ocular Graft Versus Host Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif Erdem

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT is an important therapeutic procedure for the treatment of hematologic malignancies. Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD is a common cause of morbidity and mortality after allo-HSCT. Severe systemic form of GVHD may become life threatening. Ocular involvement of GVHD remains the most common cause of long-term morbidity.In this review article, the etiology, pathophysiology, clinical features, and treatment modalities of ocular GVHD are presented. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2014; 23(3.000: 484-491

  12. Onlay Bone Grafts in Head and Neck Reconstruction

    OpenAIRE

    Yazar, Sukru

    2010-01-01

    Bone grafts are used in a variety of clinical situations and can be divided into two categories: treatment of bone gaps (inlay bone grafting) and bone projection (onlay bone grafting). Cortical grafts are useful in situations requiring immediate mechanical strength. These grafts can survive with or without complete revascularization or resorption and are primarily used by plastic surgeons in the treatment of bone volume deficiency. Cancellous grafts, in contrast, have no mechanical strength a...

  13. Mechanistic factors and innate immune components in vein graft disease

    OpenAIRE

    Vries, Margreet Renate de

    2014-01-01

    Vein graft surgery to treat occlusive arterial disease is a common applied procedure. Each year more than two million vein graft surgeries are performed worldwide. The major drawback of vein grafting is that within 10 years after vein graft surgery 50-60 % of the vein grafts suffer from patency loss due to thrombosis, intimal hyperplasia formation, accelerated atherosclerosis and rupture. Endogenous factors orchestrate the development and failure of vein grafts. Investigating the role of end...

  14. Influence of ischemia before vein grafting on early hyperplasia of the graft and the dynamic changes of the intima after grafting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zou RongJiang

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To investigate both the influence of ischemia before grafting on early hyperplasia of the vein grafts, and the dynamic changes of the intima after grafting in a rabbit model of vein graft disease. Methods We performed paired vein graft experiments under different ischemic conditions (15 vs. 60 min; 15 vs. 90 min in the neck of the rabbits and compared the differences between the grafts. Clopidogrel, an anti-platelet agent, was administered before and after surgery. Twenty-eight days after the grafting procedure, the veins were evaluated microscopically. The dynamic changes of the intima after grafting were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy over time. Results The vein grafts subjected to 60- or 90-min ischemia exhibited no differences compared to those subjected to 15-min ischemia in terms of the mean thickness of the intimal, medial, and adventitial layers of the graft. Similarly, there was no difference in the Ki-67 labeling index (proliferation marker between the vein grafts. Vein grafts with 15-min ischemia lost endothelial cells (ECs but healed by 3 days post graft, whereas vein grafts with 90-min ischemia suffered serious EC loss, which was restored with new ECs during days 2 to 14 post graft. Conclusions Ninety-minute ischemia before vein grafting can cause serious EC loss, but does not increase early intimal hyperplasia when clopidogrel is administered. Protecting the vein from ischemia and reperfusion injury preserves ECs.

  15. Biodegradability of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) film grafted with vinyl acetate: Effect of grafting and saponification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Yuki; Seko, Noriaki; Nagasawa, Naotsugu; Tamada, Masao; Kasuya, Ken-ichi; Mitomo, Hiroshi

    2007-06-01

    Radiation-induced graft polymerization of vinyl acetate (VAc) onto poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) film was carried out. At a degree of grafting higher than 5%, the grafted films (PHB-g-VAc) completely lost the enzymatic degradability that is characteristic of PHB due to the grafted VAc covering the surface of the PHB film. However, the biodegradability of the PHB-g-VAc films was recovered when the films were saponified in alkali solution under optimum conditions. Graft chains of the PHB-g-VAc film reacted selectively to become biodegradable polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). The biodegradability of the saponified PHB-g-VAc film increased rapidly with time.

  16. Biodegradability of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) film grafted with vinyl acetate: Effect of grafting and saponification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wada, Yuki [Department of Biological and Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Gunma University, 1-5-1 Tenjin-cho, Kiryu, Gunma 376-8515 (Japan)]. E-mail: wada.yuki@jaea.go.jp; Seko, Noriaki [Environment and Industrial Materials Research Division, Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 1233 Watanuki-machi, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Nagasawa, Naotsugu [Environment and Industrial Materials Research Division, Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 1233 Watanuki-machi, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Tamada, Masao [Environment and Industrial Materials Research Division, Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 1233 Watanuki-machi, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Kasuya, Ken-ichi [Department of Biological and Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Gunma University, 1-5-1 Tenjin-cho, Kiryu, Gunma 376-8515 (Japan); Mitomo, Hiroshi [Department of Biological and Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Gunma University, 1-5-1 Tenjin-cho, Kiryu, Gunma 376-8515 (Japan)

    2007-06-15

    Radiation-induced graft polymerization of vinyl acetate (VAc) onto poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) film was carried out. At a degree of grafting higher than 5%, the grafted films (PHB-g-VAc) completely lost the enzymatic degradability that is characteristic of PHB due to the grafted VAc covering the surface of the PHB film. However, the biodegradability of the PHB-g-VAc films was recovered when the films were saponified in alkali solution under optimum conditions. Graft chains of the PHB-g-VAc film reacted selectively to become biodegradable polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). The biodegradability of the saponified PHB-g-VAc film increased rapidly with time.

  17. Playing with bone and fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimble, Jeffrey M.; Zvonic, Sanjin; Floyd, Z. Elisabeth; Kassem, Moustapha; Nuttall, Mark E.

    2006-01-01

    The relationship between bone and fat formation within the bone marrow microenvironment is complex and remains an area of active investigation. Classical in vitro and in vivo studies strongly support an inverse relationship between the commitment of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells or...

  18. Targeting Fat to Prevent Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Sethi, Jaswinder K; Vidal-Puig, Antonio J

    2007-01-01

    An emerging view is that obesity causes metabolic problems when adipose tissue fails to meet the increased demands for fat storage. A study in this issue of Cell Metabolism (Waki et al., 2007) has identified harmine as a proadipogenic small molecule that promotes energy expenditure in white adipose tissue and delays the onset of obesity-associated diabetes.

  19. Biodiesel via hydrotreating of fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Anders Theilgaard; Ahmed, El Hadi; Christensen, Claus Hviid

    Biodiesel production via transesterification to fatty acid alkyl esters is rising rapidly worldwide due to the limited availability of fossil resources and the problems of global warming. Often, however, the use of 2nd-generation feedstock like animal waste fat and trap greases etc. is made...

  20. FTO gene associated fatness in relation to body fat distribution and metabolic traits throughout a broad range of fatness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kring, Sofia I I; Holst, Claus; Zimmermann, Esther; Jess, Tine; Berentzen, Tina; Toubro, Søren; Hansen, Torben; Astrup, Arne; Pedersen, Oluf; Sørensen, Thorkild I A

    2008-01-01

    A common single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of FTO (rs9939609, T/A) is associated with total body fatness. We investigated the association of this SNP with abdominal and peripheral fatness and obesity-related metabolic traits in middle-aged men through a broad range of fatness present already in adolescence.

  1. FTO gene associated fatness in relation to body fat distribution and metabolic traits throughout a broad range of fatness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kring, Sofia I I; Holst, Claus; Zimmermann, Esther; Jess, Tine; Berentzen, Tina; Toubro, Søren; Hansen, Torben; Astrup, Arne; Pedersen, Oluf; Sørensen, Thorkild I A

    2008-01-01

    A common single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of FTO (rs9939609, T/A) is associated with total body fatness. We investigated the association of this SNP with abdominal and peripheral fatness and obesity-related metabolic traits in middle-aged men through a broad range of fatness present already in...

  2. Androgens and body fat distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blouin, Karine; Boivin, Ariane; Tchernof, André

    2008-02-01

    An important sex difference in body fat distribution is generally observed. Men are usually characterized by the android type of obesity, with accumulation of fat in the abdominal region, whereas women often display the gynoid type of obesity, with a greater proportion of their body fat in the gluteal-femoral region. Accordingly, the amount of fat located inside the abdominal cavity (intra-abdominal or visceral adipose tissue) is twice as high in men compared to women. This sex difference has been shown to explain a major portion of the differing metabolic profiles and cardiovascular disease risk in men and women. Association studies have shown that circulating androgens are negatively associated with intra-abdominal fat accumulation in men, which explains an important portion of the link between low androgens and features of the metabolic syndrome. In women, the low circulating sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) levels found in abdominal obesity may indirectly indicate that elevated free androgens are related to increased visceral fat accumulation. However, data on non SHBG-bound and total androgens are not unanimous and difficult to interpret for total androgens. These studies focusing on plasma levels of sex hormones indirectly suggest that androgens may alter adipose tissue mass in a depot-specific manner. This could occur through site-specific modulation of preadipocyte proliferation and/or differentiation as well as lipid synthesis and/or lipolysis in mature adipocytes. Recent results on the effects of androgens in cultured adipocytes and adipose tissue have been inconsistent, but may indicate decreased adipogenesis and increased lipolysis upon androgen treatment. Finally, adipose tissue has been shown to express several steroidogenic and steroid-inactivating enzymes. Their mere presence in fat indirectly supports the notion of a highly complex enzymatic system modulating steroid action on a local basis. Recent data obtained in both men and women suggest that enzymes from the aldoketoreductase 1C family are very active and may be important modulators of androgen action in adipose tissue. PMID:17945484

  3. Economics of grafted vs conventional watermelon plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grafting of watermelons has been used in many countries to provide control of, or resistance to, certain soil borne diseases such as Fusarium wilt. The impact of grafting on postharvest quality has not been thoroughly examined. This report deals with the comparison of the costs of production betwe...

  4. Small parietal thrombi in artificial bypass grafts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the last five years, 51 femoro-popliteal polytrafluoroethylene grafts were implanted in patients in the Second Surgical University Clinic, Vienna. In four of these patients an angiogram performed shortly after operation showed numerous small parietal thrombi on the artificial graft, a review of the literature has not shown any similar reports. The clinical importance and consequences of this observation are discussed. (orig.)

  5. Radiation graft modification of EPDM rubber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katbab, A. A.; Burford, R. P.; Garnett, J. L.

    N-Vinyl pyrrolidone (NVP), 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate (HEMA) and acrylamide (AAm) have been grafted to the surface of rubber vulcanizates based on ethylene-propylene-terpolymer (EPDM) using the simultaneous radiation method to alter surface properties such as wettability and therefore biocompatibility. The effect of monomer concentration, solvent and EPDM structural factors on the grafting behavior have been investigated. The inhibitory effect upon homopolymerization of various salts has also been evaluated for the three monomers. NVP and HEMA could be grafted onto EPDM rubber in the presence of aqueous solutions of cupric nitrate at 0.005 M and 1.0 M concentrations respectively. Aqueous solutions of Mohr's salt (ammonium ferrous sulphate) at 0.05 M not only suppressed the homopolymerization of AAm but also increased grafting yield. The percentage grafting also increased with increasing AAm concentration. A mechanism has been proposed to explain the behaviour of these monomers. The inclusion of multifunctional acrylates in additive amounts (1.0 vol%) enhanced the graft degree. Modified samples were able to be efficiently stained, allowing the depth of the graft copolymerization to be determined by light microscopy. Water was found to have an accelerating effect on the polymerization of these monomers, but methanol prevented their polymerization completely. The effect of EPDM structural factors upon degree of grafting was found to vary, depending upon the monomer type.

  6. DSA and duplex ultrasonography in aorta grafts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 95 patients with aorta grafts, DSA was compared with duplex ultrasonography. In 4 patients the graft was better visualized by means of angiography. Kinking, coiling, dilations, pseudoaneurysms, stenoses, and occlusions could be sufficiently diagnosed with both methods. Marginal thrombosis and periprosthetic pathologies could only be found with ultrasonographic and angiographic examination techniques are described and, the limitations of both methods discussed. (orig.)

  7. HealthLines: Facts About Fat

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Current Issue Past Issues Health Lines Facts About Fat Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents For ... Writer, NLM Scientists are learning more about our fat cells, and their findings could explain why some ...

  8. Calories and fat per serving (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and stores the rest in the form of fat. A calorie is a calorie, whether it comes ... between them is the number of calories, nutrients, fat, and other ingredients in a typical serving . Calories ...

  9. Protect Your Heart: Choose Healthy Fats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... some snacks • some stick margarines • some store-bought desserts (cookies, donuts, pies) Trans fats: Trans fats can ... day can lower your cholesterol. These margarines contain plant stanol esters, an ingredient that keeps cholesterol from ...

  10. Hump behind the shoulders (Dorsocervical fat pad)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffalo hump; Dorsocervical fat pad ... Cause of dorsocervical fat pad includes any of the following: Certain medicines used to treat HIV or AIDS Long-term use of certain glucocorticoid medicines, ...

  11. Assessing Body Condition from Fat on Carcass

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — SOP guiding assessment of body condition based on carcass fat. Provides stepwise instructions and photos on how to assess body condition from carcass fat

  12. MR angiography of coronary artery bypass grafts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshioka, Kunihiro; Kamata, Hiroyuki; Hirose, Atsuo [Iwate Medical Univ., Morioka (Japan)

    1997-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the value of MR angiography in the evaluation of the patency of coronary artery bypass grafts (CABGs). Fifty consecutive patients with a total of 108 CABGs underwent breath-hold MR angiography and conventional arteriography. Fifty-seven of the CABGs were internal mammary artery grafts (IMAGs), and 51 were saphenous vein grafts (SVGs). With conventional arteriography used as the standard of reference, MR angiography was found to depict patency in all 53 IMAGs (sensitivity 100%) and 4 occluded IMAGs (specificity 100%), in 37 of 39 SVGs (sensitivity 95%) and occluded 10 of 12 SVGs (specificity 83%). The overall graft patency was 98% sensitivity and 88% specificity. Graft stenoses were also clearly demonstrated in 5 cases. This study suggests that MR angiography is a useful, noninvasive technique to evaluate the patency of CABGs. (author)

  13. Dietary Fat and Sports Nutrition: A Primer

    OpenAIRE

    Lowery, Lonnie M.

    2004-01-01

    The general public's view of macronutrients has undergone sweeping changes in recent years. Dietary fats are a key example. Since the anti-fat health education initiatives of the 1980s and early 1990s, certain dietary fats have been increasingly recognized as actually beneficial to health. Athletes, like the mainstream populace, are now getting the message that wise dietary fat (triacylglycerol) choices offer essential fatty acids, blood lipid management, maintained endocrine and immune funct...

  14. Luteinized fat in Krukenberg tumor: MR findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To our knowledge, there is no description of the fat-containing Krukenberg tumor. We report on a case of Krukenberg tumor associated with luteinized fat, which showed hyperintensity on T1-weighted MR image. The diagnosis was surgically confirmed. Hyperintense portion of the Krukenberg tumor on T1-weighted image showed diminished signal intensity on fat-saturated, T1-weighted images. Krukenberg tumor should be considered in the differential diagnosis of ovarian masses when fat signal is seen. (orig.)

  15. Imaging features of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction graft insufficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the imaging features of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) graft insufficiency. Methods: X-Ray and MR imaging examinations in 24 consecutive patients who had ACL reconstructive graft insufficiency were retrospectively evaluated for tunnel position, osteoarthrosis and its related complications. Follow-up arthroscopy showed 16 graft tears and 8 graft laxities. Fisher exact test was used to compare tunnel malpositions, the proportion of graft tear on MRI and osteoarthrosis between graft tear group and graft laxity group. Results: Two malpositions of tibial tunnel and 3 malpositions of femoral tunnel were seen in graft tear group. Three-malpositions of tibial tunnel and 4 malpositions of femoral tunnel were seen in graft laxity group. The proportion of tibial or femoral malposition showed no significant difference between the two groups (P=0.289, P=0.167). In graft tear group, 15 complete graft tears were diagnosed correctly, 1 partial tear was misdiagnosed as normal on MRI. In graft laxity group, 4 grafts were diagnosed as normal and 4 were considered as graft tear on MRI. A significant difference was seen between the two groups (P=0.028) in the proportion of graft tear diagnosed on MRI. Fourteen osteoarthrosis were seen in graft tear group and 5 in graft laxity group. No significant difference was seen between the two groups (P= 0.289) in the proportion of osteoarthrosis. Conclusion: The proportions of tunnel malposition and osteoarthrosis showed no significant difference between the graft tear group and graft Laxity group. Most graft tears can be diagnosed accurately on MRI, but some cases of graft laxity may be misdiagnosed for graft tear. (authors)

  16. Inflorescence stem grafting made easy in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisar Nazia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plant grafting techniques have deepened our understanding of the signals facilitating communication between the root and shoot, as well as between shoot and reproductive organs. Transmissible signalling molecules can include hormones, peptides, proteins and metabolites: some of which travel long distances to communicate stress, nutrient status, disease and developmental events. While hypocotyl micrografting techniques have been successfully established for Arabidopsis to explore root to shoot communications, inflorescence grafting in Arabidopsis has not been exploited to the same extent. Two different strategies (horizontal and wedge-style inflorescence grafting have been developed to explore long distance signalling between the shoot and reproductive organs. We developed a robust wedge-cleft grafting method, with success rates greater than 87%, by developing better tissue contact between the stems from the inflorescence scion and rootstock. We describe how to perform a successful inflorescence stem graft that allows for reproducible translocation experiments into the physiological, developmental and molecular aspects of long distance signalling events that promote reproduction. Results Wedge grafts of the Arabidopsis inflorescence stem were supported with silicone tubing and further sealed with parafilm to maintain the vascular flow of nutrients to the shoot and reproductive tissues. Nearly all (87% grafted plants formed a strong union between the scion and rootstock. The success of grafting was scored using an inflorescence growth assay based upon the growth of primary stem. Repeated pruning produced new cauline tissues, healthy flowers and reproductive siliques, which indicates a healthy flow of nutrients from the rootstock. Removal of the silicone tubing showed a tightly fused wedge graft junction with callus proliferation. Histological staining of sections through the graft junction demonstrated the differentiation of newly formed vascular connections, parenchyma tissue and lignin accumulation, supporting the presumed success of the graft union between two sections of the primary inflorescence stem. Conclusions We describe a simple and reliable method for grafting sections of an Arabidopsis inflorescence stem. This step-by-step protocol facilitates laboratories without grafting experience to further explore the molecular and chemical signalling which coordinates communications between the shoot and reproductive tissues.

  17. The influence of platelet-graft interaction on platelet survival in patients with aortobifemoral Dacron grafts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In patients with arterial grafts, platelet consumption may be due to platelet interaction with the graft, and/or concomitant platelet consumption in the rest of the arterial tree. This hypothesis was tested by quantifying the kinetics and platelet-graft interaction of indium-111-labelled platelets with double velour Dacron grafts in 13 patients with arterial insufficiency ascribed to atherosclerosis. Mean platelet lifespan (MPLS), 149±46 hours, was significantly shorter than normal. Labelled platelets were transiently deposited onto the graft surfaces. Peak 111In deposition on the grafts, 1,33±1,02% of injected labelled platelets, was reached at 70±33 hours. Thereafter the graft-platelet radioactivity decreased in parallel with platelet radioactivity in the circulation. There was no statistical correlation between MPLS and the factors known to be associated with graft platelet deposition. It is therefore concluded that in patients with arterial disease requiring graft implantation, the observed increased platelet consumption cannot only be ascribed to the interaction of platelets with the graft. 27 refs., 3 tabs., 2 figs

  18. Fat absorption and deposition in Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) fed a high fat diet

    OpenAIRE

    Mhlengi M. Magubane; Busisani W. Lembede; Erlwanger, Kennedy H.; Eliton Chivandi; Janine Donaldson

    2013-01-01

    Dietary fat contributes significantly to the energy requirements of poultry. Not all species are able to increase their absorptive capacity for fats in response to a high fat diet. The effects of a high fat diet (10% canola oil) on the lipid absorption and deposition in the liver, breast and thigh muscles of male and female Japanese quail were investigated. Thirty-eight Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) were randomly divided into a high fat diet (HFD) and a standard diet (STD) group...

  19. Effects of Dietary Fat and Saturated Fat Content on Liver Fat and Markers of Oxidative Stress in Overweight/Obese Men and Women under Weight-Stable Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Marina; Anize Delfino von Frankenberg; Seda Suvag; Callahan, Holly S; Mario Kratz; Richards, Todd L.; Utzschneider, Kristina M

    2014-01-01

    Dietary fat and oxidative stress are hypothesized to contribute to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and progression to steatohepatitis. To determine the effects of dietary fat content on hepatic triglyceride, body fat distribution and markers of inflammation and oxidative stress, overweight/obese subjects with normal glucose tolerance consumed a control diet (CONT: 35% fat/12% saturated fat/47% carbohydrate) for ten days, followed by four weeks on a low fat (LFD (n = 10): 20% fat/8% saturate...

  20. Adaptive significance of root grafting in trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loehle, C.; Jones, R.

    1988-12-31

    Root grafting has long been observed in forest trees but the adaptive significance of this trait has not been fully explained. Various authors have proposed that root grafting between trees contributes to mechanical support by linking adjacent root systems. Keeley proposes that this trait would be of greatest advantage in swamps where soils provide poor mechanical support. He provides as evidence a greenhouse study of Nyssa sylvatica Marsh in which seedlings of swamp provenance formed between-individual root grafts more frequently than upland provenance seedlings. In agreement with this within-species study, Keeley observed that arid zone species rarely exhibit grafts. Keeley also demonstrated that vines graft less commonly than trees, and herbs never do. Since the need for mechanical support coincides with this trend, these data seem to support his model. In this paper, the authors explore the mechanisms and ecological significance of root grafting, leading to predictions of root grafting incidence. Some observations support and some contradict the mechanical support hypothesis.

  1. Pancreaticoportal Fistula and Disseminated Fat Necrosis After Revision of a Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, Seth J., E-mail: kleins@mir.wustl.edu; Saad, Nael [Washington University School of Medicine, Interventional Radiology Section, Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology (United States); Korenblat, Kevin [Washington University School of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Internal Medicine (United States); Darcy, Michael D. [Washington University School of Medicine, Interventional Radiology Section, Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology (United States)

    2013-04-15

    A 59-year old man with alcohol related cirrhosis and portal hypertension was referred for transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) to treat his refractory ascites. Ten years later, two sequential TIPS revisions were performed for shunt stenosis and recurrent ascites. After these revisions, he returned with increased serum pancreatic enzyme levels and disseminated superficial fat necrosis; an iatrogenic pancreaticoportal vein fistula caused by disruption of the pancreatic duct was suspected. The bare area of the TIPS was subsequently lined with a covered stent-graft, and serum enzyme levels returned to baseline. In the interval follow-up period, the patient has clinically improved.

  2. Playing with bone and fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimble, Jeffrey M.; Zvonic, Sanjin; Floyd, Z. Elisabeth; Kassem, Moustapha; Nuttall, Mark E.

    2006-01-01

    The relationship between bone and fat formation within the bone marrow microenvironment is complex and remains an area of active investigation. Classical in vitro and in vivo studies strongly support an inverse relationship between the commitment of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells or stromal cells to the adipocyte and osteoblast lineage pathways. In this review, we focus on the recent literature exploring the mechanisms underlying these differentiation events and discuss their implica...

  3. Fat tissue and long life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluher, Matthias

    2008-01-01

    Studies over the last several years have revealed important roles of the body fat content, caloric intake and nutrition, insulin/IGF-1 signaling systems, and pathways involved in oxidative stress and control of protein acetylation on life span. Although the discovery of longevity genes supports the concept that life span is genetically determined, adipose tissue seems to be a pivotal organ in the aging process and in the determination of life span. Leanness and caloric restriction have been shown to increase longevity in organisms ranging from yeast to mammals. Increased longevity in mice with a fat-specific disruption of the insulin receptor gene (FIRKO) suggests that reduced adiposity, even in the presence of normal or increased food intake, leads to an extended life span. Reduced fat mass has an impact on longevity in a number of other model organisms. In Drosophila, a specific reduction in the fat body through overexpression of forkhead type transcription factor (dFOXO) extends life span. Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), the mammalian ortholog of the life-extending yeast gene silent information regulator 2 (SIR2), was proposed to be involved in the molecular mechanisms linking life span to adipose tissue. Moreover, in the control of human aging and longevity, one of the striking physiological characteristics identified in centenarians is their greatly increased insulin sensitivity even compared with younger individuals. On the other hand, overweight and obesity seem to be associated with decreased life span in humans. In addition, it was recently shown that modifiable risk factors during the later years of life, including smoking, obesity, and hypertension, are associated not only with lower life expectancy, but also with poor health and function during older age. There is growing evidence that the effect of reduced adipose tissue mass on life span could be due to the prevention of obesity-related metabolic disorders including type 2 diabetes and atherosclerosis. PMID:20054178

  4. A reappraisal of saphenous vein grafting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Shi-Min

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Autologous saphenous vein grafting has been broadly used as a bypass conduit, interposition graft, and patch graft in a variety of operations in cardiac, thoracic, neurovascular, general vascular, vascular access, and urology surgeries, since they are superior to prosthetic veins. Modified saphenous vein grafts (SVG, including spiral and cylindrical grafts, and vein cuffs or patches, are employed in vascular revascularization to satisfy the large size of the receipt vessels or to obtain a better patency. A loop SVG helps flap survival in a muscle flap transfer in plastic and reconstructive surgery. For dialysis or transfusion purposes, a straight or loop arteriovenous fistula created in the forearm or the thigh with an SVG has acceptable patency. The saphenous vein has even been used as a stent cover to minimize the potential complications of standard angioplasty technique. However, the use of saphenous vein grafting is now largely diminished in treating cerebrovascular disorders, superior vena cava syndrome, and visceral revascularization due to the introduction of angioplasty and stenting techniques. The SVG remains the preferable biomaterial in coronary artery bypass, coronary ostioplasty, free flap transfer, and surgical treatment of Peyronie disease. Implications associated with saphenous vein grafting in vascular access surgery for the purpose of dialysis and chemotherapy are considerable. Vascular cuffs and patches have been developed as an important and effective means of enhancing the patency rates of the grafts by linking the synthetic material to the receipt vessel. In addition, saphenous veins can be a cell source for tissue engineering. We review the versatile roles that saphenous vein grafting has played as well as its current status in therapy.

  5. Radiation-induced graft copolymerization to polyester, 18

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Properties of polyester (polyethylene terephthalate) fibers grafted with acrylic acid (AA) and methacrylic acid were measured not only in the form of free acid but also in the form of sodium and calcium salts. Nearly the same moisture regain as that of cotton was obtained in the cases of sodium acrylate graft (AA-Na) and methacrylate graft (MAA-Na) at 14 and 18% graft respectively. Although the rate of water droplet absorption by the wicking test revealed that the rate increased with grafting, it is generally lower than that of cotton. Only AA-Na graft showed similar rate as that of cotton at 5% graft. All other grafts i.e. AA, AA-Ca, MAA and MAA-Na grafts showed lower rate than cotton even at higher percent graft. Results of frictional electricity test were similar, AA-Na graft showed satisfactory low static charge, whereas the effect of the grafting was insufficient in the cases of AA, MAA and MAA-Na grafts. Polyester fibers above 10% AA graft were dyed homogeneously to deep color with cationic and disperse dyes. AA, AA-Na and AA-Ca grafts showed almost the same dyeability. In the case of MAA grafts, only MAA-Na graft showed good dyeability. Fibers dyed with cationic dyes showed poor light fastness. Nor or very little change in tensile properties of polyester fibers were observed upon grafting of acrylic acid. However, strength and modulus of grafts decrease when AA grafts above 15% graft were converted to AA-Na by treatment in aqueous sodium bicarbonate solution. (auth.)

  6. Revascularized periosteal grafts--a new method to produce functional new bone without bone grafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finley, J M; Acland, R D; Wood, M B

    1978-01-01

    Rib periosteum was transplanted to the groins of 9 dogs. In half of the periosteal grafts, no microvascular anastomoses were done (free grafts); at 6 weeks after grafting they had become resorbed. The other periosteal grafts were revascularized by microvascular anastomoses of the intercostal vessels to local muscular vessels; at 6 weeks those with confirmed vascular patency had all formed substantial amounts of new bone. Five cm, full-thickness defects were created in the tibias of 10 dogs. The control animals (without grafting) did not heal in two months. However, the experimental dogs, with vascularized periosteal grafts in the defects regenerated their tibias with healthy new bone by 6 weeks--and were walking on them then. PMID:619374

  7. Beneficial effect of a weight-stable, low-fat/low-saturated fat/low-glycaemic index diet to reduce liver fat in older subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Utzschneider, Kristina M; Bayer-Carter, Jennifer L.; Arbuckle, Matthew D.; Tidwell, Jaime M.; Richards, Todd L.; Craft, Suzanne

    2012-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is associated with insulin resistance and dyslipidaemia and can progress to steatohepatitis and cirrhosis. We sought to determine whether dietary fat and saturated fat content alter liver fat in the absence of weight change in an older population. Liver fat was quantified by magnetic resonance spectroscopy before and after 4 weeks on an isoenergetic low-fat/low-saturated fat/low-glycaemic index (LGI) (LSAT: 23% fat/7% saturated fat/GI < 55) or a high-fat/high...

  8. Study on radiation graft copolymerization of MMA onto SBS. Pt.1: Liquid phase radiation graft copolymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper introduces mainly experimental results of graft copolymerization of styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS) with methyl methacrylate (MMA) in solution by ?-ray irradiation. Effects of irradiation dose and monomer concentration on mass increment and graft yield onto two types of SBS have been discussed. FTIR characterization of the irradiated samples showed that the monomer had been grated to the SBS molecular chains, while thermal performance of the graft products, SBS-g-MMA, was measured by DSC. (authors)

  9. Complications in skin grafts when continuing antithrombotic therapy prior to cutaneous surgery requiring skin grafting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jarjis, Reem Dina; Jørgensen, Lone; Finnerup, Kenneth; Birk-Sørensen, Lene

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The risk of postoperative bleeding and wound healing complications in skin grafts among anticoagulated patients undergoing cutaneous surgery has not been firmly established. The objective was to examine the literature and assess the risk of postoperative bleeding or wound healing complications in skin grafts among anticoagulated patients, compared with patients who discontinue or patients who are not receiving antithrombotic therapy prior to cutaneous surgery requiring skin grafting. A ...

  10. Design and Implementation of Log Structured FAT and ExFAT File Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keshava Munegowda

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The File Allocation Table (FAT file system is supported in multiple Operating Systems (OS. Hence, FAT file system is universal exchange format for files/directories used in Solid State Drives (SSD and Hard disk Drives (HDD. The Microsoft Corporation introduced the new file system called Extended FAT file system (ExFAT to support larger size storage devices. The ExFAT file system is optimized to use with SSDs. But, Both FAT and ExFAT are not power fail safe. This means that the uncontrolled power loss or abrupt storage device removable from the computer system, during file system update, causes corruption of file system meta data and hence it leads to loss of data in storage device. This paper implements the Logging and Committing features to FAT and ExFAT file systems and ensures that the file system meta data is consistent across the abrupt power loss or device removal from the computer system.

  11. Sucrose-sweetened beverages increase fat storage in the liver, muscle, and visceral fat depot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mærsk, Maria; Sparre, Anita Belza; Stødkilde-Jørgensen, Hans; Ringgaard, Steffen; Chabanova, Elizaveta; Thomsen, Henrik; Pedersen, Steen Bønløkke; Astrup, Arne; Richelsen, Bjørn

    2012-01-01

    . OBJECTIVE: We compared the effects of SSSDs with those of isocaloric milk and a noncaloric soft drink on changes in total fat mass and ectopic fat deposition (in liver and muscle tissue). DESIGN: Overweight subjects (n = 47) were randomly assigned to 4 different test drinks (1 L/d for 6 mo): SSSD (regular...... cola), isocaloric semiskim milk, aspartame-sweetened diet cola, and water. The amount of intrahepatic fat and intramyocellular fat was measured with (1)H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Other endpoints were fat mass, fat distribution (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and magnetic resonance imaging......), and metabolic risk factors. RESULTS: The relative changes between baseline and the end of 6-mo intervention were significantly higher in the regular cola group than in the 3 other groups for liver fat (132-143%, sex-adjusted mean; P <0.01), skeletal muscle fat (117-221%; P <0.05), visceral fat (24...

  12. Graft Rejection and Graft Failure After Penetrating Keratoplasty or Posterior Lamellar Keratoplasty for Fuchs Endothelial Dystrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortdal, Jesper; Pedersen, Iben B

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE:: To compare the frequency of rejection episodes and graft failure because of surgical complications or rejection after Descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK) and penetrating keratoplasty (PK) for Fuchs endothelial dystrophy. METHODS:: A total of 201 eyes of 201 consecutive patients with Fuchs endothelial dystrophy undergoing keratoplasty were included. One hundred two patients underwent DSAEK and 99 PK in the period January 1, 2000, to December 31, 2010. Postoperative topical steroid treatment was similar in the 2 groups. Most patients in the PK group received a short course of oral prednisolone, which was not prescribed for patients undergoing DSAEK. Patient records were retrospectively reviewed; rejection episodes and causes of graft failures were recorded, and Kaplan-Meier survival curves up to 5 years after surgery were computed and compared. RESULTS:: All rejection episodes and most graft failures occurred during the first 2 years after surgery. In this period, rejection episodes were noted in 16% of PK and in 5% of DSAEK-treated eyes (P = 0.03). During the first 5 years, significantly more DSAEK grafts than PK grafts had failed (P = 0.04) but only 2 PK-treated and no DSAEK-treated grafts failed because of rejection. CONCLUSION:: The frequency of graft rejection episodes is higher after PK than DSAEK for primary endothelial disease, despite the use of oral prednisolone in the PK group. Early graft failure is more common after DSAEK than after PK, whereas graft failure because of previous rejection episodes is uncommon after DSAEK and PK.

  13. Effect of monomer concentration on the degree of grafting and mechanical properties of grafted rubber film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of concentration of monomer on the properties of grafted rubber film was studied. =rays obtained from Co-60 source were used as initiator for grafting. For this purpose latex concentration was kept constant. The mechanical properties of grafted rubber films like tensile strength, modulus, tear strength and elongation at break were determined. Tensile strength attains maximum at 50 phr (parts per hundred rubber) concentration of monomer and after this concentration it remains almost unchanged. On the other hand tear strength and modulus increase with increase in concentration of monomer but elongation at break decreases. The conversion of monomer to polymers and degree of grafting were also determined. (author)

  14. Kinetic and mechanism of radiation-induced graft copolymerization for two grafting systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The graft copolymerization of glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) and vinylbenzyl chloride (VBC) onto nylon fiber was investigated by the pre-irradiation method using electron beam. The effects of grafting parameters, such as monomer concentration, absorbed dose and reaction temperature were investigated. The empirical kinetic rate equations: dG0/ dt = k(Mg0)1.14(Ag)0.52 and dG0/dt = k(Mv0)0.86(Av)1.06, were used to describe grafting of GMA and VBC, respectively. The overall activation energy for graft copolymerization of GMA and VBC were found to be 5.4 and 22.6 kJ/mol, respectively. The results revealed that the grafting kinetics in the two grafting systems were both controlled by the amounts of trapped radicals and monomer molecules. The grafting of GMA onto nylon-6 fibers was found to exhibit higher dependency on the quantity of monomer molecules available, whereas the VBC grafting system was found to exhibit higher dependency on the quantity of trapped radicals. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to provide evidence for the formation of graft copolymers. (author)

  15. The 5-strand hamstring graft in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Rushyuan Jay; Ganley, Theodore J

    2014-10-01

    The use of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction in the pediatric and adolescent population has been increasing in recent years. Autograft hamstring graft is favored in this population, but these patients often have smaller hamstring tendons that yield smaller final graft constructs. These smaller grafts are associated with an increased need for revision surgery. We describe a technique for obtaining a larger-diameter anterior cruciate ligament graft construct from autologous hamstring graft without allograft supplementation. PMID:25473619

  16. Graft copolymerization of acrylonitrile onto polypropylene membrane by preirradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A porous, graft copolymer and amidoxime group containing membrane were prepared by radiation graft copolymerization of acrylonitrile onto porous polypropylene. In order to calculate the grafting and amidoxime ratios of porous polypropylene-acrylonitrile graft copolymer. We have done CHN elemental analysis. It is obtained the result that grafting rate is increased to linear and value was about 75 percent at 20 Mrad dose rate. (Author)

  17. Fabrication of Custom-Shaped Grafts for Cartilage Regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Koo, Seungbum; Hargreaves, Brian A; GOLD, GARRY E.; Dragoo, Jason L

    2010-01-01

    Transplantation of engineered cartilage grafts is a promising method to treat diseased articular cartilage. The interfacial areas between the graft and the native tissues play an important role in the successful integration of the graft to adjacent native tissues. The purposes of the study were to create a custom shaped graft through 3D tissue shape reconstruction and rapid-prototype molding methods using MRI data, and to test the accuracy of the custom shaped graft against the original anato...

  18. Aneurysms and pseudoaneurysms of saphenous vein coronary artery bypass grafts

    OpenAIRE

    Le Breton, H; Pavin, D; Langanay, T; Roland, Y; Leclercq, C; Beliard, J; Bedossa, M; Rioux, C.; Pony, J

    1998-01-01

    Aneurysms of saphenous vein grafts to coronary arteries are unusual complications of coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. Three patients (men aged 47, 62, and 68 years) are presented with spontaneous chest pains 10, 21, and 17 years after CABG surgery. In one case, the saphenous vein graft had eroded into the right atrium and had established a fistula between the graft and the right atrium. Diagnosis of saphenous vein graft aneurysms was confirmed by echocardiography, computed tomogra...

  19. Radiation-induced grafting onto wool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation-induced grafting tests were done on single wool fibres. Different vinyl monomers were used for this purpose and they were grafted in twenty different solvents which were selected for their swelling effiency and solvent parameters. The tests were done once with and once without the addition of water. The presence of water causes the polymer uptake to increase considerably. Formic acid/methanol and methanol were found to be the most suitable solvent systems, as they have the highest hydrogen-bond interaction effiency. The moisture uptake of wool depends on the hydrophily and hydrophoby of the grafted polymers. The single-fibre tests serve as a basis for analogous grafting tests on wool fabrics. The permanent- press was improved by graftng with hydrophoric polymers and polymers with a high glass-transition temperature

  20. Novel nuances of human brown fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheele, Camilla; Larsen, Therese Juhlin

    2014-01-01

    There is a current debate in the literature on whether human fat derived from the supraclavicular region should be classified as brown, or as the white fat-derived less potent, brite/beige. This commentary addresses whether the existing classification defined in mice is sufficient to describe the types of thermogenic adipocytes in humans. We recently published a contradictory mRNA expression signature of human supraclavicular fat defined by an upregulation of the brite marker TBX1 along with the classical brown markers ZIC1 and LHX8, as well as genes indicating brown fat activity including UCP1, PGC-1?, and PRDM16; and, finally, a downregulation of the white/brite markers HOXC8 and HOXC9. Subcutaneous fat was used as reference material. Another recent study presents a higher expression of ZIC1 and a lower expression of TBX1 in interscapular compared with supraclavicular fat. Here, however, there was no difference in UCP1, PGC-1?, PRDM16, suggesting both depots had equal brown fat potency. Taken together, supraclavicular brown fat derived from adult humans seems to represent a type of brown fat with distinct features from both subcutaneous white/brite and interscapular brown fat. Therefore, the classification of adipocyte subtypes defined in mice may need reconsideration when applying to humans.

  1. Body Fat, Abdominal Fat, and Body Fat Distribution Is Related to Left Atrial Diameter in Young Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, Magnus; Thorsson, Ola; Karlsson, Magnus K; Lindén, Christian; Andersen, Lars B; Wollmer, Per

    2012-01-01

    ), abdominal fat, and body fat distribution were related to LA diameter. Cross-sectional study of 244 children (boys = 137 and girls n = 107) aged 8-11 years, recruited from an urban population-based cohort. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measured total lean body mass, TBF, and abdominal fat mass (AFM...... such as lean body mass, blood pressure, gender, age, and Tanner stage revealed that TBF, AFM, and AFM/TBF were all independently related to LA diameter. Differences in the different body fat measurements explained 6-9% of the variance in LA size. These results demonstrated that both total body fat, AFM......In adults, the size of the left atria (LA) has important prognostic information. In obese adults, adolescents and children enlargement of LA have been observed. This has not been investigated on a population-based level in young children. We therefore assessed if total body fat mass (TBF...

  2. Mechanical Bench Grafting for Apple Propagation

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Ashraf Sumrah; Allah Bakhsh; Zahid Hussain; Shafique Ahmad

    2002-01-01

    Mechanically and manually prepared stock and scion for bench grafting were adopted in four phases for apple propagation i.e., mechanically made stock and manually prepared scion, second phase was vice versa while in third stage both the stock and scion were prepared mechanically. In fourth operation all the grafting process was performed by hand made scion and stock. Maximum sprouting and success percentage of 93.2 and 83.2 respectively was recorded in the mechanically prepared scion and stoc...

  3. Biomaterials in Maxillofacial Surgery: Membranes and Grafts

    OpenAIRE

    Rodella, Luigi F.; Favero, Gaia; Labanca, Mauro

    2011-01-01

    Today, significant differences in the use of biomaterials (membranes and grafts) of animal or synthetic origin have yet to be reported. Nevertheless, some evidences suggest that synthetic materials have a lower risk of disease transmission. This review aims to assess the available informations on regenerative bone technique using reasorbable membranes and bone grafts. In particular, biocompatibility, immunological response, tissue reaction, reabsorption time and histological features of mater...

  4. Seeking for the ideal stent graft

    OpenAIRE

    Isa Cristina Teixeira Santos; Luís Rocha; João Manuel Ribeiro da Silva Tavares

    2010-01-01

    Aortic aneurysms are localized dilatations of the aorta that if not treated may lead to death. One of the current treatments is endovascular repair, a minimal invasive procedure in which a stent graft is placed transluminally to prevent wall rupture shielding the aneurysm from blood pressure. Stent grafts are classified as class III medical devices. They are composed of a metallic scaffold covered by a polymeric membrane. While early devices were custom designed by the operating surgeon, n...

  5. Free vascularised fibular grafts in orthopaedics

    OpenAIRE

    Bumbasirevic, Marko; Stevanovic, Milan; Bumbasirevic, Vesna; Lesic, Aleksandar; Atkinson, Henry D. E.

    2014-01-01

    Bony defects caused by trauma, tumors, infection or congenital anomalies can present a significant surgical challenge. Free vascularised fibular bone grafts (FVFGs) have proven to be extremely effective in managing larger defects (longer than 6 cm) where other conventional grafts have failed. FVFGs also have a role in the treatment of avascular necrosis (AVN) of the femoral head, failed spinal fusions and complex arthrodeses. Due to the fact that they have their own blood supply, FVFGs are ef...

  6. Grafting of a LLDPE using gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catari, E. [Centro de Quimica, Laboratorio de Polimeros Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas (IVIC) (Venezuela); Albano, C. [Centro de Quimica, Laboratorio de Polimeros Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas (IVIC) (Venezuela) and Universidad Central de Venezuela, Facultad de Ingenieria, Escuela de Ingenieria Quimica (Venezuela)]. E-mail: calbano@ivic.ve; Karam, A. [Centro de Quimica, Laboratorio de Polimeros Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas (IVIC) (Venezuela)]. E-mail: akaram@quimica.ivic.ve; Perera, R. [Departamento de Mecanica, Universidad Simon Bolivar (Venezuela); Silva, P. [Centro de Fisica, Laboratorio de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas (IVIC), Caracas (Venezuela); Gonzalez, J. [Departamento de Mecanica, Universidad Simon Bolivar (Venezuela)

    2005-07-01

    In this investigation, the grafting of a commercial linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE) with different concentrations of diethyl maleate (DEM, 5 and 15 wt.%) was carried out at different absorbed doses from a cobalt-60 source of gamma rays (0, 15, 30, 50, 100, 200 kGy). This process was performed in a decalin solution at 10% w/v to obtain a homogeneous dispersion of the monomer into the polyethylene matrix. The grafting degree was estimated by means of FTIR using a calibration curve reported in literature. Thermal properties of the functional polymers were studied by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Melt flow index (MFI) values were also taken. The results found indicate that the grafting degree increases as the concentration of DEM in the reaction mixture and the absorbed doses are increased upto 100 kGy, as expected. However, the behavior at higher doses is attributed to secondary reactions such as long-chain branching and/or crosslinking, which are faster than radical reactions responsible for the grafting of the DEM onto the polymeric chain. This fact was ascertained by the decrease of the MFI values as the applied irradiation was increased, irrespective of the quantity of DEM used in the grafting reaction. Therefore, in order to obtain a high grafting degree, the absorbed dose should be estimated carefully. Initial degradation temperatures of the grafted PEs decreased when the gamma irradiation dose was higher than 100 kGy. This indicates that the thermal stability decreases as higher doses are applied to the material, which is associated to branching and crosslinking. The grafting degree never exceeded 0.3 mol%, which demonstrates the low efficiency of the functionalization procedure here presented.

  7. Effect of different grafting methods for absorption, translocation and distribution of 59Fe in apple trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The test result with 59Fe demonstrate that the iron content in leaves by belly grafting is higher than that by cleft grafting and cutting grafting, and the content of chlorophyll in leaves and height and diameter of apple seedling by belly grafting is larger than cleft grafting and cutting grafting too. It is important to replace cleft grafting and cutting grafting with belly grafting as a method of top-working to correct chlorosis and improve growth of new cultivar

  8. Polypeptide Grafted Hyaluronan: Synthesis and Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiaojun [ORNL; Messman, Jamie M [ORNL; Mays, Jimmy [ORNL; Baskaran, Durairaj [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

    2010-01-01

    Poly(L-leucine) grafted hyaluronan (HA-g-PLeu) has been synthesized via a Michael addition reaction between primary amine terminated poly(L-leucine) and acrylate-functionalized HA (TBAHA-acrylate). The precursor hyaluronan was first functionalized with acrylate groups by reaction with acryloyl chloride in the presence of triethylamine in N,N-dimethylformamide. 1H NMR analysis of the resulting product indicated that an increase in the concentration of acryloylchoride with respect to hydroxyl groups on HA has only a moderate effect on functionalization efficiency, f. A precise control of stoichiometry was not achieved, which could be attributed to partial solubility of intermolecular aggregates and the hygroscopic nature of HA. Michael addition at high [PLeu- NH2]/[acrylate]TBAHA ratios gave a molar grafting ratio of only 0.20 with respect to the repeat unit of HA, indicating grafting limitation due to insolubility of the grafted HA-g-PLeu. Soluble HA-g-PLeu graft copolymers were obtained for low grafting ratios (<0.039) with <8.6% by mass of PLeu and were characterized thoroughly using light scattering, 1H NMR, FT-IR, and AFM techniques. Light scattering experiments showed a strong hydrophobic interaction between PLeu chains, resulting in aggregates with segregated nongrafted HA segments. This yields local networks of aggregates, as demonstrated by atomic force microscopy. Circular dichroism spectroscopy showed a -sheet conformation for aggregates of poly(L-leucine).

  9. Graft-copolymerization onto carbon black

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation-induced graft copolymerization of vinyl monomer onto carbon black was performed. During the ?-ray- and electron beam-induced polymerization (In-source), or the electron beam post-polymerization, the graft-copolymerization behavior was affected by the kinds of both carbon blacks and monomers, i.e. the smaller the size of carbon black particles, the higher the apparent grafted fraction. Homopolymer in the grafted carbon black samples was washed out by the solvent of the polymer, and the extracted polymer seemed to be dimer or trimer of the used monomer. In the case of the post-polymerization with the pre-irradiation doses of 50 Mrad, homopolymer was hardly observed. The polymer sheets of plastics or rubbers with grafted carbon black had an electrical conductivity unalterable considerably by the heating cycles. The particles of grafted carbon black in the sheet might be kept much more at the surface layer within 100 nm depth than at the inner layer. (author)

  10. Multiecho water-fat separation and simultaneous R2* estimation with multifrequency fat spectrum modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Huanzhou; Shimakawa, Ann; McKenzie, Charles A; Brodsky, Ethan; Brittain, Jean H; Reeder, Scott B

    2008-11-01

    Multiecho chemical shift-based water-fat separation methods are seeing increasing clinical use due to their ability to estimate and correct for field inhomogeneities. Previous chemical shift-based water-fat separation methods used a relatively simple signal model that assumes both water and fat have a single resonant frequency. However, it is well known that fat has several spectral peaks. This inaccuracy in the signal model results in two undesired effects. First, water and fat are incompletely separated. Second, methods designed to estimate T(2) (*) in the presence of fat incorrectly estimate the T(2) (*) decay in tissues containing fat. In this work, a more accurate multifrequency model of fat is included in the iterative decomposition of water and fat with echo asymmetry and least-squares estimation (IDEAL) water-fat separation and simultaneous T(2) (*) estimation techniques. The fat spectrum can be assumed to be constant in all subjects and measured a priori using MR spectroscopy. Alternatively, the fat spectrum can be estimated directly from the data using novel spectrum self-calibration algorithms. The improvement in water-fat separation and T(2) (*) estimation is demonstrated in a variety of in vivo applications, including knee, ankle, spine, breast, and abdominal scans. PMID:18956464

  11. The FAt Spondyloarthritis Spine Score (FASSS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne Juhl; Zhao, Zheng; Lambert, Robert Gw; Wichuk, Stephanie; Østergaard, Mikkel; Weber, Ulrich; Maksymowych, Walter P

    2013-01-01

    Studies have shown that fat lesions follow resolution of inflammation in the spine of patients with axial spondyloarthritis (SpA). Fat lesions at vertebral corners have also been shown to predict development of new syndesmophytes. Therefore, scoring of fat lesions in the spine may constitute both...... an important measure of treatment efficacy as well as a surrogate marker for new bone formation. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a new scoring method for fat lesions in the spine, the Fat SpA Spine Score (FASSS), which in contrast to the existing scoring method addresses the...... localization and phenotypic diversity of fat lesions in patients with axial SpA....

  12. Gluteal fat thickness in pelvic CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many calcifications due to fat necrosis in the buttocks detected on the pelvis roentgenograms suggest that the majority of injections intended to be intramuscular actually are delivered into fat. We measured thickness of adult gluteal fat to decide whether the injection using needle of usual length is done into fat or muscle. We measured the vertical thickness of the subcutaneous fat at a point of 2-3cm above the femoral head cut slice with randomly collected 116 cases of adults in the department of Radiology, St. Mary's Hospital, Catholic Medical College. We found that 32% female cases might actually receive on intra adipose injection when a needle of maximum 3.8cm length is inserted into the buttock. If deposition into muscle is desirable, we need to choose needle whose length is appropriate for the site of injection and the patient's deposits of fat.

  13. Regulation of Body Fat in C. elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Supriya

    2016-01-01

    Studies conducted in C. elegans over the last decade highlight the ancient and complex origins of body fat regulation. In this critical review, I introduce the major functional approaches used to study energy balance and body fat, the lipid composition of C. elegans, the regulation of cellular fat metabolism and its transcriptional control. Next I describe the influence of the sensory nervous system on body fat and the major regulatory mechanisms that couple food perception in the nervous system with the production of energy via fat metabolism. The final section describes the opportunities for the discovery of neuroendocrine factors that control communication between the nervous system and the metabolic tissues. The coming years are expected to reveal a wealth of information on the neuroendocrine control of body fat in C. elegans. PMID:25340962

  14. Complication after arterial bypass grafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dizon, M; Wallach, P; Matfin, G; Adelman, H M

    1998-10-15

    A 57-year-old man experienced sudden onset of pleuritic chest pain and respiratory distress 10 days after undergoing four-vessel coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). The surgery was performed after cardiac catheterization had shown right coronary artery dominance and the presence of lesions occluding 40% of the mid right coronary artery, 20% of the left main coronary artery, and 99% of the lower left anterior descending artery and its first diagonal branch. The patient had initially presented with acute dyspnea following an episode of crushing, nonradiating pain in the left chest and was diagnosed as having a non-Q-wave myocardial infarction after cardiac enzyme testing. His hospital course before and immediately after CABG was uneventful. The first sign of difficulty was detected one week after surgery, on day 17. An echocardiogram showed a small pericardial effusion, moderate to severe concentric thickening of the left ventricle, a left ventricular ejection fraction of 0.60 (normal, 0.67 +/- 0.08), normal valves, and normal segmental wall motion. The pleural chest pains began two days later, on day 19. PMID:9793541

  15. Isotopic scintigraphy in kidney grafting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isotopic explorations of kidney transplants were performed on sixty-six patients. Three scintigraphic techniques were used: labelled ferrous ascorbate scintigraphy, sequential 99m technetium DTPA scintigraphy and the 131I hippuran nephrogram. The aim of this study is to analyse the results obtained under different pathological circumstances affecting the transplant, to discuss the advantages of the techniques and to propose a working procedure. The most reliable and accurate technique is the 131I hippuran nephrogram combined with sequential 99mTc DTPA, by which renal vascularisation may be judged labelled ferrous ascorbate on the other hand is too insensitive. Although the information supplied is mostly contained in the scintigraphic images, the nephrographic curves and the blood radioactivity decay time and rad V/rad R ratio measurements are very helpful in the early diagnosis and differential diagnosis of complications affecting the transplant. The proper use of isotopic scintigraphy in kidney grafting should provide optimum conditions for better survival of the transplant at minimum risk to the patient

  16. Dietary fat intake, supplements, and weight loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyck, D. J.

    2000-01-01

    Although there remains controversy regarding the role of macronutrient balance in the etiology of obesity, the consumption of high-fat diets appears to be strongly implicated in its development. Evidence that fat oxidation does not adjust rapidly to acute increases in dietary fat, as well as a decreased capacity to oxidize fat in the postprandial state in the obese, suggest that diets high in fat may lead to the accumulation of fat stores. Novel data is also presented suggesting that in rodents, high-fat diets may lead to the development of leptin resistance in skeletal muscle and subsequent accumulations of muscle triacylglycerol. Nevertheless, several current fad diets recommend drastically reduced carbohydrate intake, with a concurrent increase in fat content. Such recommendations are based on the underlying assumption that by reducing circulating insulin levels, lipolysis and lipid oxidation will be enhanced and fat storage reduced. Numerous supplements are purported to increase fat oxidation (carnitine, conjugated linoleic acid), increase metabolic rate (ephedrine, pyruvate), or inhibit hepatic lipogenesis (hydroxycitrate). All of these compounds are currently marketed in supplemental form to increase weight loss, but few have actually been shown to be effective in scientific studies. To date, there is little or no evidence supporting that carnitine or hydroxycitrate supplementation are of any value for weight loss in humans. Supplements such as pyruvate have been shown to be effective at high dosages, but there is little mechanistic information to explain its purported effect or data to indicate its effectiveness at lower dosages. Conjugated linoleic acid has been shown to stimulate fat utilization and decrease body fat content in mice but has not been tested in humans. The effects of ephedrine, in conjunction with methylxanthines and aspirin, in humans appears unequivocal but includes various cardiovascular side effects. None of these compounds have been tested for their effectiveness or safety over prolonged periods of time.

  17. Imaging Manifestations of Mediastinal Fat Necrosis

    OpenAIRE

    Bhatt, Malay Y.; Santiago Martínez-Jiménez; Rosado-de-Christenson, Melissa L.; Watson, Kenneth R.; Walker, Christopher M.; Kunin, Jeffrey R.

    2013-01-01

    Mediastinal fat necrosis (MFN) or epipericardial fat necrosis, as it is commonly referred to in the literature, is a rare self-limiting cause of chest pain of unclear etiology. MFN affects previously healthy individuals who present with acute pleuritic chest pain. Characteristic computed tomography (CT) findings include a fat attenuation lesion with intrinsic and surrounding increased attenuation stranding. There is often associated thickening of the adjacent pericardium and/or pleural effusi...

  18. A fat quality index (FQI) proposal

    OpenAIRE

    Cobos-Murcia, J. A.; Osorio-Mirón, A.; Márquez-López, E.; Hernández-Aguilar, E.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the concept of the fat quality index (FQI), which is based and established in pursuancet of the current food regulations. It is a numerical value representing the correlated information of all parameters that provide the definition of fat according to the international guidelines. With the implementation of this index, it is possible to compare different types of fats using a single numerical value, which facilitates the elucidation of the effects of treatment processes or...

  19. Dietary Fat in Breast Cancer Survival

    OpenAIRE

    Makarem, Nour; Chandran, Urmila; Bandera, Elisa V.; Parekh, Niyati

    2013-01-01

    Laboratory evidence suggests a plausible role for dietary fat in breast cancer pathophysiology. We conducted a systematic literature review to assess the epidemiological evidence on the impact of total dietary fat and fat subtypes, measured pre- and/or postcancer diagnosis, in relation to breast cancer–specific and all-cause mortality among breast cancer survivors. Studies were included if they were in English, had a sample size ?200, and presented the hazard ratio/rate ratio for recurrence, ...

  20. Prosthetic graft interposition of the brachiocephalic veins or superior vena cava combined with resection of malignant tumours: graft patency and risk factors for graft occlusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Geun Dong; Choi, Se Hoon; Kim, Yong-Hee; Kim, Dong Kwan; Park, Seung-Il

    2016-01-01

    Background We aimed to assess graft patency in patients undergoing prosthetic graft interposition of the brachiocephalic veins (BCVs) or the superior vena cava (SVC) combined with resection of malignant tumours. Methods A retrospective analysis was conducted on 16 patients who underwent prosthetic graft interposition of the BCVs or the SVC between 1998 and 2012. Results Among a total of 20 grafts in 16 patients (unilateral graft interposition in 12, bilateral graft interposition in 4), 8 grafts were occluded in 8 patients. Overall graft patency rate was 64.6%, 42.4% at the 2- and 5-year follow-up. Graft patency rate of the left BCV was significantly lower than that of the right BCV or the SVC (2-year patency, 38.1% vs. 81.8%, P=0.024). In univariate analysis, the superior anastomosis site [left BCV vs. right BCV; hazard ratio (HR) =2.312; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.015–5.265; P=0.046], the inferior anastomosis site (right atrial appendage vs. SVC; HR =2.409; 95% CI, 1.124–5.161; P=0.024), and interruption of warfarin (HR =5.015; 95% CI, 1.106–22.734; P=0.037) were significant risk factors for graft occlusion. Graft occlusive symptoms were identified in 4 patients who underwent unilateral graft interposition. Conclusions Prosthetic graft interposition between the left BCV and the right atrial appendage resulted in a significant rate of graft occlusion. Prosthetic graft interposition of the bilateral BCVs and long-term warfarin therapy may be necessary to prevent graft occlusive symptoms.

  1. Physical properties of agave cellulose graft polymethyl methacrylate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The grafting polymerization of methyl methacrylate and Agave cellulose was prepared and their structural analysis and morphology were investigated. The grafting reaction was carried out in an aqueous medium using ceric ammonium nitrate as an initiator. The structural analysis of the graft copolymers was carried out by Fourier transform infrared and X-ray diffraction. The graft copolymers were also characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). An additional peak at 1732 cm?1 which was attributed to the C=O of ester stretching vibration of poly(methyl methacrylate), appeared in the spectrum of grafted Agave cellulose. A slight decrease of crystallinity index upon grafting was found from 0.74 to 0.68 for cellulose and grafted Agave cellulose, respectively. Another evidence of grafting showed in the FESEM observation, where the surface of the grafted cellulose was found to be roughed than the raw one

  2. Physical properties of agave cellulose graft polymethyl methacrylate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosli, Noor Afizah; Ahmad, Ishak; Abdullah, Ibrahim; Anuar, Farah Hannan [Polymer Research Centre (PORCE), School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi Selangor (Malaysia)

    2013-11-27

    The grafting polymerization of methyl methacrylate and Agave cellulose was prepared and their structural analysis and morphology were investigated. The grafting reaction was carried out in an aqueous medium using ceric ammonium nitrate as an initiator. The structural analysis of the graft copolymers was carried out by Fourier transform infrared and X-ray diffraction. The graft copolymers were also characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). An additional peak at 1732 cm{sup ?1} which was attributed to the C=O of ester stretching vibration of poly(methyl methacrylate), appeared in the spectrum of grafted Agave cellulose. A slight decrease of crystallinity index upon grafting was found from 0.74 to 0.68 for cellulose and grafted Agave cellulose, respectively. Another evidence of grafting showed in the FESEM observation, where the surface of the grafted cellulose was found to be roughed than the raw one.

  3. The FAt Spondyloarthritis Spine Score (FASSS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne Juhl; Zhao, Zheng; Lambert, Robert Gw; Wichuk, Stephanie; Østergaard, Mikkel; Weber, Ulrich; Maksymowych, Walter P

    2013-01-01

    Studies have shown that fat lesions follow resolution of inflammation in the spine of patients with axial spondyloarthritis (SpA). Fat lesions at vertebral corners have also been shown to predict development of new syndesmophytes. Therefore, scoring of fat lesions in the spine may constitute both an important measure of treatment efficacy as well as a surrogate marker for new bone formation. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a new scoring method for fat lesions in the spine, the ...

  4. Fat metabolism in formerly obese women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ranneries, C; Bülow, J; Buemann, B; Christensen, N J; Madsen, J; Astrup, A

    An impaired fat oxidation has been implicated to play a role in the etiology of obesity, but it is unclear to what extent impaired fat mobilization from adipose tissue or oxidation of fat is responsible. The present study aimed to examine fat mobilization from adipose tissue and whole body fat...... in FO than in C at rest (0.455 +/- 0.299 vs. 0.206 +/- 0.102 mumol.100 g-1.min-1, P <0.05) but increased similarly in FO and C in response to exercise. Despite higher plasma nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) in FO (P <0.001), fat oxidation rates during rest and recovery were lower in FO than in C (1.......32 +/- 0.84 vs. 3.70 +/- 0.57 kJ/min, P <0.02) and fat oxidation for a given plasma NEFA concentration was lower at rest (P <0.001) and during exercise (P = 0.01) in the formerly obese group. In conclusion, fat mobilization both at rest and during exercise is intact in FO, whereas fat oxidation is...

  5. Hypoxia, Oxidative Stress and Fat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaus Netzer

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic disturbances in white adipose tissue in obese individuals contribute to the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Impaired insulin action in adipocytes is associated with elevated lipolysis and increased free fatty acids leading to ectopic fat deposition in liver and skeletal muscle. Chronic adipose tissue hypoxia has been suggested to be part of pathomechanisms causing dysfunction of adipocytes. Hypoxia can provoke oxidative stress in human and animal adipocytes and reduce the production of beneficial adipokines, such as adiponectin. However, time-dose responses to hypoxia relativize the effects of hypoxic stress. Long-term exposure of fat cells to hypoxia can lead to the production of beneficial substances such as leptin. Knowledge of time-dose responses of hypoxia on white adipose tissue and the time course of generation of oxidative stress in adipocytes is still scarce. This paper reviews the potential links between adipose tissue hypoxia, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and low-grade inflammation caused by adipocyte hypertrophy, macrophage infiltration and production of inflammatory mediators.

  6. Dietary Fat, Fat Subtypes and Hepatocellular Carcinoma in a Large European Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duarte-Salles, Talita; Fedirko, Veronika; Stepien, Magdalena; Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Bamia, Christina; Lagiou, Pagona; Laursen, Anne Sofie Dam; Hansen, Louise; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Fagherazzi, Guy; His, Mathilde; Boeing, Heiner; Katzke, Verena; Kühn, Tilman; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Valanou, Elissavet; Kritikou, Maria; Masala, Giovanna; Panico, Salvatore; Sieri, Sabina; Ricceri, Fulvio; Tumino, Rosario; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Peeters, Petra H; Hjartåker, Anette; Skeie, Guri; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Ardanaz, Eva; Bonet, Catalina; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Dorronsoro, Miren; Quirós, J Ramón; Johansson, Ingegerd; Ohlsson, Bodil; Sjöberg, Klas; Wennberg, Maria; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Travis, Ruth C; Wareham, Nick; Ferrari, Pietro; Freisling, Heinz; Romieu, Isabelle; Cross, Amanda J; Gunter, Marc; Lu, Yunxia; Jenab, Mazda

    2015-01-01

    The role of amount and type of dietary fat consumption in the aetiology of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is poorly understood, despite suggestive biological plausibility. The associations of total fat, fat subtypes and fat sources with HCC incidence were investigated in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort, which includes 191 incident HCC cases diagnosed between 1992 and 2010. Diet was assessed by country-specific, validated dietary questionnaires. A si...

  7. Authentication of feeding fats: classification of animal fats, fish oils and recycled cooking oils

    OpenAIRE

    van Ruth, S. M.; Rozijn, M.; Koot, A.H.; Perez-Garcia, R. (Rafael); Van der Kamp, H J; Codony, R.

    2010-01-01

    Classification of fats and oils involves the recognition of one/several markers typical of the product. The ideal marker(s) should be specific to the fat or oil. Not many chemical markers fulfill these criteria. Authenticity assessment is a difficult task, which in most cases requires the measurement of several markers and must take into account natural and technology-induced variation. The present study focuses on the identity prediction of three by-products of the fat industry (animal fats,...

  8. Effect of acid additives on grafting efficiency and water absorption of hydrolyzed cassava starch grafted polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelatinized cassava starch was radiation graft copolymerized with acrylamide, acrylic acid or their mixture in the presence of sulphuric acid or maleic acid. Various acid concentrations were used from 0.001 to 0.1 M of sulphuric acid while the maleic acid concentrations were varied from 1 to 3% (by weight). The optimum total dose and dose rate were investigated. The saponification temperature and time had the marked effects on grafting characteristics and water absorption capacity. We found that the effect of maleic acid addition gave a profound effect on water absorption. The CHNS/O analyses indicated significant changes in the nitrogen content in the hydrolyzed starch grafted polyacrylamide with 2% maleic acid. The article explains the possible causes for the enhancement influence of mineral acid and maleic acid on grafting behavior and water absorption of the saponified cassava starch grafted polyacrylamide super absorbent polymer. (author)

  9. Study on grafting glycidyl methacrylate onto HDPE membranes by pre-irradiation graft copolymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) was grafted onto HDPE membranes by pre-irradiation method with 1.8 MeV E-beam and a kind of membranes having reactive epoxy groups was successfully synthesized. Effects of monomer concentration, reaction temperature and time and irradiation dose on the grafting yield were studied. Composition, thermo-property and surface morphology of the grafted membranes were studied by FTIR, DSC and Tapping-mode AFM, respectively. The FTIR measurements proved the synthesized copolymer is HDPE-g-GMA. The DSC results indicated the grafted HDPE's melting temperature (Tm) and heat of fusion (?Hf(HDPE)) which was reduced with increasing grafting yield. The AFM images indicated that surface of the HDPE-g-GMA membranes was rougher than the virgin HDPE. (authors)

  10. Function and cancer genomics of FAT family genes

    OpenAIRE

    Katoh, Masaru

    2012-01-01

    FAT1, FAT2, FAT3 and FAT4 are human homologs of Drosophila Fat, which is involved in tumor suppression and planar cell polarity (PCP). FAT1 and FAT4 undergo the first proteolytic cleavage by Furin and are predicted to undergo the second cleavage by ?-secretase to release intracellular domain (ICD). Ena/VAPS-binding to FAT1 induces actin polymerization at lamellipodia and filopodia to promote cell migration, while Scribble-binding to FAT1 induces phosphorylation and functional inhibition of YA...

  11. Adolescent External Iliac Artery Trauma: Recurrent Aneurysmal Dilatation of an Iliofemoral Saphenous Vein Graft Treated by Stent-Grafting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An adolescent male sustained a severe penetrating injury to the external iliac artery. Emergency surgical revascularization was with a reversed long saphenous vein interposition graft. The primary graft and the subsequent revision graft both became aneurysmal. The second graft aneurysm was successfully excluded by endovascular stent-grafts with medium-term primary patency. A venous graft was used initially rather than a synthetic graft to reduce the risk of infection and the potential problems from future growth. Aneurysmal dilatation of venous grafts in children and adolescents is a rare but recognized complication. To the best of our knowledge, exclusion of these aneurysms with stent-grafts has not been previously reported in the adolescent population.

  12. Synthesis of Graft Copolymers by Small Doses of Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In addition to grafting, there is often an undesirable alteration in the properties of the original polymer when polymer monomer mixtures are irradiated. As a result of irradiation, grafting occurs not only on the original polymeric backbone, but also on the already grafted side-chains. The result is an acceleration of grafting. The effect is especially pronounced in the case of preformed polymers, if irradiation is carried out intermittently. The grafting of styrene can be accelerated by the addition of some solvents which suppress the protective effect of the styrene on the polymer. Grafting can be accelerated by other additives. The swelling properties of the irradiated films were investigated. (author)

  13. Atherosclerosis of coronary artery bypass grafts and smoking.

    OpenAIRE

    FitzGibbon, G M; Leach, A J; Kafka, H P

    1987-01-01

    Follow-up angiography was performed at selected intervals on 340 men who had undergone coronary artery bypass surgery. There were 1160 grafts, but 112 were excluded from study because they occluded shortly after the operation. After 5 years 115 patients were smokers and 225 were nonsmokers. The mean number of grafts per patient was similar in the two groups. We classified each graft according to irregularities in graft outlines and graft patency and found disease-free grafts in 39% of the smo...

  14. Characterization and Some Properties of Functionalized Graft Copolymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study involved the investigation and characterization of membranes prepared by graft copolymerization of acrylonitrile (AN) and vinyl acetate (VAc) binary monomers onto low density polyethylene (LDPE) and isotactic polypropylene (IPP). The mutual gamma-irradiation method was used as a grafting technique. The effects of grafting and chemical treatments on the thermal properties and crystallinity of prepared graft copolymer have been investigated using DSC, TGA and XRD. IR spectra recorded before and after grafting and also for the chemically treated membranes to elucidate the structural changes occurred due to grafting and chemical treatments

  15. Fat metabolism in formerly obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranneries, C; Bülow, J; Buemann, B; Christensen, N J; Madsen, J; Astrup, A

    1998-01-01

    An impaired fat oxidation has been implicated to play a role in the etiology of obesity, but it is unclear to what extent impaired fat mobilization from adipose tissue or oxidation of fat is responsible. The present study aimed to examine fat mobilization from adipose tissue and whole body fat oxidation stimulated by exercise in seven formerly obese women (FO) and eight matched controls (C). Lipolysis in the periumbilical subcutaneous adipose tissue, whole body energy expenditure (EE), and substrate oxidation rates were measured before, during, and after a 60-min bicycle exercise bout of moderate intensity. Lipolysis was assessed by glycerol release using microdialysis and blood flow measurement by 133Xe clearance technique. The FO women had lower resting EE than C (3.77 +/- 1.01 vs. 4.88 +/- 0.74 kJ/min, P < 0.05) but responded similarly to exercise. Adipose tissue glycerol release was twice as high in FO than in C at rest (0.455 +/- 0.299 vs. 0.206 +/- 0.102 mumol.100 g-1.min-1, P < 0.05) but increased similarly in FO and C in response to exercise. Despite higher plasma nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) in FO (P < 0.001), fat oxidation rates during rest and recovery were lower in FO than in C (1.32 +/- 0.84 vs. 3.70 +/- 0.57 kJ/min, P < 0.02) and fat oxidation for a given plasma NEFA concentration was lower at rest (P < 0.001) and during exercise (P = 0.01) in the formerly obese group. In conclusion, fat mobilization both at rest and during exercise is intact in FO, whereas fat oxidation is subnormal despite higher circulation NEFA levels. The lower resting EE and the failure to use fat as fuel contribute to a positive fat balance and weight gain in FO subjects. PMID:9458761

  16. Corneal Graft Rejection: Incidence and Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Baradaran-Rafii

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available

    PURPOSE: To determine the incidence and risk factors of late corneal graft rejection after penetrating keratoplasty (PKP. METHODS: Records of all patients who had undergone PKP from 2002 to 2004 without immunosuppressive therapy other than systemic steroids and with at least one year of follow up were reviewed. The role of possible risk factors such as demographic factors, other host factors, donor factors, indications for PKP as well as type of rejection were evaluated. RESULTS: During the study period, 295 PKPs were performed on 286 patients (176 male, 110 female. Mean age at the time of keratoplasty was 38±20 (range, 40 days to 90 years and mean follow up period was 20±10 (range 12-43 months. Graft rejection occurred in 94 eyes (31.8% at an average of 7.3±6 months (range, 20 days to 39 months after PKP. The most common type of rejection was endothelial (20.7%. Corneal vascularization, regrafting, anterior synechiae, irritating sutures, active inflammation, additional anterior segment procedures, history of trauma, uncontrolled glaucoma, prior graft rejection, recurrence of herpetic infection and eccentric grafting increased the rate of rejection. Patient age, donor size and bilateral transplantation had no significant influence on graft rejection. CONCLUSION: Significant risk factors for corneal graft rejection include corneal vascularization, anterior synechiae, irritating sutures, active inflammation, regrafting, additional surgery, trauma, uncontrolled intraocular pressure, history of graft rejection, recurrent herpetic infection, eccentric grafting and corneal scarring. Recipient age and donor cornea size do not seem to be risk factors for corneal graft rejection.

  17. Radiation graft modification of EPDM rubber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katbab, A.A.; Burford, R.P.; Garnett, J.L. (Univ. of New South Wales, Kensington (Australia). School of Chemical Engineering and Industrial Chemistry)

    1992-03-01

    N-Vinyl pyrrolidone (NVP), 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate (HEMA) and acrylamide (AAm) have been grafted to the surface of rubber vulcanizates based on ethylene-propylene-terpolymer (EPDM) using the simultaneous radiation method to alter surface properties such as wettability and therefore biocompatibility. The effect of monomer concentration, solvent and EPDM structural factors on the grafting behaviour have been investigated. The inhibitory effect upon homopolymerization of various salts has also been evaluated for the three monomers. A mechanism has been proposed to explain the behaviour of these monomers. The inclusion of multifunctional acrylates in additive amounts (1.0 vol%) enhanced the graft degree. Modified samples were able to be efficiently stained, allowing the depth of the graft copolymerization to be determined by light microscopy. Water was found to have an accelerating effect on the polymerization of these monomers, but methanol prevented their polymerization completely. The effect of EPDM structural factors upon degree of grafting was found to vary, depending upon the monomer type. (author).

  18. Radiation graft modification of EPDM rubber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    N-Vinyl pyrrolidone (NVP), 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate (HEMA) and acrylamide (AAm) have been grafted to the surface of rubber vulcanizates based on ethylene-propylene-terpolymer (EPDM) using the simultaneous radiation method to alter surface properties such as wettability and therefore biocompatibility. The effect of monomer concentration, solvent and EPDM structural factors on the grafting behaviour have been investigated. The inhibitory effect upon homopolymerization of various salts has also been evaluated for the three monomers. A mechanism has been proposed to explain the behaviour of these monomers. The inclusion of multifunctional acrylates in additive amounts (1.0 vol%) enhanced the graft degree. Modified samples were able to be efficiently stained, allowing the depth of the graft copolymerization to be determined by light microscopy. Water was found to have an accelerating effect on the polymerization of these monomers, but methanol prevented their polymerization completely. The effect of EPDM structural factors upon degree of grafting was found to vary, depending upon the monomer type. (author)

  19. Mechanism of radiation ion graft polymerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabanov, V.Ya.; Aliyev, R.E.; Kudryavtsev, V.N.; Sidorova, L.P.; Spitsyn, V.I.

    1982-04-01

    The mechanism of triggering ion graft polymerization, taking into account the frequency heterogeneity of the grafting process, is examined. It is pointed out that the ion process in radiolysis has received much less attention than the behavior of radicals, and these factors are discussed for polyolefins. Data on the effects of solvents showed a correlation between solvent donor numbers and the rate of grafting, and a complete lack of correlation with other properties of solvents. For radiation ion grafting, polymer swelling in the solvent has less importance than the solvent's donor-acceptor properties. Ion grafting reaches its greatest speed at the glass point of the swelled polymer. Results showed that the solvent's effect on copolymer composition is strikingly different as the amount of solvent is increased. A formula is developed for the dependence of the ion process's contribution on the strength of the solvent dose and the content of inhibiting impurities (such as water) in the system. 9 references, 4 figures.

  20. Soft tissue grafting to improve implant esthetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassab, Moawia M

    2010-01-01

    Dental implants are becoming the treatment of choice to replace missing teeth, especially if the adjacent teeth are free of restorations. When minimal bone width is present, implant placement becomes a challenge and often resulting in recession and dehiscence around the implant that leads to subsequent gingival recession. To correct such defect, the author turned to soft tissue autografting and allografting to correct a buccal dehiscence around tooth #24 after a malpositioned implant placed by a different surgeon. A 25-year-old woman presented with the chief complaint of gingival recession and exposure of implant threads around tooth #24. The patient received three soft tissue grafting procedures to augment the gingival tissue. The first surgery included a connective tissue graft to increase the width of the keratinized gingival tissue. The second surgery included the use of autografting (connective tissue graft) to coronally position the soft tissue and achieve implant coverage. The third and final surgery included the use of allografting material Alloderm to increase and mask the implant from showing through the gingiva. Healing period was uneventful for the patient. After three surgical procedures, it appears that soft tissue grafting has increased the width and height of the gingiva surrounding the implant. The accomplished thickness of gingival tissue appeared to mask the showing of implant threads through the gingival tissue and allowed for achieving the desired esthetic that the patient desired. The aim of the study is to present a clinical case with soft tissue grafting procedures. PMID:23662087

  1. Aortic reconstruction with bovine pericardial grafts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silveira Lindemberg Mota

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Glutaraldehyde-treated crimped bovine pericardial grafts are currently used in aortic graft surgery. These conduits have become good options for these operations, available in different sizes and shapes and at a low cost. OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the results obtained with bovine pericardial grafts for aortic reconstruction, specially concerning late complications. METHOD: Between January 1995 and January 2002, 57 patients underwent different types of aortic reconstruction operations using bovine pericardial grafts. A total of 29 (50.8% were operated on an urgent basis (mostly acute Stanford A dissection and 28 electively. Thoracotomy was performed in three patients for descending aortic replacement (two patients and aortoplasty with a patch in one. All remaining 54 underwent sternotomy, cardiopulmonary bypass and aortic resection. Deep hypothermia and total circulatory arrest was used in acute dissections and arch operations. RESULTS: Hospital mortality was 17.5%. Follow-up was 24.09 months (18.5 to 29.8 months confidence interval and complication-free actuarial survival curve was 92.3% (standard deviation ± 10.6. Two patients lately developed thoracoabdominal aneurysms following previous DeBakey II dissection and one died from endocarditis. One "patch" aortoplasty patient developed local descending aortic pseudoaneurysm 42 months after surgery. All other patients are asymptomatic and currently clinically evaluated with echocardiography and CT scans, showing no complications. CONCLUSION: Use of bovine pericardial grafts in aortic reconstruction surgery is adequate and safe, with few complications related to the conduits.

  2. Oversized vein grafts develop advanced atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic minipigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thim Troels

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accelerated atherosclerosis is the main cause of late aortocoronary vein graft failure. We aimed to develop a large animal model for the study of pathogenesis and treatment of vein graft atherosclerosis. Methods An autologous reversed jugular vein graft was inserted end-to-end into the transected common carotid artery of ten hypercholesteroemic minipigs. The vein grafts were investigated 12-14 weeks later with ultrasound and angiograpy in vivo and microscopy post mortem. Results One minipig died during follow up (patent vein graft at autopsy, and one vein graft thrombosed early. In the remaining eight patent vein grafts, the mean (standard deviation intima-media thickness was 712 ?m (276 ?m versus 204 ?m (74 ?m in the contralateral control internal jugular veins (P diameter of artery. No plaques were found in four non-oversized vein grafts (P Conclusions Our model of jugular vein graft in the common carotid artery of hypercholesterolemic minipigs displayed the components of human vein graft disease, i.e. thrombosis, intimal hyperplasia, and atherosclerosis. Advanced atherosclerosis, the main cause of late failure of human aortocoronary vein grafts was only seen in oversized grafts. This finding suggests that oversized vein grafts may have detrimental effects on patient outcome.

  3. Grafting onto polyester fibers. II. Kinetics of grafting of acrylic acid, acrylonitrile, and vinyl acetate onto polyester fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The kinetics of grafting of acrylonitrile, acrylic acid, and vinyl acetate onto polyester fiber by catalytic initiation and radiation were studied. The energy of activation determined for acrylic acid grafting by the catalytic method was 10.7 kcal/mole and that for vinyl acetate grafting by the radiation method, 11.7 kcal/mole. In the case of acrylonitrile grafting by the catalytic method, the rate of grafting decreased with increase in temperature of grafting, showing the differential behavior of the precipitating type of polymer from that of homogeneous polymerization. 5 figures

  4. Pork fat hydrolysed by Staphylococcus xylosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, B. B.; Stahnke, Louise Heller; Zeuthen, Peter

    1993-01-01

    Staphylococcus xylosus is used as a starter culture in the production of fermented sausages. Its ability to hydrolyse pork fat was investigated. Within 15 days of incubation an interaction of bacterial growth, lipase production and lipase activity in a pork fat containing medium caused liberation...

  5. On Learning to Teach Fat Feminism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boling, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    As a feminist theorist who frequently teaches theorizing that starts from embodied experience, the author has begun to incorporate fat feminism into her teaching. As a neophyte and a relatively thin woman, she has been self-conscious about broaching issues related to fat bodies in her teaching, even though they clearly raise important issues about…

  6. Subcutaneous fat necrosis of the newborn

    OpenAIRE

    Rubin, Giulia; Spagnut, Giulia; Morandi, Francesco; Valerio, Enrico; Cutrone, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Subcutaneous fat necrosis (SCFN) is a rare fat tissue inflammation of the newborn. Risk factors include cord prolapse, perinatal asphyxia, therapeutic hypothermia, meconium aspiration, and sepsis. When present, hypercalcemia comes with lethargy, hypotonia, irritability, vomiting, polyuria, polydipsia, constipation, and dehydration. Kidney injury must be avoided. SCFN is often completely autoresolutive.

  7. Subcutaneous fat necrosis of the newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Giulia; Spagnut, Giulia; Morandi, Francesco; Valerio, Enrico; Cutrone, Mario

    2015-12-01

    Subcutaneous fat necrosis (SCFN) is a rare fat tissue inflammation of the newborn. Risk factors include cord prolapse, perinatal asphyxia, therapeutic hypothermia, meconium aspiration, and sepsis. When present, hypercalcemia comes with lethargy, hypotonia, irritability, vomiting, polyuria, polydipsia, constipation, and dehydration. Kidney injury must be avoided. SCFN is often completely autoresolutive. PMID:26734138

  8. Fat Consumption | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Some studies suggest that high-fat diets or high intakes of different types of fat in the diet may be linked to several cancers, including colon, lung, and postmenopausal breast cancer, as well as heart disease and other chronic diseases.

  9. Coming out as Fat: Rethinking Stigma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saguy, Abigail C.; Ward, Anna

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the surprising case of women who "come out as fat" to test and refine theories about social change, social mobilization, stigma, and stigma resistance. First, supporting theories about "social movement spillover," we find that overlapping memberships in queer and fat activist groups, as well as networks between these groups,…

  10. EPICARDIAL FAT: A STRIKER OR A SPARE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Drapkina

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Epicardial fat is hormonally active tissue and has a direct impact on the myocardium state and coronary blood flow. The relationship of epicardial fat size and waist circumference with different clinical and metabolic parameters and coronary atherosclerosis severity in patients with ischemic heart disease is discussed.

  11. Bioelectrical impedance analysis of bovine milk fat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three samples of 250ml at home temperature of 20°C were obtained from whole, low fat and fat free bovine UHT milk. They were analysed by measuring both impedance spectra and dc conductivity in order to establish the relationship between samples related to fat content. An impedance measuring system was developed, which is based on digital oscilloscope, a current source and a FPGA. Data was measured by the oscilloscope in the frequency 1 kHz to 100 kHz. It was showed that there is approximately 7.9% difference in the conductivity between whole and low fat milk whereas 15.9% between low fat and free fat one. The change of fatness in the milk can be significantly sensed by both impedance spectra measurements and dc conductivity. This result might be useful for detecting fat content of milk in a very simple way and also may help the development of sensors for measuring milk quality, as for example the detection of mastitis.

  12. Bioelectrical impedance analysis of bovine milk fat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga, E. A.; Bertemes-Filho, P.

    2012-12-01

    Three samples of 250ml at home temperature of 20°C were obtained from whole, low fat and fat free bovine UHT milk. They were analysed by measuring both impedance spectra and dc conductivity in order to establish the relationship between samples related to fat content. An impedance measuring system was developed, which is based on digital oscilloscope, a current source and a FPGA. Data was measured by the oscilloscope in the frequency 1 kHz to 100 kHz. It was showed that there is approximately 7.9% difference in the conductivity between whole and low fat milk whereas 15.9% between low fat and free fat one. The change of fatness in the milk can be significantly sensed by both impedance spectra measurements and dc conductivity. This result might be useful for detecting fat content of milk in a very simple way and also may help the development of sensors for measuring milk quality, as for example the detection of mastitis.

  13. A Fat Gluino in Disguise

    CERN Document Server

    Reuter, J

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate how a sizeable width-to-mass ratio for a gluino, as is for example realized in GMSB scenarios, could affect the discovery potential of gluinos at the LHC. More importantly, the influence of the gluino being "fat" on the standard mass and spin determination methods at the LHC are investigated. For this purpose, we focus on gluino production at the LHC, where we do not factorize the first step in the gluino decay cascade, but treat the following decay cascades step in factorization, including full spin correlations. The effects of sizeable width-to-mass ratios from a few up to 15-20 per cent on the endpoint of several mass determination methods as well as on means for discrimination between BSM spin paradigms like SUSY and UED are studied.

  14. Fat tails in power prices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huisman, R.; Huurman, C.

    2003-07-01

    Spot power prices exhibit extreme price jumps and the tendency to oscillate around a long-term mean. Despite these well-known characteristics, electricity price models used for Monte Carlo simulations, VaR related measures, or derivatives valuation, often assume normally distributed residuals. In this paper, we examine the distributional characteristics of model residuals and show that the hypothesis of normality is rejected due to significant tail fatness and skewness. We then examine the Student-t distribution as a candidate fit for residuals and as an alternative distribution for random innovations in Monte Carlo simulations. The resulting price patterns clearly show that simulations based on the Student-t distribution resemble more closely actual power price patters. We then discuss the implications of our results for risk management.

  15. A fat gluino in disguise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reuter, J.; Wiesler, D.

    2012-12-15

    In this paper, we investigate how a sizeable width-to-mass ratio for a gluino, as is for example realized in GMSB scenarios, could affect the discovery potential of gluinos at the LHC. More importantly, the influence of the gluino being ''fat'' on the standard mass and spin determination methods at the LHC are investigated. For this purpose, we focus on gluino production at the LHC, where we do not factorize the first step in the gluino decay cascade, but treat the following decay cascades step in factorization, including full spin correlations. The effects of sizeable width-to-mass ratios from a few up to 15-20 per cent on the endpoint of several mass determination methods as well as on means for discrimination between BSM spin paradigms like SUSY and UED are studied.

  16. 21 CFR 582.4521 - Monosodium phosphate derivatives of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming fatty acids. 582.4521 Section 582.4521 Food and... Monosodium phosphate derivatives of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming fatty acids. (a) Product. Monosodium phosphate derivatives of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats...

  17. Fat Utilization for Pigs: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.H. Kim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The available energy in utilizable fats and oils is about 2.25 times that from utilizable carbohydrates (although, there is a considerable range in values, they supply essential fatty acids can have an influence on carcass quality and are useful in reducing dust and promoting palatability of compound diets. There are two kinds of oil sources. First, the major sources of vegetable oil are as follows: soya beans, palm, sunflower seed, rape seed, coconut, cotten seed. Second, the major sources of animal fats are as follows: cattle tallow sheep fat, pig lard and fish oils. For pigs, fats include decrease feed intake and increased palatability, growth rate, feed efficiency and carcass fat.

  18. The Danish tax on saturated fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård; Smed, Sinne

    2013-01-01

    Denmark introduced a new tax on saturated fat in food products with effect from October 2011. The objective of this paper is to make an effect assessment of this tax for some of the product categories most significantly affected by the new tax, namely fats such as butter, butter-blends, margarine...... saturated fat in food products has had some effects on the market for the considered products, in that the level of consumption of fats dropped by 10 – 20%. Furthermore, the analysis points at shifts in demand from high-price supermarkets towards low-price discount stores – at least for some types of oils...... and fats, a shift that seems to have been utilized by discount chains to raise the prices of butter and margarine by more than the pure tax increase. Due to the relatively short data period with the tax being active, interpretation of these findings from a long-run perspective should be done with...

  19. Regulation of body fat in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Supriya

    2015-01-01

    Over the past decade, studies conducted in Caenorhabditis elegans have helped to uncover the ancient and complex origins of body fat regulation. This review highlights the powerful combination of genetics, pharmacology, and biochemistry used to study energy balance and the regulation of cellular fat metabolism in C. elegans. The complete wiring diagram of the C. elegans nervous system has been exploited to understand how the sensory nervous system regulates body fat and how food perception is coupled with the production of energy via fat metabolism. As a model organism, C. elegans also offers a unique opportunity to discover neuroendocrine factors that mediate direct communication between the nervous system and the metabolic tissues. The coming years are expected to reveal a wealth of information on the neuroendocrine control of body fat in C. elegans. PMID:25340962

  20. Cartilage grafting in facial reconstruction with special consideration of irradiated grafts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The search for the perfect facial implant for reconstruction of the face continues. Cartilage, once thought to be an undesirable graft material because of its propensity for absorption, has regained popularity in the past decade. Various preparation techniques have been employed to ensure graft sterility and diminished absorption. An improved understanding of cartilage structure and physiology has shed considerable light on the host-graft relationship. Gamma irradiation is a time-honored method of preservation. An experiment was undertaken to investigate the physiology of irradiated cartilage grafts following prolonged implantation on the facial skeleton of sheep and dog. Merthiolate preserved grafts were used as controls. Direct observation, histochemical techniques, autoradiography, and transmission electron micrography were used to determine chondrocyte viability and matrix composition. It was surprising to note that following implantation of 16 to 72 months, complete resorption was seen in 87.7% of the irradiated grafts and in 43.8% of the Merthiolate stored controls. Many of the grafts acquired chondrocytes from the host and produced new proteoglycan matrix as well as undergoing some degree of ossification. A comparison to the clinical situation in humans is made. 98 references

  1. Acid effect in radiation grafting of silicone rubber I. simultaneous irradiation graft of acrylic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation-induced grafting is a potential method for modification of polymers, for example, highly hydrated polymeric surfaces may be bio-compatible. It is well known that addition of mineral acid to some grafting solution enhanced the radiation grafting yield of some polyolefins. But it turns out not to be the case in all conditions. Some monomers (such as N-VP) can be grafted onto some polymers (such as SPEU) only in basic medium. It means that the acid effect in grafting systems depends on many effects such as component of matrix, type of monomers and solvents, method of irradiation, absorbed dose and so on. In this work, the curves of grafting yield as a function of absorbed dose showed that there were about two regions of dose: lower than 5 kGy, the grafting yield of AA on silicone rubber was enhanced by acid: the other region, dose growing up to about 13 kGy, the opposite results were obtained

  2. Meshed split skin graft for extensive vitiligo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas C

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available A 30 year old female presented with generalized stable vitiligo involving large areas of the body. Since large areas were to be treated it was decided to do meshed split skin graft. A phototoxic blister over recipient site was induced by applying 8 MOP solution followed by exposure to UVA. The split skin graft was harvested from donor area by Padgett dermatome which was meshed by an ampligreffe to increase the size of the graft by 4 times. Significant pigmentation of the depigmented skin was seen after 5 months. This procedure helps to cover large recipient areas, when pigmented donor skin is limited with minimal risk of scarring. Phototoxic blister enables easy separation of epidermis thus saving time required for dermabrasion from recipient site.

  3. Functionalisation of PAA radiation grafted PVDF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betz, N.; Begue, J.; Goncalves, M.; Gionnet, K.; Déléris, G.; Le Moël, A.

    2003-08-01

    The covalent bonding of amino-terminated molecules was performed onto acrylic acid radiation induced grafting poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF). The polymer was irradiated with different ionizing radiation: swift heavy ions or electrons. The polymerization of acrylic acid was then performed to confer to PVDF carboxyl groups suitable for condensation with the amino groups of the other molecule. Acrylic acid swelling of PVDF films was investigated as a function of temperature and monomer concentration in order to anticipate the best grafting conditions. Grafted and functionalized films were characterized using infrared spectroscopy (transmission and ATR), and weighing measurements. The PVDF-g-PAA films exhibit different structures depending on the monomer concentration. Immobilization of an amino-terminated molecule and a peptide onto PVDF was achieved using water soluble carbodiimide.

  4. Functionalisation of PAA radiation grafted PVDF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The covalent bonding of amino-terminated molecules was performed onto acrylic acid radiation induced grafting poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF). The polymer was irradiated with different ionizing radiation: swift heavy ions or electrons. The polymerization of acrylic acid was then performed to confer to PVDF carboxyl groups suitable for condensation with the amino groups of the other molecule. Acrylic acid swelling of PVDF films was investigated as a function of temperature and monomer concentration in order to anticipate the best grafting conditions. Grafted and functionalized films were characterized using infrared spectroscopy (transmission and ATR), and weighing measurements. The PVDF-g-PAA films exhibit different structures depending on the monomer concentration. Immobilization of an amino-terminated molecule and a peptide onto PVDF was achieved using water soluble carbodiimide

  5. Initiation and Polymerization of Starch Graft Modification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    xiaoxian he

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available As a new type of functional biological material, the graft copolymer of starch possesses properties of both natural polymers and synthesis ones, which has got extensive attentions in recent years. Latest advances in the initiation methods of starch graft copolymerization are introduced in this paper, mainly focusing on several initiation methods, such as photo-initiation, Co60 ?-ray initiation, microwave initiation, ceric ammonium nitrate initiation, and redox initiation. Besides, different polymerization methods are present, such as water-solution polymerization, inverse-emulsion polymerization, etc. We expect this paper could make some contributions for researchers to choose proper initiation and polymerization methods in the process. In addition, it is also discussed in this paper of the problems and developmental directions, pointing out the research emphases of starch grafting modification and providing new thoughts for further study.

  6. Autologous miniature punch grafting in stable vitiligo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajagopal R

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Autologous miniature punch grafting with certain modifications was taken up in 54 sites in 30 patients with stable vitiligo for 6 months or more. The modifications were: (a use of same sized disposable punches for both donor and recipient areas except over convex body surfaces, (b use of Castraviejo?s scissors for harvesting donor grafts, (c use of medial side of thigh as donor site and (d not removing the primary dressing of the recipient site till 8 postoperaive day. The patients were given systemic PUVASOL after the procedure for a period of three months and mean pigment spread was noted at each site. Results showed that the extent of repigmentation varied among the recipient sites, the maximum being over upper eyelids, axillae and umbilicus. The modifications in the standard procedure were found to produce less complications, like cobblestoning, graft rejection.

  7. Quantification of milk fat in chocolate fats by triacylglycerol analysis using gas-liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchgraber, Manuela; Androni, Simona; Anklam, Elke

    2007-05-01

    The development and in-house testing of a method for the quantification of milk fat in chocolate fats is described. A database consisting of the triacylglycerol profiles of 310 genuine milk fat samples from 21 European countries and 947 mixtures thereof with chocolate fats was created under a strict quality control scheme using 26 triacylglycerol reference standards for calibration purposes. Out of the individual triacylglycerol fractions obtained, 1-palmitoyl-2-stearoyl-3-butyroyl-glycerol (PSB) was selected as suitable marker compound for the determination of the proportion of milk fat in chocolate fats. By using PSB values from the standardized database, a calibration function using simple linear regression analysis was calculated to be used for future estimations of the milk fat content. A comparison with the widely used butyric acid method, which is currently used to determine the milk fat content in nonmilk fat mixtures, showed that both methods were equivalent in terms of accuracy. The advantage of the presented approach is that for further applications, i.e., determination of foreign fats in chocolate fats, just a single analysis is necessary, whereas for the same purpose, the C4 method requires two different analytical methods. PMID:17394333

  8. Radiation grafted surfaces for solid phase synthesis 'effect of grafting depth on solid support performance'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solid phase synthesis (SPS) has developed rapidly throughout the last decade. Pharmaceutical companies have committed significant resources to the development of high throughput solid phase synthesis and combinatorial chemistry handling capabilities, which resulted in increased synthesis throughput for drug discovery research. The most widely used solid supports for SPS are based on cross-linked styrene-divinylbenzene resin (Merrifield resins) and their derivatives. However, with the increasing demand for reaction reproducibility, consistency of reaction kinetics and efficiency, as well as ease in parallel handling, the 'pellicular' type support is more attractive than traditional polystyrene resin for SPS. A pellicular solid support consists of a polymer, such as polystyrene, grafted to a rigid plastic such as a polyolefin or fluorinated polymer. A series of 'pellicular' type supports were fabricated by direct gamma radiation mediated graft polymerisation of styrene onto polypropylene, followed by functionalization (aminomethylation). In this study, we report the effect of grafting conditions, which include polymer type, radiation dose rate and total dose, concentration of monomer and solvents on the grafting depth profile and coupling reaction rates of functionalisation polystyrene grafted polypropylene surfaces. Confocal Raman spectroscopy was used for measuring the level of penetration of polystyrene graft into polypropylene and other structural features such as density of graft and depth of functionalization. Raman spectroscopy results showed that the calculated rate coefficient for coupling of Fmoc-labelled amino acids was primarily dependent on graft thickness, but was also influenced by the proportion of polystyrene graft to polypropylene. In general, it was also shown that with increasing loading capacity of the support the calculated rate coefficient for amino acid coupling decreased correspondingly. In addition, a new approach was used to prepare a high surface area support that had both a high rate coefficient and a high loading capacity

  9. Oxidation of fats and possibility of its inhibition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Factors influencing on the inhibition of oxidation of fats are discussed. Thermal, microwave, photo-initiated and singlet oxygen oxidation of fats were studied. Additives of the rosemary or sage (0.1 mass %) inhibited oxidation of fats

  10. Development of Small Diameter Nanofiber Tissue Engineered Arterial Grafts

    OpenAIRE

    Kurobe, Hirotsugu; Maxfield, Mark W; Tara, Shuhei; Rocco, Kevin A.; Bagi, Paul S.; Yi, Tai; Udelsman, Brooks; Zhuang, Zhen W; Cleary, Muriel; Iwakiri, Yasuko; Breuer, Christopher K; Shinoka, Toshiharu

    2015-01-01

    The surgical repair of heart and vascular disease often requires implanting synthetic grafts. While synthetic grafts have been successfully used for medium-to-large sized arteries, applications for small diameter arteries (

  11. Acrylic acid grafted polyethylene by electron beam preirradiation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low density and high density polyethylene samples preirradiated with accelerated electron beam (1-64Mrad) were grafted with acrylic acid under various conditions. The effects of reaction temperature, irradiation dose, reaction time, monomer concentration, monomer purification and inhibitor concentration on the grafting ratio are presented. The grafting rate and final grafting ratio of HDPE are much higher than those of LDPE. Notably, the grafting ratio of the 64Mrad irradiated high density polyethylene sample reached 38,000% within two hours of reaction. According to the DSC analysis on dry grafted samples, the graft reaction occurred mainly in the amorphous region. Other characterizations on the grafted samples, such as morphology (electron microscopy), ion trap ability, water absorbency, tensile strength, etc., are also presented

  12. Modification of microcrystalline cellulose by gamma radiation-induced grafting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madrid, Jordan F.; Abad, Lucille V.

    2015-10-01

    Modified microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) was prepared through gamma radiation-induced graft polymerization of glycidyl methacrylate (GMA). Simultaneous grafting was employed wherein MCC with GMA in methanol was irradiated with gamma radiation in nitrogen atmosphere. The effects of different experimental factors such as monomer concentration, type of solvent and absorbed dose on the degree of grafting, Dg, were studied. The amount of grafted GMA, expressed as Dg, was determined gravimetrically. Information from grafted samples subjected to Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) in attenuated total reflectance (ATR) mode showed peaks corresponding to GMA which indicates successful grafting. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis revealed that the crystalline region of MCC was not adversely affected after grafting with GMA. The thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) data showed that the decomposition of grafted MCC occurred at higher temperature compared to the base MCC polymer.

  13. Oversized vein grafts develop advanced atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic minipigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thim, Troels; Hagensen, Mette Kallestrup; Horlyck, Arne; Drouet, Ludovic; Paaske, William P; Botker, Hans Erik; Falk, Erling

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Accelerated atherosclerosis is the main cause of late aortocoronary vein graft failure. We aimed to develop a large animal model for the study of pathogenesis and treatment of vein graft atherosclerosis. METHODS: An autologous reversed jugular vein graft was inserted end......-to-end into the transected common carotid artery of ten hypercholesteroemic minipigs. The vein grafts were investigated 12-14 weeks later with ultrasound and angiograpy in vivo and microscopy post mortem. RESULTS: One minipig died during follow up (patent vein graft at autopsy), and one vein graft thrombosed...... early. In the remaining eight patent vein grafts, the mean (standard deviation) intima-media thickness was 712 mum (276 mum) versus 204 mum (74 mum) in the contralateral control internal jugular veins (P <.01). Advanced atherosclerotic plaques were found in three of four oversized vein grafts (diameter...

  14. Pre-irradiation grafting polymerization of DMAEMA onto cellulose fabrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The grafting yield of N,N'-Dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA) on cotton cellulose fabric increased with grafting time, absorbed dose and concentration of the monomer in the aqueous solution, but decreased with grafting temperature. The dose rate had just a little effect on the grafting yield. The optimal grafting yields of DMAEMA on cotton cellulose were rather low, approximately 50% compared with N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAAm), though both monomers could be synthesized to be thermally reversible hydrogels. The relationship between the grafting yield and the grafting temperature indicated that the trapped radicals located in the inter phases between crystalline and amorphous regions of irradiated samples were the main active species inducing the grafting reaction. (author)

  15. Body Fat, Abdominal Fat, and Body Fat Distribution Is Related to Left Atrial Diameter in Young Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, Magnus; Thorsson, Ola; Karlsson, Magnus K; Lindén, Christian; Andersen, Lars B; Wollmer, Per

    2012-01-01

    In adults, the size of the left atria (LA) has important prognostic information. In obese adults, adolescents and children enlargement of LA have been observed. This has not been investigated on a population-based level in young children. We therefore assessed if total body fat mass (TBF), abdomi......In adults, the size of the left atria (LA) has important prognostic information. In obese adults, adolescents and children enlargement of LA have been observed. This has not been investigated on a population-based level in young children. We therefore assessed if total body fat mass (TBF......), abdominal fat, and body fat distribution were related to LA diameter. Cross-sectional study of 244 children (boys = 137 and girls n = 107) aged 8-11 years, recruited from an urban population-based cohort. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measured total lean body mass, TBF, and abdominal fat mass (AFM......). Body fat was also calculated as a percentage of body mass (BF%). Body fat distribution (AFM/TBF) was calculated. Echocardiography was performed with two-dimensional guided M-mode. LA diameter was measured and left ventricular mass (LVM) was calculated. Systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood...

  16. Fat avoidance and replacement behaviors predict low-fat intake among urban African American adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Noia, Jennifer; Contento, Isobel R; Schinke, Steven P

    2008-06-01

    Using measures of behaviors shown to predict low-fat intake in previous research, this study examined whether the behaviors would predict low-fat intake among urban African American adolescents. Recruited through youth services agencies in Philadelphia, Pa, participants were 399 African American adolescents (67% female subjects) with a mean age of 13.09 years (range, 10-15 years). Fat-related dietary behaviors were measured using items that were adapted from the Food Habits Questionnaire. Fat intake was measured using the Block Fat Screener. Spearman correlations examined the relationships between fat-related dietary behaviors and fat intake. Seven behaviors were significantly associated with low-fat intake: had chicken that was baked or broiled instead of fried; ordered pasta or pizza served without meat sauce or meat toppings; had a vegetarian dinner; used low-calorie instead of regular salad dressing; ate at least 2 vegetables (not green salad) at dinner; ate bread, rolls, or muffins without butter or margarine; and avoided foods that were fried in oil, shortening, or lard. Using multiple regression, fat intake was regressed on the linear combination of demographic variables and these fat-related dietary behaviors. The regression equation accounted for 17% of the variance in fat intake (adjusted R(2) = 0.13). Fat avoidance (ate bread, rolls, or muffins without butter or margarine) and replacement (ordered pasta or pizza served without meat sauce or meat toppings) behaviors were significant predictors of low-fat intake. Dietary interventions to lower fat intake among urban African American adolescents should promote the adoption of these behaviors. PMID:19083432

  17. Simultaneous angioplasty and intraluminal grafting with the Palmaz expandable intraluminal graft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors describe their experience with the Palmaz expandable intraluminal graft (EIG) in a Flemish giant rabbit model of atherosclerosis. Rabbits were rendered atherosclerotic by means of a combination of desiccation endothelial injury of the femoral arteries and atherogenic diet (2% cholesterol, 6% peanut oil). Via carotic cutdown, EIGs mounted on small-vessel angioplasty balloons (? 3.5 mm in diameter) were placed in stenotic femoral arteries. The feasibility of simultaneous percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and intraluminal grafting was assessed. Angiograms revealed dramatic improvement in vessel diameters. Angiographic and pathologic findings are presented, and the concept of intraluminal grafting with the Palmaz EIG is reviewed

  18. The 5-Strand Hamstring Graft in Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Rushyuan Jay; Ganley, Theodore J.

    2014-01-01

    The use of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction in the pediatric and adolescent population has been increasing in recent years. Autograft hamstring graft is favored in this population, but these patients often have smaller hamstring tendons that yield smaller final graft constructs. These smaller grafts are associated with an increased need for revision surgery. We describe a technique for obtaining a larger-diameter anterior cruciate ligament graft construct from autologous hamstring gr...

  19. Comparison of Right and Left Grafts in Renal Transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Salehipour Mehdi; Bahador Ali; Jalaeian Hamed; Salahi Heshmatollah; Nikeghbalian Saman; Khajehee Fardin; Malek-Hosseini Seyed

    2008-01-01

    This study compares outcomes and graft function of right and left grafts of deceased donor. We studied 120 kidney recipients from 60 deceased donors in Shiraz organ transplantation center from 1988 to 2004. We analyzed data regarding age, gender, side of grafts, duration of pre-transplant dialysis, hospital stay, serial creatinine levels, cold ischemic time, complications, graft function, patient survival rates, and post-operative complications. Recipients were divided into two groups: group ...

  20. On healing of titanium implants in iliac crest bone grafts

    OpenAIRE

    Sjöström, Mats

    2006-01-01

    Bone grafts and titanium implants are commonly used for surgical/prosthetic rehabilitation of the atrophic edentulous maxilla. The factors which influence bone graft healing and implant integration are not sufficiently understood. The aim of this dissertation was to evaluate autogenous bone grafting and delayed placement of titanium endosteal implants for reconstruction of the atrophic maxilla, including the effects of different patient factors on bone graft healing and integration of titaniu...

  1. Sulfonated hydrocarbon graft architectures for cation exchange membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mads Møller; Jankova Atanasova, Katja; Hvilsted, Søren

    2013-01-01

    A synthetic strategy to hydrocarbon graft architectures prepared from a commercial polysulfone and aimed as ion exchange membrane material is proposed. Polystyrene is grafted from a polysulfone macroinitiator by atom transfer radical polymerization, and subsequently sulfonated with acetyl sulfate to various degrees. Series of grafting densities and graft lengths are prepared, and membranes are solvent cast from DMSO. The membrane properties in aqueous environments are evaluated from their water ...

  2. Synthesis, characterization and applications of polymethylmethacrylate grafted psyllium as flocculant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Sumit; Sinha, Sweta; Dey, Kartick Prasad; Sen, Gautam

    2014-01-01

    Polymethylmethacrylate grafted psyllium (Psy-g-PMMA) was synthesized by microwave assisted method. The grafting of the PMMA chains on the psyllium backbone was confirmed through the study of intrinsic viscosity, FTIR spectroscopy, elemental analysis, SEM and number average molecular weight (Mn). The intrinsic viscosity and number average molecular weight (Mn) of psyllium appreciably improved on grafting of PMMA chains. Further, flocculation efficacy of the graft copolymer was studied in kaolin suspension through jar test procedure, towards possible application as flocculant. PMID:24274531

  3. Polymer structure formed in radiation-induced graft polymerization. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methyl methacrylate was grafted onto viscose rayon, wood pulp, cellophane, and poly(vinyl alcohol) with preirradiation techniques using ?-rays from a 60Co source, and the stereoregularities of the grafted polymers separated from the trunk polymers and homopolymers were determined. The stereoregularity of the polymers grafted onto rayons is different from that of the polymers grafted onto wood pulp, mercerized wood pulp, cellophane, and poly(vinyl alcohol), confirming our previous results

  4. Oversized vein grafts develop advanced atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic minipigs

    OpenAIRE

    Thim Troels; Hagensen Mette; Hørlyck Arne; Drouet Ludovic; Paaske William P; Bøtker Hans; Falk Erling

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Accelerated atherosclerosis is the main cause of late aortocoronary vein graft failure. We aimed to develop a large animal model for the study of pathogenesis and treatment of vein graft atherosclerosis. Methods An autologous reversed jugular vein graft was inserted end-to-end into the transected common carotid artery of ten hypercholesteroemic minipigs. The vein grafts were investigated 12-14 weeks later with ultrasound and angiograpy in vivo and microscopy post mortem. R...

  5. Radiation-induced grafting from binary mixture of monomers onto cellulose acetate film and the characterization of the graft copolymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binary mixtures of styrene and acrylamide in methanol-water were grafted onto cellulose acetate films by taking recourse to preirradiation grafting technique. The extent of total grafting was determined from the measured weight increase. The percent acrylamide residue in the graft copolymer was calculated from the observed nitrogen content but the polystyrene residue in the grafted sample was determined by IR spectral studies. When the specific permeability of water vapour through the grafted films is measured, it is observed that the specific permeability increases with the increase of grafting of acrylamide in all humidities, but in case of styrene which is a nonpolar molecule the permeability is found to show a reversed order. In the case of mixed graft the permeability pattern pertains to that when both styrene and acrylamide have their effective roles to play. (author)

  6. Interfacial properties of chitosan-PEO graft oligomers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dedinaite, Andra; Gorochovceva, Natalija; Makuska, Ricardas; Claesson, Per M.; Iruthayaraj, Joseph

    Oligomers of chitosan carrying 45 units long poly(ethylene oxide), PEO, chains grafted to the C-6 position of the sugar units were prepared using a novel synthesis route. The graft density was high, close to one poly(ethylene oxide) chain grafted to each sugar unit of the chitosan oligomer but a...

  7. Polymers grafted by ionizing radiations. Regulated desorption of fertilizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Study and development of copolymers for progressive liberation of fertilizers in the soil through a membrane. These copolymers are obtained by grafting a hydrophilic acrylic monomer on a hydrophobic polymer (polyolefine). Desorption of a fertilizer through a membrane of graft polymer as a function of time and grafting ratio was tested both in the laboratory and by plant growing

  8. Revascularisation of fresh compared with demineralised bone grafts in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solheim, E; Pinholt, E M; Talsnes, O; Larsen, T B; Kirkeby, O J

    2001-01-01

    Revascularisation of bone grafts is influenced by both the anatomical origin and the pre-implantation processing of the graft. We investigated the revascularisation by entrapment of 141Ce (cerium)-labelled microspheres in large, fresh and demineralised syngeneic grafts of predominantly cancellous...

  9. Fat augmentation for nonparalytic glottic insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yen-Yu; Pai, Lu; Lin, Yaoh-Shiang; Wang, Hsing-Won; Hsiung, Ming-Wang

    2003-01-01

    While autogenous fat augmentation for glottic insufficiency has been used before, relatively little information is currently available on the effectiveness of fat injection in patients with nonparalytic glottic insufficiency resulting from problems such as various defects of vocal atrophy or sulcus vocalis. This paper compares retrospectively the efficiency of fat injection after surgery in patients with vocal atrophy (n = 16) and sulcus vocalis (n = 8). The perceptual acoustic and phonatory functions and videolaryngostroboscopic data were evaluated before and after fat augmentation in 24 patients. The mean follow-up time was 19.5 months. Fifteen patients displayed excellent results; 1 showed some improvement; 6 experienced postprocedure failure, and 2 were not available for follow-up analysis. Perceptual rating showed significant improvement in grade, roughness and breathiness (p sulcus vocalis following fat injection procedures. Our research showed that middle defects improved more compared to those in the anterior and posterior area. Fat injection is an effective autogenous implant and may be considered as an option in the treatment of patients with vocal atrophy or sulcus vocalis. Although fat reabsorption was a problem, repeating the procedure could be considered. PMID:12925819

  10. Healing and hearing results of temporalis fascia graft Vs cartilage graft (Full thickness and half thickness) in type I tympanoplasty

    OpenAIRE

    Nemade, Sanjana V; Dabholkar, Jyoti P.

    2014-01-01

    Background- Although temporalis fascia is the commonly used graft material for tympanic membrane reconstruction, cartilage–perichondrium graft is the material of choice for the reconstruction of the atelectatic tympanic membrane, recurrent perforations, subtotal and total perforations. Stiffness of cartilage graft is always the concern for the audiological outcome of the surgery. In our study, we used temporalis fascia and the cartilage graft of different thickness and have done the honest...

  11. Application of fats in some food products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Vallerio Rios

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Fats and oils are very important raw materials and functional ingredients for several food products such as confectionery, bakery, ice creams, emulsions, and sauces, shortenings, margarines, and other specially tailored products. Formulated products are made with just about every part of chemistry, but they are not simple chemicals. In general, they consist of several, and often many, components. Each of these components has a purpose. Most formulated products have a micro- or nano-structure that is important for their function, but obtaining this structure is often the big challenge. Due to a rise in overweight or obesity, health concerns have increased. This fact has led to the need to the develop products with low fat content, which have become a market trend. In addition, the development of new products using fat substitutes can be a good option for companies that are always trying to reduce costs or substitute trans fat or saturated fat. However, the successful development of these products is still a challenge because fat plays multiple roles in determining the desirable physicochemical and sensory attributes, and because the consumers who want or need to replace these ingredients, seek products with similar characteristics to those of the original product. Important attributes such as smooth, creamy and rich texture; milky and creamy appearance; desirable flavor; and satiating effects are influenced by the droplets of fat, and these characteristics are paramount to the consumer and consequently crucial to the success of the product in the market. Therefore, it is important to identify commercially viable strategies that are capable of removing or reducing fat content of food products without altering their sensory and nutritional characteristics. This paper intended to provide an overview about the role of fat in different food systems such as chocolate, ice cream, bakery products like biscuits, breads, and cakes considering the major trends of the food industry to meet the demands of modern society.

  12. Application of fats in some food products

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Raquel Vallerio, Rios; Meibel Durigan Ferreira, Pessanha; Poliana Fernandes de, Almeida; Clara Leonel, Viana; Suzana Caetano da Silva, Lannes.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Fats and oils are very important raw materials and functional ingredients for several food products such as confectionery, bakery, ice creams, emulsions, and sauces, shortenings, margarines, and other specially tailored products. Formulated products are made with just about every part of chemistry, [...] but they are not simple chemicals. In general, they consist of several, and often many, components. Each of these components has a purpose. Most formulated products have a micro- or nano-structure that is important for their function, but obtaining this structure is often the big challenge. Due to a rise in overweight or obesity, health concerns have increased. This fact has led to the need to the develop products with low fat content, which have become a market trend. In addition, the development of new products using fat substitutes can be a good option for companies that are always trying to reduce costs or substitute trans fat or saturated fat. However, the successful development of these products is still a challenge because fat plays multiple roles in determining the desirable physicochemical and sensory attributes, and because the consumers who want or need to replace these ingredients, seek products with similar characteristics to those of the original product. Important attributes such as smooth, creamy and rich texture; milky and creamy appearance; desirable flavor; and satiating effects are influenced by the droplets of fat, and these characteristics are paramount to the consumer and consequently crucial to the success of the product in the market. Therefore, it is important to identify commercially viable strategies that are capable of removing or reducing fat content of food products without altering their sensory and nutritional characteristics. This paper intended to provide an overview about the role of fat in different food systems such as chocolate, ice cream, bakery products like biscuits, breads, and cakes considering the major trends of the food industry to meet the demands of modern society.

  13. MICELLIZATION BEHAVIOR COMPARISION OF POLYPEPTIDE GRAFT COPOLYMER AND BLOCK-GRAFT COPOLYMER IN ETHANOL

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    GUO-QUAN, ZHU.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(?-benzyl L-glutamate)-graft-poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG-b-PBLG-g-PEG) copolymer and poly(?-benzyl L-glutamate)-graft-poly(ethylene glycol) (PBLG-graft-PEG) copolymer were synthesized by the ester exchange reaction of PEG chain with PBLG-block-PEG copolymer and PBLG ho [...] mopolymer, respectively. The micellization behaviors of PEG-b-PBLG-g-PEG and PBLG-graft-PEG in ethanol were investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and viscometry. Effects of both the introduction of PBLG homopolymer and the change of testing temperature on the critical aggregation concentration (CAC) of the two polypeptide copolymers in ethanol were mainly studied. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were used to research the chain conformations of polypeptide segments of the two polypeptide copolymers in solvent and in the solid state, respectively.

  14. Investigation of Hydrodeoxygenation of Oils and Fats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Anders Theilgaard; Riisager, Anders; Fehrmann, Rasmus

    The use of renewable biofuels in the transport sector represents an important step towards a sustainable society. Biodiesel is currently produced by the transesterification of fats and oils with methanol, but another viable method could be reaction of the feedstock with H2 to produce long......-chain alkanes. This would allow direct integration of biofuel production in existing refineries and allow use of feedstock with high amounts of free fatty acids (abattoir wastes, used fats, greases, etc.) [1], or even tall oils from the Kraft process [2]. The reaction network from oils and fats in H2 atmosphere...

  15. Determination of fat in vegetable foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, I; Merin, U; Popel, G; Bernstein, S

    1985-01-01

    The fat in vegetable foods--tree nuts, peanuts, sunflower seeds, avocado, and olives--can be determined volumetrically by acid digestion of the material and separation of the fat. The assay can be performed conveniently by using the equipment developed for fat determination of milk (Gerber method). The results agree well with those obtained by Soxhlet extraction. The advantages of using the Gerber method for vegetable foods are simplicity, speed, low operation cost, and elimination of the use of inflammable solvents. PMID:4086447

  16. Differential effect of gender on hepatic fat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are discrepant data on whether men or women have a higher risk for hepatic steatosis. To examine the influence of gender on hepatic adiposity in teenagers and young adults. We measured subcutaneous abdominal fat (SAF), intra-abdominal fat (IAF) and hepatic tissue density (a surrogate measure of hepatic fat) using CT in 505 healthy teenagers and young adults (254 males, 251 females; ages 15-22.9 years). Overall, compared to men, women had higher values of SAF (P 0.05). When compared to overweight and obese young women, overweight and obese young men are at greater risk for hepatic steatosis, independent of IAF. (orig.)

  17. Cellular grafts in management of leucoderma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mysore Venkataram

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Cellular grafting methods constitute important advances in the surgical management of leucoderma. Different methods such as noncultured epidermal suspensions, melanocyte cultures, and melanocyte-keratinocyte cultures have all been shown to be effective. This article reviews these methods.

  18. Photoactivated surface grafting from PVDF surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Economic and easy methods to tune surface properties of polymers as Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) without altering bulk properties are of major interest for different applications as biotechnological devices, medical implant device... UV irradiation appears as one of the simplest, easy and safe method to modify surface properties. In the case of self-initiated grafting, it is generally assumed that the pre-treatment of the PVDF surface with UV irradiation can yield alkyl and per-oxy radicals originating from breaking bonds and capable of initiating the subsequent surface grafting polymerizations. Surprisingly, the present work shows that it is possible to obtain polymer grafting using low energetic UV-A irradiation (3.1-3.9 eV) without breaking PVDF bonds. An EPR study has been performed in order to investigate the nature of involved species. The ability of the activated PVDF surface to graft different kinds of hydrophilic monomers using the initiated surface polymerization method has been tested and discussed on the basis of ATR FT-IR, XPS and NMR HRMAS results.

  19. Activation, dissolution and controlled grafting of cellulose.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Raus, Vladimír; Látalová, Petra; Šturcová, Adriana; K?íž, Jaroslav; Janata, Miroslav; Dybal, Ji?í; Vl?ek, Petr

    Praha : Ústav makromolekulární chemie AV ?R, 2009. L7. ISBN 978-80-85009-60-6. [Workshop: Career in Polymers. 10.07.2009-11.07.2009, Prague] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : cellulose * controlled grafting * controlled radical polymerization Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry

  20. Graft copolymers of cellulose with controlled architecture.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Raus, Vladimír; Látalová, Petra; Šturcová, Adriana; Dybal, Ji?í; K?íž, Jaroslav; Svobodová, Jana; Vl?ek, Petr

    Praha : Ústav makromolekulární chemie AV ?R, 2010. L_11. ISBN 978-80-85009-62-0. [Workshop "Career in Polymers" /2./. 23.07.2010-24.07.2010, Praha] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : graft copolymers * cellulose * controlled architecture Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry

  1. Photoactivated surface grafting from PVDF surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berthelot, Thomas, E-mail: thomas.berthelot@cea.fr [Chemistry of Surfaces and Interfaces, CEA Saclay, DSM/IRAMIS/SPCSI, F-91191, Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Le, Xuan Tuan; Jegou, Pascale; Viel, Pascal [Chemistry of Surfaces and Interfaces, CEA Saclay, DSM/IRAMIS/SPCSI, F-91191, Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Boizot, Bruno [Laboratory of Irradiated Solids UMR 7642 CEA/CNRS/Ecole Polytechnique, CEA-DSM/IRAMIS LSI, Ecole Polytechnique, F-91128, Palaiseau Cedex (France); Baudin, Cecile; Palacin, Serge [Chemistry of Surfaces and Interfaces, CEA Saclay, DSM/IRAMIS/SPCSI, F-91191, Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France)

    2011-09-01

    Economic and easy methods to tune surface properties of polymers as Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) without altering bulk properties are of major interest for different applications as biotechnological devices, medical implant device... UV irradiation appears as one of the simplest, easy and safe method to modify surface properties. In the case of self-initiated grafting, it is generally assumed that the pre-treatment of the PVDF surface with UV irradiation can yield alkyl and per-oxy radicals originating from breaking bonds and capable of initiating the subsequent surface grafting polymerizations. Surprisingly, the present work shows that it is possible to obtain polymer grafting using low energetic UV-A irradiation (3.1-3.9 eV) without breaking PVDF bonds. An EPR study has been performed in order to investigate the nature of involved species. The ability of the activated PVDF surface to graft different kinds of hydrophilic monomers using the initiated surface polymerization method has been tested and discussed on the basis of ATR FT-IR, XPS and NMR HRMAS results.

  2. Process for preparing graft copolymers by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Process for preparing grafting copolymers essentially formed from polymerized styrene in the presence of a rubbery terpolymer of ethylene, propylene and a third component, whereby the monomer rubbery solution is mass polymerized. The polymer obtained then undergoes an irradiation process by electrons, gamma or X rays

  3. Prefabricated Composite Graft for Eyelid Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicoletti, Giovanni; Jaber, Omar; Tresoldi, Marco Mario; Pellegatta, Tommaso; Faga, Angela

    2015-10-01

    The authors propose a prefabricated chondromucosal composite graft to reconstruct full-thickness defects of the lower eyelid. The technique was used in a patient suffering from a locally invasive basal cell carcinoma of the lower eyelid, who had previously undergone an extensive submucosal nasal septum resection. One week prior to the eyelid resection, the anterior skin surface of the auricular concha was replaced with a full-thickness oral mucosa graft. One week later, a full-thickness excision of the right lower eyelid was performed and the prefabricated chondromucosal auricular graft was used to restore the posterior lamella. The anterior lamella was reconstructed with a bipedicled myocutaneous flap from the upper eyelid. Because of the patient's scheduling needs, the medial pedicle of the flap was divided 28 days later and the lateral one after further 37 days. All the procedures were performed under local anesthesia. This technique adds a simple key detail to other time-honored reliable techniques, thus outlining an extremely convenient sequence for full-thickness eyelid reconstruction. The easily prepared prefabricated chondromucosal graft might be associated with any of the previously described flaps, thus providing a versatile and reliable method of posterior lamella reconstruction. PMID:26579869

  4. Reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament: a comparison between bone-patellar tendon-bone grafts and fourstrand hamstring grafts

    OpenAIRE

    Razi, Mohammad; Sarzaeem, Mohammad Mahdi; Kazemian, Gholam Hossein; Najafi, Farideh; Najafi, Mohammad Amin

    2014-01-01

    Background: Disruption of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is a common ligamentous injury of the knee. The choice of graft for (ACL) reconstruction remains controversial. This prospective, randomized clinical trial aimed to compare clinical results of bone-patellar tendon-bone (BPTB) grafts and four-strand semitendinosus-gracilis (ST) grafts for ACL reconstruction over a 3-year follow-up interval.

  5. Graft-versus-host disease and graft-versus-tumor effects after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storb, Rainer; Gyurkocza, Boglarka

    2013-01-01

    We designed a minimal-intensity conditioning regimen for allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) in patients with advanced hematologic malignancies unable to tolerate high-intensity regimens because of age, serious comorbidities, or previous high-dose HCT. The regimen allows the purest assessment of graft-versus-tumor (GVT) effects apart from conditioning and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) not augmented by regimen-related toxicities.

  6. Synthesis of Polymer Grafted Magnetite Nanoparticle with the Highest Grafting Density via Controlled Radical Polymerization

    OpenAIRE

    Babu Kothandapani; Dhamodharan Raghavachari

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The surface-initiated ATRP of benzyl methacrylate, methyl methacrylate, and styrene from magnetite nanoparticle is investigated, without the use of sacrificial (free) initiator in solution. It is observed that the grafting density obtained is related to the polymerization kinetics, being higher for faster polymerizing monomer. The grafting density was found to be nearly 2 chains/nm2for the rapidly polymerizing benzyl methacrylate. In contrast, for the less rapidly polymerizing styren...

  7. Islet amyloid deposition limits the viability of human islet grafts but not porcine islet grafts

    OpenAIRE

    Potter, K.J.; Abedini, A.; Marek, P; Klimek, A. M.; Butterworth, S.; Driscoll, M; Baker, R.; Nilsson, M. R.; Warnock, G. L.; J. Oberholzer; Bertera, S.; Trucco, M.; Korbutt, G S; Fraser, P E; Raleigh, D P

    2010-01-01

    Islet transplantation is a promising treatment for diabetes but long-term success is limited by progressive graft loss. Aggregates of the beta cell peptide islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP) promote beta cell apoptosis and rapid amyloid formation occurs in transplanted islets. Porcine islets are an attractive alternative islet source as they demonstrate long-term graft survival. We compared the capacity of transplanted human and porcine islets to form amyloid as an explanation for differences i...

  8. Modified broken rice starch as fat substitute in sausages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Maria Limberger

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The demand for low-fat beef products has led the food industry to use fat substitutes such as modified starch. About 14% of broken rice is generated during processing. Nevertheless, this by-product contains high levels of starch; being therefore, great raw material for fat substitution. This study evaluated the applicability of chemically and physically modified broken rice starch as fat substitute in sausages. Extruded and phosphorylated broken rice was used in low-fat sausage formulation. All low-fat sausages presented about 55% reduction in the fat content and around 28% reduction in the total caloric value. Fat replacement with phosphorylated and extruded broken rice starch increased the texture acceptability of low-fat sausages, when compared to low-fat sausages with no modified broken rice. Results suggest that modified broken rice can be used as fat substitute in sausage formulations, yielding lower caloric value products with acceptable sensory characteristics.

  9. Monounsaturated fats and immune function

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    P., Yaqoob.

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available Animal studies suggest that olive oil is capable of modulating functions of cells of the immune system in a manner similar to, albeit weaker than, fish oils. There is some evidence that the effects of olive oil on immune function in animal studies are due to oleic acid rather than to trace elements [...] or antioxidants. Importantly, several studies have demonstrated effects of oleic acid-containing diets on in vivo immune responses. In contrast, consumption of a monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA)-rich diet by humans does not appear to bring about a general suppression of immune cell functions. The effects of this diet in humans are limited to decreasing aspects of adhesion of peripheral blood mononuclear cells, although there are trends towards decreases in natural killer cell activity and proliferation. The lack of a clear effect of MUFA in humans may be attributable to the higher level of monounsaturated fat used in the animal studies, although it is ultimately of importance to examine the effects of intakes which are in no way extreme. The effects of MUFA on adhesion molecules are potentially important, since these molecules appear to have a role in the pathology of a number of diseases involving the immune system. This area clearly deserves further exploration

  10. Monounsaturated fats and immune function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Yaqoob

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available Animal studies suggest that olive oil is capable of modulating functions of cells of the immune system in a manner similar to, albeit weaker than, fish oils. There is some evidence that the effects of olive oil on immune function in animal studies are due to oleic acid rather than to trace elements or antioxidants. Importantly, several studies have demonstrated effects of oleic acid-containing diets on in vivo immune responses. In contrast, consumption of a monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA-rich diet by humans does not appear to bring about a general suppression of immune cell functions. The effects of this diet in humans are limited to decreasing aspects of adhesion of peripheral blood mononuclear cells, although there are trends towards decreases in natural killer cell activity and proliferation. The lack of a clear effect of MUFA in humans may be attributable to the higher level of monounsaturated fat used in the animal studies, although it is ultimately of importance to examine the effects of intakes which are in no way extreme. The effects of MUFA on adhesion molecules are potentially important, since these molecules appear to have a role in the pathology of a number of diseases involving the immune system. This area clearly deserves further exploration

  11. Sodium and chloride exclusion and retention by non-grafted and grafted melon and Cucurbita plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelstein, M; Plaut, Z; Ben-Hur, M

    2011-01-01

    The effects of grafting on Na and Cl(-) uptake and distribution in plant tissues were quantified in a greenhouse experiment using six combinations of melon (Cucumis melo L. cv. Arava) and pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima Duchesne×Cucurbita moschata Duchesne cv. TZ-148): non-grafted, self-grafted, melons grafted on pumpkins, and pumpkins grafted on melons. Total Na concentration in shoots of plants with pumpkin or melon rootstocks was 400?mmol kg(-1), respectively, regardless of the scion. In contrast, shoot Cl(-) concentrations were quite similar among the different scion-rootstock combinations. Na concentrations in exudates from cut stems of plants with a pumpkin rootstock were very low (pumpkin rootstocks, while in plants with melon rootstocks, values were similar. Two mechanisms could explain the decrease in shoot Na concentrations in plants with pumpkin rootstocks: (i) Na exclusion by the pumpkin roots; and (ii) Na retention and accumulation within the pumpkin rootstock. Quantitative analysis indicated that the pumpkin roots excluded ?74% of available Na, while there was nearly no Na exclusion by melon roots. Na retention by the pumpkin rootstocks decreased its amount in the shoot by an average 46.9% compared with uniform Na distribution throughout the plant. In contrast, no retention of Na could be found in plants grafted on melons. PMID:20729482

  12. Infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm. Endovascular repair with stent grafts; Infrarenales Bauchaortenaneurysma. Endovaskulaere Stent-Graft-Therapie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, M.; Voshage, G.; Landwehr, P. [Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Gefaesszentrum Hannover, Diakoniekrankenhaus Henriettenstiftung gGmbH, Hannover (Germany); Busch, T. [Klinik fuer Gefaesschirurgie, Gefaesszentrum Hannover, Diakoniekrankenhaus Henriettenstiftung gGmbH, Hannover (Germany)

    2008-09-15

    As an alternative to surgery, endovascular therapy with stent grafts has become the second main treatment option for infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysms. Unlike surgery, endovascular treatment with stent grafts is also applicable in patients unfit for open repair. Despite current improvements in endovascular repair devices, significant anatomic barriers still exclude this technique for a large number of patients. Computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and ultrasound are essential for diagnostics, preintervention planning, and postintervention follow-up of abdominal aneurysms treated with stent grafts. This review covers etiology, pathology, and diagnostic aspects. Materials and methods for endovascular treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysms are presented in detail, and clinical results and complications are discussed. (orig.) [German] Die endovaskulaere Therapie des infrarenalen Bauchaortenaneurysmas hat sich als Alternative zur offenen chirurgischen Versorgung etabliert. Im Gegensatz zu Letzterer ist die Aneurysmatherapie mittels Stent-Grafts auch bei schwerkranken, nicht operationsfaehigen Patienten moeglich, wobei der Nutzen kontrovers diskutiert wird. Im Gegensatz zur klassischen transabdominellen Operation ist die Stent-Graft-Technik anatomischen Einschraenkungen unterworfen, die aber kuenftig aufgrund bereits abzusehender technischer Weiterentwicklungen eine geringere Rolle spielen werden. Die Diagnostik, die Entscheidung fuer eine endovaskulaere Therapie, die praeinterventionelle Planung und die Nachsorge erfordern den Einsatz bildgebender Verfahren, v. a. der Computer- und Magnetresonanztomographie sowie der Sonographie. Die fuer die endovaskulaere Aneurysmabehandlung relevanten Aspekte der Diagnostik werden dargestellt. Auf die Technik, die Materialien, die Ergebnisse und die Komplikationen der Stent-Graft-Behandlung wird ausfuehrlich eingegangen. (orig.)

  13. Rib Bone Graft Adjusted to Fit the Facial Asymmetry: A Frame Structure Graft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yoon Ho; Choi, Jong Hwan; Hwang, Kun; Choi, Jun Ho

    2015-10-01

    The authors introduce the concept of a "frame structure graft" in which a harvested rib bone was adjusted to fit facial asymmetry.On the costochondral junction of the sixth or seventh rib, a 5?cm incision was made. Through a subperiosteal dissection, the rib bone was harvested. Using a reciprocating saw, the harvested rib was scored on its anterior surface as well as its posterior surface with a partial depth at different intervals. The harvested rib bone was placed on the skin surface of the unaffected side of the face and a curvature was created exactly matching that of the unaffected side by bending the bone using a greenstick fracture. Thereafter, the graft was adjusted to conceal the asymmetry of the deficient side. The adjusted "frame structure" was transferred to the defect through the incisions on the affected side, and the "frame structure" graft was placed on the mandible or zygoma. The graft fixation was done externally with at least 2 Kirschner wires (K-wires).From January 2005 to August 2013, a total of 30 patients (13 men, 17 women, mean age 25.6 years) received a frame structure graft. All 30 patients achieved good healing at the operation site without complications. Donor-site morbidity as pneumothorax from the rib bone harvest was not found.Merits of this frame structure graft, the authors think, are that this method could allow a similar curvature to the normal side. In addition, the procedure itself is easy. PMID:26468802

  14. Synthesis of Polymer Grafted Magnetite Nanoparticle with the Highest Grafting Density via Controlled Radical Polymerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babu Kothandapani

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The surface-initiated ATRP of benzyl methacrylate, methyl methacrylate, and styrene from magnetite nanoparticle is investigated, without the use of sacrificial (free initiator in solution. It is observed that the grafting density obtained is related to the polymerization kinetics, being higher for faster polymerizing monomer. The grafting density was found to be nearly 2 chains/nm2for the rapidly polymerizing benzyl methacrylate. In contrast, for the less rapidly polymerizing styrene, the grafting density was found to be nearly 0.7 chain/nm2. It is hypothesized that this could be due to the relative rates of surface-initiated polymerization versus conformational mobility of polymer chains anchored by one end to the surface. An amphiphilic diblock polymer based on 2-hydroxylethyl methacrylate is synthesized from the polystyrene monolayer. The homopolymer and block copolymer grafted MNs form stable dispersions in various solvents. In order to evaluate molecular weight of the polymer that was grafted on to the surface of the nanoparticles, it was degrafted suitably and subjected to gel permeation chromatography analysis. Thermogravimetric analysis, transmission electron microscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were used to confirm the grafting reaction.

  15. Modulation of graft architectures for enhancing hydrophobic interaction of biomolecules with thermoresponsive polymer-grafted surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idota, Naokazu; Kikuchi, Akihiko; Kobayashi, Jun; Sakai, Kiyotaka; Okano, Teruo

    2012-11-01

    This paper describes the effects of graft architecture of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PIPAAm) brush surfaces on thermoresponsive aqueous wettability changes and the temperature-dependent hydrophobic interaction of steroids in silica capillaries (I.D.: 50 ?m). PIPAAm brushes were grafted onto glass substrates by surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) that is one of the living radical polymerization techniques. Increases in the graft density and chain length of PIPAAm brushes increased the hydration of polymer brushes, resulting in the increased hydrophilic properties of the surface below the transition temperature of PIPAAm at 32 °C. More hydrophobic surface properties were also observed on surfaces modified with the block copolymers of IPAAm and n-butyl methacrylate (BMA) than that with IPAAm homopolymer-grafted surfaces over the transition temperature. Using PBMA-b-PIPAAm-grafted silica capillaries, the baseline separation of steroids was successfully achieved by only changing temperature. The incorporation of hydrophobic PBMA chains in grafted PIPAAm enhanced the hydrophobic interaction with testosterone above the transition temperature. The surface modification of hydrophobicity-enhanced thermoresponsive polymers is a promising method for the preparation of thermoresponsive biointerfaces that can effectively modulated their biomolecule and cell adsorption with the wide dynamic range of hydrophilic/hydrophobic property change across the transition temperature. PMID:22143027

  16. The characterization of the physicochemical and sensory properties of full-fat, reduced-fat, and low-fat ovine and bovine Halloumi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lteif, L; Olabi, A; Kebbe Baghdadi, O; Toufeili, I

    2009-09-01

    Halloumi cheese is a popular cheese in Lebanon and the Middle East. Today, health-conscious consumers are demanding lower fat foods with sensory properties that are comparable to their full-fat counterparts. The objectives of this work were to characterize the physicochemical and sensory properties of bovine and ovine Halloumi of different fat levels and to provide a baseline sensory profile for Halloumi cheese. Full-fat, reduced-fat, and low-fat samples were produced from ovine and bovine milks in 2 batches resulting in a total of 12 batches. The fat, protein, moisture, ash, pH, sodium, and calcium levels were determined and the instrumental textural characteristics of the samples were measured using a texture analyzer. Eleven trained panelists used quantitative descriptive analysis to profile the sensory attributes of the samples and an acceptability test was conducted with 84 panelists. The type of milk (ovine vs. bovine) significantly affected the moisture and protein contents, whereas fat level had a significant effect on moisture, fat, protein, and ash contents. Instrumental texture analysis revealed that the type of milk significantly affected adhesiveness, chewiness, and hardness, whereas the fat level affected chewiness, hardness, adhesiveness, and cohesiveness. The sensory results of the trained panelists revealed that the ovine cheese was more yellow and harder than bovine cheese, whereas bovine cheese was squeakier. Low-fat and reduced-fat cheeses were also more yellow and harder than full-fat cheese, and full-fat cheese was more moist with no significant differences between the low-fat and reduced-fat varieties. Type of milk and fat level did not have any significant effect on fermented flavor, whey flavor, or saltiness. Bovine cheese received significantly higher scores on overall acceptability, texture acceptability, and significantly lower scores on the food action rating scale. Full-fat cheese obtained the highest score on overall acceptability, and texture acceptability decreased significantly with decreasing fat levels. PMID:19700674

  17. Effects of Dietary Fat and Saturated Fat Content on Liver Fat and Markers of Oxidative Stress in Overweight/Obese Men and Women under Weight-Stable Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Marina

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Dietary fat and oxidative stress are hypothesized to contribute to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and progression to steatohepatitis. To determine the effects of dietary fat content on hepatic triglyceride, body fat distribution and markers of inflammation and oxidative stress, overweight/obese subjects with normal glucose tolerance consumed a control diet (CONT: 35% fat/12% saturated fat/47% carbohydrate for ten days, followed by four weeks on a low fat (LFD (n = 10: 20% fat/8% saturated fat/62% carbohydrate or high fat diet (HFD (n = 10: 55% fat/25% saturated fat/27% carbohydrate. Hepatic triglyceride content was quantified by MRS and abdominal fat distribution by MRI. Fasting biomarkers of inflammation (plasma hsCRP, IL-6, IL-12, TNF?, IFN-? and oxidative stress (urinary F2-? isoprostanes were measured. Body weight remained stable. Compared to the CONT, hepatic triglyceride decreased on the LFD (mean (95% CI: change ?2.13% (?3.74%, ?0.52%, but did not change on the HFD and there was no significant difference between the LFD and HFD. Intra-abdominal fat did not change significantly on either diet, but subcutaneous abdominal fat increased on the HFD. There were no significant changes in fasting metabolic markers, inflammatory markers and urinary F2-? isoprostanes. We conclude that in otherwise healthy overweight/obese adults under weight-neutral conditions, a diet low in fat and saturated fat has modest effects to decrease liver fat and may be beneficial. On the other hand, a diet very high in fat and saturated fat had no effect on hepatic triglyceride or markers of metabolism, inflammation and oxidative stress.

  18. Preparation and physical properties of grafted bagasse pulp metal complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of grafting on the electrical properties of bleached bagasse pulp has been investigated over a frequency range 1-200 Khz. The conductivity increases upon grafting with acrylic acid or acrylonitrile. Grafted bleached bagasse pulp with acrylic acid showed an increase in the dielectric constant ? and dielectric loss ?. The bagasse/acrylic acid copolymer metal complexes have shown further increase in the conductivity. The conductivity decreases as the degree of grafting increased from 25% to 215%, indicating slower rate of complexation at higher grafting percentage

  19. Stretch Polytetrafluoroethylene Grafts for Hemodialysis Angioaccess: Three-year Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Dayel Adel

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the results of 90 stretch polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE grafts in 78 chronic renal failure patients over a 3-year period from 1995-1998. The grafts were used as primary access in 15% of the patients. The cumulative patency was 63.3% and there were no complications in 48.8% of the cases. Infection was encountered in 15.5% and thrombosis in 31.1% of the grafts. Intimal hyperplasia, venous anastomotic stenosis, improper puncture technique and subclavian vein stenosis were the major causes of failure of grafts. We conclude that stretch PTFE grafts as angioaccesses may provide good patency and durability.

  20. Long-term fat diet adaptation effects on performance, training capacity, and fat utilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helge, Jørn Wulff

    2002-01-01

    a fat-rich diet decreases the storage of glycogen in both muscle and liver. Therefore, training intensity may be compromised in individuals while consuming a fat-rich diet. During submaximal exercise, fat for oxidation in muscle is recruited from plasma fatty acids, plasma triacylglycerol, and......It is well known that adaptation to a fat-rich carbohydrate-poor diet results in lower resting muscle glycogen content and a higher rate of fat oxidation during exercise when compared with a carbohydrate-rich diet. The net effect of such an adaptation could potentially be a sparing of muscle...... glycogen, and because muscle glycogen storage is coupled to endurance performance, it is possible that adaptation to a high-fat diet potentially could enhance endurance performance. Therefore, the first issue in this review is to critically evaluate the available evidence for a potential endurance...

  1. Fat absorption and deposition in Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) fed a high fat diet

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mhlengi M., Magubane; Busisani W., Lembede; Kennedy H., Erlwanger; Eliton, Chivandi; Janine, Donaldson.

    Full Text Available Dietary fat contributes significantly to the energy requirements of poultry. Not all species are able to increase their absorptive capacity for fats in response to a high fat diet. The effects of a high fat diet (10% canola oil) on the lipid absorption and deposition in the liver, breast and thigh m [...] uscles of male and female Japanese quail were investigated. Thirty-eight Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) were randomly divided into a high fat diet (HFD) and a standard diet (STD) group. The birds were fed the diets for seven weeks after which half of the birds were subjected to oral fat loading tests (OFLT) with plant oils containing long-chain and medium-chain triglycerides. The remaining birds were included for the lipid deposition measurements. Thereafter the birds were euthanised, blood samples were collected and liver, breast and thigh muscle lipid deposition was determined. Female quail on both diets had significantly higher plasma triglyceride concentrations (p

  2. The Danish tax on saturated fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård; Smed, Sinne

    2013-01-01

    Denmark introduced a new tax on saturated fat in food products with effect from October 2011. The objective of this paper is to make an effect assessment of this tax for some of the product categories most significantly affected by the new tax, namely fats such as butter, butter-blends, margarine...... and oils. This assessment is done by conducting an econometric analysis on weekly food purchase data from a large household panel dataset (GfK Consumer Tracking Scandinavia), spanning the period from January 2008 until July 2012.The econometric analysis suggest that the introduction of the tax on...... saturated fat in food products has had some effects on the market for the considered products, in that the level of consumption of fats dropped by 10 – 20%. Furthermore, the analysis points at shifts in demand from high-price supermarkets towards low-price discount stores – at least for some types of oils...

  3. The danish tax on saturated fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård; Smed, Sinne

    Denmark introduced a new tax on saturated fat in food products with effect from October 2011. The objective of this paper is to make an effect assessment of this tax for some of the product categories most significantly affected by the new tax, namely fats such as butter, butter-blends, margarine...... and oils. This assessment was done by conducting an econometric analysis on weekly food purchase data from a large household panel dataset (GfK ConsumerTracking Scandinavia), spanning the period from January 2009 until December 2011.The econometric analysis suggest that the introduction of the tax on...... saturated fat in food products has had some effects on the market for the considered products, in that the level of consumption of fats dropped by 10 – 20%. Furthermore, the analysis points at shifts in demand from high-price supermarkets towards low-price discount stores – a shift that seems to have been...

  4. Oil diffusivity through fat crystal networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Nicole L; Rousseau, Dérick

    2015-07-21

    Oil migration in chocolate and chocolate-based confections leads to undesirable visual and textural changes. Establishing ways to slow this unavoidable process would increase shelf life and reduce consumer rejection. Diffusion is most often credited as the main pathway by which oil migration occurs. Here, we use fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) to explore the diffusion coefficients of vegetable and mineral oil through fat crystal networks at different solid fat contents (SFC). Differences in compatibility between the fat and oil lead to unique primary crystal clusters, yet those variations do not affect diffusion at low SFCs. Trends deviate at higher SFCs, which we ascribe to the influence of the differing crystal cluster structures. We relate our results to the strong and weak-link rheological regimes of fat crystal networks. Finally, we connect the results to relationships developed for polymer gel systems. PMID:26063443

  5. Size determinations of colloidal fat emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuntsche, Judith; Klaus, Katrin; Steiniger, Frank

    2009-01-01

    Size and size distributions of colloidal dispersions are of crucial importance for their performance and safety. In the present study, commercially available fat emulsions (Lipofundin N, Lipofundin MCT and Lipidem) were analyzed by photon correlation spectroscopy, laser diffraction with adequate...

  6. Percentage Energy from Fat Screener: Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    A short assessment instrument to estimate an individual's usual intake of percentage energy from fat. The foods asked about on the instrument were selected because they were the most important predictors of variability in percentage energy.

  7. Evaluation of coronary artery bypass grafts with magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okamura, Yoshitaka; Yamada, Yasuyuki; Mochizuki, Yoshihiko; Iida, Hiroshi; Mori, Hideaki; Sugita, You-ichi; Shimada, Kou-ichirou [Dokkyo University, Mibu, Tochigi (Japan). School of Medicine

    1997-06-01

    Currently, the efficacy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for evaluating coronary artery disease has been reported. In this study, we have evaluated the usefulness and the problems of MRI for evaluating the patency of coronary artery bypass grafts. Thirty-five patients who received coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) were evaluated by using MRI for determining the graft patency compared with conventional coronary angiography. There were 30 men and 5 women. The mean age was 61.2 years (range 45 to 75). The 35 patients had a total of 92 grafts (28 internal thoracic artery, 7 gastroepiploic artery and 57 saphenous vein grafts). Magnetic resonance coronary angiogram (MRCA) was performed with SIGNA HORIZON 1.5 T (GE Inc.) by using 2D-FASTCARD sequence. All patients underwent imaging in the transverse and coronal planes, most had imaging in the sagittal plane, and a few had in the oblique plane. By using MRCA, 82 of 90 grafts were diagnosed correctly as patent, and 1 of 2 grafts were diagnosed correctly as occluded. Thirty-four of 40 LAD grafts (85%), 20 of 22 RCA grafts (91%) and 29 of 30 Cx grafts (97%) were correctly evaluated. The efficacy of MRCA for evaluating the patency of coronary artery bypass grafts was recognized. But the sternal wire (stainless steel) and hemoclip interfere with the interpretation and reduce the sensitivity. Higher sensitivity may be obtained by changing the material of the sternal wires and hemoclips at coronary surgery. (author)

  8. Regular Fat and Reduced Fat Dairy Products Show Similar Associations with Markers of Adolescent Cardiometabolic Health

    OpenAIRE

    O’Sullivan, Therese A.; Bremner, Alexandra P.; Mori, Trevor A.; Beilin, Lawrence J; Charlotte Wilson; Katherine Hafekost; Gina L. Ambrosini; Rae Chi Huang; Oddy, Wendy H

    2016-01-01

    Reduced fat dairy products are generally recommended for adults and children over the age of two years. However, emerging evidence suggests that dairy fat may not have detrimental health effects. We aimed to investigate prospective associations between consumption of regular versus reduced fat dairy products and cardiometabolic risk factors from early to late adolescence. In the West Australian Raine Study, dairy intake was assessed using semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaires in 860...

  9. Regular Fat and Reduced Fat Dairy Products Show Similar Associations with Markers of Adolescent Cardiometabolic Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Therese A; Bremner, Alexandra P; Mori, Trevor A; Beilin, Lawrence J; Wilson, Charlotte; Hafekost, Katherine; Ambrosini, Gina L; Huang, Rae Chi; Oddy, Wendy H

    2016-01-01

    Reduced fat dairy products are generally recommended for adults and children over the age of two years. However, emerging evidence suggests that dairy fat may not have detrimental health effects. We aimed to investigate prospective associations between consumption of regular versus reduced fat dairy products and cardiometabolic risk factors from early to late adolescence. In the West Australian Raine Study, dairy intake was assessed using semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaires in 860 adolescents at 14 and 17-year follow-ups; 582 of these also had blood biochemistry at both points. Using generalized estimating equations, we examined associations with cardiometabolic risk factors. Models incorporated reduced fat and regular fat dairy together (in serves/day) and were adjusted for a range of factors including overall dietary pattern. In boys, there was a mean reduction in diastolic blood pressure of 0.66 mmHg (95% CI 0.23-1.09) per serve of reduced fat dairy and an independent, additional reduction of 0.47 mmHg (95% CI 0.04-0.90) per serve of regular fat dairy. Each additional serve of reduced fat dairy was associated with a 2% reduction in HDL-cholesterol (95% CI 0.97-0.995) and a 2% increase in total: HDL-cholesterol ratio (95% CI 1.002-1.03); these associations were not observed with regular fat products. In girls, there were no significant independent associations observed in fully adjusted models. Although regular fat dairy was associated with a slightly better cholesterol profile in boys, overall, intakes of both regular fat and reduced fat dairy products were associated with similar cardiometabolic associations in adolescents. PMID:26729163

  10. Effect of body fat distribution on the transcription response to dietary fat interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Radonjic, Marijana; van Erk, Marjan J.; Pasman, Wilrike J.; Wortelboer, Heleen M.; Hendriks, Henk F. J.; Van Ommen, Ben

    2009-01-01

    Combination of decreased energy expenditure and increased food intake results in fat accumulation either in the abdominal site (upper body obesity, UBO) or on the hips (lower body obesity, LBO). In this study, we used microarray gene expression profiling of adipose tissue biopsies to investigate the effect of body fat distribution on the physiological response to two dietary fat interventions. Mildly obese UBO and LBO male subjects (n = 12, waist-to-hip ratio range 0.93–1.12) were subjected t...

  11. Oil and fat in broiler nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NC Baião

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The terms "fat" and "oil" refer to triglycerides of several profiles of fatty acids. Fatty acids that are not bound to other organic components as glycerol are the so-called free fatty acids. Lipids constitute the main energetic source for animals and they have the highest caloric value among all the nutrients. Linoleic acid is the only fatty acid whose dietetic requirement has been demonstrated. Besides supplying energy, the addition of fat to animal diets improves the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins, decreases pulverulence, increases diet palatability, and the efficiency of utilization of the consumed energy. Furthermore, it reduces the rate of food passage through the gastrointestinal tract, which allows a better absorption of all nutrients present in the diet. The energetic value of oils and fats depend on the following: the length of the carbonic chain, the number of double bonds, the presence or absence of ester bonds (triglycerides or free fatty acids, the specific arrangements of the saturated and unsaturated fatty acids on the glycerol backbone, the composition of the free fatty acid, the composition of the diet, the quantity and the type of the triglycerides supplemented in the diet, the intestinal flora, the sex and the age of the birds. In birds, body fat composition is similar to the composition of the fat from the diet. The apparent digestibility of unsaturated fats is high in the first days of life of birds, whereas apparent digestibility of saturated fats is low. The quantity of oils or fats is assessed by the following methods: titration, moisture, impurities, unsaponifiable, saponification value, percentage of fat, percentage of free fatty acids/acidity and the profile of fatty acids. The methods initial peroxide value, active oxygen method, osi, iodine value, and analysis of the thiobarbituric acid (TBARS are specific to evaluate the oxidative stability. Considering diets with the same nutritive values, birds fed with rations containing oil present better performance than birds fed no oil. Moreover, the use of oil or fat in diets for broilers may change both the composition and the quality of the carcass.

  12. Oil and fat in broiler nutrition

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    NC, Baião; LJC, Lara.

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The terms "fat" and "oil" refer to triglycerides of several profiles of fatty acids. Fatty acids that are not bound to other organic components as glycerol are the so-called free fatty acids. Lipids constitute the main energetic source for animals and they have the highest caloric value among all th [...] e nutrients. Linoleic acid is the only fatty acid whose dietetic requirement has been demonstrated. Besides supplying energy, the addition of fat to animal diets improves the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins, decreases pulverulence, increases diet palatability, and the efficiency of utilization of the consumed energy. Furthermore, it reduces the rate of food passage through the gastrointestinal tract, which allows a better absorption of all nutrients present in the diet. The energetic value of oils and fats depend on the following: the length of the carbonic chain, the number of double bonds, the presence or absence of ester bonds (triglycerides or free fatty acids), the specific arrangements of the saturated and unsaturated fatty acids on the glycerol backbone, the composition of the free fatty acid, the composition of the diet, the quantity and the type of the triglycerides supplemented in the diet, the intestinal flora, the sex and the age of the birds. In birds, body fat composition is similar to the composition of the fat from the diet. The apparent digestibility of unsaturated fats is high in the first days of life of birds, whereas apparent digestibility of saturated fats is low. The quantity of oils or fats is assessed by the following methods: titration, moisture, impurities, unsaponifiable, saponification value, percentage of fat, percentage of free fatty acids/acidity and the profile of fatty acids. The methods initial peroxide value, active oxygen method, osi, iodine value, and analysis of the thiobarbituric acid (TBARS) are specific to evaluate the oxidative stability. Considering diets with the same nutritive values, birds fed with rations containing oil present better performance than birds fed no oil. Moreover, the use of oil or fat in diets for broilers may change both the composition and the quality of the carcass.

  13. ESR spectroscopic investigations of the radiation-grafting of fluoropolymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huebner, G.; Roduner, E. [University of Stuttgart (Germany); Brack, H.P.; Scherer, G.G. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    ESR spectroscopic investigations have clarified the influence of several preparative parameters on the reaction rates and yields obtained in the radiation-grafting method used at PSI to prepare proton-conducting polymer membranes. At a given irradiation dose, a higher concentration of reactive radical sites was detected in ETFE films than in FEP films. This higher concentration explains the higher grafting levels and rates of the ETFE films found in our previous grafting experiments. Taken together, the in-situ ESR experiments and grafting experiments show that the rates of disappearance of radical species and grafting rates and final grafting levels depend strongly on the reaction temperature and the oxygen content of the system. Average grafted chain lengths were calculated to contain about 1,000 monomer units. (author) 2 figs., 4 refs.

  14. Polypropylene grafted with glycidyl methacrylate using supercritical CO2 medium

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M. H., Kunita; E. M., Girotto; E. C., Muniz; A. F., Rubira.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Films of polypropylene (PP) were grafted with glycidil methacrylate (GMA) using supercritical CO2 as swelling agent and solvent. Different pressures and temperatures were used to study their effects on the soaking and grafting process. FTIR results showed signals at 1726 and 1640 cm-1, assigned to C [...] =O and C=C (after the soaking process), and a decreased signal at 1640 cm-1 (after the grafting procedure), suggesting the effective grafting of GMA. For the grafted material immersed in ethylenediamine, peaks in the 3600 to 3250 cm-1 range (N-H stretching) were evident. Contact angle measurements showed an increasingly hydrophilic nature in the direction from pure PP to grafted PP/GMA (PP-g-GMA) to PP-g-GMA immersed in ethylenediamine (PP-g-GMA/En). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy provided evidenced of the effective incorporation of ethylenediamine in the grafted material.

  15. Modification of cotton-cellulose by preirradiation grafting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takacs, E. [Institute of Isotopes and Surface, Chemical Research Center (CRC), Hungarian Academy of Sciences (HAS), P.O. Box 77, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary)]. E-mail: takacs@iki.kfki.hu; Wojnarovits, L. [Institute of Isotopes and Surface, Chemical Research Center (CRC), Hungarian Academy of Sciences (HAS), P.O. Box 77, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Borsa, J. [Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Mueegyetem rkp. 3, H-1111 Budapest (Hungary); Papp, J. [Institute of Isotopes and Surface, Chemical Research Center (CRC), Hungarian Academy of Sciences (HAS), P.O. Box 77, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Hargittai, P. [Institute of Isotopes and Surface, Chemical Research Center (CRC), Hungarian Academy of Sciences (HAS), P.O. Box 77, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Korecz, L. [Institute of Structural Chemistry, Chemical Research Center (CRC), Hungarian Academy of Sciences (HAS), P.O. Box 17, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary)

    2005-07-01

    Acrylamide (AAm), acylic acid (Aac), 2-hydroxypropil acrylate (HPA), 2-hydroxypropil methacrylate (HPMA) and N,N'-methylene bisacrylamide (BAAm) were grafted to cotton-cellulose by the preirradiation method. The samples were characterized by ESR, degree of polymerization (DP) and tensile strength measurements, by FTIR, gravimetry, X-ray diffraction and iodine sorption. The grafting yield was strongly monomer dependent: the highest yield was found for HPMA, for HPA a medium yield, whereas for the others relatively low values were measured. Grafting improved the swelling of the samples. The highest increase in swelling was observed on samples grafted with Aac and BAAm showing saturation at about 270% at natural pH. For AAm, HPA and HPMA at low grafting yield an increase in swelling was found and then the swelling decreased with increasing grafting yield. No direct connection was found between the grafting yield and the swelling properties.

  16. Steroid-induced Kager's fat pad atrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report a rare case of Kager's fat pad atrophy and fibrosis in a 60-year-old woman 1 year after a steroid injection for Achilles tendinopathy. There are few published reports of steroid-induced atrophy affecting deeper layers of fat tissue. To our knowledge, this case report is the first to illustrate its features using magnetic resonance imaging. A review of the scientific literature is also presented. (orig.)

  17. FATS: Feature Analysis for Time Series

    CERN Document Server

    Nun, Isadora; Sim, Brandon; Zhu, Ming; Dave, Rahul; Castro, Nicolas; Pichara, Karim

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present the FATS (Feature Analysis for Time Series) library. FATS is a Python library which facilitates and standardizes feature extraction for time series data. In particular, we focus on one application: feature extraction for astronomical light curve data, although the library is generalizable for other uses. We detail the methods and features implemented for light curve analysis, and present examples for its usage.

  18. Pork fat hydrolysed by Staphylococcus xylosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, B. B.; Stahnke, Louise Heller; Zeuthen, Peter

    1993-01-01

    Staphylococcus xylosus is used as a starter culture in the production of fermented sausages. Its ability to hydrolyse pork fat was investigated. Within 15 days of incubation an interaction of bacterial growth, lipase production and lipase activity in a pork fat containing medium caused liberation of fatty acids. The free fatty acids were determined both qualitatively and quantitatively. The effects of incubtion temperature and pH were studied using Response Surface Methodology. Within the area o...

  19. New human milk fat substitutes from butterfat to improve fat absorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yanqi; Mu, Huiling; Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov; Xu, X.B.; Meyer, Otto A.; Orngreen, A.

    2010-01-01

    A new human milk fat substitute (HMFS) was produced from butterfat. A 2-week's feeding experiment was performed using three groups of rats with 10 wt.% fat in their feed; the fat was either (1) butterfat-based HMFS + long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA), (2) the reference oil + LCPUFA, or (3) the reference oil without LCPUFA. The apparent fat absorption after intake of butterfat-based HMFS (95.9% +/- 1.8%) was significantly higher than the other two groups, indicating that much less c...

  20. Radiation grafting of acrylonitrile on ethylene-propylene diene terpolymer rubber. Optimization of grafting parameters and oil resistance properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation induced grafting of acrylonitrile (ACN) on ethylene-propene diene terpolymer (EPDM) rubber film was investigated by mutual radiation grafting technique. Effect of experimental variables viz. radiation dose, dose rate, type of solvent and monomer content on extent of grafting was studied. From the kinetic studies a mathematical relation Rg?[M]0.7D0.68 showing non-linear relationship for rate of grafting with monomer concentration and dose was deduced. The grafted samples showed increased hardness and oil resistance. (author)

  1. Permeability of solutes through cellophanes grafted with vinyl monomers. II. Diffusion of potassium chloride through cellophanes grafted with acrylic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The permeability behavior of potassium chloride through cellophane grafted with acrylic acid by a ?-irradiation method was studied by the theoretical equation derived from the phenomenological equation and compared with the results of Donnan membrane equilibrium. It was shown that the permeation of potassium chloride through the grafted cellophanes exhibited behavior typical of a polyionic membrane for grafts of more than 55% but depended on the permeability of both cellophane and graft regions for lower percents of grafting. It was found that the dominant factor affecting the permeation of potassium chloride was an effective concentration of fixed charge in the membrane. 5 figures, 2 tables

  2. Food Supplement Reduces Fat, Improves Flavor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Diversified Services Corporation, seeking to develop a new nutritional fat replacement and flavor enhancement product, took advantage of the NASA Glenn Garrett Morgan Commercialization Initiative (GMCI) for technology acquisition and development and introductions to potential customers and strategic partners. Having developed and commercialized the product, named Nurtigras, the company is now marketing it through its subsidiary, H.F. Food Technologies Inc. The Nutrigras fat substitute is available in liquid, gel, or dry form and can be easily customized to the specific needs of the food manufacturer. It is primarily intended for use as a partial replacement for animal fat in beef patties and other normally high-fat meat products, and can also be used in soups, sauces, bakery items, and desserts. In addition to the nutritional benefits, the fat replacement costs less than the food it replaces, and as such can help manufacturers reduce material costs. In precooked products, Nutrigras can increase moisture content and thereby increase product yield. The company has been able to repay the help provided by NASA by contributing to the Space Agency's astronaut diet-the Nutrigras fat substitute can be used as a flavor enhancer and shelf-life extender for food on the ISS.

  3. Dietary fat and risk of breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathew Aleyamma

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer is one of the major public health problems among women worldwide. A number of epidemiological studies have been carried out to find the role of dietary fat and the risk of breast cancer. The main objective of the present communication is to summarize the evidence from various case-control and cohort studies on the consumption of fat and its subtypes and their effect on the development of breast cancer. Methods A Pubmed search for literature on the consumption of dietary fat and risk of breast cancer published from January 1990 through December 2003 was carried out. Results Increased consumption of total fat and saturated fat were found to be positively associated with the development of breast cancer. Even though an equivocal association was observed for the consumption of total monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA and the risk of breast cancer, there exists an inverse association in the case of oleic acid, the most abundant MUFA. A moderate inverse association between consumption of n-3 fatty acids and breast cancer risk and a moderate positive association between n-6 fatty acids and breast cancer risk were observed. Conclusion Even though all epidemiological studies do not provide a strong positive association between the consumption of certain types of dietary fat and breast cancer risk, at least a moderate association does seem to exist and this has a number of implications in view of the fact that breast cancer is an increasing public health concern.

  4. Challenges of utilizing healthy fats in foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Samantha A; McClements, David Julian; Decker, Eric A

    2015-05-01

    Over the past few decades, the Dietary Guidelines for Americans has consistently recommended that consumers decrease consumption of saturated fatty acids due to the correlation of saturated fatty acid intake with coronary artery disease. This recommendation has not been easy to achieve because saturated fatty acids play an important role in the quality, shelf life, and acceptability of foods. This is because solid fats are critical to producing desirable textures (e.g., creaminess, lubrication, and melt-away properties) and are important in the structure of foods such as frozen desserts, baked goods, and confectionary products. In addition, replacement of saturated fats with unsaturated fats is limited by their susceptibility to oxidative rancidity, which decreases product shelf life, causes destruction of vitamins, and forms potentially toxic compounds. This article will discuss the fundamental chemical and physical properties in fats and how these properties affect food texture, structure, flavor, and susceptibility to degradation. The current sources of solid fats will be reviewed and potential replacements for solid fats will be discussed. PMID:25979504

  5. Intravascular stent graft with polyurethane and metallic stent: experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the usefulness of a new model of the stent graft, and of tissue response related to placement of the stent graft. The stent graft was constructed from polyurethane (Pellethane) graft and Hanaro stent(12mm in diameter, 45mm in length, 10 bends). A stent grafts was inserted into the lower thoracic aorta in each of six adult mongrel dogs(body weight, 12-16kg). At one, two, four, and six months, follow-up studies of angiography and spiral CT angiography were preformed to evaluate wascular patency, vascular stenosis, and thrombus formation. Two dogs were sacrificed at 1month, 2months, and 6months after insertion of the stent graft and macroscopic, light microscopic, and scanning electron microscopic examinations of the aortic segment including the stent graft were performed to evaluate intimal hyperplasia, endothelial growth to the graft, and thrombus formation. During follow-up at one, two, four, and six months, angiography or spiral CT angiography showed 20-100% luminal stenosis or occlusion of the lower thoracic aorta by the thrombus and perigraft leaks in three dogs(50%), and collateral vessels caused by occlusion of the aorta in two (33.3%). On gross examination, there were thrombi of 1-5mm thickness at the graft portions in all dogs, and this thickness gradually increased. The mean thickness of intimal hyperplasia at the stent portion gradually increased from 120?m to 227?m and the mean thickness of intimal hyperplasia at the graft portion from 93?m to 914?m. This thickness was greater at the graft portion than at the stent portion. Scanning electron microscopy showed elliptical endothelial lining on the neointimal surfaces at each end of the graft. Thrombi caused stenosis or occlusion of the stent graft. In order for such a graft to be ideal, further study is needed

  6. 21 CFR 184.1287 - Enzyme-modified fats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Enzyme-modified fats. 184.1287 Section 184.1287... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1287 Enzyme-modified fats. (a) Enzyme-modified refined beef fat, enzyme-modified butterfat, and enzyme-modified steam-rendered chicken fat are...

  7. 9 CFR 319.701 - Mixed fat shortening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mixed fat shortening. 319.701 Section... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Fats, Oils, Shortenings § 319.701 Mixed fat shortening. Shortening prepared with a mixture of meat fats and vegetable oils...

  8. Graft copolymers of polypropylene films. 1. radiation induced grafting of mixed monomers. Vol. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation graft copolymerization of co monomer mixtures of acrylic acid (AAC), and styrene (S) onto polypropylene (PP) film by mutual method has been investigated. The effects of different factors that may affect the grafting yield such as inhibitor concentration (Mohr's salt), solvent composition (MeOH and H2 O), radiation dose and dose rate were considered. It was found that the role of Mohr's salt is very effective when the ratio of AAC in the co monomer mixtures was at lower values. However, the addition of 1.25 Wt% of Mohr's salt reduced the homo polymer formation and enhances the grafting process. Graft copolymerization in presence of solvent mixture composed of methanol and water was found to afford higher grafting than in pure methanol regardless of the composition of the co monomer mixture used. However, the highest degree of grafting was obtained at a solvent composition of 20% H2 O:80%MeOH and a co monomer mixture of 20%AAC:80%sty. An attempt was made to determine each PAAC and PS fractions in the total graft yield obtained. Two methods of analysis based on using the reactivity ratios reported in literature, elemental analysis and IR spectroscopy. The determination of poly (acrylic acid) and polystyrene fractions by elemental analysis is believed more accurate than these by reactivity ratio. The precise results obtained by elemental analysis with respect to the chemical structure of known polymer prepared under identical conditions. The results obtained by IR measurements go well with that obtained with the reactivity ratio methods. 5 figs., 3 tabs

  9. Physical interactions between cupuassu and cocoa fats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gioielli, L. A.

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Cupuassu (Theobroma grandiflorum, Sterculiaceae is an Amazonian native fruit and nowadays is cultivated only in Amazonian region. The seeds that come to about 16% of the dry weight can be used to derive a cocoa butter like product and the content of fat in the seeds is about 60% dry weight. In general, these fats are similar to those of cocoa, although they show difference in some physical properties. The objective of this study was to analyse some physical and crystallization properties of the cupuassu fat, cocoa butter and some mixtures between the two fats. The analyses performed were: dropping point, solid fat content, hardness index and Jensen cooling curve. The results suggested some advantages of the use of cupuassu fat, as lower crystallization time and smoothness than cocoa butter. The mixtures showed compatibility, cocoa butter showed bigger solid fat content at room temperature than cupuassu fat and the mixtures. Cupuassu fat had a lower dropping point than cocoa butter. The possible use of cupuassu fat and the mixtures could be in fillings and cold weather chocolate productsCupuassu (Theobroma grandiflorum, Sterculiaceae es una fruta nativa amazónica que hoy día sólo se cultiva en esta región. Las semillas con un 16%, aproximadamente, del peso seco, tienen, aproximadamente, el 60% de grasa y pueden usarse como sustituto de manteca de cacao. En general, estas grasas son similares a las del cacao, aunque muestran diferencias en algunas de sus propiedades físicas. El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar algunas propiedades físicas y de cristalización de la grasa de cupuassu, de la manteca de cacao y de mezclas de las dos grasas. Los análisis realizados fueron: punto de goteo, contenido en grasa sólida, índice de dureza y la curva de enfriamiento de Jensen. El tiempo de cristalización inferior y la mayor suavidad que muestra la grasa de cupuassu frente a la manteca de cacao, sugieren algunas ventajas del uso de la misma. Todas mezclas fueron compatibles. El contenido en grasa sólida, a temperatura ambiente, de la manteca de cacao fue superior a la de la grasa de cupuassu y las mezclas. La grasa de cupuassu mostró un punto de goteo inferior al de la manteca de cacao. Esta grasa y las mezclas estudiadas podrían usarse en los rellenos y productos del chocolate en temporada fría.

  10. Dietary Fat, Fat Subtypes and Hepatocellular Carcinoma in a Large European Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duarte-Salles, Talita; Fedirko, Veronika

    2015-01-01

    The role of amount and type of dietary fat consumption in the aetiology of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is poorly understood, despite suggestive biological plausibility. The associations of total fat, fat subtypes and fat sources with HCC incidence were investigated in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort, which includes 191 incident HCC cases diagnosed between 1992 and 2010. Diet was assessed by country-specific, validated dietary questionnaires. A single 24-h diet recall from a cohort subsample was used for measurement error calibration. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were estimated from Cox proportional hazard models. Hepatitis B and C viruses (HBV/HCV) status and biomarkers of liver function were assessed separately in a nested case-control subset with available blood samples (HCC=122). In multivariable calibrated models, there was a statistically significant inverse association between total fat intake and risk of HCC (per 10 g/d, HR=0.80, 95%CI: 0.65-0.99), which was mainly driven by monounsaturated fats (per 5 g/d, HR=0.71, 95%CI: 0.55-0.92) rather than polyunsaturated fats (per 5 g/d, HR=0.92, 95%CI: 0.68-1.25). There was no association between saturated fats (HR=1.08, 95%CI: 0.88-1.34) and HCC risk. The ratio of polyunsaturated/monounsaturated fats to saturated fats was not significantly associated with HCC risk (per 0.2 point, HR=0.86, 95%CI: 0.73-1.01). Restriction of analyses to HBV/HCV free participants or adjustment for liver function did not substantially alter the findings. In this large prospective European cohort, higher consumption of monounsaturated fats is associated with lower HCC risk. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  11. FTO gene associated fatness in relation to body fat distribution and metabolic traits throughout a broad range of fatness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kring, Sofia I I; Holst, Claus

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A common single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of FTO (rs9939609, T/A) is associated with total body fatness. We investigated the association of this SNP with abdominal and peripheral fatness and obesity-related metabolic traits in middle-aged men through a broad range of fatness present already in adolescence. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Obese young Danish men (n = 753, BMI > or = 31.0 kg/m(2)) and a randomly selected group (n = 879) from the same population were examined in three surveys (mean age 35, 46 and 49 years, respectively). The traits included anthropometrics, body composition, oral glucose tolerance test, blood lipids, blood pressure, fibrinogen and aspartate aminotransferase. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the age-adjusted association between the phenotypes and the odds ratios for the FTO rs9939609 (TT and TA genotype versus the AA genotype), for anthropometrics and body composition estimated per unit z-score. BMI was strongly associated with the AA genotype in all three surveys: OR = 1.17, p = 1.1*10(-6), OR = 1.20, p = 1.7*10(-7), OR = 1.17, p = 3.4*10(-3), respectively. Fat body mass index was also associated with the AA genotype (OR = 1.21, p = 4.6*10(-7) and OR = 1.21, p = 1.0*10(-3)). Increased abdominal fatness was associated with the AA genotype when measured as waist circumference (OR = 1.21, p = 2.2*10(-6) and OR = 1.19, p = 5.9*10(-3)), sagittal abdominal diameter (OR = 1.17, p = 1.3*10(-4) and OR = 1.18, p = 0.011) and intra-abdominal adipose tissue (OR = 1.21, p = 0.005). Increased peripheral fatness measured as hip circumference (OR = 1.19, p = 1.3*10(-5) and OR = 1.18, p = 0.004) and lower body fat mass (OR = 1.26, p = 0.002) was associated with the AA genotype. The AA genotype was significantly associated with decreased Stumvoll insulin sensitivity index (OR = 0.93, p = 0.02) and with decreased non-fasting plasma HDL-cholesterol (OR = 0.57, p = 0.037), but not with any other of the metabolic traits. However, all significant results for both body fat distribution and metabolic traits were explained by a mediating effect of total fat mass. CONCLUSION: The association of the examined FTO SNP to general fatness throughout the range of fatness was confirmed, and this association explains the relation between the SNP and body fat distribution and decreased insulin sensitivity and HDL-cholesterol. The SNP was not significantly associated with other metabolic traits suggesting that they are not derived from the general accumulation of body fat.

  12. FAT: The Good, the Bad and the Trans Fat Truth and How it Applies to People with Special Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Lee Shelly

    2007-01-01

    This article deals with the good and bad things about body fats as well as the truth behind trans fat. Fat has some important roles in the body. It allows for efficient energy storage and is also important for proper growth and development and maintenance of good health. In this article, the author discusses various categories of food fats and…

  13. FAT: The Good, the Bad and the Trans Fat Truth and How it Applies to People with Special Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Lee Shelly

    2007-01-01

    This article deals with the good and bad things about body fats as well as the truth behind trans fat. Fat has some important roles in the body. It allows for efficient energy storage and is also important for proper growth and development and maintenance of good health. In this article, the author discusses various categories of food fats and…

  14. Seasonal change in body fat of the Hyrax Procavia capensis (Pallas, 1766) using a body fat ranking index

    OpenAIRE

    L.J Fourie; Perrin, M R

    1985-01-01

    Changes in the body fat content of the hyrax Procavia capensis were used as an indicator of physiological condition. Body fat rankings for the different sexes showed seasonal variations related to physiologically stressful periods (rutting, gestation and lactation). The subjective body fat rankings were correlated significantly with total body fat.

  15. Seasonal change in body fat of the Hyrax Procavia capensis (Pallas, 1766 using a body fat ranking index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.J. Fourie

    1985-12-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the body fat content of the hyrax Procavia capensis were used as an indicator of physiological condition. Body fat rankings for the different sexes showed seasonal variations related to physiologically stressful periods (rutting, gestation and lactation. The subjective body fat rankings were correlated significantly with total body fat.

  16. A study on the morphology of polystyrene-grafted poly(ethylene-alt-tetrafluoroethylene) (ETFE) films prepared using a simultaneous radiation grafting method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The morphology of polystyrene-grafted poly(ethylene-alt-tetrafluoroethylene) (ETFE) films prepared using a simultaneous radiation grafting method was investigated using DMA, DSC, XRD, and SAXS instruments. The DMA study indicates that the ETFE amorphous phase and PS amorphous phase are mixed well in the PS-grafted ETFE films while the ETFE crystalline phase and the PS amorphous phase are separated, suggesting that the PS chains are grafted mainly on the ETFE amorphous regions. The DSC and XRD data showed that the natural crystalline structures of ETFE in the grafted ETFE films are not affected by the degree of grafting. The SAXS profiles displayed that the inter-crystalline distance of the ETFE films increases with an increasing degree of grafting, which further implies that the PS graft chains formed by the simultaneous irradiation has a significant impact on the amorphous morphology of the resulting grafted ETFE film. Thus, these results indicate that the styrene monomers are mainly grafted on the ETFE amorphous regions during the simultaneous radiation grafting process. - Highlights: • PS-grafted ETFE films were prepared by a simultaneous radiation grafting method was investigated. • The natural crystalline structures of grafted ETFE films are not affect by the degree of grafting. • The inter-crystalline distance of the ETFE films increase with increasing degree of grafting. • The styrene monomers are mainly grafted on the ETFE amorphous regions during a simultaneous radiation grafting using gamma-ray

  17. Novel anterior cruciate ligament graft fixation device reduces slippage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopez MJ

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Mandi J Lopez,1 Allen Borne,2 W Todd Monroe,3 Prakash Bommala,1 Laura Kelly,1 Nan Zhang11Laboratory for Equine and Comparative Orthopedic Research, Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, 2Louisiana State University, New Orleans Health Sciences Center, School of Medicine, New Orleans, 3Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering, Agricultural Center, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA, USAAbstract: Clinically significant laxity occurs in 10%–30% of knees after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Graft slippage and tension loss at the hamstring graft tibial fixation site during and after reconstruction surgery contribute to postoperative joint laxity and are detrimental to long-term knee stability and graft properties. Limiting graft slippage will reduce associated complications. We sought to compare the in vitro mechanical properties and in vivo joint stabilization, postoperative limb use, and graft incorporation of the novel GraftGrab™ (GG device designed to reduce hamstring graft tibial fixation slippage with the commercially available bioabsorbable Bio-Post™ and spiked washer (BP. Mechanical testing was performed on canine tibia-hamstring graft constructs to quantify initial fixation properties. In vivo joint stabilization, postoperative limb use and graft incorporation of hamstring graft reconstructions were determined in a canine model. Outcomes included tibial translation and ground reaction forces preoperatively and 4 and 8 weeks postoperatively, three-dimensional graft and bone tunnel dimensions at the latter two time points, and graft-bone microstructure, as well as mechanical properties 8 weeks after implantation. Immediately after fixation, all grafts slipped from the BP constructs versus about 30% of GG constructs. In vivo limb use remained low, and tibial translation increased with time in the BP cohort. These results together confirm that initial graft slippage is lower with GG versus BP extracortical hamstring graft tibial fixation. In addition, postoperative recovery and joint stability are more consistent with the GG. This information supports the GG as an alternative to extracortical tibial hamstring graft fixation that has procedural advantages over current implants and reduces graft failure from slippage.Keywords: cruciate, implant, bioabsorbable, canine, graft, tibia

  18. Permeabilization of enterocytes induced by absorption of dietary fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Erik Michael; Hansen, Gert H; Rasmussen, Karina; Niels-Christiansen, Lise-Lotte

    2013-01-01

    Absorption of dietary fat in the small intestine involves epithelial exposure to potentially harmful molecules such as bile salts and free fatty acids. We used organ culture of porcine jejunal explants incubated with a pre-digested mixture of fat (plant oil), bile and pancreatin to mimick the physiological process of dietary fat absorption, and short exposures to the fat mixture caused fat droplet accumulation within villus enterocytes. Lucifer yellow (LY), a fluorescent membrane-impermeable pol...

  19. The rise and fall of the world's first fat tax

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Malene; Pisinger, Charlotta; Toft, Ulla; Jørgensen, Torben

    2015-01-01

    In 2011, Denmark introduced the world's first tax on saturated fat, but only 15 months later the fat tax was abolished. The aim of this article is to investigate the political processes surrounding the implementation and rapid abolition of the fat tax. Our findings suggest that industry and trade associations were heavily involved in the political process of formulating the fat tax. Industry representatives used certain tactics to oppose the fat tax: threatening lawsuits, predicting welfare loss...

  20. Preparation of Proteoglycan Mimetic Graft Copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipper, Matt J; Place, Laura W

    2016-01-01

    Proteoglycans are proteins with pendant glycosaminoglycan polysaccharide side chains. The method described here enables the preparation of graft copolymers with glycosaminoglycan side chains, which mimic the structure and composition of proteoglycans. By controlling the stoichiometry, graft copolymers can be obtained with a wide range of glycosaminoglycan side-chain densities. The method presented here uses a three-step reaction mechanism to first functionalize a hyaluronic acid backbone, followed by reductive amination to couple the glycosaminoglycan side chain to the backbone, by the reducing end. Proteoglycan mimics like the ones proposed here could be used to study the structure-property relationships of proteoglycans and to introduce the biochemical and biomechanical properties of proteoglycans into biomaterials and therapeutic formulations. PMID:26537466

  1. Radiation-induced grafting of TMPM onto polypropylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The gamma radiation-induced graft copolymerization of 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-piperidinyl-methacrylate (TMPM), a very effective hindered amine light stabilizer (HALS), onto polypropylene was investigated by simultaneous- irradiation technique. The various synthesis conditions on the graft content was studied. It was found that benzene, CCl4 and petroleum ether are more effective than other solvents, the percent grafting reached 7.1% for benzene. The percent grafting is higher when graft copolymerization is carried out in argon atmosphere than those in air. For all the grafting copolymerization carried out in benzene and CCl4, percent grafting increase linearly from 1 to 5 Mrad and beyond 5 Mrad, a tendency to level off appeared. At a constant dose, the percent grafting was found to be higher at high dose rate until 228 rad/s. Percent grafting also increased continuously with increasing monomer concentration up to 2.85 mol/L, but significant increase in grafting was observed only up to 1.14 mol/L

  2. Primary contraction of skin grafts: a porcine preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Bogdanov Berezovsky

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Skin grafting is a common clinical practice for plastic surgeons, yet primary contraction of these grafts is a neglected topic. This study was designed to investigate primary contraction and introduce the shape of skin graft as a possible factor that modifies primary contraction behavior, using porcine models. Methods: In the first series, full-thickness skin grafts (FTSGs and split-thickness skin grafts (STSGs were compared. In a second series, how the shape of the skin graft affected the degree of contraction was examined. Results: The mean percentage of FTSG shrinkage was 12.04%, and the median was 12.18%. The mean percentage of STSG shrinkage was 6.87%, and the median was 5%. Circle-shaped and square-shaped FTSGs showed mean/median graft shrinkage of 5.83%/6.93% and 4.15%/3.75%, respectively. In STSGs, the circle-shaped and square-shaped grafts had mean/median graft shrinkage of 1.07%/0% and 0.31%/0%, respectively. Conclusion: Our preliminary report revealed an expected greater shrinkage of FTSGs compared with STSGs. Furthermore, in a limited number of specimens, the shape of the skin graft seemed to affect the primary contraction of the STSGs.

  3. Insolubilisation of biologically active materials with novel radiation graft copolymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of radiation grafting to immobilise a typical enzyme, trypsin, is reported. The technique involves radiation grafting to a backbone polymer a monomer containing an appropriate functional group to which the enzyme is bonded. In the present work, p-nitrostyrene has been grafted to representative trunk polymers, polypropylene and PVC, the nitro group in the resulting copolymer converted to the isothiocyanato derivative to which trypsin is attached. Of importance to this insolubilisation process, especially for radiation sensitive backbone polymers, is the inclusion of additives which enhance grafting. A new class of additives which increase the grafting yields is reported using as representative backbone polymers, naturally occurring cellulose and synthetic low density polyethylene. The new additives are specific metal salts such as LiClO4. The reactivity of these salts in grafting enhancement has been compared with that of mineral acid which has previously been used as an additive to increase grafting yields in both preirradiation and simultaneous techniques. A new model for grafting enhancement in the presence of the metal salts as well as acids is proposed whereby increased grafting yields are attributed to increased partitioning of monomer into the graft region in the presence of ionic solutes. The value of these additives in preparing copolymers suitable for general reagent insolubilisation reactions is discussed

  4. Radiation initiated grafting onto fluoro polymers for membrane preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Assy, N. B.; Dessouki, A. M.

    The radiation initiating grafting of acrylamide (AAm) onto poly(tetrafluoroethylene/ hexafluoropropylene/vinylidene fluoride), TFB, films using the post-radiation grafting technique has been investigated. The factors affecting the grafting process such as radiation dose, dose rate, monomer concentration and temperature on the grafting yield were studied. It was found that the grafting yield is strongly dependent on the dose but independent on the dose rate. The dependence of the grafting rate on monomer concentration was found to be of 1.44 order. The results showed a steady increase of the initial grafting rate with temperature, whereas the final grafting yield passes a maximum around 45°C. The Arrhenius plot reveals two straight lines with different slope intersecting around 35°C. The overall activation energy for this grafting system was calculated and found to be 16.5 and 32.4 kcal/mol above and below 35°C, respectively. This behaviour is presumably correlated to a glass transition of the trunk polymer arising from amorphous material under restraint by crystallites. Some properties of the grafted films such a specific electric resistance, water uptake, mechanical properties and chemical and thermal stability were investigated. An improvement in these properties was observed which makes possible the use of these membranes in some practical applications.

  5. Radiation initiated grafting onto fluoro polymers for membrane preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiation initiating grafting of acrylamide (AAm) onto poly(tetrafluoroethylene/hexafluoropropylene/vinylidene fluoride), TFB, films using the post-radiation grafting technique has been investigated. The factors affecting the grafting process such as radiation dose, dose rate, monomer concentration and temperature on the grafting yield were studied. It was found that the grafting yield is strongly dependent on the dose but independent on the dose rate. The dependence of the grafting rate on monomer concentration was found to be of 1.44 order. The results showed a steady increase of the initial grafting rate with temperature, whereas the final grafting yield passes a maximum around 450C. The Arrhenius plot reveals two straight lines with different slope intersecting around 350C. The overall activation energy for this grafting system was calculated and found to be 16.5 and 32.4 kcal/mol above and below 350C, respectively. This behaviour is presumably correlated to a glass transition of the trunk polymer arising from amorphous material under restraint by crystallites. Some properties of the grafted films such as specific electric resistance, water uptake, mechanical properties and chemical and thermal stability were investigated. An improvement in these properties was observed which makes possible the use of these membranes in some practical applications. (author)

  6. Surgical complications after renal transplantation in grafts with multiple arteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Mazzucchi

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Renal transplantation with multiple arteries appears, in literature, associated to a major index of surgical complications. This study compared the surgical complications and short-term outcome renal transplants with multiple arteries and single artery grafts. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The data of 64 renal transplants with multiple arteries performed between January 1995 and December 1999 were compared to the ones of 292 transplants with single renal artery. The aspects analyzed were number of arteries of the graft, donor type, vascular reconstruction technique, the occurrence of surgical complications, the incidence of delayed graft function, graft function 1 month after transplantation, graft loss and the patients' deaths. RESULTS: The incidence of surgical complications in grafts with multiple arteries and single renal artery was respectively: vascular - 3.1% and 3.1%; urological - 6.3% and 2.7% and other surgical complications - 15.6% and 10.6%, respectively. The incidence of lymphoceles was 3.1% in grafts with a single artery and 12.5% in grafts with more than 1 artery (p = 0.0015. The incidence of delayed graft function in grafts with multiple arteries and with a single renal artery was respectively 35.1 and 29.1% (p = 0.295. Mean serum creatinine at the 30th postoperative day was 2.46 and 1.81 in grafts with multiple and with 1 artery, respectively (p=0.271. CONCLUSIONS: Kidney transplantation using grafts with single and multiple arteries present similar indexes of surgical complications and short-term outcome; lymphoceles were more frequent among grafts with multiple arteries.

  7. Improvement of tomato local varieties by grafting in organic farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Marta M.; Villena, Jaime; Moreno, Carmen; García, Arántzazu M.; Mancebo, Ignacio; Meco, Ramón

    2015-04-01

    Grafting is the union of two or more pieces of living plant tissue that grow as a single plant. The early use of grafted vegetables was associated with protected cultivation which involves successive cropping (Lee et al., 2010). For this reason, in the past, grafting was used with vegetable crops to limit the effects of soil-borne diseases. However, the reasons for grafting as well as the kinds of vegetable grafted have increased considerably over the years. In tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.), one of the most important horticultural crops in the world, the effect of grafting has also been widely studied. These effects on commercial tomato varieties can be summarized in increasing plant vigor and crop yield or inducing tolerance to abiotic stresses, although the effects on tomato fruit quality or on the sensory properties are not so patent (David et al., 2008). However, a few studies about the effect of grafting on local tomato varieties, which are especially recommended for organic production in spite of their lower yields in many cases, have been developed. In this work we evaluated the effect of grafting on tomato local varieties under organic management using vigorous commercial rootstocks, and aspects related to vigor, yield and tomato fruit composition were analyzed. In general terms, grafting increased the plant vigor, the crop yield and the fruit antioxidant content, although no modification of morphological fruit attributes was observed. Keywords: grafting, Solanum lycopersicum L., local varieties, organic farming. References: Davis A.R., Perkins-Veazie P., Hassell R., Levi A., King S.R., Zhang X. 2008. Grafting effects on vegetable quality. HortScience 43(6): 1670-1671. Lee J.M., Kubota C., Tsao S.J., Bie Z., Hoyos-Echevarría P., Morra L., Oda M. 2010. Current status of vegetable grafting: Diffusion, grafting techniques, automation. Scientia Horticulturae 127: 93-105.

  8. Photoactivated surface grafting from PVDF surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Berthelot, Thomas; Le, Xuan Tuan; Jégou, Pascale; Viel, Pascal; Boizot, Bruno; Baudin, Cécile; Palacin, Serge

    2011-01-01

    Economic and easy methods to tune surface properties of polymers as Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) without altering bulk properties are of major interest for different applications as biotechnological devices, medical implant device. . . UV irradiation appears as one of the simplest, easy and safe method to modify surface properties. In the case of self-initiated grafting, it is generally assumed that the pretreatment of the PVDF surface with UV irradiation can yield alkyl and per-oxy radic...

  9. Fungal biodegradation of lignopolystyrene graft copolymers.

    OpenAIRE

    Milstein, O; Gersonde, R.; Huttermann, A; M. J. Chen; Meister, J J

    1992-01-01

    White rot basidiomycetes were able to biodegrade styrene (1-phenylethene) graft copolymers of lignin containing different proportions of lignin and polystyrene [poly(1-phenylethylene)]. The biodegradation tests were run on lignin-styrene copolymerization products which contained 10.3, 32.2, and 50.4% (wt/wt) lignin. The polymer samples were incubated with the white rot fungi Pleurotus ostreatus, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, and Trametes versicolor and the brown rot fungus Gloeophyllum trabeum...

  10. Autologus parietal grafts in preprosthethic surgery

    OpenAIRE

    GHERLONE, E.F.; R. Vinci; D’AVERSA, L.

    2010-01-01

    Edentulous patients usually request implant supported/fixed rehabilitation. Ridge resorption after teeth loss usually affect three-dimensional implant position. Vertical and/or horizontal bone augmentation procedures are often the only choice the clinician has to deliver prosthetic guided restoration. Gold standard for augmentation procedures such as sinus lift, onlay or inlay grafts, is still autologous bone. The patient in this report underwent a pre-prosthetic reconstruction of the jaws wi...

  11. LATE RENAL GRAFT REJECTION: PATHOLOGY AND PROGNOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.S. Stolyarevich

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Rejection has always been one of the most important cause of late renal graft dysfunction. Aim of the study was to analyze the prevalence of different clinico-pathological variants of rejection that cause late graft dysfunction, and evaluate their impact on long-term outcome. Materials and methods. This is a retrospective study that analyzed 294 needle core biopsy specimens from 265 renal transplant recipients with late (48,8 ± 46,1 months after transplantation allograft dysfunction caused by late acute rejection (LAR, n = 193 or chronic rejection (CR, n = 78 or both (n = 23. C4d staining was performed by immunofl uorescence (IF on frozen sections using a standard protocol. Results. Peritubular capillary C4d deposition was identifi ed in 36% samples with acute rejection and in 62% cases of chronic rejection (including 67% cases of transplant glomerulopathy, and 50% – of isolated chronic vasculopathy. 5-year graft survival for LAR vs CR vs their combination was 47, 13 and 25%, respectively. The outcome of C4d– LAR was (p < 0,01 better than of C4d+ acute rejection: at 60 months graft survival for diffuse C4d+ vs C4d? was 33% vs 53%, respectively. In cases of chronic rejection C4d+ vs C4d– it was not statistically signifi cant (34% vs 36%. Conclusion. In long-term allograft biopsy C4d positivity is more haracteristic for chronic rejection than for acute rejection. Only diffuse C4d staining affects the outcome. C4d– positivity is associated with worse allograft survival in cases of late acute rejection, but not in cases of chronic rejection. 

  12. Mechanics of laser cut stent grafts.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Major, Št?pán; Kocour, Vladimír; Hubálovský, Š.

    Prague : Institute of theoretical and applied mechanics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v. v. i., 2015 - (Náprstek, J.; Fischer, C.). s. 186-187 ISBN 978-80-86246-42-0. ISSN 1805-8248. [Engineering mechanics 2015 /21./. 11.05.2015-14.05.2015, Svratka] Institutional support: RVO:68378297 Keywords : stent-grafts * nitinol * finite element analysis * fatigue * fracture Subject RIV: JJ - Other Materials

  13. Outcomes of coronary artery bypass graft surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Hawkes, Anna Louise; Nowak, Madeleine; Bidstrup, Benjamin; Speare, Richard

    2006-01-01

    This review article summarizes the major studies that have investigated the outcomes of coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG). The article includes a review of the literature in the areas of: history of CABG; indications for CABG; and measurement of quality of life following CABG, including prolongation of life, physical functioning (ie, relief from angina and dyspnea, physical activity, as well as complications of surgery and re-hospitalization), psychological functioning, and social f...

  14. Graft Polymerization of Styrene to Polyethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Study of published data on radiationinduced grafting of styrene to low density polyethylene films shows that the rate of weight gain has only a small dependence upon the gamma exposure rate and film thickness. It is demonstrated that the models used by previous investigators to interpret weight- gain data for evaluation of rate constants are not applicable. Data are presented for grafting experiments at 18 and 40oC using polyethylene films and fluff and Co60 gamma exposure rates up to 8.0 x 105 r/hr. The rate of conversion of styrene to homopolymer in the fluff suspensions was also measured. Microscopic examinations were performed on the grafted film to estimate the amount of occluded homopolymer. The results demonstrate that most of the weight gain in film samples is due to occluded homopolymer. In the fluff experiments, in which the weight gain is largely due to graft copolymer, the weight increase is approximately linear with dose and the reaction rate is almost proportional to the square root of the gamma exposure rate. A low activation energy for the reaction rate precludes the possibility of diffusion control in fluff and in thin films at exposure rates below 105 r/hr. The rate of homopolymer formation in the fluff experiments performed at 18oC and 7.2 x 104 r/hr is the same as that reported for polymer formation in pure styrene. The activation energy, 3.5 kcal/mol, is almost half the value reported for the pure monomer. (author)

  15. Influenza virus vaccination and kidney graft rejection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Anne Sophie Lind; Møller, Bjarne Kuno; Krag, Søren; Jespersen, Bente

    2015-01-01

    Influenza can cause significant morbidity and mortality in renal transplant recipients especially with a high rate of lower respiratory disease. Annual influenza vaccination is therefore recommended to renal transplant recipients. We report the first three cases of acute kidney injury in renal transplant recipients following influenza vaccination that all led to graft loss. They all had different native diseases and were all vaccinated in the same season of 2009-10. The time span from vaccinatio...

  16. Peripheral Stent Placement in Hemodialysis Grafts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the clinical outcome of peripheral stent placement after failed balloon angioplasty in patients with grafts who are on hemodialysis. We examined 30 Wallstents that were placed in 26 patients because balloon angioplasty failed or early restenosis (<3 months) occurred within 3 months. We retrospectively reviewed 267 consecutive balloon angioplasties performed in 71 patients with graft access between August 2000 and March 2007. Stent placements accounted for 30 (11.2%) of the 267 balloon angioplasties. The clinical success rate of stent placement was 93.3% (28 of 30 stent placements). The 3-, 6-, and 12-month primary patency rates were 73.3%, 39.3%, and 17.7%, respectively. The 1-, 2-, and 3-year secondary patency rates were 90.2%, 83.8%, and 83.8%, respectively. Primary patency was significantly prolonged by stent placement after early restenosis compared with previous balloon angioplasty alone (P = 0.0059). Primary patency after stent placement was significantly lower than after successful balloon angioplasty without indications for stent placement (P = 0.0279). Secondary patency rates did not significantly differ between stent placement and balloon angioplasty alone. The mean number of reinterventions required to maintain secondary patency after stent placement was significantly larger than that after balloon angioplasty alone (Mann-Whitney U test, P = 0.0419). We concluded that peripheral stent placement for graft access is effective for salvaging vascular access after failed balloon angioplasty and for prolonging patency in early restenosis after balloon angioplasty. However, reinterventions are required to maintain secondary patency after stent placement. Furthermore, peripheral stent placement for graft access cannot achieve the same primary patency as balloon angioplasty alone.

  17. Graft copolymerized chitosan : present status and applications

    OpenAIRE

    Jayakumar, R.; Prabaharan, M.; R. L. Reis; J.F. Mano

    2005-01-01

    Chitosan is a natural based polymer obtained by alkaline deacetylation of chitin, exhibiting excellent biological properties such as biodegradation in the human body, and immunological, antibacterial, and wound-healing activity. Chitosan has also been found to be a good candidate as a support material for gene delivery, cell culture and tissue engineering. However, practical use of chitosan has been mainly confined to the unmodified forms. For a breakthrough in utilization, graft cop...

  18. Decreased hybrid susceptibility to murine myeloma grafts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The behavior of BALB/c myeloma transplants in (C57BL/10 x BALB/c)F1 hybrids was investigated. The F1 hybrids were less susceptible to the grafts than were the parental BALB/c hosts. Host susceptibility was x-ray and cyclophosphamide sensitive, but an immune hypothesis was not favored since no memory was demonstrable. Males were less susceptible than females, and rabbit antithymus serum had no effect on susceptibility

  19. LATE RENAL GRAFT REJECTION: PATHOLOGY AND PROGNOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.S. Stolyarevich

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Rejection has always been one of the most important cause of late renal graft dysfunction. Aim of the study was to analyze the prevalence of different clinico-pathological variants of rejection that cause late graft dysfunction, and evaluate their impact on long-term outcome. Materials and methods. This is a retrospective study that analyzed 294 needle core biopsy specimens from 265 renal transplant recipients with late (48,8 ± 46,1 months after transplantation allograft dysfunction caused by late acute rejection (LAR, n = 193 or chronic rejection (CR, n = 78 or both (n = 23. C4d staining was performed by immunofl uorescence (IF on frozen sections using a standard protocol. Results. Peritubular capillary C4d deposition was identifi ed in 36% samples with acute rejection and in 62% cases of chronic rejection (including 67% cases of transplant glomerulopathy, and 50% – of isolated chronic vasculopathy. 5-year graft survival for LAR vs CR vs their combination was 47, 13 and 25%, respectively. The outcome of C4d– LAR was (p < 0,01 better than of C4d+ acute rejection: at 60 months graft survival for diffuse C4d+ vs C4d? was 33% vs 53%, respectively. In cases of chronic rejection C4d+ vs C4d it was not statistically signifi cant (34% vs 36%. Conclusion. In long-term allograft biopsy C4d positivity is more haracteristic for chronic rejection than for acute rejection. Only diffuse C4d staining affects the outcome. C4d– positivity is associated with worse allograft survival in cases of late acute rejection, but not in cases of chronic rejection. 

  20. Graft selection in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Suzanne L; Gladstone, James N

    2002-10-01

    Selecting the appropriate graft for ACL reconstruction depends on numerous factors including surgeon philosophy and experience, tissue availability (affected by anatomical anomalies or prior injury or surgery), and patient activity level and desires. Although the patella tendon autograft has the widest experience in the literature, and is probably the most commonly used graft source, this must be tempered with the higher reported incidences of potential morbidity and pitfalls associated with its use. The hamstring tendons are gaining increasing popularity, mostly due to reduced harvest morbidity and improved soft tissue fixation techniques, and many recent studies in the literature report equal results to BTB ACL reconstruction with respect to functional outcome and patient satisfaction. On the other hand, many of these studies report higher degrees of instrument (KT-100) tested laxity for hamstring reconstruction, and some have reported lower returns to preinjury levels of activity. One question that remains to be addressed is how closely objectively measured laxity tests correlate with subjectively assessed outcomes and ability to return to high levels of competitive sports. Allograft use, which decreased in popularity during the 1990s, appears to be undergoing a resurgence, with better sterilization processes and new graft sources (tibialis tendons), leading to increased availability and improved fixation techniques. The benefits of decreased surgical morbidity and easier rehabilitation must be weighed against the potential for greater failure of biologic incorporation, infection, and possibly slower return to activities. In our practice, for high-demand individuals (those playing cutting, pivoting, or jumping sports and skiing) BTB tends to be the graft of choice. For lower demand or older individuals, hamstring reconstructions will be performed. Allograft tissue will be used in older individuals (generally over 45 years old), those with signs of arthritis (and compelling evidence of instability), or those individuals who understand the pros and cons of allograft use fully and do not want their own tissue used. PMID:12528909

  1. Allogenic lyophilized cartilage grafts for craniomaxillofacial reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allogenic lyophilized cartilages were made in our clinic after Sailer methods and some modification. In our clinic, we have used allogenic cartilage grafts on 102 defects of craniomaxillofacial area; 1) for defects from cyst or ameloblastoma, 2) for lack of continuity of the mandible, 3) for rhinoplasty, 4) for paranasal augmentation, 5) for augmentation genioplasty, 6) for reconstruction of orbital floor, 7) for oroantral fistula, 8) for temporal augmentation, 9) for TMJ surgery 10) for condyle defect as a costochondral graft, 11) for filling of tooth socket and alveolus augmentation,12) for correction or orbital height and 13) for guided bone regeneration in peripheral implant. The types of lyophilized cartilage used were chip, sheet and block types developed by freeze-dried methods. Some grafts showed change of ossification, in which case we could perform implant on it. We have good results on reconstruction of craniomaxillofacial defects. Allogenic cartilage have advantages such as 1) it has no immune reaction clinically, 2) it is more tolerable to infection than that of autogenous cartilage, 3) it has character of less resorption which require no over correction, 4) it is easy to manipulate contouring, and 5) it has possibility of undergoing ossification. Allogenic cartilage has been considered as good substitutes for bone. The author would like to report the results on 102 allogenic cartilage have

  2. Dorsal Versus Ventral Oral Mucosal Graft Urethroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalil Hosseini

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate success rate of dorsal versus ventral oral mucosal graft for anterior urethroplasty.MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a retrospective study, the results of the ventral and dorsal oral mucosal graft (OMG anterior urethroplasty were assessed in 24 and 29 patients, respectively. Demographic and clinical characteristics of subjects were gathered from the medical records.RESULTS: Patients were followed up for a mean duration of 32 months (range, 25 to 51 months. The success rates of dorsal and ventral anterior OMG urethroplasty were 83.3% and 75.8%, respectively (P = .5. At penile site, dorsal and ventral OMG were done for 9 and 10 patients with stricture lengths of 3.7 ± 1.1 cm and 3.9 ± 1.2 cm, respectively (P = .7. Success rates of dorsal and ventral penile OMG were 88.9% and 70%, respectively (P = .3. At the bulbar site, dorsal and ventral OMG were performed on 15 and 19 patients with stricture lengths of 4.1 ± 1.1cm and 4.2 ± 1.5 cm, respectively (P = .7. The success rates of dorsal and ventral bulbar OMG were 80% and 79%, respectively (P = .94.CONCLUSION: Oral mucosal graft is a versatile and an effective procedure for management of strictures throughout the anterior urethra, and in experienced hands, the outcomes are similarly favorable whether a dorsal or ventral approach is taken.

  3. A Patient with Recurrent Arteriovenous Graft Thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allon, Michael

    2015-12-01

    Arteriovenous grafts (AVGs) are prone to frequent thrombosis that is superimposed on underlying hemodynamically significant stenosis, most commonly at the graft-vein anastomosis. There has been great interest in detecting AVG stenosis in a timely fashion and performing preemptive angioplasty, in the belief that this will prevent AVG thrombosis. Three surveillance methods (static dialysis venous pressure, flow monitoring, and duplex ultrasound) can detect AVG stenosis. Whereas observational studies have reported that surveillance with preemptive angioplasty substantially reduces AVG thrombosis, randomized clinical trials have failed to confirm such a benefit. There is a high frequency of early AVG restenosis after angioplasty caused by aggressive neointimal hyperplasia resulting from vascular injury. Stent grafts prevent AVG restenosis better than balloon angioplasty, but they do not prevent AVG thrombosis. Several pharmacologic interventions to prevent AVG failure have been evaluated in randomized clinical trials. Anticoagulation or aspirin plus clopidogrel do not prevent AVG thrombosis, but increase hemorrhagic events. Treatment of hyperhomocysteinemia does not prevent AVG thrombosis. Dipyridamole plus aspirin modestly decreases AVG stenosis or thrombosis. Fish oil substantially decreases the frequency of AVG stenosis and thrombosis. In patients who have exhausted all options for vascular access in the upper extremities, thigh AVGs are a superior option to tunneled internal jugular vein central vein catheters (CVCs). An immediate-use AVG is a reasonable option in patients with recurrent CVC dysfunction or infection. Tunneled femoral CVCs have much worse survival than internal jugular CVCs. PMID:25883073

  4. Nasal reconstruction using split calvarial grafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romo, T; Jablonski, R D

    1992-11-01

    The reconstruction of nasal deformities after trauma or surgical procedures presents an arduous task for the reconstructive surgeon. The anatomic alteration of supporting cartilage and nasal bones, as well as scar formation, compound the difficult nature of this type of reconstruction. In the past, multiple autogenous and alloplastic implants have been used in nasal reconstruction. Autogenous implants include auricular and septal cartilage as well as rib and iliac crest bone grafts. Alloplastic materials include acrylic, supramid mesh, Gortex, and silicone rubber. Autogenous grafts have been shown to provide excellent long-term reliable results in nasal reconstruction. In our study, autogenous split calvarial bone grafts were used in the nasal reconstruction of 17 patients. Among the corrective procedures were dorsal augmentation for saddle-nose deformities, insertion of columella struts for nasal tip ptosis, and insertion of nasal battens for nasal valve collapse. Patient followup has been from 1 to 5 years, with no significant resorption noted during that time. Complications were limited to one seroma at the donor site before wound drains were routinely used. No major complications, including hematoma formation, CSF leak, or infection, have been observed. PMID:1437200

  5. Body fat and fat-free mass and all-cause mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bigaard, Janne; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Tjønneland, Anne; Thomsen, Birthe Lykke; Overvad, Kim; Heitmann, Berit Lillienthal; Sørensen, Thorkild I A

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the association between BMI and all-cause mortality could be disentangled into opposite effects of body fat and fat-free mass (FFM). RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES: All-cause mortality was studied in the Danish follow-up study "Diet, Cancer and Health" with 27......,178 men and 29,875 women 50 to 64 years old recruited from 1993 to 1997. By the end of year 2001, the median follow-up was 5.8 years, and 1851 had died. Body composition was assessed by bioelectrical impedance. Cox regression models were used to estimate the relationships among body fat mass index (body...... fat mass divided by height squared), FFM index (FFM divided by height squared), and mortality. All analyses were adjusted for smoking habits. RESULTS: Men and women showed similar associations. J-shaped associations were found between body fat mass index and mortality adjusted for FFM and smoking. The...

  6. New human milk fat substitutes from butterfat to improve fat absorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yanqi; Mu, Huiling

    2010-01-01

    A new human milk fat substitute (HMFS) was produced from butterfat. A 2-week's feeding experiment was performed using three groups of rats with 10 wt.% fat in their feed; the fat was either (1) butterfat-based HMFS + long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA), (2) the reference oil + LCPUFA, or (3) the reference oil without LCPUFA. The apparent fat absorption after intake of butterfat-based HMFS (95.9% +/- 1.8%) was significantly higher than the other two groups, indicating that much less calcium soap was formed after feeding butterfat-based HMFS. Calcium contents in urines and faeces from the two groups fed LCPUFA in their diet were lower than those without supplementation of LCPUFA, suggesting that LCPUFA could improve calcium absorption by reducing the calcium excretion. It can thus be concluded that the butterfat-based HMFS improves fat absorption, and supplementation of LCPUFA in the formula improves calcium absorption.

  7. Abdominal CT scanning with fat-density oral contrast medium (''fatCAT'')

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problem of inadequate mixing of gastrointestinal contents and conventional high-density oral contrast agents is well known in abdominal CT. The authors recently introduced an animal model which is utilized for CT imaging of the gastrointestinal wall. A fat density oral contrast agent (''fatCAT'') consisting of 12.5% corn oil emulsion was used. They have been evaluating ''fatCAT'' in patients who require abdominal CT scans. The agent has been well tolerated by patients and healthy volunteers. It has consistently produced fat density throughout the lumen of the gastrointestinal tract with exquisite mural visualization. Preliminary calculations suggest that corn oil in the intestinal lumen reduces the local absorbed dose to the mucosa produced by photoelectrons emitted from the high atomic number (barium or iodine) oral contrast agents. Methodology and clinical utility of ''fatCAT'' are presented

  8. The Facial Contouring and Support System: An Innovative Method for Midfacial Fat Repositioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Cumbo, MD

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Minimally invasive rejuvenation procedures are increasingly popular with patients. In the midface, these might involve the introduction of sutures to lift and secure the malar tissue, fat grafts, and fillers to increase volume. This article describes a new facial contouring and support system, which uses an innovative hollow, double-beveled needle to which a 2/0 polypropylene suture may be anchored. Among 102 patients there were no complications, and follow-up at 3–5 years indicates little or no loss of satisfaction with the outcome. The procedure can be combined with other modalities—including fillers and skin peels—to achieve an overall, balanced, natural look for the patient. Potential adjustability and reversibility of the procedure are reassuring for both patient and surgeon and add to the technique’s versatility.

  9. Differential effect of gender on hepatic fat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilsanz, Vicente [Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, USC, Keck School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, MS 81, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, USC, Keck School of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Chung, Sandra A. [Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, USC, Keck School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, MS 81, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Kaplowitz, Neil [USC, Keck School of Medicine, USC Research Center for Liver Disease, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2011-09-15

    There are discrepant data on whether men or women have a higher risk for hepatic steatosis. To examine the influence of gender on hepatic adiposity in teenagers and young adults. We measured subcutaneous abdominal fat (SAF), intra-abdominal fat (IAF) and hepatic tissue density (a surrogate measure of hepatic fat) using CT in 505 healthy teenagers and young adults (254 males, 251 females; ages 15-22.9 years). Overall, compared to men, women had higher values of SAF (P < 0.0001) but similar measures of IAF and liver tissue density (P = 0.09 and 0.92, respectively). However, when compared to overweight/obese men, overweight/obese women had strikingly similar IAF values (P = 0.85) but lower hepatic fat (P = 0.009). Multiple regression analyses indicated that, after adjusting for age and SAF, IAF independently predicted hepatic density in males (P < 0.0001) but not in females (P = 0.36). Hepatic fat increased with body mass in males from lean to overweight and obese (P < 0.0001) but not in females (P > 0.05). When compared to overweight and obese young women, overweight and obese young men are at greater risk for hepatic steatosis, independent of IAF. (orig.)

  10. Influence of Fat Content on Chocolate Rheology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriele, D.; Migliori, M.; Baldino, N.; de Cindio, B.

    2008-07-01

    Molten chocolate is a suspension having properties strongly affected by particle characteristics including not only the dispersed particles but also the fat crystals formed during chocolate cooling and solidification. Even though chocolate rheology is extensively studied, mainly viscosity at high temperature was determined and no information on amount and type of fat crystals can be detected in these conditions. However chocolate texture and stability is strongly affected by the presence of specific crystals. In this work a different approach, based on creep test, was proposed to characterize chocolate samples at typical process temperatures (approximately 30 °C). The analysis of compliance, as time function, at short times enable to evaluate a material "elasticity" related to the solid-like behavior of the material and given by the differential area between the Newtonian and the experimental compliance. Moreover a specific time dependent elasticity was defined as the ratio between the differential area, in a time range, and total area. Chocolate samples having a different fat content were prepared and they were conditioned directly on rheometer plate by applying two different controlled cooling rate; therefore creep were performed by applying a low stress to ensure material linear behavior. Experimental data were analyzed by the proposed method and specific elasticity was related to single crystal properties. It was found that fat crystal amount and properties depend in different way on fat content and cooling rate; moreover creep proved to be able to detect even small differences among tested samples.

  11. Fluorescence spectroscopy for assessment of liver transplantation grafts concerning graft viability and patient survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollet Filho, José D.; da Silveira, Marina R.; Castro-e-Silva, Orlando; Bagnato, Vanderlei S.; Kurachi, Cristina

    2015-06-01

    Evaluating transplantation grafts at harvest is essential for its success. Laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (LIFS) can help monitoring changes in metabolic/structural conditions of tissue during transplantation. The aim of the present study is to correlate LIFSobtained spectra of human hepatic grafts during liver transplantation with post-operative patients' mortality rate and biochemical parameters, establishing a method to exclude nonviable grafts before implantation. Orthotopic liver transplantation, piggyback technique was performed in 15 patients. LIFS was performed under 408nm excitation. Collection was performed immediately after opening donor's abdominal cavity, after cold perfusion, end of back-table period, and 5 min and 1 h after warm perfusion at recipient. Fluorescence information was compared to lactate, creatinine, bilirubin and INR levels and to survival status. LIFS was sensitive to liver changes during transplantation stages. Study-in-progress; initial results indicate correlation between fluorescence and life/death status of patients.

  12. Radiation grafting of various water-soluble monomers on ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene powder: Part I. Grafting conditions and grafting yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monomers of some water-soluble polymers; acrylic acid, methacrylic acid, acrylamide, N, N-dimethyl acrylamide and 1-vinyl-2 pyrrolidone, were grafted on ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) powders by a direct grafting method in an aqueous medium in air. Inhibition of homopolymerisation was achieved by adding various concentrations of Fe2+ or Cu2+ ions. It was found that the degree of grafting increases linearly with dose till a gelation state is reached, and varies between 40 and 12% depending on the monomer. Four million molecular weight UHMWPE gave a higher per cent grafting than a 6 million counterpart for the monomers used, with the exception of acrylic acid monomer grafting. (author)

  13. Modification studies by irradiation grafting MMA into timber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of irradiation grafting Methylmethacrylate (MMA) into four different kinds of timber, the influences of three different irradiation methods and radiation doses on grafting yield were studied using ?-irradiation. The results showed that the grafting yields of the different kinds of timber are in the range of 11.8% and 163% respectively. The effect on China fir is the best. The irradiation method and radiation dose have influence on the grafting yield of timber. The irradiation method with water can improve the grafting yield of timber. The radiation dose and the grafting yield are positively related to each other. Finally, hardness and swelling ratio of timber were measured. The results showed that the properties of timber were improved much

  14. Radiation initiated grafting of acrylic acid onto fluorinated polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Direct radiation grafting of acrylic acid (AAc) onto polyethylene/polytetrafluoroethylene copolymer (ET) films was studied. In this grafting system ammonium ferrous sulphate (Mohr ∼ s salt ) and ferric chloride were used as inhibitors to minimize the homo polymerization of AAc and the suitable concentration of the inhibitor added to the reaction medium was found 1.0 and 1.5 Wt % for Mohr ∼ s salt and ferric chloride, respectively. Also the effect of the monomer concentration on the rate of grafting was investigated. The dependence of the grafting rate on the monomer concentration was found 1.4 order. This grafting system proceeded by a diffusion controlled process. Some selected properties of the grafted films such as swelling behaviour, dimensional change, mechanical and electrical properties were also investigated. 8 fig

  15. Radiation grafting of styrene on starch with high efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, N.; Akhavan, A.; Ataeivarjovi, E.

    2013-04-01

    Wheat starch grafted with polystyrene (PS-g-starch) was synthesized via polymerization grafting of styrene on starch by gamma-ray. The effects of starch/styrene weight ratio, and amount of applied doses (5-40 kGy) on the percentage of grafting, G (%), were investigated. The results showed that G (%) increased with increasing starch content. The optimum condition, starch/styrene weight ratio 1/3 and the applied dose 10 kGy, led to 252.9% of grafting. The obtained graft copolymer was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, thermal gravimetric analysis, and scanning electron microscopy. FTIR spectroscopy as well as the XRD analysis exhibited the changes in chemical and crystalline structure of starch after grafting reaction. TGA demonstrated the changes in thermal stability of PS-g-starch copolymer. SEM micrographs indicated porous patches of PS adhering on the starch.

  16. Successful Treatment of Secondary Aortoenteric Fistula with a Special Graft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çiçek, Ömer Faruk; Çiçek, Mustafa Cüneyt; Kadiro?ullar?, Ersin; Uzun, Alper; Ula?, Mahmut

    2016-01-01

    Aortoenteric fistula is an uncommon but life-threatening cause of gastrointestinal blood loss. We report a case of a 70-year-old man who presented to the emergency department with an episode of melena and infection in the left inguinal region. Diagnosis of secondary aortoenteric fistula was made between the left limb of the aortobifemoral graft and the descending colon. We performed excision of the infected graft and in situ silver acetate coating of prosthetic vascular graft replacement (aortoleft femoral) on the patient. This study reports a rare type of secondary aortoenteric fistula to the left colon, and it describes an unusual and successful surgical treatment. Antimicrobial coating of prosthetic vascular grafts may be a good alternative in the presence of graft infection associated with aortoenteric fistula because in situ grafts may carry an increased risk of reinfection. PMID:26880931

  17. Off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting using a bilateral internal mammary artery Y graft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Xiong Gu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo evaluate the outcome of off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (OPCABG using a bilateral internal mammary artery (BIMA Y configuration graft to achieve total arterial myocardial revascularization. Methods From October 2002 to December 2008, 208 patients (196 males and 12 females underwent OPCABG using a BIMA Y configuration graft. The average age of the patients was 56.5 ± 11.3 years, with an age range of 33–78 years. A total of 167 (80.2% cases had triple-vessel disease. Left main stem disease was found in 33 (15.9% cases, and double-vessel disease was found in 8 (3.9% cases. The semi-skeletonization technique was used to harvest the two internal mammary arteries (IMAs, and then the free right internal mammary artery was connected end-to-side to the left internal mammary artery (LIMA in situ to complete the Y configuration graft. Off-pump and sequential anastomosis methods were used to perform coronary artery bypass surgery in all patients. Graft patency was assessed intra-operatively with the HT311 transit time flowmeter. Results A total of 728 distal anastomoses were performed in 208 patients, with the average being 3.5 ± 1.3 per person. No one died or experienced recurrent angina within 30 days after the operation. Conclusions OPCABG using the BIMA Y graft was safe and effective to achieve total arterial revascularization. This method avoids surgical operation on the ascending aorta and other incisions.

  18. The effect of total arterial grafting on medium-term outcomes following coronary artery bypass grafting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buth Karen J

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While it is believed that total arterial grafting (TAG for coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG confers improved long-term outcomes when compared to conventional grafting with left internal mammary artery and saphenous vein grafts (LIMA+SVG, to date, this has not become the standard of care. In this study, we assessed the impact of TAG on medium-term outcomes after CABG. Methods Peri-operative data was prospectively collected on consecutive first-time, isolated CABG patients between 1995 and 2005. Patients were divided into two groups based on grafting strategy: TAG (all arterial grafts no saphenous veins or LIMA+SVG. Patients who had an emergent status or underwent fewer than two distal bypasses were excluded. Medium term univariate and risk-adjusted comparisons between TAG and LIMA+SVG cases were performed. Results A total of 4696 CABG patients were included with 1019 patients undergoing TAG (22%. Unadjusted in-hospital mortality was 1.5% for TAG patients compared to 2.0% for LIMA+SVG (p = 0.31. The mean follow-up was 4.8 ± 2.0 years for TAG patients compared to 6.1 ± 3.0 years for LIMA+SVG patients (p Conclusion Patients undergoing TAG appear to experience lower rates of medium-term all-cause mortality and readmission to hospital for any cardiac cause when compared to patients undergoing LIMA+SVG. However, after adjusting for clinical variables, this difference no longer persists suggesting that at median follow-up there are no mortality or morbidity benefit based on the choice of conduit.

  19. MR findings in patients with disabling musculocutaneous chronic graft-versus-host disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horger, M.; Boss, A.; Claussen, C.D. [Eberhard-Karls-University, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany); Bethge, W.; Faul, C.; Vogel, W. [Eberhard-Karls-University, Department of Internal Medicine-Oncology, Tuebingen (Germany); Fierlbeck, G. [Eberhard-Karls-University, Department of Dermatology, Tuebingen (Germany); Bornemann, A. [Eberhard-Karls-University, Insitute for Brain Research, Tuebingen (Germany)

    2008-10-15

    To describe musculocutaneous MR-findings responsible for disability in chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Between June 2005 and February 2008, we performed whole-body musculoskeletal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI; n = 12) or regional MRI (n = 4) in 16 consecutive patients presenting with disabling sclerodermatous cGVHD (e.g., skin edema, fixed deep dermal sclerosis, joint contractures, painful muscular contractures, or myalgia). In all patients, MRI showed musculocutaneous abnormalities reflecting different degrees of inflammation and collagen tissue involvement of the skin (n = 10), subcutaneous fat tissue (n = 13), muscle fasciae (n = 16), subfascial muscular septae (n = 6), or findings compatible with myositis (n = 3). The most frequently involved muscle fasciae comprised those of the vastus lateralis muscle (n = 12), biceps femoris muscle (n = 11), gastrocnemius medialis muscle (n = 8), serratus anterior muscle, and latissimus dorsi muscle (each, n = 5). Increased signal of involved tissues on STIR-images and fat-saturated postgadolinium T1-weighted images represented the most frequent MR-signal abnormalities. MR imaging of musculocutaneous cGVHD allows accurate evaluation including assessment of deep tissue infiltration and assists in the differential diagnosis. (orig.)

  20. DDE in brown and white fat of hibernating bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D.R., Jr.; Krynitsky, A.J.

    1983-01-01

    Samples of brown and white fat from hibernating bats (big brown bat, Eptesicus fuscus; little brown bat, Myotis lucifugus; and eastern pipistrelle, Pipistrellus subflavus) collected in western Maryland, USA, were analysed to determine lipid and DDE content. Amounts of brown fat, expressed as percentages of total bat weight, were the same for all three species. Lipid content of brown fat was significantly less than that of white fat. Lipids of brown fat contained significantly higher (28%) concentrations of DDE than did lipids of white fat. In our mixed-species sample of 14 bats, concentrations of DDE increased exponentially in both brown and white fat as white fat reserves declined. Brown fat facilitates arousal from hibernation by producing heat through rapid metabolism of triglycerides. The question is raised whether organochlorine residues, such as DDE, may be concentrated and then liberated in lethal amounts by the processes of hibernation and arousal.