WorldWideScience
1

Fat plug myringoplasty  

OpenAIRE

Fat plug myringoplasty is a technique described to repair small dry central tympanic membrane perforations. It is a simple office procedure with minimal morbidity to the patient. The present study is a prospective review of 18 patients who underwent 20 fat plug myringoplasty procedures over three and a half year penod. The success rate of 90% closure of tympanic membrane was achieved at an average of six months follow up. The patient selection criteria have to be adhered strictly to gain good...

Chalishazar, U.

2005-01-01

2

Fat-plug myringoplasty of ear lobule vs abdominal donor sites.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study is to compare the success rates of fat-graft myringoplasties harvesting adipose grafts from different donor sites (ear lobule vs abdomen). The clinical records of 61 patients (24 males and 37 females) who underwent fat-plug myringoplasty (FPM) were reviewed retrospectively. Fat from ear lobule (FEL) and abdominal fat were used as graft materials. The impact of age, gender, systemic diseases, topography of the perforation, utilization of fat graft materials of different origin on the tympanic membrane closure rate and the effect of FPM on hearing gain was analyzed. Our tympanic membrane (TM) closure rate was 82 %. No statistical significant difference was observed regarding age, gender, comorbidities (septal deviation, hypertension and diabetes mellitus) or habits (smoking). Posterior TM perforations had significantly lower healing rate. The change in TM closure rate considering different adipose tissue donor sites was not statistically significant. The hearing gain of the patients was mostly below 20 dB. Fat-plug myringoplasty (FPM) is a safe, cost-effective and easy operation for selected patients. Abdominal fat graft is as effective as ear lobe fat graft on tympanic membrane healing, has cosmetic advantages and should be taken into consideration when planning fat as the graft source. PMID:24469028

Acar, Mustafa; Yaz?c?, Demet; San, Turhan; Muluk, Nuray Bayar; Cingi, Cemal

2015-04-01

3

Strategic sequences in fat graft survival.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although lipotransfer, or fat grafting, is a commonly used procedure in aesthetic and reconstructive surgery, there is still variability in graft survival and neoadipogenesis from one procedure to the next. A better understanding of the sequential molecular events occurring with grafting would allow us to strategize methods to improve the regenerative potency of the grafted tissue. These steps begin with an autophagic process, followed by the inclusion of stromal vascular fraction and matrix components. By tailoring and modifying each of these steps for a particular type of aesthetic or reconstructive procedure, strategic sequencing represents a dynamic approach to lipotransfer with the aim of maximizing adipocyte viability and growth. In the implementation of the strategic sequence, it remains important to consider the clinical viability of each step and its compliance with the US Food and Drug Administration regulations. This review highlights the basic science behind clinically translatable approaches to supplementing various fat grafting procedures. PMID:25643185

Guo, Jimmy; Widgerow, Alan D; Banyard, Derek; Toranto, Jason; Wirth, Garrett A; Paydar, Keyianoosh; Tussardi, Ilaria Tocco; Evans, Gregory R D

2015-03-01

4

Dermis fat grafting in contracted socket  

OpenAIRE

5 cases of severely contracted sockets were recon-structed with the use of dermis-fat graft. This type of graft is extremely useful as it is more viable and is a suitable replacement for soft tissue deficiency as in case of contracted socket. Excellent results were obtained and this method seems to be the method of choice in the manage-ment of such cases.

Betharia S; Patil N

1988-01-01

5

A STUDY ON EFFICACY OF AUTOLOGOUS PLATELET RICH PLASMA IN MYRINGOPLASTY  

OpenAIRE

Objective: To study the efficacy and advantage in using autologus platelet rich plasma during myringoplasty in closure of tympanic membrane perforation preventing the graft displacement, promoting quicker healing & improving overall outcome.Methods : Platelet rich plasma(PRP) is an autologus platelet rich concentrate prepared from patients own blood with growth factors up to 8 times that of normal serum and its efficacy when used during myringoplasty is studied.50 patients with chronic oti...

Sankaranarayanan Gopalakrishnan; Prithviraj Venkatasamy; Kumar Vivekanandamurthy

2013-01-01

6

Fat Graft Viability in the Subcutaneous Plane versus the Local Fat Pad  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Fat grafting has been increasingly utilized in both aesthetic and reconstructive surgical procedures, yet the basic scientific understanding of fat grafting has lagged behind the pace of clinical innovation and utilization. This lack of basic scientific understanding has perhaps manifested itself in the wide range of graft viability reported across the literature. This study attempts to further the underlying mechanisms of fat graft take and viability through the comparison of the subcutaneous plane and the local fat pad in athymic rats. Methods: Lipoaspirate from a consenting patient was grafted into 2 locations in the subcutaneous plane and into the 2 inguinal fat pads in each of 4 athymic rats. Specimens were then collected after 47 days, and immunohistochemistry was utilized to determine angiogenesis in the fat grafts as a measure of fat graft take. Data were analyzed using the Student’s t test and analysis of variance followed by multiple comparisons. Results: There was no statistically significant difference (P = 0.2913) between the inguinal fat pad and the subcutaneous plane when measuring neovascularization. Analysis of variance comparing the graft locations also indicated no statistically significant difference when comparing each of the rats. Conclusions: Investigation into fat graft injection location indicates that there is no statistically significant difference in angiogenesis signals between the subcutaneous plane and the local fat pad in the athymic rat model. Further research should aim to continue to close the gap between clinical practice and basic scientific understanding of fat grafting. PMID:25587494

Constantine, Ryan S.; Harrison, Bridget; Davis, Kathryn E.

2014-01-01

7

A STUDY ON EFFICACY OF AUTOLOGOUS PLATELET RICH PLASMA IN MYRINGOPLASTY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: To study the efficacy and advantage in using autologus platelet rich plasma during myringoplasty in closure of tympanic membrane perforation preventing the graft displacement, promoting quicker healing & improving overall outcome.Methods : Platelet rich plasma(PRP is an autologus platelet rich concentrate prepared from patients own blood with growth factors up to 8 times that of normal serum and its efficacy when used during myringoplasty is studied.50 patients with chronic otitis media inactive mucosal disease were randomly chosen and 25 of them was the study group and other 25 were the control group. Both group patients underwent myringoplasty and PRP was used in the study group and the results were evaluated.Results: In our study among 25 cases that underwent myringoplasty with use of platelet rich fibrin, 24 had complete tympanic membrane closure and only one failure has been noticed. In controls 5 out of 25 cases had failure. The graft take up rate in our study is comparable with the reference studies. Use of PRP accelerates graft uptake.Conclusion: Platelet rich plasma is a cheap and cost effective platelet concentrate with enriched growth factors. It accelerates the tympanic membrane closure following myringoplasty.

Sankaranarayanan Gopalakrishnan

2013-06-01

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Sequelae of Fat Grafting Postmastectomy: An Algorithm for Management of Fat Necrosis  

OpenAIRE

Objective: Fat grafting is used to improve the reconstructed breast. Local recurrences following mastectomy present as palpable subcutaneous nodules; fat necrosis/oil cysts, a sequelae of fat grafting, also present as subcutaneous nodules. Our objective was to examine the frequency and factors associated with fat necrosis in the postmastectomy reconstructed breast and propose an algorithm for management. Methods: A retrospective review of a breast reconstruction database was conducted to iden...

Doren, Erin L.; Parikh, Rajiv P.; Laronga, Christine; Hiro, Matthew E.; Sun, Weihong; Lee, Marie Catherine; Smith, Paul D.; Fulp, William J.

2012-01-01

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Myringoplasty with and without Cortical Mastoidectomy in Treatment of Non-cholesteatomatous Chronic Otitis Media: A Comparative Study  

Science.gov (United States)

OBJECTIVE To compare the outcome and success of repair of uncomplicated tympanic membrane perforations with myringoplasty alone and when combined with mastoidectomy. METHODS A prospective study where 40 patients with non-cholesteatomatous chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM) were recruited during the period of June 2013 to December 2013 from the outpatient clinic of Otorhinolaryngology department, Faculty of medicine, Cairo University. Patients were managed medically and after dryness of their perforations they were operated upon. Twenty patients underwent simple myringoplasty alone and 20 patients underwent myringoplasty with cortical mastoidectomy. Underlay technique with temporalis fascia was done for all patients. Follow-up period was at least 3 months. RESULTS Hearing improvement was comparable in both groups. There was no significant difference in graft uptake between the myringoplasty alone group (70%) and cortical mastoidectomy group (80%) (P = 0.7). There was no significant difference in ear dryness between the myringoplasty alone group (75%) and cortical mastoidectomy group (90%) (P = 0.4). CONCLUSION Mastoidectomy performed in non-cholesteatomatous CSOM in this study gives no statistically significant benefit over simple myringoplasty as regards graft success rate and dryness of the middle ear with comparable hearing outcome. PMID:25187749

Mohammed Abdel Tawab, Hazem; Mahmoud Gharib, Fadi; Algarf, Tareq M; ElSharkawy, Louay S

2014-01-01

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Treatment of Chronic Posttraumatic Leg Injury Using Autologous Fat Graft  

Science.gov (United States)

We present the results obtained in a case of a 20-year-old Caucasian woman with a posttraumatic injury “hard-to-heal” of the left leg treated using autologous fat graft. Considering our experience in treatment of chronic posttraumatic ulcers by autologous fat graft, we decided to use this surgical technique to induce a regenerative effect in this young patient. We have had complete wound closure with only a single surgical procedure after 1 month; after the second intervention of autologous fat graft we observed an improvement in the quality of the scar tissue. The patient satisfaction was excellent. The results were long lasting and remained virtually unchanged after 1 year. PMID:23319957

Caviggioli, Fabio; Klinger, Francesco Maria; Vinci, Valeriano; Cornegliani, Guido; Klinger, Marco

2012-01-01

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Lipoenxertia em reconstrução mamária / Fat grafting in breast reconstruction  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Frequentemente, a reconstrução mamária requer um segundo tempo cirúrgico para corrigir visíveis irregularidades no contorno da mama. A lipoenxertia constitui-se em uma técnica cirúrgica que pode melhorar ou corrigir essas deformidades em substituição a outras técnicas convencionais de ma [...] ior morbidade ou complexidade. O objetivo deste estudo é demonstrar um método de correção de defeitos de contorno de mamas reconstruídas previamente pelas técnicas convencionais com enxerto de gordura, após 8 anos de experiência. MÉTODO: Todas as pacientes incluídas neste estudo foram previamente submetidas a mastectomia (total ou parcial) e a algum tipo de reconstrução mamária. A gordura foi obtida por meio de método clássico de lipoaspiração com seringa, delicadamente lavada com solução salina em uma peneira de aço inoxidável, decantada em uma seringa de 60 cc e enxertada após alguns minutos. RESULTADOS: Foram operadas 112 pacientes no período de 2005 a 2012. Houve 1 (8,9%) caso de perda total do enxerto de gordura, 22 (19,6%) pacientes apresentaram pequenos nódulos palpáveis, o volume médio enxertado foi de 100 cc e foram necessários múltiplos procedimentos para se alcançar o volume desejado. CONCLUSÕES: A lipoenxertia constitui-se em uma técnica segura, com baixa morbidade e altos índices de satisfação do cirurgião e das pacientes, apesar de necessitar de múltiplos procedimentos cirúrgicos para atingir bom resultado. Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Breast reconstruction often requires a second surgical procedure to correct visible irregularities of the breast contour. Lipofilling (fat grafting) consists of a surgical technique that improves or corrects such deformities, and serves as an alternative to other conventional techniques [...] that have higher morbidity rates and complexity. In the present study, we aimed to describe our 8-year experience with a fat grafting method for correcting contour deformities of breasts that were previously reconstructed using conventional techniques. METHODS: All patients in this study previously underwent mastectomy (total or partial) and some degree of breast reconstruction. The fat was obtained by liposuction using a syringe, and was gently rinsed with a saline solution in a stainless steel sieve, poured into a 60 cc syringe, and grafted after a few minutes. RESULTS: In total, 112 patients underwent surgery between 2005 and 2012. There was one (8.9%) case of total loss of the fat graft, while 22 (19.6%) patients had small palpable nodules. The average graft volume was 100 cc, and multiple procedures were required to achieve the desired volume. CONCLUSIONS: Fat grafting is a safe technique with low morbidity rates that demonstrates high surgeon and patient satisfaction levels, despite the need for multiple procedures to achieve good results.

Francisco José Fontenele, Bezerra; Rosely Moraes Gonçalves de, Moura; José Dalvo, Maia Neto.

2013-06-01

12

Particle size, temperature, and released amount of fat for safe periorbital fat grafts.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to determine the particle size, temperature, and amount of released fat for safe periorbital fat grafts. From 28 patients, fat was suctioned from the abdomen (large particles [LPs]) and from the inner thigh (small particles [SPs]) using a 2.1-mm harvesting cannula with a diameter 3.2 × 1.4-mm hole and a 1-mm hole, respectively. The 10-mL syringes full of fat were then put into a centrifuge for 3 minutes (LP) and 1 minute (SP) at 3000 revolutions/min. Fat was then transferred to a 1-mL syringe with Luer-Lock adapters and a blunt cannula of 0.9-mm diameter. The force needed to push the fat out of the cannula was measured with a force gauge. The force was measured within the different groups according to particle size of the fat, temperature of the fat, and released amount of fat. The force needed to push the SP fat out of the cannula into the air with minimal amount (MA) (0.01-0.02 mL) injected at room temperature (25 °C) (1.75 ± 0.82 N) was significantly greater (P = 0.000 [t test]) than at body temperature (BT, 33 °C) (1.27 ± 0.38 N). At BT, the force needed to push the SP fat into subcutaneous pig tissue (2.30 ± 1.46 N) was significantly lesser (P = 0.000 [t test]) than LP fat (6.54 ± 2.39 N). At BT, the force needed to push the MA of SP fat into pig subcutaneous tissue (1.38 ± 0.26 N) was significantly lesser (P = 0.000 [t test]) than the force needed to push the usual amount (0.03-0.04 mL) of SP fat (3.83 ± 1.78 N). The force needed to push the fat into human lower eyelids at room temperature (4.06 ± 2.26 N) was significantly greater (P = 0.000 [t test]) than at BT (2.11 ± 0.96 N). At BT, the force needed to inject an MA of SP fat into human lower eyelids (1.55 ± 0.83 N) was significantly lesser (P = 0.000 [t test]) than the force needed to inject a usual amount of fat (2.78 ± 1.03 N). We suggest injections of the SP (1-mm hole diameter harvesting cannula) fat with MAs (0.01-0.02 mL) by means of fragmented incremental injections stored at BT (33°C) to reduce the injection pressure. PMID:24036787

Kim, Seong Kee; Hwang, Kun; Huan, Fan; Hwang, Se Ho

2013-01-01

13

Alleviation of neuropathic scar pain using autologous fat grafting.  

Science.gov (United States)

Traumatic wounds inflict small- and large-fiber sensory nerve damage, causing neuropathic pain in scar tissue, thus impairing patients' quality of life and leading to the development of psychological disorders. Autologous fat grafting has been clinically shown to improve scar quality, but few studies have explored the effects of this technique on pain. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of fat grafting on treating neuropathic scar pain. From February 2008 to January 2013, 13 patients who were identified using the Douleur Neuropathique 4 Questions (scores >4/10) were enrolled in this study. The Visual Analog Scale (VAS) and Neuropathic Pain Symptom Inventory (NPSI) were used to evaluate pain preoperatively and 1 week, 4 weeks, and 24 weeks postoperatively. The mechanism of trauma, scar location and size, duration of allodynia, fat graft volume, pharmacologic therapy duration, and total follow-up time were recorded. Thirteen patients experiencing neuropathic pain were enrolled in this study. The mean ± SD age was 33.08 ± 16.35 years. The mean duration of pain was 4.29 ± 2.85 months. The mean VAS score before treatment was 7.54 ± 1.05. The mean VAS scores decreased by 4.38 ± 1.66 after 1 week of treatment (P = 0.009), 5.38 ± 2.06 after 4 weeks of treatment, and 5.62 ± 2.18 after 24 weeks of treatment. The mean NPSI scores were 49.38 ± 13.25 before treatment, 25 ± 14.4 after 1 week of treatment (P = 0.004), 21 ± 17.78 after 4 weeks of treatment, and 14.62 ± 16.88 after 24 weeks of treatment. The 13 patients followed a mean of 24 weeks; 10 (77%) of the patients had improvement of 5 or greater on the VAS score. The mean follow-up period was 19.3 ± 12.26 months (range, 6-38 months). No surgical complications were noted in this series. In our study, both VAS and NPSI scores decreased significantly, revealing that the autologous fat grafting can alleviate neuropathic scar pain 1 week after operation and in the long term. PMID:25695456

Huang, Shu-Hung; Wu, Sheng-Hua; Chang, Kao-Ping; Lin, Cen-Hung; Chang, Chih-Hau; Wu, Yi-Chia; Lee, Su-Shin; Lin, Sin-Daw; Lai, Chung-Sheng

2015-05-01

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Management of an irradiated anophthalmic socket following dermis-fat graft rejection: A case report  

OpenAIRE

Dermis-fat graft (DFG) is often the only promising option in cases of severely contracted sockets. However, there is an increased risk of graft failure in irradiated sockets with decreased vascularity. In such difficult cases, repeat DFG implantation also has higher risks of graft failure. We describe an ingenious method of successful management of an irradiated anophthalmic socket following DFG infection and necrosis, with acceptable cosmetic results. At surgery, an orbital impression was ta...

Raizada Kuldeep; Shome Debraj; Honavar Santosh

2008-01-01

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Complications of fat grafts growth after weight gain: report of a severe diplopia.  

Science.gov (United States)

A 47 years old woman underwent autologous fat grafting to treat a 5×4 cm depression of the lower lid and the upper cheek secondary resection of squamous cell carcinoma and subsequent coverage by full thickness skin graft. 20 mL of autologous fat were harvested from lower abdomen, centrifuged and injected subcutaneously. The patient then gained a total of 15 kg over a period of 24 months. Eye dystopia developed while the grafted area became convex. MRI confirmed subcutaneous fat mass going to the orbital floor through the inferior septal defect. The fat excess was removed through a trans-conjonctival approach allowing for a progressive regression of diplopia after 2 months while the oedema reduced. The overall follow up from the resection-coverage and last examination was 5 years. In this case with a context of noticeable weight gain, the growth of a fat graft trapped between a sclerous plane and the eye, that penetrated the orbital cavity through a septal defect led have led to exophthalmos, ocular dystopia and diplopia. Systematic overcorrection in autologous fat grafting should be prevented, especially in functional areas and on low body mass index patient that might gain weight. PMID:23270665

Duhoux, Alexandre; Chennoufi, Mehdi; Lantieri, Laurent; Hivelin, Mikael

2013-07-01

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Importance of mesenchymal stem cells in autologous fat grafting: a systematic review of existing studies.  

Science.gov (United States)

Autologous fat grafting (lipofilling) enables repair and augmentation of soft tissues and is increasingly used both in aesthetic and reconstructive surgery. Autologous fat has several advantages, including biocompatibility, versatility, natural appearance, and low donor site morbidity. The main limitation is unpredictable graft resorption, which ranges from 25%-80%, probably as a result of ischaemia and lack of neoangiogenesis. To obviate these disadvantages, several studies have searched for new ways of increasing the viability of the transplanted tissue. One promising approach has been to enrich the fat graft with adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASC) before transplantation. We have reviewed original studies published on fat transplantation enriched with ASC. We found four murine and three human studies that investigated the subject after a sensitive search of publications. In the human studies, so-called cell assisted lipotransfer (CAL) increased the ASC concentration 2-5 times compared with non-manipulated fat grafts, which caused a questionable improvement in survival of fat grafts, compared with that of traditional lipofilling. In contrast, in two of the murine studies ASC-concentrations were increased 1250 and 6250 times, respectively, by ASC ex vivo expansion, which resulted in considerably improved fat transplant survival as well as quality. This effect of high-level enrichment with ASC is thought to have been caused by paracrine signalling, cellular differentiation, or both. The surgical and tissue handling techniques used in lipofilling are well proved, but the added effect of high-level enrichment with ex vivo expanded ASC still needs to be investigated properly in human lipofilling studies, combined with a thorough follow up and matched control groups. In conclusion, ASC-enriched lipofilling theoretically has the potential for transforming lipofilling from a relatively unpredictable intervention into one in which the resorption rate, quality of tissue, and safety can be predicted, and possibly superior to prosthetic implantation. PMID:22471250

Trojahn Kølle, Stig-Frederik; Oliveri, Roberto S; Glovinski, Peter Viktor; Elberg, Jens Jørgen; Fischer-Nielsen, Anne; Drzewiecki, Krzysztof Tadeusz

2012-04-01

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Importance of mesenchymal stem cells in autologous fat grafting : a systematic review of existing studies  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Autologous fat grafting (lipofilling) enables repair and augmentation of soft tissues and is increasingly used both in aesthetic and reconstructive surgery. Autologous fat has several advantages, including biocompatibility, versatility, natural appearance, and low donor site morbidity. The main limitation is unpredictable graft resorption, which ranges from 25%-80%, probably as a result of ischaemia and lack of neoangiogenesis. To obviate these disadvantages, several studies have searched for new ways of increasing the viability of the transplanted tissue. One promising approach has been to enrich the fat graft with adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASC) before transplantation. We have reviewed original studies published on fat transplantation enriched with ASC. We found four murine and three human studies that investigated the subject after a sensitive search of publications. In the human studies, so-called cell assisted lipotransfer (CAL) increased the ASC concentration 2-5 times compared with non-manipulated fat grafts, which caused a questionable improvement in survival of fat grafts, compared with that of traditional lipofilling. In contrast, in two of the murine studies ASC-concentrations were increased 1250 and 6250 times, respectively, by ASC ex vivo expansion, which resulted in considerably improved fat transplant survival as well as quality. This effect of high-level enrichment with ASC is thought to have been caused by paracrine signalling, cellular differentiation, or both. The surgical and tissue handling techniques used in lipofilling are well proved, but the added effect of high-level enrichment with ex vivo expanded ASC still needs to be investigated properly in human lipofilling studies, combined with a thorough follow up and matched control groups. In conclusion, ASC-enriched lipofilling theoretically has the potential for transforming lipofilling from a relatively unpredictable intervention into one in which the resorption rate, quality of tissue, and safety can be predicted, and possibly superior to prosthetic implantation.

Trojahn KØlle, Stig-Frederik; Oliveri, Roberto S

2012-01-01

18

Selective Augmentation of Stem Cell Populations in Structural Fat Grafts for Maxillofacial Surgery  

OpenAIRE

Structural fat grafting utilizes the centrifugation of liposuction aspirates to create a graded density of adipose tissue. This study was performed to qualitatively investigate the effects of centrifugation on stem cells present in adipose tissue. Liposuction aspirates were obtained from healthy donors and either not centrifuged or centrifuged at 1,800 rpm for 3 minutes. The obtained fat volumes were divided into three layers and then analyzed. The results demonstrate that centrifugation indu...

Clauser, Luigi; Ferroni, Letizia; Gardin, Chiara; Tieghi, Riccardo; Galie?, Manlio; Elia, Giovanni; Piattelli, Adriano; Pinton, Paolo; Bressan, Eriberto; Zavan, Barbara

2014-01-01

19

Breast augmentation with fresh-frozen homologous fat grafts.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this report is to present a patient who underwent breast augmentation with fresh-frozen fat homografts in Russia 10 years ago, despite the publication of major complications following this procedure. PMID:11568835

Haik, J; Talisman, R; Tamir, J; Frand, J; Gazit, E; Schibi, J; Glicksman, A; Orenstein, A

2001-01-01

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Lipoenxertia nas mamas: procedimento consagrado ou experimental? / Breast fat grafting: experimental or established procedure?  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Languages: English, Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Atualmente vem ocorrendo aumento da incidência de utilização de enxertia de gordura para correção de defeitos mamários congênitos ou adquiridos e para tratamento mamário estético. Esse aumento é decorrente do surgimento de novas técnicas de lipoenxertia, que produzem resultados mais duradouros e con [...] fiáveis, apesar da crença de alguns autores de que o procedimento possa dificultar o rastreamento do câncer mamário. Esta revisão de literatura tem como objetivo identificar as técnicas de lipoenxertia mamárias mais utilizadas, avaliá-las quanto à eficácia e à segurança, e relatar as principais complicações associadas. A revisão foi realizada nas bases de dados PubMed e LILACS, e os fatores de inclusão foram: artigos em idioma inglês, publicados nos últimos cinco anos. Como resultado observou-se aumento do número de trabalhos abordando o tema nos últimos anos, e predomínio de uma técnica de lipoenxertia específica. A maioria dos trabalhos demonstra que a lipoenxertia mamária não prejudica o rastreamento radiológico para câncer mamário, e alguns sugerem que a gordura enxertada potencializa o desenvolvimento de câncer nas mamas. Apesar do aumento do número de trabalhos, existem ainda poucos com bom nível de evidência científica. Esta revisão permitiu concluir que a lipoenxertia é uma técnica alternativa para reparação de defeitos mamários e discreto aumento estético das mamas, devendo ser utilizada por cirurgiões com treinamento adequado e acompanhada por equipe de radiologia experiente em imagenologia mamária. Mais trabalhos com metodologia científica adequada são necessários para avaliar a lipoenxertia mamária. Abstract in english There has recently been an increase in the use of fat grafting for the correction of congenital or acquired breast deformities and for aesthetic breast treatment. This increase is due to the emergence of novel fat grafting techniques that produce lasting and reliable results despite some authors' be [...] liefs that the procedure might hinder breast cancer screening. This literature review aims to identify the most frequently used breast fat grafting techniques, evaluate their efficacy and safety, and report their major complications. The review was performed after a search in the PubMed and LILACS databases, and only English-language articles published over the past 5 years were assessed. There have been an increased number of studies on the topic in recent years, and a specific fat grafting technique has been primarily reported. Most studies in this area have shown that breast fat grafting does not affect radiological breast cancer screening, whereas some studies have suggested that the use of grafted fat may enhance the development of breast cancer. Despite the increased number of published studies, few have a good level of scientific evidence. This review concludes that fat grafting is an alternative technique for the correction of breast deformities and moderate aesthetic breast enlargement and should be performed by properly trained surgeons accompanied by a radiology team that is experienced in breast imaging. Further studies with appropriate scientific methodologies are needed to evaluate breast fat grafting.

Alexandre Roriz, Blumenschein; Ruffo, Freitas-Junior; Andrea Thomazine, Tuffanin; Danielle Isadora, Blumenschein.

2012-12-01

21

Selective augmentation of stem cell populations in structural fat grafts for maxillofacial surgery.  

Science.gov (United States)

Structural fat grafting utilizes the centrifugation of liposuction aspirates to create a graded density of adipose tissue. This study was performed to qualitatively investigate the effects of centrifugation on stem cells present in adipose tissue. Liposuction aspirates were obtained from healthy donors and either not centrifuged or centrifuged at 1,800 rpm for 3 minutes. The obtained fat volumes were divided into three layers and then analyzed. The results demonstrate that centrifugation induces a different distribution of stem cells in the three layers. The high-density layer displays the highest expression of mesenchymal stem cell and endothelial markers. The low-density layer exhibits an enrichment of multipotent stem cells. We conclude that appropriate centrifugation concentrates stem cells. This finding may influence the clinical practice of liposuction aspirate centrifugation and enhance graft uptake. PMID:25375632

Clauser, Luigi; Ferroni, Letizia; Gardin, Chiara; Tieghi, Riccardo; Galiè, Manlio; Elia, Giovanni; Piattelli, Adriano; Pinton, Paolo; Bressan, Eriberto; Zavan, Barbara

2014-01-01

22

Adipose stromal/stem cells assist fat transplantation reducing necrosis and increasing graft performance  

OpenAIRE

Autologous fat transfer (AFT) is a procedure for adipose tissue (AT) repair after trauma, burns, post-tumor resections and lipodystrophies still negatively impacted by the lack of graft persistence. The reasons behind this poor outcome are unclear and seem to involve damages in either harvested/transplanted mature adipocytes or on their mesenchymal progenitors, namely adipose stromal/stem cells (ASC), and due to post-transplant AT apoptosis and involution. A rabbit subcutaneous AT regeneratio...

Piccinno, Maria Serena; Veronesi, Elena; Loschi, Pietro; Pignatti, Marco; Murgia, Alba; Grisendi, Giulia; Castelli, Ilaria; Bernabei, Daniela; Candini, Olivia; Conte, Pierfranco; Paolucci, Paolo; Horwitz, Edwin M.; Santis, Giorgio; Iughetti, Lorenzo; Dominici, Massimo

2013-01-01

23

Jejunal perforation after abdominal liposuction, bilateral breast augmentation and facial fat grafting  

OpenAIRE

A 54-year-old woman presented to the emergency department 24 h after undergoing abdominal liposuction, bilateral breast augmentation and facial fat grafting at a private plastic surgery clinic. She presented with the classic evolution of a bowel perforation secondary to abdominal liposuction. A computed tomography (CT) scan found free air in her abdominal cavity. Based on the CT scan and the persistent pain experienced by the patient, an abdominal laparatomy was urgently performed. A jejunum ...

Coronado-malago?n, Martin; Tauffer-carrion, Luis Tomas

2012-01-01

24

Management of an irradiated anophthalmic socket following dermis-fat graft rejection: A case report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Dermis-fat graft (DFG is often the only promising option in cases of severely contracted sockets. However, there is an increased risk of graft failure in irradiated sockets with decreased vascularity. In such difficult cases, repeat DFG implantation also has higher risks of graft failure. We describe an ingenious method of successful management of an irradiated anophthalmic socket following DFG infection and necrosis, with acceptable cosmetic results. At surgery, an orbital impression was taken with ophthalmic grade alginate. Based on this measurement, a custom-made stem pressure socket-expander made up of high density polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA was fitted, a week post surgery and kept in situ for six weeks. On review, the fornices had considerably deepened. The expander device was removed and the patient was now fitted with a custom-made thicker prosthesis made up of high-density PMMA. The patient has followed up for a year subsequently and the prosthesis has remained stable.

Raizada Kuldeep

2008-01-01

25

Autologous fat grafts placed around temporomandibular joint total joint prostheses to prevent heterotopic bone formation.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study evaluated 1) the efficacy of packing autologous fat grafts around temporomandibular joint (TMJ) total joint prosthetic reconstructions to prevent fibrosis and heterotopic bone formation and 2) the effects on postsurgical joint mobility and jaw function. One hundred fifteen patients (5 males and 110 females) underwent TMJ reconstruction with total joint prostheses and simultaneous fat grafts (88 bilateral and 27 unilateral) for a total of 203 joints. The abdominal fat grafts were packed around the articulating portion of the joint prostheses after the fossa and mandibular components were stabilized. Patients were divided into two groups: group 1 (n = 76 joints) received Christensen total joint prostheses, and group 2 (n = 127 joints) received TMJ Concepts total joint prostheses. Clinical and radiographic assessments were performed before surgery, immediately after surgery, and at long-term follow-up. In group 1, maximal incisal opening (MIO) increased 3.5 mm, lateral excursions (LE) decreased 0.2 mm, and jaw function improved 1.9 levels. In group 2, MIO increased 6.8 mm, LE decreased 1.4 mm, and jaw function improved 2.4 levels. The improvement for MIO and patient perception of jaw function in both groups was statistically significant; no significant difference was found for LE. There was no radiographic or clinical evidence of heterotopic calcifications or limitation of mobility secondary to fibrosis in either group. Twenty-five Christensen prostheses (33%) were removed because of device failure and/or metal hypersensitivity; no fibrosis or heterotopic bone formation was seen at surgical removal. Four TMJ Concepts prostheses (3%) were removed because of metal hypersensitivity. In all instances, removal of the prostheses was unrelated to the autologous fat grafting. Ten patients (8.7%) developed complications involving the fat donor site: two patients (1.8%) developed abdominal cysts requiring surgery, and eight patients (6.9%) developed seroma formation requiring aspiration. Autologous fat transplantation is a useful adjunct to prosthetic TMJ reconstruction to minimize the occurrence of excessive joint fibrosis and heterotopic calcification, consequently providing improved range of motion and jaw function. PMID:18628972

Wolford, Larry M; Morales-Ryan, Carlos A; Morales, Patricia Garcia; Cassano, Daniel Serra

2008-07-01

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Fat embolism in liposuction and intramuscular grafts in rabbits Embolia gordurosa na lipoaspiração e enxertia intramuscular em coelhos  

OpenAIRE

PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of fat embolism in organs such as lung and liver. METHODS: Twenty rabbits underwent autologous intramuscular fat grafting in the right thigh after liposuction. The groups were determined according to the postoperative day that occurred in euthanasia: 60, 90 and 120 day. Then, lung and liver were excised and sent to the histopathology laboratory for analysis in search of late injury secondary to a prior event of fat embolism in the tissues. RESULTS: The results...

Victor Araujo Felzemburgh; Rafaela Cavalcante das Neves Barbosa; Victor Luiz Correia Nunes; José Humberto Oliveira Campos

2012-01-01

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Dermal fat graft from simultaneous abdominoplasty as an adjunct to revision aesthetic and reconstructive breast surgery: A poor man's acellular dermal matrix?  

OpenAIRE

•Acellular dermal matrices (ADMs) are increasingly being adopted world-wide as an adjunct to post-mastectomy breast reconstruction.•ADMs are seldom offered on the NHS however a cost effective alternative does exist in the form of free dermal fat grafts.•Free dermal fat grafts are a subtype of fat grafting but when used in a manner similar to ADMs similar outcome measures have been reported.

Xie, F.; Nabulyato, W. M.; Malata, C. M.

2014-01-01

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USE OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED MUSCLE AND FAT GRAFTS TO REPAIR DEFECTS IN BONE AND CARTILAGE  

Science.gov (United States)

We report a novel technology for the rapid healing of large osseous and chondral defects, based upon the genetic modification of autologous skeletal muscle and fat grafts. These tissues were selected because they not only possess mesenchymal progenitor cells and scaffolding properties, but also can be biopsied, genetically modified and returned to the patient in a single operative session. First generation adenovirus vector carrying cDNA encoding human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (Ad.BMP-2) was used for gene transfer to biopsies of muscle and fat. To assess bone healing, the genetically modified (“gene activated”) tissues were implanted into 5mm-long critical size, mid-diaphyseal, stabilized defects in the femora of Fischer rats. Unlike control defects, those receiving gene-activated muscle underwent rapid healing, with evidence of radiologic bridging as early as 10 days after implantation and restoration of full mechanical strength by 8 weeks. Histologic analysis suggests that the grafts rapidly differentiated into cartilage, followed by efficient endochondral ossification. Fluorescence in situ hybridization detection of Y-chromosomes following the transfer of male donor muscle into female rats demonstrated that at least some of the osteoblasts of the healed bone were derived from donor muscle. Gene activated fat also healed critical sized defects, but less quickly than muscle and with more variability. Anti-adenovirus antibodies were not detected. Pilot studies in a rabbit osteochondral defect model demonstrated the promise of this technology for healing cartilage defects. Further development of these methods should provide ways to heal bone and cartilage more expeditiously, and at lower cost, than is presently possible. PMID:20073015

Evans, C.H.; Liu, F.-J.; Glatt, V.; Hoyland, J.A.; Kirker-Head, C.; Walsh, A.; Betz, O.; Wells, J.W.; Betz, V.; Porter, R.M.; Saad, F.A.; Gerstenfeld, L.C.; Einhorn, T.A.; Harris, M.B.; Vrahas, M.S.

2015-01-01

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Use of genetically modified muscle and fat grafts to repair defects in bone and cartilage  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We report a novel technology for the rapid healing of large osseous and chondral defects, based upon the genetic modification of autologous skeletal muscle and fat grafts. These tissues were selected because they not only possess mesenchymal progenitor cells and scaffolding properties, but also can be biopsied, genetically modified and returned to the patient in a single operative session. First generation adenovirus vector carrying cDNA encoding human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (Ad.BMP-2 was used for gene transfer to biopsies of muscle and fat. To assess bone healing, the genetically modified (“gene activated” tissues were implanted into 5mm-long critical size, mid-diaphyseal, stabilized defects in the femora of Fischer rats. Unlike control defects, those receiving gene-activated muscle underwent rapid healing, with evidence of radiologic bridging as early as 10 days after implantation and restoration of full mechanical strength by 8 weeks. Histologic analysis suggests that the grafts rapidly differentiated into cartilage, followed by efficient endochondral ossification. Fluorescence in situ hybridization detection of Y-chromosomes following the transfer of male donor muscle into female rats demonstrated that at least some of the osteoblasts of the healed bone were derived from donor muscle. Gene activated fat also healed critical sized defects, but less quickly than muscle and with more variability. Anti-adenovirus antibodies were not detected. Pilot studies in a rabbit osteochondral defect model demonstrated the promise of this technology for healing cartilage defects. Further development of these methods should provide ways to heal bone and cartilage more expeditiously, and at lower cost, than is presently possible.

CH Evans

2009-12-01

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Evaluation of healing potential of autogenous, macroscopic fat deposited or fat free, omental graft in experimental radius bone defect in rabbit: Radiological study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study was designed for evaluation of the difference between the ability of greater omentum graft with or without macroscopic fat deposition in acceleration of bone healing process. Adult female New Zealand white rabbits (n=15) were randomly divided into three equal groups. In groups A and B, the drilled hole on the left radius was filled by the omentum without and with macroscopic fat deposition, respectively while drilled hole on the right radius left intact for consideration as control. In group C, the drilled hole on the left and right radius was filled by the omentum sample with and without macroscopic fat deposition, respectively. Experimental bone defects on the radiuses were secured by the pieces of greater omentum, with or without macroscopic fat deposition, which obtained as an autogenous graft from each rabbit in accompany with control samples. Standardized serial radiography for evaluation of bone healing was performed and the difference in bone healing process in three groups of study was determined. According to the obtained data, the radius bones which filled by omentum without macroscopic fat deposition showed faster healing process than the radius bones which filled by omentum with macroscopic fat deposition (P<0.05). (author)

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Effect of an autogenous free fat graft on hemilaminectomy defects in dogs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of an autogenous free fat graft (FFG) on hemilaminectomy defects. Hemilaminectomy was performed at three levels in three beagles, and each defect was designated as a control site or a site treated with one of two different sizes of FFG. Subsequently, longitudinal computed tomography scanning and histopathological examination were performed. As a result, no postoperative dural adhesion was recognized at the sites where FFGs were placed regardless of the size of the FFG. Moreover, there was no compression of the spinal cord by the FFG. Therefore, it appears that postoperative dural adhesion was controlled by the FFG and that the possibility of FFG migration into the spinal canal is low in hemilaminectomy. In conclusion, placement of an FFG over the defect was considered useful for preventing complications in hemilaminectomy

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Supervivencia a largo plazo de los injertos grasos Long-term survival with fat grafting  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Presentamos varios casos de pérdida de volumen de diferentes etiologías y en distintas regiones corporales y faciales tratadas mediante injertos de tejido graso autólogo según la técnica de lipoestructura. En ningún caso se realizó sobrecorrección del defecto en ningún caso. La evolución con un seguimiento máximo de 7 años y mínimo de 1 año no mostró disminución del volumen obtenido en el acto quirúrgico en la gran mayoría de los casos. Debido a los resultados obtenidos creemos que el injerto de grasa autólogo es el método de elección para restaurar volúmenes con fines estéticos o reconstructivos.Volume loss in several facial and body areas was treated by means of autologous fatty tissue grafts with lipostructure technique. There were no cases of overcorrection. The patients’ course, with a maximum follow-up of 7 years and a minimum of 1 year did not evidence any loss of the surgically restored tissue volume in the majority of cases. The above results suggest that autologous fat grafts are the method of choice to restore volume for both cosmetic and reconstructive purposes.

J. Planas

2006-03-01

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... Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Fats Unhealthy fats Healthy fats No doubt about it, ... your heart health with that single change! Unhealthy Fats Saturated Fat Why should you eat less saturated ...

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Miringoplastia com a utilização de um novo material biossintético / Myringoplasty using a new biomaterial allograft  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A miringoplastia é uma cirurgia com a finalidade de controlar a infecção no ouvido médio, reconstruir o mecanismo de transmissão sonora para a janela oval e proteger a janela redonda. São descritos diversos materiais para reconstruir a membrana timpânica, destacando-se a fáscia do músculo temporal, [...] pericôndrio do tragus, cartilagem, dura-máter, tecido placentário, entre outros. OBJETIVO: Este trabalho tem objetivo de demonstrar o efeito de um novo biomaterial, a membrana de látex natural com polilisina, desenvolvida no laboratório de Neuroquímica do Departamento de Bioquímica da Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto da Universidade de São Paulo - USP. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Coorte Longitudinal. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: O biomaterial utilizado é estimulante da neovascularização e crescimento tecidual organizado em diferentes órgãos e tecidos, sendo um material inócuo e não rejeitado pelo organismo. Foi usada a biomembrana de látex com polilisina como um implante transitório para o fechamento da perfuração da membrana timpânica. A membrana foi colocada na face externa dos bordos da membrana timpânica e a fáscia temporal na face interna da mesma. Foram estudadas 238 orelhas com perfuração de membrana timpânica por seqüela de otite média crônica, submetidas a miringoplastia com enxerto de fáscia de músculo temporal e a membrana de látex natural, com idades de 7 a 76 anos. Apresentavam uma ou mais miringoplastias anteriores sem sucesso 41 dos casos. RESULTADO: Como ressaltamos preliminarmente, verificamos pega do enxerto em 90,5% das orelhas (181), sendo fechamento de perfuração amplas, 96; médias, 73 e 12 pequenas. Verificamos intensa vascularização em 100% dos enxertos, o que não é habitual quando não se usa a membrana de látex natural. CONCLUSÃO: Conclue-se que o biomaterial usado merece nossa atenção quanto ao seu uso como implante transitório em miringoplastias, melhorando o processo de revascularização da membrana timpânica remanescente. Abstract in english Myringosplaty is a surgery that is performed to control infections in middle ear, to reconstruct the sound conducting mechanism for the oval window and protection of the round window. Some materials are used to reconstruct the tympanic membrane like autologous temporalis fascia, cartilage-perichondi [...] um graft taken from the tragus, cartilage only, dura mater human placental graft. It is important the vascular support to the graft with well-vascularized flap in wide perforations. AIM: The main goal of this work is shown the use of a new biomaterial, the natural latex membrane with polylysin. STUDY DESIGN: Longitudinal Cohort. MATERIAL AND METHOD: This material was developed from Department of Biochemistry from Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto Universidade de São Paulo. The natural latex membrane is used stimulating neovessels and organized tecidual growing in different parts and tissues of the human body. This material promotes any allergic reaction and is innocuous to the human tissue. The 238 ears with tympanic membrane perforation resulted from chronic middle ear infection and thek was going through myringoplasty with autologous temporalis fascia and natural latex membrane. The ages were 7 to 76 years. RESULTS: The first results show 181 (90,5%) healing tympanic membrane perforation, 96 healing of wide perforation 73 medium perforation and 12 small one. Neovessels could be seen in all grafts and remaining tympanic membrane. This is not a habitual funding when the natural latex membrane is not used. CONCLUSION: According to these results we can conclude that the natural latex membrane can be used as a temporary implant in myringoplasty, improving the well vascularized of remaining tympanic membrane.

José Antonio Apparecido de, Oliveira; Miguel Angelo, Hyppolito; Joaquim, Coutinho Netto; Fátima, Mrué.

2003-10-01

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Effects of Expanded Human Adipose Tissue-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells on the Viability of Cryopreserved Fat Grafts in the Nude Mouse  

OpenAIRE

Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AdMSCs) augment the ability to contribute to microvascular remodeling in vivo and to modulate vascular stability in fresh fat grafts. Although cryopreserved adipose tissue is frequently used for soft tissue augmentation, the viability of the fat graft is poor. The effects of culture-expanded human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hAdMSCs) on the survival and quality of the cryopreserved fat graft were determined. hAdMSCs from the same dono...

Myung-soon Ko, Ji-youl Jung

2011-01-01

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Fats  

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Full Text Available ... Carbohydrate Counting Make Your Carbs Count Glycemic Index Low-Calorie Sweeteners Sugar and Desserts Fitness Exercise & Type ... or less saturated fat per serving are considered low in saturated fat. Trans Fat Like saturated fat, ...

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Closure of oroantral communication using buccal fat pad graft - case report  

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Full Text Available Introduction: There are many causes of fistulas that involve the nasal and antral cavities or both. They may result from pathological entities or secondary to removal of tumors or maxillary cysts. However, the extraction of a maxillary molar or premolar is the most common cause of oroantral fistula. This is explained by the close relationship between the apex of these teeth and the thinness of the antral floor. When the primary fistula repair fails to heal spontaneously during the first three weeks after surgery, a secondary repair may be indicated. During treatment process of the fistulas, there are procedures to make a direct close or the use of a sliding mucosal flap, all techniques own an equal and high degree of failure. Objective: To show a case report of oroantral fistula and its closure. Case Report: A 6-month-Surgical treatment of oroantral fistula, after a tooth removal, using the buccal fat pad method as a pedicled graft associated with a sliding mucosal flap. Conclusion: The mentioned treatment is simple, complete and allows an extensive applicability in most of cases.

Keim, Frederico Santos

2008-09-01

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Fats  

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Full Text Available ... Vegetables Fats Alcohol What Can I Drink? Fruit Dairy Food Tips Eating Out Quick Meal Ideas Snacks ... hot dogs, sausage, bacon and spareribs High-fat dairy products such as full-fat cheese, cream, ice ...

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Full Text Available ... the attention in diabetes management. More important than total fat is the type of fat you eat. ... listed on the Nutrition Facts food label under total fat. As a general rule, compare foods with ...

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Full Text Available ... cream, ice cream, full-fat cheese) Egg yolks Liver and other organ meats High-fat meat and ... from the FDA . Patient Education Materials — Protect Your Heart: Choose Healthy Fats This two-page introduction to ...

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Injertos de tejido adiposo en cirugía estética mamaria / Fat grafts in aesthetic breast surgery  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available El injerto de tejido adiposo se ha convertido en una de las principales herramientas con la que contamos en Cirugía Plástica y, como no podía ser de otra forma, la mama es el principal órgano diana de nuestra actuación. Desde que introdujimos la técnica en nuestra práctica privada en el año 2009 hem [...] os ido incrementando las indicaciones de su uso. Las tres principales son el aumento mamario, la corrección de defectos y asimetrías y más recientemente el aumento con combinación de ambas técnicas. El aumento mamario con tejido adiposo está indicado en pacientes que quieran incrementar el volumen sin usar implantes. Hay que explicar muy bien a la paciente lo que podemos conseguir en cuanto a volumen y proyección de la mama, además de los problemas potenciales de aparición en las mamografías de quistes y microcalcificaciones. El tejido adiposo, en cambio, es un gran complemento de los implantes mamarios, ya que permite corregir deformidades y asimetrías que con los implantes son más difíciles de resolver. El aumento de mamas combinando ambas técnicas es la consecuencia final y evidente de esta evolución terapéutica, ya que aúna las ventajas de ambas: la firmeza y volumen estables que proporcionan los implantes y la plasticidad que aporta el tejido adiposo para lograr una mayor simetría. Abstract in english Fat grafting has become one of the main tools in Plastic Surgery and as it could only be, the breast is the main target organ of our performance. Since we introduced the technique in our private practice in 2009 we have been increasing its use. The top three indications are: breast augmentation, cor [...] rection of defects and asymmetries and more recently breast augmentation combining both techniques. Breast enhancement with fat is indicated for patients who want to increase the volume without using implants. It must be explained very well to the patient what we can achieve in terms of volume and projection of the breast, along with the potential problems of cysts and microcalcifications in mammograms. Adipose tissue is a great complement to the implants, and we can correct deformities and asymmetries that with implants are much more difficult to solve. Breast augmentation combining both techniques is the final result of the therapeutic evolution as we combine the advantages of both: the firmness and stable volume supported by the implants and the plasticity of the adipose tissue to achieve greater symmetry.

J., Benito-Ruiz.

2013-12-01

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Full Text Available ... unhealthy fats." To lower you risk of heart disease, try to eat less saturated and trans fat — the unhealthy fats. At the same time, you can protect your heart by eating more mono and polyunsaturated fats including omega-3s — ...

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Meningitis due to Enterobacter aerogenes subsequent to resection of an acoustic neuroma and abdominal fat graft to the mastoid  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Meningitis is an uncommon complication of neurosurgical procedures, with an incidence of 1.1% to 2.5%. Although unusual, the frequency of nosocomial Gram-negative meningitis appears to be increasing. Gram-negative meningitis has been documented following disruption of the dura-arachnoid barrier secondary to trauma or surgery. The association of Gram-negative bacillary meningitis with neurosurgical procedures was first reported in the 1940's. Wolff et al. described the association between Enterobacter species and post-neurosurgical infection. More recently, risk factors for nosocomial Enterobacter meningitis have been characterized by Parodi et al. Adipose graft, as an independent risk factor has not yet been reported. A patient with acoustic neuroma resection, who developed bacterial meningitis from an abdominal fat pad graft to a mastoidectomy bed is described. A brief overview was made of post-neurosurgical Gram-negative meningitis.

Fida A. Khan

2004-10-01

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Meningitis due to Enterobacter aerogenes subsequent to resection of an acoustic neuroma and abdominal fat graft to the mastoid  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Meningitis is an uncommon complication of neurosurgical procedures, with an incidence of 1.1% to 2.5%. Although unusual, the frequency of nosocomial Gram-negative meningitis appears to be increasing. Gram-negative meningitis has been documented following disruption of the dura-arachnoid barrier seco [...] ndary to trauma or surgery. The association of Gram-negative bacillary meningitis with neurosurgical procedures was first reported in the 1940's. Wolff et al. described the association between Enterobacter species and post-neurosurgical infection. More recently, risk factors for nosocomial Enterobacter meningitis have been characterized by Parodi et al. Adipose graft, as an independent risk factor has not yet been reported. A patient with acoustic neuroma resection, who developed bacterial meningitis from an abdominal fat pad graft to a mastoidectomy bed is described. A brief overview was made of post-neurosurgical Gram-negative meningitis.

Fida A., Khan.

2004-10-01

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Fat embolism in liposuction and intramuscular grafts in rabbits / Embolia gordurosa na lipoaspiração e enxertia intramuscular em coelhos  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a repercussão da embolia gordurosa em órgãos como pulmão e fígado. MÉTODOS: Vinte coelhos foram submetidos à enxertia autóloga intramuscular de gordura em coxa direita após lipoaspiração. Os grupos foram determinados conforme os dias pós-operatórios (DPO) em que ocorreu a eutanásia [...] : 60 DPO, 90DPO, 120 DPO. Em seguida, o pulmão e o fígado foram ressecados e encaminhados ao laboratório de histopatologia para análise em busca de lesão tardia secundária a evento de embolia gordurosa prévia nos tecidos. RESULTADOS: Foi evidenciada uma alteração na amostra a analise macroscópica com alteração da coloração do tecido hepático de forma heterogênea. Não houve alterações compatíveis com repercussão de processo embólico à microscopia. CONCLUSÃO: A opção pela realização de uma técnica de lipoenxertia menos traumática e com pequeno tempo cirúrgico pode ser considerada protetora para eventos embólicos, não havendo repercussão embólica a tardiamente. Abstract in english PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of fat embolism in organs such as lung and liver. METHODS: Twenty rabbits underwent autologous intramuscular fat grafting in the right thigh after liposuction. The groups were determined according to the postoperative day that occurred in euthanasia: 60, 90 and 120 d [...] ay. Then, lung and liver were excised and sent to the histopathology laboratory for analysis in search of late injury secondary to a prior event of fat embolism in the tissues. RESULTS: The results showed a change in the macroscopic sample with discoloration of the liver tissue heterogeneously. There were no changes consistent with embolic effect under the microscope. CONCLUSION: The option of performing a technique of fat grafting with a less traumatic surgical procedure can be considered protective against embolic events, with no impact to late embolic events on the tissues.

Victor Araujo, Felzemburgh; Rafaela Cavalcante das Neves, Barbosa; Victor Luiz Correia, Nunes; José Humberto Oliveira, Campos.

2012-05-01

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Fat embolism in liposuction and intramuscular grafts in rabbits Embolia gordurosa na lipoaspiração e enxertia intramuscular em coelhos  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of fat embolism in organs such as lung and liver. METHODS: Twenty rabbits underwent autologous intramuscular fat grafting in the right thigh after liposuction. The groups were determined according to the postoperative day that occurred in euthanasia: 60, 90 and 120 day. Then, lung and liver were excised and sent to the histopathology laboratory for analysis in search of late injury secondary to a prior event of fat embolism in the tissues. RESULTS: The results showed a change in the macroscopic sample with discoloration of the liver tissue heterogeneously. There were no changes consistent with embolic effect under the microscope. CONCLUSION: The option of performing a technique of fat grafting with a less traumatic surgical procedure can be considered protective against embolic events, with no impact to late embolic events on the tissues.OBJETIVO: Avaliar a repercussão da embolia gordurosa em órgãos como pulmão e fígado. MÉTODOS: Vinte coelhos foram submetidos à enxertia autóloga intramuscular de gordura em coxa direita após lipoaspiração. Os grupos foram determinados conforme os dias pós-operatórios (DPO em que ocorreu a eutanásia: 60 DPO, 90DPO, 120 DPO. Em seguida, o pulmão e o fígado foram ressecados e encaminhados ao laboratório de histopatologia para análise em busca de lesão tardia secundária a evento de embolia gordurosa prévia nos tecidos. RESULTADOS: Foi evidenciada uma alteração na amostra a analise macroscópica com alteração da coloração do tecido hepático de forma heterogênea. Não houve alterações compatíveis com repercussão de processo embólico à microscopia. CONCLUSÃO: A opção pela realização de uma técnica de lipoenxertia menos traumática e com pequeno tempo cirúrgico pode ser considerada protetora para eventos embólicos, não havendo repercussão embólica a tardiamente.

Victor Araujo Felzemburgh

2012-05-01

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Dermal fat graft from simultaneous abdominoplasty as an adjunct to revision aesthetic and reconstructive breast surgery: A poor man's acellular dermal matrix?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

CONCLUSION: We herein report the use of free dermal fat graft in revision aesthetic and reconstructive surgery in a manner akin to recent acellular dermal matrix use. The comparable enhanced aesthetic outcomes, minimal complication rate and substantial cost savings merit dissemination to a global audience and encourage surgeons to consider this economic alternative.

F. Xie

2014-01-01

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Full Text Available ... Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods Holiday Meal Planning ... provider. Saturated fat grams are listed on the Nutrition Facts food label under total fat. As a ...

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Full Text Available ... a risk factor for heart disease. People with diabetes are at high risk for heart disease and limiting your saturated fat can help lower your risk of having a heart attack or stroke. Foods containing saturated fat include: Lard ...

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Análise da lipoenxertia estruturada na redefinição do contorno facial / Analysis of structured fat grafting for redefining facial contours  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A enxertia de gordura como preenchimento no rejuvenescimento e melhoria do contorno facial vem sendo usada por alguns autores e demonstra um potencial excelente como método de escolha para essa finalidade, uma vez que tem como premissa o princípio básico de corrigir as deformidades com o [...] tecido mais semelhante possível. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar clinicamente a eficiência da enxertia de gordura estruturada na redefinição do contorno facial. MÉTODO: Foi realizada análise retrospectiva de 39 pacientes submetidos a lipoenxertia estruturada para a redefinição do contorno facial, entre 2002 e 2012. A seleção de pacientes incluiu correção de deformidades, assimetrias, harmonização do contorno e aumento da projeção óssea, mas excluiu o rejuvenescimento per se. A avaliação do resultado clínico foi realizada pelo paciente e pelo cirurgião, com auxílio de documentação fotográfica pré e pós-operatória. O resultado clínico foi classificado pelo paciente e cirurgião, empregando escala que variava de 1 a 3: (1) o objetivo não foi alcançado de forma alguma; (2) o objetivo foi alcançado parcialmente; ou (3) o objetivo foi alcançado totalmente. Foi realizado, também, levantamento de prontuários para obtenção dos seguintes dados: idade, alteração ponderal, volume enxertado por área, número de sessões de enxertia realizadas, história de tabagismo e complicações. RESULTADOS: As médias das avaliações do cirurgião e paciente foram, respectivamente, 2,6 ± 0,6 e 2,7 ± 0,5, havendo correlação estatisticamente significante (P Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: Fat grafting as a filling method for the rejuvenation and enhancement of facial contours was demonstrated by some authors to be an excellent alternative method for redefining facial contours, based on the premise that the donor tissue used in the correction of the deformities has simil [...] ar characteristics as the recipient tissue. The objective of the present study was to clinically evaluate the efficiency of structured fat grafting when redefining facial contours. METHODS: A retrospective evaluation was performed in 39 patients who underwent structured fat grafting to redefine their facial contours between 2002 and 2012. The patients selected included those who underwent corrections of deformities, asymmetrical features, contour smoothing, and increased bone projection. Patients who underwent facial contour rejuvenation were excluded. The clinical outcome assessment was performed by the patient and surgeon, with the aid of preoperative and postoperative photographic documentation. The clinical outcome was rated by the patient and surgeon, using a scale ranging from 1 to 3, defined as follows: 1, the objective has not been achieved in any way; 2, the objective was partially achieved; or 3, the objective was fully achieved. In addition, a survey was conducted using the patients' medical charts to obtain the following data: age, weight change, volume grafted by area, number of grafting sessions performed, history of smoking, and complications. RESULTS: The mean surgeon and patient assessment scores were 2.6 ± 0.6 and 2.7 ± 0.5, respectively, with a statistically significant correlation (P

Marco Túlio Junqueira, Amarante.

2013-03-01

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Full Text Available ... We Support Your Doctor Clinical Practice Guidelines Patient Education Materials Scientific Sessions Journals for Professionals Professional Books ... a more detailed explanation from the FDA . Patient Education Materials — Protect Your Heart: Choose Healthy Fats This ...

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Lipoestructura y relleno del polo superior de la mama frente a implantes / Structural fat graft and lipofilling of mammary upper pole versus mammary implants  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La lipoestructura mamaria ofrece nuevas alternativas de tratamiento en la cirugía estética de aumento mamario, cumpliendo en algunos casos las expectativas esperadas y en otros no. Analizamos este hecho en 4 tipos de aplicación de lipoestructura mamaria que hemos venido realizando en los últimos año [...] s, centrándonos en un aspecto importante de esta cirugía que es el relleno del polo superior de la mama. Los tipos de aplicación empleados son: aumento mamario simple mediante lipoestructura en comparación con implantes; pexia más lipoestructura frente a pexia más implantes mamarios; reconstrucción de mama tuberosa mediante lipoestructura o implantes y finalmente, relleno periprotésico mediante lipoestructura en mamas sometidas a cirugía de aumento mamario con implantes. En definitiva, podríamos resumir este trabajo en una frase diciendo que la lipoestructura mamaria, a nuestro juicio, no sirve si lo que prima es conseguir el relleno del polo superior de la mama, siendo en este caso de elección la colocación de implantes mamarios. No obstante, en alguno de los casos señalados no solo es una alternativa, sino que obtiene resultados superiores a los logrados sólamente con implantes. Abstract in english The mammary structural fat graft offers news treatment options in breast augmentation cosmetic surgery, but it sometimes meets expectations and sometimes doesn´t. We analyze 4 different types of lipostructure mammary applications that we have been using in the last years, focused in an important asp [...] ect of this surgery as it´s the filling of the upper mammary pole. These applications are: mammary augmentation by simple structural fat compared with the use of mammary implants; structural fat graft and mastopexy versus implants and mastopexy; tuberous breast reconstruction using structural fat graft or implants and finally, periprosthetic filling in breast augmentation with mammary implants using structural fat graft. In short, we could summarize this paper telling that in our opinion, structural fat graft doesn´t work if our intention is to fill the upper mammary pole. However, structural fat graft is not only an alternative; in some cases it exceeds the expected results using mammary implants.

J.M., Cervilla Lozano.

2012-09-01

97

Lipoestructura y relleno del polo superior de la mama frente a implantes Structural fat graft and lipofilling of mammary upper pole versus mammary implants  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available La lipoestructura mamaria ofrece nuevas alternativas de tratamiento en la cirugía estética de aumento mamario, cumpliendo en algunos casos las expectativas esperadas y en otros no. Analizamos este hecho en 4 tipos de aplicación de lipoestructura mamaria que hemos venido realizando en los últimos años, centrándonos en un aspecto importante de esta cirugía que es el relleno del polo superior de la mama. Los tipos de aplicación empleados son: aumento mamario simple mediante lipoestructura en comparación con implantes; pexia más lipoestructura frente a pexia más implantes mamarios; reconstrucción de mama tuberosa mediante lipoestructura o implantes y finalmente, relleno periprotésico mediante lipoestructura en mamas sometidas a cirugía de aumento mamario con implantes. En definitiva, podríamos resumir este trabajo en una frase diciendo que la lipoestructura mamaria, a nuestro juicio, no sirve si lo que prima es conseguir el relleno del polo superior de la mama, siendo en este caso de elección la colocación de implantes mamarios. No obstante, en alguno de los casos señalados no solo es una alternativa, sino que obtiene resultados superiores a los logrados sólamente con implantes.The mammary structural fat graft offers news treatment options in breast augmentation cosmetic surgery, but it sometimes meets expectations and sometimes doesn´t. We analyze 4 different types of lipostructure mammary applications that we have been using in the last years, focused in an important aspect of this surgery as it´s the filling of the upper mammary pole. These applications are: mammary augmentation by simple structural fat compared with the use of mammary implants; structural fat graft and mastopexy versus implants and mastopexy; tuberous breast reconstruction using structural fat graft or implants and finally, periprosthetic filling in breast augmentation with mammary implants using structural fat graft. In short, we could summarize this paper telling that in our opinion, structural fat graft doesn´t work if our intention is to fill the upper mammary pole. However, structural fat graft is not only an alternative; in some cases it exceeds the expected results using mammary implants.

J.M. Cervilla Lozano

2012-09-01

98

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Full Text Available ... this section Food What Can I Eat Making Healthy Food Choices Diabetes Superfoods Fats Alcohol Non-starchy Vegetables Grains and Starchy Vegetables Protein Foods What Can I Drink? Dairy Fruits donate en -- Acknowledge Your Hero - 2015-jan- ...

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Full Text Available ... fats are: Corn oil Cottonseed oil Safflower oil Soybean oil Sunflower oil Walnuts Pumpkin or sunflower seeds Soft ( ... 3 fatty acids. Sources include: Tofu and other soybean products Walnuts Flaxseed and flaxseed oil Canola oil NOTE: The Food & Drug Administration and ...

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Full Text Available ... mothers; and young children. Your fish and shellfish consumption should be limited to no more than 12 oz. per week. Get a more detailed explanation from the FDA . Patient Education Materials — Protect Your Heart: Choose Healthy Fats This ...

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Síndrome da angústia respiratória do adulto por embolia gordurosa no período pós-operatório de lipoaspiração e lipoenxertia Adult respiratory distress syndrome due to fat embolism in the postoperative period following liposuction and fat grafting  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A embolia gordurosa é definida como a ocorrência de bloqueio mecânico da luz vascular por gotículas circulantes de gordura. Acomete principalmente o pulmão, podendo afetar também o sistema nervoso central, a retina e a pele. A síndrome da embolia gordurosa é uma disfunção desses órgãos causada pelos êmbolos gordurosos. As causas mais comuns de embolia gordurosa e síndrome da embolia gordurosa são as fraturas de ossos longos, mas há relatos de sua ocorrência após procedimentos estéticos. O diagnóstico é clínico, e o tratamento ainda se restringe a medidas de suporte. Apresentamos o caso de uma paciente que evoluiu com síndrome da angústia respiratória do adulto por embolia gordurosa no período pós-operatório de lipoaspiração e lipoenxertia e respondeu bem às manobras de recrutamento alveolar e à ventilação mecânica protetora.Apresentamos também uma análise epidemiológica e fisiopatológica da síndrome da embolia gordurosa após procedimentos estéticos.Fat embolism is defined as mechanical blockage of the vascular lumen by circulating fat globules. Although it primarily affects the lungs, it can also affect the central nervous system, retina, and skin. Fat embolism syndrome is a dysfunction of these organs caused by fat emboli. The most common causes of fat embolism and fat embolism syndrome are long bone fractures, although there are reports of its occurrence after cosmetic procedures. The diagnosis is made clinically, and treatment is still restricted to support measures. We report the case of a female patient who developed adult respiratory distress syndrome due to fat embolism in the postoperative period following liposuction and fat grafting. In this case, the patient responded well to alveolar recruitment maneuvers and protective mechanical ventilation. In addition, we present an epidemiological and pathophysiological analysis of fat embolism syndrome after cosmetic procedures.

André Nathan Costa

2008-08-01

103

[Myringoplasty and its effect on a vestibular function in patients with otitis media purulenta chronica (OMPC)].  

Science.gov (United States)

A complex vestibulologic and audiologic examination was made in 25 patients with OMPC free of mesotympanitis before and after experimental myringoplasty with hen's egg amnion. The patients were divided into two groups depending on the presence of vestibular complaints. Partial or complete disappearance of subjective vestibular symptoms, reduced stimulation of the vestibular receptors (by 19%, on the average) were detected by experimental vestibular tests on the side of the affected ear. The asymmetry coefficient by labyrinth lowered by 31.1%, on the average. PMID:16025927

Pal'chun, V T; Kunel'skaia, N L; Mironov, A A; Ganichkina, I Ia; Petlinov, A P

2005-01-01

104

Oroantral communication closure using a pedicled buccal fat pad graft / Fechamento de comunicação buco-sinusal utilizando enxerto pediculado de corpo adiposo da bochecha  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O objetivo desde artigo foi relatar um caso clínico de fechamento de fístula buco-sinusal tardia utilizando rotação de enxerto de tecido adiposo pediculado do corpo adiposo da bochecha. DESCRIÇÃO DO CASO: Paciente do sexo masculino, 66 anos, leucoderma, em boas condições de saúde geral, fo [...] i encaminhado para fechamento de extensa comunicação buco-sinusal. Ao exame clínico, observou-se uma fístula de aproximadamente 10 mm de diâmetro comunicando a cavidade oral com o seio maxilar. A cirurgia foi realizada em nível ambulatorial, sob anestesia local, para fechar a fístula buco-sinusal com um enxerto de tecido adiposo pediculado do corpo adiposo da bochecha. A reparação da ferida e o fechamento do defeito foram observados no pós-operatório de 30 dias, com completa epitelização. CONCLUSÃO: O enxerto pediculado de tecido do corpo adiposo da bochecha mostrou-se uma alternativa simples, eficaz e segura no fechamento mediato da fístula buco-sinusal apresentada neste caso clínico. Abstract in english PURPOSE: This paper reports the procedure used to close a late oroantral fistula using rotating flaps of the pedicled buccal fat pad. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 66-year-old, male patient with leukoderma, in good general health, was referred for closure of an extensive late oroantral communication. Upon cli [...] nical examination, an approximately 10-mm fistula was observed connecting the oral cavity to the maxillary sinus. An outpatient surgical procedure was performed with the use of local anesthetics to close the oroantral fistula with a rotating pedicled buccal fat pad flap. The healing of the wound and closure of the defect could be seen after a 30-day postoperative period, with complete epithelialization. CONCLUSION: Grafting of the pedicled buccal fat pad is thought to be an efficient, safe and easy alternative to a larger oroantral fistula closure. Pedicled buccal fat pad grafting corrected the defect without generating any sequelae and/or great postoperative discomfort to the patient.

Ruy de Oliveira, Veras Filho; Fernando, Giovanella; Rafael Machado, Karsburg; Marcos Antonio, Torriani.

105

Effects of mature adipocyte-derived dedifferentiated fat (DFAT) cells on generation and vascularisation of dermis-like tissue after artificial dermis grafting.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although artificial dermis (AD) is effective for skin reconstruction, it requires two separate procedures, because the AD must be vascularised before skin grafts. To shorten the period of the dermis-like tissue generation before the secondary skin grafting must be beneficial. Dedifferentiated fat (DFAT) cells are isolated from mature adipose cell suspensions and have potential to differentiate into multiple cell types including endothelial cells. This study aimed to investigate effects of DFAT cells on dermal regeneration after AD grafts in rats. The effects of combination use of DFAT cells and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) were also tested to mimic clinical situations. DFAT cells were isolated from SD rats. Full-thickness wounds were created on the back of rats followed by AD grafting. Five groups were established; Group I: control, Group II: treated with DFAT cells, Group III: treated with bFGF, Group IV: treated with both of DFAT cells and bFGF, and Group V: treated with Green fluorescent protein (GFP)-labelled DFAT cells and bFGF. Histological evaluation was serially performed. Group IV showed markedly promoted vascularisation of dermis-like tissue. In particular, capillary infiltration into the dermis was obtained within 2 days. Immunohistochemical examination revealed that the transplanted DFAT cells had differentiated into endothelial cells and participated in angiogenesis. Group IV also showed a marked increase in the thickness of the dermis like tissue. The present results suggest that the use of DFAT cells under bFGF treatment could be beneficial to shorten the period required for dermal regeneration and vascularisation and contribute to use AD more effectively and safely. PMID:24909822

Soejima, Kazutaka; Kashimura, Tsutomu; Asami, Takashi; Kazama, Tomohiko; Matsumoto, Taro; Nakazawa, Hiroaki

2015-02-01

106

Utilidad del los injertos de tejido adiposo en la reconstrucción estética del miembro inferior / Use of autologous fat grafting in aesthetic lower extremity reconstruction  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available La reconstrucción del miembro inferior constituye, probablemente, una de las disciplinas más complejas y de más difícil ejecución en el ámbito de la Cirugía Plástica Estética, independientemente de la etiología inicial del problema (postraumática, oncológica o congénita) y, normalmente, tras varios [...] tratamientos quirúrgicos, el paciente puede solicitar la mejora estética de las secuelas residuales. Estas pueden consistir, entre otras, en problemas de trofismo, asimetrías o distorsiones cicatriciales. Los injertos de tejido adiposo suponen una opción extremadamente válida y segura en los casos en los que estos pacientes solicitan una mejora estética de sus secuelas. Dado su potencial para crear volúmenes y para mejorar el trofismo de los tejidos afectados por diversas formas de fibrosis o atrofias, su utilidad debe ser considerada como una seria opción a considerar. Presentamos en este artículo 3 casos de reconstrucción estética del miembro inferior, por diversas causas, resueltos mediante el uso de injertos de tejido adiposo y revisados durante al menos un año. En todos ellos fueron necesarias al menos 2 sesiones para conseguir un resultado aceptable para el paciente. Abstract in english Lower extremity reconstruction is probably one of the most challenging and difficult disciplines in Plastic and Aesthetic Surgery. With independence of the original ethiology (postraumatic, oncologic or congenital), and after various surgical steps, this group of patients usually looks for some aest [...] hetic improvement of residual sequel. These may consist of diverse forms of trophic changes, asymmetries or distortions. Autologous fat grafting represent an extremely reliable and safe technique in those cases in which patients ask for some aesthetic improvement of their residual sequels. Due to their potential to create volumes and improve the quality of tissues affected from different kinds of atrophy or fibrosis, the use of fat grafting in these cases should be seriously considered as an alternative. Three cases of aesthetic improvement of lower extremity sequels of diverse origin and treated with autologous fat grafting are presented. The follow up period was at least of one year after last treatment. All of them needed at least 2 treatments to achieve an acceptable result for the patient.

J., Monreal..

2013-12-01

107

Experiencia en miringoplastía transcanal con pericondrio tragai inlay Experience in transcanal myringoplasty with inlay tragal perichondrium  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introducción: La timpanoplastía está orientada a la reconstrucción anatomofuncional del oído medio que realizada en la membrana timpánica se denomina miringoplastía. Objetivo: Evaluar los resultados anatomofuncionales de la miringoplastía transcanal con pericondrio tragal inlay en pacientes intervenidos en el Servicio de Otorrinolaringología del Hospital San Camilo entre 2004 y 2009. Material y método: Estudio retrospectivo descriptivo de fichas de 56 pacientes entre 7 y 77 años. Universo: 60 oídos, muestra: 48 oídos con edad promedio de 34 años. Se evaluaron resultados anatómicos según sexo, edad, ubicación, causa de perforación y mejoría funcional objetivada por audiometría. Resultados: La integridad anatómica posquirúrgica es de 81,3% sin diferencias según género. Según edad existe diferencia significativa de 93,3% para el tramo 7-19 años respecto del total. Las perforaciones centrales tuvieron un éxito de 100%. La causa más frecuente de perforación fue por otitis media crónica simple (75% con una integridad posquirúrgica del 80,5%. El 97,6% logró mejorar o mantener el nivel de audición, estableciéndose diferencialmente mejoría funcional en 52,4%, y una mantención en 45,2%. Conclusión: Los mejores resultados para esta técnica se obtienen en menores de 20 años con perforaciones centrales, siendo una técnica ideal que conserva la estructura de la membrana timpánica para futuras intervenciones.Introduction: Tympanoplasty is orientated to the anatomofunctional reconstruction of the middle ear, which is named myringoplasty, when performed in the tympanic membrane. Aim: To evaluate the anatomofunctional results of transcanal myringoplasty with inlay tragal perichondrium in patients controlled in the Otorhinolaryngology Unit of San Camilo Hospital, between 2004 and 2009. Material and method: Retrospective descriptive study on files of 56 patients between 7 and 77 years of age. Universe: 60 ears, sample: 48 ears with average age 34 years. Anatomical results were evaluated according to sex, age, location, cause of perforation and functional improvement measured by audiometry. Results: The overall anatomical postsurgical integrity is 81,3 % without differences between sexes. According to age there is a significant difference for the section between 7-19 years of age respect of the total (93,3 %. Central perforations had a 100% success rate. The most frequent reason of perforation was simple chronic otitis media (75% with a postsurgical integrity of 80,5 %. 97,6 % managed to improve or maintain hearing level, (52,4 % gained functional improvement, and 45,2 % maintained hearing level. Conclusion: Using this technique, best results are obtained in patients younger than 20 years of age, with central perforations. It is an ideal method that preserves the structure of the tympanic membrane for future interventions.

Mauricio Calderón R

2012-08-01

108

Experiencia en miringoplastía transcanal con pericondrio tragai inlay / Experience in transcanal myringoplasty with inlay tragal perichondrium  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción: La timpanoplastía está orientada a la reconstrucción anatomofuncional del oído medio que realizada en la membrana timpánica se denomina miringoplastía. Objetivo: Evaluar los resultados anatomofuncionales de la miringoplastía transcanal con pericondrio tragal inlay en pacientes interven [...] idos en el Servicio de Otorrinolaringología del Hospital San Camilo entre 2004 y 2009. Material y método: Estudio retrospectivo descriptivo de fichas de 56 pacientes entre 7 y 77 años. Universo: 60 oídos, muestra: 48 oídos con edad promedio de 34 años. Se evaluaron resultados anatómicos según sexo, edad, ubicación, causa de perforación y mejoría funcional objetivada por audiometría. Resultados: La integridad anatómica posquirúrgica es de 81,3% sin diferencias según género. Según edad existe diferencia significativa de 93,3% para el tramo 7-19 años respecto del total. Las perforaciones centrales tuvieron un éxito de 100%. La causa más frecuente de perforación fue por otitis media crónica simple (75%) con una integridad posquirúrgica del 80,5%. El 97,6% logró mejorar o mantener el nivel de audición, estableciéndose diferencialmente mejoría funcional en 52,4%, y una mantención en 45,2%. Conclusión: Los mejores resultados para esta técnica se obtienen en menores de 20 años con perforaciones centrales, siendo una técnica ideal que conserva la estructura de la membrana timpánica para futuras intervenciones. Abstract in english Introduction: Tympanoplasty is orientated to the anatomofunctional reconstruction of the middle ear, which is named myringoplasty, when performed in the tympanic membrane. Aim: To evaluate the anatomofunctional results of transcanal myringoplasty with inlay tragal perichondrium in patients controlle [...] d in the Otorhinolaryngology Unit of San Camilo Hospital, between 2004 and 2009. Material and method: Retrospective descriptive study on files of 56 patients between 7 and 77 years of age. Universe: 60 ears, sample: 48 ears with average age 34 years. Anatomical results were evaluated according to sex, age, location, cause of perforation and functional improvement measured by audiometry. Results: The overall anatomical postsurgical integrity is 81,3 % without differences between sexes. According to age there is a significant difference for the section between 7-19 years of age respect of the total (93,3 %). Central perforations had a 100% success rate. The most frequent reason of perforation was simple chronic otitis media (75%) with a postsurgical integrity of 80,5 %. 97,6 % managed to improve or maintain hearing level, (52,4 % gained functional improvement, and 45,2 % maintained hearing level). Conclusion: Using this technique, best results are obtained in patients younger than 20 years of age, with central perforations. It is an ideal method that preserves the structure of the tympanic membrane for future interventions.

Mauricio, Calderón R; Carmen, Meléndez P; Cristian, Morales S; Danisa, Torres M.

2012-08-01

109

De la biología al injerto de tejido adiposo: cómo mejorar el lipoinjerto / From biology to fat grafting: how to improve lipofilling  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish A pesar de que el uso del injerto de grasa ha ganado popularidad, no hay consenso sobre la mejor manera de manejar el tejido adiposo. Los protocolos difieren y los resultados son a menudo variables. Diversos factores influyen en la calidad de la grasa inyectada, entre los que encontramos las molécul [...] as tóxicas provenientes de la infiltración, procedimiento previo a la liposucción. En este trabajo, hemos confirmado el efecto nocivo de los anestésicos sobre las células madre derivadas del tejido adiposo, determinando el efecto del lavado y la centrifugación en el tejido graso con el fin de proponer un protocolo simple y optimizado para mejorar la supervivencia del injerto. Evaluamos la citotoxicidad de la lidocaína sobre las células madre derivadas de tejido adiposo (ADSC) mediante ensayo de LDH. Sometimos el tejido adiposo conjunto a varios tipos de centrifugación (de 1 segundo a 10 minutos y desde 0 g a 1800 g), y el volumen de líquido y el aceite liberado se midió inmediatamente después de la centrifugación. Tras la determinación de las condiciones óptimas para la manipulación de tejidos (400 g/1 minuto), inyectamos el tejido adiposo de liposucción sin o con lidocaína en ratones inmunodeficientes. Un mes después de la inyección, evaluamos la calidad de los injertos mediante histología, y en comparación con los injertos obtenidos a partir de un protocolo convencional: una simple sedimentación. La lidocaína ejerce un efecto citotóxico sobre las ADSC, y este efecto depende del tiempo de incubación y de las concentraciones. En cuanto al tejido adiposo, una centrifugación intensa (900 g, 1800 g) es perjudicial en comparación con una centrifugación suave (100 g, 400 g). Además, las secciones histológicas de los injertos de tejido adiposo no centrifugados mostraron la presencia de grandes vacuolas de aceite mientras que los injertos resultantes de lavado con protocolo de centrifugación suave (400g/1minuto) no lo hacen. En conclusión, creemos que se debe emplear un manejo adecuado del tejido adiposo, incluyendo lavado y centrifugación, con el fin de eliminar el líquido de infiltración y las moléculas tóxicas asociadas que son perjudiciales para los injertos. Sin embargo, no recomendamos una centrifugación intensa ya que conduce muy rápidamente a una mayor muerte celular. Por lo tanto, una centrifugación suave (400 g/1 minuto) precedida de lavados, parece ser el protocolo más apropiado para la reinyección del tejido adiposo. Abstract in english While fat grafting for soft tissue filling has gained popularity, there is no consensus on the best way how to handle adipose tissue. Protocols differ and results are often highly variable. Various factors influence the quality of injected fat, among which the toxic molecules coming from infiltratio [...] n procedure prior to liposuction. In this work, we have confirmed the deleterious effect of anesthetics on adipose-derived stem cells, and determined the effect of washing and centrifugation on adipose tissue, in order to propose a simple and optimized protocol to improve graft survival. Lidocaine cytotoxicity on adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) was evaluated by LDH assay. Then, whole adipose tissue was subjected to various centrifugation types (from 1 sec to 10 min and from 0 g to 1800 g), and volume of liquid and oil released were measured immediately after centrifugation. After determination of the optimal conditions for tissue handling (400 g/1 min), adipose tissue from liposuction made without or with lidocaine was injected into immunodeficient mice. One month after injection, quality of the grafts was evaluated by histology, and compared with grafts obtained from one conventional protocol: a simple settling. Lidocaine exerts a cytotoxic effect on ADSCs, and this effect is dependent on the incubation time and concentrations. Concerning adipose tissue, strong centrifugation (900 g, 1800 g) is deleterious compared to the low centrifugation (100 g, 400 g). In add

A.C., Girard; S., Mirbeau; M., Atlan; F., Festy; R., Roche; L., Hoareau.

2013-12-01

110

Utilización de injerto dermo-graso en pacientes con retracción de la cavidad anoftálmica / Use of dermis fat graft in patients with retraction of the anophthalmic cavity  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se realizó un estudio descriptivo en 45 pacientes con cavidades retraídas que fueron operados con injerto dermo-graso en el período comprendido entre enero de 1999 y diciembre de 2002. A todos se les tomaron los siguientes datos: tiempo de uso de la prótesis ocular, examen de la cavidad, calidad del [...] injerto y causas de retracción del injerto en los casos de evolución no favorables. Los pacientes entre los 31 y los 60 años de edad, ocuparon el 42 %. Al analizar las causas de pérdida del globo ocular se encontró que los traumatismos por accidente laboral ocuparon un 28,9 %. Con respecto al tiempo de uso de la prótesis ocular se aprecia que el 40 % tenía más de 7 años de uso. Dentro de los datos recogidos existió retracción del fórnix inferior en el 46,6 %. Al estudiar las causas de retracción de la cavidad el 51,1 % presentó infecciones e inflamaciones. El 82,2 % no presentó complicaciones y entre las causas del resultado quirúrgico no satisfactorio la infección sobreañadida ocupó un 50 %. Abstract in english A descriptive study was conducted in 45 patients with retracted cavities that were operated on with dermis fat graft from January, 1999, to December, 2002. The following data were collected: time of use of the ocular prosthesis, cavity examination, graft quality and causes of graft retraction.in tho [...] se cases with unfavorable evolution. The patients aged 31-60 accounted for 42 %. On analyzing the causes of the loss of the eyeball it was found that traumatisms due to working accidents represented 28.9 %. As regards the time of use of the ocular prosthesis, it was observed that 40 % had been used for more than 7 years. Among the collected data, there was retraction of the lower fornix in 46.6 %. On studying the causes of the retraction of the cavity, 51.1 % presented infections and inflammations. 82.2 % had no complications and among the causes of the unsatisfactory surgical result, it was observed 50 % of overadded infection.

Marta, Herrera Soto; Iraida, Falcón Márquez; Ileana, Agramonte Centelles; Clara, Gómez Cabrera.

2003-12-01

111

Lipoenxertia autóloga periorbitária no rejuvenescimento facial: análise retrospectiva da eficácia e da segurança em 31 casos / Autologous periorbital fat grafting in facial rejuvenation: a retrospective analysis of efficacy and safety in 31 cases  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Os sulcos periorbitários e zigomático e o malar flácido estão entre as características mais marcantes de envelhecimento ou de desarmonia facial. A reposição do volume é um método simples e eficiente, e o lipoenxerto pode ser o melhor material. O presente trabalho traz uma análise de 31 p [...] acientes submetidos a autolipoenxertia, com ênfase na eficácia e na segurança da técnica. MÉTODO: Análise retrospectiva de 31 pacientes consecutivos, submetidos a lipoenxertias periorbitária e malar, concomitantemente ou não a outros procedimentos estéticos. A avaliação foi feita por meio de comparação entre fotografias pré e pós-operatória, bem como pelo grau de satisfação dos pacientes. RESULTADOS: Dos 31 pacientes, 26 (83,9%) classificaram o resultado pós-operatório como ótimo, 3 (9,7%), bom, e 2 (6,4%), regular. Na avaliação dos autores, 24 (77,5%) pacientes apresentaram resultado ótimo, 5 (16,1%), bom, e 2 (6,4%), regular. Houve necessidade de retoque de lipoenxertia em apenas 4 pacientes, por sugestão do cirurgião. As complicações foram mínimas e passageiras. CONCLUSÕES: A lipoenxertia facial é fácil e eficaz, e as complicações são mínimas quando realizada por cirurgiões qualificados. Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Periorbital and zygomatic hollows as well as flaccid cheeks are among the most evident characteristics of aging or facial disharmony. Volume replacement is a simple and efficient procedure, and fat grafting is considered as the best treatment for these characteristics. This study evaluat [...] es 31 patients who underwent autologous fat grafting and emphasizes the safety and efficacy of this procedure. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of 31 consecutive patients who underwent periorbital and zygomatic fat grafting, alone or in combination with other cosmetic procedures, was carried out. Final evaluation was performed by assessing pre- and postoperative photographs as well as the degree of patient satisfaction. RESULTS: Of 31 patients, 26 (83.9%) reported excellent postoperative outcomes; 3 (9.7%), satisfactory outcomes; and 2 (6.4%), poor outcomes. According to the authors' evaluation, 24 (77.5%) patients had excellent outcomes, 5 (16.1%) had satisfactory outcomes, and 2 (6.4%) had poor outcomes. Retouching of the fat graft was recommended for only 4 patients. The complications observed were minimal and transient. CONCLUSIONS: Facial fat grafting is a simple and effective procedure that presents minimal complications when performed by skilled surgeons.

Chang Yung, Chia; Diego Antonio, Rovaris.

2012-09-01

112

Differential fat harvesting  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aim: Volume replacement with fillers is regularly performed with the use of diverse volumetric materials to correct different structures around the face, depending on the volume enhancement required and the thickness of the soft tissue envelope. Differential fat harvesting and posterior grafting is performed to place the correct fat parcel size for each target area, expanding the potential applications of fat. Methods: Sixty patients consecutively recruited on a first come basis undergone a facial fat grafting procedure, in private practice setting between March 2012 and October 2013. Fat grafting quantity and quality was predicted for each case. Differential harvesting was performed, with 2 fat parcels size. Processing was performed through washing. Fat infiltration was carried out through small cannulas or needles depending on the treated area. Outcomes were analysed both by the physicians and the patients at 7 days, 1 month, 3 months and 6 months through a perceived satisfaction questionnaire. Parameters considered were downtime or discomfort, skin benefits, volume restoration, reabsorption rate estimated and overall improvement. Results: Full facial differential fat grafting procedure lasted an average of 1.5-2.5 h. Average downtime was 3-4 days. Follow-up was performed to a minimum of 6 months. Both patient and physician overall satisfaction rates were mostly excellent. Adverse events like lumps or irregularities were not encountered. Conclusion: Differential fat harvesting and posterior grafting is a valid alternative, to expand the repertoire of fat use, allow a more homogeneous effect, reduce the potential complications, speed up the process, improve graft survival, and to enhance overall aesthetic outcome.

Sebastian Torres Farr

2014-12-01

113

Polyunsaturated Fats and Monounsaturated Fats  

Science.gov (United States)

... on the MyPyramid plan. More Information on Fats Dietary Fat Trans Fat Saturated Fat Cholesterol back to top ... for Everyone Introduction Nutrition Basics Food Groups Water Dietary Fat Trans Fat Saturated Fat Cholesterol Polyunsaturated Fats and ...

114

Trans Fat  

Science.gov (United States)

... Value of these two components are high. Use monounsaturated fat (canola and olive oil) and polyunsaturated fat (soybean, ... Trans Fat Saturated Fat Cholesterol Polyunsaturated Fats and Monounsaturated Fats Carbohydrates Protein Vitamins and Minerals Fruits and Vegetables ...

115

¿Cuál es la supervivencia de los injertos de grasa en la cara? ¿Cómo cuantificarla?: medicina basada en la evidencia / Which is the survival of fat grafts on the face? How to quantify it?: evidence based medicine  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Muchos de los artículos publicados acerca del éxito de los injertos autólogos de grasa (IAG) en humanos son muy subjetivos o, en el mejor de los casos, semicuantitativos Hasta hoy, se necesitan estudios adicionales, tanto clínicos como básicos, antes de que podamos llegar a precisar el valor de esta [...] técnica. Diseñamos un estudio prospectivo y randomizado con el objetivo de cuantificar la supervivencia de los autoinjertos de grasa en cara, en una serie seleccionada de 71 pacientes con defectos subcutáneos de partes blandas faciales que cumplieron criterios de inclusión, en dos grupos, según fueran casos de Cirugía Reconstructiva o de Cirugía Estética. El procedimiento quirúrgico estándar empleado fue la técnica de lipoestructura facial; se tomó biopsia del tejido adiposo injertado a los 14 meses de seguimiento. Empleamos el método estereológico para medir los parámetros volumétricos cuantitativos de la grasa en el momento de la inyección y en el momento de la biopsia. Por medio de simples ecuaciones matemáticas, pudimos extraer las tasas de prendimiento tanto volumétrica como numérica. También se practicaron análisis estadísticos descriptivos y cuantitativos de todos los datos. Los injertos de grasa autólogos en la cara sobreviven en dos tercios del volumen inyectado a los 14 meses de seguimiento. La única prueba confirmatoria de supervivencia de los autoin-jertos de grasa es la evidencia y demostración histológica de tejido adiposo viable en las zonas receptoras y su cuantificación mediante un método de evaluación volumétrico, preciso y objetivo, como el que permite la Estereología. Abstract in english Many reports concerning the success of fat auto-grafts in humans are widely subjective or semi-quantitative in best of cases. Even today, additional studies, clinical or basic, are ne-cessary before the value of this technique can be calculated. With the aim of quantifying the survival of fat auto-g [...] rafts on the face, a prospective randomized study was designed, selecting 71 patients suffering facial soft tissue subcutaneous defects fulfilling the inclusion criteria. Two groups were descri-bed according to reconstructive and aesthetic surgery. Facial lipostructure technique was used as the standard surgical procedure and a biopsy of the grafted adipose tissue was taken at 14 months follow-up. The stereological method was used to measure the quantitative volumetric parameters of the fat at the injection time and at the biopsy time. By means of simple mathematical equations, the volumetric and numerical take rate could be obtained. Descriptive and quantitative statistical analyses of all data were performed. Fat auto-grafts on the face survive two thirds of the injec-ted volume at 14 months follow-up. The unique confirmation proof of survival of fat auto-grafts is the histological evidence and demonstration of viable adipose tissue in recipient sites and its quantification by a volumetric, accurate and objective valuation method, as it is provided by Stereology.

E., Serna-Cuéllar; L., Santamaría-Solís.

2013-12-01

116

Dietary Fat  

Science.gov (United States)

... Nutrition for Everyone Nutrition Topics Share Compartir Dietary Fat What counts as fat? Are some fats better ... polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fats. How much total dietary fat do I need? The Dietary Guidelines for Americans ...

117

Cyclic hydrostatic pressure promotes a stable cartilage phenotype and enhances the functional development of cartilaginous grafts engineered using multipotent stromal cells isolated from bone marrow and infrapatellar fat pad.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study was to investigate how joint specific biomechanical loading influences the functional development and phenotypic stability of cartilage grafts engineered in vitro using stem/progenitor cells isolated from different source tissues. Porcine bone marrow derived multipotent stromal cells (BMSCs) and infrapatellar fat pad derived multipotent stromal cells (FPSCs) were seeded in agarose hydrogels and cultured in chondrogenic medium, while simultaneously subjected to 10MPa of cyclic hydrostatic pressure (HP). To mimic the endochondral phenotype observed in vivo with cartilaginous tissues engineered using BMSCs, the culture media was additionally supplemented with hypertrophic factors, while the loss of phenotype observed in vivo with FPSCs was induced by withdrawing transforming growth factor (TGF)-?3 from the media. The application of HP was found to enhance the functional development of cartilaginous tissues engineered using both BMSCs and FPSCs. In addition, HP was found to suppress calcification of tissues engineered using BMSCs cultured in chondrogenic conditions and acted to maintain a chondrogenic phenotype in cartilaginous grafts engineered using FPSCs. The results of this study point to the importance of in vivo specific mechanical cues for determining the terminal phenotype of chondrogenically primed multipotent stromal cells. Furthermore, demonstrating that stem or progenitor cells will appropriately differentiate in response to such biophysical cues might also be considered as an additional functional assay for evaluating their therapeutic potential. PMID:24377681

Carroll, S F; Buckley, C T; Kelly, D J

2014-06-27

118

Cartilage support for fascia graft in type I tympanoplasty.  

Science.gov (United States)

To evaluate the success rate, in terms of anatomical and functional results, in our technique of cartilage support for fascia graft in type I tympanoplasty. Retrospective study of tragal cartilage support for fascia graft in tympanoplasty for large central perforation in 748 patients was carried at an academic institution during January 2004 to March 2012. Patients' age ranged from 11 to 65 years. 325 (43.4 %) male and 423 (56.6 %) female patients were operated and mean post-operative follow up was of 24 months (range 6-48 months). The inclusion criteria were large central or subtotal perforation, anterior quadrant perforation, anterior tympanosclerotic patch with perforation and revision myringoplasty. Small central perforation, posterior perforations, traumatic perforations and Ossiculplasty were excluded from this study. In this technique, a piece of tragal cartilage carved in semi lunar shape is inserted medial to anterior remnant of tympanic membrane. Temporalis fascia graft is sandwiched between cartilage and anterior remnant of tympanic membrane. Post-operative closure of perforation was noted. Pure-tone average pre and post-operative air-bone gap in dB at 250, 500, 1000, 2000, and 4,000 Hz were compared. The overall success rate of our technique was 98.3 % in terms of graft uptake and within 13.35 ± 5.22 dB of air bone gap closure in terms of hearing improvement. This study reveals that cartilage support for fascia graft in type I tympanoplasty is a highly reliable technique and gives significant improvement in graft take-up and hearing status. PMID:25032117

Kulkarni, Shreeya; Kulkarni, Vinay; Burse, Kiran; Sancheti, Vandana; Roy, Gaurav

2014-09-01

119

Facial fat necrosis following autologous fat transfer and its management.  

Science.gov (United States)

Autologous fat transfer (AFT) is an increasingly popular cosmetic procedure practiced by dermatologic surgeons worldwide. As this is an office based procedure performed under local or tumescent anaesthesia with fat transferred within the same individual and limited associated down time its is considered relatively safe and risk free in the cosmetic surgery arena. We describe a case of AFT related fat necrosis causing significant facial dysmorphia and psychosocial distress. We also discuss the benefits and risks of AFT highlighting common causes of fat graft failure. PMID:25538442

Rai, Sweta; Marsland, Alexander M; Madan, Vishal

2014-07-01

120

Saturated Fat  

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... Nutrition for Everyone Nutrition Topics Share Compartir Saturated Fat You may have heard that saturated fats are ... coconut oil. How do I control my saturated fat intake? In general, saturated fat can be found ...

121

Graft take-rates after tympanoplasty : results from a prospective ear surgery database  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

OBJECTIVE: To present a prospective ear surgery database and investigate the graft take-rate and prognostic factors for graft take-rate in tympanoplasty using the database. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective database study. SETTING: Tertiary referral center. PATIENTS: A total of 1606 cases undergoing tympanoplasty types I to IV were registered in the database in the period from February 2004 to November 2013. INTERVENTION: A total of 837 cases underwent myringoplasty/tympanoplasty type I. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Graft take-rate and prognostic factors (age, discharge at time of surgery, tuba function, technique, graft material, and revision surgery) for tympanoplasty type I were studied. A comparison with the graft take-rates for tympanoplasty types II to IV and/or cholesteatoma was made. RESULTS: A user-friendly ear surgery database with fast data entry and direct import of audiometric data was developed. The graft take-rate was found to be 93.0% at 2 to 6 months and 86.6% at more than 12 months. Except for a discharging ear at the time of surgery, no significant differences using ?² test of association were found when comparing graft take-rates for different prognostic factors or more advanced tympanoplasty with or without cholesteatoma. A long-term graft take-rate overestimation of 6% was found if cases with defaulted follow-up because of early reperforation were not included. CONCLUSION: A prospective database can be used to study prognostic factors and reduce bias in reporting the graft take-rate. Prospective databases are needed for high-quality longitudinal studies but require a continuous and daily effort of involved surgeons and therefore need to be convenient and fast to use.

Andersen, Steven Arild Wuyts; Aabenhus, Kristine

2014-01-01

122

Fat test  

Science.gov (United States)

Nutrients include fats, protein, minerals, water, and carbohydrates. Brown paper can be used as an indicator of how much fat is in a food. The food that makes the largest grease spot has the most fat.

Olivia Worland (Purdue University; Biological Sciences)

2008-06-06

123

Facial Soft Tissue Augmentation using Autologous Fat Mixed with Stromal Vascular Fraction  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background Autologous fat grafting evolved over the twentieth century to become a quick,safe, and reliable method for restoring volume. However, autologous fat grafts have someproblems including uncertain viability of the grafted fat and a low rate of graft survival. Toovercome the problems associated with autologous fat grafts, we used uncultured adiposetissue-derived stromal cell (stromal vascular fraction, SVF assisted autologous fat grafting.Thus, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of SVF in a clinical trial.Methods SVF cells were freshly isolated from half of the aspirated fat and were used incombination with the other half of the aspirated fat during the procedure. Between March2007 and February 2008, a total of 9 SVF-assisted fat grafts were performed in 9 patients.The patients were followed for 12 weeks after treatment. Data collected at each follow-upvisit included clinical examination of the graft site(s, photographs for historical comparison,and information from a patient questionnaire that measured the outcomes from the patientperspective. The photographs were evaluated by medical professionals.Results Scores of the left facial area grafted with adipose tissue mixed with SVF cells weresignificantly higher compared with those of the right facial area grafted with adipose tissuewithout SVF cells. There was no significant adverse effect.Conclusions The subjective patient satisfaction survey and surgeon survey showed that SVFassistedfat grafting was a surgical procedure with superior results.

Sang Kyun Lee

2012-09-01

124

Skin Graft  

OpenAIRE

Skin graft is one of the most indispensable techniques in plastic surgery and dermatology. Skin grafts are used in a variety of clinical situations, such as traumatic wounds, defects after oncologic resection, burn reconstruction, scar contracture release, congenital skin deficiencies, hair restoration, vitiligo, and nipple-areola reconstruction. Skin grafts are generally avoided in the management of more complex wounds. Conditions with deep spaces and exposed bones normally require the use o...

Ruka Shimizu; Kazuo Kishi

2012-01-01

125

Skin grafts.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this article, we have reviewed important issues regarding skin graft reconstruction of cutaneous and mucosal defects in the head and neck. Careful attention to surgical technique and immobilization of the grafts during healing lead to more successful reconstructions. Partial-thickness skin grafts lack epidermal appendages. When used for cutaneous reconstruction, they must be protected from desiccation and excessive trauma. Donor site morbidity can be reduced by protection against environmental trauma and excessive sunlight. PMID:8159425

Petruzzelli, G J; Johnson, J T

1994-02-01

126

Pancreas grafts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Perfusion studies with sup(99m)Tc-DTPA, which has hitherto been used routinely to investigate renal grafts, have also proved useful for monitoring the perfusion of pancreas grafts. A total perfusion failure is equally reliably demonstrable as in renal grafts. Quantitatively smaller perfusion alterations can be demonstrated by monitoring the course. It seems possible to differentiate the salivary edema of a rejection reaction, well known from animal experiments, with the help of other paramters (e.g. creatinine). Further clinical studies are however necessary to confirm these results. (orig.)

127

Tracheal grafts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To learn when transplanted trachea becomes established and is suitable for experimentation, a serial sacrifice study was performed on rats. After transplant to a subcutaneous site, tracheal grafts survived by diffusion until the fourth day when the blood supply was reestablished. Further improvement occurred in the mucosal epithelium, so that by the seventh day after transplanting, the graft was again lined by tall columnar ciliated cells and scattered secretory cells. The mucosal epithelium remained separated from the submucosal elastic layer, however, until 14 days after transplanting, when the established grafts resembled untransplanted tracheas histologically. When exposed to 7,12-dimethyl(a)benzanthracene, the mucosa underwent squamous metaplasia that progressed to squamous carcinoma as early as 3 months after treatment. A major advantage of the tracheal graft as a research tool is that neoplasia can be induced in a respiratory tissue without interfering with respiration

128

Assessment of viability of human fat injection into nude mice with micro-computed tomography.  

Science.gov (United States)

Lipotransfer is a vital tool in the surgeon's armamentarium for the treatment of soft tissue deficits of throughout the body. Fat is the ideal soft tissue filler as it is readily available, easily obtained, inexpensive, and inherently biocompatible.(1) However, despite its burgeoning popularity, fat grafting is hampered by unpredictable results and variable graft survival, with published retention rates ranging anywhere from 10-80%. (1-3) To facilitate investigations on fat grafting, we have therefore developed an animal model that allows for real-time analysis of injected fat volume retention. Briefly, a small cut is made in the scalp of a CD-1 nude mouse and 200-400 µl of processed lipoaspirate is placed over the skull. The scalp is chosen as the recipient site because of its absence of native subcutaneous fat, and because of the excellent background contrast provided by the calvarium, which aids in the analysis process. Micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) is used to scan the graft at baseline and every two weeks thereafter. The CT images are reconstructed, and an imaging software is used to quantify graft volumes. Traditionally, techniques to assess fat graft volume have necessitated euthanizing the study animal to provide just a single assessment of graft weight and volume by physical measurement ex vivo. Biochemical and histological comparisons have likewise required the study animal to be euthanized. This described imaging technique offers the advantage of visualizing and objectively quantifying volume at multiple time points after initial grafting without having to sacrifice the study animal. The technique is limited by the size of the graft able to be injected as larger grafts risk skin and fat necrosis. This method has utility for all studies evaluating fat graft viability and volume retention. It is particularly well-suited to providing a visual representation of fat grafts and following changes in volume over time. PMID:25590561

Atashroo, David A; Paik, Kevin J; Chung, Michael T; McArdle, Adrian; Senarath-Yapa, Kshemendra; Zielins, Elizabeth R; Tevlin, Ruth; Duldulao, Christopher R; Walmsley, Graham G; Wearda, Taylor; Marecic, Owen; Longaker, Michael T; Wan, Derrick C

2015-01-01

129

Fat Characterization  

Science.gov (United States)

Methods for characterizing edible lipids, fats, and oils can be separated into two categories: those developed to analyze bulk oils and fats, and those focusing on analysis of foodstuffs and their lipid extracts. In evaluating foodstuffs, it is usually necessary to extract the lipids prior to analysis. In these cases, if sufficient quantities of lipids are available, methods developed for bulk fats and oils can be utilized.

O'Keefe, Sean F.; Pike, Oscar A.

130

Facts about polyunsaturated fats  

Science.gov (United States)

... is one of the healthy fats, along with monounsaturated fat. Polyunsaturated fat is found in plant and animal ... and seeds. Eating moderate amounts of polyunsaturated (and monounsaturated) fat in place of saturated and trans fats can ...

131

Dietary Fats  

Science.gov (United States)

... such as butter, solid shortening, and lard. Trans fats. These are found in vegetable shortenings, some margarines, crackers, cookies, snack foods, and other foods made with or fried in partially hydrogenated oils. Try to replace them with oils such as ...

132

Fats and oils  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The glycerin ethers with higher fat acids are named fats. Fats with residua off-peak higher acids present oils which pick out from plants. Fats and oils usually contain residua of carboxylic acids C10-C18

133

Fat Analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

Lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates constitute the principal structural components of foods. Lipids are a group of substances that, in general, are soluble in ether, chloroform, or other organic solvents but are sparingly soluble in water. However, there exists no clear scientific definition of a lipid, primarily due to the water solubility of certain molecules that fall within one of the variable categories of food lipids (1). Some lipids, such as triacylglycerols, are very hydrophobic. Other lipids, such as di- and monoacylglycerols, have both hydrophobic and hydrophilic moieties in their molecules and are soluble in relatively polar solvents (2). Short-chain fatty acids such as C1-C4 are completely miscible in water and insoluble in nonpolar solvents (1). The most widely accepted definition is based on solubility as previously stated. While most macromolecules are characterized by common structural features, the designation of "lipid" being defined by solubility characteristics is unique to lipids (2). Lipids comprise a broad group of substances that have some common properties and compositional similarities (3). Triacylglycerols are fats and oils that represent the most prevalent category of the group of compounds known as lipids. The terms lipids, fats, and oils are often used interchangeably. The term "lipid" commonly refers to the broad, total collection of food molecules that meet the definition previously stated. Fats generally refer to those lipids that are solid at room temperature and oils generally refer to those lipids that are liquid at room temperature. While there may not be an exact scientific definition, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has established a regulatory definition for nutrition labeling purposes. The FDA has defined total fat as the sum of fatty acids from C4 to C24, calculated as triglycerides. This definition provides a clear path for resolution of any nutrition labeling disputes.

Min, David B.; Ellefson, Wayne C.

134

Bone grafting: An overview  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Bone grafting is the process by which bone is transferred from a source (donor to site (recipient. Due to trauma from accidents by speedy vehicles, falling down from height or gunshot injury particularly in human being, acquired or developmental diseases like rickets, congenital defects like abnormal bone development, wearing out because of age and overuse; lead to bone loss and to replace the loss we need the bone grafting. Osteogenesis, osteoinduction, osteoconduction, mechanical supports are the four basic mechanisms of bone graft. Bone graft can be harvested from the iliac crest, proximal tibia, proximal humerus, proximal femur, ribs and sternum. An ideal bone graft material is biologically inert, source of osteogenic, act as a mechanical support, readily available, easily adaptable in terms of size, shape, length and replaced by the host bone. Except blood, bone is grafted with greater frequency. Bone graft indicated for variety of orthopedic abnormalities, comminuted fractures, delayed unions, non-unions, arthrodesis and osteomyelitis. Bone graft can be harvested from the iliac crest, proximal tibia, proximal humerus, proximal femur, ribs and sternum. By adopting different procedure of graft preservation its antigenicity can be minimized. The concept of bone banking for obtaining bone grafts and implants is very useful for clinical application. Absolute stability require for successful incorporation. Ideal bone graft must possess osteogenic, osteoinductive and osteocon-ductive properties. Cancellous bone graft is superior to cortical bone graft. Usually autologous cancellous bone graft are used as fresh grafts where as allografts are employed as an alloimplant. None of the available type of bone grafts possesses all these properties therefore, a single type of graft cannot be recomm-ended for all types of orthopedic abnormalities. Bone grafts and implants can be selected as per clinical problems, the equipments available and preference of the surgeon. A search for ideal bone graft is on and may continue till time to time. [Vet World 2010; 3(4.000: 198-200

D. O. Joshi

2010-08-01

135

Toxicity of abdominal fat  

OpenAIRE

Abdominal fat or truncal obesity consists of both subcutaneous and visceral fat. It has been found that visceral fat is more metabolically active than subcutaneous fat. The low-level inflammation linked with abdominal fat is associated with insulin resistance and with increases in the release of inflammatory adipokines and cytokines. As a result of these changes, abdominal fat can cause a variety of health conditions. In this review, we focus on the adverse effects of abdominal fat on the bo...

Shawn Mathew; Kosmas, Constantine E.; Siegel, Robert R.; Vittorio, Timothy J.

2013-01-01

136

Autogenous Dermis-Fat Orbital Impant for Anophthalmic Socket  

OpenAIRE

To our knowledge, there is no report of dermis-fat graft (DFG) implant for orbital reconstruction from Oman. We hereby presented a case report of a 10-year-old boy with a blind and painful left eye secondary to penetrating eye injury presented with implant extrusion following evisceration with a polymethyl methacrylate implant. The evisceration procedure was converted to enucleation and a DFG orbital implant was then performed. Postoperatively, the graft was observed to be well integrated wit...

Al-mujaini, Abdullah; Ganesh, Anuradha; Al-zuhaibi, Sana

2007-01-01

137

Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting  

Science.gov (United States)

... Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting? Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is a type of surgery that improves blood flow to the heart. Surgeons use CABG to treat people who have severe coronary heart ...

138

Grafting and curing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Progress in radiation grafting and curing is briefly reviewed. The two processes are shown to be mechanistically related. The parameters influencing yields are examined particularly for grafting. For ionising radiation grafting systems (EB and gamma ray) these include solvents, substrate and monomer structure, dose and dose-rate, temperature and more recently role of additives. In addition, for UV grafting, the significance of photoinitiators is discussed. Current applications of radiation grafting and curing are outlined. The recent development of photoinitiator free grafting and curing is examined as well as the potential for the new excimer laser sources. The future application of both grafting and curing is considered, especially the significance of the occurrence of concurrent grafting during cure and its relevance in environmental considerations

139

Saturated fat (image)  

Science.gov (United States)

Saturated fat can raise blood cholesterol and can put you at risk for heart disease and stroke. You should ... limit any foods that are high in saturated fat. Sources of saturated fat include whole-milk dairy ...

140

Thoracic stent-graft  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The stent-graft is a device constructed from a stent and vascular graft and is inserted by means of an interventional procedure under imaging guidance. In 1986, Balko et al.1 reported the first stentgraft experiment, in which a Z stent covered with polyurethane was inserted into an animal aorta. In the early 1990s, Parodi et al.2 reported clinical introduction of the stent-graft for abdominal aortic aneurysm. In comparison to the abdominal aortic stent-graft, the thoracic stent-graft has several disadvantages, including difficulties associated with the aortic arch curvature and the relatively large caliber of the stent-graft, and the risk of central nervous system or spinal complication. However, the thoracic stentgraft is advantageous because of minimal procedural invasiveness in comparison to surgical graft replacement. In 1994, Dake et al.3 reported transluminal placement of an endovascular stent-graft for thoracic aortic aneurysm, and Kato et al.4 reported use of a stent-graft for aortic dissection and suggested that the stent-graft could be considered an alternative to surgical treatment.

Hyodoh H.

2007-01-01

141

Sliding grafted polymer layers  

CERN Document Server

We study theoretically the structure of sliding grafted polymer layers or SGP layers. These interfacial structures are built by attaching each polymer to the substrate with a ring-like molecule. Such a topological grafting mode allows the chains to freely slide along the attachment point. Escape from the sliding link is prevented by bulky capping groups. We show that grafts in the mushroom regime adopt mainly symmetric configurations (with comparable branch sizes) while grafts in dense layers are highly dissymmetric so that only one branch per graft participates in the layer. Sliding layers on small colloids or star-like sliding micelles exhibit an intermediate behavior where the number of longer branches participating in the corona is independent of the total number of branches. This regime also exists for sliding surface-micelles comprising less chains but it is narrower.

Baulin, V A; Marques, C M; Baulin, Vladimir A.; Johner, Albert; Marques, Carlos M.

2005-01-01

142

What Are the Types of Fat?  

Science.gov (United States)

... 2 of 3 www.move.va.gov Healthy Dietary Fats Monounsaturated Fat Polyunsaturated Fat Olive oil Soybean oil ... 3 of 3 www.move.va.gov Harmful Dietary Fats Saturated Fat Trans Fat High-fat cuts of ...

143

Toxicity of abdominal fat  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abdominal fat or truncal obesity consists of both subcutaneous and visceral fat. It has been found that visceral fat is more metabolically active than subcutaneous fat. The low-level inflammation linked with abdominal fat is associated with insulin resistance and with increases in the release of inflammatory adipokines and cytokines. As a result of these changes, abdominal fat can cause a variety of health conditions. In this review, we focus on the adverse effects of abdominal fat on the body and how it can lead to the development of cardiovascular disease, hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, stroke and cancer. Additionally, we discuss how abdominal fat can be reduced as a result from correction of hormonal deficiencies.

Shawn Mathew

2013-08-01

144

Fats and Proteins  

Science.gov (United States)

This module provides an introdcution to the concepts of fats and proteins. The basic chemical structure of fats as triglycerides is reviewed, and an introduction to protein structure, including the peptide bond is given.

Anthony Carpi

2003-03-27

145

Body Fat Measurement Tools  

Science.gov (United States)

... Cyberkitchen Fitness Center Shape Up & Drop 10 Body Fat Lab BMI Calculator Pregnancy Weight Gain Children Assessing ... Contact List Request for Support Measurement Tools Body fat has many important functions. It is: a "storage ...

146

Weighing in on Dietary Fats  

Science.gov (United States)

... review our exit disclaimer . Subscribe Weighing in on Dietary Fats Some Fats Are Healthier Than Others With the ... are especially important for infants and toddlers, because dietary fat contributes to proper growth and development. “Fats are ...

147

Learning about Fats  

Science.gov (United States)

... t mean a high-fat diet will be good for you. And some fats are better than others. Here are the three ... oils, which are often used in commercial baked goods (the kind you buy at the store). Eating too much saturated fat can raise blood cholesterol levels and increase the ...

148

Dietary fat and cancer.  

OpenAIRE

The present review addresses the evidence for a possible link between dietary fat and cancer. International comparisons suggest that a high-fat diet may increase cancer risk, and this hypothesis is supported by animal experiments. However, epidemiological studies within populations show little or inconsistent associations. Taken together, the available evidence for a relation between dietary fat and cancer is weak

Zock, P. L.

1991-01-01

149

Calcific stenotic jump graft.  

Science.gov (United States)

A young lady with post-subclavian coarctation and cranial hypertension is discussed. She had a jump graft from left subclavian artery to descending aorta, and presented 18 years later with hypertension, calcification of the graft with a gradient of 40 mmHg across it. In the meantime, she also developed moderate aortic regurgitation on a bicuspid aortic valve. Management strategies including trans-catheter options are discussed. We present our reservations on trans-catheter options in an occluded dacron graft. PMID:16749963

Padmakumar, R.; Krishnamoorthy, K. M.; Tharakan, J. A.

2004-01-01

150

CASE REPORT Pharyngocutaneous Fistula Closure Using Autologous Fat Grafting  

OpenAIRE

Objective: Although the majority of pharyngocutaneous fistulas close spontaneously with conservative measures, 20% to 30% of patients do not respond to this approach, thereby necessitating major reconstruction with adjacent or free tissue transfers. These procedures carry considerable risk, particularly in patients with medical comorbidities or a history of prior surgery/radiation. Less invasive treatment approaches designed to reverse tissue damage or promote spontaneous healing would repres...

Hespe, Geoffrey E.; Albornoz, Claudia R.; Mehrara, Babak J.; Kraus, Dennis; Matros, Evan

2013-01-01

151

Gum Graft Surgery  

Science.gov (United States)

... reduce tooth sensitivity and improve esthetics of your smile. Whether you have a gum graft to improve ... receive the benefits of both: a beautiful new smile and improved periodontal health – your keys to smiling, ...

152

Fenestrated Aortic Stent Grafts  

OpenAIRE

Fenestrated stent grafts have been developed to offer an endovascular treatment option to those patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms whose infrarenal necks are anatomically unsuitable for endovascular repair with standard infrarenal devices. The ability to have customized fenestrations that will preserve flow to essential visceral arteries allows proximal seal and fixation to be achieved at and above the renal level. This article discusses patient selection, stent-graft design, and the im...

Scurr, James R. H.; Mcwilliams, Richard G.

2007-01-01

153

Calcific stenotic jump graft.  

OpenAIRE

A young lady with post-subclavian coarctation and cranial hypertension is discussed. She had a jump graft from left subclavian artery to descending aorta, and presented 18 years later with hypertension, calcification of the graft with a gradient of 40 mmHg across it. In the meantime, she also developed moderate aortic regurgitation on a bicuspid aortic valve. Management strategies including trans-catheter options are discussed. We present our reservations on trans-catheter options in an occlu...

Padmakumar, R.; Krishnamoorthy, K. M.; Tharakan, J. A.

2004-01-01

154

Bone grafting: An overview  

OpenAIRE

Bone grafting is the process by which bone is transferred from a source (donor) to site (recipient). Due to trauma from accidents by speedy vehicles, falling down from height or gunshot injury particularly in human being, acquired or developmental diseases like rickets, congenital defects like abnormal bone development, wearing out because of age and overuse; lead to bone loss and to replace the loss we need the bone grafting. Osteogenesis, osteoinduction, osteoconduction, mechanical supports...

Joshi, D. O.; Tank, P. H.; Mahida, H. K.; Dhami, M. A.; Vedpathak, H. S.; Karle, A. S.

2010-01-01

155

On fat oppression.  

Science.gov (United States)

Contemporary Western societies are obsessed with the "obesity epidemic," dieting, and fitness. Fat people violate the Western conscience by violating a thinness norm. In virtue of violating the thinness norm, fat people suffer many varied consequences. Is their suffering morally permissible, or even obligatory? In this paper, I argue that the answer is no. I examine contemporary philosophical accounts of oppression and draw largely on the work of Sally Haslanger to generate a set of conditions sufficient for some phenomena to count as oppression, and I illustrate the account's value using the example of gender oppression. I then apply the account to fat people, examine empirical evidence, and argue that the suffering of fat people counts as oppression (and therefore, generally, discriminating against fat people in virtue of their being fat is morally wrong). PMID:25507571

Eller, G M

2014-09-01

156

On fat oppression.  

Science.gov (United States)

Contemporary Western societies are obsessed with the "obesity epidemic," dieting, and fitness. Fat people violate the Western conscience by violating a thinness norm. In virtue of violating the thinness norm, fat people suffer many varied consequences. Is their suffering morally permissible, or even obligatory? In this paper, I argue that the answer is no. I examine contemporary philosophical accounts of oppression and draw largely on the work of Sally Haslanger to generate a set of conditions sufficient for some phenomena to count as oppression, and I illustrate the account's value using the example of gender oppression. I then apply the account to fat people, examine empirical evidence, and argue that the suffering of fat people counts as oppression (and therefore, generally, discriminating against fat people in virtue of their being fat is morally wrong). PMID:25423849

Eller, G M

2014-09-01

157

The Use of Abdominal Free Fat for Volumetric Augmentation and Primary Dural Closure in Supratentorial Skull Base Surgery: Managing the Stigma of a Temporal Defect  

OpenAIRE

The most prominent stigma of supratentorial skull base surgery is the defect caused by wasting of the temporalis muscle by denervation, devascularization, or rotation of the muscle. Any of the above may lead to a unilateral temporal deformity informally referred to patients as “the divot in my head.” Abdominal free fat grafting has been used by surgeons for years to close posterior fossa defects with excellent results. We present our experience using abdominal free fat grafts to improve c...

Ackerman, Paul D.; Hammers, Ronald; Ibrahim, Tarik; Origitano, T. C.

2012-01-01

158

The Influence of Dietary Fat on Liver Fat Accumulation  

OpenAIRE

Obesity is a known risk factor for the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD); however, it has been suggested that dietary fat, both amount and composition, may play a pivotal role in its development, independent of body fatness. Studies that have investigated the role of dietary fat on liver fat accumulation are reasonably sparse. We review here the available work that has investigated the impact of dietary fat: amount, composition and frequency, on liver fat accumulation i...

Green, Charlotte J.; Leanne Hodson

2014-01-01

159

Radiation grafted adhesive primers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Electron-beam and UV radiation can induce covalent attachment of unsaturated monomers onto a variety of polymer surfaces. The surface characteristics of a polymeric material can therefore be precisely manipulated by grafting the proper combination of monomers onto the surface. Radiation-grafted, sterically nonhindered tertiary acrylamides behave surprisingly well as primers for acidic pressure-sensitive adhesives. Physical and spectroscopic analyses of grafted acrylamides indicate that this unusual behavior is due to hydrogen bonding between the amide functionality in the primer and the acid functionality in the adhesive. Primary and secondary acrylamides are postulated to be less effective because they have the tendency to form hydrogen bonded dimers within the primer rather than interacting with the adhesive. (author)

160

Radiation grafted adhesive primers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Electron-beam and UV radiation can induce covalent attachment of unsaturated monomers onto a variety of polymer surfaces. The surface characteristics of a polymeric material can therefore be precisely manipulated by grafting the proper combination of monomers onto the surface. Radiation-grafted, sterically nonhindered tertiary acrylamides behave surprisingly well as primers for acidic pressure-sensitive adhesives. Physical and spectroscopic analyses of grafted acrylamides indicate that this unusual behavior is due to hydrogen bonding between the amide functionality in the primer and the acid functionality in the adhesive. Primary and secondary acrylamides are postulated to be less effective because they have the tendency to form hydrogen bonded dimers within the primer rather than interacting with the adhesive

161

Effect of skin graft preparation and graft survival on the secondary contraction of full-thickness skin grafts in dogs.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of 4 skin grafting techniques and graft survival on the secondary contraction of full-thickness skin grafts were evaluated. A total of 48 skin grafts were done on 12 dogs, with 2 skin grafts placed on both sides of the thorax of each dog. The grafting techniques included the sheet graft, sheet graft with continuous low-level suction provided by a butterfly catheter and evacuated glass tube, pie-crust graft, and nonexpanded mesh graft. Graft viability was assessed by visual inspection 10 days after surgical operation. Thirty skin grafts (64%) had a viability of 90% or greater. The final area of these grafts ranged from 73% to 119% of the original area. The secondary graft contraction followed a similar pattern for all graft types. During the first 10 days after surgical operation, the grafts contracted to 83% of their original area. Enlargement of the grafts began between 10 and 21 days after surgical operation. By 12 weeks, the grafts had attained a mean value of 96% of the original area. A significant difference in final area was not observed among graft types. Grafts with a high percentage of viability generally contracted less than those with larger areas of necrosis, but statistical relationship between viability and degree of contraction could not be proven. The results of the present study indicate that full-thickness skin grafts may be successfully done in dogs and that the grafts can be expected to undergo minimal postoperative contraction when graft survival is nearly complete. PMID:3909864

Pope, E R

1985-12-01

162

Fats and Your Child  

Science.gov (United States)

... peanut, and canola oils polyunsaturated , found in most vegetable oils omega-3 fatty acids , a type of polyunsaturated fat found in oily fish like tuna and salmon 2. Saturated fats: Found in meat and other animal products, such as butter, shortening, lard, cheese, and milk (except skim or nonfat), ...

163

Fat Emulsions for Injection  

Science.gov (United States)

Your doctor has ordered fat emulsion to be used as a source of calories and fatty acids to maintain or increase your weight. The medication ... Before you administer fat emulsion, look at the solution closely. It should be free of floating material. Gently squeeze the bag or observe ...

164

Fats and fatty acids  

Science.gov (United States)

The absolute fat requirement of the human species is the amount of essential fatty acids needed to maintain optimal fatty acid composition of all tissues and normal eicosanoid synthesis. At most, this requirement is no more than about 5% of an adequate energy intake. However, fat accounts for appro...

165

Acrylonitrile grafted to PVDF  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

PVDF-g-PAN has been synthesized by grafting polyacrylonitrile onto polyvinylidene fluoride using an ATRP/AGET method. The novel polymer is ionically conducive and has much more flexibility than PVDF alone, making it especially useful either as a binder in battery cell electrodes or as a polymer electrolyte in a battery cell.

Yang, Jin; Eitouni, Hany Basam

2015-03-31

166

Alternative fat sources to animal fat for pigs  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The use of fats and oils in diets for pigs is of great importance due to their high energy value. As a consequence of the BSE-crisis in the European Union, the amount of animal fat available for animal feeds has been reduced, and alternative fat sources are of increasing importance. In this paper, we review our main findings on the effects of diets with different fat sources on apparent fat digestibility in pigs. A method for quantitative measurement of fat extraction from feed and faeces has been developed, and this method has been used in a digestibility trial, in which diets added 5% of either animal fat, palm oil mix, palm oil, vegetable oil mix, coconut oil, or rapeseed oil were tested in weaned and growing pigs. It was concluded that several vegetable fat sources (palm oil mix, palm oil, coconut oil, rapeseed oil) could be used as alternatives to animal fat in pig feed, whereas fat blends should be avoided.

Lauridsen, Charlotte; Christensen, Thomas Bruun

2007-01-01

167

Dietary Fat and Cholesterol  

Science.gov (United States)

... Good Sources of Polyunsaturated Fat Include: Canola Oil Sardines Corn Oil Sesame Seeds Cottonseed Oil Soybeans Flaxseeds ... as walnuts) Flaxseed Oil Salmon Green, leafy vegetables Sardines Halibut Soy based foods (such as soybeans, soy ...

168

What Are Solid Fats?  

Science.gov (United States)

... cream and other dairy desserts fried potatoes (French fries) - if fried in a solid fat or hydrogenated ... Accessibility Statement Privacy Policy Non-Discrimination Statement Information Quality USA.gov WhiteHouse.gov

169

Fat activism: a queer autoethnography  

OpenAIRE

Over my 20 year involvement with the movement, I have come to notice that scant attention is paid to fat activism. Despite intensified interest in fat in 21st century Western culture, the richness of fat activism is not reflected in a somewhat meagre literature, and fat activists themselves have offered few reflective or analytic accounts that deal with the depth and breadth of what they do. Fat activism offers tools with which marginalised people can adapt and develop agency, ...

Cooper, Charlotte Rachel Mary

2012-01-01

170

Polystyrene modified by grafting  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Diversos tipos de poliestireno modificados foram obtidos através da polimerização por enxertia (graft polymerization) de estireno na presença dos seguintes modificadores: copolímero de etileno-acetato de vinila (EVA); polietileno de baixa densidade (PE) e polibutadieno (PB). Os modificadores foram u [...] tilizados em separado e combinados. Em todos os casos, manteve-se a concentração de modificador fixa em 8% em peso e foram avaliadas as propriedades dos produtos obtidos em função da sua composição. A técnica de polimerização empregada foi a de massa/suspensão. Os melhores resultados foram obtidos para os sistemas PS/modificadores mistos. Os resultados obtidos para estes sistemas comprovam que a copolimerização por enxertia gera produtos com melhores propriedades de impacto do que as obtidas, a partir de misturas mecânicas dos componentes individuais, em sistemas semelhantes. Abstract in english Several grades of modified polystyrene were obtained through the graft polymerization of styrene in the presence of modifiers such as ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA), low density polyethylene (PE), and polybutadiene (PB). These modifiers were used by themselves and in combination. In all cases, the mod [...] ifier concentration was kept constant at 8% w/w, and the product properties were determined as a function of composition. The polymerization technique employed was that of mass/suspension. The best results were obtained for the PS/mixed modifiers systems. The results confirm that graft copolymers present better impact properties than those of mechanical blends of similar composition.

Avani Maria C, Rocha; Laura Hecker de, Carvalho; Antonio Gouveia de, Souza.

1997-06-01

171

Preparation of anionic fibrous catalyst by radiation graft polymerization for biodiesel synthesis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Anionic fibrous catalyst for biodiesel production from vegetable oils and animal fats was synthesized through radiation induced graft polymerization of 4-chloromethylstyrene (CMS) onto a nonwoven polyethylene (NWPE) fabric followed by amination with trimethylamine (TMA). The influence of grafting degree of the TMA-CMS-g-NWPE at 0.25 M TMA concentration was investigated by elemental analyzer, FTIR and TGA. Results show that the density of trimethylammonium group increased with the degree of grafting. However, thermal properties of the TMA-CMS-g-NWPE reduced with the degree of grafting. The preliminary transesterification test on triolein/ethanol/decane solution using selected TMA-CMS-g-NWPE containing 3.01 mmol/g trimethylammonium found that 98% the triolein can be converted into biodiesel within 4 h reaction. High conversion of rapeseed oil into biodiesel provides more information on the capability of TMA-CMS-g-NWPE as ion exchanger for biodiesel production. (Author)

172

Pakistan. Graft-Polymerization Under Irradiation and its Effect on Water Repellency and Resistance to Certain Micro-Organisms  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The fibre from the jute plants Corchorus capsularis and C. olitorius consists of cellulose (69-78%), lignin (10-15%), furfuraldehyde (9-11%), xylen (10-12%) and fat (1%). Jute fibre is commercially used for making sacks for packing purposes and is an important item of Pakistan's foreign trade. It was intended to graft-copolymerize jute with various monomers with the idea of determining its water absorption and resistance to microorganisms. Such studies would enlarge the scope of the commercial utilization of jute fibre. Graft-copolymerization or graft-polymerization in our studies invariably refers to soaking jute with monomers under the conditions of the experiment

173

Are the additional grafts necessary?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The goals of surgery for spinal deformity are to correct or improve the deformity to get a stable, balanced and fused spine. The long-term success of any procedure for scoliosis depends on a solid arthrodesis. Getting fusion of the instrumented segment with the aid of copious autogenous iliac graft has been the most important goal of treatment. However, harvesting copious graft from teenage iliac bone has its limitation in the quantity of graft, surgical time, and other complications of graft sites. Bone substitute is a promising concept, but there is not ideal bone substitute with all the characteristics of an autogenous bone graft. Several alternative graft materials like tricalcium phosphate, hydroxyapatite, and demineralized bone matrix have osteoinductive properties. Bone morphogenic protein has osteoconductive properties. The limitations with bone substitutes are osteoinduction and osteoconduction properties, sterilization, chances of transmitting infective disease and cost. We consider that the introduction of segmental spinal instrumentation which enables strong and firm correction and fixation of the scoliotic deformity has enabled getting fusion with less graft. We can obtain that quantity of graft after laminae and spinous process decortication. This retrospective study has been done in our hospital from January 2002 to December 2004. A total of 188 patients underwent posterior corrections for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis using segmental fixation by Moss-Miami. No autogenous iliac crest graft was taken or graft substitutes. After meticulous decortication and destruction of facet joints, we used local graft taken from spinous process and laminae. All patients had minimum thirty months follow- up. We have excellent results. Out of these 188 patients, 177 patients have fused spine, no implant failure, no pain, no infection and no loss of correction. Eleven (5.8% patients underwent re-operation; four among them because of infection, three for symptomatic implants and four due to pseudarthrosis. We consider that the use of local harvesting graft is enough for getting good spondylodesis.

?ur?i? A.

2010-01-01

174

Environmental application of radiation grafting  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Adsorbent having high selectivity against a certain metal ion was synthesized by means of radiation-induced graft polymerization for the purpose of environmental application. The resulting adsorbents were utilized for the removal of toxic metal from scallop waste and the collection of uranium from seawater. As a novel application of grafting, the biodegradability of poly-hydroxybutylate was controlled by grafting. The biodegradability could be depressed by the graft chain and then recovered by external stimuli such as thermal and chemical treatments. (author)

175

Dynamical fat link fermions  

CERN Document Server

The use of APE smearing or other blocking techniques in fermion actions can provide many advantages. There are many variants of these fat link actions in lattice QCD currently, such as FLIC fermions. Frequently, fat link actions make use of the APE blocking technique in combination with a projection of the blocked links back into the special unitary group. This reunitarisation is often performed using an iterative maximisation of a gauge invariant measure. This technique is not differentiable with respect to the gauge field and thus prevents the use of standard Hybrid Monte Carlo simulation algorithms. The use of an alternative projection technique circumvents this difficulty and allows the simulation of dynamical fat link fermions with standard HMC and its variants.

Kamleh, W; Williams, A G; Kamleh, Waseem; Leinweber, Derek B.; Williams, Anthony G.; 10.1016/j.nuclphysbps.2003.12.058

2004-01-01

176

Dynamical fat link fermions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The use of APE smearing or other blocking techniques in fermion actions can provide many advantages. There are many variants of these fat link actions in lattice QCD currently, such as FLIC fermions. Frequently, fat link actions make use of the APE blocking technique in combination with a projection of the blocked links back into the special unitary group. This reunitarisation is often performed using an iterative maximisation of a gauge invariant measure. This technique is not differentiable with respect to the gauge field and thus prevents the use of standard Hybrid Monte Carlo simulation algorithms. The use of an alternative projection technique circumvents this difficulty and allows the simulation of dynamical fat link fermions with standard HMC and its variants.

Kamleh, Waseem; Leinweber, Derek B.; Williams, Anthony G

2004-02-01

177

Dynamical fat link fermions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The use of APE smearing or other blocking techniques in fermion actions can provide many advantages. There are many variants of these fat link actions in lattice QCD currently, such as FLIC fermions. Frequently, fat link actions make use of the APE blocking technique in combination with a projection of the blocked links back into the special unitary group. This reunitarisation is often performed using an iterative maximisation of a gauge invariant measure. This technique is not differentiable with respect to the gauge field and thus prevents the use of standard Hybrid Monte Carlo simulation algorithms. The use of an alternative projection technique circumvents this difficulty and allows the simulation of dynamical fat link fermions with standard HMC and its variants

178

Femoral impaction grafting  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Femoral impaction grafting is a reconstruction option applicable to both simple and complex femoral component revisions. It is one of the preferred techniques for reconstructing large femoral defects when the isthmus is non-supportive. The available level of evidence is primarily derived from case series, which shows a mean survivorship of 90.5%, with revision or re-operation as the end-point, with an average follow-up of 11 years. The rate of femoral fracture requiring re-operation or revision of the component varies between several large case series, ranging from 2.5% to 9%, with an average of 5.4%.

John A Scanelli

2013-01-01

179

Fat heaps : Source code  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This report is an electronic appendix to our paper \\Fat heaps without regular counters". In that paper we described a new variant of fat heaps that is conceptually simpler and easier to implement than the original version. We also compared the practical performance of this data structure to that of other related data structures (run-relaxed weak queues and Fibonacci heaps). This report to- gether with an accompanying tar le gives the source code used in the experiments reported in the paper. By making the programs publicly available, we provide other researchers the opportunity to scrutinize the code and compare their own imple- mentations against ours.

Elmasry, Amr Ahmed Abd Elmoneim; Katajainen, Jyrki

2011-01-01

180

Collapse of grafted polyelectrolyte layer  

OpenAIRE

The theory describing chain conformation in a planar layer of grafted polyelectrolyte (polyampholyte) molecules and the conformational transition related to the collapse of this layer caused by the decrease in solvent strenght is developed. Depending on the values of the layer parameters (grafting and charge densities) this transition may occur as a continuous (cooperative) or as a first order phase transition.

Borisov, O.; Birshtein, T.; Zhulina, E.

1991-01-01

181

Comparison of Fat7-bar and HYP fat links  

OpenAIRE

We study various methods of constructing fat links based upon the HYP (by Hasenfratz & Knechtli) and Fat7-bar (by W. Lee) algorithms. We present the minimum plaquette distribution for these fat links. This enables us to determine which algorithm is most effective at reducing the spread of plaquette values.

Bilson-thompson, S. O.; Lee, W.

2003-01-01

182

Does off-pump total arterial grafting increase the incidence of intraoperative graft failure?  

OpenAIRE

BACKGROUND: Early graft failure is a common cause of cardiac mortality and morbidity after coronary artery bypass grafting, but there is little information on its natural incidence. Furthermore, there is particular concern about graft patency in off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting and total arterial grafting. METHODS: We performed a prospective observational study to assess intraoperative graft patency in patients undergoing off-pump and on-pump coronary artery bypass grafting, who also ...

Balacumaraswami, L.; Abu-omar, Y.; Anastasiadis, K.; Choudhary, B.; Pigott, D.; Yeong, Sk; Taggart, Dp

2004-01-01

183

Face the Fats Quiz 2  

Science.gov (United States)

Do you know your fats by heart? Ready to make informed choices about the foods you eat? From fish to French fries to fried chicken, test your knowledge about the fats in some familiar foods. Welcome to Face the ...

184

Radiation grafting on natural films  

Science.gov (United States)

Different methods of polymer grafting using gamma irradiation are reported in the present study for the preparation of newly functionalized biodegradable films, and some important properties related to their mechanical and barrier properties are described. Biodegradable films composed of zein and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) were gamma-irradiated in presence of different ratios of acrylic acid (AAc) monomer for compatibilization purpose. Resulting grafted films (zein/PVA-g-AAc) had their puncture strength (PS=37-40 N mm-1) and puncture deformation (PD=6.5-9.8 mm) improved for 30% and 50% PVA in blend, with 5% AAc under 20 kGy. Methylcellulose (MC)-based films were irradiated in the presence of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) or silane, in order to determine the effect of monomer grafting on the mechanical properties of films. It was found that grafted films (MC-g-HEMA and MC-g-silane) using 35% monomer performed higher mechanical properties with PS values of 282-296 N mm-1 and PD of 5.0-5.5 mm under 10 kGy. Compatibilized polycaprolactone (PCL)/chitosan composites were developed via grafting silane in chitosan films. Resulting trilayer grafted composite film (PCL/chitosan-g-silane/PCL) presented superior tensile strength (TS=22 MPa) via possible improvement of interfacial adhesion (PCL/chitosan) when using 25% silane under 10 kGy. Finally, MC-based films containing crystalline nanocellulose (CNC) as a filling agent were prepared and irradiated in presence of trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate (TMPTMA) as a grafted plasticizer. Grafted films (MC-g-TMPTMA) presented superior mechanical properties with a TS of 47.9 MPa and a tensile modulus (TM) of 1792 MPa, possibly due to high yield formation of radicals to promote TMPTMA grafting during irradiation. The addition of CNC led to an additional improvement of the barrier properties, with a significant 25% reduction of water vapor permeability (WVP) of grafted films.

Lacroix, M.; Khan, R.; Senna, M.; Sharmin, N.; Salmieri, S.; Safrany, A.

2014-01-01

185

Fats for diabetics. (Letter).  

OpenAIRE

Opinion. Comments on the treatment of type 2 diabetes from the interaction between nature and nurture. Effective form of treatment for type 2 diabetes; Composition of the diet for diabetics; Identification of unsaturated fats in the diabetic diet; Risks faced by diabetic patients.

Katan, M. B.

1994-01-01

186

That Fat Cat  

Science.gov (United States)

This activity began with a picture book, Nurit Karlin's "Fat Cat On a Mat" (HarperCollins; 1998). The author and her students started their project with a 5-inch circular template for the head of their cats. They reviewed shapes as they drew the head and then added the ears and nose, which were triangles. Details to the face were added when…

Lambert, Phyllis Gilchrist

2012-01-01

187

Protect Your Heart: Choose Healthy Fats  

Science.gov (United States)

... some types of fish, oils, and other foods. Monounsaturated fat: Monounsaturated fat is a type of unsaturated fat ... poultry • liver and other organ meats Sources of monounsaturated fat • avocado • canola oil • olive oil and olives • sesame ...

188

Radiation grafting of styrene into PVDF powder  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Polyvinylidene fluoride PVDF powder was chosen as the base material, and grafted with styrene monomer under pre-irradiation graft polymerization method. The styrene grafted PVDF (PVDF-g-PS) powder was characterized by FTIR spectroscopy, DSC, TGA and element analysis. The FTIR spectra demonstrate that the poly-styrene is successfully grafted into PVDF powder. The crystallinity of grafted PVDF powder decreases with the increasing in the degree of grafting according to the DSC curves. The TGA curves of PVDF-g-PS change remarkably with respect to the original PVDF. It further proves the polystyrene is successfully grafted into PVDF powder. (authors)

189

A Reappraisal of Saphenous Vein Grafting  

OpenAIRE

Autologous saphenous vein grafting has been broadly used as a bypass conduit, interposition graft, and patch graft in a variety of operations in cardiac, thoracic, neurovascular, general vascular, vascular access, and urology surgeries, since they are superior to prosthetic veins. Modified saphenous vein grafts (SVG), including spiral and cylindrical grafts, and vein cuffs or patches, are employed in vascular revascularization to satisfy the large size of the receipt vessels or to obtain a be...

Yuan Shi-Min; Jing Hua

2011-01-01

190

Cerebral fat embolism  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A case of cerebral fat embolism is reported. A 18-year-old patient with multiple bone fractures was in semiconma immediately after an injury. Brain CT showed no brain swelling or intracranial hematoma. Hypoxemia and alcoholemia were noted on admission, which returned to normal without improvement of consciousness level. In addition, respiratory symptoms with positive radiographic changes, tachycardia, pyrexia, sudden drop in hemoglobin level, and sudden thrombocytopenia developed. These symptoms were compatible with Gurd's criteria of systemic fat embolism. Eight days after injury, multiple low density areas appeared on CT and disappeared within the subsequent two weeks, and subdural effusion with cerebral atrophy developed. These CT findings were not considered due to cerebral trauma. Diagnosis of cerebral fat embolism was made. The subdural effusion was drained. Neurologic and pulmonary recoveries took place slowly and one month following the injury the patient became alert and exhibited fully coordinated limb movement. The CT scans of the present case well corresponded with hitherto reported pathological findings. Petechiae in the white matter must have developed on the day of injury, which could not be detected by CT examination. It is suggested that some petechial regions fused to purpuras and then gradually resolved when they were detected as multiple low density areas on CT. CT in the purpuras phase would have shown these lesions as high density areas. These lese lesions as high density areas. These lesions must have healed with formation of tiny scars and blood pigment which were demonstrated as the disappearance of multiple low density areas by CT examination. Cerebral atrophy and subsequent subdural effusion developed as a result of demyelination. The patient took the typical clinical course of cerebral fat embolism and serial CT scans served for its assessment. (author)

191

Fat Chuck's Corrupt CDs  

Science.gov (United States)

"Fat Chuck" is here compiling a list of CDs that are designed so that they cannot be played on computerized devices and/or cannot be copied. Users should take the list with a grain of salt, as Chuck himself admits that some titles only have a percentage of their print run affected. The site solicits additions to the list, and there is a .pdf or Word-formatted poster for those who wish to spread the word.

192

Facial Fat Necrosis Following Autologous Fat Transfer and its Management  

OpenAIRE

Autologous fat transfer (AFT) is an increasingly popular cosmetic procedure practiced by dermatologic surgeons worldwide. As this is an office based procedure performed under local or tumescent anaesthesia with fat transferred within the same individual and limited associated down time its is considered relatively safe and risk free in the cosmetic surgery arena. We describe a case of AFT related fat necrosis causing significant facial dysmorphia and psychosocial distress. We also discuss the...

Rai, Sweta; Marsland, Alexander M.; Madan, Vishal

2014-01-01

193

Prognosis of closure of large sinus membrane perforations using pedicled buccal fat pads and a resorbable collagen membrane: case series study  

OpenAIRE

For large membrane perforations that develop during sinus-bone grafting, we performed repairs using a pedicled buccal fat pad and a resorbable collagen membrane simultaneously with the bone graft. This study included eight patients. Postoperative maxillary sinusitis developed in two patients, which we managed with incision and drainage, and antibiotics. Ultimately, six patients received 12 implants, three of which failed (75% success). Implant replacement was performed after the removal of th...

Kim, Young-kyun; Yun, Pil-young; Oh, Ji-su; Kim, Su-gwan

2014-01-01

194

Radiation grafting on natural films  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Different methods of polymer grafting using gamma irradiation are reported in the present study for the preparation of newly functionalized biodegradable films, and some important properties related to their mechanical and barrier properties are described. Biodegradable films composed of zein and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) were gamma-irradiated in presence of different ratios of acrylic acid (AAc) monomer for compatibilization purpose. Resulting grafted films (zein/PVA-g-AAc) had their puncture strength (PS=37–40 N mm?1) and puncture deformation (PD=6.5–9.8 mm) improved for 30% and 50% PVA in blend, with 5% AAc under 20 kGy. Methylcellulose (MC)-based films were irradiated in the presence of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) or silane, in order to determine the effect of monomer grafting on the mechanical properties of films. It was found that grafted films (MC-g-HEMA and MC-g-silane) using 35% monomer performed higher mechanical properties with PS values of 282–296 N mm?1 and PD of 5.0–5.5 mm under 10 kGy. Compatibilized polycaprolactone (PCL)/chitosan composites were developed via grafting silane in chitosan films. Resulting trilayer grafted composite film (PCL/chitosan-g-silane/PCL) presented superior tensile strength (TS=22 MPa) via possible improvement of interfacial adhesion (PCL/chitosan) when using 25% silane under 10 kGy. Finally, MC-based films containing crystalline nanocellulose (CNC) as a filling agent were prepared and irradiated in presence of trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate (TMPTMA) as a grafted plasticizer. Grafted films (MC-g-TMPTMA) presented superior mechanical properties with a TS of 47.9 MPa and a tensile modulus (TM) of 1792 MPa, possibly due to high yield formation of radicals to promote TMPTMA grafting during irradiation. The addition of CNC led to an additional improvement of the barrier properties, with a significant 25% reduction of water vapor permeability (WVP) of grafted films. - Highlights: • Irradiation of zein/PVA/acrylic acid improved the mechanical properties of films. • Irradiation of Methylcellulose/NCC/TMPTMA improved the barrier properties of films. • Irradiation of chitosane/Methylcellulose/HEMA/silane improved the strength of films

195

Fat sensing and metabolic syndrome.  

Science.gov (United States)

Overconsumption of dietary fat contributes to the development of obesity and metabolic syndrome. Recent evidence suggests that high dietary fat may promote these metabolic states not only by providing calories but also by inducing impaired control of energy balance. In normal metabolic states, fat interacts with various organs or receptors to generate signals for the regulation of energy balance. Many of these interactions are impaired by high-fat diets or in obesity, contributing to the development or maintenance of obesity. These impairments may arise largely from fundamental alterations in the hypothalamus where all peripheral signals are integrated to regulate energy balance. This review focuses on various mechanisms by which fat is sensed at different stages of ingestion, circulation, storage, and utilization to regulate food intake, and how these individual mechanisms are altered by high-fat diets or in obesity. PMID:25344446

Youn, Jang H

2014-12-01

196

[Graft or CVC? A prosthetic graft is the better choice].  

Science.gov (United States)

For more than 30 years, research and industry have attempted to introduce into clinical practice solutions and products that could remedy the impossibility to use native veins. Vascular grafts of various types have been created that would approach the ideal characteristics as closely as possible with low antigenic power, high resistance to infections, low risk of thrombosis, and easy pierceability but high resistance to puncturing. For this purpose various materials, either totally synthetic such as PTFE, biological homologous or heterologous, or biosynthetic with mixed components have been created. In addition, different configurations to improve the hemodynamic outline of synthetic grafts have been studied: grafts of varying caliber, conical or equipped with cuffs, and various systems of wall reinforcement to increase the resistance to punctures. But each of these types favors one aspect over another: biological grafts show better compliance with the native vein but offer less resistance to punctures and ectatic processes; synthetic grafts, instead, tend to be more vulnerable to intimal hyperplasia at the venous anastomosis, which is the Achilles' heel of grafts. In recent years, the use of tunneled central venous catheters (CVCs) has grown exponentially. This has offered a new, important solution to the vascular access problem, but the extensive use of CVCs is not always justified. In comparison with grafts, CVCs have various disadvantages including insertion-related complications, possible malfunctioning, risk of infections and thrombosis, but above all a high risk of steno-occlusion of central veins. Also in this field, research and industry are offering more and more reliable and secure products. More resistant, flexible, tolerable and less thrombogenic materials are being used and various configurations which would offer the best performance with the least insertion-related risks have been introduced: double-lumen CVCs with input and output staggered in oval and circular sections, separate-lumen CVCs, split CVCs, and so on. Also the radiological and ultrasound techniques of insertion have improved, thereby reducing risks and disadvantages. The choice of graft system or CVC is often determined not by clinical factors but by the preference or experience of the operator, the presence of a vascular surgeon, or a radiological staff experienced in vascular accesses. The probability of steno-occlusion of central veins, which may occur as early as 2 weeks after the procedure, could affect any other ''traditional'' vascular access in the corresponding limb owing to the high risk of arm edema. In the surgical timing, the preparation of a graft access should therefore precede the placement of a CVC. The refinement of endovascular procedures has allowed to increase the secondary patency considerably, permitting excellent survival of graft accesses. Statistical studies performed on large samples of patients have reported a marked increase in the mortality connected to CVC access, not only as a result of infection. There are, however, according to my surgical experience, some conditions in which the use of the CVC is a priority, namely in patients with severe cardiopathy and reduced ejection fraction in whom volume overload caused by a graft access increases the risk of cardiac failure; in pediatric patients weighing less than 20 kg, in whom a graft vascular access could cause notable, even insuperable, difficulties of construction and management, as well as negative psychological implications for the small patient; in very elderly patients in poor clinical condition with a short life expectancy or suffering from cancer, in whom a CVC could be used also for the infusion of chemotherapeutic drugs; and in patients with peripheral arteriopathy in whom the alternative is a graft in a lower limb, because of the high risk of ischemia. PMID:19382069

Cifarelli, M

2009-01-01

197

What’s fat activism?  

OpenAIRE

In 21st century Western culture, obesity is such a maligned state of being that the notion of fat activism is unthinkable to most people. "Fat" and "activist" are not words that sit together well in the popular imagination. The idea of activism suggests a dynamic engagement with public life that could not be further from couch potato stereotypes associated with fat people, or popular paradigms which typify "the obese" as innately unwholesome, passive recipients of pity and inte...

Cooper, Charlotte Rachel Mary

2008-01-01

198

The Supersymmetric Fat Higgs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Supersymmetric models have traditionally been assumed to be perturbative up to high scales due to the requirement of calculable unification. In this note I review the recently proposed 'Fat Higgs' model which relaxes the requirement of perturbativity. In this framework, an NMSSM-like trilinear coupling becomes strong at some intermediate scale. The NMSSM Higgses are meson composites of an asymptotically-free gauge theory. This allows us to raise the mass of the Higgs, thus alleviating the MSSM of its fine tuning problem. Despite the strong coupling at an intermediate scale, the UV completion allows us to maintain gauge coupling unification.

199

[Plaque surgery for Peyronie's disease: heterologous grafts].  

Science.gov (United States)

Surgical treatment of Induratio Penis Plastica includes conservative procedures (phalloplasty), substitutive procedures (prosthesis) and combined procedures (phalloplasty plus prosthesis). Our policy for conservative treatment is based on radical removal of the plaque and replacement with biological patches. During a 15 year experience we employed lyophilized dura mater, autologous dermal graft, preputial skin, cadaveric dermal graft (AlloDerm), venous graft and porcine SIS (Small Intestine Submucosa) graft. Our experience confirms the superiority of venous grafts, but preliminary results with SIS grafts are encouraging. PMID:12868152

Paradiso, Matteo; Sedigh, Omid; Milan, Gian Luca

2003-06-01

200

Cooking with Healthier Fats and Oils  

Science.gov (United States)

Cooking with Healthier Fats and Oils When you do use fats and oils, choose those with less saturated fat, trans fat, and cholesterol. parent tips ... Oil Margarine (tub) Peanut Oil Margarine (stick) Cottonseed Oil Chicken Fat Lard Beef Tallow Bacon Grease Palm Oil Butter ...

201

Upper limb grafts for hemodialysis access.  

Science.gov (United States)

Arteriovenous (AV) grafts are required for hemodialysis access when options for native fistulas have been fully exhausted, where they continue to play an important role in hemodialysis patients, offering a better alternative to central vein catheters. When planning autogenous accesses using Doppler ultrasound, adequate arterial inflow and venous outflow must be consciously preserved for future access creation with grafts. Efforts to improve graft patency include changing graft configuration, graft biology and hemodynamics. Industry offers early cannulation grafts to reduce central catheter use and a bioengineered graft is undergoing clinical studies. Although the outcome of AV grafts is inferior to fistulas, grafts can provide long-term hemodialysis access that is a better alternative to central venous catheters. AV grafts have significant drawbacks, mainly poor patency, infection and cost but also have some advantages: early maturation, ease of creation and needling and widespread availability. The outcome of AV graft surgery is variable from center to center. The primary patency rate for AV grafts is 58% at 6 months and the secondary patency rate is 76% at 6 months and 55% at 18 months. There are centers of excellence that report a 1 year secondary patency rate of up to 91%. In this review of the use of AV grafts for hemodialysis access in the upper extremities, technical issues involved in planning the access and performing the surgery in its different configurations are discussed and the role of surveillance and maintenance with their attendant surgical and radiological interventions is described. PMID:25751548

Shemesh, David; Goldin, Ilya; Verstandig, Anthony; Berelowitz, Daniel; Zaghal, Ibrahim; Olsha, Oded

2015-03-01

202

POST CORONARY ARTERY BYPASS GRAFT STUDY (CABG)  

Science.gov (United States)

Relative effectiveness of moderate versus more aggressive lipid lowering, and of low dose anticoagulation versus placebo, in delaying saphenous vein coronary bypass graft atherosclerosis and preventing occlusion of saphenous grafts of patients with saphenous vein coronary bypass ...

203

Who Needs Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting?  

Science.gov (United States)

... Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting? Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is used to treat people who have severe ... CHD) that could lead to a heart attack . CABG also might be used during or after a ...

204

Oil and fat absorbing polymers  

Science.gov (United States)

A method is described for forming a solid network polymer having a minimal amount of crosslinking for use in absorbing fats and oils. The polymer remains solid at a swelling ratio in oil or fat of at least ten and provides an oil absorption greater than 900 weight percent.

Marsh, H. E., Jr. (inventor)

1977-01-01

205

Ultrasonography of the LIMA graft  

OpenAIRE

Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is a surgical procedure that has been in existence since 1967 [1]. Over the years, the use of the left internal mammary artery (LIMA), has been shown to be the conduit of choice for single or sequential bypass grafting to the anterior wall of the heart because of its long-term patency [2-10]. The LIMA originates from the stem of the concave side of the subclavian artery opposite the vertebral artery. It runs behind the cartilage of the fir...

Hartman, J. M.

2009-01-01

206

Trans fats: What physicians should know  

OpenAIRE

Hydrogenation of fat products is used in the food industry to extend their shelf life. Trans fats are the result of partial hydrogenation of unsaturated fat. Trans fats increase low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and decrease high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, thus increasing the risk of cardiovascular disease. Canadians have one of the highest dietary intake of trans fat in the world. Health Canada has made recommendations to decrease the trans fat intake of Canadians. Physicians should ...

Marchand, V.

2010-01-01

207

New variant for whole pancreas grafting  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A new variant for whole pancreas grafting is described in which a segment of the duodenum and the spleen is included in the graft. The graft is placed extraperitoneally as in kidney transplantation. The exocrine drainage is with side-to-side anastomosis between duodenum and bladder. The spleen is irradiated to prevent the occurrence of GVHD, as is reported in splenic transplantation

208

Multisaccular Aneurysm in a Coronary Vein Graft  

OpenAIRE

This report describes an unusual multisaccular vein graft aneurysm that developed in a patient who had undergone aortocoronary bypass with a saphenous vein graft. The aneurysm was a complication of an atherosclerotic lesion. This case supports the belief that aortocoronary vein grafts have an increased susceptibility to aneurysm formation. (Texas Heart Institute Journal 1988;15:59-60)

Pintar, Karl; Barboriak, Joseph J.; Moreno, Miguel

1988-01-01

209

Sodium and chloride exclusion and retention by non-grafted and grafted melon and Cucurbita plants  

OpenAIRE

The effects of grafting on Na and Cl– uptake and distribution in plant tissues were quantified in a greenhouse experiment using six combinations of melon (Cucumis melo L. cv. Arava) and pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima Duchesne×Cucurbita moschata Duchesne cv. TZ-148): non-grafted, self-grafted, melons grafted on pumpkins, and pumpkins grafted on melons. Total Na concentration in shoots of plants with pumpkin or melon rootstocks was 400?mmol kg?1, respectively, regardless of the scion. In cont...

Edelstein, M.; Plaut, Z.; Ben-hur, M.

2010-01-01

210

Anticoagulation and Temporary Graft Occlusion to Determine the Need for Revascularization Following Vascular Graft Infection  

OpenAIRE

The patient with a patent, infected vascular graft presents a dilemma to the surgeon, who must decide whether revascularization is necessary in addition to removal of the infected graft. When a graft infection points superficially or requires drainage, the graft may be well enough exposed to provide easy access. A technique to determine preoperatively the need for revascularization in two patients with patent, exposed grafts is discussed. Following therapeutic anticoagulation, the exposed gra...

Lawrence, Peter F.

1982-01-01

211

Treatment of oroantral fistula with autologous bone graft and application of a non-reabsorbable membrane  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the current report is to illustrate an alternative technique for the treatment of oroantral fistula (OAF, using an autologous bone graft integrated by xenologous particulate bone graft.Background: Acute and chronic oroantral communications (OAC, OAF can occur as a result of inadequate treatment. In fact surgical procedures into the maxillary posterior area can lead to inadvertent communication with the maxillary sinus. Spontaneous healing can occur in defects smaller than 3 mm while larger communications should be treated without delay, in order to avoid sinusitis. The most used techniques for the treatment of OAF involve buccal flap, palatal rotation - advancement flap, Bichat fat pad. All these surgical procedures are connected with a significant risk of morbidity of the donor site, infections, avascular flap necrosis, impossibility to repeat the surgical technique after clinical failure, and patient discomfort.Case presentation: We report a 65-years-old female patient who came to our attention for the presence of an OAF and was treated using an autologous bone graft integrated by xenologous particulate bone graft. An expanded polytetrafluoroethylene titanium-reinforced membrane (Gore-Tex ® was used in order to obtain an optimal reconstruction of soft tissues and to assure the preservation of the bone graft from epithelial connection.Conclusions: This surgical procedure showed a good stability of the bone grafts, with a complete resolution of the OAF, optimal management of complications, including patient discomfort, and good regeneration of soft tissues.Clinical significance: The principal advantage of the use of autologous bone graft with an expanded polytetrafluoroethylene titanium-reinforced membrane (Gore-Tex ® to guide the bone regeneration is that it assures a predictable healing and allows a possible following implant-prosthetic rehabilitation.

Adele Scattarella, Andrea Ballini, Felice Roberto Grassi, Andrea Carbonara, Francesco Ciccolella, Angela Dituri, Gianna Maria Nardi, Stefania Cantore, Francesco Pettini

2010-01-01

212

Resisting body dissatisfaction: fat women who endorse fat acceptance.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fat women who endorsed fat acceptance (N=128) were recruited from Radiance Magazine. Relationships between objectified body consciousness (OBC), body esteem, and psychological well-being for the mostly European American sample were similar to those found in other samples. OBC was independently related to body esteem when weight dissatisfaction was controlled. Those who endorsed the need for social change in attitudes towards fat people had higher body esteem and self-acceptance, and lower body shame, than those who endorsed personal acceptance of body size only. PMID:18089154

McKinley, Nita Mary

2004-05-01

213

Markers of primary graft dysfunction  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The present invention relates to methods for diagnosing transplant rejection, or a condition associated with transplant rejection, such as, primary graft dysfunction in a subject, to antigen probe arrays for performing such a diagnosis, and to antigen probe sets for generating such arrays.

Hagedorn, Peter Technical University of Denmark,

214

Vascular grafting strategies in coronary intervention  

Science.gov (United States)

With the growing need for coronary revascularizations globally, several strategies to restore blood flow to the heart have been explored. Bypassing the atherosclerotic coronary arteries with autologous grafts, synthetic prostheses and tissue-engineered vascular grafts continue to be evaluated in search of a readily available vascular graft with clinically acceptable outcomes. The development of such a vascular graft including tissue engineering approaches both in situ and in vitro is herein reviewed, facilitating a detailed comparison on the role of seeded cells in vascular graft patency.

Knight, Darryl; Gillies, Elizabeth; Mequanint, Kibret

2014-06-01

215

Trans Fat Now Listed With Saturated Fat and Cholesterol  

Science.gov (United States)

... Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Food Print this page Share this page E-mail this page Home Food Ingredients, Packaging & Labeling Labeling & Nutrition Trans Fat Now Listed With Saturated ...

216

Fat tax and food consumption  

OpenAIRE

The concept of a fat tax is a heavily debated topic around the world (given increasing levels of obesity and overweight) as a measure to be used by legislators to control the consumption of food items that are seen to cause obesity and overweight. The purpose of a fat tax can be likened to that of a sin tax (used to control consumption of products seen as vices to society). Little research has been carried out on fat tax in South Africa as the debate surrounding the levels o...

Storom, Dominic Lebohang

2013-01-01

217

Martius graft for management of exposed vaginal prolapse mesh.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although the use of vaginal mesh kits in treatment of pelvic organ prolapse (POP) has decreased the number of surgical failures, mesh exposure can occur. When conservative management fails, removing the exposed material is associated with the risk of recurrence of POP and could be challenging. We report a successful outcome of treatment of exposed mesh via use of a Martius bulbocavernosus fat pad. A 46-year-old woman had urinary incontinence and POP, which was treated using a vaginal mesh kit and tension-free vaginal tape. At 2 months after the procedure, the mesh was found to be exposed. After failed conservative management, use of a Martius graft was used, with preservation of the mesh. At 2-, 5-, and 10-month follow-up, the patient was completely asymptomatic and continent. This procedure may be a practical alternative in patients with synthetic mesh-induced vaginal erosion after failed conservative management. PMID:23295200

Al-Badr, Ahmed

2013-01-01

218

Evaluation of the graft flow reserve after coronary artery bypass grafting by stress 201Tl myocardial SPECT. Comparison between arterial grafts and venous grafts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We performed stress 201Tl myocardial SPECT to evaluate ischemia and perfusion reserve after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). A total of 103 patients was performed stress 201Tl myocardial SPECT one month after CABG. Each patient's myocardium was divided into 9 segments and visually evaluated using five grade scoring system (0=defect, 1=severe decrease, 2=moderate decrease, 3=mild decrease, 4=normal uptake). Eleven of 133 (8.27%) segments covered by patent venous grafts showed reversible 201Tl defect, however, 36 of 117 (30.8%) segments which covered by patent arterial grafts showed reversible 201Tl defect. This finding was observed more significantly in arterial grafts than in venous grafts (p<0.001). These finding suggests that arterial grafts have lower flow capacity than venous grafts at peak exercise. (author)

219

Evaluation of the graft flow reserve after coronary artery bypass grafting by stress {sup 201}Tl myocardial SPECT. Comparison between arterial grafts and venous grafts  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We performed stress {sup 201}Tl myocardial SPECT to evaluate ischemia and perfusion reserve after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). A total of 103 patients was performed stress {sup 201}Tl myocardial SPECT one month after CABG. Each patient`s myocardium was divided into 9 segments and visually evaluated using five grade scoring system (0=defect, 1=severe decrease, 2=moderate decrease, 3=mild decrease, 4=normal uptake). Eleven of 133 (8.27%) segments covered by patent venous grafts showed reversible {sup 201}Tl defect, however, 36 of 117 (30.8%) segments which covered by patent arterial grafts showed reversible {sup 201}Tl defect. This finding was observed more significantly in arterial grafts than in venous grafts (p<0.001). These finding suggests that arterial grafts have lower flow capacity than venous grafts at peak exercise. (author)

Ichikawa, Akihiro; Taki, Junichi; Nakajima, Kenichi; Kawasuji, Michio; Tonami, Norihisa [Kanazawa Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

1997-01-01

220

Studies on radiation-induced graft polymerization  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation-induced graft polymerization is used extensively to improve physical properties of polymers, but few processes are now commercialized. The reason for this is partly inadequate basic research on the reaction and partly the difficulty in developing the grafting process with large radiation source. Firstly, new techniques are proposed of studying kinetics of the graft polymerization in heterogeneous system. Based on the grafting yield, the molecular weight of graft chains, and the amount of radicals given by ESR and activation analysis, kinetic parameters are obtained and the reaction mechanism of grafting process is discussed. Secondly, the development of grafting process of poly (vinyl chloride)-butadiene is described. By study of the reaction, process design, construction and operation of the pilot plant, and economic analysis of the process, this process with 60Co gamma ray sources is shown to be industrially promising. (author)

221

Body fat, abdominal fat and body fat distribution related to VO(2PEAK) in young children  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Abstract Objective. Aerobic fitness, defined as maximum oxygen uptake (VO(2PEAK)), and body fat measurements represent two known risk factors for disease. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between VO(2PEAK) and body fat measurements in young children at a population-based level. Methods. Cross-sectional study of 225 children (128 boys and 97 girls) aged 8-11 years, recruited from a population-based cohort. Total lean body mass (LBM), total fat mass (TBF), and abdominal fat mass (AFM) were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Body fat was also calculated as a percentage of body mass (BF%) and body fat distribution as AFM/TBF. VO(2PEAK) was assessed by indirect calorimetry during maximal exercise test. Results. Significant relationships existed between body fat measurements and VO(2PEAK) in both boys and girls, with Pearson correlation coefficients for absolute values of VO(2PEAK) (0.22-0.36, P<0.05), and for VO(2PEAK) scaled by body mass (-0.38 - -0.70, P

Dencker, Magnus; Wollmer, Per

2011-01-01

222

Irisin: 'fat' or artefact.  

Science.gov (United States)

Soon after the discovery of the muscle-derived factor irisin, a great controversy arose in the literature regarding certain inconsistencies in the regulation of the fibronectin type III domain containing 5 protein (FNDC5/irisin) after exercise, as well as the unpredicted association of circulating irisin levels with parameters of adiposity in humans. Due to these questionable findings, doubts as to the identity of the soluble portion of FNDC5 as well as the real role of irisin and its possible therapeutic applications in the treatment of obesity and diabetes have proliferated. We recently postulated that FNDC5/irisin is an adipokine expressed and secreted by white adipose tissue in rats and humans. Its circulating concentration correlates with adiposity in humans among independent cohorts of patients. Further analysis, focused on obesity-related metabolic disorders, has shown that irisin could play a role in promoting insulin resistance or act as an adaptive response to counteract disturbances in glucose and lipid homoeostasis in obesity. Overall, this leads us to raise the question whether the new factor, increased in circulation of obese patients, is really irisin-reflecting fat mass or it is an artefact. Therefore, the current review is focused on the potential participation of adipose tissue in irisin circulating levels, and the role of irisin in metabolic pathologies associated with obesity in an attempt to clarify the controversy generated by these recently published reports. PMID:25287317

Crujeiras, A B; Pardo, M; Casanueva, F F

2015-04-01

223

Fat Fisher zeroes  

Science.gov (United States)

We show that it is possible to determine the locus of Fisher zeroes in the thermodynamic limit for the Ising model on planar ("fat") ?4 random graphs and their dual quadrangulations by matching up the real part of the high and low temperature branches of the expression for the free energy. The form of this expression for the free energy also means that series expansion results for the zeroes may be obtained with rather less effort than might appear necessary at first sight by simply reverting the series expansion of a function g( z) which appears in the solution and taking a logarithm. Unlike regular 2D lattices where numerous unphysical critical points exist with non-standard exponents, the Ising model on planar ?4 graphs displays only the physical transition at c=exp(-2 ?)=1/4 and a mirror transition at c=-1/4 both with KPZ/DDK exponents ( ?=-1, ?=1/2, ?=2). The relation between the ?4 locus and that of the dual quadrangulations is akin to that between the (regular) triangular and honeycomb lattices since there is no self-duality.

Janke, W.; Johnston, D. A.; Stathakopoulos, M.

2001-11-01

224

Fat Fisher zeroes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We show that it is possible to determine the locus of Fisher zeroes in the thermodynamic limit for the Ising model on planar ('fat') phi4 random graphs and their dual quadrangulations by matching up the real part of the high and low temperature branches of the expression for the free energy. The form of this expression for the free energy also means that series expansion results for the zeroes may be obtained with rather less effort than might appear necessary at first sight by simply reverting the series expansion of a function g(z) which appears in the solution and taking a logarithm. Unlike regular 2D lattices where numerous unphysical critical points exist with non-standard exponents, the Ising model on planar phi4 graphs displays only the physical transition at c=exp(-2?)=1/4 and a mirror transition at c=-1/4 both with KPZ/DDK exponents (?=-1, ?=1/2, ?=2). The relation between the phi4 locus and that of the dual quadrangulations is akin to that between the (regular) triangular and honeycomb lattices since there is no self-duality

225

Fat Fisher Zeroes  

CERN Document Server

We show that it is possible to determine the locus of Fisher zeroes in the thermodynamic limit for the Ising model on planar (``fat'') phi4 random graphs and their dual quadrangulations by matching up the real part of the high and low temperature branches of the expression for the free energy. The form of this expression for the free energy also means that series expansion results for the zeroes may be obtained with rather less effort than might appear necessary at first sight by simply reverting the series expansion of a function g(z) which appears in the solution and taking a logarithm. Unlike regular 2D lattices where numerous unphysical critical points exist with non-standard exponents, the Ising model on planar phi4 graphs displays only the physical transition at c = exp (- 2 beta) = 1/4 and a mirror transition at c=-1/4 both with KPZ/DDK exponents (alpha = -1, beta = 1/2, gamma = 2). The relation between the phi4 locus and that of the dual quadrangulations is akin to that between the (regular) triangula...

Janke, W; Stathakopoulos, M

2001-01-01

226

Prognosis of closure of large sinus membrane perforations using pedicled buccal fat pads and a resorbable collagen membrane: case series study.  

Science.gov (United States)

For large membrane perforations that develop during sinus-bone grafting, we performed repairs using a pedicled buccal fat pad and a resorbable collagen membrane simultaneously with the bone graft. This study included eight patients. Postoperative maxillary sinusitis developed in two patients, which we managed with incision and drainage, and antibiotics. Ultimately, six patients received 12 implants, three of which failed (75% success). Implant replacement was performed after the removal of the failed replacement, at which point the prosthetic treatment was considered complete. In all of the six cases that we were able to follow-up with, the sinus-bone graft was healing favorably. We observed that the sinus bone height decreased gradually with time. Based on these case series, we conclude that our procedure of repairing large sinus-membrane perforations with a pedicled buccal fat pad and a collagen membrane is a reliable technique. PMID:25247149

Kim, Young-Kyun; Yun, Pil-Young; Oh, Ji-Su; Kim, Su-Gwan

2014-08-01

227

Radiation sterilization of tissue grafts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Tissue Bank at the Tata Memorial Hospital was started in 1989 in collaboration with the Department of Atomic Energy, Government of India, as part of an IAEA project to promote the use of nuclear technology for peaceful purposes. The Bank produces freeze dried, gamma irradiated allografts such as skin, amniotic membrane, dura mater, fascia lata, bone blocks/chips/dust, iliac crest, femoral heads and ribs. Tissues are harvested from cadavers or obtained secondary to surgical procedures. After processing, the grafts are exposed to 25 kGy of gamma radiation. The grafts have found use in a variety of clinical conditions like burns, non-union fractures, periodontal osseous defects and surgical reconstructions. (author)

228

Evaluation of early coronary graft patency after coronary artery bypass graft surgery using multislice computed tomography angiography  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG surgery is the standard of care in the treatment of advanced coronary artery disease, and its long-term results are affected by the failure of bypass grafts. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the early patency rate in coronary bypass grafts. Methods A total of 107 consecutive patients who underwent CABG were included in this study. Early graft patency was evaluated via computed tomography (CT angiography in the first week after surgery. Results There were a total of 366 grafts, comprised of 250 venous grafts and 116 arterial grafts. Multi-slice CT detected acute graft occlusions in 32 (8.7% of all the grafts, including 26 (10% of the 250 venous grafts and 6 (5% of the 116 arterial grafts. The patency rates obtained were 97.3% for the left internal mammary (IMA grafts, 50% for the radial artery grafts, and 50% for the right IMA grafts. Additionally, 107 (96.4% grafts to the left anterior descending artery (LAD were classified as patent, whereas 1 (30% of the 3 grafts in the left circumflex (LCX region and 1 (50% of the 2 grafts in the right coronary artery (RCA territory were found to be occluded. In the venous category, 8 (13.7% of the 58 grafts to LAD were found to be occluded. In the LCX region, 9 (8.5% of the 106 grafts were classified as occluded, while the remaining 97 (91.5% grafts were patent. The venous grafts to RCA were occluded in 9 (10.4% of the 86 grafts. Amongst the multiple preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative factors, pump time was significantly longer in the patients with occluded grafts than in those with patent grafts (P = 0.04. Conclusion The IMA grafts had the highest early patency rate amongst the coronary bypass grafts. However, the other arterial grafts were associated with a high rate of acute occlusions.

Raissi Kamal

2009-12-01

229

Interventions in infrainguinal bypass grafts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The long-term success of infrainguinal bypass grafts depends on meticulous surgical technique and a periodic program of postoperative surveillance. Duplex scanning is the method of choice for the detection of stenotic lesions that threaten graft patency. As an alternative to surgery, PTA is gaining increasing acceptance for the treatment of non-recurrent, short, and single stenotic lesions, despite somewhat controversial opinions. The initial technical success rates for PTA were reported to be up to 100%, and a 5-year primary assisted patency rate of up to 65% has been achieved. Some authors favorize intra-arterial infusion of fibrinolytic agents for the treatment of bypass graft occlusion with technical success rates of up to 92%. In addition to a reduced trauma compared to surgical thrombectomy, of the venous wall the advantage of thrombolytic therapy is clot lysis in run-off vessels, and uncovering of the stenotic lesions. This stenosis may then be treated by an endovascular or surgical approach. (orig.)

230

Study on polyethylene films grafted with vinyl acetate and ethyl methacrylate by radiation grafting  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Low density polyethylene (LDPE) films were grafted with a vinyl acetate (VAc) and ethyl methacrylate (EMA) commoner mixture by radiation using a 60Co gamma source. IR spectra and x-ray diffraction (XRD) for the original PE matrix and for the graft copolymers were studied. Electrical conductivity and thermal properties of the prepared grafted materials were also measured. XRD results showed that poly(vinyl acetate/ethyl methacrylate) P(VAc/EMA) graft chains cause a decrease in the crystallinity of the PE polymer substrate. The changes in thermal parameters such as melting (Tm) and crystallization (Tc) temperatures and heats of melting (?Hm) and crystallization (?Hc) of the graft copolymers were followed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and for thermal stability by TGA. These thermal parameters of PE were influenced by grafting, with VAc and EMA and depended on the percent grafting, which reflected the change in crystallinity due to formation of branches via the grafted chains. (author)

231

Fixation of tibial plateau fractures with synthetic bone graft versus natural bone graft: a comparison study.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

The goal of this study was to determine differences in fracture stability and functional outcome between synthetic bone graft and natural bone graft with internal fixation of tibia plateau metaphyseal defects.

Ong, J C Y

2012-06-01

232

Grafting rays fellow travel Teichmuller geodesics  

CERN Document Server

Given a measured geodesic lamination on a hyperbolic surface, grafting the surface along multiples of the lamination defines a path in Teichmuller space, called the grafting ray. We show that every grafting ray, after reparametrization, is a Teichmuller quasi-geodesic and stays in a bounded neighborhood of a Teichmuller geodesic. As part of our approach, we show that grafting rays have controlled dependence on the starting point. That is, for any measured geodesic lamination Lambda, the map of Teichmuller space which is defined by grafting along Lambda is L-Lipschitz with respect to the Teichmuller metric, where L is a universal constant. This Lipschitz property follows from an extension of grafting to an open neighborhood of Teichmuller space in the space of quasi-Fuchsian groups.

Choi, Young-Eun; Rafi, Kasra

2010-01-01

233

Gamma-radiation-induced grafting onto wool  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On the basis of radiation-induced grafting treatments carried out on single wool fibres, as described in Part I, analogous treatments were carried out on wool fabrics. Some textile properties such as the permanent-press behaviour, area shrinkage, abrasion resistance and dry crease-recovery angle can be improved by grafting hydrophobic polymers onto the textile. In the case of bending length, relaxation shrinkage and felting shrinkage, the results in general show deterioration after grafting, compared with untreated material. (author)

234

Bone grafting in total hip replacement  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

MRI of ten hip joints in nine patients with total hip replacement and reconstruction of the acetabulum with autologous bone grafts, were reviewed. The viability of inserted bone grafts was clearly documented by MRI. Characteristic differences in signal intensity between autologous and homologous bone grafts are discussed. Despite extended metallic artifacts in the operated region, sufficient diagnostic information was available in most cases. No side effects were reported. (orig.)

235

Radiation graft-copolymerization onto polyethylene film  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The grafting of acrylic and methacrylic acids and N-vinylpyrrolidone onto polyethylene film is described. Under the action of gamma radiation the radicals were formed with a spectrum identical to that of radicals formed by electrons, but their efficiency as initiators of graft copolymerization was lower. The film irradiated by gamma radiation can be used in grafting with the utilization of the after-effect. Electrons are an effective agent in the initiation of the grafting reaction of monomers directly in the irradiation field. An advantage of the using of after-effect comparing with direct initiation is a limitation of the monomer homopolymerization. (A.S.)

236

Graft polymerization on magnesium oxide surface  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation-induced graft polymerization of methyl methacrylate on magnesium oxide surface has been studied in the paper. IR spectroscopy and solvent extraction proved the presence of the graft chain polymethyl methacrylate on magnesium oxide surface. Based on the data in the paper, the graft polymerizations are simultaneously initiated by both free radical and anion mechanism. It is suggested that Odminus anion free radical species trapped at an oxide ion vacancy on the solid surface is the active species initiating graft polymerization by the high energy radiation

237

Nuclear accidents and bone marrow graft  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In case of serious contamination, the only efficacious treatment is the bone marrow grafts. The graft types and conditions have been explained. To restrict the nuclear accidents consequences, it is recommended to: - take osseous medulla of the personnel exposed to radiations and preserve it , that permits to carry out rapidly the auto-graft in case of accidents; - determine, beforehand, the HLA group of the personnel; - to register the voluntary donors names and addresses, and their HLA group, that permits to find easily a compatible donar in case of allo-graft. (author)

238

The autologus graft of epithelial tissue culture  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available With the intention of research about culture and autologus graft of epithelial tissue we used 4 french Albino Rabbits with an average age of 2 months. After reproduction on the support in EMEM (Eagle's Minimum Essential Medium we used this for graft after 4 weeks. This region which grafted total replaced. After fixation of this sample and passing them through various process, histological sections were prepared. These sections were stained with H & E and masson's trichrome and studied by light microscope. We succeeded in graft. We hope in the near future by using the method of epithelium tissue culture improving to treat burned patients.

Minaee B

1999-08-01

239

Induced-pluripotent stem cells seeded acellular peripheral nerve graft as “autologous nerve graft  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The hypothesis is that induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC derived Schwann cells and/or macrophages can be transplanted into acellular nerve graft in repairing injured nervous system. The efficiency of iPSC seeded acellular nerve graft may mimic the autologous peripheral nerve graft.

Ti-Fei Yuan

2010-01-01

240

Effect of bidispersity in grafted chain length on grafted chain conformations and potential of mean force between polymer grafted nanoparticles in a homopolymer matrix.  

Science.gov (United States)

In efforts to produce polymeric materials with tailored physical properties, significant interest has grown around the ability to control the spatial organization of nanoparticles in polymer nanocomposites. One way to achieve controlled particle arrangement is by grafting the nanoparticle surface with polymers that are compatible with the matrix, thus manipulating the interfacial interactions between the nanoparticles and the polymer matrix. Previous work has shown that the molecular weight of the grafted polymer, both at high grafting density and low grafting density, plays a key role in dictating the effective inter-particle interactions in a polymer matrix. At high grafting density nanoparticles disperse (aggregate) if the graft molecular weight is higher (lower) than the matrix molecular weight. At low grafting density the longer grafts can better shield the nanoparticle surface from direct particle-particle contacts than the shorter grafts and lead to the dispersion of the grafted particles in the matrix. Despite the importance of graft molecular weight, and evidence of non-trivial effects of polydispersity of chains grafted on flat surfaces, most theoretical work on polymer grafted nanoparticles has only focused on monodisperse grafted chains. In this paper, we focus on how bidispersity in grafted chain lengths affects the grafted chain conformations and inter-particle interactions in an implicit solvent and in a dense homopolymer polymer matrix. We first present the effects of bidispersity on grafted chain conformations in a single polymer grafted particle using purely Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. This is followed by calculations of the potential of mean force (PMF) between two grafted particles in a polymer matrix using a self-consistent Polymer Reference Interaction Site Model theory-Monte Carlo simulation approach. Monte Carlo simulations of a single polymer grafted particle in an implicit solvent show that in the bidisperse polymer grafted particles with an equal number of short and long grafts at low to medium grafting density, the short grafts are in a more coiled up conformation (lower radius of gyration) than their monodisperse counterparts to provide a larger free volume to the longer grafts so they can gain conformational entropy. The longer grafts do not show much difference in conformation from their monodisperse counterparts at low grafting density, but at medium grafting density the longer grafts exhibit less stretched conformations (lower radius of gyration) as compared to their monodisperse counterparts. In the presence of an explicit homopolymer matrix, the longer grafts are more compressed by the matrix homopolymer chains than the short grafts. We observe that the potential of mean force between bidisperse grafted particles has features of the PMF of monodisperse grafted particles with short grafts and monodisperse grafted particles with long grafts. The value of the PMF at contact is governed by the short grafts and values at large inter-particle distances are governed by the longer grafts. Further comparison of the PMF for bidisperse and monodisperse polymer grafted particles in a homopolymer matrix at varying parameters shows that the effects of matrix chain length, matrix packing fraction, grafting density, and particle curvature on the PMF between bidisperse polymer grafted particles are similar to those seen between monodisperse polymer grafted particles. PMID:21599087

Nair, Nitish; Wentzel, Nathaniel; Jayaraman, Arthi

2011-05-21

241

Fats Waller Forever Digital Exhibit  

Science.gov (United States)

Born in Harlem in 1904, Thomas Wright Waller would become one of jazz's most renowned pianists, along with composing some of its most memorable compositions, including "Ain't Misbehavin" and "Honeysuckle Rose." This online exhibit, produced by the Institute for Jazz Studies at Rutgers University, features recordings and photographs of Fats Waller in his prime. Also, as users navigate through the different sections, selections from Fats Waller's hundreds of recordings play as they browse. Short essays, many of them by Paul Wachlin, describe various facets of Waller's legendary stride-piano style, his recording legacy, and the extensive manuscript holdings within the Institute's Dana Library. The site is rounded out by a section of additional readings and references for those seeking to learn more about the life and musical achievements of Fats Waller.

2002-01-01

242

Onlay Bone Grafts in Head and Neck Reconstruction  

OpenAIRE

Bone grafts are used in a variety of clinical situations and can be divided into two categories: treatment of bone gaps (inlay bone grafting) and bone projection (onlay bone grafting). Cortical grafts are useful in situations requiring immediate mechanical strength. These grafts can survive with or without complete revascularization or resorption and are primarily used by plastic surgeons in the treatment of bone volume deficiency. Cancellous grafts, in contrast, have no mechanical strength a...

Yazar, Sukru

2010-01-01

243

Body fat, abdominal fat and body fat distribution related to cardiovascular risk factors in prepubertal children  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Aim:? We analysed whether total body fat (TBF), abdominal fat and body fat distribution are associated with higher composite risk factor scores for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in young children. Methods:? Cross-sectional study of 238 children aged 8-11?years. TBF and abdominal fat mass (AFM) were measured by Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry. TBF was expressed as a percentage of body weight (BF%). Body fat distribution was calculated as AFM/TBF. Maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2PEAK) ), systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP), and resting heart rate (RHR) were measured. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) and pulse pressure (PP) were calculated. Left atrial diameter (LA) was measured, and left ventricular mass (LVM) and relative wall thickness (RWT) were calculated. Z-scores were calculated. Sum of z-scores for SBP, DBP, MAP, PP, RHR, LVM, LA, RWT and -VO(2PEAK) was calculated in boys and girls, separately, and used as composite risk factor score. Results:? Pearson correlations between ln BF%, ln AFM and AFM/TBF versus composite risk factor score for boys were r?=?0.56, r?=?0.59 and r?=?0.48, all p?

Dencker, Magnus; Wollmer, Per

2012-01-01

244

Design and development of multilayer vascular graft  

Science.gov (United States)

Vascular graft is a widely-used medical device for the treatment of vascular diseases such as atherosclerosis and aneurysm as well as for the use of vascular access and pediatric shunt, which are major causes of mortality and morbidity in this world. Dysfunction of vascular grafts often occurs, particularly for grafts with diameter less than 6mm, and is associated with the design of graft materials. Mechanical strength, compliance, permeability, endothelialization and availability are issues of most concern for vascular graft materials. To address these issues, we have designed a biodegradable, compliant graft made of hybrid multilayer by combining an intimal equivalent, electrospun heparin-impregnated poly-epsilon-caprolactone nanofibers, with a medial equivalent, a crosslinked collagen-chitosan-based gel scaffold. The intimal equivalent is designed to build mechanical strength and stability suitable for in vivo grafting and to prevent thrombosis. The medial equivalent is designed to serve as a scaffold for the activity of the smooth muscle cells important for vascular healing and regeneration. Our results have shown that genipin is a biocompatible crosslinker to enhance the mechanical properties of collagen-chitosan based scaffolds, and the degradation time and the activity of smooth muscle cells in the scaffold can be modulated by the crosslinking degree. For vascular grafting and regeneration in vivo, an important design parameter of the hybrid multilayer is the interface adhesion between the intimal and medial equivalents. With diametrically opposite affinities to water, delamination of the two layers occurs. Physical or chemical modification techniques were thus used to enhance the adhesion. Microscopic examination and graft-relevant functional characterizations have been performed to evaluate these techniques. Results from characterization of microstructure and functional properties, including burst strength, compliance, water permeability and suture strength, showed that the multilayer graft possessed properties mimicking those of native vessels. Achieving these FDA-required functional properties is essential because they play critical roles in graft performances in vivo such as thrombus formation, occlusion, healing, and bleeding. In addition, cell studies and animal studies have been performed on the multilayer graft. Our results show that the multilayer graft support mimetic vascular culture of cells and the acellular graft serves as an artery equivalent in vivo to sustain the physiological conditions and promote appropriate cellular activity. In conclusion, the newly-developed hybrid multilayer graft provides a proper balance of biomechanical and biochemical properties and demonstrates the potential for the use of vascular tissue engineering and regeneration.

Madhavan, Krishna

2011-07-01

245

Improvement of polymer stability by radiation grafting  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Losses of the stabilizer due to extractability or volatility immediately affect ultimate performance of polymer product. A new approach to increase the persistence of the stabilizer in the final product is to chemically bind it to the polymer backbone. Radiation grafting or crosslinking could be an efficient method for this, when the stabilizer is polymerizable. By a mutual gamma irradiation method, photoprotector 2-hydroxy-4-(3-methacryloxy-2- hydroxy-propoxy) benzophenone (HMB) has been readily grafted to low density polyethylene (LDPE) in benzene, tetrahydrofuran and methanol solution, respectively. Surface grafting occurs in a methanol solution of stabilizer, while in benzene and tetrahydrofuran solutions of stabilizer, grafting proceeds more or less in the inner parts of the polymeric film as well. The grafted LDPE film in methanol and tetrahydrofuran (containing 1 w/w % of grafted HMB), 1 w/w % blended HMB with LDPE and nongrafted LDPE film, were all exposed to accelerated aging and natural weathering and their spectral changes, expressed by the carbonyl index, were then compared. The change of elongation at break and tensile strength were measured in the course of aging. UV stability tests on aged films and change in mechanical properties indicate a pronounced protective effect achieved by grafted stabilizer. Grafting in methanol solution appears to be an efficient photostabilization treatment and the most economical with respect to the consumption of monomer, the grafting yield being less than 0.5%. Surface grafting is an efficient photostabilization method since grafted stabilizer is chemically bound to a polymeric surface and in this way the problem of evaporation of blended stabilizers during the prolonged use of polymeric materials is eliminated. (author)

246

Influence of ischemia before vein grafting on early hyperplasia of the graft and the dynamic changes of the intima after grafting  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background To investigate both the influence of ischemia before grafting on early hyperplasia of the vein grafts, and the dynamic changes of the intima after grafting in a rabbit model of vein graft disease. Methods We performed paired vein graft experiments under different ischemic conditions (15 vs. 60 min; 15 vs. 90 min in the neck of the rabbits and compared the differences between the grafts. Clopidogrel, an anti-platelet agent, was administered before and after surgery. Twenty-eight days after the grafting procedure, the veins were evaluated microscopically. The dynamic changes of the intima after grafting were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy over time. Results The vein grafts subjected to 60- or 90-min ischemia exhibited no differences compared to those subjected to 15-min ischemia in terms of the mean thickness of the intimal, medial, and adventitial layers of the graft. Similarly, there was no difference in the Ki-67 labeling index (proliferation marker between the vein grafts. Vein grafts with 15-min ischemia lost endothelial cells (ECs but healed by 3 days post graft, whereas vein grafts with 90-min ischemia suffered serious EC loss, which was restored with new ECs during days 2 to 14 post graft. Conclusions Ninety-minute ischemia before vein grafting can cause serious EC loss, but does not increase early intimal hyperplasia when clopidogrel is administered. Protecting the vein from ischemia and reperfusion injury preserves ECs.

Zou RongJiang

2012-09-01

247

Biodegradability of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) film grafted with vinyl acetate: Effect of grafting and saponification  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation-induced graft polymerization of vinyl acetate (VAc) onto poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) film was carried out. At a degree of grafting higher than 5%, the grafted films (PHB-g-VAc) completely lost the enzymatic degradability that is characteristic of PHB due to the grafted VAc covering the surface of the PHB film. However, the biodegradability of the PHB-g-VAc films was recovered when the films were saponified in alkali solution under optimum conditions. Graft chains of the PHB-g-VAc film reacted selectively to become biodegradable polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). The biodegradability of the saponified PHB-g-VAc film increased rapidly with time

248

Biodegradability of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) film grafted with vinyl acetate: Effect of grafting and saponification  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Radiation-induced graft polymerization of vinyl acetate (VAc) onto poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) film was carried out. At a degree of grafting higher than 5%, the grafted films (PHB-g-VAc) completely lost the enzymatic degradability that is characteristic of PHB due to the grafted VAc covering the surface of the PHB film. However, the biodegradability of the PHB-g-VAc films was recovered when the films were saponified in alkali solution under optimum conditions. Graft chains of the PHB-g-VAc film reacted selectively to become biodegradable polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). The biodegradability of the saponified PHB-g-VAc film increased rapidly with time.

Wada, Yuki [Department of Biological and Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Gunma University, 1-5-1 Tenjin-cho, Kiryu, Gunma 376-8515 (Japan)]. E-mail: wada.yuki@jaea.go.jp; Seko, Noriaki [Environment and Industrial Materials Research Division, Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 1233 Watanuki-machi, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Nagasawa, Naotsugu [Environment and Industrial Materials Research Division, Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 1233 Watanuki-machi, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Tamada, Masao [Environment and Industrial Materials Research Division, Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 1233 Watanuki-machi, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Kasuya, Ken-ichi [Department of Biological and Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Gunma University, 1-5-1 Tenjin-cho, Kiryu, Gunma 376-8515 (Japan); Mitomo, Hiroshi [Department of Biological and Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Gunma University, 1-5-1 Tenjin-cho, Kiryu, Gunma 376-8515 (Japan)

2007-06-15

249

Nanotribological study of grafted polymer  

Science.gov (United States)

The frictional forces between grafted layers, organosilanes and polymer, on silica and a nanotip have been investigated as a function of the tip velocity. From the interpretation of these results and one gets a step forward for more quantitative information. Les forces de friction entre des couches greffées sur silice et une nanopointe ont été étudiées en fonction de la vitesse de la pointe. À partir de l'interprétation de ces résultats on s'avance vers plus d'infor mations quantitatives.

Bouhacina, T.; Aimé, J. P.; Attias, A. J.

1998-06-01

250

A comparison between the HeRO graft and conventional arteriovenous grafts in hemodialysis patients.  

Science.gov (United States)

Venous stenosis and occlusion are a major cause of vascular access dysfunction and failure. The HeRO Graft bypasses occlusion and traverses stenosis with outflow directly into the central venous circulation. A randomized, multicenter study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the HeRO Graft relative to conventional AV grafts. The design was to enroll 143 patients in a 2:1 randomization ratio between HeRO and conventional AV control groups. Data on 72 subjects (52 HeRO Graft and 20 AV graft controls) were obtained. The HeRO Graft and control cohorts were comparable in baseline characteristics. Adequacy of dialysis, bacteremia rates, and adverse events were consistent between groups. Twelve month Kaplan-Meier estimates for primary and secondary patency rates were 34.8% and 67.6% in the HeRO Graft cohort, and 30.6% and 58.4% in the control cohort. There was no statistical difference in terms of patency between groups. The rates of intervention were 2.2/year for HeRO Graft and 1.6/year for the control (p = 0.100). Median days to loss of secondary patency was 238 for HeRO Graft versus 102 for the control (p = 0.032). The HeRO Graft appears to provide similar patency, adequacy of dialysis, and bacteremia rates to those of conventional AV grafts. PMID:24428351

Nassar, George M; Glickman, Marc H; McLafferty, Robert B; Croston, J Kevin; Zarge, Joseph I; Katzman, Howard E; Peden, Eric K; Lawson, Jeffrey H; Martinez, Jeffrey M; Thackeray, Lisa

2014-01-01

251

Butterfly inlay tympanoplasty: A study in Indian scenario  

OpenAIRE

Popularly myringoplasty is done by an underlay or an onlay technique using mostly temporalis fascia graft. A new technique of inlay tympanoplasty using composite cartilage perichondrium graft is applied in the present study of 20 patients, for closure of small to medium sized perforations. The results have been analysed in terms of graft take up rate and hearing improvement.

Anand, T. S.; Kathuria, Geeta; Kumar, Sandeep; Wadhwa, Vikram; Pradhan, Tapaswini

2002-01-01

252

Emerging concepts in liver graft preservation  

Science.gov (United States)

The urgent need to expand the donor pool in order to attend to the growing demand for liver transplantation has obliged physicians to consider the use of suboptimal liver grafts and also to redefine the preservation strategies. This review examines the different methods of liver graft preservation, focusing on the latest advances in both static cold storage and machine perfusion (MP). The new strategies for static cold storage are mainly designed to increase the fatty liver graft preservation via the supplementation of commercial organ preservation solutions with additives. In this paper we stress the importance of carrying out effective graft washout after static cold preservation, and present a detailed discussion of the future perspectives for dynamic graft preservation using MP at different temperatures (hypothermia at 4?°C, normothermia at 37?°C and subnormothermia at 20?°C-25?°C). Finally, we highlight some emerging applications of regenerative medicine in liver graft preservation. In conclusion, this review discusses the “state of the art” and future perspectives in static and dynamic liver graft preservation in order to improve graft viability. PMID:25593455

Bejaoui, Mohamed; Pantazi, Eirini; Folch-Puy, Emma; Baptista, Pedro M; García-Gil, Agustín; Adam, René; Roselló-Catafau, Joan

2015-01-01

253

Dietary Fats - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

Science.gov (United States)

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Dietary Fats - Multiple Languages Chinese - Simplified (????) Chinese - Traditional (????) Spanish (español) Chinese - Simplified (????) Are All Dietary Fats the Same? English ???????? - ???? (Chinese - Simplified) PDF ...

254

HealthLines: Facts About Fat  

Science.gov (United States)

... Current Issue Past Issues Health Lines Facts About Fat Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents For ... Writer, NLM Scientists are learning more about our fat cells, and their findings could explain why some ...

255

Substituting dietary saturated fat with polyunsaturated fat changes abdominal fat distribution and improves insulin sensitivity.  

OpenAIRE

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: British dietary recommendations are to decrease total fat intake to less than 30 % of daily energy intake and saturated fat to less than 10 %. In practice, it is difficult for people to make these changes. It may be easier to encourage people to switch from a diet rich in saturated fatty acids to one rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids. METHODS: A total of 17 subjects - six people with Type II (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus, six non-obese and five obese people with...

Summers, Lk; Fielding, Ba; Bradshaw, Ha; Ilic, V.; Beysen, C.; Clark, Ml; Moore, Nr; Frayn, Kn

2002-01-01

256

BIOPROCESSING OF FATS AND OILS  

Science.gov (United States)

The modification of fats and oils and their co-products for added value is a major theme of lipid research. Biotechnological processes often are favored for their mild reaction conditions and low environmental impact and sometimes are the only practical routes to desired products. For example, lip...

257

Main: E2FAT [PLACE  

Lifescience Database Archive (English)

Full Text Available E2FAT S000417 03-Jun-2003 (last modified) kehi E2F-binding site found in many potential ... E2F targ ... et genes; most potential ... E2F targets identified in silico show a cell cycle ...

258

Dietary Fat and Sports Nutrition: A Primer  

OpenAIRE

The general public's view of macronutrients has undergone sweeping changes in recent years. Dietary fats are a key example. Since the anti-fat health education initiatives of the 1980s and early 1990s, certain dietary fats have been increasingly recognized as actually beneficial to health. Athletes, like the mainstream populace, are now getting the message that wise dietary fat (triacylglycerol) choices offer essential fatty acids, blood lipid management, maintained endocrine and immune funct...

Lowery, Lonnie M.

2004-01-01

259

Saturated fat, carbohydrate, and cardiovascular disease1234  

OpenAIRE

A focus of dietary recommendations for cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention and treatment has been a reduction in saturated fat intake, primarily as a means of lowering LDL-cholesterol concentrations. However, the evidence that supports a reduction in saturated fat intake must be evaluated in the context of replacement by other macronutrients. Clinical trials that replaced saturated fat with polyunsaturated fat have generally shown a reduction in CVD events, although several studies showed...

Siri-tarino, Patty W.; Sun, Qi; Hu, Frank B.; Krauss, Ronald M.

2010-01-01

260

Luteinized fat in Krukenberg tumor: MR findings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To our knowledge, there is no description of the fat-containing Krukenberg tumor. We report on a case of Krukenberg tumor associated with luteinized fat, which showed hyperintensity on T1-weighted MR image. The diagnosis was surgically confirmed. Hyperintense portion of the Krukenberg tumor on T1-weighted image showed diminished signal intensity on fat-saturated, T1-weighted images. Krukenberg tumor should be considered in the differential diagnosis of ovarian masses when fat signal is seen. (orig.)

261

The fat content of Irish herring  

OpenAIRE

The fat content in herrings determines the way in which these fish are presented for human consumption. For example, a high fat content is good for kippering, whilst low fat is suitable for marinating. The Department of Fisheries & Forestry has for many years provided the trade with the fat content data they require. The information is based on routine analyses of herring samples which are now made regularly at the Fisheries Research Centre. Sufficient data have been collected over the past t...

Molloy, J.; Cullen, A.

1981-01-01

262

Grafting of styrene onto fluoropolymers films  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Grafting of styrene onto poly(vinylidenefluoride) (PVDF) and poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) films was studied for the synthesis of ion exchange membranes. Radiation-induced grafting of styrene onto PVDF and PTFE films was investigated by simultaneous method using a Co{sup 60} source. The films of PVDF and PTFE were irradiated at total dose of 20 to 120 kGy and chemical changes were monitored after contact with styrene. Films of PTFE and PVDF were immersed in styrene/toluene 1:1 and were submitted to gamma radiation. After irradiation the samples were evaluated at periods of 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days, at room temperature in order to measure the grafting degree. Results of infrared spectroscopic analysis (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetry analysis (TGA) and the degree of grafting (DOG) were evaluated. The characterization techniques showed that irradiated PVDF and PTFE films exhibited a much higher grafting degree at 120 kGy. (author)

Geraldes, Adriana N.; Zen, Heloisa A.; Parra, Duclerc F.; Lugao, Ademar B.; Linardi, Marcelo [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Quimica e Meio Ambiente], E-mail: angeral@ipen.br

2007-07-01

263

Grafting of styrene onto fluoropolymers films  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Grafting of styrene onto poly(vinylidenefluoride) (PVDF) and poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) films was studied for the synthesis of ion exchange membranes. Radiation-induced grafting of styrene onto PVDF and PTFE films was investigated by simultaneous method using a Co60 source. The films of PVDF and PTFE were irradiated at total dose of 20 to 120 kGy and chemical changes were monitored after contact with styrene. Films of PTFE and PVDF were immersed in styrene/toluene 1:1 and were submitted to gamma radiation. After irradiation the samples were evaluated at periods of 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days, at room temperature in order to measure the grafting degree. Results of infrared spectroscopic analysis (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetry analysis (TGA) and the degree of grafting (DOG) were evaluated. The characterization techniques showed that irradiated PVDF and PTFE films exhibited a much higher grafting degree at 120 kGy. (author)

264

9 CFR 319.701 - Mixed fat shortening.  

Science.gov (United States)

...with a mixture of meat fats and vegetable oils may be identified either as “Shortening Prepared with Meat Fats and Vegetable Oils” or “Shortening Prepared with Vegetable Oils and Meat Fats” depending on the predominance of the fat and oils...

2010-01-01

265

Coronary artery grafting in infants  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) with cardiac vale repair is an uncommon surgery in infants. CABG is technically demanding in infants due to the small size not only of the coronary arteries but also the potential graft arteries. The short and long-term outcome of surgery is not known and thus has largely been avoided. Results We report the case histories of two infants in whom CABG was undertaken successfully as a life-saving measure. Case 1: This infant needed an arterial switch operation after which the right coronary artery (RCA) was stenosed resulting in low cardiac output. After the right internal mammary artery (RIMA) was used to anastamose the RCA, the hemodynamic status improved drastically. Case 2: This infant underwent surgical correction for Anomalous Left Coronary Artery from Pulmonary Artery (ALCAPA). Postoperatively, she was in low cardiac output. She was found to have an occluded left coronary artery and mitral regurgitation (MR). After she underwent left internal mammary artery (LIMA) to Left Anterior Descending (LAD) anastamosis and mitral valve repair, the clinical condition improved dramatically. Conclusion CABG is an uncommon operation in infants. This surgery is technically difficult. The long term results are not known and there are very few reports for the same. Though such an operation is best avoided, it can be used as a desperate life saving measure. PMID:22368554

Gopal, MR; Maskari, S; Zacharias, S; Valliathu, J

2009-01-01

266

Exercise improves fat metabolism in muscle but does not increase 24-h fat oxidation  

OpenAIRE

Despite decades of research into the effects of exercise on fat metabolism, there is still no clear understanding of how exercise helps to regulate fat mass. Although exercise improves the capacity of muscle to oxidize fat, our studies suggest that moderate duration exercise (? 1 hr) has little impact on 24-h fat oxidation.

Melanson, Edward L.; Maclean, Paul S.; Hill, James O.

2009-01-01

267

Effects of Dietary Fat and Saturated Fat Content on Liver Fat and Markers of Oxidative Stress in Overweight/Obese Men and Women under Weight-Stable Conditions  

OpenAIRE

Dietary fat and oxidative stress are hypothesized to contribute to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and progression to steatohepatitis. To determine the effects of dietary fat content on hepatic triglyceride, body fat distribution and markers of inflammation and oxidative stress, overweight/obese subjects with normal glucose tolerance consumed a control diet (CONT: 35% fat/12% saturated fat/47% carbohydrate) for ten days, followed by four weeks on a low fat (LFD (n = 10): 20% fat/8% saturate...

Anna Marina; Anize Delfino von Frankenberg; Seda Suvag; Callahan, Holly S.; Mario Kratz; Richards, Todd L.; Utzschneider, Kristina M.

2014-01-01

268

21 CFR 582.4505 - Mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming acids.  

Science.gov (United States)

...edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming acids. (a) Product. Mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming acids. (b) Conditions...safe when used in accordance with good manufacturing or feeding...

2010-04-01

269

Pancreaticoportal Fistula and Disseminated Fat Necrosis After Revision of a Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A 59-year old man with alcohol related cirrhosis and portal hypertension was referred for transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) to treat his refractory ascites. Ten years later, two sequential TIPS revisions were performed for shunt stenosis and recurrent ascites. After these revisions, he returned with increased serum pancreatic enzyme levels and disseminated superficial fat necrosis; an iatrogenic pancreaticoportal vein fistula caused by disruption of the pancreatic duct was suspected. The bare area of the TIPS was subsequently lined with a covered stent-graft, and serum enzyme levels returned to baseline. In the interval follow-up period, the patient has clinically improved.

270

Fat discrimination: A phenotype with potential implications for studying fat intake behaviors and obesity  

OpenAIRE

Variations in fat preference and intake across humans are poorly understood in part because of difficulties in studying this behavior. The objective of this study was to develop a simple procedure to assess fat discrimination, the ability to accurately perceive differences in the fat content of foods, and assess the associations between this phenotype and fat ingestive behaviors and adiposity. African-American adults (n=317) were tested for fat discrimination using 7 forced choice same/differ...

Liang, Lisa C. H.; Sakimura, Johannah; May, Daniel; Breen, Cameron; Driggin, Elissa; Tepper, Beverly J.; Chung, Wendy K.; Keller, Kathleen L.

2011-01-01

271

Graft irradiation abrogates graft-versus-host disease in combined pancreas-spleen transplantation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A model of combined pancreas-spleen transplantation (PST) was studied in LBN F1 recipients of Lewis grafts in order to evaluate the efficacy of pretransplant graft irradiation in preventing lethal graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Recipients of unmodified PST uniformly developed severe GVHD and died (MST = 16.7 +/- 3.8 days). Whole body donor irradiation with either 500 or 250 rad prevented lethal GVHD. Similarly, ex vivo graft irradiation with either 1000 or 500 rad also resulted in normal weight gain, graft function, and host survival for the 6-week study period. Conversely, delay of graft irradiation until 3 days after transplantation failed to prevent this complication (MST = 15.8 +/- 3.7 days). Recipients of irradiated grafts displayed glucose tolerance tests that were identical to those in the control group indicating that the doses of radiation employed in these experiments were not deleterious to islet function. Irradiated spleen grafts appeared histologically normal at 6 weeks after transplantation. Cells derived from these grafts failed to stimulate lymph node enlargement in a popliteal lymph node assay for GVHD, suggesting that these spleens may have become repopulated with host cells. These experiments confirm that PST has the potential to cause lethal GVHD and suggest that pretransplant graft irradiation may be used to prevent its occurrence

272

The influence of platelet-graft interaction on platelet survival in patients with aortobifemoral Dacron grafts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In patients with arterial grafts, platelet consumption may be due to platelet interaction with the graft, and/or concomitant platelet consumption in the rest of the arterial tree. This hypothesis was tested by quantifying the kinetics and platelet-graft interaction of indium-111-labelled platelets with double velour Dacron grafts in 13 patients with arterial insufficiency ascribed to atherosclerosis. Mean platelet lifespan (MPLS), 149±46 hours, was significantly shorter than normal. Labelled platelets were transiently deposited onto the graft surfaces. Peak 111In deposition on the grafts, 1,33±1,02% of injected labelled platelets, was reached at 70±33 hours. Thereafter the graft-platelet radioactivity decreased in parallel with platelet radioactivity in the circulation. There was no statistical correlation between MPLS and the factors known to be associated with graft platelet deposition. It is therefore concluded that in patients with arterial disease requiring graft implantation, the observed increased platelet consumption cannot only be ascribed to the interaction of platelets with the graft. 27 refs., 3 tabs., 2 figs

273

Radiation-induced graft copolymerization to polyester, 18  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Properties of polyester (polyethylene terephthalate) fibers grafted with acrylic acid (AA) and methacrylic acid were measured not only in the form of free acid but also in the form of sodium and calcium salts. Nearly the same moisture regain as that of cotton was obtained in the cases of sodium acrylate graft (AA-Na) and methacrylate graft (MAA-Na) at 14 and 18% graft respectively. Although the rate of water droplet absorption by the wicking test revealed that the rate increased with grafting, it is generally lower than that of cotton. Only AA-Na graft showed similar rate as that of cotton at 5% graft. All other grafts i.e. AA, AA-Ca, MAA and MAA-Na grafts showed lower rate than cotton even at higher percent graft. Results of frictional electricity test were similar, AA-Na graft showed satisfactory low static charge, whereas the effect of the grafting was insufficient in the cases of AA, MAA and MAA-Na grafts. Polyester fibers above 10% AA graft were dyed homogeneously to deep color with cationic and disperse dyes. AA, AA-Na and AA-Ca grafts showed almost the same dyeability. In the case of MAA grafts, only MAA-Na graft showed good dyeability. Fibers dyed with cationic dyes showed poor light fastness. Nor or very little change in tensile properties of polyester fibers were observed upon grafting of acrylic acid. However, strength and modulus of grafts decrease when AA grafts above 15% graft were converted to AA-Na by treatment in aqueous sodium bicarbonate solution. (auth.)

274

A reappraisal of saphenous vein grafting  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Autologous saphenous vein grafting has been broadly used as a bypass conduit, interposition graft, and patch graft in a variety of operations in cardiac, thoracic, neurovascular, general vascular, vascular access, and urology surgeries, since they are superior to prosthetic veins. Modified saphenous vein grafts (SVG, including spiral and cylindrical grafts, and vein cuffs or patches, are employed in vascular revascularization to satisfy the large size of the receipt vessels or to obtain a better patency. A loop SVG helps flap survival in a muscle flap transfer in plastic and reconstructive surgery. For dialysis or transfusion purposes, a straight or loop arteriovenous fistula created in the forearm or the thigh with an SVG has acceptable patency. The saphenous vein has even been used as a stent cover to minimize the potential complications of standard angioplasty technique. However, the use of saphenous vein grafting is now largely diminished in treating cerebrovascular disorders, superior vena cava syndrome, and visceral revascularization due to the introduction of angioplasty and stenting techniques. The SVG remains the preferable biomaterial in coronary artery bypass, coronary ostioplasty, free flap transfer, and surgical treatment of Peyronie disease. Implications associated with saphenous vein grafting in vascular access surgery for the purpose of dialysis and chemotherapy are considerable. Vascular cuffs and patches have been developed as an important and effective means of enhancing the patency rates of the grafts by linking the synthetic material to the receipt vessel. In addition, saphenous veins can be a cell source for tissue engineering. We review the versatile roles that saphenous vein grafting has played as well as its current status in therapy.

Yuan Shi-Min

2011-01-01

275

Beneficial effect of a weight-stable, low-fat/low-saturated fat/low-glycaemic index diet to reduce liver fat in older subjects  

OpenAIRE

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is associated with insulin resistance and dyslipidaemia and can progress to steatohepatitis and cirrhosis. We sought to determine whether dietary fat and saturated fat content alter liver fat in the absence of weight change in an older population. Liver fat was quantified by magnetic resonance spectroscopy before and after 4 weeks on an isoenergetic low-fat/low-saturated fat/low-glycaemic index (LGI) (LSAT: 23% fat/7% saturated fat/GI < 55) or a high-fat/high...

Utzschneider, Kristina M.; Bayer-carter, Jennifer L.; Arbuckle, Matthew D.; Tidwell, Jaime M.; Richards, Todd L.; Craft, Suzanne

2012-01-01

276

Free graft techniques in skull base reconstruction.  

Science.gov (United States)

Over the last 20-30 years, the management of anterior skull base defects, CSF leaks and encephaloceles has shifted towards endoscopic, minimally invasive approaches. Whether their etiology is spontaneous or traumatic, the large majority of these lesions can be repaired with free mucosal grafts. Such grafts may be readily harvested from the nasal septum or turbinates and applied as either a single layer reconstruction for small leaks or as a multilayer reconstruction for larger defects. The accessibility, ease of placement, and high take rate associated with free mucosal grafts makes them a wise and popular choice for reconstruction of many skull base defects. PMID:23257550

Ting, Jonathan Y; Metson, Ralph

2013-01-01

277

Graft polymerization produced by ionizing radiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation-induced graft polymerization has developed as an independent discipline with its own methodology to deal with a wide range of practical tasks relating to the general problem of producing materials with given combinations of properties. The various aspects of this discipline are the grafting techniques, the regularities and mechanisms involved, the structures and properties of the materials, and aspects of implementing radiation grafting under engineering conditions. This paper characterizes the general history of this line and the current state of the art; only the key aspects are considered

278

Fat containing chylous mesenteric lymphangiomatosis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We have experienced an unusual case of mesenteric lymphangiomatosis in a 6-month-old male infant. Computed tomography (CT) disclosed fatty abdominal masses with attenuation coefficient being -5{approx}-28 Hounsfield units (HU). Laparotomy disclosed innumerable small and large chyle containing masses in the mesentery as well as mesenteric root. Pathologically these were confirmed to be cavernous and cystic lymphangiomatosis. One must bear in mind the possibility of lymphangioma in case of fat containing mesenteric mass on CT.

Kim, Soon Yong; Lim, Jae Hoon; Ko, Young Tae; Lee, Sun Wha; Oh, Soo Myung [Kyung Hee University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

1984-03-15

279

Fat containing chylous mesenteric lymphangiomatosis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We have experienced an unusual case of mesenteric lymphangiomatosis in a 6-month-old male infant. Computed tomography (CT) disclosed fatty abdominal masses with attenuation coefficient being -5?-28 Hounsfield units (HU). Laparotomy disclosed innumerable small and large chyle containing masses in the mesentery as well as mesenteric root. Pathologically these were confirmed to be cavernous and cystic lymphangiomatosis. One must bear in mind the possibility of lymphangioma in case of fat containing mesenteric mass on CT

280

Playing with bone and fat  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The relationship between bone and fat formation within the bone marrow microenvironment is complex and remains an area of active investigation. Classical in vitro and in vivo studies strongly support an inverse relationship between the commitment of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells or stromal cells to the adipocyte and osteoblast lineage pathways. In this review, we focus on the recent literature exploring the mechanisms underlying these differentiation events and discuss their implications relevant to osteoporosis and regenerative medicine.

Gimble, Jeffrey M.; Zvonic, Sanjin

2006-01-01

281

Fat Tails in Power Prices  

OpenAIRE

Spot power prices exhibit extreme price jumps and the tendency to oscillate around a long-term mean. Despite these well-known characteristics, electricity price models used for Monte Carlo simulations, VaR related measures, or derivatives valuation, often assume normally distributed residuals. In this paper, we examine the distributional characteristics of model residuals and show that the hypothesis of normality is rejected due to significant tail fatness and skewness. We then examine the St...

Huisman, R.; Huurman, C.

2003-01-01

282

The 5-strand hamstring graft in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction in the pediatric and adolescent population has been increasing in recent years. Autograft hamstring graft is favored in this population, but these patients often have smaller hamstring tendons that yield smaller final graft constructs. These smaller grafts are associated with an increased need for revision surgery. We describe a technique for obtaining a larger-diameter anterior cruciate ligament graft construct from autologous hamstring graft without allograft supplementation. PMID:25473619

Lee, Rushyuan Jay; Ganley, Theodore J

2014-10-01

283

Pinch grafting for chronic venous leg ulcers in general practice  

OpenAIRE

Twenty-five patients with chronic venous leg ulcers were treated in general practice by pinch grafting. Fifteen of the ulcers (60%) were completely healed one year after grafting. Prior to grafting 19 patients (76%) complained of daily pain in the ulcer. These patients experienced complete relief from pain after grafting. Pinch grafting is a simple, safe and effective therapy when applied in a domiciliary environment.

Steele, Keith

1985-01-01

284

Effect of monomer concentration on the degree of grafting and mechanical properties of grafted rubber film  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of concentration of monomer on the properties of grafted rubber film was studied. =rays obtained from Co-60 source were used as initiator for grafting. For this purpose latex concentration was kept constant. The mechanical properties of grafted rubber films like tensile strength, modulus, tear strength and elongation at break were determined. Tensile strength attains maximum at 50 phr (parts per hundred rubber) concentration of monomer and after this concentration it remains almost unchanged. On the other hand tear strength and modulus increase with increase in concentration of monomer but elongation at break decreases. The conversion of monomer to polymers and degree of grafting were also determined. (author)

285

Effect of different grafting methods for absorption, translocation and distribution of 59Fe in apple trees  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The test result with 59Fe demonstrate that the iron content in leaves by belly grafting is higher than that by cleft grafting and cutting grafting, and the content of chlorophyll in leaves and height and diameter of apple seedling by belly grafting is larger than cleft grafting and cutting grafting too. It is important to replace cleft grafting and cutting grafting with belly grafting as a method of top-working to correct chlorosis and improve growth of new cultivar

286

What Is Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting (CABG)?  

Science.gov (United States)

... Rhead, MA What is Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting (CABG)? What Can Happen When Blockages Occur in the ... Risks or Potential Complications to Consider Prior to CABG? What are the Risks of Surgery? What are ...

287

CT diagnosis of aortic graft infections  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two cases of aortic graft infections diagnosed by computed tomography (CT) are presented. CT scans demonstrated a zone of low attenuation in the perigraft area, in one case with a rim enhancement. The diagnoses were verfied by operation. (orig.)

288

Radiation-induced grafting onto wool  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation-induced grafting tests were done on single wool fibres. Different vinyl monomers were used for this purpose and they were grafted in twenty different solvents which were selected for their swelling effiency and solvent parameters. The tests were done once with and once without the addition of water. The presence of water causes the polymer uptake to increase considerably. Formic acid/methanol and methanol were found to be the most suitable solvent systems, as they have the highest hydrogen-bond interaction effiency. The moisture uptake of wool depends on the hydrophily and hydrophoby of the grafted polymers. The single-fibre tests serve as a basis for analogous grafting tests on wool fabrics. The permanent- press was improved by graftng with hydrophoric polymers and polymers with a high glass-transition temperature

289

Subepithelial connective tissue graft: a case report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction and objective: Marginal tissue recession represents a common condition in Periodontology. Miller’s Classes I and II recessions, in which the etiological factors are well diagnosed and eliminated, show great predictability of total coverage when the technique of subepithelial connective tissue graft is used. This technique success has been mainly attributed to the double blood supply for graft’s nutrition, originating from the connective tissue of both the periosteum and flap. Case report and conclusion: The authors reported a clinical case in which a Miller’s Class I recession was treated by the surgical technique of subepithelial connective tissue graft, obtaining total coverage, eliminating the aesthetic deficiency and the dentin hypersensitivity complained by patient.

Juliana Alcarás Saraiva

2011-07-01

290

Management of Peyronie's Disease by Dermal Grafting  

OpenAIRE

Purpose: To evaluate the results of plaque excision and dermal grafting in Peyronie’s disease.Materials and Methods: Twenty seven patients were scheduled to undergo plaque excision and dermal grafting for Peyronie’s disease. Potency, bending of erected penis, and having painful erection were evaluated in patients before and after operation. To evaluate erectile dysfunction, we used International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) by interviewing the patients and filling questionnaires by t...

Hamid Reza Nasseh; Hooman Jaladat; Gh, Pourmand; Abdolrasoul Mehrsai; Mohammad Reza Nikoobakht

2004-01-01

291

Grafting of a LLDPE using gamma irradiation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this investigation, the grafting of a commercial linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE) with different concentrations of diethyl maleate (DEM, 5 and 15 wt.%) was carried out at different absorbed doses from a cobalt-60 source of gamma rays (0, 15, 30, 50, 100, 200 kGy). This process was performed in a decalin solution at 10% w/v to obtain a homogeneous dispersion of the monomer into the polyethylene matrix. The grafting degree was estimated by means of FTIR using a calibration curve reported in literature. Thermal properties of the functional polymers were studied by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Melt flow index (MFI) values were also taken. The results found indicate that the grafting degree increases as the concentration of DEM in the reaction mixture and the absorbed doses are increased upto 100 kGy, as expected. However, the behavior at higher doses is attributed to secondary reactions such as long-chain branching and/or crosslinking, which are faster than radical reactions responsible for the grafting of the DEM onto the polymeric chain. This fact was ascertained by the decrease of the MFI values as the applied irradiation was increased, irrespective of the quantity of DEM used in the grafting reaction. Therefore, in order to obtain a high grafting degree, the absorbed dose should be estimated carefully. Initial degradation temperatures of the grafted PEs decreased when the gamma irradiation dose was higher than 100 kGy. This indicates that the thermal stability decreases as higher doses are applied to the material, which is associated to branching and crosslinking. The grafting degree never exceeded 0.3 mol%, which demonstrates the low efficiency of the functionalization procedure here presented.

Catari, E. [Centro de Quimica, Laboratorio de Polimeros Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas (IVIC) (Venezuela); Albano, C. [Centro de Quimica, Laboratorio de Polimeros Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas (IVIC) (Venezuela) and Universidad Central de Venezuela, Facultad de Ingenieria, Escuela de Ingenieria Quimica (Venezuela)]. E-mail: calbano@ivic.ve; Karam, A. [Centro de Quimica, Laboratorio de Polimeros Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas (IVIC) (Venezuela)]. E-mail: akaram@quimica.ivic.ve; Perera, R. [Departamento de Mecanica, Universidad Simon Bolivar (Venezuela); Silva, P. [Centro de Fisica, Laboratorio de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas (IVIC), Caracas (Venezuela); Gonzalez, J. [Departamento de Mecanica, Universidad Simon Bolivar (Venezuela)

2005-07-01

292

Fusarium incarnatum/equiseti hemodialysis graft infection  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Hemodialysis graft infections typically occur as a result of contamination by skin flora at the time of insertion or become secondarily infected after high-grade bacteremia. Infection of implanted vascular devices with filamentous fungi is rare. We report a case of infection of an implanted polytetrafluoroethylene dialysis graft with Fusarium incarnatum/equiseti that did not grow in cultures of tissue but was identified by molecular means.

Jeffery D. Punch

2010-08-01

293

Fusarium incarnatum/equiseti hemodialysis graft infection.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hemodialysis graft infections typically occur as a result of contamination by skin flora at the time of insertion or become secondarily infected after high-grade bacteremia. Infection of implanted vascular devices with filamentous fungi is rare. We report a case of infection of an implanted polytetrafluoroethylene dialysis graft with Fusarium incarnatum/equiseti that did not grow in cultures of tissue but was identified by molecular means. PMID:24470894

Riddell, James; Woodside, Kenneth J; Leavitt, Matthew A; Newton, Duane W; Punch, Jeffery D

2010-08-01

294

Fusarium incarnatum/equiseti hemodialysis graft infection  

OpenAIRE

Hemodialysis graft infections typically occur as a result of contamination by skin flora at the time of insertion or become secondarily infected after high-grade bacteremia. Infection of implanted vascular devices with filamentous fungi is rare. We report a case of infection of an implanted polytetrafluoroethylene dialysis graft with Fusarium incarnatum/equiseti that did not grow in cultures of tissue but was identified by molecular means.

Punch, Jeffery D.; Newton, Duane W.; Leavitt, Matthew A.; Woodside, Kenneth J.; James Riddell

2010-01-01

295

Local graft irradiation in renal transplant rejection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

From 1977 to 1988, of 142 renal transplantations, seven recipients (4.9%) received local graft irradiation following rejective reaction refractory to antirejection medical managements. Concurrent with the administration of pulsed high dose methylprednisolone and other antirejection medical managements, the graft was irradiated with a total dose of 6.0 Gy-150 cGy per fraction every other day at the midplane of the graft using two opposing portals of 4MX Linac. The fields were defined by palpation and echography. All patients had improvements in serum creatinine on the 10th day after beginning the irradiation. Four patients with peripheral lymphocytosis during the irradiation combined with pulsed high dose methylprednisolone improved in renal functions. On the other hand, out of 3 patients with lymphcytopenic changes, in two the transplanted graft was removed due to deteriorations, and the other patient is currently suffering from chronic rejection. Local graft irradiation can be useful in maintaining a rejective graft and reversing its functions in some patients whose rejective reaction failed to respond to the antirejection medical managements. (author).

Kawamura, Masashi; Kataoka, Masaaki; Itoh, Hisao (Ehime Univ., Matsuyama (Japan). School of Medicine)

1990-04-01

296

Polypeptide Grafted Hyaluronan: Synthesis and Characterization  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Poly(L-leucine) grafted hyaluronan (HA-g-PLeu) has been synthesized via a Michael addition reaction between primary amine terminated poly(L-leucine) and acrylate-functionalized HA (TBAHA-acrylate). The precursor hyaluronan was first functionalized with acrylate groups by reaction with acryloyl chloride in the presence of triethylamine in N,N-dimethylformamide. 1H NMR analysis of the resulting product indicated that an increase in the concentration of acryloylchoride with respect to hydroxyl groups on HA has only a moderate effect on functionalization efficiency, f. A precise control of stoichiometry was not achieved, which could be attributed to partial solubility of intermolecular aggregates and the hygroscopic nature of HA. Michael addition at high [PLeu- NH2]/[acrylate]TBAHA ratios gave a molar grafting ratio of only 0.20 with respect to the repeat unit of HA, indicating grafting limitation due to insolubility of the grafted HA-g-PLeu. Soluble HA-g-PLeu graft copolymers were obtained for low grafting ratios (<0.039) with <8.6% by mass of PLeu and were characterized thoroughly using light scattering, 1H NMR, FT-IR, and AFM techniques. Light scattering experiments showed a strong hydrophobic interaction between PLeu chains, resulting in aggregates with segregated nongrafted HA segments. This yields local networks of aggregates, as demonstrated by atomic force microscopy. Circular dichroism spectroscopy showed a -sheet conformation for aggregates of poly(L-leucine).

Wang, Xiaojun [ORNL; Messman, Jamie M [ORNL; Mays, Jimmy [ORNL; Baskaran, Durairaj [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

2010-01-01

297

DIETARY FAT AND SPORTS NUTRITION: A PRIMER  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The general public's view of macronutrients has undergone sweeping changes in recent years. Dietary fats are a key example. Since the anti-fat health education initiatives of the 1980s and early 1990s, certain dietary fats have been increasingly recognized as actually beneficial to health. Athletes, like the mainstream populace, are now getting the message that wise dietary fat (triacylglycerol choices offer essential fatty acids, blood lipid management, maintained endocrine and immune function, inflammation control, metabolic effects and even potential body composition and performance benefits. Toward this end, many companies now sell specialty dietary fat supplements and recognized health authorities have begun recommending them to certain populations. This review will cover data regarding the physiology, dietary needs, food sources, and potential benefits and risks most relevant to athletes. Practical suggestions for incorporating healthy fats will be made. Both food-source and supplemental intakes will be addressed with interrelationships to health throughout.

Lonnie M. Lowery

2004-09-01

298

MR imaging of osteochondral grafts and autologous chondrocyte implantation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Surgical articular cartilage repair therapies for cartilage defects such as osteochondral autograft transfer, autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) or matrix associated autologous chondrocyte transplantation (MACT) are becoming more common. MRI has become the method of choice for non-invasive follow-up of patients after cartilage repair surgery. It should be performed with cartilage sensitive sequences, including fat-suppressed proton density-weighted T2 fast spin-echo (PD/T2-FSE) and three-dimensional gradient-echo (3D GRE) sequences, which provide good signal-to-noise and contrast-to-noise ratios. A thorough magnetic resonance (MR)-based assessment of cartilage repair tissue includes evaluations of defect filling, the surface and structure of repair tissue, the signal intensity of repair tissue and the subchondral bone status. Furthermore, in osteochondral autografts surface congruity, osseous incorporation and the donor site should be assessed. High spatial resolution is mandatory and can be achieved either by using a surface coil with a 1.5-T scanner or with a knee coil at 3 T; it is particularly important for assessing graft morphology and integration. Moreover, MR imaging facilitates assessment of complications including periosteal hypertrophy, delamination, adhesions, surface incongruence and reactive changes such as effusions and synovitis. Ongoing developments include isotropic 3D sequences, for improved morphological analysis, and in vivo biochemical imaical analysis, and in vivo biochemical imaging such as dGEMRIC, T2 mapping and diffusion-weighted imaging, which make functional analysis of cartilage possible. (orig.)

299

MR imaging of osteochondral grafts and autologous chondrocyte implantation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Surgical articular cartilage repair therapies for cartilage defects such as osteochondral autograft transfer, autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) or matrix associated autologous chondrocyte transplantation (MACT) are becoming more common. MRI has become the method of choice for non-invasive follow-up of patients after cartilage repair surgery. It should be performed with cartilage sensitive sequences, including fat-suppressed proton density-weighted T2 fast spin-echo (PD/T2-FSE) and three-dimensional gradient-echo (3D GRE) sequences, which provide good signal-to-noise and contrast-to-noise ratios. A thorough magnetic resonance (MR)-based assessment of cartilage repair tissue includes evaluations of defect filling, the surface and structure of repair tissue, the signal intensity of repair tissue and the subchondral bone status. Furthermore, in osteochondral autografts surface congruity, osseous incorporation and the donor site should be assessed. High spatial resolution is mandatory and can be achieved either by using a surface coil with a 1.5-T scanner or with a knee coil at 3 T; it is particularly important for assessing graft morphology and integration. Moreover, MR imaging facilitates assessment of complications including periosteal hypertrophy, delamination, adhesions, surface incongruence and reactive changes such as effusions and synovitis. Ongoing developments include isotropic 3D sequences, for improved morphological analysis, and in vivo biochemical imaging such as dGEMRIC, T2 mapping and diffusion-weighted imaging, which make functional analysis of cartilage possible. PMID:16802126

Trattnig, S; Millington, S A; Szomolanyi, P; Marlovits, S

2007-01-01

300

MR imaging of osteochondral grafts and autologous chondrocyte implantation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Surgical articular cartilage repair therapies for cartilage defects such as osteochondral autograft transfer, autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) or matrix associated autologous chondrocyte transplantation (MACT) are becoming more common. MRI has become the method of choice for non-invasive follow-up of patients after cartilage repair surgery. It should be performed with cartilage sensitive sequences, including fat-suppressed proton density-weighted T2 fast spin-echo (PD/T2-FSE) and three-dimensional gradient-echo (3D GRE) sequences, which provide good signal-to-noise and contrast-to-noise ratios. A thorough magnetic resonance (MR)-based assessment of cartilage repair tissue includes evaluations of defect filling, the surface and structure of repair tissue, the signal intensity of repair tissue and the subchondral bone status. Furthermore, in osteochondral autografts surface congruity, osseous incorporation and the donor site should be assessed. High spatial resolution is mandatory and can be achieved either by using a surface coil with a 1.5-T scanner or with a knee coil at 3 T; it is particularly important for assessing graft morphology and integration. Moreover, MR imaging facilitates assessment of complications including periosteal hypertrophy, delamination, adhesions, surface incongruence and reactive changes such as effusions and synovitis. Ongoing developments include isotropic 3D sequences, for improved morphological analysis, and in vivo biochemical imaging such as dGEMRIC, T2 mapping and diffusion-weighted imaging, which make functional analysis of cartilage possible. (orig.)

Trattnig, S. [Medical University of Vienna, MR Centre of Excellence, Department of Radiology, Vienna (Austria); University Hospital of Vienna, MR-Center, Department of Radiology, Vienna (Austria); Millington, S.A. [Medical University of Vienna, MR Centre of Excellence, Department of Radiology, Vienna (Austria); Medical University of Vienna, Department of Trauma Surgery, Center for Joints and Cartilage, Vienna (Austria); Szomolanyi, P. [Medical University of Vienna, MR Centre of Excellence, Department of Radiology, Vienna (Austria); Marlovits, S. [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Trauma Surgery, Center for Joints and Cartilage, Vienna (Austria)

2007-01-15

301

Radionuclide investigations of intestinal fat absorption  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Analysis of the use of a simple and effective method for the assessment of intestinal fat absorption with the help of external radiometry of the abdominal area using a ?-radiation collimated detector and whole-body radiometry has shown that a coefficient of intestinal fat absorption in patients in the preoperative period does not demonstrate a statistically significant difference from the respective normal one. Gastrectomy with placing esophago-secal anastomosis disabling the duodenum, leads to considerable deterioration of fat absorptive function

302

Nutritional and Health Effects of Dietary Fats  

OpenAIRE

In the 80`s and early 90`s, nutrition recommendations for the prevention of developing coronary heart disease called for a reduction of total fat in the diet through the substitution of carbohydrate for fat. However, the current scientific evidence does not support a position that a reduction in total fat has a beneficial effect on coronary heart disease, or risk factors for coronary heart disease. The cumulative evidence from recent scientific literature suggests that unless there is a conco...

Nimal Ratnayake, W. M.; Sarwar Gilani, G.

2004-01-01

303

The stability of recombined milk fat globules.  

OpenAIRE

The stability of the fat globules in recombined milk products against creaming, flocculation, clustering, partial coalescence and real coalescence, with the emphasis on partial coalescence, was studied. (partial) Coalescence was characterized by determining changes in globule size distribution and fat content. Without crystals the emulsions were mostly stable at rest and during flow. If crystals were present, natural cream and emulsions of milk fat-in-whey were unstable in a flow, while emuls...

Melsen, J. P.

1987-01-01

304

Dietary fat intake, supplements, and weight loss  

Science.gov (United States)

Although there remains controversy regarding the role of macronutrient balance in the etiology of obesity, the consumption of high-fat diets appears to be strongly implicated in its development. Evidence that fat oxidation does not adjust rapidly to acute increases in dietary fat, as well as a decreased capacity to oxidize fat in the postprandial state in the obese, suggest that diets high in fat may lead to the accumulation of fat stores. Novel data is also presented suggesting that in rodents, high-fat diets may lead to the development of leptin resistance in skeletal muscle and subsequent accumulations of muscle triacylglycerol. Nevertheless, several current fad diets recommend drastically reduced carbohydrate intake, with a concurrent increase in fat content. Such recommendations are based on the underlying assumption that by reducing circulating insulin levels, lipolysis and lipid oxidation will be enhanced and fat storage reduced. Numerous supplements are purported to increase fat oxidation (carnitine, conjugated linoleic acid), increase metabolic rate (ephedrine, pyruvate), or inhibit hepatic lipogenesis (hydroxycitrate). All of these compounds are currently marketed in supplemental form to increase weight loss, but few have actually been shown to be effective in scientific studies. To date, there is little or no evidence supporting that carnitine or hydroxycitrate supplementation are of any value for weight loss in humans. Supplements such as pyruvate have been shown to be effective at high dosages, but there is little mechanistic information to explain its purported effect or data to indicate its effectiveness at lower dosages. Conjugated linoleic acid has been shown to stimulate fat utilization and decrease body fat content in mice but has not been tested in humans. The effects of ephedrine, in conjunction with methylxanthines and aspirin, in humans appears unequivocal but includes various cardiovascular side effects. None of these compounds have been tested for their effectiveness or safety over prolonged periods of time.

Dyck, D. J.

2000-01-01

305

Chicken fatness: from QTL to candidate gene  

OpenAIRE

Excessive fat is a well known problem in poultry. It depresses feed efficiency, has no commercial value, and is less appreciated by consumers. Therefore, considerable research effort has been applied around the world to study factors associated with fat deposition and methods of decreasing it.his dissertation concerns the identification of genes controlling fat deposition in broilers. The strategy used to identify these genes is the so-called positional candidate gene approach. This approach ...

Jennen, D. G. J.

2004-01-01

306

[Fat embolism and syndrome of pleural effusion].  

Science.gov (United States)

Authors present the frequency, pathological disorders and consequences of fat microembolia of the lung. Peculiarities of fat embolia in patients with blunt traumas of the foot and shin were shown in the article. Rare cases (2) of SPE manifestation in patients with fat embolia of the lung, experience of pathogenetic therapy of complications and recommendations regarding diagnostics of complications in patients with this disease are given in the article. PMID:18668712

Duzhy?, I D; Hres'ko, I Ia; Chumak, S O

2007-01-01

307

Oil and fat in broiler nutrition  

OpenAIRE

The terms "fat" and "oil" refer to triglycerides of several profiles of fatty acids. Fatty acids that are not bound to other organic components as glycerol are the so-called free fatty acids. Lipids constitute the main energetic source for animals and they have the highest caloric value among all the nutrients. Linoleic acid is the only fatty acid whose dietetic requirement has been demonstrated. Besides supplying energy, the addition of fat to animal diets improves the absorption of fat-solu...

Nc, Baia?o; Ljc, Lara

2005-01-01

308

Intraoperative graft assessment during coronary artery bypass surgery.  

Science.gov (United States)

Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is an established revascularization method for treating multivessel coronary artery disease. The goal of CABG is to achieve complete revascularization with a durable, patent graft without reintervention. However, early graft failure, including that associated with technical errors, has been reported. This makes intraoperative verification of graft patency one of the most important ways in which surgeons can reduce the rate of early graft failure. Conventional angiography is considered the gold standard for graft assessment. However, because it is invasive and inconvenient, several alternatives to intraoperative graft assessment have become available that help reduce early graft failure by allowing revision of the anastomosis intraoperatively. The aim of this article is to review the advantages and disadvantages of several intraoperative graft assessment methods for CABG. PMID:25556862

Fukui, Toshihiro

2015-03-01

309

Physical properties of agave cellulose graft polymethyl methacrylate  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The grafting polymerization of methyl methacrylate and Agave cellulose was prepared and their structural analysis and morphology were investigated. The grafting reaction was carried out in an aqueous medium using ceric ammonium nitrate as an initiator. The structural analysis of the graft copolymers was carried out by Fourier transform infrared and X-ray diffraction. The graft copolymers were also characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). An additional peak at 1732 cm{sup ?1} which was attributed to the C=O of ester stretching vibration of poly(methyl methacrylate), appeared in the spectrum of grafted Agave cellulose. A slight decrease of crystallinity index upon grafting was found from 0.74 to 0.68 for cellulose and grafted Agave cellulose, respectively. Another evidence of grafting showed in the FESEM observation, where the surface of the grafted cellulose was found to be roughed than the raw one.

Rosli, Noor Afizah; Ahmad, Ishak; Abdullah, Ibrahim; Anuar, Farah Hannan [Polymer Research Centre (PORCE), School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi Selangor (Malaysia)

2013-11-27

310

Radiation grafting of maleic anhydride onto polypropylene in suspension system  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper studies the grafting of maleic anhydride (MAH) onto polypropylene (PP) performed in suspension through co-irradiation in the absence of an initiator. The effect of radiation dose and MAH concentration on the graft degree of MAH onto PP was investigated. The graft degree and relative viscosity of grafted MAH were investigated by means of chemical titration and viscosity measurements. The results show that the co-irradiation in suspension systems can obviously cause the increase of the amount of grafted MAH, implying that the grafting reaction consists of chain scission and the grafting reaction of the produced macroradicals with MAH. The percentage of grafting of the product amounts to 4.82%. The molecular structures of the prepared grafted MAH were characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WXRD) were used to determine the degree of crystallinity and crystalline structure.

Tan, Xiumin; Xu, Yongshen

311

Mandible reconstruction with vascularized bone grafts. A histologic evaluation.  

Science.gov (United States)

To our knowledge, a histologic evaluation of bone healing after mandible reconstruction with vascularized human bone grafts has not been previously reported. Serial sections through both the decalcified graft and the junction between mandible and graft were evaluated in four patients who required surgical removal of their reconstructed mandibles. A failed scapular bone graft that had been wrapped within a pectoralis major myocutaneous flap for salvage following pedicle thrombosis showed markedly resorbed but viable bone with a fibrous union to the native mandible. Viable vascularized grafts without evidence of ongoing resorption characterized an iliac osteocutaneous bone graft and two scapula osteocutaneous grafts that healed with continuity of healthy bone between graft and mandible. Observations from the evaluation of these specimens are made regarding bone circulation, bone union, and bone graft survival as they occur clinically. Implications regarding the techniques of bone plating and indications for use of vascularized bone in mandible reconstruction are discussed. PMID:1892626

Hoffman, H T; Harrison, N; Sullivan, M J; Robbins, K T; Ridley, M; Baker, S R

1991-08-01

312

Physical properties of agave cellulose graft polymethyl methacrylate  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The grafting polymerization of methyl methacrylate and Agave cellulose was prepared and their structural analysis and morphology were investigated. The grafting reaction was carried out in an aqueous medium using ceric ammonium nitrate as an initiator. The structural analysis of the graft copolymers was carried out by Fourier transform infrared and X-ray diffraction. The graft copolymers were also characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). An additional peak at 1732 cm?1 which was attributed to the C=O of ester stretching vibration of poly(methyl methacrylate), appeared in the spectrum of grafted Agave cellulose. A slight decrease of crystallinity index upon grafting was found from 0.74 to 0.68 for cellulose and grafted Agave cellulose, respectively. Another evidence of grafting showed in the FESEM observation, where the surface of the grafted cellulose was found to be roughed than the raw one

313

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403

Exterior dimension of fat fractals  

Science.gov (United States)

Geometric scaling properties of fat fractal sets (fractals with finite volume) are discussed and characterized via the introduction of a new dimension-like quantity which is called the exterior dimension. In addition, it is shown that the exterior dimension is related to the 'uncertainty exponent' previously used in studies of fractal basin boundaries, and it is shown how this connection can be exploited to determine the exterior dimension. Three illustrative applications are described, two in nonlinear dynamics and one dealing with blood flow in the body. Possible relevance to porous materials and ballistic driven aggregation is also noted.

Grebogi, C.; Mcdonald, S. W.; Ott, E.; Yorke, J. A.

1985-01-01

404

Biodiesel via hydrotreating of fat  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Biodiesel production via transesterification to fatty acid alkyl esters is rising rapidly worldwide due to the limited availability of fossil resources and the problems of global warming. Often, however, the use of 2nd-generation feedstock like animal waste fat and trap greases etc. is made difficult especially by the high amount of free fatty acids (FFA) in these raw materials. Another way to utilise such feedstock could be through the complete deoxygenation of the fuel, i.e. by hydrogenation and decarboxylation of the fat itself. Hydrotreating of fats is a procedure very well suited for existing petroleum refineries, and could be applied in mixture with existing hydrotreating of for instance vacuum gas oil [1,2]. As is shown in literature, both hydrogenation and decarboxylation of the fat may occur under such circumstances [2-4]. 9 g of a model mixture of 3 % oleic acid (C18:1), 7 % tripalmitin (C16:0) and 90% n-tetradecane (C14) in molar ratios was hydrotreated by 0.2 g of a 5%wt Pt/Al2O3 catalyst. The mixture was treated with 10 to 30 bar H2 in an autoclave at temperatures between 250 and 375°C, and samples for GC analysis was taken out after 1, 2, 5 and 20 hours to track the extent of reaction. Thus, the yields of pentadecane (C15) to octadecane (C18) could be monitored by GC analysis, thus indicating the conversions of FFA and tripalmitin. This procedure makes it possible to monitor and distinguish hydrogenation (resulting in hexadecane, C16, and octadecane, C18) from decarboxylation (resulting in pentadecane, C15, and heptadecane, C17) of triglyceride and fatty acid. Even in this hydrogen-rich atmosphere, the dominant reaction above 300ºC is decarboxylation of the acid and ester functionalities, thus limiting the consumption of hydrogen. Temperatures below 300°C are not well suited for the treating, as primarily the saturation of oleic acid to stearic acid (C18:0) is observed, with low conversions of fatty acid and triglyceride. [1] Stumborg, M., Wong, A. and Hogan, E., Bioresour. Technol. 56 (1996) 13 [2] Huber, G.W., O’Connor, P. and Corma, A., Appl. Catal. A. 329 (2007) 120 [3] Kubickova, I., Snåre, M., Eränen, K., Mäki-Arvela, P. and Murzin, D. Yu., Catal. Today, 106 (2005) 197 [4] Mäki-Arvela, P., Kubickova, I., Snåre, M., Eränen, K. and Murzin, D. Yu., Energy Fuels, 21 (2007) 31

Madsen, Anders Theilgaard; Ahmed, El Hadi

405

Treatment of venous aortorenal bypass graft aneurysm using a stent-graft.  

Science.gov (United States)

We present the case of a 77-year-old male patient who had undergone a bilateral venous aortorenal bypass graft 30 years previously. Thirteen years previously, the patient was shown to have a decrease in renal function, with mild shrinking of both kidneys; additionally, a stenosis was found in the left proximal anastomosis. At the most recent follow-up visit (1 year previously), ultrasound revealed an aneurysm (42 mm in diameter) of the left renal bypass graft; the finding was confirmed by CT angiography. A significant ostial stenosis of the left renal bypass graft was also confirmed. It was decided to place a self-expandable stent-graft into the aneurysm while also attempting to dilate the stenosis. Proximal endoleak after stent-graft placement necessitated the implantation of another, balloon-expandable stent-graft into the bypass graft ostium. Postprocedural angiography and follow-up by CT angiography at 3 months confirmed good patency of the stent-grafts and complete thrombosis of the aneurysmal sac, with preserved kidney perfusion. Renal function remained unaltered, while the hypertension is better controlled. PMID:19444502

Novotný, Jirí; Peregrin, Jan H; Stríbrná, Jarmila; Janousek, Radim

2010-02-01

406

Treatment of Venous Aortorenal Bypass Graft Aneurysm Using a Stent-Graft  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We present the case of a 77-year-old male patient who had undergone a bilateral venous aortorenal bypass graft 30 years previously. Thirteen years previously, the patient was shown to have a decrease in renal function, with mild shrinking of both kidneys; additionally, a stenosis was found in the left proximal anastomosis. At the most recent follow-up visit (1 year previously), ultrasound revealed an aneurysm (42 mm in diameter) of the left renal bypass graft; the finding was confirmed by CT angiography. A significant ostial stenosis of the left renal bypass graft was also confirmed. It was decided to place a self-expandable stent-graft into the aneurysm while also attempting to dilate the stenosis. Proximal endoleak after stent-graft placement necessitated the implantation of another, balloon-expandable stent-graft into the bypass graft ostium. Postprocedural angiography and follow-up by CT angiography at 3 months confirmed good patency of the stent-grafts and complete thrombosis of the aneurysmal sac, with preserved kidney perfusion. Renal function remained unaltered, while the hypertension is better controlled.

407

Abnormal fat distribution in PMM2-CDG.  

Science.gov (United States)

We hypothesize that abnormal fat distribution, a common feature of PMM2-CDG, is associated with abnormal perinatal hormone regulation. We assessed 32 cases with PMM2-CDG, for the comorbidity of hypoglycemia/hyperinsulinism and fat pads. Ninety percent of patients with hypoketotic hypoglycemia and/or hyperinsulinism had abnormal fat distribution, while normoglycemic patients showed this feature in 50% of the cases. This statistically significant difference suggests an etiological role of the insulin receptor in developing abnormal fat distribution in PMM2-CDG. PMID:24063868

Wolthuis, D F G J; van Asbeck, E V; Kozicz, T; Morava, E

2013-11-01

408

Detecting Fat Content of Food from a Distance: Olfactory-Based Fat Discrimination in Humans  

OpenAIRE

The desire to consume high volumes of fat is thought to originate from an evolutionary pressure to hoard calories, and fat is among the few energy sources that we can store over a longer time period. From an ecological perspective, however, it would be beneficial to detect fat from a distance, before ingesting it. Previous results indicate that humans detect high concentrations of fatty acids by their odor. More important though, would be the ability to detect fat content in real food product...

Boesveldt, S.; Lundstrom, J. N.

2014-01-01

409

Milk Fat Content and DGAT1 Genotype Determine Lipid Composition of the Milk Fat Globule Membrane  

OpenAIRE

During secretion of milk fat globules, triacylglycerol (TAG) droplets are enveloped by a phospholipid (PL) trilayer. Globule size has been found to be related to polar lipid composition and fat content, and milk fat content and fatty acid composition have been associated with the diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1) K232A polymorphism; however, the association between the DGAT1 polymorphism and fat globule size and polar lipid composition has not been studied. The ratio between polar and ...

Argov-argaman, N.; Mida, K.; Cohen, B. C.; Visker, M. H. P. W.; Hettinga, K. A.

2013-01-01

410

Authentication of feeding fats: classification of animal fats, fish oils and recycled cooking oils  

OpenAIRE

Classification of fats and oils involves the recognition of one/several markers typical of the product. The ideal marker(s) should be specific to the fat or oil. Not many chemical markers fulfill these criteria. Authenticity assessment is a difficult task, which in most cases requires the measurement of several markers and must take into account natural and technology-induced variation. The present study focuses on the identity prediction of three by-products of the fat industry (animal fats,...

Ruth, S. M.; Rozijn, M.; Koot, A. H.; Perez-garcia, R.; Kamp, H. J.; Codony, R.

2010-01-01

411

Effect of acid additives on grafting efficiency and water absorption of hydrolyzed cassava starch grafted polymers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Gelatinized cassava starch was radiation graft copolymerized with acrylamide, acrylic acid or their mixture in the presence of sulphuric acid or maleic acid. Various acid concentrations were used from 0.001 to 0.1 M of sulphuric acid while the maleic acid concentrations were varied from 1 to 3% (by weight). The optimum total dose and dose rate were investigated. The saponification temperature and time had the marked effects on grafting characteristics and water absorption capacity. We found that the effect of maleic acid addition gave a profound effect on water absorption. The CHNS/O analyses indicated significant changes in the nitrogen content in the hydrolyzed starch grafted polyacrylamide with 2% maleic acid. The article explains the possible causes for the enhancement influence of mineral acid and maleic acid on grafting behavior and water absorption of the saponified cassava starch grafted polyacrylamide super absorbent polymer. (author)

412

Oral mucosa grafts for urethral reconstruction  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Urethral reconstruction has continued to present formidable and enormous challenges for urologic, paediatric and plastic surgeons as diverse opinions have been expressed on the quality and type of ideal substitution material. This literature review is aimed at drawing attention of surgeons to the versatile nature of oral mucosal grafts. Methods: A review of the utilization of oral mucosa in urethral reconstruction was made. Structured Medline search was performed looking at all aspects of utilization of oral mucosa including mucosal harvest, donor site morbidity and outcome. Results: The unique demands of the urethra set a high standard for autogenous graft substitutes; hence literature reports reveal that split and full thickness skin grafts from the scrotum, penis, extragenital sites (ureter, saphenous vein, appendix, colon, medial upper arm, neck, lateral chest, abdomen, bladder mucosa and more recently oral mucosa have been used. Unlike other tissues, oral mucosa grafts are flexible, easy to harvest and trim and have an excellent microvasculature favorable for graft-taking. Furthermore, the natural moist location of the oral mucosa in the oral environment favours its easy adaptability in the urethral passage thus giving good long-term results. However, there are reports of complications at the donor site with the commonest being anaesthesia or paraesthesia of the cheek or lips. Regional variations of the oral mucosa, length of the graft required, the decision to close or leave donor site open and harvesting technique are some of the factors suggested to account for differences in donor site morbidity. Conclusion: Oral mucosal graft is a versatile urethral substitute with excellent outcome. It is becoming the gold standard for urethral substitution.

Ugboko V

2009-12-01

413

Adolescent External Iliac Artery Trauma: Recurrent Aneurysmal Dilatation of an Iliofemoral Saphenous Vein Graft Treated by Stent-Grafting  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An adolescent male sustained a severe penetrating injury to the external iliac artery. Emergency surgical revascularization was with a reversed long saphenous vein interposition graft. The primary graft and the subsequent revision graft both became aneurysmal. The second graft aneurysm was successfully excluded by endovascular stent-grafts with medium-term primary patency. A venous graft was used initially rather than a synthetic graft to reduce the risk of infection and the potential problems from future growth. Aneurysmal dilatation of venous grafts in children and adolescents is a rare but recognized complication. To the best of our knowledge, exclusion of these aneurysms with stent-grafts has not been previously reported in the adolescent population.

414

Mutual irradiation grafting of LDPE plate and its surface adhesive  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The ?-irradiation mutual grafting method is used for modifying the surface adhesive of LDPE (low density polyethylene) plate. AAC, methanol, Mohr's salt and water are used as monomer chain adjusting agent, inhibitor and solvent respectively. The study shows that the degree of grafting depends on the total dose, dose rate, monomer concentration and methanol concentration. When the degree of grafting is higher than 6.25%, the grafting occurs mostly in the bulk of LDPE plate. The grafting solution can be repeatedly used if some methanol exists in it. The surface adhesive of grafting modified LDPE plate is enhanced 8-9 times

415

Anterior cruciate ligament graft choices: a review of current concepts.  

Science.gov (United States)

The graft choice for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction continues to be controversial. There are several options available for the treating surgeon, including Bone Patellar Tendon Bone (BPTB) grafts, Hamstring tendon (HT) grafts, allografts and synthetic grafts. Within the last decade there have been several comparative trials and meta-analysis, which have failed to provide an answer with regards to the best graft available. The aim of this review is to understand the current concepts in graft choices for ACL reconstruction. PMID:22888379

Dheerendra, Sujay K; Khan, Wasim S; Singhal, Rohit; Shivarathre, Deepak G; Pydisetty, Ravi; Johnstone, David

2012-01-01

416

Characterization and Some Properties of Functionalized Graft Copolymer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The study involved the investigation and characterization of membranes prepared by graft copolymerization of acrylonitrile (AN) and vinyl acetate (VAc) binary monomers onto low density polyethylene (LDPE) and isotactic polypropylene (IPP). The mutual gamma-irradiation method was used as a grafting technique. The effects of grafting and chemical treatments on the thermal properties and crystallinity of prepared graft copolymer have been investigated using DSC, TGA and XRD. IR spectra recorded before and after grafting and also for the chemically treated membranes to elucidate the structural changes occurred due to grafting and chemical treatments

417

Oversized vein grafts develop advanced atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic minipigs  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Accelerated atherosclerosis is the main cause of late aortocoronary vein graft failure. We aimed to develop a large animal model for the study of pathogenesis and treatment of vein graft atherosclerosis. METHODS: An autologous reversed jugular vein graft was inserted end-to-end into the transected common carotid artery of ten hypercholesteroemic minipigs. The vein grafts were investigated 12-14 weeks later with ultrasound and angiograpy in vivo and microscopy post mortem. RESULTS: One minipig died during follow up (patent vein graft at autopsy), and one vein graft thrombosed early. In the remaining eight patent vein grafts, the mean (standard deviation) intima-media thickness was 712 mum (276 mum) versus 204 mum (74 mum) in the contralateral control internal jugular veins (P diameter of artery). No plaques were found in four non-oversized vein grafts (P <.05). CONCLUSIONS: Our model of jugular vein graft in the common carotid artery of hypercholesterolemic minipigs displayed the components of human vein graft disease, i.e. thrombosis, intimal hyperplasia, and atherosclerosis. Advanced atherosclerosis, the main cause of late failure of human aortocoronary vein grafts was only seen in oversized grafts. This finding suggests that oversized vein grafts may have detrimental effects on patient outcome.

Thim, Troels; Hagensen, Mette Kallestrup

2012-01-01

418

Grafting onto polyester fibers. II. Kinetics of grafting of acrylic acid, acrylonitrile, and vinyl acetate onto polyester fibers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The kinetics of grafting of acrylonitrile, acrylic acid, and vinyl acetate onto polyester fiber by catalytic initiation and radiation were studied. The energy of activation determined for acrylic acid grafting by the catalytic method was 10.7 kcal/mole and that for vinyl acetate grafting by the radiation method, 11.7 kcal/mole. In the case of acrylonitrile grafting by the catalytic method, the rate of grafting decreased with increase in temperature of grafting, showing the differential behavior of the precipitating type of polymer from that of homogeneous polymerization. 5 figures

419

[How to raise efficacy of myringoplasty in extensive defects].  

Science.gov (United States)

A comparative trial of miringoplasty efficacy with or without application of biosynthetic wound cover Biocom-1 was performed in 82 patients with sub- and total chronic defects or acute traumatic rupture of the tympanic membrane (58 and 24 patients, respectively). Better clinico-morphological and functional results were achieved in patients treated with application of Biocom-1 (pmembrane but also protects against secondary infection. PMID:18833123

Diskalenko, V V; Kurmashova, L M

2008-01-01

420

Radiographic analysis of pasteurized autologous bone graft  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Local malignant bone tumor excision followed by pasteurization and subsequent reimplantation is a unique technique for reconstruction after resection of primary bone sarcomas. The purpose of this investigation was to assess the normal and abnormal long-term radiographic findings of intercalary and osteo-chondral pasteurized bone graft/implant composite. The long-term radiographic findings of pasteurized bone grafts used in reconstruction after resection of bone and soft tissue sarcomas in relation to patients' clinical data were reviewed retrospectively. Thirty-one patients (18 females, 13 males; age range 7-77 years, mean 30 years) who underwent surgery between April 1990 and January 1997 at the authors' institute constituted the material of this study. They were followed up for at least 3 years or until the patient's death (mean 69 months). The International Society of Limb Salvage graft evaluation method that assesses the fusion, resorption, fracture, graft shortening, fixation, subluxation, joint narrowing and subchondral bone was used for evaluation of the radiographs. Twenty-one patients (68%) showed complete incorporation of graft and eight patients (26%) had partial incorporation. The overall radiographic evaluation rate was 81%. Fracture (10%) and infection (16%) were the main complications. No local recurrence was detected. These results indicate that pasteurization of bone is a useful option for reconstruction after resection of malignant bone tumors. (orig.)

Ahmed, Adel Refaat [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Cancer Institute Hospital, Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, Kamiikebukuro 1-37-1, Toshima-ku, 170-0012, Tokyo (Japan); Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Alexandria University, Alexandria (Egypt); Manabe, Jun; Kawaguchi, Noriyoshi; Matsumoto, Seiichi; Matsushita, Yasushi [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Cancer Institute Hospital, Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, Kamiikebukuro 1-37-1, Toshima-ku, 170-0012, Tokyo (Japan)

2003-08-01

421

Radiographic analysis of pasteurized autologous bone graft  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Local malignant bone tumor excision followed by pasteurization and subsequent reimplantation is a unique technique for reconstruction after resection of primary bone sarcomas. The purpose of this investigation was to assess the normal and abnormal long-term radiographic findings of intercalary and osteo-chondral pasteurized bone graft/implant composite. The long-term radiographic findings of pasteurized bone grafts used in reconstruction after resection of bone and soft tissue sarcomas in relation to patients' clinical data were reviewed retrospectively. Thirty-one patients (18 females, 13 males; age range 7-77 years, mean 30 years) who underwent surgery between April 1990 and January 1997 at the authors' institute constituted the material of this study. They were followed up for at least 3 years or until the patient's death (mean 69 months). The International Society of Limb Salvage graft evaluation method that assesses the fusion, resorption, fracture, graft shortening, fixation, subluxation, joint narrowing and subchondral bone was used for evaluation of the radiographs. Twenty-one patients (68%) showed complete incorporation of graft and eight patients (26%) had partial incorporation. The overall radiographic evaluation rate was 81%. Fracture (10%) and infection (16%) were the main complications. No local recurrence was detected. These results indicate that pasteurization of bone is a useful option for reconstruction after resection of malignant bone tumors. (orig resection of malignant bone tumors. (orig.)

422

Prediction of coronary artery bypass graft flow  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To predict the coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) flow based on the time density curve (TDC) obtained from the digital subtraction aortograms (DSA), we developed a pulsatile CABG model (perfusion pressure 60,130 mmHg, pulse rate 53,126/min, cardiac output 3-7 l/min, diameter of the graft 2.1?6.0 mm). After positioning the regions of interest (ROI), we injected contrast medium(5?40 ml/sec, 5?40 ml) into the outlet conduit. Concerning the TDCs, we calculated appearance time (Ta), peak densities (Dp), peak time (Tp), disappearance time (Td), integral of TDC, ?Tp (difference of Tp between two ROI) and ?Ta (difference of Ta between two ROI). Perfusion pressure, graft flow and output curve were similar to those of patients with CABG. Ta, Tp, Td, and ?Tp were affected by both the injection rate and the volume of the contrast medium; while Dp and the TDC integral were only affected by the latter parameter. Under the same conditions of contrast medium injection, the TDC depended strongly on graft flow, diameter of the graft, output and pulse rate. 21.6+0.92?·d2/4·?1/?Tp·60 provided the most accurate estimation of CABG flow (r=0.865, p<0.01). We conclude that densitometric analysis of DSA may be useful in the prediction of CABG flow. (author)

423

Graft selection in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.  

Science.gov (United States)

The ideal graft for use in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction should have structural and biomechanical properties similar to those of the native ligament, permit secure fixation and rapid biologic incorporation, and limit donor site morbidity. Many options have been clinically successful, but the ideal graft remains controversial. Graft choice depends on surgeon experience and preference, tissue availability, patient activity level, comorbidities, prior surgery, and patient preference. Patellar tendon autograft, the most widely used graft source, appears to be associated with an increased incidence of anterior knee pain compared with hamstring autograft. Use of hamstring autograft is increasing. Quadriceps tendon autograft is less popular but has shown excellent clinical results with low morbidity. Improved sterilization techniques have led to increased safety and availability of allograft, although allografts have a slower rate of incorporation than do most types of autograft. No graft has clearly been shown to provide a faster return to play. However, in general, patellar tendon autografts are preferable for high-performance athletes, and hamstring autografts and allografts have some relative advantages for lower-demand individuals. No current indications exist for synthetic ligaments. PMID:15938608

West, Robin V; Harner, Christopher D

2005-01-01

424

Radiation graft modification of EPDM rubber  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

N-Vinyl pyrrolidone (NVP), 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate (HEMA) and acrylamide (AAm) have been grafted to the surface of rubber vulcanizates based on ethylene-propylene-terpolymer (EPDM) using the simultaneous radiation method to alter surface properties such as wettability and therefore biocompatibility. The effect of monomer concentration, solvent and EPDM structural factors on the grafting behaviour have been investigated. The inhibitory effect upon homopolymerization of various salts has also been evaluated for the three monomers. A mechanism has been proposed to explain the behaviour of these monomers. The inclusion of multifunctional acrylates in additive amounts (1.0 vol%) enhanced the graft degree. Modified samples were able to be efficiently stained, allowing the depth of the graft copolymerization to be determined by light microscopy. Water was found to have an accelerating effect on the polymerization of these monomers, but methanol prevented their polymerization completely. The effect of EPDM structural factors upon degree of grafting was found to vary, depending upon the monomer type. (author)

425

Usual Intake of Energy from solid fats  

Science.gov (United States)

Usual Intake of Energy from solid fats Table A39. Energy from solid fats: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 kilocalories Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 250.1

426

Bioelectrical impedance analysis of bovine milk fat  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Three samples of 250ml at home temperature of 20°C were obtained from whole, low fat and fat free bovine UHT milk. They were analysed by measuring both impedance spectra and dc conductivity in order to establish the relationship between samples related to fat content. An impedance measuring system was developed, which is based on digital oscilloscope, a current source and a FPGA. Data was measured by the oscilloscope in the frequency 1 kHz to 100 kHz. It was showed that there is approximately 7.9% difference in the conductivity between whole and low fat milk whereas 15.9% between low fat and free fat one. The change of fatness in the milk can be significantly sensed by both impedance spectra measurements and dc conductivity. This result might be useful for detecting fat content of milk in a very simple way and also may help the development of sensors for measuring milk quality, as for example the detection of mastitis.

427

Advising patients about low-fat diets.  

OpenAIRE

Flooded with dietary information, Canadians often ask their family physicians for dietary advice. A literature review reveals evidence that low-fat diets will lower serum cholesterol by a maximum of 17%, but no study has demonstrated a concurrent decrease in mortality. Because the benefits of low-fat diets are not proven, family physicians should be cautious about giving dietary advice.

Rosser, W. W.

1993-01-01

428

On Learning to Teach Fat Feminism  

Science.gov (United States)

As a feminist theorist who frequently teaches theorizing that starts from embodied experience, the author has begun to incorporate fat feminism into her teaching. As a neophyte and a relatively thin woman, she has been self-conscious about broaching issues related to fat bodies in her teaching, even though they clearly raise important issues about…

Boling, Patricia

2011-01-01

429

Coming out as Fat: Rethinking Stigma  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper examines the surprising case of women who "come out as fat" to test and refine theories about social change, social mobilization, stigma, and stigma resistance. First, supporting theories about "social movement spillover," we find that overlapping memberships in queer and fat activist groups, as well as networks between these groups,…

Saguy, Abigail C.; Ward, Anna

2011-01-01

430

9 CFR 327.20 - Importation of foreign inedible fats.  

Science.gov (United States)

...false Importation of foreign inedible fats. 327.20 Section 327.20 Animals...20 Importation of foreign inedible fats. No inedible grease, inedible tallow, or other inedible rendered fat shall be imported into the United...

2010-01-01

431

21 CFR 184.1287 - Enzyme-modified fats.  

Science.gov (United States)

...enzyme-modified steam-rendered chicken fat are prepared from refined beef fat; butterfat or milkfat; and steam-rendered chicken fat, respectively, with enzymes...with no limitation other than current good manufacturing practice. The...

2010-04-01

432

Acid effect in radiation grafting of silicone rubber I. simultaneous irradiation graft of acrylic acid  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation-induced grafting is a potential method for modification of polymers, for example, highly hydrated polymeric surfaces may be bio-compatible. It is well known that addition of mineral acid to some grafting solution enhanced the radiation grafting yield of some polyolefins. But it turns out not to be the case in all conditions. Some monomers (such as N-VP) can be grafted onto some polymers (such as SPEU) only in basic medium. It means that the acid effect in grafting systems depends on many effects such as component of matrix, type of monomers and solvents, method of irradiation, absorbed dose and so on. In this work, the curves of grafting yield as a function of absorbed dose showed that there were about two regions of dose: lower than 5 kGy, the grafting yield of AA on silicone rubber was enhanced by acid: the other region, dose growing up to about 13 kGy, the opposite results were obtained

433

What to Expect during Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting  

Science.gov (United States)

... Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) requires a team of experts. A cardiothoracic surgeon ... surgeons, and nurses. There are several types of CABG. They range from traditional surgery to newer, less- ...

434

Pre-irradiation grafting polymerization of DMAEMA onto cellulose fabrics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The grafting yield of N,N'-Dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA) on cotton cellulose fabric increased with grafting time, absorbed dose and concentration of the monomer in the aqueous solution, but decreased with grafting temperature. The dose rate had just a little effect on the grafting yield. The optimal grafting yields of DMAEMA on cotton cellulose were rather low, approximately 50% compared with N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAAm), though both monomers could be synthesized to be thermally reversible hydrogels. The relationship between the grafting yield and the grafting temperature indicated that the trapped radicals located in the inter phases between crystalline and amorphous regions of irradiated samples were the main active species inducing the grafting reaction. (author)

435

Graft copolimerization of hydrophilic monomers onto irradiated polypropylene fibers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A method of graft copolymerization of hydrophilic monomers, such as 1-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone, acrylonitrile, acrylic acid, and acrylamide, onto irradiated polypropylene fibers has been studied. ? ray as well as electron beam were employed for the irradiation processes. Graft-copolymerization kinetics and the properties of grafted fibers have been investigated. Moisture regain, dyes absorption, and melting point of the grafted fibers were found to increase with the increasing of the degree of grafting. Polypropylene for 1-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone grafted fibers showed excellent dye absorption for almost all kinds of dyes such as direct, basic, acid, reactive, disper, and naphthol dyes. However, for polypropylene acrylic acid grafted fibers, the colorfastness to washing was found to be unsatisfactory. The colorfastness to washing for polypropylene 1-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone grafted fibers was found to be fairly good for certain types of dyes such as vat and naphthol dyes. (author)

436

Platelet--arterial synthetic graft interaction and its modification  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We compared the in vivo platelet reactivity of two commonly used clinical grafts, Dacron and expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), with that of a control autogenous artery graft and assessed whether platelet reactivity was modified by the platelet-antiaggregating agent prostacyclin (PGI2) (epoprostenol). Grafts were randomly placed into the carotid arteries of 21 baboons. Platelets labeled with 111In were infused within one hour after implantation graft for gamma camera scanning of platelet uptake. The accumulation of platelets on Dacron grafts began almost immediately after injection and reached a peak after one to two hours. The PTFE and control autogenous artery grafts accumulated comparable small amounts of platelets. Prostacyclin was then infused in a second series of baboons with Dacron grafts, at a rate of 150 to 200 ng/kg/min. It prevented the usual platelet uptake when administered concomitant with graft implantation and reduced previously established platelet activity

437

Initiation and Polymerization of Starch Graft Modification  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As a new type of functional biological material, the graft copolymer of starch possesses properties of both natural polymers and synthesis ones, which has got extensive attentions in recent years. Latest advances in the initiation methods of starch graft copolymerization are introduced in this paper, mainly focusing on several initiation methods, such as photo-initiation, Co60 ?-ray initiation, microwave initiation, ceric ammonium nitrate initiation, and redox initiation. Besides, different polymerization methods are present, such as water-solution polymerization, inverse-emulsion polymerization, etc. We expect this paper could make some contributions for researchers to choose proper initiation and polymerization methods in the process. In addition, it is also discussed in this paper of the problems and developmental directions, pointing out the research emphases of starch grafting modification and providing new thoughts for further study.

xiaoxian he

2012-06-01

438

Autologous miniature punch grafting in stable vitiligo  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Autologous miniature punch grafting with certain modifications was taken up in 54 sites in 30 patients with stable vitiligo for 6 months or more. The modifications were: (a use of same sized disposable punches for both donor and recipient areas except over convex body surfaces, (b use of Castraviejo?s scissors for harvesting donor grafts, (c use of medial side of thigh as donor site and (d not removing the primary dressing of the recipient site till 8 postoperaive day. The patients were given systemic PUVASOL after the procedure for a period of three months and mean pigment spread was noted at each site. Results showed that the extent of repigmentation varied among the recipient sites, the maximum being over upper eyelids, axillae and umbilicus. The modifications in the standard procedure were found to produce less complications, like cobblestoning, graft rejection.

Rajagopal R

2005-01-01

439

Meshed split skin graft for extensive vitiligo  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A 30 year old female presented with generalized stable vitiligo involving large areas of the body. Since large areas were to be treated it was decided to do meshed split skin graft. A phototoxic blister over recipient site was induced by applying 8 MOP solution followed by exposure to UVA. The split skin graft was harvested from donor area by Padgett dermatome which was meshed by an ampligreffe to increase the size of the graft by 4 times. Significant pigmentation of the depigmented skin was seen after 5 months. This procedure helps to cover large recipient areas, when pigmented donor skin is limited with minimal risk of scarring. Phototoxic blister enables easy separation of epidermis thus saving time required for dermabrasion from recipient site.

Srinivas C

2004-05-01

440

Current indications of free gingival grafts  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this report is to show three cases treated by the free gingival graft technique. Two patients presented multiple andisolated Miller’s Class II and III gingival recessions, localized in the anterior region of mandible. The third patient showed absence ofqueratinized gingiva on the buccal aspect of an osseointegrated implant. All patients received free gingival grafts, and the palate was the donor area. The patients were followed up to one year. After the healing period, all cases showed an increase of the queratinized gingival width and, in cases 1 and 2, a reduction in gingival recession. During follow-up period, no signs of gingival inflammation and bleeding on probing were seen. The patients maintained appropriate plaque control and were satisfied with the final esthetics. This report indicates that free gingival graft technique can be used for successful treatment of multiple and isolated gingival recessions, as well as to increase periimplantar queratinized gingival width.

Márcio Zaffalon Casati

2008-01-01

441

[Bovine graft as arteriovenous fistula for hemodialysis].  

Science.gov (United States)

We used the bovine carotid artery (BCA) as arteriovenous shunt for hemodialysis in 11 patients since December 1975. We discuss our results. For implantations we used two methods: straight and loop grafts. The BCA have many advantages as: good access for punction, anticoagulation not permanently necessary, volume of shunt more than 250 ml/min; the disadvantages are: increased tendence to infection and thrombosis. Thrombosis in BCA can be easier removed than in other grafts. Reduction of the complications incidence is possible with an accurate technique. We think that the BCA is very useful when Cimino-Brescia fistula has failed or is unavailable; we prefer BCA to a saphenous arteriovenous graft in these situations. PMID:624647

Zingher, E; Gianella, C; Colombi, A; Vogt, B

1978-01-01

442

A fat gluino in disguise  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this paper, we investigate how a sizeable width-to-mass ratio for a gluino, as is for example realized in GMSB scenarios, could affect the discovery potential of gluinos at the LHC. More importantly, the influence of the gluino being ''fat'' on the standard mass and spin determination methods at the LHC are investigated. For this purpose, we focus on gluino production at the LHC, where we do not factorize the first step in the gluino decay cascade, but treat the following decay cascades step in factorization, including full spin correlations. The effects of sizeable width-to-mass ratios from a few up to 15-20 per cent on the endpoint of several mass determination methods as well as on means for discrimination between BSM spin paradigms like SUSY and UED are studied.

Reuter, J.; Wiesler, D.

2012-12-15

443

A Fat Gluino in Disguise  

CERN Document Server

In this paper, we investigate how a sizeable width-to-mass ratio for a gluino, as is for example realized in GMSB scenarios, could affect the discovery potential of gluinos at the LHC. More importantly, the influence of the gluino being "fat" on the standard mass and spin determination methods at the LHC are investigated. For this purpose, we focus on gluino production at the LHC, where we do not factorize the first step in the gluino decay cascade, but treat the following decay cascades step in factorization, including full spin correlations. The effects of sizeable width-to-mass ratios from a few up to 15-20 per cent on the endpoint of several mass determination methods as well as on means for discrimination between BSM spin paradigms like SUSY and UED are studied.

Reuter, J

2012-01-01

444

Fat avoidance and replacement behaviors predict low-fat intake among urban African American adolescents.  

Science.gov (United States)

Using measures of behaviors shown to predict low-fat intake in previous research, this study examined whether the behaviors would predict low-fat intake among urban African American adolescents. Recruited through youth services agencies in Philadelphia, Pa, participants were 399 African American adolescents (67% female subjects) with a mean age of 13.09 years (range, 10-15 years). Fat-related dietary behaviors were measured using items that were adapted from the Food Habits Questionnaire. Fat intake was measured using the Block Fat Screener. Spearman correlations examined the relationships between fat-related dietary behaviors and fat intake. Seven behaviors were significantly associated with low-fat intake: had chicken that was baked or broiled instead of fried; ordered pasta or pizza served without meat sauce or meat toppings; had a vegetarian dinner; used low-calorie instead of regular salad dressing; ate at least 2 vegetables (not green salad) at dinner; ate bread, rolls, or muffins without butter or margarine; and avoided foods that were fried in oil, shortening, or lard. Using multiple regression, fat intake was regressed on the linear combination of demographic variables and these fat-related dietary behaviors. The regression equation accounted for 17% of the variance in fat intake (adjusted R(2) = 0.13). Fat avoidance (ate bread, rolls, or muffins without butter or margarine) and replacement (ordered pasta or pizza served without meat sauce or meat toppings) behaviors were significant predictors of low-fat intake. Dietary interventions to lower fat intake among urban African American adolescents should promote the adoption of these behaviors. PMID:19083432

Di Noia, Jennifer; Contento, Isobel R; Schinke, Steven P

2008-06-01

445

The influence of fat score and fat trimming on primal cut composition of South African lamb  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english The objectives of this study were to evaluate the primal cut composition of South African lamb carcasses with different fat scores, and to identify cuts suitable for fat trimming. Sixty grain fed Dorper lambs (rams and ewes) were divided into three groups and slaughtered at 30, 36 and 42 kg. Chilled [...] carcass sides were subdivided into seven primal cuts. The cuts were dissected into meat (muscle, intermuscular and intramuscular fat), bone and subcutaneous fat (SCF) in order to determine the physical composition per cut and for the whole carcass. The % subcutaneous fat (SCF) in the loin increased the most (26 units) as the fat score increased from 1 to 5, followed by the flank, shoulder and neck. The % meat (lean) of the neck, thick rib and breast showed no significant change between fat scores 1 to 5, while % bone decreased significantly (>6% units). Meat and bone proportions decreased significantly with an increase in fat score for the loin, flank, leg and shoulder. The composition of the loin cut was most affected overall by changes in the fat score. Since different cuts accumulate SCF at different rates during fattening, trimming of SCF could reduce the boneless % SCF level of the major cuts such as the loin, leg and shoulder by 12, 6 and 9 units, respectively, when trimmed from SCF equal to a fat score 5 to a fat score 3. Further trimming to levels equal to a fat score 1, could reduce the % SCF by 18, 8 and 5 units, respectively on a boneless level. Considering differences in relative increase in intermuscular fat (IMF) and SCF in different cuts, the leg seems to be the most suitable cut for trimming in fat carcasses, since the IMF : SCF ratio is the lowest compared to the other larger cuts namely the loin and shoulder.

P.E., Strydom; S.M., van Heerden; H.C., Schönfeldt; R., Kruger; M.F., Smith.

446

On healing of titanium implants in iliac crest bone grafts  

OpenAIRE

Bone grafts and titanium implants are commonly used for surgical/prosthetic rehabilitation of the atrophic edentulous maxilla. The factors which influence bone graft healing and implant integration are not sufficiently understood. The aim of this dissertation was to evaluate autogenous bone grafting and delayed placement of titanium endosteal implants for reconstruction of the atrophic maxilla, including the effects of different patient factors on bone graft healing and integration of titaniu...

Sjo?stro?m, Mats

2006-01-01

447

Side Grafting and Various Scion Parts Interaction in Guava  

OpenAIRE

A research project "Side grafting and various scion parts interaction in guava" was carried out at Government Fruit Nursery Farm, Jabban, Dargai Malakand Agency during 2002-2003. Three scion parts i.e. Apical, Middle, Basal and two grafting methods i.e. side veneer and side T. grafting were studied. The experiment was laid out according to Randomized Complete Block design with two factorial arrangement. Maximum graft take success (77.5%), survival percentage (27.9) and percent saleable plants...

Samiullah; Syed Asghar Hussain; Abdur Rab; Haji Mohammad

2004-01-01

448

Grafting copolymerization and characterization of PEGMA onto preirradiated PP films  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The surface of polypropylene (PP) film is modified by preirradiation grafting of polyethylene glycol methacrylate (PEGMA) with three kind of different molecular weight. The effect of co-solvent system on the degree of grafting and water contact angle were determined, respectively. The Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy in the attenuated total reflectance mode (ATR) was used for the determination of grafted surface. The blood compatibility, such as protein adsorption, platelet adsorption and thrombus on the grafted surfaces were modified respectively

449

Morphological analysis of embryonic cerebellar grafts in SCA2 mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

SCA2 transgenic mice are thought to be a useful model of human spinocerebellar ataxia type 2. There is no effective therapy for cerebellar degenerative disorders, therefore neurotransplantation could offer hope. The aim of this work was to assess the survival and morphology of embryonic cerebellar grafts transplanted into the cerebellum of adult SCA2 mice. Four month-old homozygous SCA2 and negative control mice were treated with bilateral intracerebellar injections of an enhanced green fluorescent protein-positive embryonic cerebellar cell suspension. Graft survival and morphology were examined three months later. Graft-derived Purkinje cells and the presence of astrocytes in the graft were detected immunohistochemically. Nissl and hematoxylin-eosin techniques were used to visualize the histological structure of the graft and surrounding host tissue. Grafts survived in all experimental mice; no differences in graft structure, between SCA2 homozygous and negative mice, were found. The grafts contained numerous Purkinje cells but long distance graft-to-host axonal connections to the deep cerebellar nuclei were rarely seen. Relatively few astrocytes were found in the center of the graft. No signs of inflammation or tissue destruction were seen in the area around the grafts. Despite good graft survival and the presence of graft-derived Purkinje cells, the structure of the graft did not seem to promise any significant specific functional effects. We have shown that the graft is available for long-term experiments. Nevertheless, it would be beneficial to search for ways of enhancement of connections between the graft and host. PMID:24269873

Purkartova, Zdenka; Tuma, Jan; Pesta, Martin; Kulda, Vlastimil; Hajkova, Lucie; Sebesta, Ondrej; Vozeh, Frantisek; Cendelin, Jan

2014-01-13

450

Twenty-year fate of the radial artery graft  

OpenAIRE

It is well known that radial arteries (RA) are not the primary choice as coronary artery grafts. In this Research Highlight, we discuss the follow-up results of 629 radial artery grafts performed over 20 years. Focal stenosis occurred in 3% of RAs, while string signs were observed in 0.9%. Overall graft patency was 83%, but indication for angiographic assessment was driven by symptomatic presentation. Graft patency decreased exponentially during the first postoperative year, but patency rate ...

Achouh, Paul; Acar, Christophe

2013-01-01

451

Structure of grafted polymers, investigated with neutron reflectometry  

OpenAIRE

Neutron reflectometry is used to investigate the structure of polymers end-grafted to an interface at high grafting densities, so-called brushes. Our system consists of polystyrene-polyethyleneoxide (PS-PEO) diblock copolymers, irreversibly adsorbed at the air/D2O interface. At relatively low grafting densities the density profile of a monodisperse brush is block-like, with a tail region in which the density smoothly decays towards zero. At high grafting density the profile is predominantly p...

Currie, E. P. K.; Wagemaker, M.; Cohen Stuart, M. A.; Well, A. A.

2000-01-01

452

Comparison of Right and Left Grafts in Renal Transplantation  

OpenAIRE

This study compares outcomes and graft function of right and left grafts of deceased donor. We studied 120 kidney recipients from 60 deceased donors in Shiraz organ transplantation center from 1988 to 2004. We analyzed data regarding age, gender, side of grafts, duration of pre-transplant dialysis, hospital stay, serial creatinine levels, cold ischemic time, complications, graft function, patient survival rates, and post-operative complications. Recipients were divided into two groups: group ...

Salehipour Mehdi; Bahador Ali; Jalaeian Hamed; Salahi Heshmatollah; Nikeghbalian Saman; Khajehee Fardin; Malek-Hosseini Seyed

2008-01-01

453

Chondroitinase treatment increases the effective length of acellular nerve grafts  

OpenAIRE

Acellular nerve allografts have been explored as an alternative to nerve autografting. It has long been recognized that there is a distinct limit to the effective length of conventional acellular nerve grafts, which must be overcome for many grafting applications. In rodent models nerve regeneration fails in acellular nerve grafts greater than two cm in length. In previous studies we found that nerve regeneration is markedly enhanced with acellular nerve grafts in which growth-inhibiting chon...

Neubauer, Debbie; Graham, James B.; Muir, David

2007-01-01

454

Statins and vein graft failure in coronary bypass surgery  

OpenAIRE

Saphenous vein grafts used in coronary artery bypass graft surgery suffer from lower patency rates compared to left internal mammary artery. A number of clinical trials and observational studies have demonstrated a significant benefit of statin treatment on vein graft patency. Aside from their well-known lipid-lowering capacities, statins exert pleiotropic effects by direct inhibition of the mevalonate pathway in the wall of these grafts. This leads to reduced geranylgeranylation of small GTP...

Margaritis, M.; Channon, Km; Antoniades, C.

2012-01-01

455

Fistula between subclavian arterial graft and oesophagus.  

Science.gov (United States)

This is the first reported case of an oesophageal fistula arising from a subclavian arterial graft. A 28 year-old woman presented with massive haematemesis in severe haemorrhagic shock, three months after surgery to detach and relocate an aberrant right subclavian artery. Acutely, she was haemodynamically unstable and required transfusion of 45 units of blood. The fistula was identified with angiography (via the right brachial artery) after endoscopic and open visualisation were unsuccessful because of the torrential haemorrhage. The patient was stabilised and the fistula was managed with an endovascular covered stent. She had further surgery subsequently to remove the infected graft and to salvage the right arm. PMID:22795736

Incani, Alexander; Lee, Joseph C; Poon, Karl K; Pohlner, Peter G; Walters, Darren L

2013-02-01

456

Covalent grafting of silatranes to carbon interfaces.  

Science.gov (United States)

Covalent Si-C grafting of a silatrane cage to a carbon-based interface provides a truly conjugated benzyl-type system in which the 3?c-4?e orbital of the silatrane interacts with the macroscopic ?-type substituent (graphite Csp2 network) through hyperconjugation. This process, studied by voltammetry, EIS, FTIR, SEM and DFT modeling, allows one to build carbon-based conducting interfaces with electronically conjugated molecular extensions. Non-conjugated covalent grafting of an alkyl silatrane moiety provides chemically stable functional interfaces that have good promise for electrochemically-driven applications, for example, electrochemical spin-writing. PMID:24996063

Peureux, Charles; Jouikov, Viatcheslav

2014-07-21

457

Body Fat, Abdominal Fat, and Body Fat Distribution Is Related to Left Atrial Diameter in Young Children  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In adults, the size of the left atria (LA) has important prognostic information. In obese adults, adolescents and children enlargement of LA have been observed. This has not been investigated on a population-based level in young children. We therefore assessed if total body fat mass (TBF), abdominal fat, and body fat distribution were related to LA diameter. Cross-sectional study of 244 children (boys = 137 and girls n = 107) aged 8-11 years, recruited from an urban population-based cohort. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measured total lean body mass, TBF, and abdominal fat mass (AFM). Body fat was also calculated as a percentage of body mass (BF%). Body fat distribution (AFM/TBF) was calculated. Echocardiography was performed with two-dimensional guided M-mode. LA diameter was measured and left ventricular mass (LVM) was calculated. Systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure were measured and maturity assessed according to Tanner. There were significant (P <0.05) univariate correlations forall children between TBF (r = 0.40), BF% (r = 0.32), AFM (r = 0.41), and AFM/TBF (r = 0.41) vs. LA diameter. Multiple regression analyses with the inclusion of possible confounders such as lean body mass, blood pressure, gender, age, and Tanner stage revealed that TBF, AFM, and AFM/TBF were all independently related to LA diameter. Differences in the different body fat measurements explained 6-9% of the variance in LA size. These results demonstrated that both total body fat, AFM, and body fat distribution are already at a young age negatively and independently associated to LA diameter.

Dencker, Magnus; Thorsson, Ola

2012-01-01

458

Radiation-induced grafting from binary mixture of monomers onto cellulose acetate film and the characterization of the graft copolymer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Binary mixtures of styrene and acrylamide in methanol-water were grafted onto cellulose acetate films by taking recourse to preirradiation grafting technique. The extent of total grafting was determined from the measured weight increase. The percent acrylamide residue in the graft copolymer was calculated from the observed nitrogen content but the polystyrene residue in the grafted sample was determined by IR spectral studies. When the specific permeability of water vapour through the grafted films is measured, it is observed that the specific permeability increases with the increase of grafting of acrylamide in all humidities, but in case of styrene which is a nonpolar molecule the permeability is found to show a reversed order. In the case of mixed graft the permeability pattern pertains to that when both styrene and acrylamide have their effective roles to play. (author)

459

Polymers grafted by ionizing radiations. Regulated desorption of fertilizers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Study and development of copolymers for progressive liberation of fertilizers in the soil through a membrane. These copolymers are obtained by grafting a hydrophilic acrylic monomer on a hydrophobic polymer (polyolefine). Desorption of a fertilizer through a membrane of graft polymer as a function of time and grafting ratio was tested both in the laboratory and by plant growing

460

Body fat, abdominal fat, and body fat distribution is related to left atrial diameter in young children  

OpenAIRE

In adults, the size of the left atria (LA) has important prognostic information. In obese adults, adolescents and children enlargement of LA have been observed. This has not been investigated on a population-based level in young children. We therefore assessed if total body fat mass (TBF), abdominal fat, and body fat distribution were related to LA diameter. Cross-sectional study of 244 children (boys = 137 and girls n = 107) aged 8–11 years, recruited from an urban population-based cohort....

Dencker, Magnus; Thorsson, Ola; Karlsson, Magnus K.; Linde?n, Christian; Andersen, Lars Bo; Wollmer, Per

2012-01-01

461

Evaluation of early coronary graft patency after coronary artery bypass graft surgery using multislice computed tomography angiography  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery is the standard of care in the treatment of advanced coronary artery disease, and its long-term results are affected by the failure of bypass grafts. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the early patency rate in coronary bypass grafts. Methods A total of 107 consecutive patients who underwent CABG were included in this study. Early graft patency was evaluated via computed tomography (CT) angiography in the first week aft...

Raissi Kamal; Givtaj Nader; Abdi Seifollah; Motevali Marzieh; Noohi Fereidoun; Salari Farzad; Bassri Hosseinali; Haghjoo Majid

2009-01-01

462

Production of fats and oils by microorganisms  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper describes the production of fats and oils by microorganisms. Various fat-productive bacteria have been found to produce the fats and oils by microorganisms which are roughly classified into enzyme and filiform fungus. The cells do not proliferate under the conditions adequate for producing the cells with the high content of lipid. A cell with high content of fat belonging to Mortierella filamentas fungi has been recently obtained at high density in the high concentration culture medium. The productivity of the fat similar to cocoa butter seems to be also high. A lot of microorganisms producing various functional fatty acids have been found. The microorganismic production methods of esters of longer-chain dicarboxylic acids and alcohols than C/sub 11/ hardly produced in nature form n-alkane also have been recently developed. Squalene has been able to produce by a cell from the other raw materials than the shark oil. Various sterols exist in microorganisms. The high-productivity manufacturing method of the fats containing gamma-linoleic acid by Mortierella filiform fungi has been developed and commercialized as the first production process of the fat by the microorganism. (5 figs, 7 tabs, 128 refs

Suzuki, Osamu

1987-10-20

463

All Fat Is Not Created Equally!  

Science.gov (United States)

Students learn that fats found in the foods we eat are not all the same; they discover that physical properties of materials are related to their chemical structures. Provided with several samples of commonly used fats with different chemical properties (olive oil, vegetable oil, shortening, animal fat and butter), student groups build and use simple LEGO® MINDSTORMS® NXT robots with temperature and light sensors to determine the melting points of the fat samples. Because of their different chemical structures, these fats exhibit different physical properties, such as melting point and color. This activity uses the fact that fats are opaque when solid and translucent when liquid to determine the melting point of each sample upon being heated. Students heat the samples, and use the robot to determine when samples are melted. They analyze plots of their collected data to compare melting points of the oil samples to look for trends. Discrepancies are correlated to differences in the chemical structure and composition of the fats.

AMPS GK-12 Program,

464

Application of fats in some food products  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Fats and oils are very important raw materials and functional ingredients for several food products such as confectionery, bakery, ice creams, emulsions, and sauces, shortenings, margarines, and other specially tailored products. Formulated products are made with just about every part of chemistry, [...] but they are not simple chemicals. In general, they consist of several, and often many, components. Each of these components has a purpose. Most formulated products have a micro- or nano-structure that is important for their function, but obtaining this structure is often the big challenge. Due to a rise in overweight or obesity, health concerns have increased. This fact has led to the need to the develop products with low fat content, which have become a market trend. In addition, the development of new products using fat substitutes can be a good option for companies that are always trying to reduce costs or substitute trans fat or saturated fat. However, the successful development of these products is still a challenge because fat plays multiple roles in determining the desirable physicochemical and sensory attributes, and because the consumers who want or need to replace these ingredients, seek products with similar characteristics to those of the original product. Important attributes such as smooth, creamy and rich texture; milky and creamy appearance; desirable flavor; and satiating effects are influenced by the droplets of fat, and these characteristics are paramount to the consumer and consequently crucial to the success of the product in the market. Therefore, it is important to identify commercially viable strategies that are capable of removing or reducing fat content of food products without altering their sensory and nutritional characteristics. This paper intended to provide an overview about the role of fat in different food systems such as chocolate, ice cream, bakery products like biscuits, breads, and cakes considering the major trends of the food industry to meet the demands of modern society.

Raquel Vallerio, Rios; Meibel Durigan Ferreira, Pessanha; Poliana Fernandes de, Almeida; Clara Leonel, Viana; Suzana Caetano da Silva, Lannes.

2014-03-01

465

Management of an infected graft in the ascending aorta by an omental pedicel graft and irrigation with povidone iodine.  

OpenAIRE

An infected graft in the ascending aorta was managed by use of an omental pedicel graft and local irrigation with a dilute suspension of aqueous providone iodine. This conservative approach is an alternative to the high risk procedure of graft replacement. The large abscess cavity associated with the aortic prosthesis was diagnosed by computed tomography.

Joyce, W.; Huddy, S.; Smith, E. E.

1990-01-01

466

Management of an infected graft in the ascending aorta by an omental pedicel graft and irrigation with povidone iodine.  

Science.gov (United States)

An infected graft in the ascending aorta was managed by use of an omental pedicel graft and local irrigation with a dilute suspension of aqueous providone iodine. This conservative approach is an alternative to the high risk procedure of graft replacement. The large abscess cavity associated with the aortic prosthesis was diagnosed by computed tomography. Images PMID:2375901

Joyce, W; Huddy, S; Smith, E E

1990-01-01

467

Effects of Dietary Fat and Saturated Fat Content on Liver Fat and Markers of Oxidative Stress in Overweight/Obese Men and Women under Weight-Stable Conditions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Dietary fat and oxidative stress are hypothesized to contribute to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and progression to steatohepatitis. To determine the effects of dietary fat content on hepatic triglyceride, body fat distribution and markers of inflammation and oxidative stress, overweight/obese subjects with normal glucose tolerance consumed a control diet (CONT: 35% fat/12% saturated fat/47% carbohydrate for ten days, followed by four weeks on a low fat (LFD (n = 10: 20% fat/8% saturated fat/62% carbohydrate or high fat diet (HFD (n = 10: 55% fat/25% saturated fat/27% carbohydrate. Hepatic triglyceride content was quantified by MRS and abdominal fat distribution by MRI. Fasting biomarkers of inflammation (plasma hsCRP, IL-6, IL-12, TNF?, IFN-? and oxidative stress (urinary F2-? isoprostanes were measured. Body weight remained stable. Compared to the CONT, hepatic triglyceride decreased on the LFD (mean (95% CI: change ?2.13% (?3.74%, ?0.52%, but did not change on the HFD and there was no significant difference between the LFD and HFD. Intra-abdominal fat did not change significantly on either diet, but subcutaneous abdominal fat increased on the HFD. There were no significant changes in fasting metabolic markers, inflammatory markers and urinary F2-? isoprostanes. We conclude that in otherwise healthy overweight/obese adults under weight-neutral conditions, a diet low in fat and saturated fat has modest effects to decrease liver fat and may be beneficial. On the other hand, a diet very high in fat and saturated fat had no effect on hepatic triglyceride or markers of metabolism, inflammation and oxidative stress.

Anna Marina

2014-10-01

468

Effects of dietary fat and saturated fat content on liver fat and markers of oxidative stress in overweight/obese men and women under weight-stable conditions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dietary fat and oxidative stress are hypothesized to contribute to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and progression to steatohepatitis. To determine the effects of dietary fat content on hepatic triglyceride, body fat distribution and markers of inflammation and oxidative stress, overweight/obese subjects with normal glucose tolerance consumed a control diet (CONT: 35% fat/12% saturated fat/47% carbohydrate) for ten days, followed by four weeks on a low fat (LFD (n = 10): 20% fat/8% saturated fat/62% carbohydrate) or high fat diet (HFD (n = 10): 55% fat/25% saturated fat/27% carbohydrate). Hepatic triglyceride content was quantified by MRS and abdominal fat distribution by MRI. Fasting biomarkers of inflammation (plasma hsCRP, IL-6, IL-12, TNF?, IFN-?) and oxidative stress (urinary F2-? isoprostanes) were measured. Body weight remained stable. Compared to the CONT, hepatic triglyceride decreased on the LFD (mean (95% CI): change -2.13% (-3.74%, -0.52%)), but did not change on the HFD and there was no significant difference between the LFD and HFD. Intra-abdominal fat did not change significantly on either diet, but subcutaneous abdominal fat increased on the HFD. There were no significant changes in fasting metabolic markers, inflammatory markers and urinary F2-? isoprostanes. We conclude that in otherwise healthy overweight/obese adults under weight-neutral conditions, a diet low in fat and saturated fat has modest effects to decrease liver fat and may be beneficial. On the other hand, a diet very high in fat and saturated fat had no effect on hepatic triglyceride or markers of metabolism, inflammation and oxidative stress. PMID:25353663

Marina, Anna; von Frankenberg, Anize Delfino; Suvag, Seda; Callahan, Holly S; Kratz, Mario; Richards, Todd L; Utzschneider, Kristina M

2014-11-01

469

Synthesis of ion-exchange membranes by radiation-induced multiple grafting of methyl ?,?,?-trifluoroacrylate  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Methyl ?,?,?-trifluoroacrylate (MTFA) was grafted onto polymer films with the multiple grafting technique initiated by ?-rays: the yields were similar to those of the single-step grafting procedure with any irradiation dose. Grafted polymer obtained in the single-step experiments were distributed mainly near the film surface, whereas graft polymer from the multiple grafting experiments were distributed uniformly in the film at graft yields greater than 20%. The electric resistance of the hydrolyzed multiple graft polymer film in a 2N NaOH solution was much lower than that of one-step graft film at the same graft yield

470

Anterior cervical allograft arthrodesis and instrumentation: Multilevel interbody grafting or strut graft reconstruction  

OpenAIRE

This retrospective study evaluated a single surgeon's series of patients treated by multilevel cervical disc excision (two or three levels), allograft tricortical iliac crest arthrodesis, and anterior instrumentation. The objective of this retrospective study was to compare fusion success and clinical outcome between multilevel Smith-Robinson interbody grafting and tricortical iliac strut graft reconstruction, both supplemented with anterior instrumentation in the cervical spine. The incidenc...

Swank, M. L.; Lowery, G. L.; Bhat, A. L.; Mcdonough, R. F.

1997-01-01

471

Correction of Short Nose Deformity Using a Septal Extension Graft Combined with a Derotation Graft  

OpenAIRE

In patients having a short nose with a short septal length and/or severe columellar retraction, a septal extension graft is a good solution, as it allows the dome to move caudally and pushes down the columellar base. Fixing the medial crura of the alar cartilages to a septal extension graft leads to an uncomfortably rigid nasal tip and columella, and results in unnatural facial animation. Further, because of the relatively small and weak septal cartilage in the East Asian population, undercor...

Paik, Moo Hyun; Chu, Lo Shui

2014-01-01

472

Fatty acids in bovine milk fat  

OpenAIRE

Milk fat contains approximately 400 different fatty acid, which make it the most complex of all natural fats. The milk fatty acids are derived almost equally from two sources, the feed and the microbial activity in the rumen of the cow and the lipids in bovine milk are mainly present in globules as an oil-in-water emulsion. Almost 70% of the fat in Swedish milk is saturated of which around 11% comprises short-chain fatty acids, almost half of which is butyric acid. Approximately 25% of the fa...

Ma?nsson, Helena Lindmark

2008-01-01

473

CT findings of cerebral fat embolism  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A case of cerebral fat embolism following multiple bone fractures is presented. A 27-year-old patient was admitted to our clinic 50 minutes after a traffic accident. He was somnolent on admission, but his consciousness level was gradually raised and respiratory symptoms (dyspnea, bloody sputum) appeared with petechiae of his conjunctiva and chest. We diagnosed cerebral fat embolism. On CT scan we found multiple high-density areas, which gradually turned into multiple low-density areas. Subsequent cerebral atrophy and subdural effusion developed one month after the injury. This patient showed a typical clinical course and CT findings of cerebral fat embolism. (author)

474

Differential effect of gender on hepatic fat  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There are discrepant data on whether men or women have a higher risk for hepatic steatosis. To examine the influence of gender on hepatic adiposity in teenagers and young adults. We measured subcutaneous abdominal fat (SAF), intra-abdominal fat (IAF) and hepatic tissue density (a surrogate measure of hepatic fat) using CT in 505 healthy teenagers and young adults (254 males, 251 females; ages 15-22.9 years). Overall, compared to men, women had higher values of SAF (P 0.05). When compared to overweight and obese young women, overweight and obese young men are at greater risk for hepatic steatosis, independent of IAF. (orig.)

475

Management of Peyronie's Disease by Dermal Grafting  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the results of plaque excision and dermal grafting in Peyronie’s disease.Materials and Methods: Twenty seven patients were scheduled to undergo plaque excision and dermal grafting for Peyronie’s disease. Potency, bending of erected penis, and having painful erection were evaluated in patients before and after operation. To evaluate erectile dysfunction, we used International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF by interviewing the patients and filling questionnaires by their partners. Doppler ultrasonography was used to determine the vascular competence of penis before and after operation in 15 patients. Results: The disease was more prevalent between the ages of 40 and 60 years. Plaques were located as follows: dorsal in 18, right lateral in 6 and left lateral in 3. Mean plaque size was 11 (range 5 to 18 mm. After plaque excision and dermal grafting, penile deformity, erectile dysfunction, and painful erection had remained yet in 4 (15% out of 27, 3 (16% out of 19, and 3 (14% out of 22, respectively. Doppler ultrasonographic study in 15 patients revealed improvement in peak systolic velocity (P Conclusion: This procedure showed significant improvement in penile deformity (85% of cases, erectile dysfunction (84% of cases and painful erection (86% of cases. We recommend plaque excision and dermal grafting as an effective procedure in treating Peyronie’s disease.

Hamid Reza Nasseh

2004-06-01

476

Cellular grafts in management of leucoderma  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cellular grafting methods constitute important advances in the surgical management of leucoderma. Different methods such as noncultured epidermal suspensions, melanocyte cultures, and melanocyte-keratinocyte cultures have all been shown to be effective. This article reviews these methods.

Mysore Venkataram

2009-01-01

477

Giant cell tumor: Curettage and bone grafting  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Curettage and wide resection are accepted methods of treatment of giant cell tumor (GCT of bone. The success rate with curettage in different reports varies widely. There is a paucity in the literature regarding selection of cases for curettage. Present study is an analysis of outcome of 34 cases treated by curettage and bone grafting. Materials and Methods: Thirty-four cases of GCT of bone, 28 fresh and six with recurrence were treated by curettage and bone grafting. All cases of Campanancci grade 1, 2 and grade 3 which on computerized tomography scan showed break in the cortex confined to one surface and cortical break less than one third of circumference were treated by curettage and bone grafting. Results: 4 (14% of these lesions treated primarily by us showed recurrence after one and half year. Conclusion: Curettage and bone grafting is a reliable method in the treatment of GCT, provided guidelines regarding selection of cases and principles of tumor surgery are strictly adhered to.

Puthoor Dominic

2007-01-01

478

BKV-infection in kidney graft dysfunction  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: BKV nephropathy (BKN causes kidney graft loss, whose specific diagnosis is invasive and might be predicted by the early detection of active viral infection. OBJECTIVE: Determine the BKV-infection prevalence in late kidney graft dysfunction by urinary decoy cell (DC and viral DNA detection in urine (viruria and blood (viremia; active infection. METHODS: Kidney recipients with >1 month follow-up and creatinine >1.5 mg/dL and/or recent increasing >20% (n = 120 had their urine and blood tested for BKV by semi-nested PCR, DC searching, and graft biopsy. PCR-positive patients were classified as 1+, 2+, 3+. DC, viruria and viremia prevalence, sensitivity, specificity, and likelihood ratio (LR were determined (Table 2x2. Diagnosis efficacy of DC and viruria were compared to viremia. RESULTS: DC prevalence was 25%, viruria 61.7%, and viremia 42.5%. Positive and negative patients in each test had similar clinical, immunossupressive, and histopathological characteristics. There was no case of viremia with chronic allograft nephropathy and, under treatment with sirolimus, patients had a lower viruria prevalence (p = 0.043. Intense viruria was the single predictive test for active infection (3+; LR = 2.8.1,6-4,9 CONCLUSION: DC, BKV-viruria and -viremia are commun findings under late kidney graft dysfunction. Viremia could only be predicted by intense viruria. These results should be considered under the context of BKN confirmation.

Juliana Montagner

2010-04-01

479

BKV-infection in kidney graft dysfunction  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: BKV nephropathy (BKN) causes kidney graft loss, whose specific diagnosis is invasive and might be predicted by the early detection of active viral infection. OBJECTIVE: Determine the BKV-infection prevalence in late kidney graft dysfunction by urinary decoy cell (DC) and viral DNA dete [...] ction in urine (viruria) and blood (viremia; active infection). METHODS: Kidney recipients with >1 month follow-up and creatinine >1.5 mg/dL and/or recent increasing >20% (n = 120) had their urine and blood tested for BKV by semi-nested PCR, DC searching, and graft biopsy. PCR-positive patients were classified as 1+, 2+, 3+. DC, viruria and viremia prevalence, sensitivity, specificity, and likelihood ratio (LR) were determined (Table 2x2). Diagnosis efficacy of DC and viruria were compared to viremia. RESULTS: DC prevalence was 25%, viruria 61.7%, and viremia 42.5%. Positive and negative patients in each test had similar clinical, immunossupressive, and histopathological characteristics. There was no case of viremia with chronic allograft nephropathy and, under treatment with sirolimus, patients had a lower viruria prevalence (p = 0.043). Intense viruria was the single predictive test for active infection (3+; LR = 2.8).1,6-4,9 CONCLUSION: DC, BKV-viruria and -viremia are commun findings under late kidney graft dysfunction. Viremia could only be predicted by intense viruria. These results should be considered under the context of BKN confirmation.

Juliana, Montagner; Tatiana, Michelon; Barbara, Fontanelle; Alexandre, Oliveira; Janaina, Silveira; Regina, Schroeder; Jorge, Neumann; Elizete, Keitel; Claudio Osmar Pereira, Alexandre.

2010-04-01

480

Reuse of a Pediatric Liver Graft: A Case Report  

OpenAIRE

We report the reuse of a liver graft after brain death of the first recipient. The liver donor was an 8-year-old male who died as a result of head injury. The graft was implanted first to a 4-year-old girl for fulminant hepatic failure. Unfortunately she developed progressive coma and brain death on fifth day of transplantation. The graft functions were normal, and reuse of the liver graft was planned. After informed consent, the graft was transplanted to a 31-year-old female recipient who ha...

Koray Karabulut; Cengiz Eris; Turgut Piskin; Cuneyt Kayaalp; Sezai Yilmaz

2012-01-01

481

Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: which graft is best?  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract For the last 4 decades, since the initial use of the patellar tendon for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction, there has been controversy regarding the ideal graft choice for this procedure. Beside bone-patellar tendon-bone autografts, several other graft choices have become popular, including hamstring tendon and a variety of allografts. Within the past 5 years, several randomized and nonrandomized studies have compared the graft choices in ACL reconstruction. However, the question still remains: Is there an ideal graft for ACL reconstruction? The purpose of this review is to assess the most recent data, identifying if there truly is an ideal graft choice. PMID:15525931

Sherman, Orrin H; Banffy, Michael B