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Sample records for fat graft myringoplasty

  1. ENDOSCOPE ASSISTED MYRINGOPLASTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balasubramanian Thiagarajan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Myringoplasty is commonly done under microscopy. This article discusses the experience of the authors in performing myringoplasty using endoscope. Endoscope is being widely used to perform various surgeries. Endoscopes are very useful while operating in cavities. In this study authors report their results of 50 myringoplasties performed using endoscope. This article reveals that results of myringoplasty performed using endoscope are more or less similar to that of myringoplasty performed using microscope 5.

  2. Future Perspectives of Fat Grafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Lee L Q; Yoshimura, Kotaro; Coleman, Sydney R

    2015-07-01

    Autologous fat grafting is an exciting part of plastic and reconstructive surgery. Fat serves as a filler and its role in tissue regeneration will likely play a more important role in our specialty. As we learn more about the basic science of fat grafting and the standardized techniques and instruments used for fat grafting, this procedure alone or in conjunction with invasive procedures may be able to replace many operations that we perform currently. Its minimally invasive nature will benefit greatly our cosmetic and reconstructive patients, and may even achieve better clinical outcomes. PMID:26116945

  3. Success rate of myringoplasty at Groote Schuur Hospital

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Juanita, Becker; Darlene, Lubbe.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine the success rate of myringoplasty surgery performed at Groote Schuur Hospital and to evaluate some of the presumed prognostic factors. DESIGN: The study design was a retrospective analytical cohort. SETTING: Groote Schuur Hospital (tertiary medical [...] centre), Cape Town. SUBJECTS: This study assessed the success rate of 341 myringoplasty operations performed by surgeons in the Department of Otolaryngology from January 2005 to December 2009. OUTCOME MEASURES: An unsuccessful operation was classified as a residual perforation seen at the 3-month follow-up visit that remained present at all subsequent visits. Presumed prognostic factors such as the rank of the surgeon, size of the perforation, location of the perforation, graft used and whether it was a revision procedure, were also evaluated. Where possible, the audiometric gain following surgery was calculated. RESULTS: The overall success rate in terms of an intact tympanic membrane following myringoplasty was 71%. The average improvement in pure tone average following myringoplasty was 12.4 dB. In 64% of patients, socially acceptable hearing levels were present postoperatively (air-conduction of less than 30 dB). None of the presumed prognostic factors was a statistically significant determinant (p>0.05). CONCLUSION: The success rate for myringoplasty (in terms of perforation closure) of 71% at Groote Schuur Hospital compares well with that quoted in the literature. There is no ethical dilemma from a surgical outcomes perspective of registrars performing myringoplasties.

  4. Regenerative Approach to Scleroderma with Fat Grafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalon, Guy; Daumas, Aurélie; Sautereau, Nolwenn; Magalon, Jérémy; Sabatier, Florence; Granel, Brigitte

    2015-07-01

    Grafted fat has many qualities of ideal filler; it is autologous, easily available, and naturally integrated into the host tissues. From a lipoaspirate, the adipose-tissue-derived stromal vascular fraction can be isolated, which is an excellent source of stem/stromal cells, endothelial progenitors, and immune cells. Fat grafting is being increasingly applied in autoimmune diseases, and this article focuses on systemic sclerosis, a rare autoimmune disease characterized by skin fibrosis and microvascular damage. The authors' approach of using fat graft in the face and adipose-tissue-derived stromal vascular fraction for hands is presented as innovative and promising therapy for patients with systemic sclerosis. PMID:26116941

  5. A STUDY ON EFFICACY OF AUTOLOGOUS PLATELET RICH PLASMA IN MYRINGOPLASTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sankaranarayanan Gopalakrishnan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the efficacy and advantage in using autologus platelet rich plasma during myringoplasty in closure of tympanic membrane perforation preventing the graft displacement, promoting quicker healing & improving overall outcome.Methods : Platelet rich plasma(PRP is an autologus platelet rich concentrate prepared from patients own blood with growth factors up to 8 times that of normal serum and its efficacy when used during myringoplasty is studied.50 patients with chronic otitis media inactive mucosal disease were randomly chosen and 25 of them was the study group and other 25 were the control group. Both group patients underwent myringoplasty and PRP was used in the study group and the results were evaluated.Results: In our study among 25 cases that underwent myringoplasty with use of platelet rich fibrin, 24 had complete tympanic membrane closure and only one failure has been noticed. In controls 5 out of 25 cases had failure. The graft take up rate in our study is comparable with the reference studies. Use of PRP accelerates graft uptake.Conclusion: Platelet rich plasma is a cheap and cost effective platelet concentrate with enriched growth factors. It accelerates the tympanic membrane closure following myringoplasty.

  6. Autologous fat grafting in facial volumetric restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquale, Piombino; Gaetano, Marenzi; Giovanni, Dell'Aversana Orabona; Luigi, Califano; Gilberto, Sammartino

    2015-05-01

    The authors reported their surgical experience about structural fat grafting in the management of facial volumetric deficit. The purpose of this study was to assess the real indications, cosmetic results, complications, and global patient satisfaction of the Coleman technique in redefining facial contours in congenital and postoperative deformities. A retrospective analysis of 32 patients grafted according to Coleman's technique was performed, and the long-term outcomes and patient satisfaction were evaluated. The mean postoperative clinical follow-up was 14 months. The morphological changes were analyzed by comparing the photographic presurgical facial contour and the postoperative correction of soft tissue defects. All consecutive cases reported showed a progressive fat resorption for 3 months after surgery and its stable integration only after this period. Best results were performed in the treatment of genetically determined syndromes, such as the Franceschetti and Romberg syndromes. The authors suggest this surgical technique also for the treatment of unaesthetic cutaneous abscess cavity after incision and drainage. Unsatisfactory outcomes were obtained in the treatment of the posttraumatic facial scar, which needed more surgical procedures. PMID:25974786

  7. Sequelae of Fat Grafting Postmastectomy: An Algorithm for Management of Fat Necrosis

    OpenAIRE

    Doren, Erin L.; Parikh, Rajiv P.; Laronga, Christine; Hiro, Matthew E.; Sun, Weihong; Lee, Marie Catherine; Smith, Paul D.; Fulp, William J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Fat grafting is used to improve the reconstructed breast. Local recurrences following mastectomy present as palpable subcutaneous nodules; fat necrosis/oil cysts, a sequelae of fat grafting, also present as subcutaneous nodules. Our objective was to examine the frequency and factors associated with fat necrosis in the postmastectomy reconstructed breast and propose an algorithm for management. Methods: A retrospective review of a breast reconstruction database was conducted to iden...

  8. Platlet Rich Plasma (PRP) Improves Fat Grafting Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Modarressi Ghavami, Seyed Ali

    2013-01-01

    Autologous fat transfer offers many qualities of a ideal soft tissue filler. Main advantages of fat grafting ensue from the fact that the lipoaspirate tissue is an abundant source of regenerative pluripotential cells. However, the reported rates of fat cell survival vary greatly in the medical literature (10-90%). Different techniques of harvesting, processing, and reinjecting the fat cells are so claimed to be responsible for these differences, without any agreement concerning the best way t...

  9. Platlet Rich Plasma (PRP) Improves Fat Grafting Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modarressi, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Autologous fat transfer offers many qualities of a ideal soft tissue filler. Main advantages of fat grafting ensue from the fact that the lipoaspirate tissue is an abundant source of regenerative pluripotential cells. However, the reported rates of fat cell survival vary greatly in the medical literature (10-90%). Different techniques of harvesting, processing, and reinjecting the fat cells are so claimed to be responsible for these differences, without any agreement concerning the best way to process. To address this important disadvantage, we propose the addition of autologous platelet rich plasma (PRP) which is known as a natural reservoir of growth factors stimulating tissue repair and regeneration. This approach is completely autologous and immediately employed without any type of preconditioning. Platelets rich plasma (PRP) preparation included bleeding of 8 ml of blood from patient's peripheral vein in Regen Lab© tubes containing sodium citrate anticoagulant. The whole blood was centrifugated at 1500 g during 3 min. As Regen-tubes contained a special gel separator, 99 % of red blood cells were discarded from the plasma at the bottom of the gel, and >90% of platelets were harvested in 4 ml of plasma on the top of the gel, called the platelet-rich plasma (PRP). The purified fat prepared by Coleman technique was mixed with different amount of PRP for in vitro, in vivo (mice) and clinical experiments: >50% of PRP for skin rejuvenation, superficial scars correction, infraorbital region, ..., and for 20% of PRP with 80% of purified fat for deep filler indication (nasolabial folds, lips, or soft tissue defect). In vitro studies demonstrated that PRP increased fat cells survival rate and stem cells differentiation. Animal models showed that fat graft survival rate was significantly increased by addition of PRP. Several clinical cases confirmed the improvement of wound healing and fat grafting survival in facial reconstruction and aesthetic cases by association of fat grafting with PRP. The addition of PRP to fat grafts represented many advantages with a simple, cost-effective and safe method. In addition to its booster effect on fat grafts, PRP had a rejuvenation capacity per se. It is also used on nappage technique, on mask and as a temporary regenerative filler in combination with thrombin. So we consider the addition of 20% PRP to fat grafts offers a better fat grafting survival, a less bruising and inflammation reaction, and easier application of fat grafts due to liquefaction effect of PRP. PMID:25489498

  10. Fat Grafting: A Citation Analysis of the Seminal Articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Kenneth M.; Rahmani, George; Walsh, Stewart R.; Carroll, Sean M.; Hussey, Alan J.; Kelly, Jack L.

    2015-01-01

    Background: There has been substantial rise in the volume of published works on fat transfer in the medical literature in the past 25 years, and this is indicative of its growing popularity. However, many unanswered questions remain, and there is no consensus as to the optimum technique. Consequently, the scientific and clinical research on fat grafting continues to increase rapidly. The purpose of our study was to perform a bibliometric analysis of the most-cited articles in fat transfer. Methods: Through the Web of Science, all articles relating to fat grafting were identified in the plastic and reconstructive literature. The 100 most-cited articles were identified and analyzed individually. Results: Total citations ranged from 35 to 363 and the most-cited paper by Sidney Coleman was published in Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. The United States produced 46% of the most-cited papers, and the University of California was the most prolific institution. Twenty-one articles focused on lipofilling to the face while 14 articles looked at fat grafting to the breast. Conclusions: The scientific relevance of a published work is reflected in the number of citations from peers that it receives. Therefore, the 100 most-cited papers in fat grafting have been the most influential articles on this field, and they are likely to be the ones that are remembered most. PMID:25674376

  11. Labial fat pad grafts (modified Martius graft) in complex perianal fistulas.

    OpenAIRE

    Pinedo, G.; PHILLIPS, R

    1998-01-01

    Complex perianal fistulas may at times be very difficult to treat. New vascularised tissue can reach the perineum from leg muscles and the omentum. A less well-known source is the labial fat tissue (modified Martius graft) which has a robust posterolateral pedicle and which can be useful as an adjunctive technique for high anterior anal and rectovaginal fistulas. Between November 1993 and July 1997, eight women (age range 18-55 years) underwent modified Martius grafting, six of the eight havi...

  12. Does platelet-rich plasma enhance the survival of grafted fat? An update review

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, Rong; Zhang, Lu; Zhang, Yu-Guang

    2013-01-01

    Autologous fat grafting enables repair and augmentation of soft tissues and is increasingly used in plastic and reconstructive surgery. The main limitation of fat grafting is unpredictable graft resorption. To obviate this disadvantage, several studies have searched for new ways of increasing the viability of the transplanted tissue. One promising approach has been to mix the fat graft with Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP) before transplantation. The purpose of this article is to review systematica...

  13. Lipoenxertia em reconstrução mamária / Fat grafting in breast reconstruction

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Francisco José Fontenele, Bezerra; Rosely Moraes Gonçalves de, Moura; José Dalvo, Maia Neto.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Frequentemente, a reconstrução mamária requer um segundo tempo cirúrgico para corrigir visíveis irregularidades no contorno da mama. A lipoenxertia constitui-se em uma técnica cirúrgica que pode melhorar ou corrigir essas deformidades em substituição a outras técnicas convencionais de ma [...] ior morbidade ou complexidade. O objetivo deste estudo é demonstrar um método de correção de defeitos de contorno de mamas reconstruídas previamente pelas técnicas convencionais com enxerto de gordura, após 8 anos de experiência. MÉTODO: Todas as pacientes incluídas neste estudo foram previamente submetidas a mastectomia (total ou parcial) e a algum tipo de reconstrução mamária. A gordura foi obtida por meio de método clássico de lipoaspiração com seringa, delicadamente lavada com solução salina em uma peneira de aço inoxidável, decantada em uma seringa de 60 cc e enxertada após alguns minutos. RESULTADOS: Foram operadas 112 pacientes no período de 2005 a 2012. Houve 1 (8,9%) caso de perda total do enxerto de gordura, 22 (19,6%) pacientes apresentaram pequenos nódulos palpáveis, o volume médio enxertado foi de 100 cc e foram necessários múltiplos procedimentos para se alcançar o volume desejado. CONCLUSÕES: A lipoenxertia constitui-se em uma técnica segura, com baixa morbidade e altos índices de satisfação do cirurgião e das pacientes, apesar de necessitar de múltiplos procedimentos cirúrgicos para atingir bom resultado. Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Breast reconstruction often requires a second surgical procedure to correct visible irregularities of the breast contour. Lipofilling (fat grafting) consists of a surgical technique that improves or corrects such deformities, and serves as an alternative to other conventional techniques [...] that have higher morbidity rates and complexity. In the present study, we aimed to describe our 8-year experience with a fat grafting method for correcting contour deformities of breasts that were previously reconstructed using conventional techniques. METHODS: All patients in this study previously underwent mastectomy (total or partial) and some degree of breast reconstruction. The fat was obtained by liposuction using a syringe, and was gently rinsed with a saline solution in a stainless steel sieve, poured into a 60 cc syringe, and grafted after a few minutes. RESULTS: In total, 112 patients underwent surgery between 2005 and 2012. There was one (8.9%) case of total loss of the fat graft, while 22 (19.6%) patients had small palpable nodules. The average graft volume was 100 cc, and multiple procedures were required to achieve the desired volume. CONCLUSIONS: Fat grafting is a safe technique with low morbidity rates that demonstrates high surgeon and patient satisfaction levels, despite the need for multiple procedures to achieve good results.

  14. Does platelet-rich plasma enhance the survival of grafted fat? An update review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Rong; Zhang, Lu; Zhang, Yu-Guang

    2013-01-01

    Autologous fat grafting enables repair and augmentation of soft tissues and is increasingly used in plastic and reconstructive surgery. The main limitation of fat grafting is unpredictable graft resorption. To obviate this disadvantage, several studies have searched for new ways of increasing the viability of the transplanted tissue. One promising approach has been to mix the fat graft with Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP) before transplantation. The purpose of this article is to review systematically the available comparative evidence about PRP-assisted fat grafting. PMID:23641301

  15. Stem cell attraction via SDF-1? expressing fat tissue grafts

    OpenAIRE

    Zwingenberger, Stefan; Yao, Zhenyu; Jacobi, Angela; Vater, Corina; Valladares, Roberto D.; Li, Chenguang; Nich, Christophe; Rao, Allison J.; Christman, Jane E.; Antonios, Joseph K.; Gibon, Emmanuel; Schambach, Axel; Ma?tzig, Tobias; Gu?nther, Klaus-peter; Goodman, Stuart B.

    2012-01-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cell (MSCs) are key cellular components for site-specific tissue regeneration. The chemokine stromal derived factor 1 alpha (SDF-1?) is known to attract stem cells via the C-X-C chemokine receptor-4 (CXCR4) receptor. The aim of the study was to develop a model for stem cell attraction using SDF-1? overexpressing fat tissue grafts. Murine MSCs were lentiviral transduced to express the genes for enhanced green fluorescent protein, firefly luciferace, and human CXCR4 (hCXCR...

  16. Facial fat grafting with a prototype injection control device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hetherington HE

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Hugh E Hetherington,1 Jon E Block2 1Bozeman Deaconess Health Group, Bozeman, MT, USA; 2The Jon Block Group, San Francisco, CA, USA Objective: To evaluate the initial clinical performance of a prototype injection control device (ICD to facilitate fat grafting by injection. Methods: An ICD, which mechanically couples the act of withdrawing the cannula with the act of depressing the plunger, was fabricated for the purpose of facial fat grafting. The action of the device results in deposition of consistent threads of fat having a volume of approximately 33 uL per cm that the cannula is withdrawn, which is slightly less than the internal volume of a 12-gauge cannula. A total of 26 patients underwent 30 procedures, and the results were subjectively evaluated using pre- and postoperative photographs, with a minimum follow-up of 4 months. Results: The desired degree of correction was more consistent, recovery was faster, and procedural efficiency was improved when performing the procedure with the ICD compared to historical use of the manual method of injection. Minor irregularities were the only complications encountered. Conclusion: The ICD optimally distributes fat as a uniform thread along the withdrawal tract of the cannula, thereby eliminating clumping and minimizing tissue trauma, resulting in reduced recovery time as well as more consistent and predictable clinical results. Since the ICD automates the injection process, it provides a notable and easily attainable efficiency in procedural time and minimal learning curve for the user. Keywords: dermal fillers, liposuction, facial rejuvenation, threading

  17. A novel and innovative technique of using a disposable syringe and mesh for harvesting fat for structural fat grafting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashok, B. C.; Nagaraj, Pradeep Kumar; Ananteshwar, Y. N.; Srikanth, V.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Successful restoration of structure and function using autologous free fat grafts has remained elusive. Review of literature shows that various harvesting and preparation techniques have been suggested. The goal of these techniques is to obtain greater adipocyte cell survival and consequently more reliable clinical results. Materials and Methods: In our technique, a piece of mesh is kept at one end of the lipoaspiration syringe, which is then connected to the Suction pump. As one syringe fills, it is replaced by another one until the required amount of fat is obtained. Results: By using a polypropylene mesh in our technique, we can separate the transfusate from the harvested fat graft during harvesting itself. The fat graft thus obtained is dense and concentrated, with fewer impurities. Conclusion: Hence, we recommend our technique as a reliable method for extracting sterile emulsified fat in an economical way. PMID:25991892

  18. Autologous fat grafting: use of closed syringe microcannula system for enhanced autologous structural grafting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander RW

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Robert W Alexander,1 David Harrell2 1Department of Surgery, School of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA; 2Harvest-Terumo Inc, Plymouth, MA, USA Objectives: Provide background for use of acquiring autologous adipose tissue as a tissue graft and source of adult progenitor cells for use in cosmetic plastic surgery. Discuss the background and mechanisms of action of closed syringe vacuum lipoaspiration, with emphasis on accessing adipose-derived mesenchymal/stromal cells and the stromal vascular fraction (SVF for use in aesthetic, structural reconstruction and regenerative applications. Explain a proven protocol for acquiring high-quality autologous fat grafts (AFG with use of disposable, microcannula systems. Design: Explain the components and advantage of use of the patented super luer-lock and microcannulas system for use with the closed-syringe system. A sequential explanation of equipment selection for minimally traumatic lipoaspiration in small volumes is presented, including use of blunt injection cannulas to reduce risk of embolism. Results: Thousands of AFG have proven safe and efficacious for lipoaspiration techniques for large and small structural fat grafting procedures. The importance and advantages of gentle harvesting of the adipose tissue complex has become very clear in the past 5 years. The closed-syringe system offers a minimally invasive, gentle system with which to mobilize subdermal fat tissues in a suspension form. Resulting total nuclear counting of undifferentiated cells of the adipose-derived -SVF suggests that the yield achieved is better than use of always-on, constant mechanical pump applied vacuum systems. Conclusion: Use of a closed-syringe lipoaspiration system featuring disposable microcannulas offers a safe and effective means of harvesting small volumes of nonmanipulated adipose tissues and its accompanying progenitor cells within the SVF. Closed syringes and microcannulas are available as safe, sterile, disposable, compact systems for acquiring high-quality AFG. Presented is a detailed, step-by-step, proven protocol for performing quality autologous structural adipose transplantation. Keywords: autologous fat grafting, closed syringe lipoaspiration, adipose-derived adult stem-stromal cell, bioscaffolds, lipoaspiration/liposuction, stromal vascular fraction (SVF

  19. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) promotes survival of fat-grafts in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Shinichiro; Ishihara, Masayuki; Takikawa, Megumi; Murakami, Kaoru; Kishimoto, Satoko; Nakamura, Shingo; Yanagibayashi, Satoshi; Kubo, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Naoto; Kiyosawa, Tomoharu

    2010-07-01

    This study evaluated the effects of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) on resorption and adipocyte survival in autologous fat-graft of rats prepared with isogenous PRP. Fat grafts prepared without PRP (control group) became united to the tissue adjacent to the implantation site and were significantly resorbed from 30 days. On the other hand, fat grafts prepared with PRP (PRP group) demonstrated little resorption from 30 to 120 days and appeared pink, had a soft, supple feel, and were easily compressible. Histologic sections of grafts in the control and PRP groups at 10 days exhibited similar consolidation of the grafted tissue, which contained morphologically normal adipocytes with different degrees of granulation and capillary formation. From 20 days normal adipocytes were obviously decreased in the control group, while the PRP group demonstrated increased granulation tissue and capillary formation and good maintenance of normal adipocytes for at least 120 days. PMID:20548232

  20. Management of an irradiated anophthalmic socket following dermis-fat graft rejection: A case report

    OpenAIRE

    Raizada Kuldeep; Shome Debraj; Honavar Santosh

    2008-01-01

    Dermis-fat graft (DFG) is often the only promising option in cases of severely contracted sockets. However, there is an increased risk of graft failure in irradiated sockets with decreased vascularity. In such difficult cases, repeat DFG implantation also has higher risks of graft failure. We describe an ingenious method of successful management of an irradiated anophthalmic socket following DFG infection and necrosis, with acceptable cosmetic results. At surgery, an orbital impression was ta...

  1. A Comparative Translational Study: The Combined Use of Enhanced Stromal Vascular Fraction and Platelet-Rich Plasma Improves Fat Grafting Maintenance in Breast Reconstruction

    OpenAIRE

    Gentile, Pietro; Augusto ORLANDI; Scioli, Maria Giovanna; Di Pasquali, Camilla; Bocchini, Ilaria; Curcio, Cristiano Beniamino; Floris, Micol; Fiaschetti, Valeria; Floris, Roberto; Cervelli, Valerio

    2012-01-01

    The use of autologous fat grafting is ideal in breast reconstruction. However, published data on long-term outcomes and instrumental results of fat grafting to the breast are lacking. The purpose of this study was to review the authors' experience of fat grafting, evaluating the effects related to the use of enhanced stromal vascular fraction (e-SVF) and fat grafting with platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in the maintenance of fat volume in breast reconstruction, comparing the results with a control...

  2. Importance of mesenchymal stem cells in autologous fat grafting : a systematic review of existing studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trojahn KØlle, Stig-Frederik; Oliveri, Roberto S

    2012-01-01

    Autologous fat grafting (lipofilling) enables repair and augmentation of soft tissues and is increasingly used both in aesthetic and reconstructive surgery. Autologous fat has several advantages, including biocompatibility, versatility, natural appearance, and low donor site morbidity. The main limitation is unpredictable graft resorption, which ranges from 25%-80%, probably as a result of ischaemia and lack of neoangiogenesis. To obviate these disadvantages, several studies have searched for new ways of increasing the viability of the transplanted tissue. One promising approach has been to enrich the fat graft with adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASC) before transplantation. We have reviewed original studies published on fat transplantation enriched with ASC. We found four murine and three human studies that investigated the subject after a sensitive search of publications. In the human studies, so-called cell assisted lipotransfer (CAL) increased the ASC concentration 2-5 times compared with non-manipulated fat grafts, which caused a questionable improvement in survival of fat grafts, compared with that of traditional lipofilling. In contrast, in two of the murine studies ASC-concentrations were increased 1250 and 6250 times, respectively, by ASC ex vivo expansion, which resulted in considerably improved fat transplant survival as well as quality. This effect of high-level enrichment with ASC is thought to have been caused by paracrine signalling, cellular differentiation, or both. The surgical and tissue handling techniques used in lipofilling are well proved, but the added effect of high-level enrichment with ex vivo expanded ASC still needs to be investigated properly in human lipofilling studies, combined with a thorough follow up and matched control groups. In conclusion, ASC-enriched lipofilling theoretically has the potential for transforming lipofilling from a relatively unpredictable intervention into one in which the resorption rate, quality of tissue, and safety can be predicted, and possibly superior to prosthetic implantation.

  3. Selective Augmentation of Stem Cell Populations in Structural Fat Grafts for Maxillofacial Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Clauser, Luigi; Ferroni, Letizia; Gardin, Chiara; Tieghi, Riccardo; Galiè, Manlio; Elia, Giovanni; Piattelli, Adriano; Pinton, Paolo; Bressan, Eriberto; Zavan, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Structural fat grafting utilizes the centrifugation of liposuction aspirates to create a graded density of adipose tissue. This study was performed to qualitatively investigate the effects of centrifugation on stem cells present in adipose tissue. Liposuction aspirates were obtained from healthy donors and either not centrifuged or centrifuged at 1,800 rpm for 3 minutes. The obtained fat volumes were divided into three layers and then analyzed. The results demonstrate that centrifugation indu...

  4. Persistent Reduced Pigmentation of Areola after Breast Reconstruction with Brava-assisted Autologeous Fat Grafting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Caroline H.; Gramkow, Christina S.

    2014-01-01

    Summary: A 17-year-old healthy woman treated for unilateral hypoplastic breast anomaly with Brava-assisted fat grafting experienced persistent reduced pigmentation of the areola on the treated breast. The reduced pigmentation was confirmed at 6-month postoperative follow-up and verified by histological examination of comparable biopsies from both areolas. PMID:25587495

  5. Skin-fat-graft: a simple tool for reconstruction of small deep defects of the nose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreutzer, Christian; von Gregory, Henning Freiherr; Fischer, Helmut

    2014-06-01

    Small deep defects of the nose after resection of benign or malignant skin tumors are a common challenge in facial plastic surgery daily routine. The use of local flaps has several disadvantages for what reason they are a minor or no option especially in certain localizations in the lower third of the nose. Many elder patients suffer from comorbidities where complex more-staged reconstructional procedures drop out. We present a technique of nasal defect closure with a skin-fat composite graft. Between April 2010 and July 2013, we treated 42 patients with a total of 46 skin-fat-grafts to the nose. We reevaluated the esthetic and functional outcome in a retrospective analysis. In 80% of the cases, the results were rated excellent to satisfactory, 20% fair to poor. Reasons for worse validation were color and contour differences of grafts and surrounding tissue as well as alar retraction in very few cases. Nevertheless, we consider skin-fat-grafts to be a useful tool in single-layer nasal reconstruction in defects of smaller size. PMID:24918704

  6. Lipoenxertia nas mamas: procedimento consagrado ou experimental? / Breast fat grafting: experimental or established procedure?

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alexandre Roriz, Blumenschein; Ruffo, Freitas-Junior; Andrea Thomazine, Tuffanin; Danielle Isadora, Blumenschein.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Atualmente vem ocorrendo aumento da incidência de utilização de enxertia de gordura para correção de defeitos mamários congênitos ou adquiridos e para tratamento mamário estético. Esse aumento é decorrente do surgimento de novas técnicas de lipoenxertia, que produzem resultados mais duradouros e con [...] fiáveis, apesar da crença de alguns autores de que o procedimento possa dificultar o rastreamento do câncer mamário. Esta revisão de literatura tem como objetivo identificar as técnicas de lipoenxertia mamárias mais utilizadas, avaliá-las quanto à eficácia e à segurança, e relatar as principais complicações associadas. A revisão foi realizada nas bases de dados PubMed e LILACS, e os fatores de inclusão foram: artigos em idioma inglês, publicados nos últimos cinco anos. Como resultado observou-se aumento do número de trabalhos abordando o tema nos últimos anos, e predomínio de uma técnica de lipoenxertia específica. A maioria dos trabalhos demonstra que a lipoenxertia mamária não prejudica o rastreamento radiológico para câncer mamário, e alguns sugerem que a gordura enxertada potencializa o desenvolvimento de câncer nas mamas. Apesar do aumento do número de trabalhos, existem ainda poucos com bom nível de evidência científica. Esta revisão permitiu concluir que a lipoenxertia é uma técnica alternativa para reparação de defeitos mamários e discreto aumento estético das mamas, devendo ser utilizada por cirurgiões com treinamento adequado e acompanhada por equipe de radiologia experiente em imagenologia mamária. Mais trabalhos com metodologia científica adequada são necessários para avaliar a lipoenxertia mamária. Abstract in english There has recently been an increase in the use of fat grafting for the correction of congenital or acquired breast deformities and for aesthetic breast treatment. This increase is due to the emergence of novel fat grafting techniques that produce lasting and reliable results despite some authors' be [...] liefs that the procedure might hinder breast cancer screening. This literature review aims to identify the most frequently used breast fat grafting techniques, evaluate their efficacy and safety, and report their major complications. The review was performed after a search in the PubMed and LILACS databases, and only English-language articles published over the past 5 years were assessed. There have been an increased number of studies on the topic in recent years, and a specific fat grafting technique has been primarily reported. Most studies in this area have shown that breast fat grafting does not affect radiological breast cancer screening, whereas some studies have suggested that the use of grafted fat may enhance the development of breast cancer. Despite the increased number of published studies, few have a good level of scientific evidence. This review concludes that fat grafting is an alternative technique for the correction of breast deformities and moderate aesthetic breast enlargement and should be performed by properly trained surgeons accompanied by a radiology team that is experienced in breast imaging. Further studies with appropriate scientific methodologies are needed to evaluate breast fat grafting.

  7. Lipoenxertia nas mamas: procedimento consagrado ou experimental? Breast fat grafting: experimental or established procedure?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Roriz Blumenschein

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Atualmente vem ocorrendo aumento da incidência de utilização de enxertia de gordura para correção de defeitos mamários congênitos ou adquiridos e para tratamento mamário estético. Esse aumento é decorrente do surgimento de novas técnicas de lipoenxertia, que produzem resultados mais duradouros e confiáveis, apesar da crença de alguns autores de que o procedimento possa dificultar o rastreamento do câncer mamário. Esta revisão de literatura tem como objetivo identificar as técnicas de lipoenxertia mamárias mais utilizadas, avaliá-las quanto à eficácia e à segurança, e relatar as principais complicações associadas. A revisão foi realizada nas bases de dados PubMed e LILACS, e os fatores de inclusão foram: artigos em idioma inglês, publicados nos últimos cinco anos. Como resultado observou-se aumento do número de trabalhos abordando o tema nos últimos anos, e predomínio de uma técnica de lipoenxertia específica. A maioria dos trabalhos demonstra que a lipoenxertia mamária não prejudica o rastreamento radiológico para câncer mamário, e alguns sugerem que a gordura enxertada potencializa o desenvolvimento de câncer nas mamas. Apesar do aumento do número de trabalhos, existem ainda poucos com bom nível de evidência científica. Esta revisão permitiu concluir que a lipoenxertia é uma técnica alternativa para reparação de defeitos mamários e discreto aumento estético das mamas, devendo ser utilizada por cirurgiões com treinamento adequado e acompanhada por equipe de radiologia experiente em imagenologia mamária. Mais trabalhos com metodologia científica adequada são necessários para avaliar a lipoenxertia mamária.There has recently been an increase in the use of fat grafting for the correction of congenital or acquired breast deformities and for aesthetic breast treatment. This increase is due to the emergence of novel fat grafting techniques that produce lasting and reliable results despite some authors' beliefs that the procedure might hinder breast cancer screening. This literature review aims to identify the most frequently used breast fat grafting techniques, evaluate their efficacy and safety, and report their major complications. The review was performed after a search in the PubMed and LILACS databases, and only English-language articles published over the past 5 years were assessed. There have been an increased number of studies on the topic in recent years, and a specific fat grafting technique has been primarily reported. Most studies in this area have shown that breast fat grafting does not affect radiological breast cancer screening, whereas some studies have suggested that the use of grafted fat may enhance the development of breast cancer. Despite the increased number of published studies, few have a good level of scientific evidence. This review concludes that fat grafting is an alternative technique for the correction of breast deformities and moderate aesthetic breast enlargement and should be performed by properly trained surgeons accompanied by a radiology team that is experienced in breast imaging. Further studies with appropriate scientific methodologies are needed to evaluate breast fat grafting.

  8. Breast reconstruction de novo by water-jet assisted autologous fat grafting – a retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoppe, Delia Letizia

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available [english] Background: Autologous fat grafting has become a frequent, simple, reproducible and low-risk technique for revisional or partial breast reconstruction. The presented European multicenter study describes an optimized treatment and follow-up protocol for the de novo breast reconstruction after total mastectomy by lipotransfer alone.Methods: A retrospective European multicenter trial included 135 procedures on 28 (35 breasts postmastectomy patients (mean 52.4 years. All women were treated with the water-jet assisted fat grafting method (BEAULI™ combined with additional procedures (NAC reconstruction, contralateral mastoplasty and evaluated with at least 6 months follow-up (mean 2.6 years. Sonography or mammography, clinical examination, patient questionnaire (10-point Likert scale and digital photographs were carried out.Results: On average the patients received 4 to 6 procedures each with a single volume of 159 ml (±61 ml over 21 months (range 9 months to 2.5 years. In total 1,020 ml (±515 ml fat were grafted till a complete breast reconstruction was achieved. Irradiated patients needed a significantly higher volume than non-irradiated (p<0.041. Main treatment complications were liponecrosis (2.59%, infection (0.74% and granuloma (0.74%. Patient satisfaction was overall high to very high (96% and confirmed the good aesthetic results (68% and the natural softness, contour and shape of the reconstructed breast.Conclusions: A complete breast reconstruction with large volume fat grafting is alternatively possible to standard techniques in selected cases. It takes at least 4 to 6 lipotransfers in the course of 2 years. Patients with prior radiotherapy may require even up to 8 sessions over nearly 3 years of treatment.

  9. Autologous platelet-rich plasma mixed with purified fat graft in aesthetic plastic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervelli, Valerio; Palla, Ludovico; Pascali, Michele; De Angelis, Barbara; Curcio, Beniamino C; Gentile, Pietro

    2009-09-01

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is a platelet concentrate that has widely been used to accelerate the healing of soft and hard tissues. The preparation of PRP has been described by several authors. Preparation protocols vary from system to system, depending on the concentration of different integrating proteins. The objective of this article is to describe the principal use of PRP mixed with fat grafts in aesthetic plastic surgery. PMID:19588189

  10. Management of an irradiated anophthalmic socket following dermis-fat graft rejection: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raizada Kuldeep

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Dermis-fat graft (DFG is often the only promising option in cases of severely contracted sockets. However, there is an increased risk of graft failure in irradiated sockets with decreased vascularity. In such difficult cases, repeat DFG implantation also has higher risks of graft failure. We describe an ingenious method of successful management of an irradiated anophthalmic socket following DFG infection and necrosis, with acceptable cosmetic results. At surgery, an orbital impression was taken with ophthalmic grade alginate. Based on this measurement, a custom-made stem pressure socket-expander made up of high density polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA was fitted, a week post surgery and kept in situ for six weeks. On review, the fornices had considerably deepened. The expander device was removed and the patient was now fitted with a custom-made thicker prosthesis made up of high-density PMMA. The patient has followed up for a year subsequently and the prosthesis has remained stable.

  11. Autologous fat grafting: use of closed syringe microcannula system for enhanced autologous structural grafting

    OpenAIRE

    Rw, Alexander; Db, Harrell

    2013-01-01

    Robert W Alexander,1 David Harrell2 1Department of Surgery, School of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA; 2Harvest-Terumo Inc, Plymouth, MA, USA Objectives: Provide background for use of acquiring autologous adipose tissue as a tissue graft and source of adult progenitor cells for use in cosmetic plastic surgery. Discuss the background and mechanisms of action of closed syringe vacuum lipoaspiration, with emphasis on accessing adipose-derived mesenchymal/stroma...

  12. Application of platelet-rich plasma and platelet-rich fibrin in fat grafting: basic science and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Han-Tsung; Marra, Kacey G; Rubin, J Peter

    2014-08-01

    Due to the natural properties of fat, fat grafting remains a popular procedure for soft tissue volume augmentation and reconstruction. However, clinical outcome varies and is technique dependent. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) contains ?-granules, from which multiple growth factors such as platelet-derived growth factor, transforming growth factor-?, vascular endothelial growth factor, and epidermal growth factor can be released after activation. In recent years, the scope of PRP therapies has extended from bone regeneration, wound healing, and healing of musculoskeletal injuries, to enhancement of fat graft survival. In this review, we focus on the definition of PRP, the different PRP preparation and activation methods, and growth factor concentrations. In addition, we discuss possible mechanisms for the role of PRP in fat grafting by reviewing in vitro studies with adipose-derived stem cells, preadipocytes, and adipocytes, and preclinical and clinical research. We also review platelet-rich fibrin, a so-called second generation PRP, and its slow-releasing biology and effects on fat grafts compared to PRP in both animal and clinical research. Finally, we provide a general foundation on which to critically evaluate earlier studies, discuss the limitations of previous research, and direct plans for future experiments to improve the optimal effects of PRP in fat grafting. PMID:24004354

  13. A comparative translational study: the combined use of enhanced stromal vascular fraction and platelet-rich plasma improves fat grafting maintenance in breast reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, Pietro; Orlandi, Augusto; Scioli, Maria Giovanna; Di Pasquali, Camilla; Bocchini, Ilaria; Curcio, Cristiano Beniamino; Floris, Micol; Fiaschetti, Valeria; Floris, Roberto; Cervell, Valerio

    2012-04-01

    The use of autologous fat grafting is ideal in breast reconstruction. However, published data on long-term outcomes and instrumental results of fat grafting to the breast are lacking. The purpose of this study was to review the authors' experience of fat grafting, evaluating the effects related to the use of enhanced stromal vascular fraction (e-SVF) and fat grafting with platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in the maintenance of fat volume in breast reconstruction, comparing the results with a control group. Twenty-three patients aged 19-60 years affected by breast soft tissue defects were analyzed at the Plastic and Reconstructive Department of the University of Rome Tor Vergata. Ten patients were treated with SVF-enhanced autologous fat grafts, and 13 patients were treated with fat grafting + platelet-rich plasma. The patients in the control group (n = 10) were treated with centrifuged fat grafting injection according to Coleman's procedure. The patients treated with SVF-enhanced autologous fat grafts showed a 63% maintenance of the contour restoring and of three-dimensional volume after 1 year compared with the patients of the control group treated with centrifuged fat graft, who showed a 39% maintenance. In those patients who were treated with fat grafting and PRP, we observed a 69% maintenance of contour restoring and of three-dimensional volume after 1 year. As reported, the use of either e-SVF or PRP mixed with fat grafting produced an improvement in maintenance of breast volume in patients affected by breast soft tissue defect. PMID:23197813

  14. Success and pitfalls in myringoplasty: follow-up study of 404 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vartiainen, E; Nuutinen, J

    1993-05-01

    Results of 404 primary myringoplasty operations were critically analyzed. Patients who underwent tympanic membrane repair as the only procedure were included. In all cases, temporal muscle fascia was used as graft material. Mean follow-up period was 5.5 years. Overall success rate was found to be 88 percent. Welding injuries did not heal as well as other traumatic perforations or perforations caused by otitis media. Age of the patient, size or site of perforation, or surgical technique (underlay or overlay) did not affect success rate. Twenty-five percent of the failures were considered to be attributable to eustachian tube insufficiency. One percent (5 cases) failed as a result of chronic mastoiditis overlooked by the surgeon. Postoperative cholesteatoma developed in three ears (0.7%). Postoperative air-bone gap within 10 dB was achieved in 61 percent and within 20 dB in 87 percent of patients. In 11 of the audiologic failures, the cause of persistent conductive hearing loss was found to be fixation or erosion of the ossicles overlooked by the surgeon. The most decisive factor influencing results appeared to be the surgeon's experience. PMID:8372930

  15. Use of genetically modified muscle and fat grafts to repair defects in bone and cartilage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CH Evans

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available We report a novel technology for the rapid healing of large osseous and chondral defects, based upon the genetic modification of autologous skeletal muscle and fat grafts. These tissues were selected because they not only possess mesenchymal progenitor cells and scaffolding properties, but also can be biopsied, genetically modified and returned to the patient in a single operative session. First generation adenovirus vector carrying cDNA encoding human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (Ad.BMP-2 was used for gene transfer to biopsies of muscle and fat. To assess bone healing, the genetically modified (“gene activated” tissues were implanted into 5mm-long critical size, mid-diaphyseal, stabilized defects in the femora of Fischer rats. Unlike control defects, those receiving gene-activated muscle underwent rapid healing, with evidence of radiologic bridging as early as 10 days after implantation and restoration of full mechanical strength by 8 weeks. Histologic analysis suggests that the grafts rapidly differentiated into cartilage, followed by efficient endochondral ossification. Fluorescence in situ hybridization detection of Y-chromosomes following the transfer of male donor muscle into female rats demonstrated that at least some of the osteoblasts of the healed bone were derived from donor muscle. Gene activated fat also healed critical sized defects, but less quickly than muscle and with more variability. Anti-adenovirus antibodies were not detected. Pilot studies in a rabbit osteochondral defect model demonstrated the promise of this technology for healing cartilage defects. Further development of these methods should provide ways to heal bone and cartilage more expeditiously, and at lower cost, than is presently possible.

  16. Miringoplastia com a utilização de um novo material biossintético Myringoplasty using a new biomaterial allograft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Apparecido de Oliveira

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available A miringoplastia é uma cirurgia com a finalidade de controlar a infecção no ouvido médio, reconstruir o mecanismo de transmissão sonora para a janela oval e proteger a janela redonda. São descritos diversos materiais para reconstruir a membrana timpânica, destacando-se a fáscia do músculo temporal, pericôndrio do tragus, cartilagem, dura-máter, tecido placentário, entre outros. OBJETIVO: Este trabalho tem objetivo de demonstrar o efeito de um novo biomaterial, a membrana de látex natural com polilisina, desenvolvida no laboratório de Neuroquímica do Departamento de Bioquímica da Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto da Universidade de São Paulo - USP. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Coorte Longitudinal. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: O biomaterial utilizado é estimulante da neovascularização e crescimento tecidual organizado em diferentes órgãos e tecidos, sendo um material inócuo e não rejeitado pelo organismo. Foi usada a biomembrana de látex com polilisina como um implante transitório para o fechamento da perfuração da membrana timpânica. A membrana foi colocada na face externa dos bordos da membrana timpânica e a fáscia temporal na face interna da mesma. Foram estudadas 238 orelhas com perfuração de membrana timpânica por seqüela de otite média crônica, submetidas a miringoplastia com enxerto de fáscia de músculo temporal e a membrana de látex natural, com idades de 7 a 76 anos. Apresentavam uma ou mais miringoplastias anteriores sem sucesso 41 dos casos. RESULTADO: Como ressaltamos preliminarmente, verificamos pega do enxerto em 90,5% das orelhas (181, sendo fechamento de perfuração amplas, 96; médias, 73 e 12 pequenas. Verificamos intensa vascularização em 100% dos enxertos, o que não é habitual quando não se usa a membrana de látex natural. CONCLUSÃO: Conclue-se que o biomaterial usado merece nossa atenção quanto ao seu uso como implante transitório em miringoplastias, melhorando o processo de revascularização da membrana timpânica remanescente.Myringosplaty is a surgery that is performed to control infections in middle ear, to reconstruct the sound conducting mechanism for the oval window and protection of the round window. Some materials are used to reconstruct the tympanic membrane like autologous temporalis fascia, cartilage-perichondium graft taken from the tragus, cartilage only, dura mater human placental graft. It is important the vascular support to the graft with well-vascularized flap in wide perforations. AIM: The main goal of this work is shown the use of a new biomaterial, the natural latex membrane with polylysin. STUDY DESIGN: Longitudinal Cohort. MATERIAL AND METHOD: This material was developed from Department of Biochemistry from Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto Universidade de São Paulo. The natural latex membrane is used stimulating neovessels and organized tecidual growing in different parts and tissues of the human body. This material promotes any allergic reaction and is innocuous to the human tissue. The 238 ears with tympanic membrane perforation resulted from chronic middle ear infection and thek was going through myringoplasty with autologous temporalis fascia and natural latex membrane. The ages were 7 to 76 years. RESULTS: The first results show 181 (90,5% healing tympanic membrane perforation, 96 healing of wide perforation 73 medium perforation and 12 small one. Neovessels could be seen in all grafts and remaining tympanic membrane. This is not a habitual funding when the natural latex membrane is not used. CONCLUSION: According to these results we can conclude that the natural latex membrane can be used as a temporary implant in myringoplasty, improving the well vascularized of remaining tympanic membrane.

  17. Miringoplastia com a utilização de um novo material biossintético / Myringoplasty using a new biomaterial allograft

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    José Antonio Apparecido de, Oliveira; Miguel Angelo, Hyppolito; Joaquim, Coutinho Netto; Fátima, Mrué.

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available A miringoplastia é uma cirurgia com a finalidade de controlar a infecção no ouvido médio, reconstruir o mecanismo de transmissão sonora para a janela oval e proteger a janela redonda. São descritos diversos materiais para reconstruir a membrana timpânica, destacando-se a fáscia do músculo temporal, [...] pericôndrio do tragus, cartilagem, dura-máter, tecido placentário, entre outros. OBJETIVO: Este trabalho tem objetivo de demonstrar o efeito de um novo biomaterial, a membrana de látex natural com polilisina, desenvolvida no laboratório de Neuroquímica do Departamento de Bioquímica da Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto da Universidade de São Paulo - USP. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Coorte Longitudinal. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: O biomaterial utilizado é estimulante da neovascularização e crescimento tecidual organizado em diferentes órgãos e tecidos, sendo um material inócuo e não rejeitado pelo organismo. Foi usada a biomembrana de látex com polilisina como um implante transitório para o fechamento da perfuração da membrana timpânica. A membrana foi colocada na face externa dos bordos da membrana timpânica e a fáscia temporal na face interna da mesma. Foram estudadas 238 orelhas com perfuração de membrana timpânica por seqüela de otite média crônica, submetidas a miringoplastia com enxerto de fáscia de músculo temporal e a membrana de látex natural, com idades de 7 a 76 anos. Apresentavam uma ou mais miringoplastias anteriores sem sucesso 41 dos casos. RESULTADO: Como ressaltamos preliminarmente, verificamos pega do enxerto em 90,5% das orelhas (181), sendo fechamento de perfuração amplas, 96; médias, 73 e 12 pequenas. Verificamos intensa vascularização em 100% dos enxertos, o que não é habitual quando não se usa a membrana de látex natural. CONCLUSÃO: Conclue-se que o biomaterial usado merece nossa atenção quanto ao seu uso como implante transitório em miringoplastias, melhorando o processo de revascularização da membrana timpânica remanescente. Abstract in english Myringosplaty is a surgery that is performed to control infections in middle ear, to reconstruct the sound conducting mechanism for the oval window and protection of the round window. Some materials are used to reconstruct the tympanic membrane like autologous temporalis fascia, cartilage-perichondi [...] um graft taken from the tragus, cartilage only, dura mater human placental graft. It is important the vascular support to the graft with well-vascularized flap in wide perforations. AIM: The main goal of this work is shown the use of a new biomaterial, the natural latex membrane with polylysin. STUDY DESIGN: Longitudinal Cohort. MATERIAL AND METHOD: This material was developed from Department of Biochemistry from Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto Universidade de São Paulo. The natural latex membrane is used stimulating neovessels and organized tecidual growing in different parts and tissues of the human body. This material promotes any allergic reaction and is innocuous to the human tissue. The 238 ears with tympanic membrane perforation resulted from chronic middle ear infection and thek was going through myringoplasty with autologous temporalis fascia and natural latex membrane. The ages were 7 to 76 years. RESULTS: The first results show 181 (90,5%) healing tympanic membrane perforation, 96 healing of wide perforation 73 medium perforation and 12 small one. Neovessels could be seen in all grafts and remaining tympanic membrane. This is not a habitual funding when the natural latex membrane is not used. CONCLUSION: According to these results we can conclude that the natural latex membrane can be used as a temporary implant in myringoplasty, improving the well vascularized of remaining tympanic membrane.

  18. Effect of an autogenous free fat graft on hemilaminectomy defects in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of an autogenous free fat graft (FFG) on hemilaminectomy defects. Hemilaminectomy was performed at three levels in three beagles, and each defect was designated as a control site or a site treated with one of two different sizes of FFG. Subsequently, longitudinal computed tomography scanning and histopathological examination were performed. As a result, no postoperative dural adhesion was recognized at the sites where FFGs were placed regardless of the size of the FFG. Moreover, there was no compression of the spinal cord by the FFG. Therefore, it appears that postoperative dural adhesion was controlled by the FFG and that the possibility of FFG migration into the spinal canal is low in hemilaminectomy. In conclusion, placement of an FFG over the defect was considered useful for preventing complications in hemilaminectomy

  19. Combined Subcision, Autologous Fat Grafting and Microskin Grafting for an Unsightly Facial Scar in Fitzpatrick Skin Type V: A Case Report.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souvik Adhikari

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Unsightly scars pose a challenge to the plastic surgeon because apart from their appearance, they might be adhered to the underlying structures. This situation is complicated when the scar becomes hypopigmented and is found in individuals with Fitzpatrick Type V skin types. Autologous fat transfer following subcision has been depicted as an important modality in the management of unsightly scars that are additionally depressed. Microskin grafting can alter hypopigmented areas if applied judiciously. Taken in combination, these methods of scar revision can be important tools in the armamentarium of the plastic surgeon. We hereby portray a case of an unsightly facial scar adherent to the underlying structures in a woman with Fitzpatrick skin type V, who was successfully managed with a combination of subcision, autologous fat transfer and microskin grafting. [Arch Clin Exp Surg 2013; 2(1.000: 59-62

  20. Supervivencia a largo plazo de los injertos grasos Long-term survival with fat grafting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Planas

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Presentamos varios casos de pérdida de volumen de diferentes etiologías y en distintas regiones corporales y faciales tratadas mediante injertos de tejido graso autólogo según la técnica de lipoestructura. En ningún caso se realizó sobrecorrección del defecto en ningún caso. La evolución con un seguimiento máximo de 7 años y mínimo de 1 año no mostró disminución del volumen obtenido en el acto quirúrgico en la gran mayoría de los casos. Debido a los resultados obtenidos creemos que el injerto de grasa autólogo es el método de elección para restaurar volúmenes con fines estéticos o reconstructivos.Volume loss in several facial and body areas was treated by means of autologous fatty tissue grafts with lipostructure technique. There were no cases of overcorrection. The patients’ course, with a maximum follow-up of 7 years and a minimum of 1 year did not evidence any loss of the surgically restored tissue volume in the majority of cases. The above results suggest that autologous fat grafts are the method of choice to restore volume for both cosmetic and reconstructive purposes.

  1. Supervivencia a largo plazo de los injertos grasos / Long-term survival with fat grafting

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J., Planas; V., Cervelli; A., Pontón; G., Planas.

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Presentamos varios casos de pérdida de volumen de diferentes etiologías y en distintas regiones corporales y faciales tratadas mediante injertos de tejido graso autólogo según la técnica de lipoestructura. En ningún caso se realizó sobrecorrección del defecto en ningún caso. La evolución con un segu [...] imiento máximo de 7 años y mínimo de 1 año no mostró disminución del volumen obtenido en el acto quirúrgico en la gran mayoría de los casos. Debido a los resultados obtenidos creemos que el injerto de grasa autólogo es el método de elección para restaurar volúmenes con fines estéticos o reconstructivos. Abstract in english Volume loss in several facial and body areas was treated by means of autologous fatty tissue grafts with lipostructure technique. There were no cases of overcorrection. The patients’ course, with a maximum follow-up of 7 years and a minimum of 1 year did not evidence any loss of the surgically resto [...] red tissue volume in the majority of cases. The above results suggest that autologous fat grafts are the method of choice to restore volume for both cosmetic and reconstructive purposes.

  2. Increased survival of human free fat grafts with varying densities of human adipose-derived stem cells and platelet-rich plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kun; Li, Feng; Li, Jie; Wang, Hang; Zheng, Xiaohui; Long, Jie; Guo, Weihua; Tian, Weidong

    2014-06-30

    The high absorption rate of transplanted fat has limited the application of autogenous fat grafts in the clinical setting. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the effects of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) on fat regeneration by investigating the impact of PRP and conditioned medium on the biological characteristics of ASCs. Fat grafts were prepared with ASCs at densities of 10(7) /ml, 10(6) /ml, 10(5) /ml, 10(4) /ml and 0/ml with and without PRP and injected subcutaneously into nude mice. Liquid overflow method, haematoxylin and eosin staining, and immunohistochemical analyses were used to examine the fat grafts. The residual fat volume of the 10(5) /ml ASC?+?PRP group was significantly higher than that of other treatment conditions after 90?days. Furthermore, histological examination revealed that in 10(5) /ml ASCs-treated grafts normal adipocyte area and capillary formation were increased dramatically compared with other treatment conditions. It is concluded that fat grafts consisting of PRP and 10(5) /ml ASCs constitute an ideal transplant strategy, which may result in decreased absorption and accelerated fat regeneration. This simple and reliable method could provide a valuable and needed tool in plastic and reconstructive surgery. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24978937

  3. Fats

    Medline Plus

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    Full Text Available ... fat meats like regular ground beef, bologna, hot dogs, sausage, bacon and spareribs High-fat dairy products ... provider. Saturated fat grams are listed on the Nutrition Facts food label under total fat. As a ...

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    Full Text Available ... dairy products such as full-fat cheese, cream, ice cream, whole milk, 2% milk and sour cream. ... fat dairy products (whole or 2% milk, cream, ice cream, full-fat cheese) Egg yolks Liver and ...

  9. Injertos de tejido adiposo en cirugía estética mamaria / Fat grafts in aesthetic breast surgery

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J., Benito-Ruiz.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available El injerto de tejido adiposo se ha convertido en una de las principales herramientas con la que contamos en Cirugía Plástica y, como no podía ser de otra forma, la mama es el principal órgano diana de nuestra actuación. Desde que introdujimos la técnica en nuestra práctica privada en el año 2009 hem [...] os ido incrementando las indicaciones de su uso. Las tres principales son el aumento mamario, la corrección de defectos y asimetrías y más recientemente el aumento con combinación de ambas técnicas. El aumento mamario con tejido adiposo está indicado en pacientes que quieran incrementar el volumen sin usar implantes. Hay que explicar muy bien a la paciente lo que podemos conseguir en cuanto a volumen y proyección de la mama, además de los problemas potenciales de aparición en las mamografías de quistes y microcalcificaciones. El tejido adiposo, en cambio, es un gran complemento de los implantes mamarios, ya que permite corregir deformidades y asimetrías que con los implantes son más difíciles de resolver. El aumento de mamas combinando ambas técnicas es la consecuencia final y evidente de esta evolución terapéutica, ya que aúna las ventajas de ambas: la firmeza y volumen estables que proporcionan los implantes y la plasticidad que aporta el tejido adiposo para lograr una mayor simetría. Abstract in english Fat grafting has become one of the main tools in Plastic Surgery and as it could only be, the breast is the main target organ of our performance. Since we introduced the technique in our private practice in 2009 we have been increasing its use. The top three indications are: breast augmentation, cor [...] rection of defects and asymmetries and more recently breast augmentation combining both techniques. Breast enhancement with fat is indicated for patients who want to increase the volume without using implants. It must be explained very well to the patient what we can achieve in terms of volume and projection of the breast, along with the potential problems of cysts and microcalcifications in mammograms. Adipose tissue is a great complement to the implants, and we can correct deformities and asymmetries that with implants are much more difficult to solve. Breast augmentation combining both techniques is the final result of the therapeutic evolution as we combine the advantages of both: the firmness and stable volume supported by the implants and the plasticity of the adipose tissue to achieve greater symmetry.

  10. Intraoperative fat embolism during core decompression and bone grafting for osteonecrosis of the hip: report of 3 cases and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, Joseph Christopher; Adib, Farshad; Cui, Quanjun

    2014-06-01

    Osteonecrosis (ON) of the femoral head, without timely intervention, often progresses to debilitating hip arthritis. Core decompression (CD) with bone grafting was used to treat patients with early-stage ON. In 3 cases, intraoperative oxygen saturation, end-tidal carbon dioxide fluctuations, and/or vital sign fluctuations were observed during insertion of the graft, a mixture of bone marrow and demineralized bone matrix. In 1 case, continued postoperative pulmonary symptoms required admission to intensive care. In this article, we describe these cases and provide supporting evidence that they were caused by fat emboli secondary to forceful insertion of bone graft. We review the literature and present complications data. Although no cases of fat emboli were reported as complications of any CD series with or without bone grafting, CD augmented with bone graft may carry risks not seen before in CD alone. Care should be taken to avoid these complications, possibly through technique modification. PMID:24945478

  11. Fats

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    Full Text Available ... unhealthy fats." To lower you risk of heart disease, try to eat less saturated and trans fat — the unhealthy fats. At the same time, you can protect your heart by eating more mono and polyunsaturated fats including omega-3s — ...

  12. Fats

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    Full Text Available ... carbohydrate gets all of the attention in diabetes management. More important than total fat is the type of fat you eat. There are "healthy fats" and "unhealthy fats." To lower you risk of heart disease, try to eat less saturated ...

  13. Meningitis due to Enterobacter aerogenes subsequent to resection of an acoustic neuroma and abdominal fat graft to the mastoid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fida A. Khan

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Meningitis is an uncommon complication of neurosurgical procedures, with an incidence of 1.1% to 2.5%. Although unusual, the frequency of nosocomial Gram-negative meningitis appears to be increasing. Gram-negative meningitis has been documented following disruption of the dura-arachnoid barrier secondary to trauma or surgery. The association of Gram-negative bacillary meningitis with neurosurgical procedures was first reported in the 1940's. Wolff et al. described the association between Enterobacter species and post-neurosurgical infection. More recently, risk factors for nosocomial Enterobacter meningitis have been characterized by Parodi et al. Adipose graft, as an independent risk factor has not yet been reported. A patient with acoustic neuroma resection, who developed bacterial meningitis from an abdominal fat pad graft to a mastoidectomy bed is described. A brief overview was made of post-neurosurgical Gram-negative meningitis.

  14. Meningitis due to Enterobacter aerogenes subsequent to resection of an acoustic neuroma and abdominal fat graft to the mastoid

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fida A., Khan.

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Meningitis is an uncommon complication of neurosurgical procedures, with an incidence of 1.1% to 2.5%. Although unusual, the frequency of nosocomial Gram-negative meningitis appears to be increasing. Gram-negative meningitis has been documented following disruption of the dura-arachnoid barrier seco [...] ndary to trauma or surgery. The association of Gram-negative bacillary meningitis with neurosurgical procedures was first reported in the 1940's. Wolff et al. described the association between Enterobacter species and post-neurosurgical infection. More recently, risk factors for nosocomial Enterobacter meningitis have been characterized by Parodi et al. Adipose graft, as an independent risk factor has not yet been reported. A patient with acoustic neuroma resection, who developed bacterial meningitis from an abdominal fat pad graft to a mastoidectomy bed is described. A brief overview was made of post-neurosurgical Gram-negative meningitis.

  15. Fats

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    Full Text Available ... the ingredient list. Sources of trans fat include: Processed foods like snacks (crackers and chips) and baked goods ( ... this section Food What Can I Eat Making Healthy Food Choices Diabetes Superfoods Fats Alcohol Non-starchy Vegetables ...

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  2. Fats

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    ... Count Glycemic Index Low-Calorie Sweeteners Sugar and Desserts Fitness Exercise & Type 1 Diabetes Get Started Safely ... fat dairy products such as full-fat cheese, cream, ice cream, whole milk, 2% milk and sour ...

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    Full Text Available ... can help lower your risk of having a heart attack or stroke. Foods containing saturated fat include: Lard Fatback and salt pork High-fat meats like regular ground beef, bologna, hot ... you than saturated fat and for a heart-healthy diet, you want to eat as little ...

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  8. Supplementation of fat grafts with adipose-derived regenerative cells in reconstructive surgery [Stammzellangereicherte Fetttransplantation in der rekonstruktiven Chirurgie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herold, C.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available [english] Introduction: The fraction of regenerative cells in adipose tissue has been described to be even higher than in bone marrow. Adipose tissue itself is excessively available in most patients. Given that adipose tissue is abundant in majority of patients adipose derrived stem cells (ASCs have come under scrutiny for regenerative procedures in reconstructive surgery.Material and methods: ASCs were extracted by the Celution system for enrichment of fat grafts that were administered in patients with decreased wound healing, soft tissue or scar defects.Results: All patients were satisfied after reconstruction with ASCs augmented fat grafts and no side effects were observed. Discussion: The Celution system provides fast recovery of ASCs which can be immediately utilized for appropriate application. Since a high number of stem cells are harvested from fat tissue no expansion of cells is needed as described for bone marrow derived stem cells. Enrichment of fat graft with ASCs is of great interest due to their reported angiogenetic effect. The reported cases demonstrate the potential of ASCs in the field of regenerative medicine and encourage further application in reconstructive surgery.[german] Einleitung: Es konnte gezeigt werden, dass der Anteil regenerativer Zellen im Fettgewebe höher als im Knochenmark ist. Fettgewebe hingegen ist bei den meisten Patienten exzessiv vorhanden. Das legt den Einsatz von ASCs (adipose derived stem cells bei regenerativen Anwendungen in der rekonstruktiven Chirurgie nahe.Material und Methoden: Mit dem Celution System von Cytori Therapeutics Inc. prozessierte, ASC angereicherte Fetttransplantate werden an vier Patienten mit Weichteildefiziten und störenden Narben sowie Wundheilungsstörungen angewendet.Ergebnisse: Insbesondere bei Patienten mit Weichteildefiziten und Narben konnte eine suffiziente Volumenaugmentation und ansprechende Verbesserung der Narben erzielt werden. Es wurden keine Nebenwirkungen festgestellt.Diskussion: Der angiogenetische Effekt ist ein interessanter Faktor bei der autologen Fetttransplantation. Ein großer Vorteil von ASCs, die mit dem Celution System prozessiert werden, ist deren sofortige Verfügbarkeit. Es entfällt somit eine lang dauernde Prozessierung im Labor. Die vorgestellten klinischen Beispiele verdeutlichen das Potential von ASCs in der regenerativen Medizin und eröffnen neue Möglichkeiten deren Anwendung in der rekonstruktiven Chirurgie.

  9. Successful Use of Squeezed-Fat Grafts to Correct a Breast Affected by Poland Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Hyunjin; Lee, Heeyoung

    2010-01-01

    This study attempted to reconstruct deformities of a Poland syndrome patient using autologous fat tissues. All injected fat tissues were condensed by squeezing centrifugation. Operations were performed four times with intervals over 6 months. The total injection volume was 972 ml, and the maintained volume of 628 ml was measured by means of a magnetic resonance image (MRI). The entire follow-up period was 4.5 years. After surgery, several small cysts and minimal calcifications were presen...

  10. Fats

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    Full Text Available ... of saturated fat per day. That is not much when you consider just one ounce of cheese can have 8 grams of saturated fat. Many adults, especially women or sedentary men, may need less. To find out a specific goal for you, ...

  11. Fats

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    Full Text Available ... Palm oil and palm kernel oil Coconut and coconut oil Poultry (chicken and turkey) skin The goal for ... more monounsaturated fats. But be careful! Nuts and oils are high in calories, like all fats. If you are trying to lose or maintain your weight, you want to eat small portions of these ...

  12. Fats

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    Full Text Available ... Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor Tools To Know Your ... Because saturated fat raises blood cholesterol levels. High blood cholesterol is a risk factor for ... and salt pork High-fat meats like regular ground beef, ...

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    Full Text Available ... Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods Holiday Meal Planning ... than saturated fat and for a heart-healthy diet, you want to eat as little trans fat ...

  14. Fats

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    Full Text Available ... sauces Gravy made with meat drippings Chocolate Palm oil and palm kernel oil Coconut and coconut oil Poultry (chicken and turkey) skin The goal for ... contain it. Trans fats are produced when liquid oil is made into a solid fat. This process ...

  15. Fats

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  16. Comparative analysis of use of porous orbital implant with mucus membrane graft and dermis fat graft as a primary procedure in reconstruction of severely contracted socket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasturi Bhattacharjee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of our study is to present a surgical technique of primary porous orbital ball implantation with overlying mucus membrane graft (MMG for reconstruction of severely contracted socket and to evaluate prosthesis retention and motility in comparison to dermis fat graft (DFG. Study Design: Prospective comparative study. Materials and Methods: A total of 24 patients of severe socket contracture (Grade 2-4 Krishna?s classification were subdivided into two groups, 12 patients in each group. In Group I, DFG have been used for reconstruction. In Group II, porous polyethylene implant with MMG has been used as a primary procedure for socket reconstruction. In Group I DFG was carried out in usual procedure. In case of Group II, vascularized scar tissues were separated 360° and were fashioned into four strips. A scleral capped porous polyethylene implant was placed in the intraconal space and four strips of scar tissue were secured to the scleral cap and extended part overlapped the implant to make a twofold barrier between the implant and MMG. Patients were followed-up as per prefixed proforma. Prosthesis motility and retention between the two groups were measured. Results: In Group I, four patients had recurrence of contracture with fall out of prosthesis. In Group II stable reconstruction was achieved in all the patients. In terms of prosthesis motility, maximum in Group I was 39.2% and Group II, was 59.3%. The difference in prosthesis retention (P = 0.001 and motility (P = 0.004 between the two groups was significant. Conclusion: Primary socket reconstruction with porous orbital implant and MMG for severe socket contracture is an effective method in terms of prosthesis motility and prosthesis retention.

  17. Lipoestructura y relleno del polo superior de la mama frente a implantes / Structural fat graft and lipofilling of mammary upper pole versus mammary implants

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J.M., Cervilla Lozano.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available La lipoestructura mamaria ofrece nuevas alternativas de tratamiento en la cirugía estética de aumento mamario, cumpliendo en algunos casos las expectativas esperadas y en otros no. Analizamos este hecho en 4 tipos de aplicación de lipoestructura mamaria que hemos venido realizando en los últimos año [...] s, centrándonos en un aspecto importante de esta cirugía que es el relleno del polo superior de la mama. Los tipos de aplicación empleados son: aumento mamario simple mediante lipoestructura en comparación con implantes; pexia más lipoestructura frente a pexia más implantes mamarios; reconstrucción de mama tuberosa mediante lipoestructura o implantes y finalmente, relleno periprotésico mediante lipoestructura en mamas sometidas a cirugía de aumento mamario con implantes. En definitiva, podríamos resumir este trabajo en una frase diciendo que la lipoestructura mamaria, a nuestro juicio, no sirve si lo que prima es conseguir el relleno del polo superior de la mama, siendo en este caso de elección la colocación de implantes mamarios. No obstante, en alguno de los casos señalados no solo es una alternativa, sino que obtiene resultados superiores a los logrados sólamente con implantes. Abstract in english The mammary structural fat graft offers news treatment options in breast augmentation cosmetic surgery, but it sometimes meets expectations and sometimes doesn´t. We analyze 4 different types of lipostructure mammary applications that we have been using in the last years, focused in an important asp [...] ect of this surgery as it´s the filling of the upper mammary pole. These applications are: mammary augmentation by simple structural fat compared with the use of mammary implants; structural fat graft and mastopexy versus implants and mastopexy; tuberous breast reconstruction using structural fat graft or implants and finally, periprosthetic filling in breast augmentation with mammary implants using structural fat graft. In short, we could summarize this paper telling that in our opinion, structural fat graft doesn´t work if our intention is to fill the upper mammary pole. However, structural fat graft is not only an alternative; in some cases it exceeds the expected results using mammary implants.

  18. Lipoestructura y relleno del polo superior de la mama frente a implantes Structural fat graft and lipofilling of mammary upper pole versus mammary implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M. Cervilla Lozano

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available La lipoestructura mamaria ofrece nuevas alternativas de tratamiento en la cirugía estética de aumento mamario, cumpliendo en algunos casos las expectativas esperadas y en otros no. Analizamos este hecho en 4 tipos de aplicación de lipoestructura mamaria que hemos venido realizando en los últimos años, centrándonos en un aspecto importante de esta cirugía que es el relleno del polo superior de la mama. Los tipos de aplicación empleados son: aumento mamario simple mediante lipoestructura en comparación con implantes; pexia más lipoestructura frente a pexia más implantes mamarios; reconstrucción de mama tuberosa mediante lipoestructura o implantes y finalmente, relleno periprotésico mediante lipoestructura en mamas sometidas a cirugía de aumento mamario con implantes. En definitiva, podríamos resumir este trabajo en una frase diciendo que la lipoestructura mamaria, a nuestro juicio, no sirve si lo que prima es conseguir el relleno del polo superior de la mama, siendo en este caso de elección la colocación de implantes mamarios. No obstante, en alguno de los casos señalados no solo es una alternativa, sino que obtiene resultados superiores a los logrados sólamente con implantes.The mammary structural fat graft offers news treatment options in breast augmentation cosmetic surgery, but it sometimes meets expectations and sometimes doesn´t. We analyze 4 different types of lipostructure mammary applications that we have been using in the last years, focused in an important aspect of this surgery as it´s the filling of the upper mammary pole. These applications are: mammary augmentation by simple structural fat compared with the use of mammary implants; structural fat graft and mastopexy versus implants and mastopexy; tuberous breast reconstruction using structural fat graft or implants and finally, periprosthetic filling in breast augmentation with mammary implants using structural fat graft. In short, we could summarize this paper telling that in our opinion, structural fat graft doesn´t work if our intention is to fill the upper mammary pole. However, structural fat graft is not only an alternative; in some cases it exceeds the expected results using mammary implants.

  19. Fats

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    Full Text Available ... We Support Your Doctor Clinical Practice Guidelines Patient Education Materials Scientific Sessions Journals for Professionals Professional Books ... a more detailed explanation from the FDA . Patient Education Materials — Protect Your Heart: Choose Healthy Fats This ...

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    Full Text Available ... carbohydrate gets all of the attention in diabetes management. More important than total fat is the type ... Women Explore the customized diabetes tips, tool and information cultivated with women in mind. » « Connect With Us ...

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    Full Text Available ... this section Food What Can I Eat Making Healthy Food Choices Diabetes Superfoods Fats Alcohol Non-starchy Vegetables Grains and Starchy Vegetables Protein Foods What Can I Drink? Dairy Fruits donate en -- Support a Cure - 2015-june- ...

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    Full Text Available ... oil Nuts like almonds, cashews, pecans, and peanuts Olive oil and olives Peanut butter and peanut oil Sesame ... To include more monounsaturated fats, try to substitute olive or canola oil instead of butter, margarine or shortening when cooking. ...

  16. Experiencia en miringoplastía transcanal con pericondrio tragai inlay / Experience in transcanal myringoplasty with inlay tragal perichondrium

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mauricio, Calderón R; Carmen, Meléndez P; Cristian, Morales S; Danisa, Torres M.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La timpanoplastía está orientada a la reconstrucción anatomofuncional del oído medio que realizada en la membrana timpánica se denomina miringoplastía. Objetivo: Evaluar los resultados anatomofuncionales de la miringoplastía transcanal con pericondrio tragal inlay en pacientes interven [...] idos en el Servicio de Otorrinolaringología del Hospital San Camilo entre 2004 y 2009. Material y método: Estudio retrospectivo descriptivo de fichas de 56 pacientes entre 7 y 77 años. Universo: 60 oídos, muestra: 48 oídos con edad promedio de 34 años. Se evaluaron resultados anatómicos según sexo, edad, ubicación, causa de perforación y mejoría funcional objetivada por audiometría. Resultados: La integridad anatómica posquirúrgica es de 81,3% sin diferencias según género. Según edad existe diferencia significativa de 93,3% para el tramo 7-19 años respecto del total. Las perforaciones centrales tuvieron un éxito de 100%. La causa más frecuente de perforación fue por otitis media crónica simple (75%) con una integridad posquirúrgica del 80,5%. El 97,6% logró mejorar o mantener el nivel de audición, estableciéndose diferencialmente mejoría funcional en 52,4%, y una mantención en 45,2%. Conclusión: Los mejores resultados para esta técnica se obtienen en menores de 20 años con perforaciones centrales, siendo una técnica ideal que conserva la estructura de la membrana timpánica para futuras intervenciones. Abstract in english Introduction: Tympanoplasty is orientated to the anatomofunctional reconstruction of the middle ear, which is named myringoplasty, when performed in the tympanic membrane. Aim: To evaluate the anatomofunctional results of transcanal myringoplasty with inlay tragal perichondrium in patients controlle [...] d in the Otorhinolaryngology Unit of San Camilo Hospital, between 2004 and 2009. Material and method: Retrospective descriptive study on files of 56 patients between 7 and 77 years of age. Universe: 60 ears, sample: 48 ears with average age 34 years. Anatomical results were evaluated according to sex, age, location, cause of perforation and functional improvement measured by audiometry. Results: The overall anatomical postsurgical integrity is 81,3 % without differences between sexes. According to age there is a significant difference for the section between 7-19 years of age respect of the total (93,3 %). Central perforations had a 100% success rate. The most frequent reason of perforation was simple chronic otitis media (75%) with a postsurgical integrity of 80,5 %. 97,6 % managed to improve or maintain hearing level, (52,4 % gained functional improvement, and 45,2 % maintained hearing level). Conclusion: Using this technique, best results are obtained in patients younger than 20 years of age, with central perforations. It is an ideal method that preserves the structure of the tympanic membrane for future interventions.

  17. Experiencia en miringoplastía transcanal con pericondrio tragai inlay Experience in transcanal myringoplasty with inlay tragal perichondrium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Calderón R

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La timpanoplastía está orientada a la reconstrucción anatomofuncional del oído medio que realizada en la membrana timpánica se denomina miringoplastía. Objetivo: Evaluar los resultados anatomofuncionales de la miringoplastía transcanal con pericondrio tragal inlay en pacientes intervenidos en el Servicio de Otorrinolaringología del Hospital San Camilo entre 2004 y 2009. Material y método: Estudio retrospectivo descriptivo de fichas de 56 pacientes entre 7 y 77 años. Universo: 60 oídos, muestra: 48 oídos con edad promedio de 34 años. Se evaluaron resultados anatómicos según sexo, edad, ubicación, causa de perforación y mejoría funcional objetivada por audiometría. Resultados: La integridad anatómica posquirúrgica es de 81,3% sin diferencias según género. Según edad existe diferencia significativa de 93,3% para el tramo 7-19 años respecto del total. Las perforaciones centrales tuvieron un éxito de 100%. La causa más frecuente de perforación fue por otitis media crónica simple (75% con una integridad posquirúrgica del 80,5%. El 97,6% logró mejorar o mantener el nivel de audición, estableciéndose diferencialmente mejoría funcional en 52,4%, y una mantención en 45,2%. Conclusión: Los mejores resultados para esta técnica se obtienen en menores de 20 años con perforaciones centrales, siendo una técnica ideal que conserva la estructura de la membrana timpánica para futuras intervenciones.Introduction: Tympanoplasty is orientated to the anatomofunctional reconstruction of the middle ear, which is named myringoplasty, when performed in the tympanic membrane. Aim: To evaluate the anatomofunctional results of transcanal myringoplasty with inlay tragal perichondrium in patients controlled in the Otorhinolaryngology Unit of San Camilo Hospital, between 2004 and 2009. Material and method: Retrospective descriptive study on files of 56 patients between 7 and 77 years of age. Universe: 60 ears, sample: 48 ears with average age 34 years. Anatomical results were evaluated according to sex, age, location, cause of perforation and functional improvement measured by audiometry. Results: The overall anatomical postsurgical integrity is 81,3 % without differences between sexes. According to age there is a significant difference for the section between 7-19 years of age respect of the total (93,3 %. Central perforations had a 100% success rate. The most frequent reason of perforation was simple chronic otitis media (75% with a postsurgical integrity of 80,5 %. 97,6 % managed to improve or maintain hearing level, (52,4 % gained functional improvement, and 45,2 % maintained hearing level. Conclusion: Using this technique, best results are obtained in patients younger than 20 years of age, with central perforations. It is an ideal method that preserves the structure of the tympanic membrane for future interventions.

  18. Utilidad del los injertos de tejido adiposo en la reconstrucción estética del miembro inferior / Use of autologous fat grafting in aesthetic lower extremity reconstruction

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J., Monreal..

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available La reconstrucción del miembro inferior constituye, probablemente, una de las disciplinas más complejas y de más difícil ejecución en el ámbito de la Cirugía Plástica Estética, independientemente de la etiología inicial del problema (postraumática, oncológica o congénita) y, normalmente, tras varios [...] tratamientos quirúrgicos, el paciente puede solicitar la mejora estética de las secuelas residuales. Estas pueden consistir, entre otras, en problemas de trofismo, asimetrías o distorsiones cicatriciales. Los injertos de tejido adiposo suponen una opción extremadamente válida y segura en los casos en los que estos pacientes solicitan una mejora estética de sus secuelas. Dado su potencial para crear volúmenes y para mejorar el trofismo de los tejidos afectados por diversas formas de fibrosis o atrofias, su utilidad debe ser considerada como una seria opción a considerar. Presentamos en este artículo 3 casos de reconstrucción estética del miembro inferior, por diversas causas, resueltos mediante el uso de injertos de tejido adiposo y revisados durante al menos un año. En todos ellos fueron necesarias al menos 2 sesiones para conseguir un resultado aceptable para el paciente. Abstract in english Lower extremity reconstruction is probably one of the most challenging and difficult disciplines in Plastic and Aesthetic Surgery. With independence of the original ethiology (postraumatic, oncologic or congenital), and after various surgical steps, this group of patients usually looks for some aest [...] hetic improvement of residual sequel. These may consist of diverse forms of trophic changes, asymmetries or distortions. Autologous fat grafting represent an extremely reliable and safe technique in those cases in which patients ask for some aesthetic improvement of their residual sequels. Due to their potential to create volumes and improve the quality of tissues affected from different kinds of atrophy or fibrosis, the use of fat grafting in these cases should be seriously considered as an alternative. Three cases of aesthetic improvement of lower extremity sequels of diverse origin and treated with autologous fat grafting are presented. The follow up period was at least of one year after last treatment. All of them needed at least 2 treatments to achieve an acceptable result for the patient.

  19. Facial Soft Tissue Augmentation using Autologous Fat Mixed with Stromal Vascular Fraction

    OpenAIRE

    Sang Kyun Lee; Deok-Woo Kim; Eun-Sang Dhong; Seung-Ha Park; Eul-Sik Yoon

    2012-01-01

    Background Autologous fat grafting evolved over the twentieth century to become a quick,safe, and reliable method for restoring volume. However, autologous fat grafts have someproblems including uncertain viability of the grafted fat and a low rate of graft survival. Toovercome the problems associated with autologous fat grafts, we used uncultured adiposetissue-derived stromal cell (stromal vascular fraction, SVF) assisted autologous fat grafting.Thus, the purpose of this study was to evaluat...

  20. Uso da gordura e fáscia muscular autólogas no tratamento da insuficiência glótica / Glottic insufficiency: the use of fat and fascia grafts

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Christiano de Giacomo, Carneiro; Domingos Hiroshi, Tsuji; Luiz Ubirajara, Sennes; João Aragão, Ximenes Filho; Rui, Imamura.

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Uma das alterações mais complexas que acometem as pregas vocais é a incompetência ou insuficiência glótica. Pode ser causada por alterações de mobilidade, fibroses, atrofias ou arqueamento das pregas vocais, e pode levar, entre outras situações como aspiração e tosse pouco efetiva, a graus variados [...] de disfonia. A partir do início do século 20, surgiram vários procedimentos cirúrgicos para a reabilitação da competência aerodinâmica e valvular da glote, por meio da injeção de substâncias heterólogas no espaço paraglótico. Os enxertos autólogos, como a gordura e a fáscia muscular, inseridos ou injetados nas pregas vocais inicialmente mostraram resultados promissores além de segurança e riscos mínimos de reações indesejadas. Neste artigo de revisão, os autores discutem o uso da gordura e da fáscia muscular na incompetência glótica, abordando aspectos históricos, o processo inflamatório gerado após a enxertia, as técnicas cirúrgicas mais utilizadas e o rendimento dos enxertos. Abstract in english Glottic insufficiency has been managed since the beginning of the twentieth century. The autologous grafts, as fat and muscular fascia, have shown safety and good results. The authors discuss the advantages and disadvantages of using fat and fascia in the management of glottic insufficiency, regardi [...] ng historical aspects, inflammatory process and surgical techniques.

  1. De la biología al injerto de tejido adiposo: cómo mejorar el lipoinjerto / From biology to fat grafting: how to improve lipofilling

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A.C., Girard; S., Mirbeau; M., Atlan; F., Festy; R., Roche; L., Hoareau.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A pesar de que el uso del injerto de grasa ha ganado popularidad, no hay consenso sobre la mejor manera de manejar el tejido adiposo. Los protocolos difieren y los resultados son a menudo variables. Diversos factores influyen en la calidad de la grasa inyectada, entre los que encontramos las molécul [...] as tóxicas provenientes de la infiltración, procedimiento previo a la liposucción. En este trabajo, hemos confirmado el efecto nocivo de los anestésicos sobre las células madre derivadas del tejido adiposo, determinando el efecto del lavado y la centrifugación en el tejido graso con el fin de proponer un protocolo simple y optimizado para mejorar la supervivencia del injerto. Evaluamos la citotoxicidad de la lidocaína sobre las células madre derivadas de tejido adiposo (ADSC) mediante ensayo de LDH. Sometimos el tejido adiposo conjunto a varios tipos de centrifugación (de 1 segundo a 10 minutos y desde 0 g a 1800 g), y el volumen de líquido y el aceite liberado se midió inmediatamente después de la centrifugación. Tras la determinación de las condiciones óptimas para la manipulación de tejidos (400 g/1 minuto), inyectamos el tejido adiposo de liposucción sin o con lidocaína en ratones inmunodeficientes. Un mes después de la inyección, evaluamos la calidad de los injertos mediante histología, y en comparación con los injertos obtenidos a partir de un protocolo convencional: una simple sedimentación. La lidocaína ejerce un efecto citotóxico sobre las ADSC, y este efecto depende del tiempo de incubación y de las concentraciones. En cuanto al tejido adiposo, una centrifugación intensa (900 g, 1800 g) es perjudicial en comparación con una centrifugación suave (100 g, 400 g). Además, las secciones histológicas de los injertos de tejido adiposo no centrifugados mostraron la presencia de grandes vacuolas de aceite mientras que los injertos resultantes de lavado con protocolo de centrifugación suave (400g/1minuto) no lo hacen. En conclusión, creemos que se debe emplear un manejo adecuado del tejido adiposo, incluyendo lavado y centrifugación, con el fin de eliminar el líquido de infiltración y las moléculas tóxicas asociadas que son perjudiciales para los injertos. Sin embargo, no recomendamos una centrifugación intensa ya que conduce muy rápidamente a una mayor muerte celular. Por lo tanto, una centrifugación suave (400 g/1 minuto) precedida de lavados, parece ser el protocolo más apropiado para la reinyección del tejido adiposo. Abstract in english While fat grafting for soft tissue filling has gained popularity, there is no consensus on the best way how to handle adipose tissue. Protocols differ and results are often highly variable. Various factors influence the quality of injected fat, among which the toxic molecules coming from infiltratio [...] n procedure prior to liposuction. In this work, we have confirmed the deleterious effect of anesthetics on adipose-derived stem cells, and determined the effect of washing and centrifugation on adipose tissue, in order to propose a simple and optimized protocol to improve graft survival. Lidocaine cytotoxicity on adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) was evaluated by LDH assay. Then, whole adipose tissue was subjected to various centrifugation types (from 1 sec to 10 min and from 0 g to 1800 g), and volume of liquid and oil released were measured immediately after centrifugation. After determination of the optimal conditions for tissue handling (400 g/1 min), adipose tissue from liposuction made without or with lidocaine was injected into immunodeficient mice. One month after injection, quality of the grafts was evaluated by histology, and compared with grafts obtained from one conventional protocol: a simple settling. Lidocaine exerts a cytotoxic effect on ADSCs, and this effect is dependent on the incubation time and concentrations. Concerning adipose tissue, strong centrifugation (900 g, 1800 g) is deleterious compared to the low centrifugation (100 g, 400 g). In addition, histological sections of the non-centrifuged a

  2. Utilización de injerto dermo-graso en pacientes con retracción de la cavidad anoftálmica Use of dermis fat graft in patients with retraction of the anophthalmic cavity

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    Marta Herrera Soto

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio descriptivo en 45 pacientes con cavidades retraídas que fueron operados con injerto dermo-graso en el período comprendido entre enero de 1999 y diciembre de 2002. A todos se les tomaron los siguientes datos: tiempo de uso de la prótesis ocular, examen de la cavidad, calidad del injerto y causas de retracción del injerto en los casos de evolución no favorables. Los pacientes entre los 31 y los 60 años de edad, ocuparon el 42 %. Al analizar las causas de pérdida del globo ocular se encontró que los traumatismos por accidente laboral ocuparon un 28,9 %. Con respecto al tiempo de uso de la prótesis ocular se aprecia que el 40 % tenía más de 7 años de uso. Dentro de los datos recogidos existió retracción del fórnix inferior en el 46,6 %. Al estudiar las causas de retracción de la cavidad el 51,1 % presentó infecciones e inflamaciones. El 82,2 % no presentó complicaciones y entre las causas del resultado quirúrgico no satisfactorio la infección sobreañadida ocupó un 50 %.A descriptive study was conducted in 45 patients with retracted cavities that were operated on with dermis fat graft from January, 1999, to December, 2002. The following data were collected: time of use of the ocular prosthesis, cavity examination, graft quality and causes of graft retraction.in those cases with unfavorable evolution. The patients aged 31-60 accounted for 42 %. On analyzing the causes of the loss of the eyeball it was found that traumatisms due to working accidents represented 28.9 %. As regards the time of use of the ocular prosthesis, it was observed that 40 % had been used for more than 7 years. Among the collected data, there was retraction of the lower fornix in 46.6 %. On studying the causes of the retraction of the cavity, 51.1 % presented infections and inflammations. 82.2 % had no complications and among the causes of the unsatisfactory surgical result, it was observed 50 % of overadded infection.

  3. Utilización de injerto dermo-graso en pacientes con retracción de la cavidad anoftálmica / Use of dermis fat graft in patients with retraction of the anophthalmic cavity

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marta, Herrera Soto; Iraida, Falcón Márquez; Ileana, Agramonte Centelles; Clara, Gómez Cabrera.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio descriptivo en 45 pacientes con cavidades retraídas que fueron operados con injerto dermo-graso en el período comprendido entre enero de 1999 y diciembre de 2002. A todos se les tomaron los siguientes datos: tiempo de uso de la prótesis ocular, examen de la cavidad, calidad del [...] injerto y causas de retracción del injerto en los casos de evolución no favorables. Los pacientes entre los 31 y los 60 años de edad, ocuparon el 42 %. Al analizar las causas de pérdida del globo ocular se encontró que los traumatismos por accidente laboral ocuparon un 28,9 %. Con respecto al tiempo de uso de la prótesis ocular se aprecia que el 40 % tenía más de 7 años de uso. Dentro de los datos recogidos existió retracción del fórnix inferior en el 46,6 %. Al estudiar las causas de retracción de la cavidad el 51,1 % presentó infecciones e inflamaciones. El 82,2 % no presentó complicaciones y entre las causas del resultado quirúrgico no satisfactorio la infección sobreañadida ocupó un 50 %. Abstract in english A descriptive study was conducted in 45 patients with retracted cavities that were operated on with dermis fat graft from January, 1999, to December, 2002. The following data were collected: time of use of the ocular prosthesis, cavity examination, graft quality and causes of graft retraction.in tho [...] se cases with unfavorable evolution. The patients aged 31-60 accounted for 42 %. On analyzing the causes of the loss of the eyeball it was found that traumatisms due to working accidents represented 28.9 %. As regards the time of use of the ocular prosthesis, it was observed that 40 % had been used for more than 7 years. Among the collected data, there was retraction of the lower fornix in 46.6 %. On studying the causes of the retraction of the cavity, 51.1 % presented infections and inflammations. 82.2 % had no complications and among the causes of the unsatisfactory surgical result, it was observed 50 % of overadded infection.

  4. Lipoenxertia autóloga periorbitária no rejuvenescimento facial: análise retrospectiva da eficácia e da segurança em 31 casos / Autologous periorbital fat grafting in facial rejuvenation: a retrospective analysis of efficacy and safety in 31 cases

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Chang Yung, Chia; Diego Antonio, Rovaris.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Os sulcos periorbitários e zigomático e o malar flácido estão entre as características mais marcantes de envelhecimento ou de desarmonia facial. A reposição do volume é um método simples e eficiente, e o lipoenxerto pode ser o melhor material. O presente trabalho traz uma análise de 31 p [...] acientes submetidos a autolipoenxertia, com ênfase na eficácia e na segurança da técnica. MÉTODO: Análise retrospectiva de 31 pacientes consecutivos, submetidos a lipoenxertias periorbitária e malar, concomitantemente ou não a outros procedimentos estéticos. A avaliação foi feita por meio de comparação entre fotografias pré e pós-operatória, bem como pelo grau de satisfação dos pacientes. RESULTADOS: Dos 31 pacientes, 26 (83,9%) classificaram o resultado pós-operatório como ótimo, 3 (9,7%), bom, e 2 (6,4%), regular. Na avaliação dos autores, 24 (77,5%) pacientes apresentaram resultado ótimo, 5 (16,1%), bom, e 2 (6,4%), regular. Houve necessidade de retoque de lipoenxertia em apenas 4 pacientes, por sugestão do cirurgião. As complicações foram mínimas e passageiras. CONCLUSÕES: A lipoenxertia facial é fácil e eficaz, e as complicações são mínimas quando realizada por cirurgiões qualificados. Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Periorbital and zygomatic hollows as well as flaccid cheeks are among the most evident characteristics of aging or facial disharmony. Volume replacement is a simple and efficient procedure, and fat grafting is considered as the best treatment for these characteristics. This study evaluat [...] es 31 patients who underwent autologous fat grafting and emphasizes the safety and efficacy of this procedure. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of 31 consecutive patients who underwent periorbital and zygomatic fat grafting, alone or in combination with other cosmetic procedures, was carried out. Final evaluation was performed by assessing pre- and postoperative photographs as well as the degree of patient satisfaction. RESULTS: Of 31 patients, 26 (83.9%) reported excellent postoperative outcomes; 3 (9.7%), satisfactory outcomes; and 2 (6.4%), poor outcomes. According to the authors' evaluation, 24 (77.5%) patients had excellent outcomes, 5 (16.1%) had satisfactory outcomes, and 2 (6.4%) had poor outcomes. Retouching of the fat graft was recommended for only 4 patients. The complications observed were minimal and transient. CONCLUSIONS: Facial fat grafting is a simple and effective procedure that presents minimal complications when performed by skilled surgeons.

  5. Differential fat harvesting

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    Sebastian Torres Farr

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Volume replacement with fillers is regularly performed with the use of diverse volumetric materials to correct different structures around the face, depending on the volume enhancement required and the thickness of the soft tissue envelope. Differential fat harvesting and posterior grafting is performed to place the correct fat parcel size for each target area, expanding the potential applications of fat. Methods: Sixty patients consecutively recruited on a first come basis undergone a facial fat grafting procedure, in private practice setting between March 2012 and October 2013. Fat grafting quantity and quality was predicted for each case. Differential harvesting was performed, with 2 fat parcels size. Processing was performed through washing. Fat infiltration was carried out through small cannulas or needles depending on the treated area. Outcomes were analysed both by the physicians and the patients at 7 days, 1 month, 3 months and 6 months through a perceived satisfaction questionnaire. Parameters considered were downtime or discomfort, skin benefits, volume restoration, reabsorption rate estimated and overall improvement. Results: Full facial differential fat grafting procedure lasted an average of 1.5-2.5 h. Average downtime was 3-4 days. Follow-up was performed to a minimum of 6 months. Both patient and physician overall satisfaction rates were mostly excellent. Adverse events like lumps or irregularities were not encountered. Conclusion: Differential fat harvesting and posterior grafting is a valid alternative, to expand the repertoire of fat use, allow a more homogeneous effect, reduce the potential complications, speed up the process, improve graft survival, and to enhance overall aesthetic outcome.

  6. Uso de factores de crecimiento plaquetar unidos a injertos de grasa para lipofiling facial en ritidectomía Use of fat grafts enriched with platelet growth factors for facial lipofiling in ritidectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M. Serra Renom

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Presentamos una serie de pacientes a los que hemos realizado infiltraciones de grasa enriquecida con Factores de Crecimiento Plaquetario (F.C.P. como único procedimiento. Igualmente presentamos casos donde las infiltraciones van acompañadas con otros procedimientos (lifting temporal, lifting cérvico-frontal, etc.. También usamos el plasma rico en F.C.P. en forma de coágulo para rellenar el surco de la cuenca orbitaria (“Tear Through”, y como mesoterapia facial enriquecida con nutrientes. El objetivo de este trabajo es presentar una revisión detallada de los pasos a seguir para la realización de éste procedimiento, que van desde la simple extracción de sangre para la posterior obtención de F.C.P. hasta la técnica de infiltración de grasa enriquecida con dichos factores a nivel facial. Con esta técnica de enriquecimiento de la grasa hemos logrado tener mejores resultados y con mayor permanencia. Evaluando los postoperatorios de pacientes sometidos a este procedimiento, hemos observado que el volumen infiltrado en áreas como la región malar, se mantiene entre un 90% a 95%. En otras áreas como labios y surcos nasogenianos (áreas de gran movilidad, solo permanece entre el 50% a 60% del volumen infiltrado.We present a serie of patients with facial fat infiltration enriched with platelet-derived growth factors, some of them associated to other surgical procedures (temporal lifting, cervico-frontal lifting, etc. We explain how to use this platelet - rich plasma to fill the tear - through and as a facial mesotherapy. Our purpose is to present a detailled review of our method: since blood extraction to the last obtention of the platelet - derived growth factors and the use of this plasma combined with fat infiltration in the facial area. With this methodology we have got better and more permanent results. We have evaluated 90-95 % fat grafts survival in malar region. In other facial areas such as lips or nasogenian folds (big movement areas, we only report about 50 to 60% fat graft survival.

  7. Injertos de tejido adiposo: variables que influyen en la viabilidad del adipocito y de las células madre mesenquimales / Fat grafting: variables that influence the viability of the adipocyte and mesenchimal stem cells

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J., Benito Ruiz.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Si bien los injertos de tejido adiposo se han venido utilizando durante décadas a lo largo del siglo pasado, la técnica se venía considerando como poco útil dado que el injerto tendía a la reabsorción. Fue Coleman quien introdujo un sistema de obtención-procesamiento-infiltración atraumático que aum [...] entó el porcentaje de supervivencia del injerto y la obtención de resultados positivos similares en su aplicación en todo el mundo. Aún así, la publicación de resultados dispares en la literatura respecto a la supervivencia del injerto, con diferentes porcentajes de reabsorción y el descubrimiento de las células madre en el tejido adiposo, han llevado a la realización de numerosos trabajos de investigación encaminados a comprender la biología del injerto de tejido adiposo, a estudiar el papel de las células madre en este proceso y la influencia que sobre la viabilidad celular tienen los distintos pasos a los que los cirujanos plásticos sometemos al tejido adiposo para su trasplante. Hemos hecho una revisión de la literatura científica al respecto para reunir la información disponible sobre estas controversias. Abstract in english Though adipose tissue grafts have been used for decades in last century, the technique has been considered as slightly usefull provided that the graft was tending to reabsorption. It was Coleman who introduced a system of atraumatic harvesting-processing-infiltration that increased the percentage of [...] survival of the graft obtaining positive similar results in its application all over the world. Nonetheless, publication of unlike results in the literature regarding survival of the graft with different percentages of reabsorption and the discovery of stem cells in the adipose tissue, have led to the accomplishment of numerous research works directed to understanding the biology of the fat graft, the role of the stem cells in this process and the influence that the different steps for transplantation have on the cellular viability. We present a review of the scientific literature about the theme to bring together the available information about these controversies.

  8. Injertos de tejido adiposo: variables que influyen en la viabilidad del adipocito y de las células madre mesenquimales Fat grafting: variables that influence the viability of the adipocyte and mesenchimal stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Benito Ruiz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Si bien los injertos de tejido adiposo se han venido utilizando durante décadas a lo largo del siglo pasado, la técnica se venía considerando como poco útil dado que el injerto tendía a la reabsorción. Fue Coleman quien introdujo un sistema de obtención-procesamiento-infiltración atraumático que aumentó el porcentaje de supervivencia del injerto y la obtención de resultados positivos similares en su aplicación en todo el mundo. Aún así, la publicación de resultados dispares en la literatura respecto a la supervivencia del injerto, con diferentes porcentajes de reabsorción y el descubrimiento de las células madre en el tejido adiposo, han llevado a la realización de numerosos trabajos de investigación encaminados a comprender la biología del injerto de tejido adiposo, a estudiar el papel de las células madre en este proceso y la influencia que sobre la viabilidad celular tienen los distintos pasos a los que los cirujanos plásticos sometemos al tejido adiposo para su trasplante. Hemos hecho una revisión de la literatura científica al respecto para reunir la información disponible sobre estas controversias.Though adipose tissue grafts have been used for decades in last century, the technique has been considered as slightly usefull provided that the graft was tending to reabsorption. It was Coleman who introduced a system of atraumatic harvesting-processing-infiltration that increased the percentage of survival of the graft obtaining positive similar results in its application all over the world. Nonetheless, publication of unlike results in the literature regarding survival of the graft with different percentages of reabsorption and the discovery of stem cells in the adipose tissue, have led to the accomplishment of numerous research works directed to understanding the biology of the fat graft, the role of the stem cells in this process and the influence that the different steps for transplantation have on the cellular viability. We present a review of the scientific literature about the theme to bring together the available information about these controversies.

  9. ¿Cuál es la supervivencia de los injertos de grasa en la cara? ¿Cómo cuantificarla?: medicina basada en la evidencia / Which is the survival of fat grafts on the face? How to quantify it?: evidence based medicine

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    E., Serna-Cuéllar; L., Santamaría-Solís.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Muchos de los artículos publicados acerca del éxito de los injertos autólogos de grasa (IAG) en humanos son muy subjetivos o, en el mejor de los casos, semicuantitativos Hasta hoy, se necesitan estudios adicionales, tanto clínicos como básicos, antes de que podamos llegar a precisar el valor de esta [...] técnica. Diseñamos un estudio prospectivo y randomizado con el objetivo de cuantificar la supervivencia de los autoinjertos de grasa en cara, en una serie seleccionada de 71 pacientes con defectos subcutáneos de partes blandas faciales que cumplieron criterios de inclusión, en dos grupos, según fueran casos de Cirugía Reconstructiva o de Cirugía Estética. El procedimiento quirúrgico estándar empleado fue la técnica de lipoestructura facial; se tomó biopsia del tejido adiposo injertado a los 14 meses de seguimiento. Empleamos el método estereológico para medir los parámetros volumétricos cuantitativos de la grasa en el momento de la inyección y en el momento de la biopsia. Por medio de simples ecuaciones matemáticas, pudimos extraer las tasas de prendimiento tanto volumétrica como numérica. También se practicaron análisis estadísticos descriptivos y cuantitativos de todos los datos. Los injertos de grasa autólogos en la cara sobreviven en dos tercios del volumen inyectado a los 14 meses de seguimiento. La única prueba confirmatoria de supervivencia de los autoin-jertos de grasa es la evidencia y demostración histológica de tejido adiposo viable en las zonas receptoras y su cuantificación mediante un método de evaluación volumétrico, preciso y objetivo, como el que permite la Estereología. Abstract in english Many reports concerning the success of fat auto-grafts in humans are widely subjective or semi-quantitative in best of cases. Even today, additional studies, clinical or basic, are ne-cessary before the value of this technique can be calculated. With the aim of quantifying the survival of fat auto-g [...] rafts on the face, a prospective randomized study was designed, selecting 71 patients suffering facial soft tissue subcutaneous defects fulfilling the inclusion criteria. Two groups were descri-bed according to reconstructive and aesthetic surgery. Facial lipostructure technique was used as the standard surgical procedure and a biopsy of the grafted adipose tissue was taken at 14 months follow-up. The stereological method was used to measure the quantitative volumetric parameters of the fat at the injection time and at the biopsy time. By means of simple mathematical equations, the volumetric and numerical take rate could be obtained. Descriptive and quantitative statistical analyses of all data were performed. Fat auto-grafts on the face survive two thirds of the injec-ted volume at 14 months follow-up. The unique confirmation proof of survival of fat auto-grafts is the histological evidence and demonstration of viable adipose tissue in recipient sites and its quantification by a volumetric, accurate and objective valuation method, as it is provided by Stereology.

  10. Uso de factores de crecimiento plaquetar unidos a injertos de grasa para lipofiling facial en ritidectomía / Use of fat grafts enriched with platelet growth factors for facial lipofiling in ritidectomy

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J.M., Serra Renom; J.L., Muñoz del Olmo; C., Gonzalo Caballero.

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Presentamos una serie de pacientes a los que hemos realizado infiltraciones de grasa enriquecida con Factores de Crecimiento Plaquetario (F.C.P.) como único procedimiento. Igualmente presentamos casos donde las infiltraciones van acompañadas con otros procedimientos (lifting temporal, lifting cérvic [...] o-frontal, etc.). También usamos el plasma rico en F.C.P. en forma de coágulo para rellenar el surco de la cuenca orbitaria (“Tear Through”), y como mesoterapia facial enriquecida con nutrientes. El objetivo de este trabajo es presentar una revisión detallada de los pasos a seguir para la realización de éste procedimiento, que van desde la simple extracción de sangre para la posterior obtención de F.C.P. hasta la técnica de infiltración de grasa enriquecida con dichos factores a nivel facial. Con esta técnica de enriquecimiento de la grasa hemos logrado tener mejores resultados y con mayor permanencia. Evaluando los postoperatorios de pacientes sometidos a este procedimiento, hemos observado que el volumen infiltrado en áreas como la región malar, se mantiene entre un 90% a 95%. En otras áreas como labios y surcos nasogenianos (áreas de gran movilidad), solo permanece entre el 50% a 60% del volumen infiltrado. Abstract in english We present a serie of patients with facial fat infiltration enriched with platelet-derived growth factors, some of them associated to other surgical procedures (temporal lifting, cervico-frontal lifting, etc.) We explain how to use this platelet - rich plasma to fill the tear - through and as a faci [...] al mesotherapy. Our purpose is to present a detailled review of our method: since blood extraction to the last obtention of the platelet - derived growth factors and the use of this plasma combined with fat infiltration in the facial area. With this methodology we have got better and more permanent results. We have evaluated 90-95 % fat grafts survival in malar region. In other facial areas such as lips or nasogenian folds (big movement areas), we only report about 50 to 60% fat graft survival.

  11. Platelet-rich plasma greatly potentiates insulin-induced adipogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells through a serine/threonine kinase Akt-dependent mechanism and promotes clinical fat graft maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervelli, Valerio; Scioli, Maria G; Gentile, Pietro; Doldo, Elena; Bonanno, Elena; Spagnoli, Luigi G; Orlandi, Augusto

    2012-03-01

    The potential plasticity and therapeutic utility in tissue regeneration of human adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) isolated from adult adipose tissue have recently been highlighted. The use of autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP) represents an alternative strategy in regenerative medicine for the local release of multiple endogenous growth factors. Here we investigated the signaling pathways and effects of PRP and human recombinant insulin on proliferation and adipogenic differentiation of ASCs in vitro. PRP stimulated proliferation (EC(50) = 15.3 ± 1.3% vol/vol), whereas insulin's effect was the opposite (IC(50) = 3.0 ± 0.5 ?M). Although PRP alone did not increase adipogenesis, in association with insulin it prevented ASC proliferative arrest, greatly enhanced intracytoplasmic lipid accumulation, strongly increased serine/threonine kinase Akt phosphorylation and mouse monoclonal anti-sterol regulatory element binding protein-1 accumulation, and downregulated Erk-1 activity; adipogenic effects were markedly prevented by the Akt inhibitor wortmannin. PRP with insulin synergistically upregulated fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) and downregulated epidermal growth factor receptor (ErbB) expression; moreover, PRP in association prevented insulin-induced insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor and insulin receptor downregulation. The inhibition of FGFR-1, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), and epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (ErbB2) activity reduced ASC proliferation, but only that of FGFR-1 reduced adipogenesis and Akt phosphorylation, whereas the ErbB2 inhibition effects were the opposite. However, EGFR activity was needed for ErbB2-mediated inhibition of ASC adipogenesis. Clinically, the injection of insulin further ameliorated patients' 1-year PRP-induced fat graft volume maintenance and contour restoring. Our results ascertain that PRP in association with insulin greatly potentiates adipogenesis in human ASCs through a FGFR-1 and ErbB2-regulated Akt mechanism. The ameliorated clinical fat graft maintenance suggests additional useful translational applications of combined PRP-insulin treatment in regenerative medicine. PMID:23197780

  12. Graft Take-Rates After Tympanoplasty : results from a prospective ear surgery database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steven Arild Wuyts; Aabenhus, Kristine

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To present a prospective ear surgery database and investigate the graft take-rate and prognostic factors for graft take-rate in tympanoplasty using the database. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective database study. SETTING: Tertiary referral center. PATIENTS: A total of 1606 cases undergoing tympanoplasty types I to IV were registered in the database in the period from February 2004 to November 2013. INTERVENTION: A total of 837 cases underwent myringoplasty/tympanoplasty type I. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Graft take-rate and prognostic factors (age, discharge at time of surgery, tuba function, technique, graft material, and revision surgery) for tympanoplasty type I were studied. A comparison with the graft take-rates for tympanoplasty types II to IV and/or cholesteatoma was made. RESULTS: A user-friendly ear surgery database with fast data entry and direct import of audiometric data was developed. The graft take-rate was found to be 93.0% at 2 to 6 months and 86.6% at more than 12 months. Except for a discharging ear at the time of surgery, no significant differences using ?² test of association were found when comparing graft take-rates for different prognostic factors or more advanced tympanoplasty with or without cholesteatoma. A long-term graft take-rate overestimation of 6% was found if cases with defaulted follow-up because of early reperforation were not included. CONCLUSION: A prospective database can be used to study prognostic factors and reduce bias in reporting the graft take-rate. Prospective databases are needed for high-quality longitudinal studies but require a continuous and daily effort of involved surgeons and therefore need to be convenient and fast to use.

  13. Graft take-rates after tympanoplasty : results from a prospective ear surgery database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steven Arild Wuyts; Aabenhus, Kristine

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To present a prospective ear surgery database and investigate the graft take-rate and prognostic factors for graft take-rate in tympanoplasty using the database. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective database study. SETTING: Tertiary referral center. PATIENTS: A total of 1606 cases undergoing tympanoplasty types I to IV were registered in the database in the period from February 2004 to November 2013. INTERVENTION: A total of 837 cases underwent myringoplasty/tympanoplasty type I. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Graft take-rate and prognostic factors (age, discharge at time of surgery, tuba function, technique, graft material, and revision surgery) for tympanoplasty type I were studied. A comparison with the graft take-rates for tympanoplasty types II to IV and/or cholesteatoma was made. RESULTS: A user-friendly ear surgery database with fast data entry and direct import of audiometric data was developed. The graft take-rate was found to be 93.0% at 2 to 6 months and 86.6% at more than 12 months. Except for a discharging ear at the time of surgery, no significant differences using ?² test of association were found when comparing graft take-rates for different prognostic factors or more advanced tympanoplasty with or without cholesteatoma. A long-term graft take-rate overestimation of 6% was found if cases with defaulted follow-up because of early reperforation were not included. CONCLUSION: A prospective database can be used to study prognostic factors and reduce bias in reporting the graft take-rate. Prospective databases are needed for high-quality longitudinal studies but require a continuous and daily effort of involved surgeons and therefore need to be convenient and fast to use.

  14. Buccal Fat Pad in Intraoral Defect Reconstruction

    OpenAIRE

    Bither, Saurab; Halli, Rajshekhar; Kini, Yogesh

    2011-01-01

    The use of buccal fat pad as a graft for intraoral defects is an uncommonly reported procedure but, it has been frequently used for closure of oro-antral and oro-nasal communications. Buccal fat pad was used to reconstruct 3 medium sized defects due to tumoral resection and oro-antral communication. It was used as an unlined pedicled graft. Three cases are discussed along with anatomical aspect of the buccal fat pad. The findings support the view that the buccal fat pad is versatile, logical,...

  15. Plant grafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnyk, Charles W; Meyerowitz, Elliot M

    2015-03-01

    Since ancient times, people have cut and joined together plants of different varieties or species so they would grow as a single plant - a process known as grafting (Figures 1 and 2). References to grafting appear in the Bible, ancient Greek and ancient Chinese texts, indicating that grafting was practised in Europe, the Middle East and Asia by at least the 5(th) century BCE. It is unknown where or how grafting was first discovered, but it is likely that natural grafting, the process by which two plants touch and fuse limbs or roots in the absence of human interference (Figure 3), influenced people's thinking. Such natural grafts are generally uncommon, but are seen in certain species, including English ivy. Parasitic plants, such as mistletoe, that grow and feed on often unrelated species may have also contributed to the development of grafting as a technique, as people would have observed mistletoe growing on trees such as apples or poplars. PMID:25734263

  16. Facial Soft Tissue Augmentation using Autologous Fat Mixed with Stromal Vascular Fraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Kyun Lee

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Autologous fat grafting evolved over the twentieth century to become a quick,safe, and reliable method for restoring volume. However, autologous fat grafts have someproblems including uncertain viability of the grafted fat and a low rate of graft survival. Toovercome the problems associated with autologous fat grafts, we used uncultured adiposetissue-derived stromal cell (stromal vascular fraction, SVF assisted autologous fat grafting.Thus, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of SVF in a clinical trial.Methods SVF cells were freshly isolated from half of the aspirated fat and were used incombination with the other half of the aspirated fat during the procedure. Between March2007 and February 2008, a total of 9 SVF-assisted fat grafts were performed in 9 patients.The patients were followed for 12 weeks after treatment. Data collected at each follow-upvisit included clinical examination of the graft site(s, photographs for historical comparison,and information from a patient questionnaire that measured the outcomes from the patientperspective. The photographs were evaluated by medical professionals.Results Scores of the left facial area grafted with adipose tissue mixed with SVF cells weresignificantly higher compared with those of the right facial area grafted with adipose tissuewithout SVF cells. There was no significant adverse effect.Conclusions The subjective patient satisfaction survey and surgeon survey showed that SVFassistedfat grafting was a surgical procedure with superior results.

  17. Trans Fat

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... partially hydrogenated oil by increasing the use of mono- and polyunsaturated fats as replacements. Find innovative ways ... 2014 Page last updated: January 8, 2014 Content source: Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity , National ...

  18. Saturated Fat

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... shortening often contains palm oils and some whipped dessert toppings contain coconut oil. How do I control ... version of your favorite ice cream or frozen dessert. These versions usually contain less saturated fat. Use ...

  19. Fat Substitutes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... foods so far. Although fat substitutes on the market are considered safe by the U.S. Food and ... Popular Articles 1 Understanding Blood Pressure Readings 2 Target Heart Rates 3 What are the Symptoms of ...

  20. Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting? Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is ... bypass multiple coronary arteries during one surgery. Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Figure A shows the location of ...

  1. Use of dermal-fat grafts in the post-oncological reconstructive surgery of atrophies in the zygomatic region: clinical evaluations in the patients undergone to previous radiation therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Inchingolo Francesco; Tatullo Marco; Pacifici Andrea; Gargari Marco; Inchingolo Alessio D; Inchingolo Angelo M; Dipalma Gianna; Marrelli Massimo; Abenavoli Fabio M; Pacifici Luciano

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Grafting of autologous adipose tissue can be recommended in some cases of facial plastic surgery. Rhabdomyosarcoma is a type of cancer that can also affect the orbit. Enucleation of the eye can cause atrophy of the corresponding hemiface and decreased orbital growth. Case report We report a case of a female patient with a medical history of surgical enucleation of the right eyeball, who had received rhabdomyosarcoma radiation therapy in her youth. The patient presented w...

  2. Grafting and curing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Progress in radiation grafting and curing is briefly reviewed. The two processes are shown to be mechanistically related. The parameters influencing yields are examined particularly for grafting. For ionising radiation grafting systems (EB and gamma ray) these include solvents, substrate and monomer structure, dose and dose-rate, temperature and more recently role of additives. In addition, for UV grafting, the significance of photoinitiators is discussed. Current applications of radiation grafting and curing are outlined. The recent development of photoinitiator free grafting and curing is examined as well as the potential for the new excimer laser sources. The future application of both grafting and curing is considered, especially the significance of the occurrence of concurrent grafting during cure and its relevance in environmental considerations

  3. Body Fat Measurement Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Media Contact List Request for Support Measurement Tools Body fat has many important functions. It is: ... body fat measured? To learn more about the tools used to determine a person's percent body fat ...

  4. Dietary fats explained

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and fatty meats. Some vegetable oils, such as coconut, palm, and palm kernel oil, also contain saturated fats. These fats are solid at room temperature. A diet high in saturated fat increases cholesterol buildup in ...

  5. Intraoperative grafts assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leacche, Marzia; Balaguer, Jorge M; Byrne, John G

    2009-01-01

    Graft patency strongly influences early and late outcomes after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery. The current standard of care in CABG surgery does not require intraoperative imaging. Because coronary angiography is rarely available in the operating room (OR), other techniques have been developed to assess graft integrity intraoperatively. The 2 most commonly used are the transit time flow measurement (TTFM) and the intraoperative fluorescence imaging (IFI). The TTFM is a quantitative volume flow technique, whereas the IFI is based on the fluorescent properties of indocyanine green. TTFM cannot define the degree of graft stenosis nor discriminate between the influence of the graft conduit and the coronary arteriolar bed on the mean graft flow. IFI provides a "semiquantitative" assessment of the graft patency with images that provide some details about the quality of coronary anastomoses. Both methods are valuable in identifying only at the extremes, that is, either patent or occluded grafts, and can confirm very good grafts; however, neither method is sensitive or specific enough in identifying more subtle abnormalities. These abnormal grafts most likely have poor long-term patency and are predestined to fail. The hybrid suite has the capability of serving both as a complete surgical OR and as a catheterization laboratory. It allows for routine completion angiogram following CABG surgery and identifies abnormal grafts, providing the opportunity to revise them with percutaneous coronary intervention or surgery before leaving the OR. PMID:19942118

  6. Thoracic stent-graft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyodoh H.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The stent-graft is a device constructed from a stent and vascular graft and is inserted by means of an interventional procedure under imaging guidance. In 1986, Balko et al.1 reported the first stentgraft experiment, in which a Z stent covered with polyurethane was inserted into an animal aorta. In the early 1990s, Parodi et al.2 reported clinical introduction of the stent-graft for abdominal aortic aneurysm. In comparison to the abdominal aortic stent-graft, the thoracic stent-graft has several disadvantages, including difficulties associated with the aortic arch curvature and the relatively large caliber of the stent-graft, and the risk of central nervous system or spinal complication. However, the thoracic stentgraft is advantageous because of minimal procedural invasiveness in comparison to surgical graft replacement. In 1994, Dake et al.3 reported transluminal placement of an endovascular stent-graft for thoracic aortic aneurysm, and Kato et al.4 reported use of a stent-graft for aortic dissection and suggested that the stent-graft could be considered an alternative to surgical treatment.

  7. The safety of autologous fat transfer in breast cancer: lessons from stem cell biology.

    OpenAIRE

    Pearl, RA; Pacifico, MD; Leedham, SJ

    2012-01-01

    Autologous fat grafting is versatile tool in plastic surgery and is increasing used for reconstruction following breast conserving surgery for breast cancer. Part of the reconstructive qualities of the transferred fat may be due to the presence of adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADMSC) playing an angiogenic and an adipogenic role. In this context it must be considered if autologously engrafted fat tissue could contribute to carcinogenesis following breast conserving surgery. In this a...

  8. Know Your Fats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... also likely to be trans fat. Limit fried fast food. Commercial shortening and deep-frying fats continue to be made by hydrogenation and contain saturated fat and trans fat. This content was last reviewed on 04/21/2014. Heart-Healthy Recipes Make heart-healthy dishes at home that ...

  9. Dietary Fat and Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... say 0 grams of trans fat) Donuts Muffins Fast Food Shortening Foods that contain and list partially hydrogenated oils Nutrition Tip: Try to do away with trans fat in your diet. How much fat should I eat? Because there are many health benefits that come from eating fat, there’s no ...

  10. Calcar bone graft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A canine model was developed to investigate the use of an autogeneic iliac bone graft to treat the calcar deficiency commonly found at the time of revision surgery for femoral component loosening. Five large male mixed-breed dogs had bilateral total hip arthroplasty staged at three-month intervals, and were sacrificed at six months. Prior to cementing the femoral component, an experimental calcar defect was made, and a bicortical iliac bone graft was fashioned to fill the defect. Serial roentgenograms showed the grafts had united with no resorption. Technetium-99 bone scans showed more uptake at three months than at six months in the graft region. Disulfine blue injection indicated all grafts were perfused at both three and six months. Thin section histology, fluorochromes, and microradiographs confirmed graft viability in all dogs. Semiquantitative grading of the fluorochromes indicated new bone deposition in 20%-50% of each graft at three months and 50%-80% at six months. Although the calcar bone graft was uniformly successful in this canine study, the clinical application of this technique should be evaluated by long-term results in humans

  11. Sliding grafted polymer layers

    CERN Document Server

    Baulin, V A; Marques, C M; Baulin, Vladimir A.; Johner, Albert; Marques, Carlos M.

    2005-01-01

    We study theoretically the structure of sliding grafted polymer layers or SGP layers. These interfacial structures are built by attaching each polymer to the substrate with a ring-like molecule. Such a topological grafting mode allows the chains to freely slide along the attachment point. Escape from the sliding link is prevented by bulky capping groups. We show that grafts in the mushroom regime adopt mainly symmetric configurations (with comparable branch sizes) while grafts in dense layers are highly dissymmetric so that only one branch per graft participates in the layer. Sliding layers on small colloids or star-like sliding micelles exhibit an intermediate behavior where the number of longer branches participating in the corona is independent of the total number of branches. This regime also exists for sliding surface-micelles comprising less chains but it is narrower.

  12. Fats and Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... risk of heart disease, high blood pressure , and diabetes . Here are some ways to keep fat intake within the recommended ranges: Serve naturally low-fat foods, such as fruits and vegetables, whole grains, lean meats and fish, as well ...

  13. Blood Sugar and Fats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sheets Permission to Use Fact Sheets Sponsors and Advertising Privacy Policy Project Staff Contact Us ... Sheet 123 Blood Sugar and Fats SIDE EFFECTS OF ANTIRETROVIRAL MEDICATIONS (ARVs)? BLOOD SUGAR BLOOD FATS ...

  14. Facts about polyunsaturated fats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tuna, and trout Corn oil Soybean oil Safflower oil To get the health benefits, you need to replace unhealthy fats with ... seeds to salads. Cook with corn or safflower oil instead of butter and solid fats.

  15. Toxicity of abdominal fat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawn Mathew

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Abdominal fat or truncal obesity consists of both subcutaneous and visceral fat. It has been found that visceral fat is more metabolically active than subcutaneous fat. The low-level inflammation linked with abdominal fat is associated with insulin resistance and with increases in the release of inflammatory adipokines and cytokines. As a result of these changes, abdominal fat can cause a variety of health conditions. In this review, we focus on the adverse effects of abdominal fat on the body and how it can lead to the development of cardiovascular disease, hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, stroke and cancer. Additionally, we discuss how abdominal fat can be reduced as a result from correction of hormonal deficiencies.

  16. CASE REPORT Pharyngocutaneous Fistula Closure Using Autologous Fat Grafting

    OpenAIRE

    Hespe, Geoffrey E.; Albornoz, Claudia R.; Mehrara, Babak J.; Kraus, Dennis; Matros, Evan

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Although the majority of pharyngocutaneous fistulas close spontaneously with conservative measures, 20% to 30% of patients do not respond to this approach, thereby necessitating major reconstruction with adjacent or free tissue transfers. These procedures carry considerable risk, particularly in patients with medical comorbidities or a history of prior surgery/radiation. Less invasive treatment approaches designed to reverse tissue damage or promote spontaneous healing would repres...

  17. The use of autologous fat for facial rejuvenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Benjamin C

    2010-12-01

    Adding volume to the aging face is a notion that has come into vogue as of late but is, however, not a new idea. With the advent of miro-liposuction techniques, there is renewed interest in the use of aspirated fat. Commercial fillers have a valuable place in the cosmetic surgeon's armamentarium and offer immediate volume correction with a more modest financial commitment. Nevertheless, the standardization of fat grafting techniques marks an exciting shift in facial aesthetics with the ability to correct all aspects of the aging face with safe, natural, and lasting results. PMID:21093747

  18. On fat oppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eller, G M

    2014-09-01

    Contemporary Western societies are obsessed with the "obesity epidemic," dieting, and fitness. Fat people violate the Western conscience by violating a thinness norm. In virtue of violating the thinness norm, fat people suffer many varied consequences. Is their suffering morally permissible, or even obligatory? In this paper, I argue that the answer is no. I examine contemporary philosophical accounts of oppression and draw largely on the work of Sally Haslanger to generate a set of conditions sufficient for some phenomena to count as oppression, and I illustrate the account's value using the example of gender oppression. I then apply the account to fat people, examine empirical evidence, and argue that the suffering of fat people counts as oppression (and therefore, generally, discriminating against fat people in virtue of their being fat is morally wrong). PMID:25507571

  19. Axillobifemoral bypass grafting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davidovi? Lazar B.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Axillo-femoral bypass (AxF means connecting the axillar and femoral artery with the graft that is placed subcutaneously [1]. Usually, this graft is connected with contralateral femoral artery via one accessory subcutaneous graft, and this connection is known as axillobifemoral bypass (AxFF. This extra-anatomic procedure is an alternative method to the standard reconstruction of aortoiliac region when there are contraindications for general or local reasons. OBJECTIVE The objective of this paper is to show early and late results of AxFF bypass grafting as well as to show the indications for AxFF bypass. METHODS The sample consisted of 37 patients. The procedure was performed in 28 patients who suffered from aortoiliac occlusive disease and who were at high risk due to the comorbidity- in one patient with the rupture of juxtarenal aneurysm of abdominal aorta; in five patients with aortoenteric fistula, in two patients with iatrogenic lesion of abdominal aorta and in one female patient with anus preternaturalis definitivus who was treated for rectovaginal fistula. Donor's right axillary artery was used in 26 cases (70.3%, and donor's left axillary artery was used in 9 cases (29.7%. Dacron graft was used in 34 patients and Polytetrafluo-roethlylene graft was used in three patients. Simultaneously, profundo-plastic was done in four patients and femoro-popliteal bypass was performed in three patients. In five patients who suffered from aortoenteric fistula, simultaneous intervention of gastrointerstinal system has been done, x2 test was used for statistical evaluation and life table method was used for verification of late graft patency. RESULTS The rate of early postoperative mortality was 13.5%. The causes of death were: sepsis -1, MOFS - 3, and infarct myocardium -1. The mean follow up period was 40.1 months, ranging from six months to 17 years. During the follow up period, an early graft thrombosis was identified in two and late graft occlusion was reported in four patients. As the cause of occlusion, the progression of occlusive disease of receptive artery was identified in three patients, while anastomotic neointimae hyperplasia of recipient artery was identified in one patient. Three patients died during the follow up period. As the cause of death, CVI was reported in two patients and malignancy of the urinary tract was fpund in one patient. The other complications were - artery angulation on the level of proximal anastomosis in one patient (Figure 1, false aneurysm in one patient, perigraft seroma in one patient and graft infection in three patients. Life table method has shown that cumulative rate of late graft patency is 80.39% after five years (Graph 1. DISCUSSION Our results were analyzed and compared with the results of the study on 283 patients who had undergone aortobifemoral bypass (AFF operation due to the aortoiliac occlusive disease. This study was completed in 1995 (18. The results showed that there was no statistically significant differences between AxFF and AFF group (p>0.05, considering early mortality rate and late graft patency (Graph 2. The review of mortality and late patency rate after AxFF bypass grafting in a world well known studies has shown the similar results (Table 1. CONCLUSION The authors suggest that axilobifemoral bypass is indicated when there are contraindications or difficulties to perform anatomic reconstruction due to the abdomen condition (infection, adhesion, comorbidity as well as in high risk patients with low life expectancy.

  20. Fat and breast cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Kinlen, Lj

    1987-01-01

    Breast cancer mortality and incidence in different countries show a strongly positive correlation with the per caput consumption of fat. In addition, the disease has increased among the Japanese, both in Japan and in the United States, and in both groups fat consumption has been increasing. In contrast, both case-control and prospective studies have on the whole failed to confirm the relationship. Despite these negative findings, the hypothesis that fat causes breast cancer has continued to b...

  1. Perception of fatness

    OpenAIRE

    Ja?kiewicz, Ma?gorzata

    1997-01-01

    The study’s objective was to find out whether there is a relationship between bodily fatness traits described with anthropometric measurements and the assessment of the physical attractiveness of people with different degree of fat deposition. Furthermore, an attempt was made to answer the question whether we perceive the physique of another man as a whole or if we pay more attention to certain parts of the body and whether there is a stereotype of desirable fat deposition.

  2. Trans Fat Now Listed With Saturated Fat and Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... derived from food labels in the marketplace. Compare Snacks!* Keep an eye on Saturated Fat, Trans Fat and Cholesterol! Frozen Potatoes ± (e.g., French Fries) Potato Chips ± Mini-Sandwich Crackers ± Saturated Fat : 1 g + Trans ...

  3. Fat phobia: measuring, understanding, and changing anti-fat attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, B E; Bacon, J G; O'Reilly, J

    1993-12-01

    We examined fat phobia, defined as a pathological fear of fatness, by constructing the Fat Phobia Scale, determining its reliability and validity, examining correlates of fat phobia, and using a treatment approach designed to decrease fat phobia. Study 1 describes the development of the Fat Phobia Scale, a 50-item, modified 5-point semantic differential scale. Subjects (974 females and 117 males) completed the scale; factor analysis yielded six factors. Respondents who are average weight, female, younger, have more than a high school education, or are nonmedical professionals are more likely to have fat phobic attitudes. Study 2 examines fat phobic attitudes of women (N = 40) who had negative feelings about their bodies. Subjects completed the Fat Phobia Scale before and after a treatment approach designed to reduce their feelings of responsibility for fatness. Total scores on the Fat Phobia Scale and scores on all six factors decreased significantly, indicating a decrease in fat phobia. PMID:8293029

  4. What Are Solid Fats?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... oils are fats that are liquid at room temperature, like the vegetable oils used in cooking. Oils come from many different plants - such as corn and peanuts - and from fish. A few plant oils, including coconut oil and palm oil, are high in saturated fats and for nutritional purposes are ...

  5. Fat Emulsions for Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your doctor has ordered fat emulsion to be used as a source of calories and fatty acids to maintain or increase your weight. The medication will be ... Before you administer fat emulsion, look at the solution closely. It should be free of floating material. Gently squeeze the bag or observe the solution ...

  6. Acrylonitrile grafted to PVDF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jin; Eitouni, Hany Basam

    2015-03-31

    PVDF-g-PAN has been synthesized by grafting polyacrylonitrile onto polyvinylidene fluoride using an ATRP/AGET method. The novel polymer is ionically conducive and has much more flexibility than PVDF alone, making it especially useful either as a binder in battery cell electrodes or as a polymer electrolyte in a battery cell.

  7. Alternative fat sources to animal fat for pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Charlotte; Christensen, Thomas Bruun

    2007-01-01

    The use of fats and oils in diets for pigs is of great importance due to their high energy value. As a consequence of the BSE-crisis in the European Union, the amount of animal fat available for animal feeds has been reduced, and alternative fat sources are of increasing importance. In this paper, we review our main findings on the effects of diets with different fat sources on apparent fat digestibility in pigs. A method for quantitative measurement of fat extraction from feed and faeces has been developed, and this method has been used in a digestibility trial, in which diets added 5% of either animal fat, palm oil mix, palm oil, vegetable oil mix, coconut oil, or rapeseed oil were tested in weaned and growing pigs. It was concluded that several vegetable fat sources (palm oil mix, palm oil, coconut oil, rapeseed oil) could be used as alternatives to animal fat in pig feed, whereas fat blends should be avoided.

  8. Polystyrene modified by grafting

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Avani Maria C, Rocha; Laura Hecker de, Carvalho; Antonio Gouveia de, Souza.

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available Diversos tipos de poliestireno modificados foram obtidos através da polimerização por enxertia (graft polymerization) de estireno na presença dos seguintes modificadores: copolímero de etileno-acetato de vinila (EVA); polietileno de baixa densidade (PE) e polibutadieno (PB). Os modificadores foram u [...] tilizados em separado e combinados. Em todos os casos, manteve-se a concentração de modificador fixa em 8% em peso e foram avaliadas as propriedades dos produtos obtidos em função da sua composição. A técnica de polimerização empregada foi a de massa/suspensão. Os melhores resultados foram obtidos para os sistemas PS/modificadores mistos. Os resultados obtidos para estes sistemas comprovam que a copolimerização por enxertia gera produtos com melhores propriedades de impacto do que as obtidas, a partir de misturas mecânicas dos componentes individuais, em sistemas semelhantes. Abstract in english Several grades of modified polystyrene were obtained through the graft polymerization of styrene in the presence of modifiers such as ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA), low density polyethylene (PE), and polybutadiene (PB). These modifiers were used by themselves and in combination. In all cases, the mod [...] ifier concentration was kept constant at 8% w/w, and the product properties were determined as a function of composition. The polymerization technique employed was that of mass/suspension. The best results were obtained for the PS/mixed modifiers systems. The results confirm that graft copolymers present better impact properties than those of mechanical blends of similar composition.

  9. Systolic compression of bypass grafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aqel, Raed; Gupta, Ritesh; Zoghbi, Gilbert

    2006-05-01

    Myocardial bridging, systolic compression of an intramyocardial segment of an epicardial coronary artery, is well known to involve native coronary arteries. Systolic compression of bypass grafts has been rarely described. We present two cases of dynamic systolic compression of bypass grafts to native coronary arteries: one of a vein graft to the right coronary artery, and another of a left internal mammary artery to the left anterior descending artery. PMID:16670459

  10. Are the additional grafts necessary?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ?ur?i? A.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The goals of surgery for spinal deformity are to correct or improve the deformity to get a stable, balanced and fused spine. The long-term success of any procedure for scoliosis depends on a solid arthrodesis. Getting fusion of the instrumented segment with the aid of copious autogenous iliac graft has been the most important goal of treatment. However, harvesting copious graft from teenage iliac bone has its limitation in the quantity of graft, surgical time, and other complications of graft sites. Bone substitute is a promising concept, but there is not ideal bone substitute with all the characteristics of an autogenous bone graft. Several alternative graft materials like tricalcium phosphate, hydroxyapatite, and demineralized bone matrix have osteoinductive properties. Bone morphogenic protein has osteoconductive properties. The limitations with bone substitutes are osteoinduction and osteoconduction properties, sterilization, chances of transmitting infective disease and cost. We consider that the introduction of segmental spinal instrumentation which enables strong and firm correction and fixation of the scoliotic deformity has enabled getting fusion with less graft. We can obtain that quantity of graft after laminae and spinous process decortication. This retrospective study has been done in our hospital from January 2002 to December 2004. A total of 188 patients underwent posterior corrections for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis using segmental fixation by Moss-Miami. No autogenous iliac crest graft was taken or graft substitutes. After meticulous decortication and destruction of facet joints, we used local graft taken from spinous process and laminae. All patients had minimum thirty months follow- up. We have excellent results. Out of these 188 patients, 177 patients have fused spine, no implant failure, no pain, no infection and no loss of correction. Eleven (5.8% patients underwent re-operation; four among them because of infection, three for symptomatic implants and four due to pseudarthrosis. We consider that the use of local harvesting graft is enough for getting good spondylodesis.

  11. Environmental application of radiation grafting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adsorbent having high selectivity against a certain metal ion was synthesized by means of radiation-induced graft polymerization for the purpose of environmental application. The resulting adsorbents were utilized for the removal of toxic metal from scallop waste and the collection of uranium from seawater. As a novel application of grafting, the biodegradability of poly-hydroxybutylate was controlled by grafting. The biodegradability could be depressed by the graft chain and then recovered by external stimuli such as thermal and chemical treatments. (author)

  12. Saphenous vein graft vs. radial artery graft searching for the best second coronary artery bypass graft

    OpenAIRE

    Al-sabti, Hilal Ali; Al Kindi, Adil; Al-rasadi, Khalid; Banerjee, Yajnavalka; Al-hashmi, Khamis; Al-hinai, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) was first used in the late 1960s. This revolutionary procedure created hope among ischemic heart disease patients. Multiple conduits are used and the golden standard is the left internal mammary artery to the left anterior descending artery. Although all approaches were advocated by doctors, the use of saphenous vein grafts became the leading approach used by the majority of cardiac surgeons in the 1970s. The radial artery graft was introduced at the sam...

  13. Coronary Artery Bypass Graft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patient Education Institute

    This patient education program explains the benefits and risks of coronary artery bypass graft surgery for the treatment of coronary arteriosclerosis. This is a MedlinePlus Interactive Health Tutorial from the National Library of Medicine, designed and developed by the Patient Education Institute. NOTE: The tutorial requires a special Flash plug-in, version 4 or above. If you do not have Flash, you will be prompted to obtain a free download of the software before you start the tutorial. You will also need an Acrobat Reader, available as a free download, in order to view the Reference Summary

  14. Fat heaps : Source code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmasry, Amr Ahmed Abd Elmoneim; Katajainen, Jyrki

    2011-01-01

    This report is an electronic appendix to our paper \\Fat heaps without regular counters". In that paper we described a new variant of fat heaps that is conceptually simpler and easier to implement than the original version. We also compared the practical performance of this data structure to that of other related data structures (run-relaxed weak queues and Fibonacci heaps). This report to- gether with an accompanying tar le gives the source code used in the experiments reported in the paper. By making the programs publicly available, we provide other researchers the opportunity to scrutinize the code and compare their own imple- mentations against ours.

  15. Coxiella burnetii vascular graft infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Von Segesser Ludwig

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coxiella burnetii, the causative agent of Q fever, may cause culture-negative vascular graft infections. Very few cases of C. burnetii infection of a vascular graft have been reported. All were diagnosed by serology. Case presentation We report the first case of Coxiella burnetii vascular graft infection diagnosed by broad-range PCR and discuss the diagnostic approaches and treatment strategies of chronic C. burnetii infection. Conclusion C. burnetii should be considered as etiological agent in patients with a vascular graft and fever, abdominal pain, and laboratory signs of inflammation, with or without exposure history. Broad-range PCR should be performed on culture-negative surgical samples in patients with suspected infection of vascular graft.

  16. Radiation grafting on natural films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacroix, M.; Khan, R.; Senna, M.; Sharmin, N.; Salmieri, S.; Safrany, A.

    2014-01-01

    Different methods of polymer grafting using gamma irradiation are reported in the present study for the preparation of newly functionalized biodegradable films, and some important properties related to their mechanical and barrier properties are described. Biodegradable films composed of zein and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) were gamma-irradiated in presence of different ratios of acrylic acid (AAc) monomer for compatibilization purpose. Resulting grafted films (zein/PVA-g-AAc) had their puncture strength (PS=37-40 N mm-1) and puncture deformation (PD=6.5-9.8 mm) improved for 30% and 50% PVA in blend, with 5% AAc under 20 kGy. Methylcellulose (MC)-based films were irradiated in the presence of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) or silane, in order to determine the effect of monomer grafting on the mechanical properties of films. It was found that grafted films (MC-g-HEMA and MC-g-silane) using 35% monomer performed higher mechanical properties with PS values of 282-296 N mm-1 and PD of 5.0-5.5 mm under 10 kGy. Compatibilized polycaprolactone (PCL)/chitosan composites were developed via grafting silane in chitosan films. Resulting trilayer grafted composite film (PCL/chitosan-g-silane/PCL) presented superior tensile strength (TS=22 MPa) via possible improvement of interfacial adhesion (PCL/chitosan) when using 25% silane under 10 kGy. Finally, MC-based films containing crystalline nanocellulose (CNC) as a filling agent were prepared and irradiated in presence of trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate (TMPTMA) as a grafted plasticizer. Grafted films (MC-g-TMPTMA) presented superior mechanical properties with a TS of 47.9 MPa and a tensile modulus (TM) of 1792 MPa, possibly due to high yield formation of radicals to promote TMPTMA grafting during irradiation. The addition of CNC led to an additional improvement of the barrier properties, with a significant 25% reduction of water vapor permeability (WVP) of grafted films.

  17. Autologous Fat Transfer in Secondary Carpal Tunnel Release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noszczyk, Bart?omiej H.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Carpal tunnel release is the gold standard for the treatment of median nerve compression disease. Recurrent or persistent symptoms do not occur in most patients, although a small number of them have indicated that such a postoperative condition indeed exists. Some patients undergo repeated treatments. In the majority of the cases, the disease is associated with scarring in the carpal tunnel or even reformation of the carpal ligament. The authors propose the usage of autologous fat grafting during secondary carpal tunnel release to inhibit the scarring process. Methods: Ten patients with recurrent or persistent symptoms underwent autologous fat grafting at the time of their repeated carpal tunnel release. Fat was harvested from the lower abdomen and grafted into the scarred transverse carpal ligament and surrounding tissues. Each patient underwent pre- and postoperative examinations and completed the carpal tunnel questionnaire (Boston) to evaluate their sensory and motor functions. The patients underwent 1 year of follow-up. Results: There were 2 main reasons for continued symptoms: a technical mistake resulting in incomplete release (IR) during the first operation and abundant scarring (ABS) in the operated area. The beneficial effects of the interventions were confirmed by a clinical study and by administering the carpal tunnel questionnaire to all patients (functional severity score decreased from 4.38 to 1.88 in IR and 3.62 to 1.48 in ABS group, sensory severity score from 3.26 to 1.7 in IR and 3.04 to 1.48 in ABS group; P < 0.05) after 12 months of follow-up. Conclusion: Our initial observations suggest the possible efficacy of adipose tissue in secondary carpal tunnel release.

  18. Figuring Out Fat and Calories

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... some tropical oils, like palm kernel oil and coconut oil, also contain saturated fat. Small amounts of naturally ... oil or canola oil, most nuts and their oils, and avocados. Back Continue Fat and Calories in a Healthy Diet Fats should be eaten in moderation. The American ...

  19. Radiation grafting of styrene into PVDF powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polyvinylidene fluoride PVDF powder was chosen as the base material, and grafted with styrene monomer under pre-irradiation graft polymerization method. The styrene grafted PVDF (PVDF-g-PS) powder was characterized by FTIR spectroscopy, DSC, TGA and element analysis. The FTIR spectra demonstrate that the poly-styrene is successfully grafted into PVDF powder. The crystallinity of grafted PVDF powder decreases with the increasing in the degree of grafting according to the DSC curves. The TGA curves of PVDF-g-PS change remarkably with respect to the original PVDF. It further proves the polystyrene is successfully grafted into PVDF powder. (authors)

  20. Graft Failure after Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Mattsson, Jonas; Ringdén, Olle; Storb, Rainer

    2008-01-01

    Graft failure is a significant complication following allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (AHCT). It may be due to rejection caused by recipient T-cells, NK-cells or antibodies. It is increased in HLA-mismatched grafts, unrelated grafts, T-cell replete transplants, sensitized patients and in patients treated with reduced intensity conditioning (RIC). In recipients of unrelated grafts, graft failure is increased in patients receiving major AB0 blood group mismatched transplants (p=0....

  1. Saphenous vein graft vs. radial artery graft searching for the best second coronary artery bypass graft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sabti, Hilal Ali; Al Kindi, Adil; Al-Rasadi, Khalid; Banerjee, Yajnavalka; Al-Hashmi, Khamis; Al-Hinai, Ali

    2013-10-01

    Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) was first used in the late 1960s. This revolutionary procedure created hope among ischemic heart disease patients. Multiple conduits are used and the golden standard is the left internal mammary artery to the left anterior descending artery. Although all approaches were advocated by doctors, the use of saphenous vein grafts became the leading approach used by the majority of cardiac surgeons in the 1970s. The radial artery graft was introduced at the same time but was not as prevalent due to complications. It was reintroduced into clinical practice in 1989. The procedure was not well received initially but it has since shown superiority in patency as well as long-term survival after CABG. This review provides a summary of characteristics, technical features and patency rates of the radial artery graft in comparison with venous conduits. Current studies and research into radial artery grafts and saphenous vein grafts for CABG are explored. However, more studies are required to verify the various findings of the positive effects of coronary artery bypass grafting with the help of radial arteries on mortality and long-lasting patency. PMID:24198449

  2. Fat transfer and fatal macroembolization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astarita, Denis C; Scheinin, Lisa A; Sathyavagiswaran, Lakshmanan

    2015-03-01

    Fat embolism is usually associated with long bone fractures or other trauma. The diagnosis is usually clinical, and in most cases, emboli are not fatal and not usually seen on gross examination. At the Los Angeles County Coroner's Office, we autopsied the victim of fatal macroscopic fat embolization to the lungs. The patient died during buttock enhancement surgery when fat from liposuction was injected into her buttocks. Fat embolism from liposuction and fat injection is reportedly rare, and macroscopic embolization is rarer still. Varicose veins can occur in the area of the sciatic notch and are known to cause painful sciatica symptoms. We suggest them as a potential conduit for macroscopic fat to reach the lungs. Simple pre-operative questioning for sciatica symptoms and possible radiologic study to rule out sciatic varices seem prudent before undertaking buttock-enhancing surgery. Careful fat injection with pre-aspiration is always advised. PMID:25653075

  3. Study on remodelling of bone grafts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The remodelling of bone grafts depends to a large extent upon the type of graft and the condition of the recipient site. We applied sup(99m)Tc-phosphate scintigraphy in a follow-up study on cases treated by bone grafting, and quantitative analysis of the scintigram by computer to make clear the difference of remodelling time or the process of acceptance between a cancellous and a cortical bone grafting or due to various graft and conditions. The result revealed that the grafted bones which were smoothly adapted for subsequent growths or functions could restore normal accumulation ratios by 36 months after the grafting. When the cancellous bone was grafted to grafting beds with good conditions such as osteotomy site in the cases with coxarthrosis deformans or congenital dislocation of the hip, it could attain the quickest recovery of the normal accumulation ratio. The next quickest recovery of accumulation ratio was attained by grafting the cancellous bone to the grafting beds with poor conditions such as osteomyelitis, pseudoarthrosis, and bone tumor. The third best accumulation ratio could be attained when the cortical bone was grafted to grafting beds with good conditions, while the slowest recovery to normal accumulation ratio was noted when the cortical bone was grafted to grafting beds with poor conditions. (author)

  4. Bone Grafts (Periodontal Regenerative Surgery)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone Grafts (Periodontal Regenerative Surgery) What Is It? What It's Used For Preparation How It's Done Follow-Up Risks When To ... Before your surgery, you need to have basic periodontal treatment called scaling and root planing. You also ...

  5. Do we taste fat?

    OpenAIRE

    Laugerette, Fabienne; Gaillard, Dany; Degrace-Passilly, Patricia; Niot, Isabelle; Besnard, Philippe

    2006-01-01

    Sense of taste informs the body about the quality of ingested foods. Five sub-modalities allowing the perception of sweet, salty, sour, bitter, and umami stimuli are classically depicted. However, the inborn attraction of mammals for fatty foods raises the possibility of an additional oro-sensory modality devoted to fat perception. During a long time, dietary lipids were thought to be detected only by trigeminal (texture perception), retronasal olfactory, and post-ingestive cues. This minirev...

  6. The trochanteric fat pad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Panettiere

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Technological developments based on the use of autologous white adipose tissue (WAT attracted attention to minor fat depots as possible sources of adipose tissue. In plastic surgery, the trochanteric fatty pad is one of the most used WAT depots for its location and organoleptic characteristics that make it particularly suitable for reconstructive procedures. Despite its wide use in clinic, the structure of this depot has never been studied in detail and it is not known if structural differences exist among trochanteric fat and other subcutaneous WAT depots. The present study was performed on trochanteric fat pad with the aim to clarify the morphology of its adipocytes, stroma and microcirculation, with particular reference to the stem niches. Histological and ultrastructural studies showed that the main peculiar feature of the trochanteric fat concerns its stromal component, which appears less dense than in the other subcutaneous WATs studied. The intra-parenchymal collagen stroma is poor and the extracellular compartment shows large spaces, filled with electron-light material, in which isolated collagen bundles are present. The adipocytes are wrapped in weak and easily detachable collagen baskets. These connective sheaths are very thin compared to the sheaths in other subcutaneous WAT depots. The capillaries are covered by large, long and thin elements surrounded by an external lamina; these perivascular cells are poor in organelles and mainly contain poly-ribosomes. In conclusion, when compared to other WAT deposits, the trochanteric fatty pad shows structural peculiarities in its stroma and microcirculation suggesting a high regenerative potential. Resistance, dissociability, microvascular weft and high regenerative potential make the trochanteric fatty pad a privileged source for harvesting in autologous WAT-based regenerative procedures.

  7. Fat Chuck's Corrupt CDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    "Fat Chuck" is here compiling a list of CDs that are designed so that they cannot be played on computerized devices and/or cannot be copied. Users should take the list with a grain of salt, as Chuck himself admits that some titles only have a percentage of their print run affected. The site solicits additions to the list, and there is a .pdf or Word-formatted poster for those who wish to spread the word.

  8. FAS grafted superhydrophobic ceramic membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The hydrophobic properties of ?-Al2O3 membrane have been obtained by grafting fluoroalkylsilane (FAS) on the surface of the membrane. The following grafting parameters were studied: the eroding time of the original membrane, the grafting time, the concentration of FAS solution and the multiplicity of grafting. Hydrophobicity of the membranes was characterized by contact angle (CA) measurement. The thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was used to investigate the weight loss process (25-800 deg. C) of the fluoroalkylsilane grafted on Al2O3 powders under different grafting conditions. The morphologies of the membranes modified under different parameters were examined by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and the surface roughness (Ra) was measured using white light interferometers. A needle-like structure was observed on the membrane surface after modification, which causes the change of Ra. On the results above, we speculated a model to describe the reaction between FAS and ?-Al2O3 membrane surface as well as the formed surface morphology.

  9. Facial Fat Necrosis Following Autologous Fat Transfer and its Management

    OpenAIRE

    Rai, Sweta; Marsland, Alexander M.; Madan, Vishal

    2014-01-01

    Autologous fat transfer (AFT) is an increasingly popular cosmetic procedure practiced by dermatologic surgeons worldwide. As this is an office based procedure performed under local or tumescent anaesthesia with fat transferred within the same individual and limited associated down time its is considered relatively safe and risk free in the cosmetic surgery arena. We describe a case of AFT related fat necrosis causing significant facial dysmorphia and psychosocial distress. We also discuss the...

  10. Radiation grafting on natural films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Different methods of polymer grafting using gamma irradiation are reported in the present study for the preparation of newly functionalized biodegradable films, and some important properties related to their mechanical and barrier properties are described. Biodegradable films composed of zein and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) were gamma-irradiated in presence of different ratios of acrylic acid (AAc) monomer for compatibilization purpose. Resulting grafted films (zein/PVA-g-AAc) had their puncture strength (PS=37–40 N mm?1) and puncture deformation (PD=6.5–9.8 mm) improved for 30% and 50% PVA in blend, with 5% AAc under 20 kGy. Methylcellulose (MC)-based films were irradiated in the presence of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) or silane, in order to determine the effect of monomer grafting on the mechanical properties of films. It was found that grafted films (MC-g-HEMA and MC-g-silane) using 35% monomer performed higher mechanical properties with PS values of 282–296 N mm?1 and PD of 5.0–5.5 mm under 10 kGy. Compatibilized polycaprolactone (PCL)/chitosan composites were developed via grafting silane in chitosan films. Resulting trilayer grafted composite film (PCL/chitosan-g-silane/PCL) presented superior tensile strength (TS=22 MPa) via possible improvement of interfacial adhesion (PCL/chitosan) when using 25% silane under 10 kGy. Finally, MC-based films containing crystalline nanocellulose (CNC) as a filling agent were prepared and irradiated in presence of trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate (TMPTMA) as a grafted plasticizer. Grafted films (MC-g-TMPTMA) presented superior mechanical properties with a TS of 47.9 MPa and a tensile modulus (TM) of 1792 MPa, possibly due to high yield formation of radicals to promote TMPTMA grafting during irradiation. The addition of CNC led to an additional improvement of the barrier properties, with a significant 25% reduction of water vapor permeability (WVP) of grafted films. - Highlights: • Irradiation of zein/PVA/acrylic acid improved the mechanical properties of films. • Irradiation of Methylcellulose/NCC/TMPTMA improved the barrier properties of films. • Irradiation of chitosane/Methylcellulose/HEMA/silane improved the strength of films

  11. What’s fat activism?

    OpenAIRE

    Cooper, Charlotte Rachel Mary

    2008-01-01

    In 21st century Western culture, obesity is such a maligned state of being that the notion of fat activism is unthinkable to most people. "Fat" and "activist" are not words that sit together well in the popular imagination. The idea of activism suggests a dynamic engagement with public life that could not be further from couch potato stereotypes associated with fat people, or popular paradigms which typify "the obese" as innately unwholesome, passive recipients of pity and inte...

  12. A high-fat/high-cholesterol diet inhibits growth of fetal hippocampal transplants via increased inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, L R; Small, B J; Bickford, P C; Umphlet, C; Granholm, A-Ch

    2011-01-01

    A diet containing high levels of saturated fat and cholesterol is detrimental to many aspects of health and is known to lead to obesity, metabolic syndrome, heart disease, diabetes, and cancer. However, the effects of a diet rich in saturated fat and cholesterol on the brain are not currently well understood. In order to determine direct effects of a high saturated fat and cholesterol diet upon fetal hippocampal tissue, we transplanted hippocampal grafts from embryonic day 18 rats to the anterior eye chamber of 16-month-old host animals that were fed either a normal rat chow diet or a 10% hydrogenated coconut oil + 2% cholesterol diet (HFHC diet) for 8 weeks. One eye per rat received topical application of an IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra, Kineret®) and the other served as a saline control. Results revealed that the HFHC diet led to a marked reduction in hippocampal transplant growth, and detrimental effects of the diet were alleviated by the IL-1 receptor antagonist IL-1Ra. Graft morphology demonstrated that the HFHC diet reduced organotypical development of the hippocampal neuronal cell layers, which was also alleviated by IL-1Ra. Finally, grafts were evaluated with markers for glucose transporter expression, astrocytes, and activated microglia. Our results demonstrate significant effects of the HFHC diet on hippocampal morphology, including elevated microglial activation and reduced neuronal development. IL-1Ra largely blocked the detrimental effects of this diet, suggesting a potential use for this agent in neurological disorders involving neuroinflammation. PMID:21396159

  13. Vascularized osseous graft for scaphoid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most commonly used technique for treatment of pseudo-arthrosis of the scaphoid is osteo-synthesis with Kirschnet wires and cortical sponge grafts. Results reported by different teams using this procedure show no more than 90% osseous consolidation, especially in cases where vascularisation of the proximal fragment of the scaphoid is compromised. Here we present a series of ten cases of pseudo-arthrosis of the scaphoid, treated using a new surgical technique involving a vascularized osseous graft of the distal radius. Using this procedure we obtained 100% consolidation, with no complications either during the procedure or immediately post-operatively. Patients returned to work in week 15 on average. In 4 cases we observed discomfort in the area of the scar, which was successfully treated using local cortisone injection. The results obtained are very similar to those seen in the literature on the different techniques for vascularized osseous grafts for pseudo-arthrosis of the scaphoid

  14. Plant grafting: new mechanisms, evolutionary implications

    OpenAIRE

    Goldschmidt, Eliezer E.

    2014-01-01

    Grafting, an old plant propagation practice, is still widely used with fruit trees and in recent decades also with vegetables. Taxonomic proximity is a general prerequisite for successful graft-take and long-term survival of the grafted, composite plant. However, the mechanisms underlying interspecific graft incompatibility are as yet insufficiently understood. Hormonal signals, auxin in particular, are believed to play an important role in the wound healing and vascular regeneration within t...

  15. [Radioindication of bone graft healing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsova, L B; Pavlova, L P; Kondrat'ev, V G; Khmelev, O N

    1977-01-01

    To control the state of transplanted bone in different terms following the plastic procedure a radioisotope study by strontium-85 was performed in 29 patients. The results of scannography (in 31 cases) and radiometry (in 42 cases) were analysed. The determination of the character of strontium-85 distribution and the intensity of its accumulation in the operated extremity makes it possible to assess the graft condition and the intensity of osteogenesis a greater precision and earlier than does roentgenography. Radioisotope investigation conducted dynamically enable the prognostication of the course of the graft healing process. PMID:333749

  16. Organosiloxane-grafted natural polymer coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugama, Toshifumi (Wading River, NY)

    1998-01-01

    A new family of polysaccharide graft polymers are provided as corrosion resistant coatings having antimicrobial properties which are useful on light metals such as aluminum, magnesium, zinc, steel and their alloys. Methods of making the polysaccharide graft polymers are also included. The methods of making the polysaccharide graft polymers involve reacting a polysaccharide source with an antimicrobial agent under conditions of hydrolysis-condensation.

  17. Sodium and chloride exclusion and retention by non-grafted and grafted melon and Cucurbita plants

    OpenAIRE

    Edelstein, M; Plaut, Z.; M. Ben-Hur

    2010-01-01

    The effects of grafting on Na and Cl– uptake and distribution in plant tissues were quantified in a greenhouse experiment using six combinations of melon (Cucumis melo L. cv. Arava) and pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima Duchesne×Cucurbita moschata Duchesne cv. TZ-148): non-grafted, self-grafted, melons grafted on pumpkins, and pumpkins grafted on melons. Total Na concentration in shoots of plants with pumpkin or melon rootstocks was 400?mmol kg?1, respectively, regardless of the scion. In contrast, s...

  18. Treatment of oroantral fistula with autologous bone graft and application of a non-reabsorbable membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adele Scattarella, Andrea Ballini, Felice Roberto Grassi, Andrea Carbonara, Francesco Ciccolella, Angela Dituri, Gianna Maria Nardi, Stefania Cantore, Francesco Pettini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the current report is to illustrate an alternative technique for the treatment of oroantral fistula (OAF, using an autologous bone graft integrated by xenologous particulate bone graft.Background: Acute and chronic oroantral communications (OAC, OAF can occur as a result of inadequate treatment. In fact surgical procedures into the maxillary posterior area can lead to inadvertent communication with the maxillary sinus. Spontaneous healing can occur in defects smaller than 3 mm while larger communications should be treated without delay, in order to avoid sinusitis. The most used techniques for the treatment of OAF involve buccal flap, palatal rotation - advancement flap, Bichat fat pad. All these surgical procedures are connected with a significant risk of morbidity of the donor site, infections, avascular flap necrosis, impossibility to repeat the surgical technique after clinical failure, and patient discomfort.Case presentation: We report a 65-years-old female patient who came to our attention for the presence of an OAF and was treated using an autologous bone graft integrated by xenologous particulate bone graft. An expanded polytetrafluoroethylene titanium-reinforced membrane (Gore-Tex ® was used in order to obtain an optimal reconstruction of soft tissues and to assure the preservation of the bone graft from epithelial connection.Conclusions: This surgical procedure showed a good stability of the bone grafts, with a complete resolution of the OAF, optimal management of complications, including patient discomfort, and good regeneration of soft tissues.Clinical significance: The principal advantage of the use of autologous bone graft with an expanded polytetrafluoroethylene titanium-reinforced membrane (Gore-Tex ® to guide the bone regeneration is that it assures a predictable healing and allows a possible following implant-prosthetic rehabilitation.

  19. Markers of primary graft dysfunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagedorn, Peter Technical University of Denmark,

    The present invention relates to methods for diagnosing transplant rejection, or a condition associated with transplant rejection, such as, primary graft dysfunction in a subject, to antigen probe arrays for performing such a diagnosis, and to antigen probe sets for generating such arrays.

  20. Endovascular stent grafting: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endovascular stent grafts are intravascular devices composed of surgical graft material and a metallic frame, (Fig. 1). Their main application has been to treat aneurysms, but they have been used in vascular trauma and are being investigated for use in occlusive disease. Their advantage in treating aneurysms over conventional surgical treatment is that they are loaded into relatively small delivery systems (Fig. 2) and can be introduced to the area of interest from a remote site - usually the femoral artery. This avoids the morbidity of surgical exposure in difficult sites, such as the thoracic aorta, and lessens the cardiovascular stress to patients by eliminating the need to surgically cross-clamp the vessel being treated. The first description of abdominal aortic aneurysm exclusion by an endovascular stent graft was provided by Parodi and colleagues in 1991. Much of the early clinical experience in endovascular stent grafting was obtained from centres in Australia and Europe, and they are now reporting midterm follow-up data. There are now many centres in Canada and the United States involved in endovascular research and practice. (author)

  1. Histoplasma infection of aortofemoral bypass graft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Nishit; Bronze, Michael S

    2014-05-01

    Histoplasma infection of vascular grafts is extremely rare. To our knowledge, there are only 4 cases reported with Histoplasma capsulatum infection of the aortic graft. All had previous disseminated histoplasmosis and atherosclerotic peripheral vascular disease. They were treated surgically with explantation of the infected graft and reimplantation of new graft in extra-anatomic uninfected site. The authors present a new case of H capsulatum infection of aortofemoral bypass graft, but unlike the other cases, this case was managed without surgical intervention. PMID:23928546

  2. Posterior repair with perforated porcine dermal graft

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    G. Bernard, Taylor; Robert D., Moore; John R., Miklos; T. Fleming, Mattox.

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare postoperative vaginal incision separation and healing in patients undergoing posterior repair with perforated porcine dermal grafts with those that received grafts without perforations. Secondarily, the tensile properties of the perforated and non-perforated grafts were measure [...] d and compared. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a non-randomized retrospective cohort analysis of women with stage II or greater rectoceles who underwent posterior repair with perforated and non-perforated porcine dermal grafts (PelvicolTM CR Bard Covington, GA USA). The incidence of postoperative vaginal incision separation (dehiscence) was compared. A secondary analysis to assess graft tensile strength, suture pull out strength, and flexibility after perforation was performed using standard test method TM 0133 and ASTM bending and resistance protocols. RESULTS: Seventeen percent of patients (21/127) who received grafts without perforations developed vaginal incision dehiscence compared to 7% (5/71) of patients who received perforated grafts (p = 0.078). Four patients with vaginal incision dehiscence with non-perforated grafts required surgical revision to facilitate healing. Neither tensile strength or suture pull out strength were significantly different between perforated and non-perforated grafts (p = 0.81, p = 0.29, respectively). There was no difference in the flexibility of the two grafts (p = 0.20). CONCLUSION: Perforated porcine dermal grafts retain their tensile properties and are associated with fewer vaginal incision dehiscences.

  3. Body fat, abdominal fat and body fat distribution related to VO(2PEAK) in young children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, Magnus; Wollmer, Per

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective. Aerobic fitness, defined as maximum oxygen uptake (VO(2PEAK)), and body fat measurements represent two known risk factors for disease. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between VO(2PEAK) and body fat measurements in young children at a population-based level. Methods. Cross-sectional study of 225 children (128 boys and 97 girls) aged 8-11 years, recruited from a population-based cohort. Total lean body mass (LBM), total fat mass (TBF), and abdominal fat mass (AFM) were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Body fat was also calculated as a percentage of body mass (BF%) and body fat distribution as AFM/TBF. VO(2PEAK) was assessed by indirect calorimetry during maximal exercise test. Results. Significant relationships existed between body fat measurements and VO(2PEAK) in both boys and girls, with Pearson correlation coefficients for absolute values of VO(2PEAK) (0.22-0.36, P<0.05), and for VO(2PEAK) scaled by body mass (-0.38 - -0.70, P

  4. Determining the degree of grafting for poly (vinylidene fluoride) graft-copolymers using fluorine elemental analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acrylic acid (AAc) and styrene (St) were grafted onto poly (vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) powder or membrane samples by pre-irradiation graft copolymerization. The grafted chains were proved by FT-IR spectroscopy analysis. The degree of grafting (DG) of the grafted PVDF was determined by fluorine elemental analysis (FEA) method, and was compared with the DGs determined by weighing method, acid-base back titration method and quantitative FT-IR method. The results show that the FEA method is accurate, convenient and universal, especially for the grafted polymer powders. (authors)

  5. Irisin: 'fat' or artefact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crujeiras, A B; Pardo, M; Casanueva, F F

    2015-04-01

    Soon after the discovery of the muscle-derived factor irisin, a great controversy arose in the literature regarding certain inconsistencies in the regulation of the fibronectin type III domain containing 5 protein (FNDC5/irisin) after exercise, as well as the unpredicted association of circulating irisin levels with parameters of adiposity in humans. Due to these questionable findings, doubts as to the identity of the soluble portion of FNDC5 as well as the real role of irisin and its possible therapeutic applications in the treatment of obesity and diabetes have proliferated. We recently postulated that FNDC5/irisin is an adipokine expressed and secreted by white adipose tissue in rats and humans. Its circulating concentration correlates with adiposity in humans among independent cohorts of patients. Further analysis, focused on obesity-related metabolic disorders, has shown that irisin could play a role in promoting insulin resistance or act as an adaptive response to counteract disturbances in glucose and lipid homoeostasis in obesity. Overall, this leads us to raise the question whether the new factor, increased in circulation of obese patients, is really irisin-reflecting fat mass or it is an artefact. Therefore, the current review is focused on the potential participation of adipose tissue in irisin circulating levels, and the role of irisin in metabolic pathologies associated with obesity in an attempt to clarify the controversy generated by these recently published reports. PMID:25287317

  6. Autologous fat transplantation – animal models and methods for in vitro analysis of viability [Autologe Fetttransplantation – Tierversuche und Methoden für In-vitro-Vitalitätsanalysen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herold, C.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available [english] Since Peer presented his “cell survival theory” it is assumed that the grafted tissue will be implemented in some way into the host tissue. This lead to a big effort to produce a fat graft that is as much viable as possible. Various studies have been performed to analyse viability of fat grafts prepared with different techniques or protocols. All viability tests in vitro permit a non invasive way to analyse human fat grafts. But the influence of processing due to the viability test protocol on viability of fat grafts cannot be totally excluded. Furthermore no normative values exist and we do not know if the test will really measure the real viability of the fat graft. Therefore an in vitro test can only be rated by the following characteristics: a degree of tissue modification by the test itself, on adipose tissue, c ability to depict the relative rate of viable cells to the total cells of the graft. After all an ideal in vitro test still has to be invented, as all available tests do have their indications but also their disadvantages. Animal models offer in vivo analysis of fat survival, but results can not be transferred directly to humans. If autologous fat transplantation is performed for volume augmentation purposes the technique of lipofilling with the best volume survival rate and the least complications like oil cysts or calcifications would be superior. [german] Viele Studien zur Bestimmung der Vitalität von Fetttransplantaten bei der autologen Fetttransplantation sind bereits unternommen worden. Seit der Beschreibung der „cell survival theory“ durch Peer geht man davon aus, dass das Fetttransplantat in gewisser Weise in den Empfängerorganismus integriert wird. Daher ist die Gewinnung von möglichst vitalem Fettgewebe von großer Bedeutung. Vitalitätstests ermöglichen eine nichtinvasive Evaluation von humanen Fettgewebstransplantaten, allerdings kann hierbei eine Beeinflussung der Vitalität durch den Test per se nicht ausgeschlossen werden. Normalwerte existieren nicht und die tatsächliche Vitalität kann nicht bestimmt werden. Daher können diese Tests nur anhand folgender Kriterien beurteilt werden: a dem Grad der Gewebsveränderung durch den Test, b der Spezifität für Fettgewebe, c der Möglichkeit die relative Anzahl vitaler Zellen des Transplantates anzuzeigen. Ein idealer Vitalitätstest zur Fettgewebsdiagnostik muss noch entwickelt werden, alle bisherigen Tests haben entscheidende Vor-, und Nachteile. Tierversuche bieten die Möglichkeit der in vivo Diagnostik, aber die Ergebnisse können nicht direkt auf den Menschen übertragen werden. Falls eine autologe Fetttransplantation zur Gewebsaugmentation durchgeführt wird, kann diejenige Technik, welche die geringsten Komplikationsrate an Fettgewebsnekrosen oder Ölzysten bietet und den höchsten Volumenerhalt gewährleistet als am besten geeignet angesehen werden.

  7. Cationic membrane obtained by radiation grafting method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study has been made for the preparation of ion-containing reverse osmosis membranes by the radiation grafting of aqueous acrylic acid onto low density polyethylene films followed by alkaline treatment to confer ionic character in the prepared membranes. The appropriate reaction conditions were selected under which the graft polymerization was carried out successfully. In this grafting system ammonium ferrous sulphate (Mohr's salt) was used as inhibitor to minimize the homopolymerization of AAc, and a suitable concentration of the inhibitor to be added to the reaction medium was found to be 2.5 wt%. The effect of aqueous monomer concentration on the rate and degree of grafting was studied. The dependence of the grafting rate on the monomer concentration was found to be 0.8 order, i.e. almost first order dependence. It was also found that the irradiation atmosphere (air and nitrogen gas) had no significant effect on the grafting yield at given reaction conditions. The prepared graft copolymer films showed good thermal and chemical stability. Gel determination in the grafted films was also investigated and the results indicated that a crosslinked network structure may be formed. The extent of the gelled part in the graft copolymer increased as the degree of grafting increased. (author)

  8. Hybrid Graft Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: A Predictable Graft for Knee Stabilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Pinzon, Andres M; Barksdale, Leticia; Krill, Michael K; Leo, Brian M

    2015-06-01

    Trauma to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is a season-ending injury and involves months of activity modification and rehabilitation. The annual incidence of ACL tears in the United States is approximately 200,000, which allows for a broad range of individualized treatment options. Various surgical techniques, including transtibial and independent tunnel drilling, allograft and autograft tissue, and various implants, have been described in the literature. This article describes the indications and technique for a hybrid soft tissue graft for ACL reconstruction. Autologous grafts eliminate the risk of disease transmission and have recently been shown to have a lower rerupture rate, particularly in younger, active patients; however, the harvesting of autologous hamstring grafts carries a risk of donor-site morbidity, iatrogenic injury of the graft, and inadequate graft size. In contrast to a traditional autologous soft tissue graft, the hybrid graft allows for graft size customization for a desired reconstruction, especially in cases where autograft hamstrings may be iatrogenically damaged or of inadequate size when harvested. The goal of a hybrid graft ACL reconstruction is to provide a favorable-sized graft with clinical outcomes comparable with autologous soft tissue grafts. In contrast to a traditional autologous soft tissue graft, this technique provides another option in the event of unforeseen deficiencies or complications associated with harvesting and preparation of the autologous gracilis and semitendinosis soft tissue graft. [Orthopedics. 2015; 38(6):e473-e476.]. PMID:26091219

  9. Evaluation of early coronary graft patency after coronary artery bypass graft surgery using multislice computed tomography angiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raissi Kamal

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG surgery is the standard of care in the treatment of advanced coronary artery disease, and its long-term results are affected by the failure of bypass grafts. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the early patency rate in coronary bypass grafts. Methods A total of 107 consecutive patients who underwent CABG were included in this study. Early graft patency was evaluated via computed tomography (CT angiography in the first week after surgery. Results There were a total of 366 grafts, comprised of 250 venous grafts and 116 arterial grafts. Multi-slice CT detected acute graft occlusions in 32 (8.7% of all the grafts, including 26 (10% of the 250 venous grafts and 6 (5% of the 116 arterial grafts. The patency rates obtained were 97.3% for the left internal mammary (IMA grafts, 50% for the radial artery grafts, and 50% for the right IMA grafts. Additionally, 107 (96.4% grafts to the left anterior descending artery (LAD were classified as patent, whereas 1 (30% of the 3 grafts in the left circumflex (LCX region and 1 (50% of the 2 grafts in the right coronary artery (RCA territory were found to be occluded. In the venous category, 8 (13.7% of the 58 grafts to LAD were found to be occluded. In the LCX region, 9 (8.5% of the 106 grafts were classified as occluded, while the remaining 97 (91.5% grafts were patent. The venous grafts to RCA were occluded in 9 (10.4% of the 86 grafts. Amongst the multiple preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative factors, pump time was significantly longer in the patients with occluded grafts than in those with patent grafts (P = 0.04. Conclusion The IMA grafts had the highest early patency rate amongst the coronary bypass grafts. However, the other arterial grafts were associated with a high rate of acute occlusions.

  10. Interventions in infrainguinal bypass grafts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The long-term success of infrainguinal bypass grafts depends on meticulous surgical technique and a periodic program of postoperative surveillance. Duplex scanning is the method of choice for the detection of stenotic lesions that threaten graft patency. As an alternative to surgery, PTA is gaining increasing acceptance for the treatment of non-recurrent, short, and single stenotic lesions, despite somewhat controversial opinions. The initial technical success rates for PTA were reported to be up to 100%, and a 5-year primary assisted patency rate of up to 65% has been achieved. Some authors favorize intra-arterial infusion of fibrinolytic agents for the treatment of bypass graft occlusion with technical success rates of up to 92%. In addition to a reduced trauma compared to surgical thrombectomy, of the venous wall the advantage of thrombolytic therapy is clot lysis in run-off vessels, and uncovering of the stenotic lesions. This stenosis may then be treated by an endovascular or surgical approach. (orig.)

  11. Fixation of tibial plateau fractures with synthetic bone graft versus natural bone graft: a comparison study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ong, J C Y

    2012-06-01

    The goal of this study was to determine differences in fracture stability and functional outcome between synthetic bone graft and natural bone graft with internal fixation of tibia plateau metaphyseal defects.

  12. Radiation grafting of hydrophilic monomers onto poly (4-methylpentene-1) grafting of acrylic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation grafting of acrylic acid (AAc) on poly (4-methylpentene-1) (TPX with different crystallinity has been invertigated under various conditions. Free radicals formed by pre-irradiation of radiation of TPX in vaccum were more stoble than those in the presence of air and might initiate the grafting reaction when came in contact with the AAc. Grafting yields increased with increasing pre-irradiation doses, grafting temperature, and concentration of AAc. Lower crystallinity TPX (24%) showed higher initial grafting rate compared with higher crystallinity one. The distribution of grafting was observed by X-ray micro analyzer. The grafting reaction proceeded gradually with time from the surface of the film to the inner part. In high crystallinity TPX (34%) grafting distribution in the final stage depended on the film thickness, while in the lower crystalline was homogeneous regardless the film thickness. (authors). 10 refs, 9 figs

  13. Aortic Replacement with Sutureless Intraluminal Grafts

    OpenAIRE

    Lemole, Gerald M.

    1991-01-01

    To avoid the anastomotic complications and long cross-clamp times associated with standard suture repair of aortic lesions, we have implanted sutureless intraluminal grafts in 122 patients since 1976. Forty-nine patients had disorders of the ascending aorta, aortic arch, or both: their operative mortality was 14% (7 patients), and the group's 5-year actuarial survival rate has been 64%. There have been no instances of graft dislodgment, graft infection, aortic bleeding, or pseudoaneurysm form...

  14. Radiation graft-copolymerization onto polyethylene film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The grafting of acrylic and methacrylic acids and N-vinylpyrrolidone onto polyethylene film is described. Under the action of gamma radiation the radicals were formed with a spectrum identical to that of radicals formed by electrons, but their efficiency as initiators of graft copolymerization was lower. The film irradiated by gamma radiation can be used in grafting with the utilization of the after-effect. Electrons are an effective agent in the initiation of the grafting reaction of monomers directly in the irradiation field. An advantage of the using of after-effect comparing with direct initiation is a limitation of the monomer homopolymerization. (A.S.)

  15. Nuclear accidents and bone marrow graft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In case of serious contamination, the only efficacious treatment is the bone marrow grafts. The graft types and conditions have been explained. To restrict the nuclear accidents consequences, it is recommended to: - take osseous medulla of the personnel exposed to radiations and preserve it , that permits to carry out rapidly the auto-graft in case of accidents; - determine, beforehand, the HLA group of the personnel; - to register the voluntary donors names and addresses, and their HLA group, that permits to find easily a compatible donar in case of allo-graft. (author)

  16. The autologus graft of epithelial tissue culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minaee B

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available With the intention of research about culture and autologus graft of epithelial tissue we used 4 french Albino Rabbits with an average age of 2 months. After reproduction on the support in EMEM (Eagle's Minimum Essential Medium we used this for graft after 4 weeks. This region which grafted total replaced. After fixation of this sample and passing them through various process, histological sections were prepared. These sections were stained with H & E and masson's trichrome and studied by light microscope. We succeeded in graft. We hope in the near future by using the method of epithelium tissue culture improving to treat burned patients.

  17. Graft polymerization on magnesium oxide surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation-induced graft polymerization of methyl methacrylate on magnesium oxide surface has been studied in the paper. IR spectroscopy and solvent extraction proved the presence of the graft chain polymethyl methacrylate on magnesium oxide surface. Based on the data in the paper, the graft polymerizations are simultaneously initiated by both free radical and anion mechanism. It is suggested that Odminus anion free radical species trapped at an oxide ion vacancy on the solid surface is the active species initiating graft polymerization by the high energy radiation

  18. Induced-pluripotent stem cells seeded acellular peripheral nerve graft as “autologous nerve graft

    OpenAIRE

    Ti-Fei Yuan; Guo-Dong Gao; Jiang Li

    2010-01-01

    The hypothesis is that induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) derived Schwann cells and/or macrophages can be transplanted into acellular nerve graft in repairing injured nervous system. The efficiency of iPSC seeded acellular nerve graft may mimic the autologous peripheral nerve graft.

  19. Industrial application of electron beams for grafting and vulcanization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The topics discussed are radiation graft polymerization; industrial application of radiation grafting - ion exchange membrane for a battery separator, ammonia adsorbent, non-flammable PE (polyethylene) foam; R and D on radiation grafting, radiation vulcanization of natural rubber

  20. Fat contamination of pericardial suction blood in cardiac surgery : clinical and experimental studies in perspectives of transfusion logistics

    OpenAIRE

    Appelblad, Micael

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: During cardiac surgery aided by cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) the autotransfusion of pericardial suction blood (PSB) is regarded mandatory to limit allogeneic blood exposure. PSB is however proposed as a source of lipid microemboli and to contribute to brain damage. This thesis addresses the logistics of allogeneic blood transfusion during coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), the embolic potential of reinfused PSB, and means to reduce PSB fat contamination, investigated both c...

  1. Dynamic, Nondestructive Imaging of a Bioengineered Vascular Graft Endothelium

    OpenAIRE

    WHITED, BRYCE M.; Hofmann, Matthias C.; Lu, Peng; XU, YONG; Rylander, Christopher G.; WANG, GE; Sapoznik, Etai; Criswell, Tracy; Lee, Sang Jin; Soker, Shay; Rylander, Marissa Nichole

    2013-01-01

    Bioengineering of vascular grafts holds great potential to address the shortcomings associated with autologous and conventional synthetic vascular grafts used for small diameter grafting procedures. Lumen endothelialization of bioengineered vascular grafts is essential to provide an antithrombogenic graft surface to ensure long-term patency after implantation. Conventional methods used to assess endothelialization in vitro typically involve periodic harvesting of the graft for histological se...

  2. Influence of ischemia before vein grafting on early hyperplasia of the graft and the dynamic changes of the intima after grafting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zou RongJiang

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To investigate both the influence of ischemia before grafting on early hyperplasia of the vein grafts, and the dynamic changes of the intima after grafting in a rabbit model of vein graft disease. Methods We performed paired vein graft experiments under different ischemic conditions (15 vs. 60 min; 15 vs. 90 min in the neck of the rabbits and compared the differences between the grafts. Clopidogrel, an anti-platelet agent, was administered before and after surgery. Twenty-eight days after the grafting procedure, the veins were evaluated microscopically. The dynamic changes of the intima after grafting were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy over time. Results The vein grafts subjected to 60- or 90-min ischemia exhibited no differences compared to those subjected to 15-min ischemia in terms of the mean thickness of the intimal, medial, and adventitial layers of the graft. Similarly, there was no difference in the Ki-67 labeling index (proliferation marker between the vein grafts. Vein grafts with 15-min ischemia lost endothelial cells (ECs but healed by 3 days post graft, whereas vein grafts with 90-min ischemia suffered serious EC loss, which was restored with new ECs during days 2 to 14 post graft. Conclusions Ninety-minute ischemia before vein grafting can cause serious EC loss, but does not increase early intimal hyperplasia when clopidogrel is administered. Protecting the vein from ischemia and reperfusion injury preserves ECs.

  3. Design and development of multilayer vascular graft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhavan, Krishna

    2011-07-01

    Vascular graft is a widely-used medical device for the treatment of vascular diseases such as atherosclerosis and aneurysm as well as for the use of vascular access and pediatric shunt, which are major causes of mortality and morbidity in this world. Dysfunction of vascular grafts often occurs, particularly for grafts with diameter less than 6mm, and is associated with the design of graft materials. Mechanical strength, compliance, permeability, endothelialization and availability are issues of most concern for vascular graft materials. To address these issues, we have designed a biodegradable, compliant graft made of hybrid multilayer by combining an intimal equivalent, electrospun heparin-impregnated poly-epsilon-caprolactone nanofibers, with a medial equivalent, a crosslinked collagen-chitosan-based gel scaffold. The intimal equivalent is designed to build mechanical strength and stability suitable for in vivo grafting and to prevent thrombosis. The medial equivalent is designed to serve as a scaffold for the activity of the smooth muscle cells important for vascular healing and regeneration. Our results have shown that genipin is a biocompatible crosslinker to enhance the mechanical properties of collagen-chitosan based scaffolds, and the degradation time and the activity of smooth muscle cells in the scaffold can be modulated by the crosslinking degree. For vascular grafting and regeneration in vivo, an important design parameter of the hybrid multilayer is the interface adhesion between the intimal and medial equivalents. With diametrically opposite affinities to water, delamination of the two layers occurs. Physical or chemical modification techniques were thus used to enhance the adhesion. Microscopic examination and graft-relevant functional characterizations have been performed to evaluate these techniques. Results from characterization of microstructure and functional properties, including burst strength, compliance, water permeability and suture strength, showed that the multilayer graft possessed properties mimicking those of native vessels. Achieving these FDA-required functional properties is essential because they play critical roles in graft performances in vivo such as thrombus formation, occlusion, healing, and bleeding. In addition, cell studies and animal studies have been performed on the multilayer graft. Our results show that the multilayer graft support mimetic vascular culture of cells and the acellular graft serves as an artery equivalent in vivo to sustain the physiological conditions and promote appropriate cellular activity. In conclusion, the newly-developed hybrid multilayer graft provides a proper balance of biomechanical and biochemical properties and demonstrates the potential for the use of vascular tissue engineering and regeneration.

  4. Improvement of polymer stability by radiation grafting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Losses of the stabilizer due to extractability or volatility immediately affect ultimate performance of polymer product. A new approach to increase the persistence of the stabilizer in the final product is to chemically bind it to the polymer backbone. Radiation grafting or crosslinking could be an efficient method for this, when the stabilizer is polymerizable. By a mutual gamma irradiation method, photoprotector 2-hydroxy-4-(3-methacryloxy-2- hydroxy-propoxy) benzophenone (HMB) has been readily grafted to low density polyethylene (LDPE) in benzene, tetrahydrofuran and methanol solution, respectively. Surface grafting occurs in a methanol solution of stabilizer, while in benzene and tetrahydrofuran solutions of stabilizer, grafting proceeds more or less in the inner parts of the polymeric film as well. The grafted LDPE film in methanol and tetrahydrofuran (containing 1 w/w % of grafted HMB), 1 w/w % blended HMB with LDPE and nongrafted LDPE film, were all exposed to accelerated aging and natural weathering and their spectral changes, expressed by the carbonyl index, were then compared. The change of elongation at break and tensile strength were measured in the course of aging. UV stability tests on aged films and change in mechanical properties indicate a pronounced protective effect achieved by grafted stabilizer. Grafting in methanol solution appears to be an efficient photostabilization treatment and the most economical with respect to the consumption of monomer, the grafting yield being less than 0.5%. Surface grafting is an efficient photostabilization method since grafted stabilizer is chemically bound to a polymeric surface and in this way the problem of evaporation of blended stabilizers during the prolonged use of polymeric materials is eliminated. (author)

  5. Nanotribological study of grafted polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouhacina, T.; Aimé, J. P.; Attias, A. J.

    1998-06-01

    The frictional forces between grafted layers, organosilanes and polymer, on silica and a nanotip have been investigated as a function of the tip velocity. From the interpretation of these results and one gets a step forward for more quantitative information. Les forces de friction entre des couches greffées sur silice et une nanopointe ont été étudiées en fonction de la vitesse de la pointe. À partir de l'interprétation de ces résultats on s'avance vers plus d'infor mations quantitatives.

  6. Mouse models for graft arteriosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Lingfeng; Yu, Luyang; Min, Wang

    2013-01-01

    Graft arteriosclerois (GA), also called allograft vasculopathy, is a pathologic lesion that develops over months to years in transplanted organs characterized by diffuse, circumferential stenosis of the entire graft vascular tree. The most critical component of GA pathogenesis is the proliferation of smooth muscle-like cells within the intima. When a human coronary artery segment is interposed into the infra-renal aortae of immunodeficient mice, the intimas could be expand in response to adoptively transferred human T cells allogeneic to the artery donor or exogenous human IFN-? in the absence of human T cells. Interposition of a mouse aorta from one strain into another mouse strain recipient is limited as a model for chronic rejection in humans because the acute cell-mediated rejection response in this mouse model completely eliminates all donor-derived vascular cells from the graft within two-three weeks. We have recently developed two new mouse models to circumvent these problems. The first model involves interposition of a vessel segment from a male mouse into a female recipient of the same inbred strain (C57BL/6J). Graft rejection in this case is directed only against minor histocompatibility antigens encoded by the Y chromosome (present in the male but not the female) and the rejection response that ensues is sufficiently indolent to preserve donor-derived smooth muscle cells for several weeks. The second model involves interposing an artery segment from a wild type C57BL/6J mouse donor into a host mouse of the same strain and gender that lacks the receptor for IFN-? followed by administration of mouse IFN-? (delivered via infection of the mouse liver with an adenoviral vector. There is no rejection in this case as both donor and recipient mice are of the same strain and gender but donor smooth muscle cells proliferate in response to the cytokine while host-derived cells, lacking receptor for this cytokine, are unresponsive. By backcrossing additional genetic changes into the vessel donor, both models can be used to assess the effect of specific genes on GA progression. Here, we describe detailed protocols for our mouse GA models. PMID:23712086

  7. Lymphoid Tissue Grafts in Man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grafts of lymphoid tissue or of lymphoid stem cells may be appropriate in the treatment of some congenital immune deficiency disorders. The reasons for preferring tissues of foetal origin are discussed and the evidence for foetal immunocompetence is briefly summarized. Methods of storing foetal liver cells and cells or fragments of thymus are mentioned, and the organization of the Foetal Tissue Bank of the Royal Marsden Hospital is described. Clinical data from transplantation of lymphoid cells in various immune deficiency disorders are briefly presented. (author)

  8. Body fat, abdominal fat and body fat distribution related to cardiovascular risk factors in prepubertal children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, Magnus; Wollmer, Per

    2012-01-01

    Aim:? We analysed whether total body fat (TBF), abdominal fat and body fat distribution are associated with higher composite risk factor scores for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in young children. Methods:? Cross-sectional study of 238 children aged 8-11?years. TBF and abdominal fat mass (AFM) were measured by Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry. TBF was expressed as a percentage of body weight (BF%). Body fat distribution was calculated as AFM/TBF. Maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2PEAK) ), systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP), and resting heart rate (RHR) were measured. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) and pulse pressure (PP) were calculated. Left atrial diameter (LA) was measured, and left ventricular mass (LVM) and relative wall thickness (RWT) were calculated. Z-scores were calculated. Sum of z-scores for SBP, DBP, MAP, PP, RHR, LVM, LA, RWT and -VO(2PEAK) was calculated in boys and girls, separately, and used as composite risk factor score. Results:? Pearson correlations between ln BF%, ln AFM and AFM/TBF versus composite risk factor score for boys were r?=?0.56, r?=?0.59 and r?=?0.48, all p?

  9. Graft polymerization of glycidylmethacrylate onto coralline hydroxyapatite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugan, R; Panduranga Rao, K

    2003-01-01

    Graft polymerization of glycidylmethacrylate (GMA) onto coralline hydroxyapatite (CHA) was carried out using potassium persulfate (K2S2O8) and sodium metabisulfite (Na2S2O5) as initiators in aqueous medium. To optimize the reaction conditions for getting maximum grafting yield, the concentrations of backbone, monomer, initiator, temperature and time were varied. The percent grafting was found to increase initially and then gradually decrease with respect to reaction parameters. The results obtained imply that the optimum temperature and time was 60 degrees C and 180 min, respectively, to obtain higher grafting yield. The grafting results have been discussed and a mechanism involved in the grafting of GMA onto CHA is described. The grafted materials were analyzed with Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements. The results of FT-IR confirmed the presence of epoxy group on the grafted CHA. The XRD pattern showed that there was no secondary phase in the apatite lattice due to chemical modification. PMID:12807147

  10. Radiation graft modification of EPDM rubber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katbab, A. A.; Burford, R. P.; Garnett, J. L.

    N-Vinyl pyrrolidone (NVP), 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate (HEMA) and acrylamide (AAm) have been grafted to the surface of rubber vulcanizates based on ethylene-propylene-terpolymer (EPDM) using the simultaneous radiation method to alter surface properties such as wettability and therefore biocompatibility. The effect of monomer concentration, solvent and EPDM structural factors on the grafting behavior have been investigated. The inhibitory effect upon homopolymerization of various salts has also been evaluated for the three monomers. NVP and HEMA could be grafted onto EPDM rubber in the presence of aqueous solutions of cupric nitrate at 0.005 M and 1.0 M concentrations respectively. Aqueous solutions of Mohr's salt (ammonium ferrous sulphate) at 0.05 M not only suppressed the homopolymerization of AAm but also increased grafting yield. The percentage grafting also increased with increasing AAm concentration. A mechanism has been proposed to explain the behaviour of these monomers. The inclusion of multifunctional acrylates in additive amounts (1.0 vol%) enhanced the graft degree. Modified samples were able to be efficiently stained, allowing the depth of the graft copolymerization to be determined by light microscopy. Water was found to have an accelerating effect on the polymerization of these monomers, but methanol prevented their polymerization completely. The effect of EPDM structural factors upon degree of grafting was found to vary, depending upon the monomer type.

  11. Emerging concepts in liver graft preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejaoui, Mohamed; Pantazi, Eirini; Folch-Puy, Emma; Baptista, Pedro M; García-Gil, Agustín; Adam, René; Roselló-Catafau, Joan

    2015-01-14

    The urgent need to expand the donor pool in order to attend to the growing demand for liver transplantation has obliged physicians to consider the use of suboptimal liver grafts and also to redefine the preservation strategies. This review examines the different methods of liver graft preservation, focusing on the latest advances in both static cold storage and machine perfusion (MP). The new strategies for static cold storage are mainly designed to increase the fatty liver graft preservation via the supplementation of commercial organ preservation solutions with additives. In this paper we stress the importance of carrying out effective graft washout after static cold preservation, and present a detailed discussion of the future perspectives for dynamic graft preservation using MP at different temperatures (hypothermia at 4?°C, normothermia at 37?°C and subnormothermia at 20?°C-25?°C). Finally, we highlight some emerging applications of regenerative medicine in liver graft preservation. In conclusion, this review discusses the "state of the art" and future perspectives in static and dynamic liver graft preservation in order to improve graft viability. PMID:25593455

  12. Emerging concepts in liver graft preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejaoui, Mohamed; Pantazi, Eirini; Folch-Puy, Emma; Baptista, Pedro M; García-Gil, Agustín; Adam, René; Roselló-Catafau, Joan

    2015-01-01

    The urgent need to expand the donor pool in order to attend to the growing demand for liver transplantation has obliged physicians to consider the use of suboptimal liver grafts and also to redefine the preservation strategies. This review examines the different methods of liver graft preservation, focusing on the latest advances in both static cold storage and machine perfusion (MP). The new strategies for static cold storage are mainly designed to increase the fatty liver graft preservation via the supplementation of commercial organ preservation solutions with additives. In this paper we stress the importance of carrying out effective graft washout after static cold preservation, and present a detailed discussion of the future perspectives for dynamic graft preservation using MP at different temperatures (hypothermia at 4?°C, normothermia at 37?°C and subnormothermia at 20?°C-25?°C). Finally, we highlight some emerging applications of regenerative medicine in liver graft preservation. In conclusion, this review discusses the “state of the art” and future perspectives in static and dynamic liver graft preservation in order to improve graft viability. PMID:25593455

  13. Grafting of styrene onto fluoropolymers films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geraldes, Adriana N.; Zen, Heloisa A.; Parra, Duclerc F.; Lugao, Ademar B.; Linardi, Marcelo [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Quimica e Meio Ambiente], E-mail: angeral@ipen.br

    2007-07-01

    Grafting of styrene onto poly(vinylidenefluoride) (PVDF) and poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) films was studied for the synthesis of ion exchange membranes. Radiation-induced grafting of styrene onto PVDF and PTFE films was investigated by simultaneous method using a Co{sup 60} source. The films of PVDF and PTFE were irradiated at total dose of 20 to 120 kGy and chemical changes were monitored after contact with styrene. Films of PTFE and PVDF were immersed in styrene/toluene 1:1 and were submitted to gamma radiation. After irradiation the samples were evaluated at periods of 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days, at room temperature in order to measure the grafting degree. Results of infrared spectroscopic analysis (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetry analysis (TGA) and the degree of grafting (DOG) were evaluated. The characterization techniques showed that irradiated PVDF and PTFE films exhibited a much higher grafting degree at 120 kGy. (author)

  14. Grafting of styrene onto fluoropolymers films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grafting of styrene onto poly(vinylidenefluoride) (PVDF) and poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) films was studied for the synthesis of ion exchange membranes. Radiation-induced grafting of styrene onto PVDF and PTFE films was investigated by simultaneous method using a Co60 source. The films of PVDF and PTFE were irradiated at total dose of 20 to 120 kGy and chemical changes were monitored after contact with styrene. Films of PTFE and PVDF were immersed in styrene/toluene 1:1 and were submitted to gamma radiation. After irradiation the samples were evaluated at periods of 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days, at room temperature in order to measure the grafting degree. Results of infrared spectroscopic analysis (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetry analysis (TGA) and the degree of grafting (DOG) were evaluated. The characterization techniques showed that irradiated PVDF and PTFE films exhibited a much higher grafting degree at 120 kGy. (author)

  15. Pathogenesis of cardiac graft failure in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Lin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available For many critical cardiac conditions such as cardio-myopathy, congenital heart defects, or arrhythmogenic disorders, cardiac transplantation is often an accepted treatment with optimistic one- and five-year survival rates of 90% and 75% in the pediatric patient population, respectively. However, poor long-term survival is a cause for concern, with cardiac graft failure being the leading cause in late mortality transplant recipients. Cardiac graft failure occurs through several mechanisms. However, the most common causes include cardiac allograft vasculopathy, myocardial fibrosis, and fibrofatty changes. Risk factors exacerbate these mechanisms through rejection, immunosuppressive drug side effects, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, renal dysfunction, and viral infection to increase the chance of cardiac graft failure. Changes in expression levels of various genes offer diagnostic potential for the future of cardiac transplantation. Through a comprehensive review of how multiple factors can lead a cardiac graft into failure, we hope to contribute to the longevity of cardiac grafts and pediatric heart transplant recipients.

  16. Graft healing in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Chih-Hwa

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Successful anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with a tendon graft necessitates solid healing of the tendon graft in the bone tunnel. Improvement of graft healing to bone is crucial for facilitating an early and aggressive rehabilitation and ensuring rapid return to pre-injury levels activity. Tendon graft healing in a bone tunnel requires bone ingrowth into the tendon. Indirect Sharpey fiber formation and direct fibrocartilage fixation confer different anchorage strength and interface properties at the tendon-bone interface. For enhancing tendon graft-to-bone healing, we introduce a strategy that includes the use of periosteum, hydrogel supplemented with periosteal progenitor cells and bone morphogenetic protein-2, and a periosteal progenitor cell sheet. Future studies include the use of cytokines, gene therapy, stem cells, platelet-rich plasma, and mechanical stress for tendon-to-bone healing. These strategies are currently under investigation, and will be applied in the clinical setting in the near future.

  17. Graft transformation in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: We have obtained various graft-induced changes and clarified the genetic nature mainly in solanaceous plants, such as red pepper, eggplant, tomato and in soybean. From the similarity of genetic behaviour of the graft-induced changes with that of DNA-mediated transformation in higher organisms, we speculate transformational matter as a probable mechanism of the graft-induced change. In order to check the relationship between transformation and graft-induced change, a graft experiment was performed, in which the transgenic tobacco plant having bacterial KmR gene closely linked with Nos gene was used as stock plant. The genetic behaviour and fate of the bacterial genes derived from the stock plant were pursued in the progenies from the scion capsules of normal tobacco. (author)

  18. FTO gene associated fatness in relation to body fat distribution and metabolic traits throughout a broad range of fatness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kring, Sofia I I; Holst, Claus

    2008-01-01

    A common single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of FTO (rs9939609, T/A) is associated with total body fatness. We investigated the association of this SNP with abdominal and peripheral fatness and obesity-related metabolic traits in middle-aged men through a broad range of fatness present already in adolescence.

  19. Differentiation of lard, chicken fat, beef fat and mutton fat by GCMS and EA-IRMS techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad Nizar, Nina Naquiah; Nazrim Marikkar, Jalaldeen Mohamed; Hashim, Dzulkifly Mat

    2013-01-01

    A study was conducted to differentiate lard, chicken fat, beef fat and mutton fat using Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) and Elemental Analyzer-Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (EA-IRMS). The comparison of overall fatty acid data showed that lard and chicken fat share common characteristics by having palmitic, oleic and linoleic acid as major fatty acids while beef and mutton fats shared common characteristics by possessing palmitic, stearic and oleic acid as major fatty acids. The direct comparisons among the fatty acid data, therefore, may not be suitable for discrimination of different animal fats. When the fatty acid distributional data was subjected to Principle Component Analysis (PCA), it was demonstrated that stearic, oleic and linoleic acids as the most discriminating parameters in the clustering of animal fats into four subclasses. The bulk carbon analysis of animal fats using EA-IRMS showed that determination of the carbon isotope ratios (?¹³C) would be a good indicator for discriminating lard, chicken fat, beef fat and mutton fat. This would lead to a faster and more efficient method to ascertain the source of origin of fats used in food products. PMID:23823911

  20. FDA Cuts Trans Fat in Processed Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page Home For Consumers Consumer Updates FDA Cuts Trans Fat in Processed Foods Search the Consumer Updates ... certain partially hydrogenated oils. back to top About Trans Fat and PHOs PHOs, the primary source of ...

  1. BIOPROCESSING OF FATS AND OILS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The modification of fats and oils and their co-products for added value is a major theme of lipid research. Biotechnological processes often are favored for their mild reaction conditions and low environmental impact and sometimes are the only practical routes to desired products. For example, lip...

  2. Luteinized fat in Krukenberg tumor: MR findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To our knowledge, there is no description of the fat-containing Krukenberg tumor. We report on a case of Krukenberg tumor associated with luteinized fat, which showed hyperintensity on T1-weighted MR image. The diagnosis was surgically confirmed. Hyperintense portion of the Krukenberg tumor on T1-weighted image showed diminished signal intensity on fat-saturated, T1-weighted images. Krukenberg tumor should be considered in the differential diagnosis of ovarian masses when fat signal is seen. (orig.)

  3. Inflorescence stem grafting made easy in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisar Nazia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plant grafting techniques have deepened our understanding of the signals facilitating communication between the root and shoot, as well as between shoot and reproductive organs. Transmissible signalling molecules can include hormones, peptides, proteins and metabolites: some of which travel long distances to communicate stress, nutrient status, disease and developmental events. While hypocotyl micrografting techniques have been successfully established for Arabidopsis to explore root to shoot communications, inflorescence grafting in Arabidopsis has not been exploited to the same extent. Two different strategies (horizontal and wedge-style inflorescence grafting have been developed to explore long distance signalling between the shoot and reproductive organs. We developed a robust wedge-cleft grafting method, with success rates greater than 87%, by developing better tissue contact between the stems from the inflorescence scion and rootstock. We describe how to perform a successful inflorescence stem graft that allows for reproducible translocation experiments into the physiological, developmental and molecular aspects of long distance signalling events that promote reproduction. Results Wedge grafts of the Arabidopsis inflorescence stem were supported with silicone tubing and further sealed with parafilm to maintain the vascular flow of nutrients to the shoot and reproductive tissues. Nearly all (87% grafted plants formed a strong union between the scion and rootstock. The success of grafting was scored using an inflorescence growth assay based upon the growth of primary stem. Repeated pruning produced new cauline tissues, healthy flowers and reproductive siliques, which indicates a healthy flow of nutrients from the rootstock. Removal of the silicone tubing showed a tightly fused wedge graft junction with callus proliferation. Histological staining of sections through the graft junction demonstrated the differentiation of newly formed vascular connections, parenchyma tissue and lignin accumulation, supporting the presumed success of the graft union between two sections of the primary inflorescence stem. Conclusions We describe a simple and reliable method for grafting sections of an Arabidopsis inflorescence stem. This step-by-step protocol facilitates laboratories without grafting experience to further explore the molecular and chemical signalling which coordinates communications between the shoot and reproductive tissues.

  4. Design and Implementation of Log Structured FAT and ExFAT File Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Keshava Munegowda; Raju, Dr G. T.; Veera Maninkandanraju

    2014-01-01

    The File Allocation Table (FAT) file system is supported in multiple Operating Systems (OS). Hence, FAT file system is universal exchange format for files/directories used in Solid State Drives (SSD) and Hard disk Drives (HDD). The Microsoft Corporation introduced the new file system called Extended FAT file system (ExFAT) to support larger size storage devices. The ExFAT file system is optimized to use with SSDs. But, Both FAT and ExFAT are not power fail safe. This means that the uncontroll...

  5. Pancreaticoportal Fistula and Disseminated Fat Necrosis After Revision of a Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 59-year old man with alcohol related cirrhosis and portal hypertension was referred for transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) to treat his refractory ascites. Ten years later, two sequential TIPS revisions were performed for shunt stenosis and recurrent ascites. After these revisions, he returned with increased serum pancreatic enzyme levels and disseminated superficial fat necrosis; an iatrogenic pancreaticoportal vein fistula caused by disruption of the pancreatic duct was suspected. The bare area of the TIPS was subsequently lined with a covered stent-graft, and serum enzyme levels returned to baseline. In the interval follow-up period, the patient has clinically improved.

  6. Pancreaticoportal Fistula and Disseminated Fat Necrosis After Revision of a Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, Seth J., E-mail: kleins@mir.wustl.edu; Saad, Nael [Washington University School of Medicine, Interventional Radiology Section, Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology (United States); Korenblat, Kevin [Washington University School of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Internal Medicine (United States); Darcy, Michael D. [Washington University School of Medicine, Interventional Radiology Section, Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology (United States)

    2013-04-15

    A 59-year old man with alcohol related cirrhosis and portal hypertension was referred for transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) to treat his refractory ascites. Ten years later, two sequential TIPS revisions were performed for shunt stenosis and recurrent ascites. After these revisions, he returned with increased serum pancreatic enzyme levels and disseminated superficial fat necrosis; an iatrogenic pancreaticoportal vein fistula caused by disruption of the pancreatic duct was suspected. The bare area of the TIPS was subsequently lined with a covered stent-graft, and serum enzyme levels returned to baseline. In the interval follow-up period, the patient has clinically improved.

  7. Fat absorption and deposition in Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) fed a high fat diet

    OpenAIRE

    Magubane, Mhlengi M.; Lembede, Busisani W.; Erlwanger, Kennedy H.; Eliton Chivandi; Janine Donaldson

    2013-01-01

    Dietary fat contributes significantly to the energy requirements of poultry. Not all species are able to increase their absorptive capacity for fats in response to a high fat diet. The effects of a high fat diet (10% canola oil) on the lipid absorption and deposition in the liver, breast and thigh muscles of male and female Japanese quail were investigated. Thirty-eight Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) were randomly divided into a high fat diet (HFD) and a standard diet (STD) group...

  8. Aneurysm formation in arteriovenous grafts: associations and clinical significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siedlecki, Andrew; Barker, Jill; Allon, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Aneurysms are a common complication of arteriovenous grafts in hemodialysis patients, resulting from repetitive needle sticks in the graft material. Although aneurysms are thought to contribute to graft failure, there are no prospective studies evaluating their risk factors or impact on graft survival. The present study evaluated aneurysms in 117 hemodialysis outpatients with upper extremity grafts at a university-affiliated dialysis center. An arterial aneurysm was defined as a cannulation site defect diameter (difference between arterial cannulation site diameter and normal graft diameter) above the median value for the study population (0.63 cm). Subsequent graft outcomes were determined by retrospective analysis of a prospective vascular access database. Thrombosis-free graft survival was compared among patient subgroups using Cox proportional hazards models. Patients with an arterial aneurysm had significantly longer median graft age, when compared with those not having a aneurysm (888 vs. 588 days, p = 0.01). However, the two groups did not differ in patient age, sex, diabetes, body mass index, or graft location. The hazard ratio for graft thrombosis was 0.45 (95% confidence interval, 0.25-0.82, p = 0.009) for grafts with an arterial aneurysm, when compared with those without a defect (1-year graft survival of 71 vs. 50%). Graft age was not associated with the likelihood of graft thrombosis (p = 0.12). In contrast to the prevailing wisdom, arterial aneurysms are associated with improved graft survival. PMID:17244126

  9. Radiation grafting of hydrophilic monomers onto ethylene-propylene rubber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graft copolymerization of hydrophilic monomers onto thin plates of ethylene-propylene rubber by the direct irradiation method was carried out. Experimental conditions ensuring a surface grafting reaction were ascertained. Slices of the grafted samples were analyzed by IR absorption spectroscopy and the distribution of the grafted chains across the plate thickness was evaluated. (author)

  10. Radiation grafting of hydrophilic monomers onto ethylene-propylene rubber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graft copolymerization of hydrophilic monomers onto thin plates of ethylene-propylene rubber by direct irradiation method was carried out. Experimental conditions ensuring a surface grafting reaction were ascertained. Slices of the grafted samples were analyzed by IR absorption spectroscopy and the distribution of the grafted chains across the plate thickness was evaluated. (Author)

  11. A reappraisal of saphenous vein grafting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Shi-Min

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Autologous saphenous vein grafting has been broadly used as a bypass conduit, interposition graft, and patch graft in a variety of operations in cardiac, thoracic, neurovascular, general vascular, vascular access, and urology surgeries, since they are superior to prosthetic veins. Modified saphenous vein grafts (SVG, including spiral and cylindrical grafts, and vein cuffs or patches, are employed in vascular revascularization to satisfy the large size of the receipt vessels or to obtain a better patency. A loop SVG helps flap survival in a muscle flap transfer in plastic and reconstructive surgery. For dialysis or transfusion purposes, a straight or loop arteriovenous fistula created in the forearm or the thigh with an SVG has acceptable patency. The saphenous vein has even been used as a stent cover to minimize the potential complications of standard angioplasty technique. However, the use of saphenous vein grafting is now largely diminished in treating cerebrovascular disorders, superior vena cava syndrome, and visceral revascularization due to the introduction of angioplasty and stenting techniques. The SVG remains the preferable biomaterial in coronary artery bypass, coronary ostioplasty, free flap transfer, and surgical treatment of Peyronie disease. Implications associated with saphenous vein grafting in vascular access surgery for the purpose of dialysis and chemotherapy are considerable. Vascular cuffs and patches have been developed as an important and effective means of enhancing the patency rates of the grafts by linking the synthetic material to the receipt vessel. In addition, saphenous veins can be a cell source for tissue engineering. We review the versatile roles that saphenous vein grafting has played as well as its current status in therapy.

  12. Multi-stage grafting and simultaneous co-grafting of acrylic acid and vinyl pyrrolidone onto polyethylene induced by ?-ray irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies on multi-stage grafting or simultaneous co-grafting of acrylic acid and vinyl pyrrolidone onto polyethylene have been carried out in an attempt to introduce different functional groups into polymers in some ordered states. In the multi-stage grafting, time conversion curves of grafting and graft percent of the second stage depend on the order of monomer to be grafted, and on graft percent of the first-stage grafting. In simultaneous co-grafting, time conversion curves of grafting reaction and graft percent of each monomer depend on monomer ratio in the solution. Effect of graft percent on electric resistance across the grafted film was also found to depend on the mode of multi-stage grafting or simultaneous co-grafting. Results of some trial experiments to establish the grafting conditions are also described. (author)

  13. [Metabolic difference between visceral fat and subcutaneous abdominal fat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björntorp, P

    2000-06-01

    Obesity stands as a public health issue. Obesity prevalence is increasing throughout every industrialized country. Android obesity is linked with an increased cardiovascular mortality and with type 2 diabetes mellitis, thus calling for an early management of this disease. Several studies showed a significant association between an android fat distribution and an increased cortisol secretion, raising the still debated question of a causal relationship between the development of android obesity and hypercorticism. Moreover, android obese subjects exhibit reduced plasma testosterone and growth hormone levels, meaning complex hormonal abnormalities in these subjects. Current hypotheses suggest that android fat distribution depends on the association of these hormonal abnormalities. Android obese patients have supranormal free fatty acid plasma concentrations. Visceral fat tissue, through its portal drainage, could be an important source for free fatty acids that may exert complex metabolic effects: involvement in hepatic lipogenesis, increase in hepatic neoglucogenic flux, reduction in insulin metabolic clearance and involvement in peripheral insulin resistance through a competition mechanism described by Randle. Technics in vitro (isolated adipocytes) and in vivo in human (labelled fatty acid flux) showed that visceral fatty acid flux was increased in obese patients and subcutaneous adipose tissue, as opposed to common opinion, was also involved in free fatty acid pool in obese patients. Thus, visceral obesity and diabetes could be linked through an enhanced fatty acid availability from adipose tissues (visceral and subcutaneous) in otherwise genetically type 2 diabetes-prone individuals. PMID:10945144

  14. Graft failure versus graft fixation in ACL reconstruction: histological and immunohistochemical studies in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Shan-Ling; Wang, Ching-Jen

    2013-09-01

    The causes of graft failure after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction are multifactorial including the methods of graft fixation. The purpose of this study was to examine the ACL graft failure in three different methods of graft fixations including interference screw fixation, suture-post fixation and combined interference screw and suture-post fixation. We hypothesized that the fixation method after ACL reconstruction can affect the graft healing in tibial tunnel. Eighteen New Zealand white rabbits were categorized into three groups according to the method of fixation in unilateral ACL reconstruction with long digital extensor autograft. Histological examination demonstrated that the combined fixation and suture-post fixation groups showed significantly better integration between tendon and bone (P = 0.04). In immunohistochemical analysis, the combined fixation and suture-post fixation groups showed significantly higher BMP-2 and VEGF expressions than interference screw (P micromotion and improved the graft healing in tibial tunnel. PMID:23793478

  15. Low fat meat products - An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Naga Mallika

    Full Text Available Meat is an excellent source of valuable nutrients. Meat fat acts as a reservoir for flavor compounds and contributes to the texture of product. There are diverse possible strategies for developing low fat meat and meat products. Reducing the fat content in products leads to a firmer, rubbery, less juicy product with dark color and more cost. Other technological problems like reduction in particle binding, reduced cook yields, soft and mushy interiors, rubbery skin formation, excessive purge and shortened shelf life are also associated with reduction in fat levels. This paper describes Procedured of reducing fat content, Selection of additives, Protein, Carbohydrat and fat based fat replacer and Super critical fluid extraction. [Vet World 2009; 2(9.000: 364-366

  16. Preparation of poly(vinylbenzyl chloride)-grafted PFA film by a simultaneous irradiation grafting method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, PFA-g-PVBC films were prepared by a radiation grafting of vinylbenzyl chloride (VBC) monomer onto poly(tetrafluoroethylene-co-perfluoro propyl vinyl ether) (PFA) films by simultaneous irradiation method. IR, TGA, and SEM-EDX instruments were utilized to confirm the successful preparation of the grafted film. The effects of several irradiation conditions, including the dose, VBC concentration, and film thickness on the degree of grafting of PFA-g-PVBC film were investigated

  17. Graft copolymerization of acrylonitrile onto polypropylene membrane by preirradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A porous, graft copolymer and amidoxime group containing membrane were prepared by radiation graft copolymerization of acrylonitrile onto porous polypropylene. In order to calculate the grafting and amidoxime ratios of porous polypropylene-acrylonitrile graft copolymer. We have done CHN elemental analysis. It is obtained the result that grafting rate is increased to linear and value was about 75 percent at 20 Mrad dose rate. (Author)

  18. Graft Rejection and Graft Failure After Penetrating Keratoplasty or Posterior Lamellar Keratoplasty for Fuchs Endothelial Dystrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortdal, Jesper; Pedersen, Iben B

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE:: To compare the frequency of rejection episodes and graft failure because of surgical complications or rejection after Descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK) and penetrating keratoplasty (PK) for Fuchs endothelial dystrophy. METHODS:: A total of 201 eyes of 201 consecutive patients with Fuchs endothelial dystrophy undergoing keratoplasty were included. One hundred two patients underwent DSAEK and 99 PK in the period January 1, 2000, to December 31, 2010. Postoperative topical steroid treatment was similar in the 2 groups. Most patients in the PK group received a short course of oral prednisolone, which was not prescribed for patients undergoing DSAEK. Patient records were retrospectively reviewed; rejection episodes and causes of graft failures were recorded, and Kaplan-Meier survival curves up to 5 years after surgery were computed and compared. RESULTS:: All rejection episodes and most graft failures occurred during the first 2 years after surgery. In this period, rejection episodes were noted in 16% of PK and in 5% of DSAEK-treated eyes (P = 0.03). During the first 5 years, significantly more DSAEK grafts than PK grafts had failed (P = 0.04) but only 2 PK-treated and no DSAEK-treated grafts failed because of rejection. CONCLUSION:: The frequency of graft rejection episodes is higher after PK than DSAEK for primary endothelial disease, despite the use of oral prednisolone in the PK group. Early graft failure is more common after DSAEK than after PK, whereas graft failure because of previous rejection episodes is uncommon after DSAEK and PK.

  19. Effect of monomer concentration on the degree of grafting and mechanical properties of grafted rubber film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of concentration of monomer on the properties of grafted rubber film was studied. =rays obtained from Co-60 source were used as initiator for grafting. For this purpose latex concentration was kept constant. The mechanical properties of grafted rubber films like tensile strength, modulus, tear strength and elongation at break were determined. Tensile strength attains maximum at 50 phr (parts per hundred rubber) concentration of monomer and after this concentration it remains almost unchanged. On the other hand tear strength and modulus increase with increase in concentration of monomer but elongation at break decreases. The conversion of monomer to polymers and degree of grafting were also determined. (author)

  20. Playing with bone and fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimble, Jeffrey M.; Zvonic, Sanjin

    2006-01-01

    The relationship between bone and fat formation within the bone marrow microenvironment is complex and remains an area of active investigation. Classical in vitro and in vivo studies strongly support an inverse relationship between the commitment of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells or stromal cells to the adipocyte and osteoblast lineage pathways. In this review, we focus on the recent literature exploring the mechanisms underlying these differentiation events and discuss their implications relevant to osteoporosis and regenerative medicine.

  1. Effect of different grafting methods for absorption, translocation and distribution of 59Fe in apple trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The test result with 59Fe demonstrate that the iron content in leaves by belly grafting is higher than that by cleft grafting and cutting grafting, and the content of chlorophyll in leaves and height and diameter of apple seedling by belly grafting is larger than cleft grafting and cutting grafting too. It is important to replace cleft grafting and cutting grafting with belly grafting as a method of top-working to correct chlorosis and improve growth of new cultivar

  2. Design and Implementation of Log Structured FAT and ExFAT File Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keshava Munegowda

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The File Allocation Table (FAT file system is supported in multiple Operating Systems (OS. Hence, FAT file system is universal exchange format for files/directories used in Solid State Drives (SSD and Hard disk Drives (HDD. The Microsoft Corporation introduced the new file system called Extended FAT file system (ExFAT to support larger size storage devices. The ExFAT file system is optimized to use with SSDs. But, Both FAT and ExFAT are not power fail safe. This means that the uncontrolled power loss or abrupt storage device removable from the computer system, during file system update, causes corruption of file system meta data and hence it leads to loss of data in storage device. This paper implements the Logging and Committing features to FAT and ExFAT file systems and ensures that the file system meta data is consistent across the abrupt power loss or device removal from the computer system.

  3. Biotin grafting on boron-doped diamond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delabouglise, Didier; Marcus, Bernadette; Mermoux, Michel; Bouvier, Pierre; Chane-Tune, Jérôme; Petit, Jean-Pierre; Mailley, Pascal; Livache, Thierry

    2003-11-01

    Grafting of biotin on top of a polycrystalline boron-doped diamond layer was achieved by surface oxidation followed by an esterification reaction and revealed by fluorescently labelled streptavidin. PMID:14649817

  4. Radiation-induced grafting onto wool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation-induced grafting tests were done on single wool fibres. Different vinyl monomers were used for this purpose and they were grafted in twenty different solvents which were selected for their swelling effiency and solvent parameters. The tests were done once with and once without the addition of water. The presence of water causes the polymer uptake to increase considerably. Formic acid/methanol and methanol were found to be the most suitable solvent systems, as they have the highest hydrogen-bond interaction effiency. The moisture uptake of wool depends on the hydrophily and hydrophoby of the grafted polymers. The single-fibre tests serve as a basis for analogous grafting tests on wool fabrics. The permanent- press was improved by graftng with hydrophoric polymers and polymers with a high glass-transition temperature

  5. Polystyrene grafted multi-walled carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, M S P; Koziol, K

    2002-09-21

    Oxidised, multi-walled, carbon nanotubes can be grafted with polystyrene molecules using an situ radical polymerisation reaction, thereby dramatically modifying their solubility and their suitability for nanocomposite applications. PMID:12357785

  6. Grafting of a LLDPE using gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this investigation, the grafting of a commercial linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE) with different concentrations of diethyl maleate (DEM, 5 and 15 wt.%) was carried out at different absorbed doses from a cobalt-60 source of gamma rays (0, 15, 30, 50, 100, 200 kGy). This process was performed in a decalin solution at 10% w/v to obtain a homogeneous dispersion of the monomer into the polyethylene matrix. The grafting degree was estimated by means of FTIR using a calibration curve reported in literature. Thermal properties of the functional polymers were studied by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Melt flow index (MFI) values were also taken. The results found indicate that the grafting degree increases as the concentration of DEM in the reaction mixture and the absorbed doses are increased upto 100 kGy, as expected. However, the behavior at higher doses is attributed to secondary reactions such as long-chain branching and/or crosslinking, which are faster than radical reactions responsible for the grafting of the DEM onto the polymeric chain. This fact was ascertained by the decrease of the MFI values as the applied irradiation was increased, irrespective of the quantity of DEM used in the grafting reaction. Therefore, in order to obtain a high grafting degree, the absorbed dose should be estimated carefully. Initial degradation temperatures of the grafted PEs decreased when the gamma irradiation dose was higher than 100 kGy. This indicates that the thermal st00 kGy. This indicates that the thermal stability decreases as higher doses are applied to the material, which is associated to branching and crosslinking. The grafting degree never exceeded 0.3 mol%, which demonstrates the low efficiency of the functionalization procedure here presented

  7. Pathogenesis of cardiac graft failure in children

    OpenAIRE

    Jenny Lin; Shehata, Bahig M.

    2012-01-01

    For many critical cardiac conditions such as cardio-myopathy, congenital heart defects, or arrhythmogenic disorders, cardiac transplantation is often an accepted treatment with optimistic one- and five-year survival rates of 90% and 75% in the pediatric patient population, respectively. However, poor long-term survival is a cause for concern, with cardiac graft failure being the leading cause in late mortality transplant recipients. Cardiac graft failure occurs through several mechanisms. How...

  8. DNA nanosensor surface grafting and salt dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, B. G.; Fagundes, J.; Martin, A. A.; Raniero, L.; Favero, P. P.

    2013-02-01

    In this paper we investigated the Paracoccidoides brasiliensis fungus nanosensor by simulations of simple strand DNA grafting on gold nanoparticle. In order to improve the knowledge of nanoparticle environment, the addiction of salt solution was studied at the models proposed by us. Nanoparticle and DNA are represented by economic models validated by us in this paper. In addition, the DNA grafting and salt influences are evaluated by adsorption and bond energies calculations. This theoretical evaluation gives support to experimental diagnostics techniques of diseases.

  9. Management of Peyronie's Disease by Dermal Grafting

    OpenAIRE

    Hamid Reza Nasseh; Hooman Jaladat; GH Pourmand; Abdolrasoul Mehrsai; Mohammad Reza Nikoobakht

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the results of plaque excision and dermal grafting in Peyronie’s disease.Materials and Methods: Twenty seven patients were scheduled to undergo plaque excision and dermal grafting for Peyronie’s disease. Potency, bending of erected penis, and having painful erection were evaluated in patients before and after operation. To evaluate erectile dysfunction, we used International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) by interviewing the patients and filling questionnaires by their...

  10. Graft-copolymerization onto carbon black

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation-induced graft copolymerization of vinyl monomer onto carbon black was performed. During the ?-ray- and electron beam-induced polymerization (In-source), or the electron beam post-polymerization, the graft-copolymerization behavior was affected by the kinds of both carbon blacks and monomers, i.e. the smaller the size of carbon black particles, the higher the apparent grafted fraction. Homopolymer in the grafted carbon black samples was washed out by the solvent of the polymer, and the extracted polymer seemed to be dimer or trimer of the used monomer. In the case of the post-polymerization with the pre-irradiation doses of 50 Mrad, homopolymer was hardly observed. The polymer sheets of plastics or rubbers with grafted carbon black had an electrical conductivity unalterable considerably by the heating cycles. The particles of grafted carbon black in the sheet might be kept much more at the surface layer within 100 nm depth than at the inner layer. (author)

  11. Physical properties of agave cellulose graft polymethyl methacrylate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosli, Noor Afizah; Ahmad, Ishak; Abdullah, Ibrahim; Anuar, Farah Hannan [Polymer Research Centre (PORCE), School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi Selangor (Malaysia)

    2013-11-27

    The grafting polymerization of methyl methacrylate and Agave cellulose was prepared and their structural analysis and morphology were investigated. The grafting reaction was carried out in an aqueous medium using ceric ammonium nitrate as an initiator. The structural analysis of the graft copolymers was carried out by Fourier transform infrared and X-ray diffraction. The graft copolymers were also characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). An additional peak at 1732 cm{sup ?1} which was attributed to the C=O of ester stretching vibration of poly(methyl methacrylate), appeared in the spectrum of grafted Agave cellulose. A slight decrease of crystallinity index upon grafting was found from 0.74 to 0.68 for cellulose and grafted Agave cellulose, respectively. Another evidence of grafting showed in the FESEM observation, where the surface of the grafted cellulose was found to be roughed than the raw one.

  12. Physical properties of agave cellulose graft polymethyl methacrylate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The grafting polymerization of methyl methacrylate and Agave cellulose was prepared and their structural analysis and morphology were investigated. The grafting reaction was carried out in an aqueous medium using ceric ammonium nitrate as an initiator. The structural analysis of the graft copolymers was carried out by Fourier transform infrared and X-ray diffraction. The graft copolymers were also characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). An additional peak at 1732 cm?1 which was attributed to the C=O of ester stretching vibration of poly(methyl methacrylate), appeared in the spectrum of grafted Agave cellulose. A slight decrease of crystallinity index upon grafting was found from 0.74 to 0.68 for cellulose and grafted Agave cellulose, respectively. Another evidence of grafting showed in the FESEM observation, where the surface of the grafted cellulose was found to be roughed than the raw one

  13. Improving coronary artery bypass graft durability: use of the external saphenous vein graft support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Enrico; von Segesser, Ludwig; Berdajs, Denis

    2015-01-01

    Coronary bypass grafting remains the best option for patients suffering from multivessel coronary artery disease, and the saphenous vein is used as an additional conduit for multiple complete revascularizations. However, the long-term vein graft durability is poor, with almost 75% of occluded grafts after 10 years. To improve the durability, the concept of an external supportive structure was successfully developed during the last years: the eSVS Mesh device (Kips Bay Medical) is an external support for vein graft made of weft-knitted nitinol wire into a tubular form with an approximate length of 24?cm and available in three diameters (3.5, 4.0 and 4.5?mm). The device is placed over the outer wall of the vein and carefully deployed to cover the full length of the graft. The mesh is flexible for full adaptability to the heart anatomy and is intended to prevent kinking and dilatation of the vein in addition to suppressing the intima hyperplasia induced by the systemic blood pressure. The device is designed to reduce the vein diameter of about 15-20% at most to prevent the vein radial expansion induced by the arterial blood pressure, and the intima hyperplasia leading to the graft failure. We describe the surgical technique for preparing the vein graft with the external saphenous vein graft support (eSVS Mesh) and we share our preliminary clinical results. PMID:25976117

  14. Isotopic scintigraphy in kidney grafting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isotopic explorations of kidney transplants were performed on sixty-six patients. Three scintigraphic techniques were used: labelled ferrous ascorbate scintigraphy, sequential 99m technetium DTPA scintigraphy and the 131I hippuran nephrogram. The aim of this study is to analyse the results obtained under different pathological circumstances affecting the transplant, to discuss the advantages of the techniques and to propose a working procedure. The most reliable and accurate technique is the 131I hippuran nephrogram combined with sequential 99mTc DTPA, by which renal vascularisation may be judged labelled ferrous ascorbate on the other hand is too insensitive. Although the information supplied is mostly contained in the scintigraphic images, the nephrographic curves and the blood radioactivity decay time and rad V/rad R ratio measurements are very helpful in the early diagnosis and differential diagnosis of complications affecting the transplant. The proper use of isotopic scintigraphy in kidney grafting should provide optimum conditions for better survival of the transplant at minimum risk to the patient

  15. Is fat taste ready for primetime?

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiPatrizio, Nicholas V

    2014-09-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that gustation is important for the orosensory detection of dietary fats, and might contribute to preferences that humans, rodents, and possibly other mammals exhibit for fat-rich foods. In contrast to sweet, sour, salty, bitter, and umami, fat is not widely recognized as a primary taste quality. Recent investigations, however, provide a wealth of information that is helping to elucidate the specific molecular, cellular, and neural mechanisms required for fat detection in mammals. The latest evidence supporting a fat taste will be explored in this review, with a particular focus on recent studies that suggest a surprising role for gut-brain endocannabinoid signaling in controlling intake and preference for fats based on their proposed taste properties. PMID:24631296

  16. Radiation-induced graft copolymerization to polyester, 19

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resistivity of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) fibers grafted with various hydrophilic monomers to alkaline media was tested by treating the graft fibers in boiling 1% aqueous sodium carbonate for 4 hr. The higher the percent weight loss of the fiber by the treatment the lower the resistivity. The results are as follows: (a) Two types of fibers which have been grafted with acrylic acid are compared; one is grafted rather homogeneously and thoroughly (by microscopic observation of cross section of the dyed fiber) and the other is grafted only peripherally (showing coloured ring in cross section). It is noteworthy that the two fibers show practically no difference in the alkali-resistivity. When the percent apparent graft is 5%, the weight loss exceeds 30%. (b) Neither cross linking of polyacrylic acid grafted on PET by irradiation with ?-rays nor additional grafting with hydrophobic monomers improved the alkali-sensitivity of the graft fibers. (c) PET fiber grafted with methacrylic acid shows almost the same low resistivity as fiber grafted with acrylic acid. Behaviour of vinylpyrrolidone is not far different from that of acrylic or methacrylic acid. (d) The decrease of the alkali-sensitivity of PET fiber by grafting of 4-vinyl pyridine is very small. The graft fibers may be regarded to be alkali-insensitive. (e) PET fibers grafted with monomethacrylates of ethylene- and polyethylene-glycos show higher alkali-resistivity than fibers grafted with acrylic acid. (f) PET fibers grafted with diacrylates and dimethacrylates of polyethylene glycols show good resistivity to alkaline media. Due to large molecular size of these monomers and crosslinking during the reaction, the apparent grafting takes place only on the surface of the fibers. Taking into account the experimental results of Schamberg, it may be concluded that the decrease in the alkali-resistivity of PET grafted with acidic monomers is attributed to such a structure change of PET matrix that alkali can easily penetrate into the matrix to hydrolyse PET. (author)

  17. Nutritional and Health Effects of Dietary Fats

    OpenAIRE

    W.M. Nimal Ratnayake; G. Sarwar Gilani

    2004-01-01

    In the 80`s and early 90`s, nutrition recommendations for the prevention of developing coronary heart disease called for a reduction of total fat in the diet through the substitution of carbohydrate for fat. However, the current scientific evidence does not support a position that a reduction in total fat has a beneficial effect on coronary heart disease, or risk factors for coronary heart disease. The cumulative evidence from recent scientific literature suggests that unless there is a conco...

  18. High melting point sunflower fat for confectionary

    OpenAIRE

    Salas, Joaqui?n J.; Marti?nez-force, Enrique; Bootello Garci?a, Miguel A?ngel; Venegas-calero?n, Mo?nica; Garce?s Manchen?o, Rafael

    2009-01-01

    The present invention is based on the finding that stearin fats, obtainable by dry or solvent fractionation of sunflower highstearic and high-oleic oils, optionally with seeding with tempered stearin crystals, have a high solid fat content at temperatures higher than 30°C, even higher than cocoa butter or other high saturated tropical fats with a similar disaturated triacylglycerol content due to the presence of disaturated triacylgiycerols rich in stearic acid,...

  19. Fat, fish, fish oil and cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Caygill, C. P.; Charlett, A.; Hill, M. J.

    1996-01-01

    There is an ecological association between total and animal fat consumption and colorectal and breast cancer risk. Mortality data for breast and colorectal cancer for 24 European countries correlated, as expected, with the consumption of animal, but not vegetable, fat. There was an inverse correlation with fish and fish oil consumption, when expressed as a proportion of total or animal fat, and this correlation was significant for both male and female colorectal cancer and for female breast c...

  20. Dietary fat intake, supplements, and weight loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyck, D. J.

    2000-01-01

    Although there remains controversy regarding the role of macronutrient balance in the etiology of obesity, the consumption of high-fat diets appears to be strongly implicated in its development. Evidence that fat oxidation does not adjust rapidly to acute increases in dietary fat, as well as a decreased capacity to oxidize fat in the postprandial state in the obese, suggest that diets high in fat may lead to the accumulation of fat stores. Novel data is also presented suggesting that in rodents, high-fat diets may lead to the development of leptin resistance in skeletal muscle and subsequent accumulations of muscle triacylglycerol. Nevertheless, several current fad diets recommend drastically reduced carbohydrate intake, with a concurrent increase in fat content. Such recommendations are based on the underlying assumption that by reducing circulating insulin levels, lipolysis and lipid oxidation will be enhanced and fat storage reduced. Numerous supplements are purported to increase fat oxidation (carnitine, conjugated linoleic acid), increase metabolic rate (ephedrine, pyruvate), or inhibit hepatic lipogenesis (hydroxycitrate). All of these compounds are currently marketed in supplemental form to increase weight loss, but few have actually been shown to be effective in scientific studies. To date, there is little or no evidence supporting that carnitine or hydroxycitrate supplementation are of any value for weight loss in humans. Supplements such as pyruvate have been shown to be effective at high dosages, but there is little mechanistic information to explain its purported effect or data to indicate its effectiveness at lower dosages. Conjugated linoleic acid has been shown to stimulate fat utilization and decrease body fat content in mice but has not been tested in humans. The effects of ephedrine, in conjunction with methylxanthines and aspirin, in humans appears unequivocal but includes various cardiovascular side effects. None of these compounds have been tested for their effectiveness or safety over prolonged periods of time.

  1. Effect of acid additives on grafting efficiency and water absorption of hydrolyzed cassava starch grafted polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelatinized cassava starch was radiation graft copolymerized with acrylamide, acrylic acid or their mixture in the presence of sulphuric acid or maleic acid. Various acid concentrations were used from 0.001 to 0.1 M of sulphuric acid while the maleic acid concentrations were varied from 1 to 3% (by weight). The optimum total dose and dose rate were investigated. The saponification temperature and time had the marked effects on grafting characteristics and water absorption capacity. We found that the effect of maleic acid addition gave a profound effect on water absorption. The CHNS/O analyses indicated significant changes in the nitrogen content in the hydrolyzed starch grafted polyacrylamide with 2% maleic acid. The article explains the possible causes for the enhancement influence of mineral acid and maleic acid on grafting behavior and water absorption of the saponified cassava starch grafted polyacrylamide super absorbent polymer. (author)

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  20. Adolescent External Iliac Artery Trauma: Recurrent Aneurysmal Dilatation of an Iliofemoral Saphenous Vein Graft Treated by Stent-Grafting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An adolescent male sustained a severe penetrating injury to the external iliac artery. Emergency surgical revascularization was with a reversed long saphenous vein interposition graft. The primary graft and the subsequent revision graft both became aneurysmal. The second graft aneurysm was successfully excluded by endovascular stent-grafts with medium-term primary patency. A venous graft was used initially rather than a synthetic graft to reduce the risk of infection and the potential problems from future growth. Aneurysmal dilatation of venous grafts in children and adolescents is a rare but recognized complication. To the best of our knowledge, exclusion of these aneurysms with stent-grafts has not been previously reported in the adolescent population.

  1. Atherosclerosis of coronary artery bypass grafts and smoking.

    OpenAIRE

    FitzGibbon, G. M.; Leach, A J; Kafka, H P

    1987-01-01

    Follow-up angiography was performed at selected intervals on 340 men who had undergone coronary artery bypass surgery. There were 1160 grafts, but 112 were excluded from study because they occluded shortly after the operation. After 5 years 115 patients were smokers and 225 were nonsmokers. The mean number of grafts per patient was similar in the two groups. We classified each graft according to irregularities in graft outlines and graft patency and found disease-free grafts in 39% of the smo...

  2. Growth and Yield of Watermelon as Influenced by Grafting

    OpenAIRE

    Salam, M. A.; Masum, A. S. M. H.; Chowdhury, S. S.; Monoranjan Dhar; Saddeque, M. A.; Islam, M. R.

    2002-01-01

    The study was conducted to determine the effect of grafting on the growth, yield and control of wilt disease of watermelon. Grafting of watermelon on bottle gourd root stock significantly reduced the wilt disease in the field. Grafting also produced higher number of fruits per plant (5.25) and larger fruit (30.30 cm) which ultimately produced higher yield (56.92 t/ha?1) than non grafted plants. The grafts produced 3.5 times higher yield than non grafts.

  3. Characterization and Some Properties of Functionalized Graft Copolymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study involved the investigation and characterization of membranes prepared by graft copolymerization of acrylonitrile (AN) and vinyl acetate (VAc) binary monomers onto low density polyethylene (LDPE) and isotactic polypropylene (IPP). The mutual gamma-irradiation method was used as a grafting technique. The effects of grafting and chemical treatments on the thermal properties and crystallinity of prepared graft copolymer have been investigated using DSC, TGA and XRD. IR spectra recorded before and after grafting and also for the chemically treated membranes to elucidate the structural changes occurred due to grafting and chemical treatments

  4. Biodiesel via hydrotreating of fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Anders Theilgaard; Ahmed, El Hadi

    Biodiesel production via transesterification to fatty acid alkyl esters is rising rapidly worldwide due to the limited availability of fossil resources and the problems of global warming. Often, however, the use of 2nd-generation feedstock like animal waste fat and trap greases etc. is made difficult especially by the high amount of free fatty acids (FFA) in these raw materials. Another way to utilise such feedstock could be through the complete deoxygenation of the fuel, i.e. by hydrogenation and decarboxylation of the fat itself. Hydrotreating of fats is a procedure very well suited for existing petroleum refineries, and could be applied in mixture with existing hydrotreating of for instance vacuum gas oil [1,2]. As is shown in literature, both hydrogenation and decarboxylation of the fat may occur under such circumstances [2-4]. 9 g of a model mixture of 3 % oleic acid (C18:1), 7 % tripalmitin (C16:0) and 90% n-tetradecane (C14) in molar ratios was hydrotreated by 0.2 g of a 5%wt Pt/Al2O3 catalyst. The mixture was treated with 10 to 30 bar H2 in an autoclave at temperatures between 250 and 375°C, and samples for GC analysis was taken out after 1, 2, 5 and 20 hours to track the extent of reaction. Thus, the yields of pentadecane (C15) to octadecane (C18) could be monitored by GC analysis, thus indicating the conversions of FFA and tripalmitin. This procedure makes it possible to monitor and distinguish hydrogenation (resulting in hexadecane, C16, and octadecane, C18) from decarboxylation (resulting in pentadecane, C15, and heptadecane, C17) of triglyceride and fatty acid. Even in this hydrogen-rich atmosphere, the dominant reaction above 300ºC is decarboxylation of the acid and ester functionalities, thus limiting the consumption of hydrogen. Temperatures below 300°C are not well suited for the treating, as primarily the saturation of oleic acid to stearic acid (C18:0) is observed, with low conversions of fatty acid and triglyceride. [1] Stumborg, M., Wong, A. and Hogan, E., Bioresour. Technol. 56 (1996) 13 [2] Huber, G.W., O’Connor, P. and Corma, A., Appl. Catal. A. 329 (2007) 120 [3] Kubickova, I., Snåre, M., Eränen, K., Mäki-Arvela, P. and Murzin, D. Yu., Catal. Today, 106 (2005) 197 [4] Mäki-Arvela, P., Kubickova, I., Snåre, M., Eränen, K. and Murzin, D. Yu., Energy Fuels, 21 (2007) 31

  5. P.R.L. Platelet Rich Lipotransfert: Our Experience and Current State of Art in the Combined Use of Fat and PRP

    OpenAIRE

    P Delogu; E. Tati; Scioli, M. G.; Orlandi, A.; C. B. Curcio; Cervelli, G.; De Angelis, B.; C. Di Pasquali; Bocchini, I.; Cervelli, V; Pietro Gentile

    2013-01-01

    The authors report their experience about the use of P.R.L. PLATELET RICH LIPOTRANSFERT method (platelet rich plasma mixed fat grafting) in 223 patients affected by soft tissue defects (ulcers, Romberg syndrome, Hemifacial atrophy, loss of substance, and signs of aging). This paper introduces the reader to PRP therapy and reviews the current literature on this emerging treatment modality, showing at the current clinical use of PRP in plastic and reconstructive surgery, with description of...

  6. Mega-Volume Fat Transplantation to the Breast and Buttocks: A New Surgical Technique That Brings New Anesthetic Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander D. Shapeton

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Autologous fat-grafting for the purpose of breast augmentation has gained widespread acceptance as a viable and safe alternative to classical breast implant procedures and has recently been successfully applied to buttock augmentation. Due to the numerous patient re-positionings and widely variable OR time, these procedures present unique challenges for anesthesiologists. Our goal is to discuss the current surgical methods, anesthetic methods, risks and benefits of this procedure. Methods: This is a retrospective cohort study in the setting of the operating room. Twenty-nine consecutive cases of mega-volume fat transplantation, defined as >300 cc to an individual site, performed by one surgeon, were reviewed. Age, Body Mass Index, total fat injected, total operating room time, maximum intraoperative temperature, minimum intraoperative and temperature were measured. RESULTS: Our procedure has enjoyed a 100% patient satisfaction rate. Analysis reveals high variability in age (21 - 57, total fat injected (200 cc - 1990 cc, patient Body Mass Index (18.8 - 42.2 and total operating room time (1:23:00 - 6:14:00 for our procedures. There were no instances of major complications in this cohort. Conclusions: Autologous fat transplantation for the purposes of breast and buttock augmentation is an emerging technique that shows great promise and high patient satisfaction, but providing unique challenges for anesthesiologists and surgeons.

  7. Abnormal fat distribution in PMM2-CDG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolthuis, D F G J; van Asbeck, E V; Kozicz, T; Morava, E

    2013-11-01

    We hypothesize that abnormal fat distribution, a common feature of PMM2-CDG, is associated with abnormal perinatal hormone regulation. We assessed 32 cases with PMM2-CDG, for the comorbidity of hypoglycemia/hyperinsulinism and fat pads. Ninety percent of patients with hypoketotic hypoglycemia and/or hyperinsulinism had abnormal fat distribution, while normoglycemic patients showed this feature in 50% of the cases. This statistically significant difference suggests an etiological role of the insulin receptor in developing abnormal fat distribution in PMM2-CDG. PMID:24063868

  8. Milk Fat Content and DGAT1 Genotype Determine Lipid Composition of the Milk Fat Globule Membrane

    OpenAIRE

    Argov-argaman, N.; Mida, K.; Cohen, B. C.; Visker, M. H. P. W.; Hettinga, K. A.

    2013-01-01

    During secretion of milk fat globules, triacylglycerol (TAG) droplets are enveloped by a phospholipid (PL) trilayer. Globule size has been found to be related to polar lipid composition and fat content, and milk fat content and fatty acid composition have been associated with the diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1) K232A polymorphism; however, the association between the DGAT1 polymorphism and fat globule size and polar lipid composition has not been studied. The ratio between polar and ...

  9. Corneal Graft Rejection: Incidence and Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Baradaran-Rafii

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available

    PURPOSE: To determine the incidence and risk factors of late corneal graft rejection after penetrating keratoplasty (PKP. METHODS: Records of all patients who had undergone PKP from 2002 to 2004 without immunosuppressive therapy other than systemic steroids and with at least one year of follow up were reviewed. The role of possible risk factors such as demographic factors, other host factors, donor factors, indications for PKP as well as type of rejection were evaluated. RESULTS: During the study period, 295 PKPs were performed on 286 patients (176 male, 110 female. Mean age at the time of keratoplasty was 38±20 (range, 40 days to 90 years and mean follow up period was 20±10 (range 12-43 months. Graft rejection occurred in 94 eyes (31.8% at an average of 7.3±6 months (range, 20 days to 39 months after PKP. The most common type of rejection was endothelial (20.7%. Corneal vascularization, regrafting, anterior synechiae, irritating sutures, active inflammation, additional anterior segment procedures, history of trauma, uncontrolled glaucoma, prior graft rejection, recurrence of herpetic infection and eccentric grafting increased the rate of rejection. Patient age, donor size and bilateral transplantation had no significant influence on graft rejection. CONCLUSION: Significant risk factors for corneal graft rejection include corneal vascularization, anterior synechiae, irritating sutures, active inflammation, regrafting, additional surgery, trauma, uncontrolled intraocular pressure, history of graft rejection, recurrent herpetic infection, eccentric grafting and corneal scarring. Recipient age and donor cornea size do not seem to be risk factors for corneal graft rejection.

  10. Grafting onto polyester fibers. II. Kinetics of grafting of acrylic acid, acrylonitrile, and vinyl acetate onto polyester fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The kinetics of grafting of acrylonitrile, acrylic acid, and vinyl acetate onto polyester fiber by catalytic initiation and radiation were studied. The energy of activation determined for acrylic acid grafting by the catalytic method was 10.7 kcal/mole and that for vinyl acetate grafting by the radiation method, 11.7 kcal/mole. In the case of acrylonitrile grafting by the catalytic method, the rate of grafting decreased with increase in temperature of grafting, showing the differential behavior of the precipitating type of polymer from that of homogeneous polymerization. 5 figures

  11. Oversized vein grafts develop advanced atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic minipigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thim, Troels; Hagensen, Mette Kallestrup

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Accelerated atherosclerosis is the main cause of late aortocoronary vein graft failure. We aimed to develop a large animal model for the study of pathogenesis and treatment of vein graft atherosclerosis. METHODS: An autologous reversed jugular vein graft was inserted end-to-end into the transected common carotid artery of ten hypercholesteroemic minipigs. The vein grafts were investigated 12-14 weeks later with ultrasound and angiograpy in vivo and microscopy post mortem. RESULTS: One minipig died during follow up (patent vein graft at autopsy), and one vein graft thrombosed early. In the remaining eight patent vein grafts, the mean (standard deviation) intima-media thickness was 712 mum (276 mum) versus 204 mum (74 mum) in the contralateral control internal jugular veins (P diameter of artery). No plaques were found in four non-oversized vein grafts (P <.05). CONCLUSIONS: Our model of jugular vein graft in the common carotid artery of hypercholesterolemic minipigs displayed the components of human vein graft disease, i.e. thrombosis, intimal hyperplasia, and atherosclerosis. Advanced atherosclerosis, the main cause of late failure of human aortocoronary vein grafts was only seen in oversized grafts. This finding suggests that oversized vein grafts may have detrimental effects on patient outcome.

  12. Fat aversion in eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewnowski, A; Pierce, B; Halmi, K A

    1988-04-01

    Patients with eating disorders are reported to show an irrational dislike of starchy foods, sometimes described as a "carbohydrate phobia". In the present study, food-related attitudes and self-reported food preferences of women patients with anorexia nervosa (N = 13), anorexia with bulimia (N = 16) and bulimia (N = 14) were mapped using multidimensional scaling (MDS) procedures and compared to those of normal-weight controls (N = 49). Sixteen common food names were rated along 9-point category scales for their nutritional similarity, perceived macronutrient content, caloric density and overall nutritional value. MDS (SINDSCAL) and property fitting (PROFIT) procedures revealed that eating disorder patients associated calories with fat content to a greater extent than did controls, and tended to dislike high-fat foods. In contrast, no differences in perceptions or preferences for carbohydrate foods were observed. Anorectic restrictor patients showed the most rigid attitude structure, expressing preferences only for the lowest calorie and the most nutritious foods. The present multivariate techniques of mapping perceptual space may help to distinguish between diagnostic subgroups in studies of eating disorders. PMID:3164990

  13. Prediction of coronary artery bypass graft flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To predict the coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) flow based on the time density curve (TDC) obtained from the digital subtraction aortograms (DSA), we developed a pulsatile CABG model (perfusion pressure 60,130 mmHg, pulse rate 53,126/min, cardiac output 3-7 l/min, diameter of the graft 2.1?6.0 mm). After positioning the regions of interest (ROI), we injected contrast medium(5?40 ml/sec, 5?40 ml) into the outlet conduit. Concerning the TDCs, we calculated appearance time (Ta), peak densities (Dp), peak time (Tp), disappearance time (Td), integral of TDC, ?Tp (difference of Tp between two ROI) and ?Ta (difference of Ta between two ROI). Perfusion pressure, graft flow and output curve were similar to those of patients with CABG. Ta, Tp, Td, and ?Tp were affected by both the injection rate and the volume of the contrast medium; while Dp and the TDC integral were only affected by the latter parameter. Under the same conditions of contrast medium injection, the TDC depended strongly on graft flow, diameter of the graft, output and pulse rate. 21.6+0.92?·d2/4·?1/?Tp·60 provided the most accurate estimation of CABG flow (r=0.865, p<0.01). We conclude that densitometric analysis of DSA may be useful in the prediction of CABG flow. (author)

  14. Radiographic analysis of pasteurized autologous bone graft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Local malignant bone tumor excision followed by pasteurization and subsequent reimplantation is a unique technique for reconstruction after resection of primary bone sarcomas. The purpose of this investigation was to assess the normal and abnormal long-term radiographic findings of intercalary and osteo-chondral pasteurized bone graft/implant composite. The long-term radiographic findings of pasteurized bone grafts used in reconstruction after resection of bone and soft tissue sarcomas in relation to patients' clinical data were reviewed retrospectively. Thirty-one patients (18 females, 13 males; age range 7-77 years, mean 30 years) who underwent surgery between April 1990 and January 1997 at the authors' institute constituted the material of this study. They were followed up for at least 3 years or until the patient's death (mean 69 months). The International Society of Limb Salvage graft evaluation method that assesses the fusion, resorption, fracture, graft shortening, fixation, subluxation, joint narrowing and subchondral bone was used for evaluation of the radiographs. Twenty-one patients (68%) showed complete incorporation of graft and eight patients (26%) had partial incorporation. The overall radiographic evaluation rate was 81%. Fracture (10%) and infection (16%) were the main complications. No local recurrence was detected. These results indicate that pasteurization of bone is a useful option for reconstruction after resection of malignant bone tumors. (orig resection of malignant bone tumors. (orig.)

  15. Radiation graft modification of EPDM rubber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    N-Vinyl pyrrolidone (NVP), 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate (HEMA) and acrylamide (AAm) have been grafted to the surface of rubber vulcanizates based on ethylene-propylene-terpolymer (EPDM) using the simultaneous radiation method to alter surface properties such as wettability and therefore biocompatibility. The effect of monomer concentration, solvent and EPDM structural factors on the grafting behaviour have been investigated. The inhibitory effect upon homopolymerization of various salts has also been evaluated for the three monomers. A mechanism has been proposed to explain the behaviour of these monomers. The inclusion of multifunctional acrylates in additive amounts (1.0 vol%) enhanced the graft degree. Modified samples were able to be efficiently stained, allowing the depth of the graft copolymerization to be determined by light microscopy. Water was found to have an accelerating effect on the polymerization of these monomers, but methanol prevented their polymerization completely. The effect of EPDM structural factors upon degree of grafting was found to vary, depending upon the monomer type. (author)

  16. Platelet--arterial synthetic graft interaction and its modification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callow, A.D.; Connolly, R.; O' Donnell, T.F. Jr.; Gembarowicz, R.; Keough, E.; Ramberg-Laskaris, K.; Valeri, C.R.

    1982-11-01

    We compared the in vivo platelet reactivity of two commonly used clinical grafts, Dacron and expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), with that of a control autogenous artery graft and assessed whether platelet reactivity was modified by the platelet-antiaggregating agent prostacyclin (PGI2) (epoprostenol). Grafts were randomly placed into the carotid arteries of 21 baboons. Platelets labeled with /sup 111/In were infused within one hour after implantation graft for gamma camera scanning of platelet uptake. The accumulation of platelets on Dacron grafts began almost immediately after injection and reached a peak after one to two hours. The PTFE and control autogenous artery grafts accumulated comparable small amounts of platelets. Prostacyclin was then infused in a second series of baboons with Dacron grafts, at a rate of 150 to 200 ng/kg/min. It prevented the usual platelet uptake when administered concomitant with graft implantation and reduced previously established platelet activity.

  17. Platelet--arterial synthetic graft interaction and its modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We compared the in vivo platelet reactivity of two commonly used clinical grafts, Dacron and expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), with that of a control autogenous artery graft and assessed whether platelet reactivity was modified by the platelet-antiaggregating agent prostacyclin (PGI2) (epoprostenol). Grafts were randomly placed into the carotid arteries of 21 baboons. Platelets labeled with 111In were infused within one hour after implantation graft for gamma camera scanning of platelet uptake. The accumulation of platelets on Dacron grafts began almost immediately after injection and reached a peak after one to two hours. The PTFE and control autogenous artery grafts accumulated comparable small amounts of platelets. Prostacyclin was then infused in a second series of baboons with Dacron grafts, at a rate of 150 to 200 ng/kg/min. It prevented the usual platelet uptake when administered concomitant with graft implantation and reduced previously established platelet activity

  18. Graft copolimerization of hydrophilic monomers onto irradiated polypropylene fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method of graft copolymerization of hydrophilic monomers, such as 1-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone, acrylonitrile, acrylic acid, and acrylamide, onto irradiated polypropylene fibers has been studied. ? ray as well as electron beam were employed for the irradiation processes. Graft-copolymerization kinetics and the properties of grafted fibers have been investigated. Moisture regain, dyes absorption, and melting point of the grafted fibers were found to increase with the increasing of the degree of grafting. Polypropylene for 1-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone grafted fibers showed excellent dye absorption for almost all kinds of dyes such as direct, basic, acid, reactive, disper, and naphthol dyes. However, for polypropylene acrylic acid grafted fibers, the colorfastness to washing was found to be unsatisfactory. The colorfastness to washing for polypropylene 1-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone grafted fibers was found to be fairly good for certain types of dyes such as vat and naphthol dyes. (author)

  19. Grafting of 2-butenyl acrylate onto starch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The monomer 2-butenyl acrylate was reacted with starch by exposure to either 60Co irradiation or ceric ion initiation. Monomer conversion in the presence of starch is greater than in the absence of starch, indicating that a starch initiating mechanism takes place for 60Co irradiated samples. Acetone extraction indicates little or no soluble homopolymer in the grafts. Portions of the samples soluble in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) appear to be low-level 2-butenyl acrylate-grafted starch by infrared analysis. DMSO-insoluble portions (usually more than 50% of each sample) are somewhat more soluble in 1N NaOH at room temperature. This indicates that the 2-butenyl acrylate acts as an easily hydrolyzed crosslink for starch in samples containing as low as 5 wt% grafted poly

  20. Autologous miniature punch grafting in stable vitiligo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajagopal R

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Autologous miniature punch grafting with certain modifications was taken up in 54 sites in 30 patients with stable vitiligo for 6 months or more. The modifications were: (a use of same sized disposable punches for both donor and recipient areas except over convex body surfaces, (b use of Castraviejo?s scissors for harvesting donor grafts, (c use of medial side of thigh as donor site and (d not removing the primary dressing of the recipient site till 8 postoperaive day. The patients were given systemic PUVASOL after the procedure for a period of three months and mean pigment spread was noted at each site. Results showed that the extent of repigmentation varied among the recipient sites, the maximum being over upper eyelids, axillae and umbilicus. The modifications in the standard procedure were found to produce less complications, like cobblestoning, graft rejection.

  1. Meshed split skin graft for extensive vitiligo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas C

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available A 30 year old female presented with generalized stable vitiligo involving large areas of the body. Since large areas were to be treated it was decided to do meshed split skin graft. A phototoxic blister over recipient site was induced by applying 8 MOP solution followed by exposure to UVA. The split skin graft was harvested from donor area by Padgett dermatome which was meshed by an ampligreffe to increase the size of the graft by 4 times. Significant pigmentation of the depigmented skin was seen after 5 months. This procedure helps to cover large recipient areas, when pigmented donor skin is limited with minimal risk of scarring. Phototoxic blister enables easy separation of epidermis thus saving time required for dermabrasion from recipient site.

  2. Functionalisation of PAA radiation grafted PVDF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The covalent bonding of amino-terminated molecules was performed onto acrylic acid radiation induced grafting poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF). The polymer was irradiated with different ionizing radiation: swift heavy ions or electrons. The polymerization of acrylic acid was then performed to confer to PVDF carboxyl groups suitable for condensation with the amino groups of the other molecule. Acrylic acid swelling of PVDF films was investigated as a function of temperature and monomer concentration in order to anticipate the best grafting conditions. Grafted and functionalized films were characterized using infrared spectroscopy (transmission and ATR), and weighing measurements. The PVDF-g-PAA films exhibit different structures depending on the monomer concentration. Immobilization of an amino-terminated molecule and a peptide onto PVDF was achieved using water soluble carbodiimide

  3. Characteristics of Body Fat, Body Fat Percentage and Other Body Composition for Koreans from KNHANES IV

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Sangmo; Oh, Han Jin; Choi, Hoon; Kim, Jung Gu; Lim, Sung Kil; Kim, Eun Kyung; Pyo, Eun Young; Oh, Kyungwon; Kim, Young Taek; Wilson, Kevin; Choi, Woong Hwan

    2011-01-01

    Accurate measurement of fat mass has become increasingly important with the increasing incidence of obesity. We assessed fat and muscle mass of Koreans with the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV (KNHANES IV). We studied 10,456 subjects (aged 20 to 85 yr; 4,476 men, 5,980 women). Fat and muscle mass were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Reference values of body compositions were obtained using the LMS method. The fat mass index (FMI, body fat mass/height2; ...

  4. What Are the Types of Fat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fish) Ice cream Candy bars Cheese Pre-mixed products (cake mix, pancake mix, chocolate drink mix) Lard Tips for decreasing harmful fats in your diet: • Read food labels and avoid trans fats and hydrogenated/ partially hydrogenated oils. • Avoid fried products. • Avoid fast food. • When eating out, ask that ...

  5. Advising patients about low-fat diets.

    OpenAIRE

    Rosser, W. W.

    1993-01-01

    Flooded with dietary information, Canadians often ask their family physicians for dietary advice. A literature review reveals evidence that low-fat diets will lower serum cholesterol by a maximum of 17%, but no study has demonstrated a concurrent decrease in mortality. Because the benefits of low-fat diets are not proven, family physicians should be cautious about giving dietary advice.

  6. On Learning to Teach Fat Feminism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boling, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    As a feminist theorist who frequently teaches theorizing that starts from embodied experience, the author has begun to incorporate fat feminism into her teaching. As a neophyte and a relatively thin woman, she has been self-conscious about broaching issues related to fat bodies in her teaching, even though they clearly raise important issues about…

  7. Coming out as Fat: Rethinking Stigma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saguy, Abigail C.; Ward, Anna

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the surprising case of women who "come out as fat" to test and refine theories about social change, social mobilization, stigma, and stigma resistance. First, supporting theories about "social movement spillover," we find that overlapping memberships in queer and fat activist groups, as well as networks between these groups,…

  8. Prophylactic antibiotics prevent bacterial biofilm graft infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergamini, T M; Peyton, J C; Cheadle, W G

    1992-02-01

    Bacterial biofilm graft infection is due to prostheses colonization by Staphylococcus epidermidis, a pathogen frequently recovered from perigraft tissues of man during vascular procedures despite the use of asepsis and prophylactic antibiotics. The effect of preoperative intraperitoneal cefazolin, administered at a standard (15 or 30 mg/kg) and high (120 mg/kg) dose, on the prevention of bacterial biofilm infection was studied in a rat model. Seventy-four Dacron grafts, colonized in vitro with S. epidermidis to produce an adherent biofilm (3.19 +/- 0.71 x 10(7) colony-forming units/cm2 graft), were implanted in the dorsal subcutaneous tissue at 0.5, 2, and 4 hr after antibiotic administration. The study strain was a slime-producing clinical isolate with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 15-30 micrograms/ml to cefazolin. Subcutaneous tissue antibiotic levels were determined at each time interval. One week after implantation, the concentration of bacteria in the surface biofilm by quantitative agar culture was significantly decreased (P less than 0.05) only for grafts implanted when antibiotic tissue levels were greater than or equal to the MIC of the study strain. The result of no growth by biofilm broth culture was significantly achieved (P less than 0.01) only for grafts implanted 0.5 hr after high dose cefazolin, in which the tissue antibiotic level was above the MIC of the study strain. Antibiotics can markedly reduce the bacteria concentration of a prosthetic surface biofilm. The effectiveness of prophylactic antibiotics on the prevention of graft infection is dependent upon maintaining an adequate antibiotic level in the perigraft tissues for the duration of the procedure. PMID:1346815

  9. Synthesis and Modification of Polypropylene by Radiation-induced Grafting

    OpenAIRE

    Feng Yuan; Junfu Wei; En-qi Tang; Kong-yin Zhao; Yang Xue

    2009-01-01

    Polypropylene fiber (PP) was radiation-induced graft polymerization of lauryl acrylate (LA) and butyl acrylate (BA)using a 60Co gamma radiation source. Then the grafted polypropylene fiber was characterized by a Fourier transforminfrared (FT-IR) spectrometer, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) andthermogravimetry (TG), which indicated that LA and BA have been grafted onto PP. The article focused on somefactors that influenced on the graft degree, such ...

  10. Side Grafting and Various Scion Parts Interaction in Guava

    OpenAIRE

    Samiullah; Syed Asghar Hussain; Abdur Rab; Haji Mohammad

    2004-01-01

    A research project "Side grafting and various scion parts interaction in guava" was carried out at Government Fruit Nursery Farm, Jabban, Dargai Malakand Agency during 2002-2003. Three scion parts i.e. Apical, Middle, Basal and two grafting methods i.e. side veneer and side T. grafting were studied. The experiment was laid out according to Randomized Complete Block design with two factorial arrangement. Maximum graft take success (77.5%), survival percentage (27.9) and percent saleable plants...

  11. Plasma Induced Grafting of PMMA onto Titanium Dioxide Powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Shaofeng; Meng, Yuedong; Ou, Qiongrong; Xu, Xu

    2005-08-01

    Grafting of polymer of methyl methacrylate (PMMA) onto titanium dioxide powder is investigated in this paper. The graft polymerization reaction is induced by dielectric-barrier-discharge produced N2 plasma treatment of titanium dioxide surfaces. IR, XPS and TGA results show that PMMA is grafted onto the surfaces of titanium dioxide powder. And crystal structure of the titanium dioxide powder observed with XRD spectra is unchanged after plasma graft polymerization.

  12. Simultaneous angioplasty and intraluminal grafting with the Palmaz expandable intraluminal graft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors describe their experience with the Palmaz expandable intraluminal graft (EIG) in a Flemish giant rabbit model of atherosclerosis. Rabbits were rendered atherosclerotic by means of a combination of desiccation endothelial injury of the femoral arteries and atherogenic diet (2% cholesterol, 6% peanut oil). Via carotic cutdown, EIGs mounted on small-vessel angioplasty balloons (? 3.5 mm in diameter) were placed in stenotic femoral arteries. The feasibility of simultaneous percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and intraluminal grafting was assessed. Angiograms revealed dramatic improvement in vessel diameters. Angiographic and pathologic findings are presented, and the concept of intraluminal grafting with the Palmaz EIG is reviewed

  13. The toxicity of dietary trans fats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguly, Riya; Pierce, Grant N

    2015-04-01

    Cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of death today. Trans fatty acids have been identified as an important cause of cardiovascular disease and the resulting clinical end points such as strokes and heart attacks. Although legislative efforts have limited the trans fats in our diet, significant amounts remain. Understanding the impact trans fats have on our body, therefore, remains a critical focus of study. In addition, paradoxically, recent research has now identified an important cardioprotective role for a sub-category of trans fats, the ruminant trans fats. Learning more about the mechanisms responsible for not only the toxic actions of trans fats but also their potential as beneficial compounds within our diet is essential to modulate cardiovascular disease today. PMID:25684416

  14. Fat Utilization for Pigs: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.H. Kim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The available energy in utilizable fats and oils is about 2.25 times that from utilizable carbohydrates (although, there is a considerable range in values, they supply essential fatty acids can have an influence on carcass quality and are useful in reducing dust and promoting palatability of compound diets. There are two kinds of oil sources. First, the major sources of vegetable oil are as follows: soya beans, palm, sunflower seed, rape seed, coconut, cotten seed. Second, the major sources of animal fats are as follows: cattle tallow sheep fat, pig lard and fish oils. For pigs, fats include decrease feed intake and increased palatability, growth rate, feed efficiency and carcass fat.

  15. Cell subpopulations in failed human corneal grafts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuffova, L.; Lumsden, L.; Forrester, J.; Filipec, M.

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS—Inflammatory cells and antigen presenting cells (APC) are not present under normal circumstances in the centre of the healthy cornea. The purpose of this study was to investigate and phenotype the inflammatory cell populations, particularly with reference to T cell subpopulations and macrophages, and to localise dendritic cells (DC) and other MHC class II positive cells in three groups of grafted corneas: rejected non-inflamed, rejected inflamed grafts, and control dystrophic explants.?METHODS—15 corneal buttons removed during keratoplasty from non-inflamed "quiet" previously grafted corneas, five inflamed corneas requiring urgent regrafting for "graft melting" (in "high risk" corneas), and 10 control dystrophic opaque corneas explanted during their first graft procedure were examined. Cryosections of corneas were immunostained with a panel of monoclonal antibodies (mAb) against CD3, CD4, CD8, CD14, CD25, CD68, HLA-DP, and HLA-DR molecules using the StreptABC method. DC were detected by dual immunostaining as CD1a+ and MHC class II+ and CD19?. Cell densities in immunostained tissue sections were evaluated using a scale from 0 to +4.?RESULTS—Immunostaining in control dystrophic corneas was negative for all antibodies. A moderate to high density of CD8+, CD14+, and CD68+ cells was observed in the majority of rejected non-inflamed as well as in rejected inflamed corneal buttons. Strong positivity for HLA-DP and HLA-DR molecules in the epithelium, stroma, and endothelium was also demonstrated. Weak positivity for CD4 and CD25 was observed in six of 15 and 11 of 15 rejected corneas, respectively. The presence of dendritic cells in the basal layer of the epithelium and in the stroma was observed in 50% of the grafts.?CONCLUSIONS—A high frequency of macrophages, the presence of DC in the explants, and strong expression of HLA-DP and HLA-DR molecules on resident cells are characteristics of rejected corneal allografts, whether actively inflamed or not. The presence of DC in the stroma of the grafted cornea suggests that they may be mainly responsible for T cell activation and graft rejection since DC are known to be a 100-fold more potent than macrophages as APC.?? PMID:10574815

  16. Radiation grafting of acrylic acid onto fluorine-containing polymers. I. Kinetic study of preirradiation grafting onto poly(tetrafluoroethylene)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preirradiation grafting of acrylic acid onto poly(tetrafluoroethylene) film was studied. The trapped radicals formed upon irradiation are able to induce graft polymerization under appropriate conditions. The influence of the grafting conditions were analyzed kinetically. The grafting reaction begins close to the film surface and proceeds into the center with progressive monomer diffusion through the grafted layer. The dependences of the grafting rate on preirradiation dose and monomer concentration were found to be 0.2 and 1.1 order, respectively. The overall activation energies for this grafting were calculated to be 15.2 and 4.8 kcal/mol below and above 350C, respectively. The relationship between the grafting rate and film and film thickness gave negative first-order dependence

  17. Immobilization of urease on grafted starch by radiation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The acrylamide was grafted by radiation onto starch which is a kind polymeric biomaterial. The urease was immobilized on the grafted starch. Some experiments to observe the quantitative relationships between the percent graft and the activity of immobilized enzyme were determined. The enzyme activity was maintained by more than seven batch enzyme reactions. (Author)

  18. Immobilization of urease on grafted starch by radiation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The acrylamide was grafted by radiation onto starch which is a kind of polymeric biomaterial. The urease was immobilized on the grafted starch. Some experiments to observe the quantitative relationships between the percent graft and the activity of immobilized enzyme were determined. The enzyme activity was maintained by more than seven batch enzyme reactions. (author)

  19. Polymers grafted by ionizing radiations. Regulated desorption of fertilizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Study and development of copolymers for progressive liberation of fertilizers in the soil through a membrane. These copolymers are obtained by grafting a hydrophilic acrylic monomer on a hydrophobic polymer (polyolefine). Desorption of a fertilizer through a membrane of graft polymer as a function of time and grafting ratio was tested both in the laboratory and by plant growing

  20. Revascularisation of fresh compared with demineralised bone grafts in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solheim, E; Pinholt, E M

    2001-01-01

    Revascularisation of bone grafts is influenced by both the anatomical origin and the pre-implantation processing of the graft. We investigated the revascularisation by entrapment of 141Ce (cerium)-labelled microspheres in large, fresh and demineralised syngeneic grafts of predominantly cancellous (iliac bone) or cortical (tibial diaphysis) bone three weeks after heterotopic implantation in rats. The mean (SD) 141Ce deposition index (counts per minute (cpm) of mg recovered implant/cpm of mg host iliac bone) was higher in fresh iliac bone grafts, 0.98 (0.46) compared to that of demineralised iliac bone, 0.32 (0.20), p <0.001, and fresh tibial bone grafts, 0.51 (0.27), p = 0.007. We found no significant difference in the mean 141Ce deposition index between fresh tibial bone grafts and demineralised tibial bone grafts, 0.35 (0.42), p = 0.4, or between demineralised tibial grafts and demineralised iliac bone grafts, p = 0.8. The results suggest that whereas fresh cancellous grafts are revascularised more completely than fresh cortical grafts, there is no difference in the revascularisation of demineralised cancellous and cortical grafts. In addition, fresh cancellous bone is revascularised more completely than demineralised cancellous bone, whereas there is no difference between fresh and demineralised cortical bone.

  1. A Fat Gluino in Disguise

    CERN Document Server

    Reuter, J

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate how a sizeable width-to-mass ratio for a gluino, as is for example realized in GMSB scenarios, could affect the discovery potential of gluinos at the LHC. More importantly, the influence of the gluino being "fat" on the standard mass and spin determination methods at the LHC are investigated. For this purpose, we focus on gluino production at the LHC, where we do not factorize the first step in the gluino decay cascade, but treat the following decay cascades step in factorization, including full spin correlations. The effects of sizeable width-to-mass ratios from a few up to 15-20 per cent on the endpoint of several mass determination methods as well as on means for discrimination between BSM spin paradigms like SUSY and UED are studied.

  2. Fat tails in power prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spot power prices exhibit extreme price jumps and the tendency to oscillate around a long-term mean. Despite these well-known characteristics, electricity price models used for Monte Carlo simulations, VaR related measures, or derivatives valuation, often assume normally distributed residuals. In this paper, we examine the distributional characteristics of model residuals and show that the hypothesis of normality is rejected due to significant tail fatness and skewness. We then examine the Student-t distribution as a candidate fit for residuals and as an alternative distribution for random innovations in Monte Carlo simulations. The resulting price patterns clearly show that simulations based on the Student-t distribution resemble more closely actual power price patters. We then discuss the implications of our results for risk management

  3. A fat gluino in disguise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we investigate how a sizeable width-to-mass ratio for a gluino, as is for example realized in GMSB scenarios, could affect the discovery potential of gluinos at the LHC. More importantly, the influence of the gluino being ''fat'' on the standard mass and spin determination methods at the LHC are investigated. For this purpose, we focus on gluino production at the LHC, where we do not factorize the first step in the gluino decay cascade, but treat the following decay cascades step in factorization, including full spin correlations. The effects of sizeable width-to-mass ratios from a few up to 15-20 per cent on the endpoint of several mass determination methods as well as on means for discrimination between BSM spin paradigms like SUSY and UED are studied.

  4. A fat gluino in disguise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reuter, J.; Wiesler, D.

    2012-12-15

    In this paper, we investigate how a sizeable width-to-mass ratio for a gluino, as is for example realized in GMSB scenarios, could affect the discovery potential of gluinos at the LHC. More importantly, the influence of the gluino being ''fat'' on the standard mass and spin determination methods at the LHC are investigated. For this purpose, we focus on gluino production at the LHC, where we do not factorize the first step in the gluino decay cascade, but treat the following decay cascades step in factorization, including full spin correlations. The effects of sizeable width-to-mass ratios from a few up to 15-20 per cent on the endpoint of several mass determination methods as well as on means for discrimination between BSM spin paradigms like SUSY and UED are studied.

  5. The influence of fat score and fat trimming on primal cut composition of South African lamb

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    P.E., Strydom; S.M., van Heerden; H.C., Schönfeldt; R., Kruger; M.F., Smith.

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to evaluate the primal cut composition of South African lamb carcasses with different fat scores, and to identify cuts suitable for fat trimming. Sixty grain fed Dorper lambs (rams and ewes) were divided into three groups and slaughtered at 30, 36 and 42 kg. Chilled [...] carcass sides were subdivided into seven primal cuts. The cuts were dissected into meat (muscle, intermuscular and intramuscular fat), bone and subcutaneous fat (SCF) in order to determine the physical composition per cut and for the whole carcass. The % subcutaneous fat (SCF) in the loin increased the most (26 units) as the fat score increased from 1 to 5, followed by the flank, shoulder and neck. The % meat (lean) of the neck, thick rib and breast showed no significant change between fat scores 1 to 5, while % bone decreased significantly (>6% units). Meat and bone proportions decreased significantly with an increase in fat score for the loin, flank, leg and shoulder. The composition of the loin cut was most affected overall by changes in the fat score. Since different cuts accumulate SCF at different rates during fattening, trimming of SCF could reduce the boneless % SCF level of the major cuts such as the loin, leg and shoulder by 12, 6 and 9 units, respectively, when trimmed from SCF equal to a fat score 5 to a fat score 3. Further trimming to levels equal to a fat score 1, could reduce the % SCF by 18, 8 and 5 units, respectively on a boneless level. Considering differences in relative increase in intermuscular fat (IMF) and SCF in different cuts, the leg seems to be the most suitable cut for trimming in fat carcasses, since the IMF : SCF ratio is the lowest compared to the other larger cuts namely the loin and shoulder.

  6. Body Fat, Abdominal Fat, and Body Fat Distribution Is Related to Left Atrial Diameter in Young Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, Magnus; Thorsson, Ola

    2012-01-01

    In adults, the size of the left atria (LA) has important prognostic information. In obese adults, adolescents and children enlargement of LA have been observed. This has not been investigated on a population-based level in young children. We therefore assessed if total body fat mass (TBF), abdominal fat, and body fat distribution were related to LA diameter. Cross-sectional study of 244 children (boys = 137 and girls n = 107) aged 8-11 years, recruited from an urban population-based cohort. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measured total lean body mass, TBF, and abdominal fat mass (AFM). Body fat was also calculated as a percentage of body mass (BF%). Body fat distribution (AFM/TBF) was calculated. Echocardiography was performed with two-dimensional guided M-mode. LA diameter was measured and left ventricular mass (LVM) was calculated. Systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure were measured and maturity assessed according to Tanner. There were significant (P <0.05) univariate correlations forall children between TBF (r = 0.40), BF% (r = 0.32), AFM (r = 0.41), and AFM/TBF (r = 0.41) vs. LA diameter. Multiple regression analyses with the inclusion of possible confounders such as lean body mass, blood pressure, gender, age, and Tanner stage revealed that TBF, AFM, and AFM/TBF were all independently related to LA diameter. Differences in the different body fat measurements explained 6-9% of the variance in LA size. These results demonstrated that both total body fat, AFM, and body fat distribution are already at a young age negatively and independently associated to LA diameter.

  7. MICELLIZATION BEHAVIOR COMPARISION OF POLYPEPTIDE GRAFT COPOLYMER AND BLOCK-GRAFT COPOLYMER IN ETHANOL

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    GUO-QUAN, ZHU.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(?-benzyl L-glutamate)-graft-poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG-b-PBLG-g-PEG) copolymer and poly(?-benzyl L-glutamate)-graft-poly(ethylene glycol) (PBLG-graft-PEG) copolymer were synthesized by the ester exchange reaction of PEG chain with PBLG-block-PEG copolymer and PBLG ho [...] mopolymer, respectively. The micellization behaviors of PEG-b-PBLG-g-PEG and PBLG-graft-PEG in ethanol were investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and viscometry. Effects of both the introduction of PBLG homopolymer and the change of testing temperature on the critical aggregation concentration (CAC) of the two polypeptide copolymers in ethanol were mainly studied. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were used to research the chain conformations of polypeptide segments of the two polypeptide copolymers in solvent and in the solid state, respectively.

  8. Graft-versus-host disease and graft-versus-tumor effects after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storb, Rainer; Gyurkocza, Boglarka

    2013-01-01

    We designed a minimal-intensity conditioning regimen for allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) in patients with advanced hematologic malignancies unable to tolerate high-intensity regimens because of age, serious comorbidities, or previous high-dose HCT. The regimen allows the purest assessment of graft-versus-tumor (GVT) effects apart from conditioning and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) not augmented by regimen-related toxicities.

  9. Synthesis of Polymer Grafted Magnetite Nanoparticle with the Highest Grafting Density via Controlled Radical Polymerization

    OpenAIRE

    Babu Kothandapani; Dhamodharan Raghavachari

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The surface-initiated ATRP of benzyl methacrylate, methyl methacrylate, and styrene from magnetite nanoparticle is investigated, without the use of sacrificial (free) initiator in solution. It is observed that the grafting density obtained is related to the polymerization kinetics, being higher for faster polymerizing monomer. The grafting density was found to be nearly 2 chains/nm2for the rapidly polymerizing benzyl methacrylate. In contrast, for the less rapidly polymerizing styren...

  10. Correction of Short Nose Deformity Using a Septal Extension Graft Combined with a Derotation Graft

    OpenAIRE

    Paik, Moo Hyun; Chu, Lo Shui

    2014-01-01

    In patients having a short nose with a short septal length and/or severe columellar retraction, a septal extension graft is a good solution, as it allows the dome to move caudally and pushes down the columellar base. Fixing the medial crura of the alar cartilages to a septal extension graft leads to an uncomfortably rigid nasal tip and columella, and results in unnatural facial animation. Further, because of the relatively small and weak septal cartilage in the East Asian population, undercor...

  11. Photoactivated surface grafting from PVDF surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berthelot, Thomas, E-mail: thomas.berthelot@cea.fr [Chemistry of Surfaces and Interfaces, CEA Saclay, DSM/IRAMIS/SPCSI, F-91191, Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Le, Xuan Tuan; Jegou, Pascale; Viel, Pascal [Chemistry of Surfaces and Interfaces, CEA Saclay, DSM/IRAMIS/SPCSI, F-91191, Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Boizot, Bruno [Laboratory of Irradiated Solids UMR 7642 CEA/CNRS/Ecole Polytechnique, CEA-DSM/IRAMIS LSI, Ecole Polytechnique, F-91128, Palaiseau Cedex (France); Baudin, Cecile; Palacin, Serge [Chemistry of Surfaces and Interfaces, CEA Saclay, DSM/IRAMIS/SPCSI, F-91191, Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France)

    2011-09-01

    Economic and easy methods to tune surface properties of polymers as Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) without altering bulk properties are of major interest for different applications as biotechnological devices, medical implant device... UV irradiation appears as one of the simplest, easy and safe method to modify surface properties. In the case of self-initiated grafting, it is generally assumed that the pre-treatment of the PVDF surface with UV irradiation can yield alkyl and per-oxy radicals originating from breaking bonds and capable of initiating the subsequent surface grafting polymerizations. Surprisingly, the present work shows that it is possible to obtain polymer grafting using low energetic UV-A irradiation (3.1-3.9 eV) without breaking PVDF bonds. An EPR study has been performed in order to investigate the nature of involved species. The ability of the activated PVDF surface to graft different kinds of hydrophilic monomers using the initiated surface polymerization method has been tested and discussed on the basis of ATR FT-IR, XPS and NMR HRMAS results.

  12. Management of Peyronie's Disease by Dermal Grafting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Nasseh

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the results of plaque excision and dermal grafting in Peyronie’s disease.Materials and Methods: Twenty seven patients were scheduled to undergo plaque excision and dermal grafting for Peyronie’s disease. Potency, bending of erected penis, and having painful erection were evaluated in patients before and after operation. To evaluate erectile dysfunction, we used International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF by interviewing the patients and filling questionnaires by their partners. Doppler ultrasonography was used to determine the vascular competence of penis before and after operation in 15 patients. Results: The disease was more prevalent between the ages of 40 and 60 years. Plaques were located as follows: dorsal in 18, right lateral in 6 and left lateral in 3. Mean plaque size was 11 (range 5 to 18 mm. After plaque excision and dermal grafting, penile deformity, erectile dysfunction, and painful erection had remained yet in 4 (15% out of 27, 3 (16% out of 19, and 3 (14% out of 22, respectively. Doppler ultrasonographic study in 15 patients revealed improvement in peak systolic velocity (P Conclusion: This procedure showed significant improvement in penile deformity (85% of cases, erectile dysfunction (84% of cases and painful erection (86% of cases. We recommend plaque excision and dermal grafting as an effective procedure in treating Peyronie’s disease.

  13. [Modified endothelial cells in graft vasculopathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haverich, A; Kallenbach, K

    2001-12-01

    Occlusion of venous bypass grafts after coronary revascularization grafting represents the main reason for re-do operations. Arterial pressure as well as mechanical injury of the venous wall lead to endothelial dysfunction, causing intimal hyperplasia with luminal stenosis and eventually occlusion. In the transplanted heart, coronary artery disease limits the long-term success of cardiac transplantation. The disease is characterized by the interaction of activated immunologic cells and donor epicardical and microvascular endothelium. The ex vivo modification of endothelial cells may offer a therapeutic option to overcome both kinds of graft vasculopathy. Seeding of human endothelial cells on artificial and bioartificial acellularized vessel matrices has proven possible. The use of xenogenic matrices initially acellularized and recellularized with autologic endothelial cells and myofibroblasts may help to overcome the lack of vascular and valvular grafts with long durability. In addition, gene therapeutic methods to modify the function of such endothelial cells may offer a new therapeutic strategy, such as over-expression of nitric monoxide or inhibition of matrix metalloprotinases. First results of large animal studies show promising results and may lead to the first clinical trials in the near future. PMID:11826835

  14. Plant grafting: making the right connections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kümpers, Britta M C; Bishopp, Anthony

    2015-05-18

    The cultivation of many crops relies on the formation of chimeric plants, where roots from one variety are grafted onto the shoot of another. A new study uncovers how two plants connect and demonstrates that the root and shoot do not contribute equally to the union. PMID:25989079

  15. Cellular grafts in management of leucoderma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mysore Venkataram

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Cellular grafting methods constitute important advances in the surgical management of leucoderma. Different methods such as noncultured epidermal suspensions, melanocyte cultures, and melanocyte-keratinocyte cultures have all been shown to be effective. This article reviews these methods.

  16. Photoactivated surface grafting from PVDF surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Economic and easy methods to tune surface properties of polymers as Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) without altering bulk properties are of major interest for different applications as biotechnological devices, medical implant device... UV irradiation appears as one of the simplest, easy and safe method to modify surface properties. In the case of self-initiated grafting, it is generally assumed that the pre-treatment of the PVDF surface with UV irradiation can yield alkyl and per-oxy radicals originating from breaking bonds and capable of initiating the subsequent surface grafting polymerizations. Surprisingly, the present work shows that it is possible to obtain polymer grafting using low energetic UV-A irradiation (3.1-3.9 eV) without breaking PVDF bonds. An EPR study has been performed in order to investigate the nature of involved species. The ability of the activated PVDF surface to graft different kinds of hydrophilic monomers using the initiated surface polymerization method has been tested and discussed on the basis of ATR FT-IR, XPS and NMR HRMAS results.

  17. Interposition Grafting of Large Extracranial Carotid Aneurysm

    OpenAIRE

    Huyzer, Marlous; Reijnen, Michel M. P. J.; Sybrandy, Johannes E. M.; Buth, Jacob; Zeebregts, Clark J.

    2011-01-01

    Extracranial carotid aneurysms are a rare entity and carry an inherent risk of thromboembolic complications. Treatment options consist of endovascular and conventional surgical techniques. We describe the cases of 3 patients who were treated with an interposition graft for a large extracranial carotid aneurysm.

  18. Fatal Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Aortic Graft Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Michael (Technical Monitor); Smith, Davey; Metzgar, David; Wills, Christopher; Fierer, Joshua

    2002-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a yeast commonly used in baking and a frequent colonizer of human mucosal surfaces. It is considered relatively nonpathogenic in immunocompetent adults. We present a case of S. cerevisiae fungemia and aortic graft infection in an immunocompetent adult. This is the first reported case of S. cerevisiue fungemia where the identity of the pathogen was confirmed by rRNA sequencing.

  19. Teratoma with intraventricular free fat on CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intracranial fat-containing congenital tumors are characterized by negative absorption values on computed tomography(CT). We are reporting a case of teratoma with intraventricular free fat diagnosed preoperatively by CT. The case is a 19-year-old female who was admitted to our hospital because of contineous severe headache, nausea and vomiting. At the time of admission, her physical and neurological examination was negative except for bilateral papilledema. CT demonstrated marked enlargement of the right lateral ventricle. In addition, there was negative absorption value (-90 H.U.), suggesting free fat, within right frontal horn layering above the CSF with a fluid level. Metrizamide ventriculography demonstrated complete obstruction and revealed an irregular shadow defect at the right foramen of Monro. At surgery, yellowish cheese-like material, white hair was found on the surface of the CSF. Tumor arose from the floor of the right foramen of Monro and extended upward. The patient made an uneventful recovery and was discharged 17 days after surgery. Intraventricular free fat is likely that to be released from the teratoma cyst ruptured spontaneously when the patient complained of severe headache 40 days prior to admission. There have been several published reports of the CT appearances of intracranial fat-containing tumors, however, teratoma with intraventricular free fat is very rare. It was concluded that fat-containing tumors should be highly suspected, when negatirs should be highly suspected, when negative absorption values were found on CT. (author)

  20. All Fat Is Not Created Equally!

    Science.gov (United States)

    AMPS GK-12 Program,

    Students learn that fats found in the foods we eat are not all the same; they discover that physical properties of materials are related to their chemical structures. Provided with several samples of commonly used fats with different chemical properties (olive oil, vegetable oil, shortening, animal fat and butter), student groups build and use simple LEGO® MINDSTORMS® NXT robots with temperature and light sensors to determine the melting points of the fat samples. Because of their different chemical structures, these fats exhibit different physical properties, such as melting point and color. This activity uses the fact that fats are opaque when solid and translucent when liquid to determine the melting point of each sample upon being heated. Students heat the samples, and use the robot to determine when samples are melted. They analyze plots of their collected data to compare melting points of the oil samples to look for trends. Discrepancies are correlated to differences in the chemical structure and composition of the fats.

  1. Production of fats and oils by microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Osamu

    1987-10-20

    This paper describes the production of fats and oils by microorganisms. Various fat-productive bacteria have been found to produce the fats and oils by microorganisms which are roughly classified into enzyme and filiform fungus. The cells do not proliferate under the conditions adequate for producing the cells with the high content of lipid. A cell with high content of fat belonging to Mortierella filamentas fungi has been recently obtained at high density in the high concentration culture medium. The productivity of the fat similar to cocoa butter seems to be also high. A lot of microorganisms producing various functional fatty acids have been found. The microorganismic production methods of esters of longer-chain dicarboxylic acids and alcohols than C/sub 11/ hardly produced in nature form n-alkane also have been recently developed. Squalene has been able to produce by a cell from the other raw materials than the shark oil. Various sterols exist in microorganisms. The high-productivity manufacturing method of the fats containing gamma-linoleic acid by Mortierella filiform fungi has been developed and commercialized as the first production process of the fat by the microorganism. (5 figs, 7 tabs, 128 refs

  2. Fat Watch: a nationwide campaign in The Netherlands to reduce fat intake--effect evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wechem, S N; Brug, J; van Assema, P; Kistemaker, C; Riedstra, M; Löwik, M R

    1998-01-01

    In the Netherlands, the nationwide Fat Watch campaign aiming at a reduction in fat consumption was organized from 1991 onwards. This study describes the effects of the first three consecutive campaign years on attention to fat, diet and health, attitudes, self-efficacy expectations and intentions related to dietary fat reduction, and self-rated fat intake. Data were collected each year according to the Solomon design, by telephone interviews among about 1200 consumers responsible for household purchases. Campaign awareness was high in each campaign year, but a decrease in campaign awareness was found after the first campaign in 1991. The 1991 campaign was primarily aimed at getting the attention of the Dutch public for the fat-reduction message and indeed resulted in increased attention. The second campaign year resulted in small but statistically significant positive changes in attitudes, which was the specific target of the 1992 campaign. Intention to buy low-fat food products was also significantly increased. The 1993 campaign failed to realize the targeted increases in self-efficacy among the study population, but a significant campaign effect on intentions was found. The evaluation of all three campaigns indicated that the Dutch underestimate their personal fat intake and this has been identified as an important barrier to a further reduction in fat consumption. Making subjects aware of their personal fat consumption will be given priority in future campaigns. PMID:9502237

  3. Detection of non-milk fat in milk fat by gas chromatography and linear discriminant analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, R; Vega, S; Díaz, G; Sánchez, J; Coronado, M; Ramírez, A; Pérez, J; González, M; Schettino, B

    2009-05-01

    Gas chromatography was utilized to determine triacylglycerol profiles in milk and non-milk fat. The values of triacylglycerol were subjected to linear discriminant analysis to detect and quantify non-milk fat in milk fat. Two groups of milk fat were analyzed: A) raw milk fat from the central region of Mexico (n = 216) and B) ultrapasteurized milk fat from 3 industries (n = 36), as well as pork lard (n = 2), bovine tallow (n = 2), fish oil (n = 2), peanut (n = 2), corn (n = 2), olive (n = 2), and soy (n = 2). The samples of raw milk fat were adulterated with non-milk fats in proportions of 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20% to form 5 groups. The first function obtained from the linear discriminant analysis allowed the correct classification of 94.4% of the samples with levels adulteration. The triacylglycerol values of the ultrapasteurized milk fats were evaluated with the discriminant function, demonstrating that one industry added non-milk fat to its product in 80% of the samples analyzed. PMID:19389942

  4. Stretch Polytetrafluoroethylene Grafts for Hemodialysis Angioaccess: Three-year Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Dayel Adel

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the results of 90 stretch polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE grafts in 78 chronic renal failure patients over a 3-year period from 1995-1998. The grafts were used as primary access in 15% of the patients. The cumulative patency was 63.3% and there were no complications in 48.8% of the cases. Infection was encountered in 15.5% and thrombosis in 31.1% of the grafts. Intimal hyperplasia, venous anastomotic stenosis, improper puncture technique and subclavian vein stenosis were the major causes of failure of grafts. We conclude that stretch PTFE grafts as angioaccesses may provide good patency and durability.

  5. Use of Trellis thrombectomy system in acute aortofemoral graft occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Elias B; Gupta, Raghav; Hennebry, Thomas A

    2010-05-01

    Acute aortofemoral graft occlusion is often effectively treated with endovascular therapy but a substantial proportion of patients experience failure or complications of this therapy, and most of them require definitive surgery for the underlying inflow, outflow, or graft disease. We describe a case of an aortofemoral graft occlusion that was successfully treated with the Trellis thrombectomy-thrombolysis system (Covidien, Dublin, Ireland). Subsequent stenting of the graft obviated the need for a definitive graft revision surgery. The Trellis system combines mechanical and local pharmacologic lysis of the thrombus, with more rapid and more effective thrombus dissolution and theoretically less risk of systemic dispersion of the thrombolytic agent and less bleeding. PMID:20155799

  6. Dynamics of graft formation in fruit trees: a review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GK Mahunu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This review paper comprehensively discussed the dynamics of graft union formation in fruit trees. Histological studies confirmed graft union is a continuous process and reliable indicators of graft-compatibility are not visible. Although initiation of scion bud development is signs of graftformation processesbut early callus formation determines subsequent survival of scion prior to cambial and vascular connectivity. Process of graft union formation is similar in most plants with few variations in days to completion. Factors attributed to graft-incompatibility or otherwise have been mentioned whiles research should also target specific tropical plants.

  7. Tissue engineered small-diameter vascular grafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmedlen, Rachael H; Elbjeirami, Wafa M; Gobin, Andrea S; West, Jennifer L

    2003-10-01

    Arterial occlusive disease remains the leading cause of death in western countries and often requires vascular reconstructive surgery. The limited supply of suitable small-diameter vascular grafts has led to the development of tissue engineered blood vessel substitutes. Many different approaches have been examined, including natural scaffolds containing one or more ECM proteins and degradable polymeric scaffolds. For optimal graft development, many efforts have modified the culture environment to enhance ECM synthesis and organization using bioreactors under physiologic conditions and biochemical supplements. In the past couple of decades, a great deal of progress on TEVGs has been made. Many challenges remain and are being addressed, particularly with regard to the prevention of thrombosis and the improvement of graft mechanical properties. To develop a patent TEVG that grossly resembles native tissue, required culture times in most studies exceed 8 weeks. Even with further advances in the field, TEVGs will likely not be used in emergency situations because of the time necessary to allow for cell expansion, ECM production and organization, and attainment of desired mechanical strength. Furthermore, TEVGs will probably require the use of autologous tissue to prevent an immunogenic response, unless advances in immune acceptance render allogenic and xenogenic tissue use feasible. TEVGs have not yet been subjected to clinical trials, which will determine the efficacy of such grafts in the long term. Finally, off-the-shelf availability and cost will become the biggest hurdles in the development of a feasible TEVG product. Although many obstacles exist in the effort to develop a small-diameter TEVG, the potential benefits of such an achievement are exciting. In the near future, a nonthrombogenic TEVG with sufficient mechanical strength may be developed for clinical trials. Such a graft will have the minimum characteristics of biological tissue necessary to remain patent over a period comparable to current vein graft therapies. As science and technology advance, TEVGs may evolve into complex blood vessel substitutes. TEVGs may become living grafts, capable of growing, remodeling, and responding to mechanical and biochemical stimuli in the surrounding environment. These blood vessel substitutes will closely resemble native vessels in almost every way, including structure, composition, mechanical properties, and function. They will possess vasoactive properties and be able to dilate and constrict in response to stimuli. Close mimicry of native blood vessels may aid in the engineering of other tissues dependent upon vasculature to sustain function. With further understanding of the factors involved in cardiovascular development and function combined with the foundation of knowledge already in place, the development of TEVGs should one day lead to improved quality of life for those with vascular disease and other life-threatening conditions. PMID:14621299

  8. Synthesis of Polymer Grafted Magnetite Nanoparticle with the Highest Grafting Density via Controlled Radical Polymerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babu Kothandapani

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The surface-initiated ATRP of benzyl methacrylate, methyl methacrylate, and styrene from magnetite nanoparticle is investigated, without the use of sacrificial (free initiator in solution. It is observed that the grafting density obtained is related to the polymerization kinetics, being higher for faster polymerizing monomer. The grafting density was found to be nearly 2 chains/nm2for the rapidly polymerizing benzyl methacrylate. In contrast, for the less rapidly polymerizing styrene, the grafting density was found to be nearly 0.7 chain/nm2. It is hypothesized that this could be due to the relative rates of surface-initiated polymerization versus conformational mobility of polymer chains anchored by one end to the surface. An amphiphilic diblock polymer based on 2-hydroxylethyl methacrylate is synthesized from the polystyrene monolayer. The homopolymer and block copolymer grafted MNs form stable dispersions in various solvents. In order to evaluate molecular weight of the polymer that was grafted on to the surface of the nanoparticles, it was degrafted suitably and subjected to gel permeation chromatography analysis. Thermogravimetric analysis, transmission electron microscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were used to confirm the grafting reaction.

  9. Application of fats in some food products

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Raquel Vallerio, Rios; Meibel Durigan Ferreira, Pessanha; Poliana Fernandes de, Almeida; Clara Leonel, Viana; Suzana Caetano da Silva, Lannes.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Fats and oils are very important raw materials and functional ingredients for several food products such as confectionery, bakery, ice creams, emulsions, and sauces, shortenings, margarines, and other specially tailored products. Formulated products are made with just about every part of chemistry, [...] but they are not simple chemicals. In general, they consist of several, and often many, components. Each of these components has a purpose. Most formulated products have a micro- or nano-structure that is important for their function, but obtaining this structure is often the big challenge. Due to a rise in overweight or obesity, health concerns have increased. This fact has led to the need to the develop products with low fat content, which have become a market trend. In addition, the development of new products using fat substitutes can be a good option for companies that are always trying to reduce costs or substitute trans fat or saturated fat. However, the successful development of these products is still a challenge because fat plays multiple roles in determining the desirable physicochemical and sensory attributes, and because the consumers who want or need to replace these ingredients, seek products with similar characteristics to those of the original product. Important attributes such as smooth, creamy and rich texture; milky and creamy appearance; desirable flavor; and satiating effects are influenced by the droplets of fat, and these characteristics are paramount to the consumer and consequently crucial to the success of the product in the market. Therefore, it is important to identify commercially viable strategies that are capable of removing or reducing fat content of food products without altering their sensory and nutritional characteristics. This paper intended to provide an overview about the role of fat in different food systems such as chocolate, ice cream, bakery products like biscuits, breads, and cakes considering the major trends of the food industry to meet the demands of modern society.

  10. Soft tissue grafting to improve implant esthetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moawia M Kassab

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Moawia M KassabDivision of Periodontics, Marquette University, School of Dentistry, Milwaukee, WI, USAAbstract: Dental implants are becoming the treatment of choice to replace missing teeth, especially if the adjacent teeth are free of restorations. When minimal bone width is present, implant placement becomes a challenge and often resulting in recession and dehiscence around the implant that leads to subsequent gingival recession. To correct such defect, the author turned to soft tissue autografting and allografting to correct a buccal dehiscence around tooth #24 after a malpositioned implant placed by a different surgeon. A 25-year-old woman presented with the chief complaint of gingival recession and exposure of implant threads around tooth #24. The patient received three soft tissue grafting procedures to augment the gingival tissue. The first surgery included a connective tissue graft to increase the width of the keratinized gingival tissue. The second surgery included the use of autografting (connective tissue graft to coronally position the soft tissue and achieve implant coverage. The third and final surgery included the use of allografting material Alloderm to increase and mask the implant from showing through the gingiva. Healing period was uneventful for the patient. After three surgical procedures, it appears that soft tissue grafting has increased the width and height of the gingiva surrounding the implant. The accomplished thickness of gingival tissue appeared to mask the showing of implant threads through the gingival tissue and allowed for achieving the desired esthetic that the patient desired. The aim of the study is to present a clinical case with soft tissue grafting procedures.Keywords: case report, connective tissue, dental implants, allograft, coronally positioned flap

  11. Radiation-induced grafting of acrylic acid onto polyethylene filaments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation-induced grafting of acrylic acid onto high density polyethylene (PE) filaments was carried out in order to raise softening temperature and impart flame retardance and hydrophilic properties. Mutual ?-irradiation method was employed for the grafting in a mixture of acrylic acid (AA), ethylene dichloride and water containing a small amount of ferrous ammonium sulfate. The rate of grafting was very low at room temperature. On the other hand, large percent grafts were obtained when the grafting was performed at an elevated temperature. Activation energy for the initial rate of grafting was found to be 17 kcal/mol between 20 and 600C and 10 kcal/ mol between 60 and 800C. Original PE filament begins to shrink at 700C, shows maximum shrinkage of 50% at 1300C and then breaks off at 1360C. When a 34% AA graft is converted to metallic salt the graft filament retains its filament form even above 3000C and gives maximum shrinkage of 15%. Burning tests by a wire-netting basket method indicate that graft filaments and their metallic salts do not form melting drops upon burning and are self-extinguishing. Original PE filament shows no moisture absorption; however, that of AA-grafted PE increases with increasing graft percent. (author)

  12. Differential effect of gender on hepatic fat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are discrepant data on whether men or women have a higher risk for hepatic steatosis. To examine the influence of gender on hepatic adiposity in teenagers and young adults. We measured subcutaneous abdominal fat (SAF), intra-abdominal fat (IAF) and hepatic tissue density (a surrogate measure of hepatic fat) using CT in 505 healthy teenagers and young adults (254 males, 251 females; ages 15-22.9 years). Overall, compared to men, women had higher values of SAF (P 0.05). When compared to overweight and obese young women, overweight and obese young men are at greater risk for hepatic steatosis, independent of IAF. (orig.)

  13. Arm fat and muscle areas in infancy.

    OpenAIRE

    Sann, L; Durand, M.; Picard, J; Lasne, Y; Bethenod, M

    1988-01-01

    Growth of arm muscle, fat and water areas were evaluated longitudinally in a prospective study in 81 infants from birth to the age of 12 months. The percentage of arm fat area v the cross sectional upper arm area increased at the age of 15 days with a peak peak at the age of 6 months while arm muscle area increased progressively throughout the year. As arm water area represented only 1% of cross sectional upper arm area, calculations of arm fat and muscle areas can be carried out from measure...

  14. Free and microvascular bone grafting in the irradiated dog mandible

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microvascular and free rib grafts were placed in 4.5 cm defects in an edentate mandibular body defect 18 to 28 days after completion of 50 Gy of irradiation from a 60Co source. The animals were sacrificed from two to forty weeks postoperatively and evaluated clinically, radiographically, and histologically. There was a marked difference in the alveolar mucosal viability with the two grafts. Mucosal dehiscence was not observed over any of the microvascular grafts, but was present in seven-eighths of the free grafts. Union of the microvascular bone graft to the host bone occurred within six weeks. In contrast, after six weeks the free graft was sequestered in all the animals. An unexpected finding with both types of graft was the marked subperiosteal bone formation. This bone appeared to be derived from the host bed, stabilizing and bridging the defects bilaterally. The results suggest that radiated periosteum may play an important role in osteogenesis

  15. ESR spectroscopic investigations of the radiation-grafting of fluoropolymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huebner, G.; Roduner, E. [University of Stuttgart (Germany); Brack, H.P.; Scherer, G.G. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    ESR spectroscopic investigations have clarified the influence of several preparative parameters on the reaction rates and yields obtained in the radiation-grafting method used at PSI to prepare proton-conducting polymer membranes. At a given irradiation dose, a higher concentration of reactive radical sites was detected in ETFE films than in FEP films. This higher concentration explains the higher grafting levels and rates of the ETFE films found in our previous grafting experiments. Taken together, the in-situ ESR experiments and grafting experiments show that the rates of disappearance of radical species and grafting rates and final grafting levels depend strongly on the reaction temperature and the oxygen content of the system. Average grafted chain lengths were calculated to contain about 1,000 monomer units. (author) 2 figs., 4 refs.

  16. Optimal use of negative pressure wound therapy for skin grafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Subhas

    2012-08-01

    Skin grafting is a technique used for transplanting human skin (i.e. epidermal and some dermal layers) from a harvest site to a recipient site. However, advancements in bioengineered matrices have also introduced alternatives to skin grafts. The method used to secure the graft, whether skin or biomatrix, is critical in reducing graft failure. During the past several years, negative pressure wound therapy using reticulated open-cell foam (NPWT/ROCF; V.A.C.® Therapy, KCI USA, Inc., San Antonio, TX) has become a well-established method for bolstering grafts to recipient beds and is being used more frequently over biomatrices to help improve graft outcomes. This review will combine expert opinion with scientific evidence for the use of NPWT/ROCF over grafts. PMID:22727139

  17. Radiation grafting of acrylonitrile on ethylene-propylene diene terpolymer rubber. Optimization of grafting parameters and oil resistance properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation induced grafting of acrylonitrile (ACN) on ethylene-propene diene terpolymer (EPDM) rubber film was investigated by mutual radiation grafting technique. Effect of experimental variables viz. radiation dose, dose rate, type of solvent and monomer content on extent of grafting was studied. From the kinetic studies a mathematical relation Rg?[M]0.7D0.68 showing non-linear relationship for rate of grafting with monomer concentration and dose was deduced. The grafted samples showed increased hardness and oil resistance. (author)

  18. Fat absorption and deposition in Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) fed a high fat diet

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mhlengi M., Magubane; Busisani W., Lembede; Kennedy H., Erlwanger; Eliton, Chivandi; Janine, Donaldson.

    Full Text Available Dietary fat contributes significantly to the energy requirements of poultry. Not all species are able to increase their absorptive capacity for fats in response to a high fat diet. The effects of a high fat diet (10% canola oil) on the lipid absorption and deposition in the liver, breast and thigh m [...] uscles of male and female Japanese quail were investigated. Thirty-eight Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) were randomly divided into a high fat diet (HFD) and a standard diet (STD) group. The birds were fed the diets for seven weeks after which half of the birds were subjected to oral fat loading tests (OFLT) with plant oils containing long-chain and medium-chain triglycerides. The remaining birds were included for the lipid deposition measurements. Thereafter the birds were euthanised, blood samples were collected and liver, breast and thigh muscle lipid deposition was determined. Female quail on both diets had significantly higher plasma triglyceride concentrations (p

  19. Inhomogeneous distribution of fat enhances the perception of fat-related sensory attributes in gelled foods

    OpenAIRE

    Mosca, A.C.; J.L. Rocha; Sala, G; de Velde, F.; Stieger, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of the spatial distribution of fat on the perception of fat-related sensory attributes using a model system that consisted of layered agar/gelatin gels containing oil-in-water (O/W) emulsion droplets dispersed in the gel matrix. Four layers of gel varying in the amount of emulsion droplets were combined to prepare samples with homogeneous and inhomogeneous distributions of fat (emulsion droplets). The composition of the gels was optimized to obtain samples w...

  20. Monounsaturated fats and immune function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Yaqoob

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available Animal studies suggest that olive oil is capable of modulating functions of cells of the immune system in a manner similar to, albeit weaker than, fish oils. There is some evidence that the effects of olive oil on immune function in animal studies are due to oleic acid rather than to trace elements or antioxidants. Importantly, several studies have demonstrated effects of oleic acid-containing diets on in vivo immune responses. In contrast, consumption of a monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA-rich diet by humans does not appear to bring about a general suppression of immune cell functions. The effects of this diet in humans are limited to decreasing aspects of adhesion of peripheral blood mononuclear cells, although there are trends towards decreases in natural killer cell activity and proliferation. The lack of a clear effect of MUFA in humans may be attributable to the higher level of monounsaturated fat used in the animal studies, although it is ultimately of importance to examine the effects of intakes which are in no way extreme. The effects of MUFA on adhesion molecules are potentially important, since these molecules appear to have a role in the pathology of a number of diseases involving the immune system. This area clearly deserves further exploration

  1. Monounsaturated fats and immune function

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    P., Yaqoob.

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available Animal studies suggest that olive oil is capable of modulating functions of cells of the immune system in a manner similar to, albeit weaker than, fish oils. There is some evidence that the effects of olive oil on immune function in animal studies are due to oleic acid rather than to trace elements [...] or antioxidants. Importantly, several studies have demonstrated effects of oleic acid-containing diets on in vivo immune responses. In contrast, consumption of a monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA)-rich diet by humans does not appear to bring about a general suppression of immune cell functions. The effects of this diet in humans are limited to decreasing aspects of adhesion of peripheral blood mononuclear cells, although there are trends towards decreases in natural killer cell activity and proliferation. The lack of a clear effect of MUFA in humans may be attributable to the higher level of monounsaturated fat used in the animal studies, although it is ultimately of importance to examine the effects of intakes which are in no way extreme. The effects of MUFA on adhesion molecules are potentially important, since these molecules appear to have a role in the pathology of a number of diseases involving the immune system. This area clearly deserves further exploration

  2. CELL SIGNALING: Fat Stress and Liver Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wataru Ogawa (Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine; Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Diabetes, Metabolism, and Endocrinology)

    2008-12-05

    Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. Communication among immune and fat cells in adipose tissue and liver hepatocytes underlies the pathogenesis of obesity-related insulin resistance.

  3. Oil and fat in broiler nutrition

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    NC, Baião; LJC, Lara.

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The terms "fat" and "oil" refer to triglycerides of several profiles of fatty acids. Fatty acids that are not bound to other organic components as glycerol are the so-called free fatty acids. Lipids constitute the main energetic source for animals and they have the highest caloric value among all th [...] e nutrients. Linoleic acid is the only fatty acid whose dietetic requirement has been demonstrated. Besides supplying energy, the addition of fat to animal diets improves the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins, decreases pulverulence, increases diet palatability, and the efficiency of utilization of the consumed energy. Furthermore, it reduces the rate of food passage through the gastrointestinal tract, which allows a better absorption of all nutrients present in the diet. The energetic value of oils and fats depend on the following: the length of the carbonic chain, the number of double bonds, the presence or absence of ester bonds (triglycerides or free fatty acids), the specific arrangements of the saturated and unsaturated fatty acids on the glycerol backbone, the composition of the free fatty acid, the composition of the diet, the quantity and the type of the triglycerides supplemented in the diet, the intestinal flora, the sex and the age of the birds. In birds, body fat composition is similar to the composition of the fat from the diet. The apparent digestibility of unsaturated fats is high in the first days of life of birds, whereas apparent digestibility of saturated fats is low. The quantity of oils or fats is assessed by the following methods: titration, moisture, impurities, unsaponifiable, saponification value, percentage of fat, percentage of free fatty acids/acidity and the profile of fatty acids. The methods initial peroxide value, active oxygen method, osi, iodine value, and analysis of the thiobarbituric acid (TBARS) are specific to evaluate the oxidative stability. Considering diets with the same nutritive values, birds fed with rations containing oil present better performance than birds fed no oil. Moreover, the use of oil or fat in diets for broilers may change both the composition and the quality of the carcass.

  4. Fat oxidation over a range of exercise intensities: fitness versus fatness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croci, Ilaria; Hickman, Ingrid J; Wood, Rachel E; Borrani, Fabio; Macdonald, Graeme A; Byrne, Nuala M

    2014-12-01

    Maximal fat oxidation (MFO), as well as the exercise intensity at which it occurs (Fatmax), have been reported as lower in sedentary overweight individuals but have not been studied in trained overweight individuals. The aim of this study was to compare Fatmax and MFO in lean and overweight recreationally trained males matched for cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and to study the relationships between these variables, anthropometric characteristics, and CRF. Twelve recreationally trained overweight (high fatness (HiFat) group, 30.0% ± 5.3% body fat) and 12 lean males (low fatness (LoFat), 17.2% ± 5.7% body fat) matched for CRF (maximal oxygen consumption (V?O2max) 39.0 ± 5.5 vs. 41.4 ± 7.6 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1), p = 0.31) and age (p = 0.93) performed a graded exercise test on a cycle ergometer. V?O2max and fat and carbohydrate oxidation rates were determined using indirect calorimetry; Fatmax and MFO were determined with a mathematical model (SIN); and % body fat was assessed by air displacement plethysmography. MFO (0.38 ± 0.19 vs. 0.42 ± 0.16 g·min(-1), p = 0.58), Fatmax (46.7% ± 8.6% vs. 45.4% ± 7.2% V?O2max, p = 0.71), and fat oxidation rates over a wide range of exercise intensities were not significantly different (p > 0.05) between HiFat and LoFat groups. In the overall cohort (n = 24), MFO and Fatmax were correlated with V?O2max (r = 0.46, p = 0.02; r = 0.61, p = 0.002) but not with % body fat or body mass index (p > 0.05). Fat oxidation during exercise was similar in recreationally trained overweight and lean males matched for CRF. Consistently, substrate oxidation rates during exercise were not related to adiposity (% body fat) but were related to CRF. The benefits of high CRF independent of body weight and % body fat should be further highlighted in the management of obesity. PMID:25356842

  5. A study on the morphology of polystyrene-grafted poly(ethylene-alt-tetrafluoroethylene) (ETFE) films prepared using a simultaneous radiation grafting method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The morphology of polystyrene-grafted poly(ethylene-alt-tetrafluoroethylene) (ETFE) films prepared using a simultaneous radiation grafting method was investigated using DMA, DSC, XRD, and SAXS instruments. The DMA study indicates that the ETFE amorphous phase and PS amorphous phase are mixed well in the PS-grafted ETFE films while the ETFE crystalline phase and the PS amorphous phase are separated, suggesting that the PS chains are grafted mainly on the ETFE amorphous regions. The DSC and XRD data showed that the natural crystalline structures of ETFE in the grafted ETFE films are not affected by the degree of grafting. The SAXS profiles displayed that the inter-crystalline distance of the ETFE films increases with an increasing degree of grafting, which further implies that the PS graft chains formed by the simultaneous irradiation has a significant impact on the amorphous morphology of the resulting grafted ETFE film. Thus, these results indicate that the styrene monomers are mainly grafted on the ETFE amorphous regions during the simultaneous radiation grafting process. - Highlights: • PS-grafted ETFE films were prepared by a simultaneous radiation grafting method was investigated. • The natural crystalline structures of grafted ETFE films are not affect by the degree of grafting. • The inter-crystalline distance of the ETFE films increase with increasing degree of grafting. • The styrene monomers are mainly grafted on the ETFE amorphous regions during a simultaneous radiation grafting using gamma-ray

  6. High-fat diets: healthy or unhealthy?

    OpenAIRE

    Guldstrand, Marie C.; Simberg, Caroline L.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract In current dietary recommendations for the treatment and prevention of Type 2 diabetes and related complications there is flexibility in the proportion of energy derived from monounsaturated fat and carbohydrate as a replacement for saturated fat. Over the past few years, several population studies have shown that subjects eating a lot of refined grains and processed foods gain a much larger increase in waist circumference than those following a diet higher in monounsatura...

  7. FATS: Feature Analysis for Time Series

    CERN Document Server

    Nun, Isadora; Sim, Brandon; Zhu, Ming; Dave, Rahul; Castro, Nicolas; Pichara, Karim

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present the FATS (Feature Analysis for Time Series) library. FATS is a Python library which facilitates and standardizes feature extraction for time series data. In particular, we focus on one application: feature extraction for astronomical light curve data, although the library is generalizable for other uses. We detail the methods and features implemented for light curve analysis, and present examples for its usage.

  8. Steroid-induced Kager's fat pad atrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report a rare case of Kager's fat pad atrophy and fibrosis in a 60-year-old woman 1 year after a steroid injection for Achilles tendinopathy. There are few published reports of steroid-induced atrophy affecting deeper layers of fat tissue. To our knowledge, this case report is the first to illustrate its features using magnetic resonance imaging. A review of the scientific literature is also presented. (orig.)

  9. Do Fat Supplements Increase Physical Performance?

    OpenAIRE

    Valentina Di Felice; Felicia Farina; Luigi Rizzuto; Patrizia Catanese; Francesco Carini; Rosario Barone; Filippo Macaluso

    2013-01-01

    Fish oil and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) belong to a popular class of food supplements known as “fat supplements”, which are claimed to reduce muscle glycogen breakdown, reduce body mass, as well as reduce muscle damage and inflammatory responses. Sport athletes consume fish oil and CLA mainly to increase lean body mass and reduce body fat. Recent evidence indicates that this kind of supplementation may have other side-effects and a new role has been identified in steroidogenensis. Pre...

  10. Graft copolymers of polypropylene films. 1. radiation induced grafting of mixed monomers. Vol. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation graft copolymerization of co monomer mixtures of acrylic acid (AAC), and styrene (S) onto polypropylene (PP) film by mutual method has been investigated. The effects of different factors that may affect the grafting yield such as inhibitor concentration (Mohr's salt), solvent composition (MeOH and H2 O), radiation dose and dose rate were considered. It was found that the role of Mohr's salt is very effective when the ratio of AAC in the co monomer mixtures was at lower values. However, the addition of 1.25 Wt% of Mohr's salt reduced the homo polymer formation and enhances the grafting process. Graft copolymerization in presence of solvent mixture composed of methanol and water was found to afford higher grafting than in pure methanol regardless of the composition of the co monomer mixture used. However, the highest degree of grafting was obtained at a solvent composition of 20% H2 O:80%MeOH and a co monomer mixture of 20%AAC:80%sty. An attempt was made to determine each PAAC and PS fractions in the total graft yield obtained. Two methods of analysis based on using the reactivity ratios reported in literature, elemental analysis and IR spectroscopy. The determination of poly (acrylic acid) and polystyrene fractions by elemental analysis is believed more accurate than these by reactivity ratio. The precise results obtained by elemental analysis with respect to the chemical structure of known polymer prepared under identical conditions. The results obtained by IR measurements go well with that obtained with the reactivity ratio methods. 5 figs., 3 tabs

  11. Fat intake and injury in female runners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leddy John J

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our purpose was to determine the relationship between energy intake, energy availability, dietary fat and lower extremity injury in adult female runners. We hypothesized that runners who develop overuse running-related injuries have lower energy intakes, lower energy availability and lower fat intake compared to non-injured runners. Methods Eighty-six female subjects, running a minimum of 20 miles/week, completed a food frequency questionnaire and informed us about injury incidence over the next year. Results Injured runners had significantly lower intakes of total fat (63 ± 20 vs. 80 ± 50 g/d and percentage of kilocalories from fat (27 ± 5 vs. 30 ± 8 % compared with non-injured runners. A logistic regression analysis found that fat intake was the best dietary predictor, correctly identifying 64% of future injuries. Lower energy intake and lower energy availability approached, but did not reach, a significant association with overuse injury in this study. Conclusion Fat intake is likely associated with injury risk in female runners. By documenting these associations, better strategies can be developed to reduce running injuries in women.

  12. Food Supplement Reduces Fat, Improves Flavor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Diversified Services Corporation, seeking to develop a new nutritional fat replacement and flavor enhancement product, took advantage of the NASA Glenn Garrett Morgan Commercialization Initiative (GMCI) for technology acquisition and development and introductions to potential customers and strategic partners. Having developed and commercialized the product, named Nurtigras, the company is now marketing it through its subsidiary, H.F. Food Technologies Inc. The Nutrigras fat substitute is available in liquid, gel, or dry form and can be easily customized to the specific needs of the food manufacturer. It is primarily intended for use as a partial replacement for animal fat in beef patties and other normally high-fat meat products, and can also be used in soups, sauces, bakery items, and desserts. In addition to the nutritional benefits, the fat replacement costs less than the food it replaces, and as such can help manufacturers reduce material costs. In precooked products, Nutrigras can increase moisture content and thereby increase product yield. The company has been able to repay the help provided by NASA by contributing to the Space Agency's astronaut diet-the Nutrigras fat substitute can be used as a flavor enhancer and shelf-life extender for food on the ISS.

  13. Modification of polyetherurethane for biomedical application by radiation-induced grafting. I. Grafting procedure, determination of mechanical properties, and chemical modification of grafted films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation grafting of monomers onto suitable trunk polymers is a useful tool for tailoring new polymers for special purposes. This technique has been used in the past for the development of biocompatible materials, e.g., by grafting hydrogels onto mechanically stable polymers. In this first part of our work, the radiation grafting of hydrophilic or reactive monomers onto a polyetherurethane film using the pre-swelling technique is described. Following this technique the trunk polymer was swollen in the monomer before irradiation. As monomers 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA), 2,3-epoxypropyl methacrylate (GMA), 2,3-dihydroxypropyl methacrylate (GOMA), and acrylamide (AAm) were used. The kinetics of the grafting reactions were examined, and the distribution of the graft component inside the trunk polymer was investigated by means of infrared (IR) spectroscopy. Surface-grafted as well as bulk- and surface-grafted products could be obtained. The mechanical behavior of the grafted films--especially in the water-swollen state--was examined and compared with that of the pure trunk polymer. In nearly all cases it was found that the tensile strength sigma B and the elongation at break epsilon R decreases as the grafting yield increases. Modification of GMA- and AAm-grafted films via chemical reactions was performed to create new functional groups of biomedical interest. In this manner a diol structure, a carboxylic acid structure, and a sulfonic acid group could be introduced a sulfonic acid group could be introduced in the grafted polymer. The water uptake of such modified films is increased markedly when compared with that of the unmodified samples

  14. Dietary Fat, Fat Subtypes and Hepatocellular Carcinoma in a Large European Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duarte-Salles, Talita; Fedirko, Veronika

    2015-01-01

    The role of amount and type of dietary fat consumption in the aetiology of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is poorly understood, despite suggestive biological plausibility. The associations of total fat, fat subtypes and fat sources with HCC incidence were investigated in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort, which includes 191 incident HCC cases diagnosed between 1992 and 2010. Diet was assessed by country-specific, validated dietary questionnaires. A single 24-h diet recall from a cohort subsample was used for measurement error calibration. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were estimated from Cox proportional hazard models. Hepatitis B and C viruses (HBV/HCV) status and biomarkers of liver function were assessed separately in a nested case-control subset with available blood samples (HCC=122). In multivariable calibrated models, there was a statistically significant inverse association between total fat intake and risk of HCC (per 10 g/d, HR=0.80, 95%CI: 0.65-0.99), which was mainly driven by monounsaturated fats (per 5 g/d, HR=0.71, 95%CI: 0.55-0.92) rather than polyunsaturated fats (per 5 g/d, HR=0.92, 95%CI: 0.68-1.25). There was no association between saturated fats (HR=1.08, 95%CI: 0.88-1.34) and HCC risk. The ratio of polyunsaturated/monounsaturated fats to saturated fats was not significantly associated with HCC risk (per 0.2 point, HR=0.86, 95%CI: 0.73-1.01). Restriction of analyses to HBV/HCV free participants or adjustment for liver function did not substantially alter the findings. In this large prospective European cohort, higher consumption of monounsaturated fats is associated with lower HCC risk. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  15. Bilateral Mooren's ulcer - Customised corneal graft with additional amniotic membrane graft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, Vipul; Siddharthan, K S

    2015-01-01

    Mooren's ulcer (MU) is a rare and painful peripheral corneal ulceration which occurs in the absence of any associated scleritis, and any detectable systemic disease. A 60-year-old male patient was referred to us with bilateral peripheral corneal ulceration. Best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) in both eyes was counting finger at one metre. The right eye showed a 180° thinning with perforation at 8 o'clock position. The left eye showed a 360° thinning with central contact lens type cornea. After complete blood analysis we started the patient on cyclophosphamide orally along with high doses of oral steroids. A crescentic excision of the thinned cornea and crescentic customised corneal graft with additional amniotic membrane graft (AMG) was done first for the right eye and a 360° peripheral lamellar corneal graft with additional AMG for the left eye. The BCVA of RE was 1/60 improving to 6/36 with plus ten aphakic glasses and LE was 3/60. Hand fashioned full thickness crescentic customised corneal graft with additional AMG and a peripheral 360° lamellar corneal graft with additional AMG in these cases are a novel approach to Mooren's ulcer with gratifying results. PMID:26155087

  16. Physical interactions between cupuassu and cocoa fats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gioielli, L. A.

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Cupuassu (Theobroma grandiflorum, Sterculiaceae is an Amazonian native fruit and nowadays is cultivated only in Amazonian region. The seeds that come to about 16% of the dry weight can be used to derive a cocoa butter like product and the content of fat in the seeds is about 60% dry weight. In general, these fats are similar to those of cocoa, although they show difference in some physical properties. The objective of this study was to analyse some physical and crystallization properties of the cupuassu fat, cocoa butter and some mixtures between the two fats. The analyses performed were: dropping point, solid fat content, hardness index and Jensen cooling curve. The results suggested some advantages of the use of cupuassu fat, as lower crystallization time and smoothness than cocoa butter. The mixtures showed compatibility, cocoa butter showed bigger solid fat content at room temperature than cupuassu fat and the mixtures. Cupuassu fat had a lower dropping point than cocoa butter. The possible use of cupuassu fat and the mixtures could be in fillings and cold weather chocolate productsCupuassu (Theobroma grandiflorum, Sterculiaceae es una fruta nativa amazónica que hoy día sólo se cultiva en esta región. Las semillas con un 16%, aproximadamente, del peso seco, tienen, aproximadamente, el 60% de grasa y pueden usarse como sustituto de manteca de cacao. En general, estas grasas son similares a las del cacao, aunque muestran diferencias en algunas de sus propiedades físicas. El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar algunas propiedades físicas y de cristalización de la grasa de cupuassu, de la manteca de cacao y de mezclas de las dos grasas. Los análisis realizados fueron: punto de goteo, contenido en grasa sólida, índice de dureza y la curva de enfriamiento de Jensen. El tiempo de cristalización inferior y la mayor suavidad que muestra la grasa de cupuassu frente a la manteca de cacao, sugieren algunas ventajas del uso de la misma. Todas mezclas fueron compatibles. El contenido en grasa sólida, a temperatura ambiente, de la manteca de cacao fue superior a la de la grasa de cupuassu y las mezclas. La grasa de cupuassu mostró un punto de goteo inferior al de la manteca de cacao. Esta grasa y las mezclas estudiadas podrían usarse en los rellenos y productos del chocolate en temporada fría.

  17. Surface modification of cellulose by PCL grafts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two cellulosic substrates (microcrystalline cellulose, MCC, and bleached kraft softwood pulps, BSK) were grafted by polycaprolactone (PCL) chains with different molecular weights, following a three-step procedure using non-swelling conditions in order to limit the reaction to their surface. First, one of the two OH PCL ends was blocked by phenyl isocyanate and the reaction product (adduct 1) was subsequently reacted with 2,4-toluene diisocyanate (adduct 2) to provide it with an NCO function, capable of reacting with cellulose. The ensuing PCL-grafted cellulosic materials were characterized by weight gain, elemental analysis, contact angle measurements, attenuated total reflexion-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and biodegradation tests. The modification was proven to occur by the presence of nitrogen atoms in the elemental analysis tests and XPS spectra of modified and soxhlet-extracted cellulose. The contact angle measurements have also shown that the surface became as hydrophobic as PCL itself. The polar component of the surface energy of cellulosic substrates before treatment was found to be about 32 and 10 mJ m-2, for MCC and BSK, respectively. This value vanished to practically zero after grafting with different PCLs. The strategy proposed in the present work is original since, to the best of our knowledge, this paper reports for the first time the chemical 'grafting onto' of the cellulose surface by PCL mac onto' of the cellulose surface by PCL macromolecular structures, with the aim of obtaining fibre-matrix co-continuous fully sustainable and biodegradable composite materials.

  18. Mechanics of laser cut stent grafts.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Major, Št?pán; Kocour, Vladimír; Hubálovský, Š.

    Prague : Institute of theoretical and applied mechanics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v.v.i, 2015 - (Náprstek, J.; Fischer, C.). s. 186-187 ISBN 978-80-86246-42-0. ISSN 1805-8248. [Engineering mechanics 2015 /21./. 11.05.2015-14.05.2015, Svratka] Institutional support: RVO:68378297 Keywords : stent-grafts * nitinol * finite element analysis * fatigue * fracture Subject RIV: JJ - Other Materials

  19. Graft selection in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Suzanne L; Gladstone, James N

    2002-10-01

    Selecting the appropriate graft for ACL reconstruction depends on numerous factors including surgeon philosophy and experience, tissue availability (affected by anatomical anomalies or prior injury or surgery), and patient activity level and desires. Although the patella tendon autograft has the widest experience in the literature, and is probably the most commonly used graft source, this must be tempered with the higher reported incidences of potential morbidity and pitfalls associated with its use. The hamstring tendons are gaining increasing popularity, mostly due to reduced harvest morbidity and improved soft tissue fixation techniques, and many recent studies in the literature report equal results to BTB ACL reconstruction with respect to functional outcome and patient satisfaction. On the other hand, many of these studies report higher degrees of instrument (KT-100) tested laxity for hamstring reconstruction, and some have reported lower returns to preinjury levels of activity. One question that remains to be addressed is how closely objectively measured laxity tests correlate with subjectively assessed outcomes and ability to return to high levels of competitive sports. Allograft use, which decreased in popularity during the 1990s, appears to be undergoing a resurgence, with better sterilization processes and new graft sources (tibialis tendons), leading to increased availability and improved fixation techniques. The benefits of decreased surgical morbidity and easier rehabilitation must be weighed against the potential for greater failure of biologic incorporation, infection, and possibly slower return to activities. In our practice, for high-demand individuals (those playing cutting, pivoting, or jumping sports and skiing) BTB tends to be the graft of choice. For lower demand or older individuals, hamstring reconstructions will be performed. Allograft tissue will be used in older individuals (generally over 45 years old), those with signs of arthritis (and compelling evidence of instability), or those individuals who understand the pros and cons of allograft use fully and do not want their own tissue used. PMID:12528909

  20. LATE RENAL GRAFT REJECTION: PATHOLOGY AND PROGNOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.S. Stolyarevich

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Rejection has always been one of the most important cause of late renal graft dysfunction. Aim of the study was to analyze the prevalence of different clinico-pathological variants of rejection that cause late graft dysfunction, and evaluate their impact on long-term outcome. Materials and methods. This is a retrospective study that analyzed 294 needle core biopsy specimens from 265 renal transplant recipients with late (48,8 ± 46,1 months after transplantation allograft dysfunction caused by late acute rejection (LAR, n = 193 or chronic rejection (CR, n = 78 or both (n = 23. C4d staining was performed by immunofl uorescence (IF on frozen sections using a standard protocol. Results. Peritubular capillary C4d deposition was identifi ed in 36% samples with acute rejection and in 62% cases of chronic rejection (including 67% cases of transplant glomerulopathy, and 50% – of isolated chronic vasculopathy. 5-year graft survival for LAR vs CR vs their combination was 47, 13 and 25%, respectively. The outcome of C4d– LAR was (p < 0,01 better than of C4d+ acute rejection: at 60 months graft survival for diffuse C4d+ vs C4d? was 33% vs 53%, respectively. In cases of chronic rejection C4d+ vs C4d– it was not statistically signifi cant (34% vs 36%. Conclusion. In long-term allograft biopsy C4d positivity is more haracteristic for chronic rejection than for acute rejection. Only diffuse C4d staining affects the outcome. C4d– positivity is associated with worse allograft survival in cases of late acute rejection, but not in cases of chronic rejection. 

  1. Photoactivated surface grafting from PVDF surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Berthelot, Thomas; Le, Xuan Tuan; Jégou, Pascale; Viel, Pascal; Boizot, Bruno; Baudin, Cécile; Palacin, Serge

    2011-01-01

    Economic and easy methods to tune surface properties of polymers as Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) without altering bulk properties are of major interest for different applications as biotechnological devices, medical implant device. . . UV irradiation appears as one of the simplest, easy and safe method to modify surface properties. In the case of self-initiated grafting, it is generally assumed that the pretreatment of the PVDF surface with UV irradiation can yield alkyl and per-oxy radic...

  2. Fungal biodegradation of lignopolystyrene graft copolymers.

    OpenAIRE

    Milstein, O.; Gersonde, R.; Huttermann, A; Chen, M J; Meister, J J

    1992-01-01

    White rot basidiomycetes were able to biodegrade styrene (1-phenylethene) graft copolymers of lignin containing different proportions of lignin and polystyrene [poly(1-phenylethylene)]. The biodegradation tests were run on lignin-styrene copolymerization products which contained 10.3, 32.2, and 50.4% (wt/wt) lignin. The polymer samples were incubated with the white rot fungi Pleurotus ostreatus, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, and Trametes versicolor and the brown rot fungus Gloeophyllum trabeum...

  3. MR findings in patients with disabling musculocutaneous chronic graft-versus-host disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To describe musculocutaneous MR-findings responsible for disability in chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Between June 2005 and February 2008, we performed whole-body musculoskeletal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI; n = 12) or regional MRI (n = 4) in 16 consecutive patients presenting with disabling sclerodermatous cGVHD (e.g., skin edema, fixed deep dermal sclerosis, joint contractures, painful muscular contractures, or myalgia). In all patients, MRI showed musculocutaneous abnormalities reflecting different degrees of inflammation and collagen tissue involvement of the skin (n = 10), subcutaneous fat tissue (n 13), muscle fasciae (n = 16), subfascial muscular septae (n = 6), or findings compatible with myositis (n = 3). The most frequently involved muscle fasciae comprised those of the vastus lateralis muscle (n = 12), biceps femoris muscle (n = 11), gastrocnemius medialis muscle (n = 8), serratus anterior muscle, and latissimus dorsi muscle (each, n = 5). Increased signal of involved tissues on STIR-images and fat-saturated postgadolinium T1-weighted images represented the most frequent MR-signal abnormalities. MR imaging of musculocutaneous cGVHD allows accurate evaluation including assessment of deep tissue infiltration and assists in the differential diagnosis. (orig.)

  4. Dorsal Versus Ventral Oral Mucosal Graft Urethroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalil Hosseini

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate success rate of dorsal versus ventral oral mucosal graft for anterior urethroplasty.MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a retrospective study, the results of the ventral and dorsal oral mucosal graft (OMG anterior urethroplasty were assessed in 24 and 29 patients, respectively. Demographic and clinical characteristics of subjects were gathered from the medical records.RESULTS: Patients were followed up for a mean duration of 32 months (range, 25 to 51 months. The success rates of dorsal and ventral anterior OMG urethroplasty were 83.3% and 75.8%, respectively (P = .5. At penile site, dorsal and ventral OMG were done for 9 and 10 patients with stricture lengths of 3.7 ± 1.1 cm and 3.9 ± 1.2 cm, respectively (P = .7. Success rates of dorsal and ventral penile OMG were 88.9% and 70%, respectively (P = .3. At the bulbar site, dorsal and ventral OMG were performed on 15 and 19 patients with stricture lengths of 4.1 ± 1.1cm and 4.2 ± 1.5 cm, respectively (P = .7. The success rates of dorsal and ventral bulbar OMG were 80% and 79%, respectively (P = .94.CONCLUSION: Oral mucosal graft is a versatile and an effective procedure for management of strictures throughout the anterior urethra, and in experienced hands, the outcomes are similarly favorable whether a dorsal or ventral approach is taken.

  5. Electron beam induced modification of grafted polyamides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is well known that irradiation, when applied on its own or in combination with other physical and chemical treatments, can manifest in radiation damage to materials. Radiation processing technology focuses upon producing favourable modification of materials through use of relatively high dose and dose rates. Current interest is in modifying the thermal and electrical properties of textured polymers in an effort to improve safety and wear comfort of clothing. No less important is the production of textiles which are safe to use, both in homes and offices. Present investigations provide additional data in support of findings which show that polyamides, a particular class of textured polymer, are amenable to radiation processing. Accelerated electron beam irradiation of sheets of polyamide fibre results in induced grafting of acrylic and methacrylic acids. The degree of grafting is critically dependent upon irradiation dose and the extent of monomers dilution. Of particular importance is the high correlation which is found between degree of grafting and a decrease in the softening rate of the modified polyamide. A systematic modification of electrical conductivity is also observed. (author)

  6. Block and Graft Copolymers of Polyhydroxyalkanoates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchessault, Robert H.; Ravenelle, François; Kawada, Jumpei

    2004-03-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) were modified for diblock copolymer and graft polymer by catalyzed transesterification in the melt and by chemical synthesis to extend the side chains of the PHAs, and the polymers were studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) X-ray diffraction, thermal analysis and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Catalyzed transesterification in the melt is used to produce diblock copolymers of poly[3-hydroxybutyrate] (PHB) and monomethoxy poly[ethylene glycol] (mPEG) in a one-step process. The resulting diblock copolymers are amphiphilic and self-assemble into sterically stabilized colloidal suspensions of PHB crystalline lamellae. Graft polymer was synthesized in a two-step chemical synthesis from biosynthesized poly[3-hydroxyoctanoate-co-3-hydroxyundecenoate] (PHOU) containing ca. 25 mol chains. 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid reacts with the side chain alkenes of PHOU by the radical addition creating thioether linkage with terminal carboxyl functionalities. The latter groups were subsequently transformed into the amide or ester linkage by tridecylamine or octadecanol, respectively, producing new graft polymers. The polymers have different physical properties than poly[3-hydroxyoctanoate] (PHO) which is the main component of the PHOU, such as non-stickiness and higher thermal stability. The combination of biosynthesis and chemical synthesis produces a hybrid thermoplastic elastomer with partial biodegradability.

  7. Allogenic lyophilized cartilage grafts for craniomaxillofacial reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allogenic lyophilized cartilages were made in our clinic after Sailer methods and some modification. In our clinic, we have used allogenic cartilage grafts on 102 defects of craniomaxillofacial area; 1) for defects from cyst or ameloblastoma, 2) for lack of continuity of the mandible, 3) for rhinoplasty, 4) for paranasal augmentation, 5) for augmentation genioplasty, 6) for reconstruction of orbital floor, 7) for oroantral fistula, 8) for temporal augmentation, 9) for TMJ surgery 10) for condyle defect as a costochondral graft, 11) for filling of tooth socket and alveolus augmentation,12) for correction or orbital height and 13) for guided bone regeneration in peripheral implant. The types of lyophilized cartilage used were chip, sheet and block types developed by freeze-dried methods. Some grafts showed change of ossification, in which case we could perform implant on it. We have good results on reconstruction of craniomaxillofacial defects. Allogenic cartilage have advantages such as 1) it has no immune reaction clinically, 2) it is more tolerable to infection than that of autogenous cartilage, 3) it has character of less resorption which require no over correction, 4) it is easy to manipulate contouring, and 5) it has possibility of undergoing ossification. Allogenic cartilage has been considered as good substitutes for bone. The author would like to report the results on 102 allogenic cartilage have

  8. New human milk fat substitutes from butterfat to improve fat absorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yanqi; Mu, Huiling

    2010-01-01

    A new human milk fat substitute (HMFS) was produced from butterfat. A 2-week's feeding experiment was performed using three groups of rats with 10 wt.% fat in their feed; the fat was either (1) butterfat-based HMFS + long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA), (2) the reference oil + LCPUFA, or (3) the reference oil without LCPUFA. The apparent fat absorption after intake of butterfat-based HMFS (95.9% +/- 1.8%) was significantly higher than the other two groups, indicating that much less calcium soap was formed after feeding butterfat-based HMFS. Calcium contents in urines and faeces from the two groups fed LCPUFA in their diet were lower than those without supplementation of LCPUFA, suggesting that LCPUFA could improve calcium absorption by reducing the calcium excretion. It can thus be concluded that the butterfat-based HMFS improves fat absorption, and supplementation of LCPUFA in the formula improves calcium absorption.

  9. Compounds made of aluminium and irradiation grafted polypropylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation induced grafting of acrylic acid onto polypropylene surfaces by mutual radiation technique yields products which are especially suitable for making compounds with aluminium. Polypropylene can be used, for instance, as plates or foils, onto which grafting may be performed by a continuous or a discontinuous process. From these grafted plates or foils compounds have been made with aluminium, and their properties have been investigated in various tests. (author)

  10. Stretch Polytetrafluoroethylene Grafts for Hemodialysis Angioaccess: Three-year Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Al Dayel Adel; Al Oraifi Ibrahim; Ezzibdeh Mamun; Egail Siddig; El Sayed Essam; Zallat Ali; Al Zahrani Saeed

    2001-01-01

    We report the results of 90 stretch polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) grafts in 78 chronic renal failure patients over a 3-year period from 1995-1998. The grafts were used as primary access in 15% of the patients. The cumulative patency was 63.3% and there were no complications in 48.8% of the cases. Infection was encountered in 15.5% and thrombosis in 31.1% of the grafts. Intimal hyperplasia, venous anastomotic stenosis, improper puncture technique and subclav...

  11. Enhanced biocompatibility of polyphosphazenes achieved by radiation grafting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reviews the work recently carried out in the authors' laboratory on the radiation graft copolymerization of hydrophilic monomers onto polyphosphazenes. Kinetics of grafting by the mutual irradiation method at room temperature of monomer-solvent mixtures were followed. Hydrophilicity, structure, mechanical properties, biocompatibility and anticoagulating properties of the modified samples were reported. Some experiments on the grafted polymer, to which heparin was ionically bonded with a high yield, were also carried out. (author)

  12. Facile grafting of bioactive cellulose derivatives onto PVC surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigot, Sandra; Louarn, Guy; Kébir, Nasreddine; Burel, Fabrice

    2013-10-01

    Bioactive methyl cellulose and hydroxyethyl cellulose were successfully grafted onto PVC films using a two-step pathway. PVC surface was first modified with isothiocyanate in DMSO/water medium. Then, unmodified polysaccharides were directly grafted onto the thiocyanated surface in acetonitrile/DMSO mixture, in presence of DBTL as catalyst. The polysaccharide grafting onto the PVC surface was evidenced by contact angle measurements, AFM and XPS.

  13. Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation through a Left Aortoiliac Graft

    OpenAIRE

    Gul, Mehmet; Akgul, Ozgur; Erturk, Mehmet; Eksik, Abdurrahman; Yildirim, Aydin

    2012-01-01

    The indications for transcatheter aortic valve implantation have been increasing with the development of new-generation valves and delivery systems. Our patient, an 81-year-old man with aortic stenosis, had an existing coronary artery bypass graft and bilateral aortoiliac bypass grafts. We used the transfemoral approach through the left femoral artery and the left aortoiliac graft to successfully deploy a new-generation Edwards SAPIEN valve.

  14. Desired features for a novel stent-graft

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Isa C. T.; Rocha, Lui?s A.; Tavares, Joa?o Manuel R. S.

    2012-01-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysms are indolent but deadly. Among the current treatments is endovascular aneurysm repair, a minimally invasive procedure that resorts to a stent-graft to shield the aortic wall from blood pressure. Although this procedure allowed more patients to be treated and offers several other advantages, complications still occur and there is a need for a more efficient stent-graft. Here, the early steps performed in the development of a novel stent-graft are described, and desir...

  15. Plasma Induced Grafting of PSt onto Titanium Dioxide Powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An investigation of grafting of polymer of styrene (PSt) onto titanium dioxide powder is reported in this paper. The graft polymerization reaction was induced by N2 plasma treatment on the surface of titanium dioxide. Infrared (IR) spectra and X-ray photospectrum (XPS) results showed that PSt was grafted onto the titanium dioxide powder. An observation by X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra indicated that the crystal structure of the titanium dioxide powder was unchanged after the plasma treatment

  16. Grafting and De-grafting Mental Illness: the Identity of Madness

    OpenAIRE

    Alvise Sforza Tarabochia

    2008-01-01

    I wish to begin my paper with a statement by Foucault, how considers, in concluding his Histoire de la folie, madness as a graft onto the world of reason. The social implications of this thesis cross all of his work: as a plant grafted onto another plant not only produces a new species but also depends on the host for nutrition, so happens with madness. There is no autonomous space for something like an identity of madness in the contemporary culture. The social body defines its reason settin...

  17. Post-radiation grafting of styrene to polyethylene film and distribution of grafted polystyrene in it

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The post-radiation grafting of styrene to polyethylene (PE) film irradiated in air with 60Co source (dose rate 520 R/s) and electron accelerator (dose rate 1.5x105 R/s) has been studied, in the range 1-100 Mrad. The influence of additives of ferrous salts on kinetics of this process is shown. The distribution of grafted polystyrene in PE for various power and dose of irradiation has been analysed basing on IR spectra. The essential role of diffusion of iron ions into the film volume on kinetics of the process and polystyrene distribution is concluded

  18. Differential effect of gender on hepatic fat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilsanz, Vicente [Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, USC, Keck School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, MS 81, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, USC, Keck School of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Chung, Sandra A. [Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, USC, Keck School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, MS 81, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Kaplowitz, Neil [USC, Keck School of Medicine, USC Research Center for Liver Disease, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2011-09-15

    There are discrepant data on whether men or women have a higher risk for hepatic steatosis. To examine the influence of gender on hepatic adiposity in teenagers and young adults. We measured subcutaneous abdominal fat (SAF), intra-abdominal fat (IAF) and hepatic tissue density (a surrogate measure of hepatic fat) using CT in 505 healthy teenagers and young adults (254 males, 251 females; ages 15-22.9 years). Overall, compared to men, women had higher values of SAF (P < 0.0001) but similar measures of IAF and liver tissue density (P = 0.09 and 0.92, respectively). However, when compared to overweight/obese men, overweight/obese women had strikingly similar IAF values (P = 0.85) but lower hepatic fat (P = 0.009). Multiple regression analyses indicated that, after adjusting for age and SAF, IAF independently predicted hepatic density in males (P < 0.0001) but not in females (P = 0.36). Hepatic fat increased with body mass in males from lean to overweight and obese (P < 0.0001) but not in females (P > 0.05). When compared to overweight and obese young women, overweight and obese young men are at greater risk for hepatic steatosis, independent of IAF. (orig.)

  19. Influence of Fat Content on Chocolate Rheology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriele, D.; Migliori, M.; Baldino, N.; de Cindio, B.

    2008-07-01

    Molten chocolate is a suspension having properties strongly affected by particle characteristics including not only the dispersed particles but also the fat crystals formed during chocolate cooling and solidification. Even though chocolate rheology is extensively studied, mainly viscosity at high temperature was determined and no information on amount and type of fat crystals can be detected in these conditions. However chocolate texture and stability is strongly affected by the presence of specific crystals. In this work a different approach, based on creep test, was proposed to characterize chocolate samples at typical process temperatures (approximately 30 °C). The analysis of compliance, as time function, at short times enable to evaluate a material "elasticity" related to the solid-like behavior of the material and given by the differential area between the Newtonian and the experimental compliance. Moreover a specific time dependent elasticity was defined as the ratio between the differential area, in a time range, and total area. Chocolate samples having a different fat content were prepared and they were conditioned directly on rheometer plate by applying two different controlled cooling rate; therefore creep were performed by applying a low stress to ensure material linear behavior. Experimental data were analyzed by the proposed method and specific elasticity was related to single crystal properties. It was found that fat crystal amount and properties depend in different way on fat content and cooling rate; moreover creep proved to be able to detect even small differences among tested samples.

  20. Sulfonated hydrocarbon graft architectures for cation exchange membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mads MØller; Jankova Atanasova, Katja

    2013-01-01

    A synthetic strategy to hydrocarbon graft architectures prepared from a commercial polysulfone and aimed as ion exchange membrane material is proposed. Polystyrene is grafted from a polysulfone macroinitiator by atom transfer radical polymerization, and subsequently sulfonated with acetyl sulfate to various degrees. Series of grafting densities and graft lengths are prepared, and membranes are solvent cast from DMSO. The membrane properties in aqueous environments are evaluated from their water swelling behavior, and their thermal properties and stability are investigated by thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry.

  1. Grafting polymerization of styrene onto preirradiated polypropylene fabric

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The grafting copolymerization of styrene onto polypropylene (PP) fabric has been studied by the preirradiation of gamma rays and electron beam, respectively. The PP fabric samples wee irradiated in the air and nitrogen gas individually. The effects of absorbed dose, styrene concentration in methanol, reaction temperature and reaction time on the degree of grafting were studied. Effects of storage time and temperature on the grafting rate were also observed. And a comparison of ?-ray and EB irradiation has been made. The results were reasonably interpreted by assuming that the grafting reaction was predominately initiated by trapped radicals

  2. Graft Copolymerization of Enzymatic Hydrolysis Lignin and Maleic Anhydride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Mingfeng; Liu, Xinxiu; Cheng, Xiansu

    2010-11-01

    Graft copolymerization of maleic anhydrideon (MAH) onto enzymatic hydrolysis lignin (EHL) was carried out with sodium hydroxide aqueous solution as solvent and potassium persulfate-sodium bisulfite (K2S2O8-NaHSO3) as initiator. The graft ratio and graft efficiency of the copolymer were systematically investigated through changes in the reaction temperature, reaction time, MAH concentration and initiator concentration. The grafted copolymer was further characterized by FTIR and UV-visible spectroscopy. It was found that the graft ratio and graft efficiency varied significantly with the above-mentioned reaction parameters. The optimum conditions for the graft copolymerization were as follows: initiator K2S2O8-NaHSO3 with a quantity 2.5% of lignin, MAH: EHL (mass fraction) = 0.12, reaction time was 3.5 h and temperature at 60° C. In the scope of this experiment, the graft ratio and graft efficiency were respectively obtained up to 5.34% and 80.08%. The fact verified that EHL has better chemical activity.

  3. Implantation of Vascular Grafts Lined with Genetically Modified Endothelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, James M.; Birinyi, Louis K.; Salomon, Robert N.; Libby, Peter; Callow, Allan D.; Mulligan, Richard C.

    1989-06-01

    The possibility of using the vascular endothelial cell as a target for gene replacement therapy was explored. Recombinant retroviruses were used to transduce the lacZ gene into endothelial cells harvested from mongrel dogs. Prosthetic vascular grafts seeded with the genetically modified cells were implanted as carotid interposition grafts into the dogs from which the original cells were harvested. Analysis of the graft 5 weeks after implantation revealed genetically modified endothelial cells lining the luminal surface of the graft. This technology could be used in the treatment of atherosclerosis disease and the design of new drug delivery systems.

  4. Radiation Grafted Polymer Membranes for Fuel Cell Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Partially fluorinated proton exchange membranes prepared via radiation induced graft copolymerization ('radiation grafting') offer the prospect of cost-effective and tailor made membrane electrolytes for the polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC). The composition and structure of radiation grafted membranes can be adjusted in a broad range to balance the different requirements of proton transport and mechanical robustness. Based on the earlier work on Styrene grafting, the novel monomer combination ?-methyl-styrene/methacrylonitrile (AMS/MAN) is introduced for improved stability in the prevailing fuel cell environment. Successful fuel cell experiments proved the concept. (author)

  5. Biofabrication and testing of a fully cellular nerve graft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Christopher M; Marga, Francoise; Forgacs, Gabor; Heesch, Cheryl M

    2014-01-01

    Rupture of a nerve is a debilitating injury with devastating consequences for the individual’s quality of life. The gold standard of repair is the use of an autologous graft to bridge the severed nerve ends. Such repair however involves risks due to secondary surgery at the donor site and may result in morbidity and infection. Thus the clinical approach to repair often involves non-cellular solutions, grafts composed of synthetic or natural materials. Here we report on a novel approach to biofabricate fully biological grafts composed exclusively of cells and cell secreted material. To reproducibly and reliably build such grafts of composite geometry we use bioprinting. We test our grafts in a rat sciatic nerve injury model for both motor and sensory function. In particular we compare the regenerative capacity of the biofabricated grafts with that of autologous grafts and grafts made of hollow collagen tubes by measuring the compound action potential (for motor function) and the change in mean arterial blood pressure as consequence of electrically eliciting the somatic pressor reflex. Our results provide evidence that bioprinting is a promising approach to nerve graft fabrication and as a consequence to nerve regeneration. PMID:24192236

  6. [Fibrin glue spray treatment on the polytetrafluoroethylene graft].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagishi, M; Nakamura, Y; Kanazawa, T; Kawada, N

    1997-04-01

    An outer surface of a 4 mm polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) prosthesis, Gore-Tex thin-walled stretch graft, was treated by the fibrin glue spray with a 1.0 kg/m2 compressed air. The distance between the PTFE graft and a spray-nozzle was within 0.5 cm. After the treatment, an outer surface and a cross-section of the PTFE graft were examined under a scanning electron microscope. Fibrin glue mended the gap of the PTFE fibril of an outer surface and a fibrin glue layer adhered firmly to the graft. The fibrin glue spray treatment may prevent postoperative serous fluid leakage. PMID:9095586

  7. Radiation grafting to poly(ethylene terephthalate) fibres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) monofilaments were grafted with styrene in methylene chloride solution using both the mutual and preirradiation methods. Good yields were obtained, the grafted fibres were dissolved and the graft copolymer and both homopolymers separated by various techniques. The graft copolymers were hydrolysed with potassium hydroxide in benzyl alcohol to destroy the PET backbone. The molecular weights were determined by osmometry. The G values of grafted side chains were 0.57 and 0.10 per 100 eV for the mutual and preirradiation methods, respectively. The corresponding fractions of PET grafted were 0.24 and 0.11. Less than 4% homopolymer was produced by either method. The yields contrast with radical yields measured by e.s.r. of only 0.025. It is suggested that the high grafting yields are due to the methylene chloride facilitating the accessibility of the monomer to the active sites created by the radiation rather than by the increased yields of radicals by chain transfer. Chlorine, for example, did not lead to increased yields even in the presence of methylene chloride. Presumably, in the mutual grafting system, radicals are available for grafting, which are too labile to be detected by e.s.r. In the case of the preirradiation method, the yields are also higher than the radical yields. This may be due to a regenerative chain transfer mechanism. (author)

  8. MRI of double-bundle ACL reconstruction: evaluation of graft findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiekara, Tommi; Paakkala, Antti [Tampere University Hospital, Medical Imaging Centre, Tampere (Finland); Jaervelae, Timo [Sports Clinic and Hospital Mehilaeinen, Tampere (Finland); Huhtala, Heini [University of Tampere, School of Health Sciences, Tampere (Finland)

    2012-07-15

    To demonstrate the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of double-bundle (DB) anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction grafts. Sixty-six patients with DB ACL reconstruction were evaluated with MRI 2 years postoperatively. Graft thickness was measured separately by two musculoskeletal radiologists. The MRI findings of graft disruption, signal intensity (SI) changes, cystic degeneration, arthrofibrosis, and impingement were analyzed. The statistical significance of the association between MRI findings was calculated. The mean anteromedial (AM) graft thickness was reduced 9% and the mean posterolateral (PL) graft thickness was reduced 18% from the original graft thickness. Disruption was seen in 3% of AM grafts and 6% of PL grafts and a partial tear in 8 and 23%, respectively. Both grafts were disrupted in 3% of patients. Increased SI was seen in 14% of intact AM grafts and in 60% of partially torn AM grafts (p = 0.032). In PL grafts the increased SI was seen in 51% of the intact grafts and in 93% of the partially torn grafts (p = 0.005). Cystic degeneration was seen in 8% of AM grafts and in 5% of PL grafts. Diffuse arthrofibrosis was seen in 5% of patients and a localized cyclops lesion in 3% of patients. Impingement of the AM graft was seen in 8% of patients. Both grafts were disrupted in 3% of patients. Also, the frequencies of other complications were low. The use of orthogonal sequences in the evaluation of the PL graft SI seems to cause volume-averaging artefacts. (orig.)

  9. Reduction of the 18FDG uptake by the brown fat with the help of propranolol in a difficult case of lymphoma with residual disease suspicion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The oncology group of the French Society of nuclear medicine implemented evaluation criteria of the lymphomas therapy response. The problem often encountered is this one of identification of minimum residual fixations in PET-F.D.G., considered as the residual disease in the non Hodgkin lymphomas. we report the case of a thirty four years old patient treated for diffuse at big B cells non Hodgkin lymphoma, in failure after the first line of treatment and with persistence of a hyper-metabolism in pre and post graft at the level of a para-cardiac residual mass. The post auto graft PET examination showed an important activation of the brown fat, able to question the origin of the residual para-cardiac hyper-metabolism in this dramatic situation, for a young patient and potentially still in therapy failure. In order to reduce the F.D.G. captation by the brown fat, it was proposed a new PET evaluation with propranolol administration (beta blocking) before the tracer injection. The intake of propranolol allowed to reduce in an important way, the F.D.G. captation by the brown fat, without modifying the residual hyper-metabolism. This result is going to lead to the realisation of a surgical biopsy. (N.C.)

  10. Total aortic arch replacement with patent left internal thoracic artery graft after previous coronary artery bypass graft surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Shimamura, Junichi; Endo, Hidehito; Tsuchiya, Hiroshi; Inaba, Yusuke; Takahashi, Yu; Kubota, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    A 78-year-old man, who had previously undergone coronary artery bypass graft surgery, was admitted to our department for treatment of a distal aortic arch aneurysm. A total aortic arch replacement with a patent left internal thoracic artery (LITA) graft was successfully performed without cardiac ischemic or neurological complications. Use of retrograde cardioplegia with intermittent pressure-augmented retrograde cerebral perfusion without clamping and dissecting the LITA graft were effective ...

  11. Development of novel melt-compounded starch-grafted polypropylene/polypropylene-grafted maleic anhydride/organoclay ternary hybrids

    OpenAIRE

    E. Lafranche; R. Tessier; KRAWCZAK, P

    2012-01-01

    Starch-grafted polypropylene (PP-g-starch)/organoclay nanocomposites were melt-compounded using a corotating twin-screw extruder. Homopolymer or copolymer-based polypropylene-grafted maleic anhydrides (PP-g-MA) with different molecular weights and different maleic anhydride (MA) grafting levels were added at different weight contents as compatibilizer. Two organo-modified montmorillonites were used, the first one containing polar functional groups (Cloisite®30B) having affinity to the st...

  12. Aetheroleum and fat oxidation of chicken meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Tká?ová

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available 1024x768 The quality of meat changges during storage. The experiment was performed on the final fattening type of chickens COBB 500. Chickens were fed by feed mixture with   aetheroleum. Premix of aetheroleum  contained  aetheroleum from Origanum vulgare L. (30 g, Thymus vulgaris L. (10 g and Cinnamomum zeylanicum (10 g. The carcass was stored at -18 °C in a freezer box. Acid number of fat in chicken meat was ranged from 4.74 to 14.57 mg KOH/g fat after 9 months and after 12 months was ranged from 5.75 to 9.11 mg KOH/g fat.doi:10.5219/267   Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE

  13. Do Fat Supplements Increase Physical Performance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Di Felice

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Fish oil and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA belong to a popular class of food supplements known as “fat supplements”, which are claimed to reduce muscle glycogen breakdown, reduce body mass, as well as reduce muscle damage and inflammatory responses. Sport athletes consume fish oil and CLA mainly to increase lean body mass and reduce body fat. Recent evidence indicates that this kind of supplementation may have other side-effects and a new role has been identified in steroidogenensis. Preliminary findings demonstrate that fish oil and CLA may induce a physiological increase in testosterone synthesis. The aim of this review is to describe the effects of fish oil and CLA on physical performance (endurance and resistance exercise, and highlight the new results on the effects on testosterone biosynthesis. In view of these new data, we can hypothesize that fat supplements may improve the anabolic effect of exercise.

  14. Alveolar graft in the cleft lip and palate patient: Review of 104 cases

    OpenAIRE

    Luque-marti?n, Estela; Tobella-camps, Mari?a L.; Rivera-baro?, Alejandro

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Alveolar bone grafting is a vital part of the rehabilitation of cleft patients. The factors that have been most frequently associated with the success of the graft are the age at grafting and the pre-grafting orthodontic treatment. Objectives: 1) Describe the cases of alveolar bone grafts performed at the Maxilofacial Unit of Hospital Sant Joan de Déu, Barcelona (HSJD); and 2) Analyze the success/failure of alveolar grafts and related variables. Material and Methods: Descriptiv...

  15. Surface grafting of polypropylene powder by UV-irradiation and ?-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pre-peroxidized and original polypropylene powders were grafted with monomers, including MAH, AA, EA and A, by using the methods of UV-irradiation solid phase or solution phase grafting, ?-irradiation solid phase grafting, and ?-preirradiation solution grafting. The grafted PP was characterized by means of FT-IR, ESCA and chemical titration qualitatively and quantitatively. The results showed that all monomers had grafted onto the polypropylene surface in some extent

  16. Study on radiation grafting of acrylic acid onto fluorine-containing polymers. III. Kinetic study of preirradiation grafting onto poly(tetrafluoroethylene-hexafluoropropylene)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A kinetic study has been made on the preirradiation grafting of acrylic acid (AAc) onto poly(tetrafluoroethylene-hexafluoropropylene) (FEP) film. The effect of grafting conditions was investigated. The dependencies of the grafting rate on preirradiation dose and monomer concentration were found to be 0.58 and 1.25 order, respectively. The overall activation energy for the graft polymerization was 7.4 kcal/mol. The final degree of grafting increased with preirradiation dose and monomer concentration and slightly decreased as the grafting temperature was elevated. The relationship between the grafting rate and film thickness gave a negative first-order dependency, which is in agreement with that obtained for polytetrafluoroethylene-AAc grafting system. It was reasonably concluded that this grafting proceeds from the surface to the center of film with progressive monomer diffusion through the grafted layer which swells in the monomer solution

  17. The radiological assessment of body fat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radiological method for assessment of obesity is described. A radiograph of the soft tissues of the upper arm is obtained and the subcutaneous fat layer measured. The results obtained by this method have been compared with those using a skinfold caliper and with the ponderal index, calculated from the height and weight of the subject. A highly significant correlation was found. The radiological method has several advantages: it leaves a permanent record, it is accurate in obese persons when the skinfold caliper cannot be used, and unlike the ponderal index it is not influenced by weight increases due to causes other than fat accumulation. (author)

  18. Lipid feeding and milk fat depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Thomas C; Harvatine, Kevin J

    2014-11-01

    Diets fed to cattle contain mostly unsaturated fatty acids supplied in grains and forages, by-products, and fat supplements. Lipid intake by dairy cattle must be restricted to prevent alterations of microbial populations in the rumen that can negatively affect milk yield. Unsaturated fatty acids consumed by cattle are extensively metabolized through biohydrogenation, intermediates of which include conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and trans-monoenoic acid isomers. Three specific CLA intermediates of biohydrogenation have been shown to cause milk fat depression in dairy cattle through coordinated suppression of mammary lipogenic genes by a transcription factor that is a central regulator of lipid synthesis. PMID:25239061

  19. Can adverse effects of dietary fat intake be overestimated as a consequence of dietary fat underreporting?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heitmann, Berit Lilienthal; Lissner, Lauren

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the consequences of systematic reporting bias by the obese for diet-disease relationships. DESIGN: The present report used 24-hour urinary nitrogen and estimates of 24-hour energy expenditure to assess error in diet reporting, and examined the consequence of accounting for this error for associations between dietary fat intake and serum low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol. SETTING: Sub-study to the Danish MONICA (Monitoring Trends and Determinants in Cardiovascular Disease) project, carried out in 1987-1988. SUBJECTS: A random sub-sample of the adult Danish male population (n = 152). RESULTS: Correcting dietary fat for underreporting error weakened, rather than strengthened, the association between dietary fat intake and LDL-cholesterol by reducing the slope of the regression from beta = 3.4, P = 0.02 to beta = 2.7, P = 0.04. CONCLUSION: This example illustrates that systematic underreporting of dietary fat by high-risk groups such as the obese may produce an overestimated association. These results imply that previous epidemiological studies showing a positive association between percentage of energy from fat and other health outcomes, e.g. cancer and heart disease, may have overestimated the negative effects of a high-fat diet. If we were able to correctly assess dietary fat intake in general populations, recommendations for fat intake may be more liberal than the 30% suggested today. Improved assessment of fat intake in epidemiological studies is necessary for future development of evidence-based recommendations for diet and health .

  20. Grafting and De-grafting Mental Illness: the Identity of Madness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvise Sforza Tarabochia

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available I wish to begin my paper with a statement by Foucault, how considers, in concluding his Histoire de la folie, madness as a graft onto the world of reason. The social implications of this thesis cross all of his work: as a plant grafted onto another plant not only produces a new species but also depends on the host for nutrition, so happens with madness. There is no autonomous space for something like an identity of madness in the contemporary culture. The social body defines its reason setting against an excluded background and affirming itself in a negative fashion. This social graft has an important echo in each individual be it sane or insane. The age of the asylum opened the gates to the so called positivist psychiatry. In turn, this current could be said to graft onto man’s nature mental illness, rendering him corrupt and dangerous in his very essence. In order to overcome this discriminating reductionist naturalism, phenomenological psychiatry introduces a new relationship between the physician and the patient, modelled on the idea that both their subjectivities have to be called into question. This is achieved primarily through and epoché: the psychiatrist has to bracket all his illusions of objectivity, as well as any organicist categories, in order to approach a fellow human being. This perspective is adopted and yet surpassed by Franco Basaglia, the psychiatrist who reformed Italian psychiatric health care. Not only should the psychiatrist bracket his assumptions in order to avoid treating madness as a graft onto the nature of man, but also he has to fight the asylum, that physical and metaphorical space from which madness could live only grafted, according to Foucault, onto the world of reason. Therefore, if there is something like an identity of madness, from these three perspectives we understand that it has to be sought to a paradoxical return: a return from a state in which it is grafted; a return to a state in which it has never been.

  1. Insitu grafting silica nanoparticles reinforced nanocomposite hydrogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jun; Han, Chun-Rui; Duan, Jiu-Fang; Xu, Feng; Sun, Run-Cang

    2013-10-01

    Highly flexible nanocomposite hydrogels were prepared by using silica nanoparticles (SNPs) as fillers and multi-functional cross-links to graft hydrophilic poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) by free radical polymerization from an aqueous solution. The SNPs were collected by neighboring polymer chains and dispersed uniformly within a PAA matrix. The mechanical properties of the nanocomposite hydrogels were tailored by the concentration of SNPs according to the percolation model. It was proposed that covalent bonds of adsorbed chains on the filler surface resulted in the formation of a shell of an immobilized glassy layer and trapped entanglements, where the glassy polymer layer greatly enhanced the elastic modulus and the release of trapped entanglements at deformation contributed to the viscoelastic properties.Highly flexible nanocomposite hydrogels were prepared by using silica nanoparticles (SNPs) as fillers and multi-functional cross-links to graft hydrophilic poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) by free radical polymerization from an aqueous solution. The SNPs were collected by neighboring polymer chains and dispersed uniformly within a PAA matrix. The mechanical properties of the nanocomposite hydrogels were tailored by the concentration of SNPs according to the percolation model. It was proposed that covalent bonds of adsorbed chains on the filler surface resulted in the formation of a shell of an immobilized glassy layer and trapped entanglements, where the glassy polymer layer greatly enhanced the elastic modulus and the release of trapped entanglements at deformation contributed to the viscoelastic properties. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: FTIR spectra of SNP after silane treatment, dynamic oscillatory shear measurements as a function of frequency, constrained polymer chain analysis by a change in the peak height in loss factor spectra, molecular weight of grafted chains at different stages of gelation, prediction of the SNP reinforcing mechanism in the frame of the percolation model, cyclic tensile loading-loading behaviors of SNP gels, and the tearing test. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr04252a

  2. Efficiency of fat deposition from nonstarch polysaccharides, starch and unsaturated fat in pig

    OpenAIRE

    Halas, V.; Babinszky, L.; Dijkstra, J.; Verstegen, M. W. A.; Gerrits, W. J. J.

    2010-01-01

    The aim was to evaluate under protein-limiting conditions the effect of different supplemental energy sources: fermentable NSP (fNSP), digestible starch (dStarch) and digestible unsaturated fat (dUFA), on marginal efficiency of fat deposition and distribution. A further aim was to determine whether the extra fat deposition from different energy sources, and its distribution in the body, depends on feeding level. A total of fifty-eight individually housed pigs (48 (sd 4) kg) were used in a 3 x...

  3. Why fat is so preferable: from oral fat detection to inducing reward in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fushiki, Tohru

    2014-01-01

    Potential mechanisms underlying the high palatability of fat can be assessed by reviewing animal studies on fat detection and brain patterns during reward behavior. Fatty acids are likely recognized by receptors on taste buds, with the signals transmitted to the brain through taste nerves. Ingested oil is broken down and absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract, which also sends signals to the brain through unknown mechanisms. Information from both sensory receptors and peripheral tissue is integrated by the brain, resulting in a strong appetite for fatty foods via a reward system. Understanding mechanisms of fat recognition will prove valuable in the development of strategies to manage the high palatability of foods. PMID:25036820

  4. Epoxy and Silicone Optical Nanocomposites Filled with Grafted Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Peng

    Polymer nanocomposites, as a technologically important class of materials, exhibit diverse functional properties, and are used for applications ranging from structural and biomedical to electronic and optical. The properties of polymer nanocomposites are determined, in part, by the chemical composition of the polymer matrix and the nanofillers. Their properties are also sensitive to the geometry and size of the nanofillers, and to spatial distribution of the fillers. Control of the nanoparticle size and dispersion within a given polymer provides opportunities to tailor and optimize the properties of nanocomposites for specific application. For optical applications such as encapsulation of light emitting diodes (LEDs), polymer nanocomposites filled with homogeneously dispersed nanoparticles would endow the polymer encapsulant with new functionality without sacrificing optical transparency. To this end, this thesis focuses on developing a simple and versatile approach towards the fabrication of epoxy and silicone transparent nanocomposites using matrix compatible chain-grafted nanoparticles as fillers, and studying the optical properties of the nanocomposites. The surface chemistry and grafted polymer chain design have been shown to play an important role in determining the dispersion state of the grafted nanoparticles and hence the final optical properties of the nanocomposites. To prepare transparent epoxy nanocomposites, poly (glycidyl methacrylate) (PGMA) chains were grafted onto the optical nanoparticle surfaces via a combined phosphate ligand exchange process and azide-alkyne "click" chemistry. The dispersion behavior of PGMA-grafted nanoparticles within the epoxy matrix was investigated by systematically varying the grafting density and grafted chain length. It was found that within the small molecular weight epoxy resins, the dispersion states are more sensitive to the grafting density than the molecular weight of grafted chains. With high grafting densities, the grafted PGMA brushes effectively screen the van der Waals attraction between the particles, and homogenous nanoparticle dispersions of grafted nanoparticles were obtained. Transparent high refractive index TiO2/epoxy thin film and bulk nancomposites were obtained by dispersing PGMA brushes-grafted TiO2 nanoparticles into a commercial epoxy matrix. The refractive index of the nanocomposites showed a linear dependence on the volume fraction of TiO2 nanoparticles and the optical transparency could be generally described by the Rayleigh scattering model. This powerful dispersing technique was further employed to make visibly transparent, UV/IR blocking ITO/epoxy nanocomposites which can be easily applied onto glass and plastic substrates as energy saving optical coating materials. To produce transparent silicone nanocomposites, we directly coupled phosphate-terminated PDMS chains onto the optical nanoparticle surface. It was observed that the mono-modal PDMS-grafted particles usually formed agglomerates within silicone matrices, whereas the bimodal PDMS-grafted particles were able to be individually dispersed even within high molecular weight matrices. Transparent high refractive index bulk TiO2/silicone nanocomposites were successfully prepared by filling with bimodal PDMS-grafted TiO2 nanoparticles. Furthermore, we used the PDMS-grafted TiO2/silicone nanocomposite as a model system to create a methodology to predict and control the dispersion behavior of grafted nanoparticles. The good agreement between experimental observation of dispersion of mono-modal and bimodal grafted particles and theoretical prediction would better guide future experiments and lead to predictability in polymer composite design. Finally, the bimodal grafted chain design was implemented in the preparation of transparent and luminescent CdSe/silicone nanocomposites with potential application as non-scattering light conversion materials for LEDs. The homogeneous dispersion of bimodal PDMS-grafted CdSe quantum dots not only minimizes the transparency loss due to scattering, but

  5. Grafting of Porous Polymers for Biological Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research on application of radiation processing to polymers is mainly focused by the National Atomic Commission (CNEA). The Agricultural and Industrial Applications Laboratory Unit operates at the Ezeiza Atomic Center since the end of 1980s. Since 1997 a new research group headed by Dr. O. Cascone and Dr. M. Grasselli, devoted to downstream processing of proteins from the University of Buenos Aires, was involved in the implementation of grafting techniques in collaboration with Dr. E. Smolko from CNEA. In 1999 Dr. M. Grasselli moved to the Universidad Nacional de Quilmes where he continued working on application of gamma radiation to materials for biotechnological process. (author)

  6. Investigations on water relations of cherry grafts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márta Gyeviki

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous investigations showed that the sweet cherry trees on most promising dwarfing, precocious and highly productive rootstocks show water deficiency during the hot and dry summer months, which influence the crop and fruit quality in the subsequent year. No doubt that under extremely dry conditions the maximum productivity and efficiency of water usage in woody heterografts can be achieved at harmonized interaction of factors determining the water relations. Those cherry trees are especially concerned, which are grafted on growth reducing rootstocks, as it became actual practice in intensive sweet cherry orchards. The rootstock research and breeding produced a wide series of dwarfing rootstocks for sweet cherry, but the trees grafted on to most promising of them show water deficiency symptoms under hot and dry summer climate. This is typical to the largest cherry growing countries of the world, like Turkey and Iran, but the conditions are similar in certain sites of Hungary too. Knowledge of hydraulic conductivity, hydraulic architecture and water-usage in case of different woody and herbaceous plant is an increasingly important issue. Because of recently occurred climate changes growing numbers of researchers work on the topic. For easy and fast analysis of plant water regime, water potential of plant parts and hydraulic conductivity of soil-plantatmosphere, a special, tool (Hydraulic Pressure Flow Meter was developed. The usage of HPFM is based on pressure-variance in tracheas. During our researches in high-density cherry orchards we found the otherwise promising dwarfing rootstocks (such as Gisela® 5 far the worst drought-tolerant, contrary to trees on Mahaleb. There is no sufficient information about drought-tolerance mechanism and hydraulic architecture of different rootstocks, thus our research purpose is to compare the above mentioned parameters in case of Prunus avium, P. mahaleb, P. cerasus and their hybrids. Our test trees are all multi-component grafts, which complicate the question even more. Not only rootstocks and scions, but graft unit itself influence transport capacity of stem. Anatomical researches have proved that trachea surface by stem cross section in case of strong vigor rootstocks is double, which suppose smaller resistance to sap flow, comparing to dwarfing rootstocks. Anatomical results itself are not enough to fully understand drought-resistance mechanism of plants, therefore our HPFM researches can approve to achieve wider knowledge of this mechanism and hereby to find appropriate dwarfing and semi-dwarfing cherry rootstocks for the Hungarian site conditions.

  7. Surface-grafted polymers from electrodeposited macroprecursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rellamas Tria, Maria Celeste

    The use of electrochemically deposited macroprecursors for tethering polymers onto conducting surfaces is presented. Specifically, anodic electropolymerization was used as a tool to electrodeposit the precursors on electrodes that mediated the grafting of polymers onto surfaces. With this approach, patterning of surface-grafted polymers was also made possible through selective electrodeposition of the conjugated polymer network of the macroprecursors. This approach was used to fabricate protein and cell-resistant poly(poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate) (PPEGMEMA) brushes on Au surfaces. A chain transfer agent (CTA) was electrodeposited on the Au surface that served as the macroprecursor for the subsequent surface-initiated reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (SI-RAFT) polymerization of poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate (PEGMEMA). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results showed the stability of the electrogenerated CTA under anodic conditions while successful brush growth was confirmed by surface techniques including XPS, ellipsometry, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and contact angle measurements. The PPEGMEMA-coated substrate exhibited protein and cell-repellant properties comparable to other reported PEG-functionalized surfaces. The proposed approach also yielded polymer-patterned surfaces as discussed in Chapters 3 and 4. An electroactive photocrosslinker was employed to facilitate the dual mode patterning of polystyrene (PS) on the surface by either electropatterning or photopatteming route. An electrodeposited CTA was also utilized to selectively grow surface-grafted PS on conducting regions of the substrate. Subsequent backfilling of nonconducting areas with a silane atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) initiator directed the growth of poly-N-isopropylacrylamide (PNIPAM) that produced a patterned binary polymer system. The patterns were successfully characterized by AFM and IR-imaging. Surface-grafted poly(N-vinyl carbazole) (PVK) film on indium tin oxide (ITO) was fabricated using this technique. This surface was used as a hole transporting layer (HTL) for a photovoltaic device as a possible replacement for existing poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene) : poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS). Device testing showed a comparable performance between the tethered PVK HTL and PEDOT:PSS as HTLs.

  8. Radiochemical grafting of acrylonitrile on polystyrene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study of the radio-induced grafting of acrylonitrile on to preirradiated polystyrene shows that, during the radiolysis in air of this polymer as in the case of polypropylene and of poly(vinylchloride), a chain preoxidation cannot take place if the polymer is irradiated at a temperature below its glass transition temperature. Polymer plasticization produces a decrease in Tsub(g) below room temperature. It is shown that a short chain preoxidation takes place for plasticization by benzene. In the presence of chloroform, a polystyrene sensitivity to radiation is additional to the effect of plasticization. (author)

  9. Solvent influence during radiation induced grafting of styrene in PVDF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation-induced grafting was studied to produce styrene grafted poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) membranes. PVDF films with 0.125 mm thickness were irradiated at doses between 5 and 20 kGy in the presence of styrene/N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF), styrene/acetone or styrene/toluene solutions (1:1, v/v) at dose rate of 5 kGy h-1 by simultaneous method, using gamma rays from a Co-60, under nitrogen atmosphere and at room temperature. The films were characterized before and after modification by grafting yield (GY %), infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM and EDS), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetry (TG/DTG). GY results shows that grafting increases with dose and toluene hinders the grafting, leading to a small GY comparing to DMF and acetone. It was possible to confirm the grafting of styrene by FT-IR due to the new characteristics peaks and by the TG and DSC due to changes in thermal behavior of the grafted material. SEM and EDS show surface and cross-section distribution of the grafting, which takes place on the surface and heterogeneously with toluene as solvent and homogeneously and penetrating into the inner layers of the matrix using DMF and acetone as solvent. (author)

  10. Stent Graft in Managing Juxta-Renal Aortoiliac Occlusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endovascular procedures are frequently used as an alternative to surgical bypass in aortic and iliac occlusion. Stents have revolutionized the scope of such endovascular procedures, but there are few reports of stents or stent grafts in occlusive juxta-renal aortic occlusion. We present a case where such occlusion was managed by use of a stent graft with successful outcome

  11. Use of polycaprolactone grafts for small-diameter blood vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevost'ianova, V V; Elgudin, Ia A; Glushkova, T V; Wnek, G; Liubysheva, T; Emancipator, S; Kudriavtseva, Iu A; Borisov, V V; Golovkin, A S; Barbarash, L S

    2015-01-01

    Current trends are toward actively developing approaches of tissue engineering, aimed at creating vascular grafts of small diameter. This is due to the existing in cardiovascular surgery demand for prostheses to be used in coronary artery bypass grafting. The present work was undertaken in order to assess possibilities of using smalldiameter vascular grafts made of biodegradable polymer polycaprolactone by means of electrospinning. The authors studied physico-mechanical properties and structure of polycaprolactone grafts, as well as their thromboresistance and patency after implantation into the vascular bed of rats. The obtained results demonstrated optimal physicomechanical properties of the vascular grafts, their biocompatibility, endothelialisation of the internal surface, and infiltration of the graft's wall by cells with the formation of new tissue, accompanied and followed by the development of an extensive intimal layer in the zones of the anastomoses. Hence, the study showed possibilities of using polycaprolactone grafts as vascular prostheses, however requiring their further modification which would promote and contribute to a decrease in hyperplasia of connective tissue in the graft's lumen. PMID:25757165

  12. Solvent influence during radiation induced grafting of styrene in PVDF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Henrique P.; Parra, Duclerc F.; Lugao, Ademar B., E-mail: hp.ferreira@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Radiation-induced grafting was studied to produce styrene grafted poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) membranes. PVDF films with 0.125 mm thickness were irradiated at doses between 5 and 20 kGy in the presence of styrene/N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF), styrene/acetone or styrene/toluene solutions (1:1, v/v) at dose rate of 5 kGy h{sup -1} by simultaneous method, using gamma rays from a Co-60, under nitrogen atmosphere and at room temperature. The films were characterized before and after modification by grafting yield (GY %), infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM and EDS), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetry (TG/DTG). GY results shows that grafting increases with dose and toluene hinders the grafting, leading to a small GY comparing to DMF and acetone. It was possible to confirm the grafting of styrene by FT-IR due to the new characteristics peaks and by the TG and DSC due to changes in thermal behavior of the grafted material. SEM and EDS show surface and cross-section distribution of the grafting, which takes place on the surface and heterogeneously with toluene as solvent and homogeneously and penetrating into the inner layers of the matrix using DMF and acetone as solvent. (author)

  13. Comparison of Right and Left Grafts in Renal Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salehipour Mehdi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study compares outcomes and graft function of right and left grafts of deceased donor. We studied 120 kidney recipients from 60 deceased donors in Shiraz organ transplantation center from 1988 to 2004. We analyzed data regarding age, gender, side of grafts, duration of pre-transplant dialysis, hospital stay, serial creatinine levels, cold ischemic time, complications, graft function, patient survival rates, and post-operative complications. Recipients were divided into two groups: group 1 consisted of 60 recipients who received right renal graft (43 males, 17 females; mean age: 33.6 ± 7.3 years, and group 2 consisted of 60 recipients who received left renal graft (45 males, 15 females; mean age: 29.2 ± 6.4 years. No statistically significant differences were found in duration of pre-transplant dialysis, cold ischemic time, acute rejection rates, post-operative surgical and vascular complications? rates, hospital stay, renal function, and one year graft survival rates. We conclude that although it is advised to use left kidney from live donors because of longer vessel length, easier surgical technique and organ handling, and shorter ischemic time, we got the same outcome in left and right deceased renal grafts.

  14. Acidic effect of radiation grafting between acrylonitrile and wool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The acidic effect in grafting of acrylonitrile onto wool fibre under mutual irradiation has been studied. The reactivity of various acids towards graft copolymerization was found as the order: H2SO4>HNO3>HCl>HClO4>HOAC

  15. Study on biotribological properties of UHMWPE grafted with MPDSAH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to prolong the service life of artificial joints, a zwitterion monomer of MPDSAH ((3-(methacryloylamino)propyl)dimethyl (3-sulfopropyl)ammonium hydroxide) was grafted onto ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) powders to construct a brush-like structure by UV irradiation, and then the grafted UHMWPE powders were hot pressed as the bulk materials. The wettability of bulk materials surface with different monomer concentrations was analyzed. The tribological properties of modified UHMWPE bulk materials were investigated under distilled water and saline by sliding against stainless steel ball. The measurement of Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy indicates that MPDSAH is successfully grafted onto the surface of UHMWPE powders by UV irradiation. The contact angles of modified UHMWPE are decreased and the surface wettability is effectively improved. The friction coefficient of the modified sample is lower than that of untreated UHMWPE in aqueous lubricants during a long-term friction. With the increase of monomer concentration, the wear rate of grafted UHMWPE decreases gradually in distilled water. The grafting hydrophilic macromolecule polymer is helpful to form a lubricating film of water, which leads to the improvement of the lubricity of UHMWPE. - Highlights: ? PMPDSAH brushes were grafted onto UHMWPE powders by UV radiation. ? Wettability of PMPDSAH-grafted UHMWPE bulk material is improved. ? UHMWPE grafted with PMPDSAH brushes shows lower friction coefficient and wear rate

  16. HRP-Mediated Synthesis of Starch-Polyacrylamide Graft Copolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modified starch-based polymers can be engineered for specific properties by combining starch with synthetic polymers through graft copolymerization. Polyacrylamide grafted starch have received a great deal of applications in areas such as superabsorbent paper-making additives, drag reduction and te...

  17. Graft Copolymerization Of Methyl Methacrylate Onto Agave Cellulose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The grafting polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA) and Agave cellulose was prepared and the grafting reaction conditions were optimized by varying the reaction time and temperature, and ratio of monomer to cellulose. The resulting graft copolymers were characterized by Fourier transform infrared, X-ray diffraction analysis, thermogravimetric analysis, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The experimental results showed that the optimal conditions were at a temperature of 45 degree Celsius for 90 min with ratio monomer to cellulose at 1:1 (g/ g). An additional peak at 1738 cm-1 which was attributed to the C=O of ester stretching vibration of poly(methyl methacrylate), appeared in the spectrum of grafted Agave cellulose. A slight decrease of crystallinity index upon grafting was found from 0.74 to 0.68 for cellulose and grafted cellulose, respectively. Grafting of MMA onto cellulose enhanced its thermal stability and SEM observation further furnished evidence of grafting MMA onto Agave cellulose with increasing cellulose diameter and surface roughness. (author)

  18. PREPARATION AND APPLICATION OF DIMER ACID/LIGNIN GRAFT COPOLYMER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Run Fang

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Dimer acid (DA was grafted onto lignin (EHL to form a graft copolymer DA-g-EHL. The selection of the reaction type and the optimization of the reaction conditions for the grafting reaction were conducted through orthogonal and single factor experiments. FT-IR and thermal analysis were used to characterize the graft product. It was found that, compared with free radical grafting, DA can be grafted onto EHL more effectively by ester condensation with strongly acidic cation exchange resin as a catalyst. Under optimum reaction conditions, the increase of acid value and the yield of graft copolymer can reach about 9.3% and 83%, respectively. The application of DA-g-EHL in preparing modified phenolic aldehyde amine curing agent (PAA was studied. Results showed that the flexibility of the epoxy resin cured by DA-g-EHL modified PAA is significant higher than that of the resin cured by EHL modified PAA. The graft of DA onto EHL may reduce the rigidity of EHL and the chain stiffness of the PAA modified by EHL.

  19. Saphenous venous graft pseudoaneurysm: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smer, Aiman; Alla, Venkata; Chandraprakasam, Satish; Abuzaid, Ahmed; Saurav, Alok; Holmberg, Jeffery

    2015-01-01

    Saphenous vein graft (SVG) pseudoaneurysm is a rare complication of coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. A review of literature indicates that almost one third of patients are asymptomatic at detection and a history of operative complications and need for re-exploration after the initial surgery may serve as useful predictors for the development of this rare complication. PMID:25363741

  20. Trans Fats from Foods May Worsen Memory, Study Finds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trans Fats From Foods May Worsen Memory, Study Finds Men who ate more performed poorly on word ... 17, 2015 WEDNESDAY, June 17, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Trans fats may play havoc with your memory along ...