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Sample records for fat graft myringoplasty

  1. Hyaluronic acid fat graft myringoplasty vs fat patch fat graft myringoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzahrani, Musaed; Saliba, Issam

    2015-08-01

    We aim to compare the hyaluronic acid to fat graft myringoplasty (HAFGM) technique to a recently described modified-FGM (M-FGM) in the repair of tympanic membrane perforation (TMP). We also aim to evaluate the hearing level improvement postoperatively. We conducted a prospective study in an adult tertiary care center between 2012 and 2013. Adult patients presenting with simple TMP were operated on randomly using either HAFGM or M-FGM under local anesthesia in outpatients' settings. Success was considered when complete closure is achieved. Audiometric parameters were evaluated pre and postoperatively. Twenty-four patients were included in the study (HAFGM: 10 patients and M-FGM: 14 patients). Complete closure was achieved in 80 % in HAFGM vs 42.8 % in the M-FGM (p = 0.03). The study was abandoned due to the low success rate in first 14 patients of the M-FGM group. The pure tone audiometry was improved postoperatively in the HAFGM only. The study was aborted because of the unsatisfactory obtained results using the MFGM. It also shows the beneficial effect of hyaluronic acid application to FGM for a successful TMP repair. PMID:24633245

  2. Primary Breast Augmentation with Fat Grafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Sydney R; Saboeiro, Alesia P

    2015-07-01

    The controversy over fat grafting to the breasts has now been settled. In 2009, the American Society of Plastic Surgeons Fat Graft Task Force stated that "Fat grafting may be considered for breast augmentation and correction of defects associated with medical conditions and previous breast surgeries; however, results are dependent on technique and surgeon expertise." This article discusses the history, indications, planning, complications, and present technique of fat grafting to the breast using the Coleman technique. PMID:26116935

  3. Strategic sequences in fat graft survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jimmy; Widgerow, Alan D; Banyard, Derek; Toranto, Jason; Wirth, Garrett A; Paydar, Keyianoosh; Tussardi, Ilaria Tocco; Evans, Gregory R D

    2015-03-01

    Although lipotransfer, or fat grafting, is a commonly used procedure in aesthetic and reconstructive surgery, there is still variability in graft survival and neoadipogenesis from one procedure to the next. A better understanding of the sequential molecular events occurring with grafting would allow us to strategize methods to improve the regenerative potency of the grafted tissue. These steps begin with an autophagic process, followed by the inclusion of stromal vascular fraction and matrix components. By tailoring and modifying each of these steps for a particular type of aesthetic or reconstructive procedure, strategic sequencing represents a dynamic approach to lipotransfer with the aim of maximizing adipocyte viability and growth. In the implementation of the strategic sequence, it remains important to consider the clinical viability of each step and its compliance with the US Food and Drug Administration regulations. This review highlights the basic science behind clinically translatable approaches to supplementing various fat grafting procedures. PMID:25643185

  4. Autologous Fat Grafting for Whole Breast Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin H. L. Howes, MBBS

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary: This is the first reported case of a patient who had a single-stage large-volume breast reconstruction with autologous fat grafting, following rotation flap approach (RoFA mastectomy. The purpose of this case study was to evaluate the viability of reconstruction of the breast by autologous fat grafting alone, in the context of RoFA mastectomy. The hypothesis was that there would be minimal interval loss of autologous fat on the whole breast reconstruction side. Right RoFA mastectomy was used for resection of an invasive primary breast cancer and resulted in the right breast skin envelope. Eleven months later, the patient underwent grafting of 400?ml of autologous fat into the skin envelope and underlying pectoralis major muscle. Outcome was assessed by using a validated 3D laser scan technique for quantitative breast volume measurement. Other outcome measures included the BREAST-Q questionnaire and 2D clinical photography. At 12-month follow-up, the patient was observed to have maintenance of volume of the reconstructed breast. Her BREAST-Q scores were markedly improved compared with before fat grafting, and there was observable improvement in shape, contour, and symmetry on 2D clinical photography. The 2 new techniques, RoFA mastectomy and large-volume single-stage autologous fat grafting, were used in combination to achieve a satisfactory postmastectomy breast reconstruction. Novel tools for measurement of outcome were the 3D whole-body laser scanner and BREAST-Q questionnaire. This case demonstrates the potential for the use of fat grafting for reconstruction. Outcomes in a larger patient populations are needed to confirm these findings.

  5. A STUDY ON EFFICACY OF AUTOLOGOUS PLATELET RICH PLASMA IN MYRINGOPLASTY

    OpenAIRE

    Sankaranarayanan Gopalakrishnan; Prithviraj Venkatasamy; Kumar Vivekanandamurthy

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To study the efficacy and advantage in using autologus platelet rich plasma during myringoplasty in closure of tympanic membrane perforation preventing the graft displacement, promoting quicker healing & improving overall outcome.Methods : Platelet rich plasma(PRP) is an autologus platelet rich concentrate prepared from patients own blood with growth factors up to 8 times that of normal serum and its efficacy when used during myringoplasty is studied.50 patients with chronic oti...

  6. How does fat survive and remodel after grafting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashiko, Takanobu; Yoshimura, Kotaro

    2015-04-01

    Autologous fat grafting has become an important procedure for volumization and revitalization, although clinical outcomes depend greatly on technique. It was revealed recently how grafted fat tissue survives, regenerates, or dies. Experimental results provided the underlying mechanism and clinical implications for therapeutic strategies to maximize the effects of fat grafting, minimize necrosis, and avoid oil cyst formation. PMID:25827562

  7. Radiographic Implications of Fat Grafting to the Reconstructed Breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinell-White, Ximena A; Etra, Joanna; Newell, Mary; Tuscano, Daymen; Shin, Kyungmin; Losken, Albert

    2015-09-01

    Autologous fat transfer is often used to smooth contour irregularities in the reconstructed breast. A potential concern with this technique is that it results in calcified lesions in the breast that can complicate subsequent cancer surveillance. The purpose of this review was to determine how fat grafting to the reconstructed breast impacts postoperative breast imaging. This is a matched cohort analysis of patients who underwent postmastectomy breast reconstruction with and without fat grafting as a secondary procedure. Nonfat grafted reconstructive patients were matched based on age, year of initial reconstruction, and type of reconstruction. Postoperative imaging at our institution was required for inclusion. The two groups were compared in terms of incidence and distribution of radiographic studies performed in follow-up and the need for biopsies. Fifty-one reconstructed breasts with a history of fat grafting were compared to 51 nonfat grafted, reconstructed breasts. The fat grafted group underwent a total of 204 breast imaging studies over a mean follow-up of 4.2 years, while the nonfat grafted group underwent 167 studies over 4.1 years (p = 0.21). More mammograms, ultrasounds, and magnetic resonance images were performed after fat grafting, but a significant difference was evident only for mammography (34 versus 12, p = 0.05). The incidence of breast biopsy to clarify abnormal imaging was nonsignificantly higher in the fat grafted group (17.6% versus 7.8%, p = 0.14). Fewer than 10 percent of imaging studies in the fat grafted cohort were performed to investigate a clinical or radiographic abnormality occupying the same breast quadrant as prior fat injection. Breast cancer patients treated with fat grafting required more breast imaging and biopsies than their nonfat grafted counterparts, but the areas of suspicion poorly corresponded to the site of prior fat grafting. Multimodal breast reconstruction may drive the additional diagnostic burden and not the fat grafting technique itself. PMID:26133468

  8. The Fate of Nonvascularized Fat Grafts: Histological and Bioluminescent Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ataru Sunaga, MD

    2013-09-01

    Conclusions: Our study showed the process of survival and regeneration of nonvascularized fat grafts and suggested that graft-derived stromal cells proliferated within 7 days after transplantation and differentiated into adipocytes after postoperative week 3.

  9. A STUDY ON EFFICACY OF AUTOLOGOUS PLATELET RICH PLASMA IN MYRINGOPLASTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sankaranarayanan Gopalakrishnan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the efficacy and advantage in using autologus platelet rich plasma during myringoplasty in closure of tympanic membrane perforation preventing the graft displacement, promoting quicker healing & improving overall outcome.Methods : Platelet rich plasma(PRP is an autologus platelet rich concentrate prepared from patients own blood with growth factors up to 8 times that of normal serum and its efficacy when used during myringoplasty is studied.50 patients with chronic otitis media inactive mucosal disease were randomly chosen and 25 of them was the study group and other 25 were the control group. Both group patients underwent myringoplasty and PRP was used in the study group and the results were evaluated.Results: In our study among 25 cases that underwent myringoplasty with use of platelet rich fibrin, 24 had complete tympanic membrane closure and only one failure has been noticed. In controls 5 out of 25 cases had failure. The graft take up rate in our study is comparable with the reference studies. Use of PRP accelerates graft uptake.Conclusion: Platelet rich plasma is a cheap and cost effective platelet concentrate with enriched growth factors. It accelerates the tympanic membrane closure following myringoplasty.

  10. Autologous Fat Grafting in Facial Volumetric Restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquale, Piombino; Gaetano, Marenzi; Giovanni, Dell’Aversana Orabona; Luigi, Califano; Gilberto, Sammartino

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The authors reported their surgical experience about structural fat grafting in the management of facial volumetric deficit. The purpose of this study was to assess the real indications, cosmetic results, complications, and global patient satisfaction of the Coleman technique in redefining facial contours in congenital and postoperative deformities. A retrospective analysis of 32 patients grafted according to Coleman's technique was performed, and the long-term outcomes and patient satisfaction were evaluated. The mean postoperative clinical follow-up was 14 months. The morphological changes were analyzed by comparing the photographic presurgical facial contour and the postoperative correction of soft tissue defects. All consecutive cases reported showed a progressive fat resorption for 3 months after surgery and its stable integration only after this period. Best results were performed in the treatment of genetically determined syndromes, such as the Franceschetti and Romberg syndromes. The authors suggest this surgical technique also for the treatment of unaesthetic cutaneous abscess cavity after incision and drainage. Unsatisfactory outcomes were obtained in the treatment of the posttraumatic facial scar, which needed more surgical procedures. PMID:25974786

  11. Facial fat grafting with a prototype injection control device

    OpenAIRE

    Hetherington HE; Block JE

    2013-01-01

    Hugh E Hetherington,1 Jon E Block2 1Bozeman Deaconess Health Group, Bozeman, MT, USA; 2The Jon Block Group, San Francisco, CA, USA Objective: To evaluate the initial clinical performance of a prototype injection control device (ICD) to facilitate fat grafting by injection. Methods: An ICD, which mechanically couples the act of withdrawing the cannula with the act of depressing the plunger, was fabricated for the purpose of facial fat grafting. The action of the device results in deposition of...

  12. Importance of mesenchymal stem cells in autologous fat grafting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trojahn Kølle, Stig-Frederik; Oliveri, Roberto S; Glovinski, Peter Viktor; Elberg, Jens Jørgen; Fischer-Nielsen, Anne; Drzewiecki, Krzysztof Tadeusz

    2012-01-01

    Autologous fat grafting (lipofilling) enables repair and augmentation of soft tissues and is increasingly used both in aesthetic and reconstructive surgery. Autologous fat has several advantages, including biocompatibility, versatility, natural appearance, and low donor site morbidity. The main limitation is unpredictable graft resorption, which ranges from 25%-80%, probably as a result of ischaemia and lack of neoangiogenesis. To obviate these disadvantages, several studies have searched for ne...

  13. PRIMARY DERMIS FAT GRAFT IMPLANTATION IN ORBIT AFTER EVISCERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep K

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Orbital implants allow for cosmesis and volume replacement of an eviscerated eye. Dermis fat graft is a viable alternative to alloplastic implants as a primary orbital implant following ocular evisceration. Aim/Objectives: To provide evidence for dermal fat graft as a safe and stable orbital volume replacement following ocular evisceration. Methodology: A prospective, interventional, non-comparative case series of patients who had an primary autologous dermis graft after evisceration.All the patients fulfilling the criteria were identified. At 6 weeks post-operatively, patients received an ocular prosthesis. The volume of the dermis-fat grafted globe was measured at 1 month and 9 months post-operatively by plain magnetic resonance imaging of the orbit. Results: Ten patients underwent ocular evisceration and dermis fat graft implant.Nine patients completed the study.Out of 10 patients 60% (6 were males and 40% (4 were females.Suture abscess was noted in 20% patients, hair growth in the dermis in 10%, sub conjunctival cysts in 10% patients.Cosmetic outcome showed very good result in 50% patients with good prosthetic motility in 60%. Conclusion: This case series shows that the use of a dermis graft is a safe and effective new technique to facilitate orbital rehabilitation. It is hypothesised that the extra surface area produced with a dermis graft preserves the fornices and allows a larger implant.

  14. Free epidural fat-grafting after lumbar laminectomy using MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Free epidural fat-grafting was performed to prevent adhesion between scar tissue of the epidural space and dura and nerve root after lumbar laminectomy. The results were evaluated using MRI. Fifteen cases were operated upon with an average follow-up period of 7.5 months. MRI was recorded and the findings were classified into four types as follow: I, equally high signal case; II, slight fibrosis case; III, severe fibrosis case; IV, high signal disappeared case. The results showed 3 cases of type I, 7 cases of type II, 3 cases of type III, and 2 cases of type IV. According to MRI findings, free epidural fat is supposed to be still viable and alive, although slightly fibroses but the dural side remains a high signal area. Free epidural fat-grafting was useful for preventing adhesion around the epidural space. There was high relationship to age and sex with regard to viability of the free fat graft. (author)

  15. Combined Use of Implant and Fat Grafting for Breast Augmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auclair, Eric; Anavekar, Namrata

    2015-07-01

    Composite breast augmentation is a simple procedure combining the ability of an implant to provide increased volume with the reshaping possibilities offered by fat grafting. The ability to camouflage the implant allows use of a premuscular, retrofascial pocket, avoiding the disadvantages and morbidity associated with retromuscular positioning. PMID:26116936

  16. Fat Grafting: A Citation Analysis of the Seminal Articles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cormac W. Joyce, MB, BCh

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: The scientific relevance of a published work is reflected in the number of citations from peers that it receives. Therefore, the 100 most-cited papers in fat grafting have been the most influential articles on this field, and they are likely to be the ones that are remembered most.

  17. Breast fistula repair after autologous fat graft: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Luca Maione; Giorgio Pajardi; Valeriano Vinci; Davide Forcellini; Fabio Caviggioli; Francesco Maria Klinger; Marco Klinger

    2011-01-01

    We report the case of a 55-year-old female patient who attended our clinic for the presence of a scar retraction in the upper pole of the left breast as a complication of breast augmentation. In the scar area, we observed an orifice that probing revealed to be a fistula. The patient was referred to surgical intervention under general anesthesia to obtain scar contracture release using autologous fat graft; one month after autologous fat injection, following healing of the fistula, the patient...

  18. Lipoenxertia em reconstrução mamária / Fat grafting in breast reconstruction

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Francisco José Fontenele, Bezerra; Rosely Moraes Gonçalves de, Moura; José Dalvo, Maia Neto.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Frequentemente, a reconstrução mamária requer um segundo tempo cirúrgico para corrigir visíveis irregularidades no contorno da mama. A lipoenxertia constitui-se em uma técnica cirúrgica que pode melhorar ou corrigir essas deformidades em substituição a outras técnicas convencionais de ma [...] ior morbidade ou complexidade. O objetivo deste estudo é demonstrar um método de correção de defeitos de contorno de mamas reconstruídas previamente pelas técnicas convencionais com enxerto de gordura, após 8 anos de experiência. MÉTODO: Todas as pacientes incluídas neste estudo foram previamente submetidas a mastectomia (total ou parcial) e a algum tipo de reconstrução mamária. A gordura foi obtida por meio de método clássico de lipoaspiração com seringa, delicadamente lavada com solução salina em uma peneira de aço inoxidável, decantada em uma seringa de 60 cc e enxertada após alguns minutos. RESULTADOS: Foram operadas 112 pacientes no período de 2005 a 2012. Houve 1 (8,9%) caso de perda total do enxerto de gordura, 22 (19,6%) pacientes apresentaram pequenos nódulos palpáveis, o volume médio enxertado foi de 100 cc e foram necessários múltiplos procedimentos para se alcançar o volume desejado. CONCLUSÕES: A lipoenxertia constitui-se em uma técnica segura, com baixa morbidade e altos índices de satisfação do cirurgião e das pacientes, apesar de necessitar de múltiplos procedimentos cirúrgicos para atingir bom resultado. Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Breast reconstruction often requires a second surgical procedure to correct visible irregularities of the breast contour. Lipofilling (fat grafting) consists of a surgical technique that improves or corrects such deformities, and serves as an alternative to other conventional techniques [...] that have higher morbidity rates and complexity. In the present study, we aimed to describe our 8-year experience with a fat grafting method for correcting contour deformities of breasts that were previously reconstructed using conventional techniques. METHODS: All patients in this study previously underwent mastectomy (total or partial) and some degree of breast reconstruction. The fat was obtained by liposuction using a syringe, and was gently rinsed with a saline solution in a stainless steel sieve, poured into a 60 cc syringe, and grafted after a few minutes. RESULTS: In total, 112 patients underwent surgery between 2005 and 2012. There was one (8.9%) case of total loss of the fat graft, while 22 (19.6%) patients had small palpable nodules. The average graft volume was 100 cc, and multiple procedures were required to achieve the desired volume. CONCLUSIONS: Fat grafting is a safe technique with low morbidity rates that demonstrates high surgeon and patient satisfaction levels, despite the need for multiple procedures to achieve good results.

  19. Particle size, temperature, and released amount of fat for safe periorbital fat grafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seong Kee; Hwang, Kun; Huan, Fan; Hwang, Se Ho

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the particle size, temperature, and amount of released fat for safe periorbital fat grafts. From 28 patients, fat was suctioned from the abdomen (large particles [LPs]) and from the inner thigh (small particles [SPs]) using a 2.1-mm harvesting cannula with a diameter 3.2 × 1.4-mm hole and a 1-mm hole, respectively. The 10-mL syringes full of fat were then put into a centrifuge for 3 minutes (LP) and 1 minute (SP) at 3000 revolutions/min. Fat was then transferred to a 1-mL syringe with Luer-Lock adapters and a blunt cannula of 0.9-mm diameter. The force needed to push the fat out of the cannula was measured with a force gauge. The force was measured within the different groups according to particle size of the fat, temperature of the fat, and released amount of fat. The force needed to push the SP fat out of the cannula into the air with minimal amount (MA) (0.01-0.02 mL) injected at room temperature (25 °C) (1.75 ± 0.82 N) was significantly greater (P = 0.000 [t test]) than at body temperature (BT, 33 °C) (1.27 ± 0.38 N). At BT, the force needed to push the SP fat into subcutaneous pig tissue (2.30 ± 1.46 N) was significantly lesser (P = 0.000 [t test]) than LP fat (6.54 ± 2.39 N). At BT, the force needed to push the MA of SP fat into pig subcutaneous tissue (1.38 ± 0.26 N) was significantly lesser (P = 0.000 [t test]) than the force needed to push the usual amount (0.03-0.04 mL) of SP fat (3.83 ± 1.78 N). The force needed to push the fat into human lower eyelids at room temperature (4.06 ± 2.26 N) was significantly greater (P = 0.000 [t test]) than at BT (2.11 ± 0.96 N). At BT, the force needed to inject an MA of SP fat into human lower eyelids (1.55 ± 0.83 N) was significantly lesser (P = 0.000 [t test]) than the force needed to inject a usual amount of fat (2.78 ± 1.03 N). We suggest injections of the SP (1-mm hole diameter harvesting cannula) fat with MAs (0.01-0.02 mL) by means of fragmented incremental injections stored at BT (33°C) to reduce the injection pressure. PMID:24036787

  20. Liver fat accumulation after islet transplantation and graft survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitão, Cristiane Bauermann; Peixoto, Eduardo Moraes Leao; Westphalen, Antonio C; Mireles-Zavala, Leonor G; Lauriola, Vincenzo; Bernetti, Karina; Corrales, Andrea; Ricordi, Camillo; Alejandro, Rodolfo

    2014-01-01

    Our objective is to evaluate if there is an association between liver fat accumulation after islet transplantation (ITx) and graft survival. A cohort study was conducted in 34 subjects with type 1 diabetes postallogeneic ITx. Liver fat content was evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (change in liver signal intensity on in-phase and opposed-phase images). Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox regression analysis were performed with islet dysfunction duration as the dependent variable and fat liver content as an independent one. Values of p SSPS(®)18.0 and MedCalc(®)12.5). Patients' mean age was 40 ± 8 years (diabetes duration: 31 ± 12 years; male: 41%). Islet survival did not differ in patients without (51 months, 95% CI 40-62 months) or with steatosis (48 months, 95% CI 38-58 months; p = 0.55) during islet dysfunction period. Nevertheless, survival curves appear to separate late in the follow-up, and after 40 months steatosis was associated with shorter graft survival (p log rank = 0.049). This association remained (RR 23.5, 95% CI 1.1-516.0; p = 0.045) after adjustments for possible confounding factors. In this sample of subjects with type 1 diabetes submitted to ITx, steatosis was not associated with islet failure in the whole cohort. However, in subjects with functional islets after 40 months, a shorter graft survival was observed in those with steatosis during the islet dysfunction period, even after adjustments to variables known to be associated with islet failure. PMID:23803321

  1. Alleviation of neuropathic scar pain using autologous fat grafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shu-Hung; Wu, Sheng-Hua; Chang, Kao-Ping; Lin, Cen-Hung; Chang, Chih-Hau; Wu, Yi-Chia; Lee, Su-Shin; Lin, Sin-Daw; Lai, Chung-Sheng

    2015-05-01

    Traumatic wounds inflict small- and large-fiber sensory nerve damage, causing neuropathic pain in scar tissue, thus impairing patients' quality of life and leading to the development of psychological disorders. Autologous fat grafting has been clinically shown to improve scar quality, but few studies have explored the effects of this technique on pain. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of fat grafting on treating neuropathic scar pain. From February 2008 to January 2013, 13 patients who were identified using the Douleur Neuropathique 4 Questions (scores>4/10) were enrolled in this study. The Visual Analog Scale (VAS) and Neuropathic Pain Symptom Inventory (NPSI) were used to evaluate pain preoperatively and 1 week, 4 weeks, and 24 weeks postoperatively. The mechanism of trauma, scar location and size, duration of allodynia, fat graft volume, pharmacologic therapy duration, and total follow-up time were recorded. Thirteen patients experiencing neuropathic pain were enrolled in this study. The mean±SD age was 33.08±16.35 years. The mean duration of pain was 4.29±2.85 months. The mean VAS score before treatment was 7.54±1.05. The mean VAS scores decreased by 4.38±1.66 after 1 week of treatment (P=0.009), 5.38±2.06 after 4 weeks of treatment, and 5.62±2.18 after 24 weeks of treatment. The mean NPSI scores were 49.38±13.25 before treatment, 25±14.4 after 1 week of treatment (P=0.004), 21±17.78 after 4 weeks of treatment, and 14.62±16.88 after 24 weeks of treatment. The 13 patients followed a mean of 24 weeks; 10 (77%) of the patients had improvement of 5 or greater on the VAS score. The mean follow-up period was 19.3±12.26 months (range, 6-38 months). No surgical complications were noted in this series. In our study, both VAS and NPSI scores decreased significantly, revealing that the autologous fat grafting can alleviate neuropathic scar pain 1 week after operation and in the long term. PMID:25695456

  2. Facial fat grafting with a prototype injection control device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hetherington HE

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Hugh E Hetherington,1 Jon E Block2 1Bozeman Deaconess Health Group, Bozeman, MT, USA; 2The Jon Block Group, San Francisco, CA, USA Objective: To evaluate the initial clinical performance of a prototype injection control device (ICD to facilitate fat grafting by injection. Methods: An ICD, which mechanically couples the act of withdrawing the cannula with the act of depressing the plunger, was fabricated for the purpose of facial fat grafting. The action of the device results in deposition of consistent threads of fat having a volume of approximately 33 uL per cm that the cannula is withdrawn, which is slightly less than the internal volume of a 12-gauge cannula. A total of 26 patients underwent 30 procedures, and the results were subjectively evaluated using pre- and postoperative photographs, with a minimum follow-up of 4 months. Results: The desired degree of correction was more consistent, recovery was faster, and procedural efficiency was improved when performing the procedure with the ICD compared to historical use of the manual method of injection. Minor irregularities were the only complications encountered. Conclusion: The ICD optimally distributes fat as a uniform thread along the withdrawal tract of the cannula, thereby eliminating clumping and minimizing tissue trauma, resulting in reduced recovery time as well as more consistent and predictable clinical results. Since the ICD automates the injection process, it provides a notable and easily attainable efficiency in procedural time and minimal learning curve for the user. Keywords: dermal fillers, liposuction, facial rejuvenation, threading

  3. Breast Reconstruction after a Bilateral Mastectomy Using the BRAVA Expansion System and Fat Grafting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondrej Mestak, MD

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Fat graft breast reconstruction following a mastectomy is always limited by the size of the skin envelope, which affects the amount of graft that can be injected in 1 session. Because the fat graft naturally resorbs in all patients, several sessions of fat grafting are necessary. BRAVA’s negative pressure causes a “reverse” expansion of the skin envelope, thus permitting more space for the fat graft. This allows decreasing number of required procedures for an adequate breast reconstruction. We operated on a 38-year-old patient 4 years after bilateral mastectomy without irradiation for breast cancer. Before the procedure, the patient was instructed to wear the BRAVA system for 12 hours daily for 2 months before the first session, at all times between the sessions and for 1 month following the last fat grafting session. We performed 3 fat grafting sessions, as planned. Altogether, we injected 840 cm3 of fat on the right side and 790?cm3 of fat on the left side. Four months after the last operation, the patient was very satisfied with her new breasts. The breasts were soft, with good sensation and a natural feel. Using the BRAVA external expansion system for the enhancement of fat grafting is a suitable technique for breast reconstruction after a mastectomy. This technique produces soft and natural feeling breasts in fewer operative sessions, with a minimal risk of complications. Patient compliance, however, is greatly needed to achieve the desired results.

  4. A Rabbit Model of Fat Graft Recipient Site Preconditioning Using External Negative Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung Woo; Han, Yea Sik; Kim, Sin Rak; Kim, Han Kyeol; Kim, Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Background Fat is widely used in soft tissue augmentation. Nevertheless, it has an unpredictably high resorption rate. Clinically, external expansion with negative pressure is used to increase fat graft survival. In this study, fat graft recipient sites were preconditioned by external application of negative pressure in order to test for improvements in vascularity and fat graft survival. Methods Negative pressure was applied randomly to either the left or right dorsal ear of 20 New Zealand male white rabbits at a pressure of -125 mm Hg. The negative pressure was removed one week after the skin perfusion was measured. The skin flap at each ear was elevated, and 1 g of fat was grafted above the dorsal perichondrium. After one week, the fat weight, microvessel density, mature vessel density of the skin and fat, and amount of glycerol released were measured. Three months after the grafting, the same measurements were performed, with the exception of glycerol release. Results The fat survival rate of the experimental group (75.4%±3.9%) was higher than that of the control group (53.1%±4.3%) (P<0.001). Skin perfusion was higher in the experimental group. The glycerol release in the experimental group was significantly higher than in the control. The microvessel density of the skin and fat was significantly higher in the experimental group. Three months after the grafting, the skin and fat mature vessel density was significantly higher in the experimental groups. Conclusions Negative pressure prior to fat grafting increased the vascularity of the recipient site, and, accordingly, enhanced fat graft survival. PMID:25798385

  5. Autologous fat grafting: use of closed syringe microcannula system for enhanced autologous structural grafting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander RW

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Robert W Alexander,1 David Harrell2 1Department of Surgery, School of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA; 2Harvest-Terumo Inc, Plymouth, MA, USA Objectives: Provide background for use of acquiring autologous adipose tissue as a tissue graft and source of adult progenitor cells for use in cosmetic plastic surgery. Discuss the background and mechanisms of action of closed syringe vacuum lipoaspiration, with emphasis on accessing adipose-derived mesenchymal/stromal cells and the stromal vascular fraction (SVF for use in aesthetic, structural reconstruction and regenerative applications. Explain a proven protocol for acquiring high-quality autologous fat grafts (AFG with use of disposable, microcannula systems. Design: Explain the components and advantage of use of the patented super luer-lock and microcannulas system for use with the closed-syringe system. A sequential explanation of equipment selection for minimally traumatic lipoaspiration in small volumes is presented, including use of blunt injection cannulas to reduce risk of embolism. Results: Thousands of AFG have proven safe and efficacious for lipoaspiration techniques for large and small structural fat grafting procedures. The importance and advantages of gentle harvesting of the adipose tissue complex has become very clear in the past 5 years. The closed-syringe system offers a minimally invasive, gentle system with which to mobilize subdermal fat tissues in a suspension form. Resulting total nuclear counting of undifferentiated cells of the adipose-derived -SVF suggests that the yield achieved is better than use of always-on, constant mechanical pump applied vacuum systems. Conclusion: Use of a closed-syringe lipoaspiration system featuring disposable microcannulas offers a safe and effective means of harvesting small volumes of nonmanipulated adipose tissues and its accompanying progenitor cells within the SVF. Closed syringes and microcannulas are available as safe, sterile, disposable, compact systems for acquiring high-quality AFG. Presented is a detailed, step-by-step, proven protocol for performing quality autologous structural adipose transplantation. Keywords: autologous fat grafting, closed syringe lipoaspiration, adipose-derived adult stem-stromal cell, bioscaffolds, lipoaspiration/liposuction, stromal vascular fraction (SVF

  6. Fat grafting for treatment of burns, burn scars, and other difficult wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccolo, Nelson Sarto; Piccolo, Mônica Sarto; Piccolo, Maria Thereza Sarto

    2015-04-01

    This article presents the authors' 3-year experience with the use of fat grafting, via the Coleman technique, for the adjuvant treatment of burn wounds, venous ulcers, diabetic ulcers, and burn scars. It demonstrates the regenerative effects of fat injected under the scar, and of fat injected under the wound, in the periphery of the wound, and within a bone fracture line or space, and of fat deposited over the wound. PMID:25827568

  7. Calf Contouring with Endoscopic Fascial Release, Calf Implant, and Structural Fat Grafting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ercan Karacaoglu, MD

    2013-08-01

    Conclusions: A novel endoscopic approach for lower leg contouring is discussed. Endoscopic fasciotomy technique with calf implant and structural fat grafting for improved lower leg aesthetics is a simple, effective, reliable, and predictable technique for calf contouring.

  8. Management of an irradiated anophthalmic socket following dermis-fat graft rejection: A case report

    OpenAIRE

    Raizada Kuldeep; Shome Debraj; Honavar Santosh

    2008-01-01

    Dermis-fat graft (DFG) is often the only promising option in cases of severely contracted sockets. However, there is an increased risk of graft failure in irradiated sockets with decreased vascularity. In such difficult cases, repeat DFG implantation also has higher risks of graft failure. We describe an ingenious method of successful management of an irradiated anophthalmic socket following DFG infection and necrosis, with acceptable cosmetic results. At surgery, an orbital impression was ta...

  9. Clinicoradiological evaluation of dermis-fat grafts after temporomandibular joint discectomy: A retrospective study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candirli, Celal; Esen, Alparslan; Taskesen, Fatih; Celik, Salih; Cakir, Banu

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare the preoperative and 1-year postoperative clinical and radiological findings of the patients after unilateral temporomandibular joint (TMJ) discectomy with inter-positional abdominal dermis-fat graft. Materials and Methods: Fourteen patients underwent unilateral discectomy and dermis-fat grafting between 2008 and 2010. Preoperative and 1-year postoperative clinical parameters such as maximum mouth openings (MMO) and lateral movements (LM) of the mandible were recorded. Additionally, preoperative and postoperative magnetic resonance imagingwas obtained to determine the duration of operated TMJs. Results: All of the 14 patients showed the improvement in mandibular mobility and function. There was a significant increase in the MMO and LM during the follow-up period. Pain levels at follow-up were significantly lower than the preoperative levels. Radiologically, the dermis-fat graft was detected within the joint or surrounding the condyle in all 14 operated joints. The graft material that was found within the joint space was mainly grey in four joints. Ten joints showed heterogeneous material composed of fat interspersed with grey tissue. Conclusion: Discectomy and dermis-fat grafting appears to be a successful surgical option regarding to the clinical parameters. However, summed degenerative changes depending on surgical operation should be retained. PMID:23251057

  10. Importance of mesenchymal stem cells in autologous fat grafting: a systematic review of existing studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trojahn Kølle, Stig-Frederik; Oliveri, Roberto S; Glovinski, Peter Viktor; Elberg, Jens Jørgen; Fischer-Nielsen, Anne; Drzewiecki, Krzysztof Tadeusz

    2012-04-01

    Autologous fat grafting (lipofilling) enables repair and augmentation of soft tissues and is increasingly used both in aesthetic and reconstructive surgery. Autologous fat has several advantages, including biocompatibility, versatility, natural appearance, and low donor site morbidity. The main limitation is unpredictable graft resorption, which ranges from 25%-80%, probably as a result of ischaemia and lack of neoangiogenesis. To obviate these disadvantages, several studies have searched for new ways of increasing the viability of the transplanted tissue. One promising approach has been to enrich the fat graft with adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASC) before transplantation. We have reviewed original studies published on fat transplantation enriched with ASC. We found four murine and three human studies that investigated the subject after a sensitive search of publications. In the human studies, so-called cell assisted lipotransfer (CAL) increased the ASC concentration 2-5 times compared with non-manipulated fat grafts, which caused a questionable improvement in survival of fat grafts, compared with that of traditional lipofilling. In contrast, in two of the murine studies ASC-concentrations were increased 1250 and 6250 times, respectively, by ASC ex vivo expansion, which resulted in considerably improved fat transplant survival as well as quality. This effect of high-level enrichment with ASC is thought to have been caused by paracrine signalling, cellular differentiation, or both. The surgical and tissue handling techniques used in lipofilling are well proved, but the added effect of high-level enrichment with ex vivo expanded ASC still needs to be investigated properly in human lipofilling studies, combined with a thorough follow up and matched control groups. In conclusion, ASC-enriched lipofilling theoretically has the potential for transforming lipofilling from a relatively unpredictable intervention into one in which the resorption rate, quality of tissue, and safety can be predicted, and possibly superior to prosthetic implantation. PMID:22471250

  11. Importance of mesenchymal stem cells in autologous fat grafting : a systematic review of existing studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trojahn KØlle, Stig-Frederik; Oliveri, Roberto S

    2012-01-01

    Autologous fat grafting (lipofilling) enables repair and augmentation of soft tissues and is increasingly used both in aesthetic and reconstructive surgery. Autologous fat has several advantages, including biocompatibility, versatility, natural appearance, and low donor site morbidity. The main limitation is unpredictable graft resorption, which ranges from 25%-80%, probably as a result of ischaemia and lack of neoangiogenesis. To obviate these disadvantages, several studies have searched for new ways of increasing the viability of the transplanted tissue. One promising approach has been to enrich the fat graft with adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASC) before transplantation. We have reviewed original studies published on fat transplantation enriched with ASC. We found four murine and three human studies that investigated the subject after a sensitive search of publications. In the human studies, so-called cell assisted lipotransfer (CAL) increased the ASC concentration 2-5 times compared with non-manipulated fat grafts, which caused a questionable improvement in survival of fat grafts, compared with that of traditional lipofilling. In contrast, in two of the murine studies ASC-concentrations were increased 1250 and 6250 times, respectively, by ASC ex vivo expansion, which resulted in considerably improved fat transplant survival as well as quality. This effect of high-level enrichment with ASC is thought to have been caused by paracrine signalling, cellular differentiation, or both. The surgical and tissue handling techniques used in lipofilling are well proved, but the added effect of high-level enrichment with ex vivo expanded ASC still needs to be investigated properly in human lipofilling studies, combined with a thorough follow up and matched control groups. In conclusion, ASC-enriched lipofilling theoretically has the potential for transforming lipofilling from a relatively unpredictable intervention into one in which the resorption rate, quality of tissue, and safety can be predicted, and possibly superior to prosthetic implantation.

  12. Autologous Fat Grafting as a Novel Approach to Parastomal Soft-tissue Volume Deficiencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert C. Wu, MD

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary: The aim of this study is to describe a novel approach to revise maladaptive soft-tissue contour around an ileostomy. A patient with permanent ileostomy suffered from significant defects in soft-tissue contour due to scarring and wound contraction. He underwent autologous fat grafting to achieve sealing of his stoma appliance and improve cosmesis. Due to numerous surgeries, the stoma appliance would not seal and required daily appliance changes. The patient received autologous fat grafting to augment the contour around stoma. A complete fitting of stoma was achieved. The patient is satisfied with stoma sealing and is changing his stoma appliance every 5–7 days without skin excoriation. Autologous fat transfer is an effective approach to treat a subset of stoma patients with complex subcutaneous defects.

  13. Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography evaluation after autologous fat grafting in scar revision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollero, D; Pozza, S; Gangemi, E N; De Marchi, A; Ganem, J; A M, El Khatib; Faletti, C; Stella, M

    2014-01-01

    Aim. Fat transfer is commonly used to fill loss of volume in depressed scars caused by trauma, deep burns or surgery. The aim of the study is to investigate the degree of fat graft take through evaluation of the microcirculation of grafted autologous adipose tissue using contrast-enhanced ultrasonography. Patients and method. From 2010 to 2012 at the Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery of the Traumatological Center in Turin, a study population was selected from patients with surgical indications for autologous fat transfer for scar correction. For each surgical procedure patients underwent a clinical and sonographic evaluation before and after intervention (at 1 month and 3 months). Results. Out of a total of 28 interventions, 24 showed a good result; defined as improvement of the scar, and confirmed by the presence of vascularization in the transplanted tissue. In 4 cases, there was a lack of blood supply at the first evaluation but an initial good clinical scar correction. The absence of blood vessels was confirmed at 3 months accompanied by complete resorption of the transferred fat with a failure of good clinical outcome. Conclusion. Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography was able to evaluate the microvasculature of adipose tissue after fat transfer. Due to this characteristic, it allows to monitor and predict the take of adipose tissue and provide realistic and early information on the clinical outcome of fat transfer. PMID:25644727

  14. Selective augmentation of stem cell populations in structural fat grafts for maxillofacial surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clauser, Luigi; Ferroni, Letizia; Gardin, Chiara; Tieghi, Riccardo; Galiè, Manlio; Elia, Giovanni; Piattelli, Adriano; Pinton, Paolo; Bressan, Eriberto; Zavan, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Structural fat grafting utilizes the centrifugation of liposuction aspirates to create a graded density of adipose tissue. This study was performed to qualitatively investigate the effects of centrifugation on stem cells present in adipose tissue. Liposuction aspirates were obtained from healthy donors and either not centrifuged or centrifuged at 1,800 rpm for 3 minutes. The obtained fat volumes were divided into three layers and then analyzed. The results demonstrate that centrifugation induces a different distribution of stem cells in the three layers. The high-density layer displays the highest expression of mesenchymal stem cell and endothelial markers. The low-density layer exhibits an enrichment of multipotent stem cells. We conclude that appropriate centrifugation concentrates stem cells. This finding may influence the clinical practice of liposuction aspirate centrifugation and enhance graft uptake. PMID:25375632

  15. Lipoenxertia nas mamas: procedimento consagrado ou experimental? / Breast fat grafting: experimental or established procedure?

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alexandre Roriz, Blumenschein; Ruffo, Freitas-Junior; Andrea Thomazine, Tuffanin; Danielle Isadora, Blumenschein.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Atualmente vem ocorrendo aumento da incidência de utilização de enxertia de gordura para correção de defeitos mamários congênitos ou adquiridos e para tratamento mamário estético. Esse aumento é decorrente do surgimento de novas técnicas de lipoenxertia, que produzem resultados mais duradouros e con [...] fiáveis, apesar da crença de alguns autores de que o procedimento possa dificultar o rastreamento do câncer mamário. Esta revisão de literatura tem como objetivo identificar as técnicas de lipoenxertia mamárias mais utilizadas, avaliá-las quanto à eficácia e à segurança, e relatar as principais complicações associadas. A revisão foi realizada nas bases de dados PubMed e LILACS, e os fatores de inclusão foram: artigos em idioma inglês, publicados nos últimos cinco anos. Como resultado observou-se aumento do número de trabalhos abordando o tema nos últimos anos, e predomínio de uma técnica de lipoenxertia específica. A maioria dos trabalhos demonstra que a lipoenxertia mamária não prejudica o rastreamento radiológico para câncer mamário, e alguns sugerem que a gordura enxertada potencializa o desenvolvimento de câncer nas mamas. Apesar do aumento do número de trabalhos, existem ainda poucos com bom nível de evidência científica. Esta revisão permitiu concluir que a lipoenxertia é uma técnica alternativa para reparação de defeitos mamários e discreto aumento estético das mamas, devendo ser utilizada por cirurgiões com treinamento adequado e acompanhada por equipe de radiologia experiente em imagenologia mamária. Mais trabalhos com metodologia científica adequada são necessários para avaliar a lipoenxertia mamária. Abstract in english There has recently been an increase in the use of fat grafting for the correction of congenital or acquired breast deformities and for aesthetic breast treatment. This increase is due to the emergence of novel fat grafting techniques that produce lasting and reliable results despite some authors' be [...] liefs that the procedure might hinder breast cancer screening. This literature review aims to identify the most frequently used breast fat grafting techniques, evaluate their efficacy and safety, and report their major complications. The review was performed after a search in the PubMed and LILACS databases, and only English-language articles published over the past 5 years were assessed. There have been an increased number of studies on the topic in recent years, and a specific fat grafting technique has been primarily reported. Most studies in this area have shown that breast fat grafting does not affect radiological breast cancer screening, whereas some studies have suggested that the use of grafted fat may enhance the development of breast cancer. Despite the increased number of published studies, few have a good level of scientific evidence. This review concludes that fat grafting is an alternative technique for the correction of breast deformities and moderate aesthetic breast enlargement and should be performed by properly trained surgeons accompanied by a radiology team that is experienced in breast imaging. Further studies with appropriate scientific methodologies are needed to evaluate breast fat grafting.

  16. Lipoenxertia nas mamas: procedimento consagrado ou experimental? Breast fat grafting: experimental or established procedure?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Roriz Blumenschein

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Atualmente vem ocorrendo aumento da incidência de utilização de enxertia de gordura para correção de defeitos mamários congênitos ou adquiridos e para tratamento mamário estético. Esse aumento é decorrente do surgimento de novas técnicas de lipoenxertia, que produzem resultados mais duradouros e confiáveis, apesar da crença de alguns autores de que o procedimento possa dificultar o rastreamento do câncer mamário. Esta revisão de literatura tem como objetivo identificar as técnicas de lipoenxertia mamárias mais utilizadas, avaliá-las quanto à eficácia e à segurança, e relatar as principais complicações associadas. A revisão foi realizada nas bases de dados PubMed e LILACS, e os fatores de inclusão foram: artigos em idioma inglês, publicados nos últimos cinco anos. Como resultado observou-se aumento do número de trabalhos abordando o tema nos últimos anos, e predomínio de uma técnica de lipoenxertia específica. A maioria dos trabalhos demonstra que a lipoenxertia mamária não prejudica o rastreamento radiológico para câncer mamário, e alguns sugerem que a gordura enxertada potencializa o desenvolvimento de câncer nas mamas. Apesar do aumento do número de trabalhos, existem ainda poucos com bom nível de evidência científica. Esta revisão permitiu concluir que a lipoenxertia é uma técnica alternativa para reparação de defeitos mamários e discreto aumento estético das mamas, devendo ser utilizada por cirurgiões com treinamento adequado e acompanhada por equipe de radiologia experiente em imagenologia mamária. Mais trabalhos com metodologia científica adequada são necessários para avaliar a lipoenxertia mamária.There has recently been an increase in the use of fat grafting for the correction of congenital or acquired breast deformities and for aesthetic breast treatment. This increase is due to the emergence of novel fat grafting techniques that produce lasting and reliable results despite some authors' beliefs that the procedure might hinder breast cancer screening. This literature review aims to identify the most frequently used breast fat grafting techniques, evaluate their efficacy and safety, and report their major complications. The review was performed after a search in the PubMed and LILACS databases, and only English-language articles published over the past 5 years were assessed. There have been an increased number of studies on the topic in recent years, and a specific fat grafting technique has been primarily reported. Most studies in this area have shown that breast fat grafting does not affect radiological breast cancer screening, whereas some studies have suggested that the use of grafted fat may enhance the development of breast cancer. Despite the increased number of published studies, few have a good level of scientific evidence. This review concludes that fat grafting is an alternative technique for the correction of breast deformities and moderate aesthetic breast enlargement and should be performed by properly trained surgeons accompanied by a radiology team that is experienced in breast imaging. Further studies with appropriate scientific methodologies are needed to evaluate breast fat grafting.

  17. Breast reconstruction de novo by water-jet assisted autologous fat grafting – a retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoppe, Delia Letizia

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available [english] Background: Autologous fat grafting has become a frequent, simple, reproducible and low-risk technique for revisional or partial breast reconstruction. The presented European multicenter study describes an optimized treatment and follow-up protocol for the de novo breast reconstruction after total mastectomy by lipotransfer alone.Methods: A retrospective European multicenter trial included 135 procedures on 28 (35 breasts postmastectomy patients (mean 52.4 years. All women were treated with the water-jet assisted fat grafting method (BEAULI™ combined with additional procedures (NAC reconstruction, contralateral mastoplasty and evaluated with at least 6 months follow-up (mean 2.6 years. Sonography or mammography, clinical examination, patient questionnaire (10-point Likert scale and digital photographs were carried out.Results: On average the patients received 4 to 6 procedures each with a single volume of 159 ml (±61 ml over 21 months (range 9 months to 2.5 years. In total 1,020 ml (±515 ml fat were grafted till a complete breast reconstruction was achieved. Irradiated patients needed a significantly higher volume than non-irradiated (p<0.041. Main treatment complications were liponecrosis (2.59%, infection (0.74% and granuloma (0.74%. Patient satisfaction was overall high to very high (96% and confirmed the good aesthetic results (68% and the natural softness, contour and shape of the reconstructed breast.Conclusions: A complete breast reconstruction with large volume fat grafting is alternatively possible to standard techniques in selected cases. It takes at least 4 to 6 lipotransfers in the course of 2 years. Patients with prior radiotherapy may require even up to 8 sessions over nearly 3 years of treatment.

  18. Jejunal perforation after abdominal liposuction, bilateral breast augmentation and facial fat grafting

    OpenAIRE

    Coronado-Malagón, Martin; Tauffer-Carrion, Luis Tomas

    2012-01-01

    A 54-year-old woman presented to the emergency department 24 h after undergoing abdominal liposuction, bilateral breast augmentation and facial fat grafting at a private plastic surgery clinic. She presented with the classic evolution of a bowel perforation secondary to abdominal liposuction. A computed tomography (CT) scan found free air in her abdominal cavity. Based on the CT scan and the persistent pain experienced by the patient, an abdominal laparatomy was urgently performed. A jejunum ...

  19. Management of an irradiated anophthalmic socket following dermis-fat graft rejection: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raizada Kuldeep

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Dermis-fat graft (DFG is often the only promising option in cases of severely contracted sockets. However, there is an increased risk of graft failure in irradiated sockets with decreased vascularity. In such difficult cases, repeat DFG implantation also has higher risks of graft failure. We describe an ingenious method of successful management of an irradiated anophthalmic socket following DFG infection and necrosis, with acceptable cosmetic results. At surgery, an orbital impression was taken with ophthalmic grade alginate. Based on this measurement, a custom-made stem pressure socket-expander made up of high density polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA was fitted, a week post surgery and kept in situ for six weeks. On review, the fornices had considerably deepened. The expander device was removed and the patient was now fitted with a custom-made thicker prosthesis made up of high-density PMMA. The patient has followed up for a year subsequently and the prosthesis has remained stable.

  20. Autologous fat grafting: use of closed syringe microcannula system for enhanced autologous structural grafting

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander RW; Harrell DB

    2013-01-01

    Robert W Alexander,1 David Harrell2 1Department of Surgery, School of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA; 2Harvest-Terumo Inc, Plymouth, MA, USA Objectives: Provide background for use of acquiring autologous adipose tissue as a tissue graft and source of adult progenitor cells for use in cosmetic plastic surgery. Discuss the background and mechanisms of action of closed syringe vacuum lipoaspiration, with emphasis on accessing adipose-derived mesenchymal/stroma...

  1. Fat embolism in liposuction and intramuscular grafts in rabbits Embolia gordurosa na lipoaspiração e enxertia intramuscular em coelhos

    OpenAIRE

    Victor Araujo Felzemburgh; Rafaela Cavalcante das Neves Barbosa; Victor Luiz Correia Nunes; José Humberto Oliveira Campos

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of fat embolism in organs such as lung and liver. METHODS: Twenty rabbits underwent autologous intramuscular fat grafting in the right thigh after liposuction. The groups were determined according to the postoperative day that occurred in euthanasia: 60, 90 and 120 day. Then, lung and liver were excised and sent to the histopathology laboratory for analysis in search of late injury secondary to a prior event of fat embolism in the tissues. RESULTS: The results...

  2. Fat Grafting in Burn Scar Alleviates Neuropathic Pain via Anti-Inflammation Effect in Scar and Spinal Cord

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shu-Hung; Wu, Sheng-Hua; Lee, Su-Shin; Chang, Kao-Ping; Chai, Chee-Yin; Yeh, Jwu-Lai; Lin, Sin-Daw; Kwan, Aij-Lie; David Wang, Hui-Min; Lai, Chung-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Burn-induced neuropathic pain is complex, and fat grafting has reportedly improved neuropathic pain. However, the mechanism of fat grafting in improving neuropathic pain is unclear. Previous investigations have found that neuroinflammation causes neuropathic pain, and anti-inflammatory targeting may provide potential therapeutic opportunities in neuropathic pain. We hypothesized that fat grafting in burn scars improves the neuropathic pain through anti-inflammation. Burn-induced scar pain was confirmed using a mechanical response test 4 weeks after burn injuries, and autologous fat grafting in the scar area was performed simultaneously. After 4 weeks, the animals were sacrificed, and specimens were collected for the inflammation test, including COX-2, iNOS, and nNOS in the injured skin and spinal cord dorsal horns through immunohistochemistry and Western assays. Furthermore, pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1 ? and TNF-?) in the spinal cord were collected. Double immunofluorescent staining images for measuring p-I?B, p-NF?B, p-JNK, and TUNEL as well as Western blots of AKT, Bax/Bcl-2 for the inflammatory process, and apoptosis were analyzed. Fat grafting significantly reduced COX2, nNOS, and iNOS in the skin and spinal cord dorsal horns, as well as IL-1? and TNF-?, compared with the burn group. Moreover, regarding the anti-inflammatory effect, the apoptosis cells in the spinal cord significantly decreased after the fat grafting in the burn injury group. Fat grafting was effective in treating burn-induced neuropathic pain through the alleviation of neuroinflammation and ameliorated spinal neuronal apoptosis. PMID:26368011

  3. Is the Resorption of Grafted Fat Reduced in Cell-Assisted Lipotransfer for Breast Augmentation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin; Luo, Xuan; Lu, Yi; Fan, Zhi-Hong; Hu, Xiang

    2015-08-01

    Cell-assisted lipotransfer (CAL) is a cotransplantation of adipose tissue and stromal vascular fraction (SVF) including adipose-derived stem cells. But although CAL can get satisfactory outcomes in breast augmentation, the resorption of the grafted fat is still unclear. A total of 12 patients received breast augmentation using CAL. All of them completed 6 months of follow-up. In 1 mini-CAL case, 500-mL liposuction fluid was used to harvest the SVF cells. In 11 full-CAL cases, 250-mL aspirated fat was needed apart from 500-mL liposuction fluid. The percentage of adipose-derived stem cells in SVF cells was detected using flow cytometry and their multilineage potential ability was assessed with in vitro induction. The volumes of breasts and pectoral muscle were measured, and radiological image change was analyzed using magnetic resonance imaging before the operation and 3 and 6 months after the operation. Additionally, the subjective evaluation on the cosmetic outcomes was determined by surgeons and patients. Adipose-derived stem cells in SVF cells accounted for 40.27% and 3.34% in full-CAL cases and mini-CAL cases, respectively. Postoperative atrophy occurred within the first 3 months. At the 6 months postoperatively, breast volume is augmented, ranging from 60.71 to 197 mL, with a mean value of 125.35 (45.49) mL. The ultimate resorption of grafted fat at the 6 months postoperatively is 51.84% (16.74%). Newly formed cysts and nodules were detected in 2 cases. No calcification was found in all magnetic resonance images. Only 1 patient was unsatisfied with the cosmetic outcome. Our preliminary study displayed a satisfactory augmented volume with little complications using CAL for breast augmentation. But the resorption at the 6 months postoperatively [51.84% (16.74%)] showed no significant advantage over non-CAL technique (40%-60% reported), which suggested that SVF cells harvested from 250-mL aspirated fat and 500-mL liposuction fluid were insufficient to average 250-mL grafted fat for each breast in this study. More SVF cells are needed to achieve lower resorption. PMID:24691331

  4. Perineural fat grafting in the treatment of painful end-neuromas of the upper limb: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaienti, L; Merle, M; Battiston, B; Villani, F; Gazzola, R

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and middle-term durability of the results achieved with perineural fat grafting of painful neuromas of the upper limb. We retrospectively analysed eight patients, affected by eight neuromas, treated by neuroma excision and fat grafting around the proximal nerve stump. Clinical parameters, the disabilities of the arm shoulder and hand score, and the visual analogue scale were recorded at 2, 6 and 12 months after surgery. A reduction of 23.2% was observed in the mean disabilities of the arm shoulder and hand scores at 12 months. The spontaneous baseline visual analogue scale score showed a mean improvement of 22% at 12 months, although not this was not statistically significant. Perineural fat grafting is a quick and useful procedure and could represent a useful primary operation in the treatment of pain syndromes of neuropatic origin. PMID:22415427

  5. Use of genetically modified muscle and fat grafts to repair defects in bone and cartilage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CH Evans

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available We report a novel technology for the rapid healing of large osseous and chondral defects, based upon the genetic modification of autologous skeletal muscle and fat grafts. These tissues were selected because they not only possess mesenchymal progenitor cells and scaffolding properties, but also can be biopsied, genetically modified and returned to the patient in a single operative session. First generation adenovirus vector carrying cDNA encoding human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (Ad.BMP-2 was used for gene transfer to biopsies of muscle and fat. To assess bone healing, the genetically modified (“gene activated” tissues were implanted into 5mm-long critical size, mid-diaphyseal, stabilized defects in the femora of Fischer rats. Unlike control defects, those receiving gene-activated muscle underwent rapid healing, with evidence of radiologic bridging as early as 10 days after implantation and restoration of full mechanical strength by 8 weeks. Histologic analysis suggests that the grafts rapidly differentiated into cartilage, followed by efficient endochondral ossification. Fluorescence in situ hybridization detection of Y-chromosomes following the transfer of male donor muscle into female rats demonstrated that at least some of the osteoblasts of the healed bone were derived from donor muscle. Gene activated fat also healed critical sized defects, but less quickly than muscle and with more variability. Anti-adenovirus antibodies were not detected. Pilot studies in a rabbit osteochondral defect model demonstrated the promise of this technology for healing cartilage defects. Further development of these methods should provide ways to heal bone and cartilage more expeditiously, and at lower cost, than is presently possible.

  6. Evaluation of healing potential of autogenous, macroscopic fat deposited or fat free, omental graft in experimental radius bone defect in rabbit: Radiological study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was designed for evaluation of the difference between the ability of greater omentum graft with or without macroscopic fat deposition in acceleration of bone healing process. Adult female New Zealand white rabbits (n=15) were randomly divided into three equal groups. In groups A and B, the drilled hole on the left radius was filled by the omentum without and with macroscopic fat deposition, respectively while drilled hole on the right radius left intact for consideration as control. In group C, the drilled hole on the left and right radius was filled by the omentum sample with and without macroscopic fat deposition, respectively. Experimental bone defects on the radiuses were secured by the pieces of greater omentum, with or without macroscopic fat deposition, which obtained as an autogenous graft from each rabbit in accompany with control samples. Standardized serial radiography for evaluation of bone healing was performed and the difference in bone healing process in three groups of study was determined. According to the obtained data, the radius bones which filled by omentum without macroscopic fat deposition showed faster healing process than the radius bones which filled by omentum with macroscopic fat deposition (P<0.05). (author)

  7. Supervivencia a largo plazo de los injertos grasos Long-term survival with fat grafting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Planas

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Presentamos varios casos de pérdida de volumen de diferentes etiologías y en distintas regiones corporales y faciales tratadas mediante injertos de tejido graso autólogo según la técnica de lipoestructura. En ningún caso se realizó sobrecorrección del defecto en ningún caso. La evolución con un seguimiento máximo de 7 años y mínimo de 1 año no mostró disminución del volumen obtenido en el acto quirúrgico en la gran mayoría de los casos. Debido a los resultados obtenidos creemos que el injerto de grasa autólogo es el método de elección para restaurar volúmenes con fines estéticos o reconstructivos.Volume loss in several facial and body areas was treated by means of autologous fatty tissue grafts with lipostructure technique. There were no cases of overcorrection. The patients’ course, with a maximum follow-up of 7 years and a minimum of 1 year did not evidence any loss of the surgically restored tissue volume in the majority of cases. The above results suggest that autologous fat grafts are the method of choice to restore volume for both cosmetic and reconstructive purposes.

  8. Effects of Expanded Human Adipose Tissue-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells on the Viability of Cryopreserved Fat Grafts in the Nude Mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myung-Soon Ko, Ji-Youl Jung, Il-Seob Shin, Eun-Wha Choi, Jae-Hoon Kim, Sung Keun Kang, Jeong Chan Ra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AdMSCs augment the ability to contribute to microvascular remodeling in vivo and to modulate vascular stability in fresh fat grafts. Although cryopreserved adipose tissue is frequently used for soft tissue augmentation, the viability of the fat graft is poor. The effects of culture-expanded human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hAdMSCs on the survival and quality of the cryopreserved fat graft were determined. hAdMSCs from the same donor were mixed with fat tissues cryopreserved at -70°C for 8 weeks and injected subcutaneously into 6-week-old BALB/c-nu nude mice. Graft volume and weight were measured, and histology was evaluated 4 and 15 weeks post-transplantation. The hAdMSC-treated group showed significantly enhanced graft volume and weight. The histological evaluation demonstrated significantly better fat cell integrity compared with the vehicle-treated control 4 weeks post-transplantation. No significant difference in graft weight, volume, or histological parameters was found among the groups 15 weeks post-transplantation. The hAdMSCs enhanced the survival and quality of transplanted cryopreserved fat tissues. Cultured and expanded hAdMSCs have reconstructive capacity in cryopreserved fat grafting by increasing the number of stem cells.

  9. The use of a laryngeal mask airway after a prolonged suspension laryngoscopy to preserve a vocal cord fat graft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidani, Daniel C H; Shah, Nitin K

    2007-12-01

    A 62-yr-old man presented for a microdirect laryngoscopy and vocal cord fat grafting under jet ventilation. After a prolonged laryngoscopy, the patient developed hypercapnea and upper airway obstruction secondary to traumatic epiglottitis. The placement of a laryngeal mask airway provided ventilation and allowed for direct visualization of the patient's inflamed epiglottis without disruption of the patient's fat graft. Because of its placement above the cords and its effectiveness in providing adequate ventilation, we propose intermittent laryngeal mask airway ventilation as a bridge, in lieu of endotracheal intubation, in microdirect laryngoscopy cases in which ventilation during emergence may be difficult and the insertion of an endotracheal tube would disrupt the surgical procedure. PMID:18042880

  10. MR angiography of coronary artery bypass graft with fat cine MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seven patients with 14 coronary artery bypass grafts (9 saphenous vein graft, SVG and 5 internal mammary artery graft, IMAG) were evaluated by MR angiography with fast cine MR imaging technique for determining graft patency compared with conventional arteriography. MR angiography correctly diagnosed 8 of 9 patent SVGs and all patent IMAGs. One graft stenosis was also detected by MR angiography. This study suggests that MR angiography with fast cine MR imaging is a useful noninvasive technique to evaluate coronary artery bypass graft patency. (author)

  11. Injertos de tejido adiposo en cirugía estética mamaria / Fat grafts in aesthetic breast surgery

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J., Benito-Ruiz.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available El injerto de tejido adiposo se ha convertido en una de las principales herramientas con la que contamos en Cirugía Plástica y, como no podía ser de otra forma, la mama es el principal órgano diana de nuestra actuación. Desde que introdujimos la técnica en nuestra práctica privada en el año 2009 hem [...] os ido incrementando las indicaciones de su uso. Las tres principales son el aumento mamario, la corrección de defectos y asimetrías y más recientemente el aumento con combinación de ambas técnicas. El aumento mamario con tejido adiposo está indicado en pacientes que quieran incrementar el volumen sin usar implantes. Hay que explicar muy bien a la paciente lo que podemos conseguir en cuanto a volumen y proyección de la mama, además de los problemas potenciales de aparición en las mamografías de quistes y microcalcificaciones. El tejido adiposo, en cambio, es un gran complemento de los implantes mamarios, ya que permite corregir deformidades y asimetrías que con los implantes son más difíciles de resolver. El aumento de mamas combinando ambas técnicas es la consecuencia final y evidente de esta evolución terapéutica, ya que aúna las ventajas de ambas: la firmeza y volumen estables que proporcionan los implantes y la plasticidad que aporta el tejido adiposo para lograr una mayor simetría. Abstract in english Fat grafting has become one of the main tools in Plastic Surgery and as it could only be, the breast is the main target organ of our performance. Since we introduced the technique in our private practice in 2009 we have been increasing its use. The top three indications are: breast augmentation, cor [...] rection of defects and asymmetries and more recently breast augmentation combining both techniques. Breast enhancement with fat is indicated for patients who want to increase the volume without using implants. It must be explained very well to the patient what we can achieve in terms of volume and projection of the breast, along with the potential problems of cysts and microcalcifications in mammograms. Adipose tissue is a great complement to the implants, and we can correct deformities and asymmetries that with implants are much more difficult to solve. Breast augmentation combining both techniques is the final result of the therapeutic evolution as we combine the advantages of both: the firmness and stable volume supported by the implants and the plasticity of the adipose tissue to achieve greater symmetry.

  12. The Subfascial Approach to Primary and Secondary Breast Augmentation with Autologous Fat Grafting and Form-Stable Implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio Goes, João Carlos; Munhoz, Alexandre Mendonça; Gemperli, Rolf

    2015-10-01

    This article presents an overview of the subfascial approach to primary and secondary breast augmentation with form-stable implants associated with autologous fat grafting. Although breast augmentation is a well-studied procedure, there are few previous reports concerning the subfascial technique and, especially, this technique associated with lipofilling. Consequently, the authors present their experience with a form-stable, anatomically shaped silicone gel breast implant, which has recently been approved in the United States following FDA clinical trials. Primary and secondary breast augmentations using form-stable implants resulted in satisfactory outcomes. PMID:26408443

  13. Fat embolism in liposuction and intramuscular grafts in rabbits Embolia gordurosa na lipoaspiração e enxertia intramuscular em coelhos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Araujo Felzemburgh

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of fat embolism in organs such as lung and liver. METHODS: Twenty rabbits underwent autologous intramuscular fat grafting in the right thigh after liposuction. The groups were determined according to the postoperative day that occurred in euthanasia: 60, 90 and 120 day. Then, lung and liver were excised and sent to the histopathology laboratory for analysis in search of late injury secondary to a prior event of fat embolism in the tissues. RESULTS: The results showed a change in the macroscopic sample with discoloration of the liver tissue heterogeneously. There were no changes consistent with embolic effect under the microscope. CONCLUSION: The option of performing a technique of fat grafting with a less traumatic surgical procedure can be considered protective against embolic events, with no impact to late embolic events on the tissues.OBJETIVO: Avaliar a repercussão da embolia gordurosa em órgãos como pulmão e fígado. MÉTODOS: Vinte coelhos foram submetidos à enxertia autóloga intramuscular de gordura em coxa direita após lipoaspiração. Os grupos foram determinados conforme os dias pós-operatórios (DPO em que ocorreu a eutanásia: 60 DPO, 90DPO, 120 DPO. Em seguida, o pulmão e o fígado foram ressecados e encaminhados ao laboratório de histopatologia para análise em busca de lesão tardia secundária a evento de embolia gordurosa prévia nos tecidos. RESULTADOS: Foi evidenciada uma alteração na amostra a analise macroscópica com alteração da coloração do tecido hepático de forma heterogênea. Não houve alterações compatíveis com repercussão de processo embólico à microscopia. CONCLUSÃO: A opção pela realização de uma técnica de lipoenxertia menos traumática e com pequeno tempo cirúrgico pode ser considerada protetora para eventos embólicos, não havendo repercussão embólica a tardiamente.

  14. The Oncologic Safety of Breast Fat Grafting and Contradictions Between Basic Science and Clinical Studies: A Systematic Review of the Recent Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charvet, Heath J; Orbay, Hakan; Wong, Michael S; Sahar, David E

    2015-10-01

    Fat grafting is increasingly popular and is becoming a common practice in plastic surgery for postmastectomy breast reconstruction and aesthetic breast augmentation; however, concerns over the oncologic safety remains a controversial and hot topic among scientists and surgeons. Basic science and laboratory research repeatedly show a potentially dangerous effect of adipose-derived stem cells on breast cancer cells; however, clinical research, although limited, continually fails to show an increase in breast cancer recurrence after breast fat grafting, with the exception of 1 small study on a subset patient population with intraepithelial neoplasm of the breast. The aim of this review is to summarize the recent conflicting basic science and clinical data to better understand the safety of breast fat grafting from an oncological perspective. PMID:26360655

  15. Dermal fat graft from simultaneous abdominoplasty as an adjunct to revision aesthetic and reconstructive breast surgery: A poor man's acellular dermal matrix?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Xie

    2014-01-01

    CONCLUSION: We herein report the use of free dermal fat graft in revision aesthetic and reconstructive surgery in a manner akin to recent acellular dermal matrix use. The comparable enhanced aesthetic outcomes, minimal complication rate and substantial cost savings merit dissemination to a global audience and encourage surgeons to consider this economic alternative.

  16. Comparative analysis of use of porous orbital implant with mucus membrane graft and dermis fat graft as a primary procedure in reconstruction of severely contracted socket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasturi Bhattacharjee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of our study is to present a surgical technique of primary porous orbital ball implantation with overlying mucus membrane graft (MMG for reconstruction of severely contracted socket and to evaluate prosthesis retention and motility in comparison to dermis fat graft (DFG. Study Design: Prospective comparative study. Materials and Methods: A total of 24 patients of severe socket contracture (Grade 2-4 Krishna?s classification were subdivided into two groups, 12 patients in each group. In Group I, DFG have been used for reconstruction. In Group II, porous polyethylene implant with MMG has been used as a primary procedure for socket reconstruction. In Group I DFG was carried out in usual procedure. In case of Group II, vascularized scar tissues were separated 360° and were fashioned into four strips. A scleral capped porous polyethylene implant was placed in the intraconal space and four strips of scar tissue were secured to the scleral cap and extended part overlapped the implant to make a twofold barrier between the implant and MMG. Patients were followed-up as per prefixed proforma. Prosthesis motility and retention between the two groups were measured. Results: In Group I, four patients had recurrence of contracture with fall out of prosthesis. In Group II stable reconstruction was achieved in all the patients. In terms of prosthesis motility, maximum in Group I was 39.2% and Group II, was 59.3%. The difference in prosthesis retention (P = 0.001 and motility (P = 0.004 between the two groups was significant. Conclusion: Primary socket reconstruction with porous orbital implant and MMG for severe socket contracture is an effective method in terms of prosthesis motility and prosthesis retention.

  17. Análise da lipoenxertia estruturada na redefinição do contorno facial / Analysis of structured fat grafting for redefining facial contours

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marco Túlio Junqueira, Amarante.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A enxertia de gordura como preenchimento no rejuvenescimento e melhoria do contorno facial vem sendo usada por alguns autores e demonstra um potencial excelente como método de escolha para essa finalidade, uma vez que tem como premissa o princípio básico de corrigir as deformidades com o [...] tecido mais semelhante possível. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar clinicamente a eficiência da enxertia de gordura estruturada na redefinição do contorno facial. MÉTODO: Foi realizada análise retrospectiva de 39 pacientes submetidos a lipoenxertia estruturada para a redefinição do contorno facial, entre 2002 e 2012. A seleção de pacientes incluiu correção de deformidades, assimetrias, harmonização do contorno e aumento da projeção óssea, mas excluiu o rejuvenescimento per se. A avaliação do resultado clínico foi realizada pelo paciente e pelo cirurgião, com auxílio de documentação fotográfica pré e pós-operatória. O resultado clínico foi classificado pelo paciente e cirurgião, empregando escala que variava de 1 a 3: (1) o objetivo não foi alcançado de forma alguma; (2) o objetivo foi alcançado parcialmente; ou (3) o objetivo foi alcançado totalmente. Foi realizado, também, levantamento de prontuários para obtenção dos seguintes dados: idade, alteração ponderal, volume enxertado por área, número de sessões de enxertia realizadas, história de tabagismo e complicações. RESULTADOS: As médias das avaliações do cirurgião e paciente foram, respectivamente, 2,6 ± 0,6 e 2,7 ± 0,5, havendo correlação estatisticamente significante (P Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: Fat grafting as a filling method for the rejuvenation and enhancement of facial contours was demonstrated by some authors to be an excellent alternative method for redefining facial contours, based on the premise that the donor tissue used in the correction of the deformities has simil [...] ar characteristics as the recipient tissue. The objective of the present study was to clinically evaluate the efficiency of structured fat grafting when redefining facial contours. METHODS: A retrospective evaluation was performed in 39 patients who underwent structured fat grafting to redefine their facial contours between 2002 and 2012. The patients selected included those who underwent corrections of deformities, asymmetrical features, contour smoothing, and increased bone projection. Patients who underwent facial contour rejuvenation were excluded. The clinical outcome assessment was performed by the patient and surgeon, with the aid of preoperative and postoperative photographic documentation. The clinical outcome was rated by the patient and surgeon, using a scale ranging from 1 to 3, defined as follows: 1, the objective has not been achieved in any way; 2, the objective was partially achieved; or 3, the objective was fully achieved. In addition, a survey was conducted using the patients' medical charts to obtain the following data: age, weight change, volume grafted by area, number of grafting sessions performed, history of smoking, and complications. RESULTS: The mean surgeon and patient assessment scores were 2.6 ± 0.6 and 2.7 ± 0.5, respectively, with a statistically significant correlation (P

  18. Lipoestructura y relleno del polo superior de la mama frente a implantes / Structural fat graft and lipofilling of mammary upper pole versus mammary implants

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J.M., Cervilla Lozano.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available La lipoestructura mamaria ofrece nuevas alternativas de tratamiento en la cirugía estética de aumento mamario, cumpliendo en algunos casos las expectativas esperadas y en otros no. Analizamos este hecho en 4 tipos de aplicación de lipoestructura mamaria que hemos venido realizando en los últimos año [...] s, centrándonos en un aspecto importante de esta cirugía que es el relleno del polo superior de la mama. Los tipos de aplicación empleados son: aumento mamario simple mediante lipoestructura en comparación con implantes; pexia más lipoestructura frente a pexia más implantes mamarios; reconstrucción de mama tuberosa mediante lipoestructura o implantes y finalmente, relleno periprotésico mediante lipoestructura en mamas sometidas a cirugía de aumento mamario con implantes. En definitiva, podríamos resumir este trabajo en una frase diciendo que la lipoestructura mamaria, a nuestro juicio, no sirve si lo que prima es conseguir el relleno del polo superior de la mama, siendo en este caso de elección la colocación de implantes mamarios. No obstante, en alguno de los casos señalados no solo es una alternativa, sino que obtiene resultados superiores a los logrados sólamente con implantes. Abstract in english The mammary structural fat graft offers news treatment options in breast augmentation cosmetic surgery, but it sometimes meets expectations and sometimes doesn´t. We analyze 4 different types of lipostructure mammary applications that we have been using in the last years, focused in an important asp [...] ect of this surgery as it´s the filling of the upper mammary pole. These applications are: mammary augmentation by simple structural fat compared with the use of mammary implants; structural fat graft and mastopexy versus implants and mastopexy; tuberous breast reconstruction using structural fat graft or implants and finally, periprosthetic filling in breast augmentation with mammary implants using structural fat graft. In short, we could summarize this paper telling that in our opinion, structural fat graft doesn´t work if our intention is to fill the upper mammary pole. However, structural fat graft is not only an alternative; in some cases it exceeds the expected results using mammary implants.

  19. Lipoestructura y relleno del polo superior de la mama frente a implantes Structural fat graft and lipofilling of mammary upper pole versus mammary implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M. Cervilla Lozano

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available La lipoestructura mamaria ofrece nuevas alternativas de tratamiento en la cirugía estética de aumento mamario, cumpliendo en algunos casos las expectativas esperadas y en otros no. Analizamos este hecho en 4 tipos de aplicación de lipoestructura mamaria que hemos venido realizando en los últimos años, centrándonos en un aspecto importante de esta cirugía que es el relleno del polo superior de la mama. Los tipos de aplicación empleados son: aumento mamario simple mediante lipoestructura en comparación con implantes; pexia más lipoestructura frente a pexia más implantes mamarios; reconstrucción de mama tuberosa mediante lipoestructura o implantes y finalmente, relleno periprotésico mediante lipoestructura en mamas sometidas a cirugía de aumento mamario con implantes. En definitiva, podríamos resumir este trabajo en una frase diciendo que la lipoestructura mamaria, a nuestro juicio, no sirve si lo que prima es conseguir el relleno del polo superior de la mama, siendo en este caso de elección la colocación de implantes mamarios. No obstante, en alguno de los casos señalados no solo es una alternativa, sino que obtiene resultados superiores a los logrados sólamente con implantes.The mammary structural fat graft offers news treatment options in breast augmentation cosmetic surgery, but it sometimes meets expectations and sometimes doesn´t. We analyze 4 different types of lipostructure mammary applications that we have been using in the last years, focused in an important aspect of this surgery as it´s the filling of the upper mammary pole. These applications are: mammary augmentation by simple structural fat compared with the use of mammary implants; structural fat graft and mastopexy versus implants and mastopexy; tuberous breast reconstruction using structural fat graft or implants and finally, periprosthetic filling in breast augmentation with mammary implants using structural fat graft. In short, we could summarize this paper telling that in our opinion, structural fat graft doesn´t work if our intention is to fill the upper mammary pole. However, structural fat graft is not only an alternative; in some cases it exceeds the expected results using mammary implants.

  20. Fatness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne Katrine Kleberg

    2014-01-01

    In 1727, the English physician Thomas Short wrote: “I believe no Age did ever afford more instances of Corpulency than our own.” Even in the 18th century, fatness was addressed as an issue of special contemporary concern. This thesis probes concepts and perceptions of fatness in Western European Medicine c. 1700–1900. It has been written with particular attention to whether and how fatness has been regarded as a disease during that period in history. One purpose of the thesis is to investigate t...

  1. Síndrome da angústia respiratória do adulto por embolia gordurosa no período pós-operatório de lipoaspiração e lipoenxertia / Adult respiratory distress syndrome due to fat embolism in the postoperative period following liposuction and fat grafting

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    André Nathan, Costa; Daniel Melo, Mendes; Carlos, Toufen; Gino, Arrunátegui; Pedro, Caruso; Carlos Roberto Ribeiro de, Carvalho.

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available A embolia gordurosa é definida como a ocorrência de bloqueio mecânico da luz vascular por gotículas circulantes de gordura. Acomete principalmente o pulmão, podendo afetar também o sistema nervoso central, a retina e a pele. A síndrome da embolia gordurosa é uma disfunção desses órgãos causada pelos [...] êmbolos gordurosos. As causas mais comuns de embolia gordurosa e síndrome da embolia gordurosa são as fraturas de ossos longos, mas há relatos de sua ocorrência após procedimentos estéticos. O diagnóstico é clínico, e o tratamento ainda se restringe a medidas de suporte. Apresentamos o caso de uma paciente que evoluiu com síndrome da angústia respiratória do adulto por embolia gordurosa no período pós-operatório de lipoaspiração e lipoenxertia e respondeu bem às manobras de recrutamento alveolar e à ventilação mecânica protetora.Apresentamos também uma análise epidemiológica e fisiopatológica da síndrome da embolia gordurosa após procedimentos estéticos. Abstract in english Fat embolism is defined as mechanical blockage of the vascular lumen by circulating fat globules. Although it primarily affects the lungs, it can also affect the central nervous system, retina, and skin. Fat embolism syndrome is a dysfunction of these organs caused by fat emboli. The most common cau [...] ses of fat embolism and fat embolism syndrome are long bone fractures, although there are reports of its occurrence after cosmetic procedures. The diagnosis is made clinically, and treatment is still restricted to support measures. We report the case of a female patient who developed adult respiratory distress syndrome due to fat embolism in the postoperative period following liposuction and fat grafting. In this case, the patient responded well to alveolar recruitment maneuvers and protective mechanical ventilation. In addition, we present an epidemiological and pathophysiological analysis of fat embolism syndrome after cosmetic procedures.

  2. Experiencia en miringoplastía transcanal con pericondrio tragai inlay / Experience in transcanal myringoplasty with inlay tragal perichondrium

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mauricio, Calderón R; Carmen, Meléndez P; Cristian, Morales S; Danisa, Torres M.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La timpanoplastía está orientada a la reconstrucción anatomofuncional del oído medio que realizada en la membrana timpánica se denomina miringoplastía. Objetivo: Evaluar los resultados anatomofuncionales de la miringoplastía transcanal con pericondrio tragal inlay en pacientes interven [...] idos en el Servicio de Otorrinolaringología del Hospital San Camilo entre 2004 y 2009. Material y método: Estudio retrospectivo descriptivo de fichas de 56 pacientes entre 7 y 77 años. Universo: 60 oídos, muestra: 48 oídos con edad promedio de 34 años. Se evaluaron resultados anatómicos según sexo, edad, ubicación, causa de perforación y mejoría funcional objetivada por audiometría. Resultados: La integridad anatómica posquirúrgica es de 81,3% sin diferencias según género. Según edad existe diferencia significativa de 93,3% para el tramo 7-19 años respecto del total. Las perforaciones centrales tuvieron un éxito de 100%. La causa más frecuente de perforación fue por otitis media crónica simple (75%) con una integridad posquirúrgica del 80,5%. El 97,6% logró mejorar o mantener el nivel de audición, estableciéndose diferencialmente mejoría funcional en 52,4%, y una mantención en 45,2%. Conclusión: Los mejores resultados para esta técnica se obtienen en menores de 20 años con perforaciones centrales, siendo una técnica ideal que conserva la estructura de la membrana timpánica para futuras intervenciones. Abstract in english Introduction: Tympanoplasty is orientated to the anatomofunctional reconstruction of the middle ear, which is named myringoplasty, when performed in the tympanic membrane. Aim: To evaluate the anatomofunctional results of transcanal myringoplasty with inlay tragal perichondrium in patients controlle [...] d in the Otorhinolaryngology Unit of San Camilo Hospital, between 2004 and 2009. Material and method: Retrospective descriptive study on files of 56 patients between 7 and 77 years of age. Universe: 60 ears, sample: 48 ears with average age 34 years. Anatomical results were evaluated according to sex, age, location, cause of perforation and functional improvement measured by audiometry. Results: The overall anatomical postsurgical integrity is 81,3 % without differences between sexes. According to age there is a significant difference for the section between 7-19 years of age respect of the total (93,3 %). Central perforations had a 100% success rate. The most frequent reason of perforation was simple chronic otitis media (75%) with a postsurgical integrity of 80,5 %. 97,6 % managed to improve or maintain hearing level, (52,4 % gained functional improvement, and 45,2 % maintained hearing level). Conclusion: Using this technique, best results are obtained in patients younger than 20 years of age, with central perforations. It is an ideal method that preserves the structure of the tympanic membrane for future interventions.

  3. Experiencia en miringoplastía transcanal con pericondrio tragai inlay Experience in transcanal myringoplasty with inlay tragal perichondrium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Calderón R

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La timpanoplastía está orientada a la reconstrucción anatomofuncional del oído medio que realizada en la membrana timpánica se denomina miringoplastía. Objetivo: Evaluar los resultados anatomofuncionales de la miringoplastía transcanal con pericondrio tragal inlay en pacientes intervenidos en el Servicio de Otorrinolaringología del Hospital San Camilo entre 2004 y 2009. Material y método: Estudio retrospectivo descriptivo de fichas de 56 pacientes entre 7 y 77 años. Universo: 60 oídos, muestra: 48 oídos con edad promedio de 34 años. Se evaluaron resultados anatómicos según sexo, edad, ubicación, causa de perforación y mejoría funcional objetivada por audiometría. Resultados: La integridad anatómica posquirúrgica es de 81,3% sin diferencias según género. Según edad existe diferencia significativa de 93,3% para el tramo 7-19 años respecto del total. Las perforaciones centrales tuvieron un éxito de 100%. La causa más frecuente de perforación fue por otitis media crónica simple (75% con una integridad posquirúrgica del 80,5%. El 97,6% logró mejorar o mantener el nivel de audición, estableciéndose diferencialmente mejoría funcional en 52,4%, y una mantención en 45,2%. Conclusión: Los mejores resultados para esta técnica se obtienen en menores de 20 años con perforaciones centrales, siendo una técnica ideal que conserva la estructura de la membrana timpánica para futuras intervenciones.Introduction: Tympanoplasty is orientated to the anatomofunctional reconstruction of the middle ear, which is named myringoplasty, when performed in the tympanic membrane. Aim: To evaluate the anatomofunctional results of transcanal myringoplasty with inlay tragal perichondrium in patients controlled in the Otorhinolaryngology Unit of San Camilo Hospital, between 2004 and 2009. Material and method: Retrospective descriptive study on files of 56 patients between 7 and 77 years of age. Universe: 60 ears, sample: 48 ears with average age 34 years. Anatomical results were evaluated according to sex, age, location, cause of perforation and functional improvement measured by audiometry. Results: The overall anatomical postsurgical integrity is 81,3 % without differences between sexes. According to age there is a significant difference for the section between 7-19 years of age respect of the total (93,3 %. Central perforations had a 100% success rate. The most frequent reason of perforation was simple chronic otitis media (75% with a postsurgical integrity of 80,5 %. 97,6 % managed to improve or maintain hearing level, (52,4 % gained functional improvement, and 45,2 % maintained hearing level. Conclusion: Using this technique, best results are obtained in patients younger than 20 years of age, with central perforations. It is an ideal method that preserves the structure of the tympanic membrane for future interventions.

  4. Effects of mature adipocyte-derived dedifferentiated fat (DFAT) cells on generation and vascularisation of dermis-like tissue after artificial dermis grafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soejima, Kazutaka; Kashimura, Tsutomu; Asami, Takashi; Kazama, Tomohiko; Matsumoto, Taro; Nakazawa, Hiroaki

    2015-02-01

    Although artificial dermis (AD) is effective for skin reconstruction, it requires two separate procedures, because the AD must be vascularised before skin grafts. To shorten the period of the dermis-like tissue generation before the secondary skin grafting must be beneficial. Dedifferentiated fat (DFAT) cells are isolated from mature adipose cell suspensions and have potential to differentiate into multiple cell types including endothelial cells. This study aimed to investigate effects of DFAT cells on dermal regeneration after AD grafts in rats. The effects of combination use of DFAT cells and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) were also tested to mimic clinical situations. DFAT cells were isolated from SD rats. Full-thickness wounds were created on the back of rats followed by AD grafting. Five groups were established; Group I: control, Group II: treated with DFAT cells, Group III: treated with bFGF, Group IV: treated with both of DFAT cells and bFGF, and Group V: treated with Green fluorescent protein (GFP)-labelled DFAT cells and bFGF. Histological evaluation was serially performed. Group IV showed markedly promoted vascularisation of dermis-like tissue. In particular, capillary infiltration into the dermis was obtained within 2 days. Immunohistochemical examination revealed that the transplanted DFAT cells had differentiated into endothelial cells and participated in angiogenesis. Group IV also showed a marked increase in the thickness of the dermis like tissue. The present results suggest that the use of DFAT cells under bFGF treatment could be beneficial to shorten the period required for dermal regeneration and vascularisation and contribute to use AD more effectively and safely. PMID:24909822

  5. The effects of dynamic compression on the development of cartilage grafts engineered using bone marrow and infrapatellar fat pad derived stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Lu; Thorpe, Stephen D; Buckley, Conor T; Kelly, Daniel J

    2015-01-01

    Bioreactors that subject cell seeded scaffolds or hydrogels to biophysical stimulation have been used to improve the functionality of tissue engineered cartilage and to explore how such constructs might respond to the application of joint specific mechanical loading. Whether a particular cell type responds appropriately to physiological levels of biophysical stimulation could be considered a key determinant of its suitability for cartilage tissue engineering applications. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of dynamic compression on chondrogenesis of stem cells isolated from different tissue sources. Porcine bone marrow (BM) and infrapatellar fat pad (FP) derived stem cells were encapsulated in agarose hydrogels and cultured in a chondrogenic medium in free swelling (FS) conditions for 21 d, after which samples were subjected to dynamic compression (DC) of 10% strain (1 Hz, 1?h d(-1)) for a further 21 d. Both BM derived stem cells (BMSCs) and FP derived stem cells (FPSCs) were capable of generating cartilaginous tissues with near native levels of sulfated glycosaminoglycan (sGAG) content, although the spatial development of the engineered grafts strongly depended on the stem cell source. The mechanical properties of cartilage grafts generated from both stem cell sources also approached that observed in skeletally immature animals. Depending on the stem cell source and the donor, the application of DC either enhanced or had no significant effect on the functional development of cartilaginous grafts engineered using either BMSCs or FPSCs. BMSC seeded constructs subjected to DC stained less intensely for collagen type I. Furthermore, histological and micro-computed tomography analysis showed mineral deposition within BMSC seeded constructs was suppressed by the application of DC. Therefore, while the application of DC in vitro may only lead to modest improvements in the mechanical functionality of cartilaginous grafts, it may play an important role in the development of phenotypically stable constructs. PMID:26391756

  6. Utilidad del los injertos de tejido adiposo en la reconstrucción estética del miembro inferior / Use of autologous fat grafting in aesthetic lower extremity reconstruction

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J., Monreal..

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available La reconstrucción del miembro inferior constituye, probablemente, una de las disciplinas más complejas y de más difícil ejecución en el ámbito de la Cirugía Plástica Estética, independientemente de la etiología inicial del problema (postraumática, oncológica o congénita) y, normalmente, tras varios [...] tratamientos quirúrgicos, el paciente puede solicitar la mejora estética de las secuelas residuales. Estas pueden consistir, entre otras, en problemas de trofismo, asimetrías o distorsiones cicatriciales. Los injertos de tejido adiposo suponen una opción extremadamente válida y segura en los casos en los que estos pacientes solicitan una mejora estética de sus secuelas. Dado su potencial para crear volúmenes y para mejorar el trofismo de los tejidos afectados por diversas formas de fibrosis o atrofias, su utilidad debe ser considerada como una seria opción a considerar. Presentamos en este artículo 3 casos de reconstrucción estética del miembro inferior, por diversas causas, resueltos mediante el uso de injertos de tejido adiposo y revisados durante al menos un año. En todos ellos fueron necesarias al menos 2 sesiones para conseguir un resultado aceptable para el paciente. Abstract in english Lower extremity reconstruction is probably one of the most challenging and difficult disciplines in Plastic and Aesthetic Surgery. With independence of the original ethiology (postraumatic, oncologic or congenital), and after various surgical steps, this group of patients usually looks for some aest [...] hetic improvement of residual sequel. These may consist of diverse forms of trophic changes, asymmetries or distortions. Autologous fat grafting represent an extremely reliable and safe technique in those cases in which patients ask for some aesthetic improvement of their residual sequels. Due to their potential to create volumes and improve the quality of tissues affected from different kinds of atrophy or fibrosis, the use of fat grafting in these cases should be seriously considered as an alternative. Three cases of aesthetic improvement of lower extremity sequels of diverse origin and treated with autologous fat grafting are presented. The follow up period was at least of one year after last treatment. All of them needed at least 2 treatments to achieve an acceptable result for the patient.

  7. De la biología al injerto de tejido adiposo: cómo mejorar el lipoinjerto / From biology to fat grafting: how to improve lipofilling

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A.C., Girard; S., Mirbeau; M., Atlan; F., Festy; R., Roche; L., Hoareau.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A pesar de que el uso del injerto de grasa ha ganado popularidad, no hay consenso sobre la mejor manera de manejar el tejido adiposo. Los protocolos difieren y los resultados son a menudo variables. Diversos factores influyen en la calidad de la grasa inyectada, entre los que encontramos las molécul [...] as tóxicas provenientes de la infiltración, procedimiento previo a la liposucción. En este trabajo, hemos confirmado el efecto nocivo de los anestésicos sobre las células madre derivadas del tejido adiposo, determinando el efecto del lavado y la centrifugación en el tejido graso con el fin de proponer un protocolo simple y optimizado para mejorar la supervivencia del injerto. Evaluamos la citotoxicidad de la lidocaína sobre las células madre derivadas de tejido adiposo (ADSC) mediante ensayo de LDH. Sometimos el tejido adiposo conjunto a varios tipos de centrifugación (de 1 segundo a 10 minutos y desde 0 g a 1800 g), y el volumen de líquido y el aceite liberado se midió inmediatamente después de la centrifugación. Tras la determinación de las condiciones óptimas para la manipulación de tejidos (400 g/1 minuto), inyectamos el tejido adiposo de liposucción sin o con lidocaína en ratones inmunodeficientes. Un mes después de la inyección, evaluamos la calidad de los injertos mediante histología, y en comparación con los injertos obtenidos a partir de un protocolo convencional: una simple sedimentación. La lidocaína ejerce un efecto citotóxico sobre las ADSC, y este efecto depende del tiempo de incubación y de las concentraciones. En cuanto al tejido adiposo, una centrifugación intensa (900 g, 1800 g) es perjudicial en comparación con una centrifugación suave (100 g, 400 g). Además, las secciones histológicas de los injertos de tejido adiposo no centrifugados mostraron la presencia de grandes vacuolas de aceite mientras que los injertos resultantes de lavado con protocolo de centrifugación suave (400g/1minuto) no lo hacen. En conclusión, creemos que se debe emplear un manejo adecuado del tejido adiposo, incluyendo lavado y centrifugación, con el fin de eliminar el líquido de infiltración y las moléculas tóxicas asociadas que son perjudiciales para los injertos. Sin embargo, no recomendamos una centrifugación intensa ya que conduce muy rápidamente a una mayor muerte celular. Por lo tanto, una centrifugación suave (400 g/1 minuto) precedida de lavados, parece ser el protocolo más apropiado para la reinyección del tejido adiposo. Abstract in english While fat grafting for soft tissue filling has gained popularity, there is no consensus on the best way how to handle adipose tissue. Protocols differ and results are often highly variable. Various factors influence the quality of injected fat, among which the toxic molecules coming from infiltratio [...] n procedure prior to liposuction. In this work, we have confirmed the deleterious effect of anesthetics on adipose-derived stem cells, and determined the effect of washing and centrifugation on adipose tissue, in order to propose a simple and optimized protocol to improve graft survival. Lidocaine cytotoxicity on adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) was evaluated by LDH assay. Then, whole adipose tissue was subjected to various centrifugation types (from 1 sec to 10 min and from 0 g to 1800 g), and volume of liquid and oil released were measured immediately after centrifugation. After determination of the optimal conditions for tissue handling (400 g/1 min), adipose tissue from liposuction made without or with lidocaine was injected into immunodeficient mice. One month after injection, quality of the grafts was evaluated by histology, and compared with grafts obtained from one conventional protocol: a simple settling. Lidocaine exerts a cytotoxic effect on ADSCs, and this effect is dependent on the incubation time and concentrations. Concerning adipose tissue, strong centrifugation (900 g, 1800 g) is deleterious compared to the low centrifugation (100 g, 400 g). In addition, histological sections of the non-centrifuged a

  8. Lipoenxertia autóloga periorbitária no rejuvenescimento facial: análise retrospectiva da eficácia e da segurança em 31 casos / Autologous periorbital fat grafting in facial rejuvenation: a retrospective analysis of efficacy and safety in 31 cases

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Chang Yung, Chia; Diego Antonio, Rovaris.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Os sulcos periorbitários e zigomático e o malar flácido estão entre as características mais marcantes de envelhecimento ou de desarmonia facial. A reposição do volume é um método simples e eficiente, e o lipoenxerto pode ser o melhor material. O presente trabalho traz uma análise de 31 p [...] acientes submetidos a autolipoenxertia, com ênfase na eficácia e na segurança da técnica. MÉTODO: Análise retrospectiva de 31 pacientes consecutivos, submetidos a lipoenxertias periorbitária e malar, concomitantemente ou não a outros procedimentos estéticos. A avaliação foi feita por meio de comparação entre fotografias pré e pós-operatória, bem como pelo grau de satisfação dos pacientes. RESULTADOS: Dos 31 pacientes, 26 (83,9%) classificaram o resultado pós-operatório como ótimo, 3 (9,7%), bom, e 2 (6,4%), regular. Na avaliação dos autores, 24 (77,5%) pacientes apresentaram resultado ótimo, 5 (16,1%), bom, e 2 (6,4%), regular. Houve necessidade de retoque de lipoenxertia em apenas 4 pacientes, por sugestão do cirurgião. As complicações foram mínimas e passageiras. CONCLUSÕES: A lipoenxertia facial é fácil e eficaz, e as complicações são mínimas quando realizada por cirurgiões qualificados. Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Periorbital and zygomatic hollows as well as flaccid cheeks are among the most evident characteristics of aging or facial disharmony. Volume replacement is a simple and efficient procedure, and fat grafting is considered as the best treatment for these characteristics. This study evaluat [...] es 31 patients who underwent autologous fat grafting and emphasizes the safety and efficacy of this procedure. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of 31 consecutive patients who underwent periorbital and zygomatic fat grafting, alone or in combination with other cosmetic procedures, was carried out. Final evaluation was performed by assessing pre- and postoperative photographs as well as the degree of patient satisfaction. RESULTS: Of 31 patients, 26 (83.9%) reported excellent postoperative outcomes; 3 (9.7%), satisfactory outcomes; and 2 (6.4%), poor outcomes. According to the authors' evaluation, 24 (77.5%) patients had excellent outcomes, 5 (16.1%) had satisfactory outcomes, and 2 (6.4%) had poor outcomes. Retouching of the fat graft was recommended for only 4 patients. The complications observed were minimal and transient. CONCLUSIONS: Facial fat grafting is a simple and effective procedure that presents minimal complications when performed by skilled surgeons.

  9. Differential fat harvesting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Torres Farr

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Volume replacement with fillers is regularly performed with the use of diverse volumetric materials to correct different structures around the face, depending on the volume enhancement required and the thickness of the soft tissue envelope. Differential fat harvesting and posterior grafting is performed to place the correct fat parcel size for each target area, expanding the potential applications of fat. Methods: Sixty patients consecutively recruited on a first come basis undergone a facial fat grafting procedure, in private practice setting between March 2012 and October 2013. Fat grafting quantity and quality was predicted for each case. Differential harvesting was performed, with 2 fat parcels size. Processing was performed through washing. Fat infiltration was carried out through small cannulas or needles depending on the treated area. Outcomes were analysed both by the physicians and the patients at 7 days, 1 month, 3 months and 6 months through a perceived satisfaction questionnaire. Parameters considered were downtime or discomfort, skin benefits, volume restoration, reabsorption rate estimated and overall improvement. Results: Full facial differential fat grafting procedure lasted an average of 1.5-2.5 h. Average downtime was 3-4 days. Follow-up was performed to a minimum of 6 months. Both patient and physician overall satisfaction rates were mostly excellent. Adverse events like lumps or irregularities were not encountered. Conclusion: Differential fat harvesting and posterior grafting is a valid alternative, to expand the repertoire of fat use, allow a more homogeneous effect, reduce the potential complications, speed up the process, improve graft survival, and to enhance overall aesthetic outcome.

  10. Uso de factores de crecimiento plaquetar unidos a injertos de grasa para lipofiling facial en ritidectomía Use of fat grafts enriched with platelet growth factors for facial lipofiling in ritidectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M. Serra Renom

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Presentamos una serie de pacientes a los que hemos realizado infiltraciones de grasa enriquecida con Factores de Crecimiento Plaquetario (F.C.P. como único procedimiento. Igualmente presentamos casos donde las infiltraciones van acompañadas con otros procedimientos (lifting temporal, lifting cérvico-frontal, etc.. También usamos el plasma rico en F.C.P. en forma de coágulo para rellenar el surco de la cuenca orbitaria (“Tear Through”, y como mesoterapia facial enriquecida con nutrientes. El objetivo de este trabajo es presentar una revisión detallada de los pasos a seguir para la realización de éste procedimiento, que van desde la simple extracción de sangre para la posterior obtención de F.C.P. hasta la técnica de infiltración de grasa enriquecida con dichos factores a nivel facial. Con esta técnica de enriquecimiento de la grasa hemos logrado tener mejores resultados y con mayor permanencia. Evaluando los postoperatorios de pacientes sometidos a este procedimiento, hemos observado que el volumen infiltrado en áreas como la región malar, se mantiene entre un 90% a 95%. En otras áreas como labios y surcos nasogenianos (áreas de gran movilidad, solo permanece entre el 50% a 60% del volumen infiltrado.We present a serie of patients with facial fat infiltration enriched with platelet-derived growth factors, some of them associated to other surgical procedures (temporal lifting, cervico-frontal lifting, etc. We explain how to use this platelet - rich plasma to fill the tear - through and as a facial mesotherapy. Our purpose is to present a detailled review of our method: since blood extraction to the last obtention of the platelet - derived growth factors and the use of this plasma combined with fat infiltration in the facial area. With this methodology we have got better and more permanent results. We have evaluated 90-95 % fat grafts survival in malar region. In other facial areas such as lips or nasogenian folds (big movement areas, we only report about 50 to 60% fat graft survival.

  11. Injertos de tejido adiposo: variables que influyen en la viabilidad del adipocito y de las células madre mesenquimales / Fat grafting: variables that influence the viability of the adipocyte and mesenchimal stem cells

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J., Benito Ruiz.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Si bien los injertos de tejido adiposo se han venido utilizando durante décadas a lo largo del siglo pasado, la técnica se venía considerando como poco útil dado que el injerto tendía a la reabsorción. Fue Coleman quien introdujo un sistema de obtención-procesamiento-infiltración atraumático que aum [...] entó el porcentaje de supervivencia del injerto y la obtención de resultados positivos similares en su aplicación en todo el mundo. Aún así, la publicación de resultados dispares en la literatura respecto a la supervivencia del injerto, con diferentes porcentajes de reabsorción y el descubrimiento de las células madre en el tejido adiposo, han llevado a la realización de numerosos trabajos de investigación encaminados a comprender la biología del injerto de tejido adiposo, a estudiar el papel de las células madre en este proceso y la influencia que sobre la viabilidad celular tienen los distintos pasos a los que los cirujanos plásticos sometemos al tejido adiposo para su trasplante. Hemos hecho una revisión de la literatura científica al respecto para reunir la información disponible sobre estas controversias. Abstract in english Though adipose tissue grafts have been used for decades in last century, the technique has been considered as slightly usefull provided that the graft was tending to reabsorption. It was Coleman who introduced a system of atraumatic harvesting-processing-infiltration that increased the percentage of [...] survival of the graft obtaining positive similar results in its application all over the world. Nonetheless, publication of unlike results in the literature regarding survival of the graft with different percentages of reabsorption and the discovery of stem cells in the adipose tissue, have led to the accomplishment of numerous research works directed to understanding the biology of the fat graft, the role of the stem cells in this process and the influence that the different steps for transplantation have on the cellular viability. We present a review of the scientific literature about the theme to bring together the available information about these controversies.

  12. Injertos de tejido adiposo: variables que influyen en la viabilidad del adipocito y de las células madre mesenquimales Fat grafting: variables that influence the viability of the adipocyte and mesenchimal stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Benito Ruiz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Si bien los injertos de tejido adiposo se han venido utilizando durante décadas a lo largo del siglo pasado, la técnica se venía considerando como poco útil dado que el injerto tendía a la reabsorción. Fue Coleman quien introdujo un sistema de obtención-procesamiento-infiltración atraumático que aumentó el porcentaje de supervivencia del injerto y la obtención de resultados positivos similares en su aplicación en todo el mundo. Aún así, la publicación de resultados dispares en la literatura respecto a la supervivencia del injerto, con diferentes porcentajes de reabsorción y el descubrimiento de las células madre en el tejido adiposo, han llevado a la realización de numerosos trabajos de investigación encaminados a comprender la biología del injerto de tejido adiposo, a estudiar el papel de las células madre en este proceso y la influencia que sobre la viabilidad celular tienen los distintos pasos a los que los cirujanos plásticos sometemos al tejido adiposo para su trasplante. Hemos hecho una revisión de la literatura científica al respecto para reunir la información disponible sobre estas controversias.Though adipose tissue grafts have been used for decades in last century, the technique has been considered as slightly usefull provided that the graft was tending to reabsorption. It was Coleman who introduced a system of atraumatic harvesting-processing-infiltration that increased the percentage of survival of the graft obtaining positive similar results in its application all over the world. Nonetheless, publication of unlike results in the literature regarding survival of the graft with different percentages of reabsorption and the discovery of stem cells in the adipose tissue, have led to the accomplishment of numerous research works directed to understanding the biology of the fat graft, the role of the stem cells in this process and the influence that the different steps for transplantation have on the cellular viability. We present a review of the scientific literature about the theme to bring together the available information about these controversies.

  13. ¿Cuál es la supervivencia de los injertos de grasa en la cara? ¿Cómo cuantificarla?: medicina basada en la evidencia / Which is the survival of fat grafts on the face? How to quantify it?: evidence based medicine

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    E., Serna-Cuéllar; L., Santamaría-Solís.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Muchos de los artículos publicados acerca del éxito de los injertos autólogos de grasa (IAG) en humanos son muy subjetivos o, en el mejor de los casos, semicuantitativos Hasta hoy, se necesitan estudios adicionales, tanto clínicos como básicos, antes de que podamos llegar a precisar el valor de esta [...] técnica. Diseñamos un estudio prospectivo y randomizado con el objetivo de cuantificar la supervivencia de los autoinjertos de grasa en cara, en una serie seleccionada de 71 pacientes con defectos subcutáneos de partes blandas faciales que cumplieron criterios de inclusión, en dos grupos, según fueran casos de Cirugía Reconstructiva o de Cirugía Estética. El procedimiento quirúrgico estándar empleado fue la técnica de lipoestructura facial; se tomó biopsia del tejido adiposo injertado a los 14 meses de seguimiento. Empleamos el método estereológico para medir los parámetros volumétricos cuantitativos de la grasa en el momento de la inyección y en el momento de la biopsia. Por medio de simples ecuaciones matemáticas, pudimos extraer las tasas de prendimiento tanto volumétrica como numérica. También se practicaron análisis estadísticos descriptivos y cuantitativos de todos los datos. Los injertos de grasa autólogos en la cara sobreviven en dos tercios del volumen inyectado a los 14 meses de seguimiento. La única prueba confirmatoria de supervivencia de los autoin-jertos de grasa es la evidencia y demostración histológica de tejido adiposo viable en las zonas receptoras y su cuantificación mediante un método de evaluación volumétrico, preciso y objetivo, como el que permite la Estereología. Abstract in english Many reports concerning the success of fat auto-grafts in humans are widely subjective or semi-quantitative in best of cases. Even today, additional studies, clinical or basic, are ne-cessary before the value of this technique can be calculated. With the aim of quantifying the survival of fat auto-g [...] rafts on the face, a prospective randomized study was designed, selecting 71 patients suffering facial soft tissue subcutaneous defects fulfilling the inclusion criteria. Two groups were descri-bed according to reconstructive and aesthetic surgery. Facial lipostructure technique was used as the standard surgical procedure and a biopsy of the grafted adipose tissue was taken at 14 months follow-up. The stereological method was used to measure the quantitative volumetric parameters of the fat at the injection time and at the biopsy time. By means of simple mathematical equations, the volumetric and numerical take rate could be obtained. Descriptive and quantitative statistical analyses of all data were performed. Fat auto-grafts on the face survive two thirds of the injec-ted volume at 14 months follow-up. The unique confirmation proof of survival of fat auto-grafts is the histological evidence and demonstration of viable adipose tissue in recipient sites and its quantification by a volumetric, accurate and objective valuation method, as it is provided by Stereology.

  14. Plant grafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnyk, Charles W; Meyerowitz, Elliot M

    2015-03-01

    Since ancient times, people have cut and joined together plants of different varieties or species so they would grow as a single plant - a process known as grafting (Figures 1 and 2). References to grafting appear in the Bible, ancient Greek and ancient Chinese texts, indicating that grafting was practised in Europe, the Middle East and Asia by at least the 5(th) century BCE. It is unknown where or how grafting was first discovered, but it is likely that natural grafting, the process by which two plants touch and fuse limbs or roots in the absence of human interference (Figure 3), influenced people's thinking. Such natural grafts are generally uncommon, but are seen in certain species, including English ivy. Parasitic plants, such as mistletoe, that grow and feed on often unrelated species may have also contributed to the development of grafting as a technique, as people would have observed mistletoe growing on trees such as apples or poplars. PMID:25734263

  15. Cartilage Tympanoplasty: Is it more effective than temporalis fascia grafting for tympanoplasty?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyamakant Prasad

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Chronic suppurative otitis media is a disease which is a major cause of morbidity in our country. A large proportion of these patients have safe (mucosal chronic suppurative otitis media. It leads to otorrhoea and deafness which hampers productivity of many individuals. Otolaryngologist play an important role in its correction and amelioration by con-servative or operative procedures. One such procedure is tympanoplasty. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES 1. To evaluate improvement in hearing following tympanoplasty using temporalis fascia graft and cartilage island graft at 8 weeks after surgery. 2. Graft status after tympanoplasty using temporalis fascia graft and cartilage island graft. 3. Assess other complications after surgery in both groups. This study was conducted in the Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Sur-gery, ST. STEPHEN’S HOSPITAL, DELHI between November 2010 to November 2012. INCLUSION CRITERIA 1. Includes patient in the age group of 20-40 years, having good general physical condition. 2. No evidence of active infection in nose, throat or paranasal sinuses, central perforation of pars tensa of the tympanic membrane with dry ear for a minimum period of 3 weeks be-fore the day of operation. 3. Patients having good eustachian tube function with good cochlear reserve. Exclusion criteria: 1. Patients having blocked eustachian tube, with polyp, granulations or cholesteatoma 2. Failed myringoplasty in the same ear 3. Otogenic intra cranial complications in the past 4. Evidence of otitis externa or otomycosis 5. Per operative ossicular discontinuity, fixed foot plate 6. Patients with evidence of focal sepsis

  16. Assessment of viability of human fat injection into nude mice with micro-computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atashroo, David A; Paik, Kevin J; Chung, Michael T; McArdle, Adrian; Senarath-Yapa, Kshemendra; Zielins, Elizabeth R; Tevlin, Ruth; Duldulao, Christopher R; Walmsley, Graham G; Wearda, Taylor; Marecic, Owen; Longaker, Michael T; Wan, Derrick C

    2015-01-01

    Lipotransfer is a vital tool in the surgeon's armamentarium for the treatment of soft tissue deficits of throughout the body. Fat is the ideal soft tissue filler as it is readily available, easily obtained, inexpensive, and inherently biocompatible.(1) However, despite its burgeoning popularity, fat grafting is hampered by unpredictable results and variable graft survival, with published retention rates ranging anywhere from 10-80%. (1-3) To facilitate investigations on fat grafting, we have therefore developed an animal model that allows for real-time analysis of injected fat volume retention. Briefly, a small cut is made in the scalp of a CD-1 nude mouse and 200-400 µl of processed lipoaspirate is placed over the skull. The scalp is chosen as the recipient site because of its absence of native subcutaneous fat, and because of the excellent background contrast provided by the calvarium, which aids in the analysis process. Micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) is used to scan the graft at baseline and every two weeks thereafter. The CT images are reconstructed, and an imaging software is used to quantify graft volumes. Traditionally, techniques to assess fat graft volume have necessitated euthanizing the study animal to provide just a single assessment of graft weight and volume by physical measurement ex vivo. Biochemical and histological comparisons have likewise required the study animal to be euthanized. This described imaging technique offers the advantage of visualizing and objectively quantifying volume at multiple time points after initial grafting without having to sacrifice the study animal. The technique is limited by the size of the graft able to be injected as larger grafts risk skin and fat necrosis. This method has utility for all studies evaluating fat graft viability and volume retention. It is particularly well-suited to providing a visual representation of fat grafts and following changes in volume over time. PMID:25590561

  17. Stent graft placement for dysfunctional arteriovenous grafts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Gyeong Sik [Dept. of Radiology, CHA Bundang Medical Center, College of Medicine, CHA University, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Byung Seok; Ohm, Joon Young; Ahn, Moon Sang [Chungnam National University Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-07-15

    This study aimed to evaluate the usefulness and outcomes of stent graft use in dysfunctional arteriovenous grafts. Eleven patients who underwent stent graft placement for a dysfunctional hemodialysis graft were included in this retrospective study. Expanded polytetrafluoroethylene covered stent grafts were placed at the venous anastomosis site in case of pseudoaneurysm, venous laceration, elastic recoil or residual restenosis despite the repeated angioplasty. The patency of the arteriovenous graft was evaluated using Kaplan-Meier analysis. Primary and secondary mean patency was 363 days and 741 days. Primary patency at 3, 6, and 12 months was 82%, 73%, and 32%, respectively. Secondary patency at the 3, 6, 12, 24, and 36 months was improved to 91%, 82%, 82%, 50%, and 25%, respectively. Fractures of the stent graft were observed in 2 patients, but had no effect on the patency. Stent graft placement in dysfunctional arteriovenous graft is useful and effective in prolonging graft patency.

  18. Long-term outcomes using vascular grafts sealed with fragmented autologous adipose tissue for aortoiliac occlusive disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Ichiya; Karube, Norihisa; Soma, Tamitaro; Noishiki, Yasuharu; Ichikawa, Yukio

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test the safety and efficacy of fragmented autologous adipose tissue (FAT) grafts for revascularization in aortoiliac occlusive disease. Twenty-seven patients with atherosclerotic aortoiliac occlusive disease underwent surgical treatment using FAT grafts. A piece of adipose connective tissue was obtained from the operative wound, cut into small pieces, and pressed into the wall of a fabric vascular prosthesis. Cumulative primary patency rates were 92% at 1 year, 92% at 3 years, and 86% at 6 years. Cumulative secondary patency rates were 96%, 96%, and 90% for the same intervals. In this clinical study, the FAT grafts demonstrated good long-term patency rates and no particular problems. This is the first clinical report of long-term outcomes using FAT grafts for aortofemoral or aortoiliac bypasses. FAT grafts are thus safe for revascularization in aortoiliac occlusive disease. PMID:15951984

  19. Fat heaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmasry, Amr Ahmed Abd Elmoneim; Katajainen, Jyrki

    2011-01-01

    This report is an electronic appendix to our paper \\Fat heaps without regular counters". In that paper we described a new variant of fat heaps that is conceptually simpler and easier to implement than the original version. We also compared the practical performance of this data structure to that of other related data structures (run-relaxed weak queues and Fibonacci heaps). This report to- gether with an accompanying tar le gives the source code used in the experiments reported in the paper. By ...

  20. Fecal Fat: The Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Fecal Fat Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Qualitative or Quantitative Stool Fat; Stool Lipids; 72 Hour Fecal Fat; Fat Stain ...

  1. Saturated fat (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fat include whole-milk dairy products, like cheese, ice cream and butter. Animal fats such as beef, pork ... fat include whole-milk dairy products, like cheese, ice cream and butter. Animal fats such as beef, pork ...

  2. Grafting and curing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Progress in radiation grafting and curing is briefly reviewed. The two processes are shown to be mechanistically related. The parameters influencing yields are examined particularly for grafting. For ionising radiation grafting systems (EB and gamma ray) these include solvents, substrate and monomer structure, dose and dose-rate, temperature and more recently role of additives. In addition, for UV grafting, the significance of photoinitiators is discussed. Current applications of radiation grafting and curing are outlined. The recent development of photoinitiator free grafting and curing is examined as well as the potential for the new excimer laser sources. The future application of both grafting and curing is considered, especially the significance of the occurrence of concurrent grafting during cure and its relevance in environmental considerations

  3. Macro fat and micro fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yanjun; Gaillard, Jonathan R; McLaughlin, Tracey; Sørensen, Thorkild Ia; Periwal, Vipul

    2015-01-01

    The adipose cell-size distribution is a quantitative characterization of adipose tissue morphology. At a population level, the adipose cell-size distribution is insulin-sensitivity dependent, and the observed correlation between obesity and insulin resistance is believed to play a key role in the metabolic syndrome. Changes in fat mass can be induced by altered energy intake or even diet composition. These macroscopic changes must manifest themselves as dynamic adipose cell-size distribution alt...

  4. Fats and Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sports: Keeping Kids Safe Concussions: What to Know Fats and Your Child KidsHealth > Parents > Growth & Development > Feeding & ... an important part of a healthy diet. About Fat Fats are nutrients in food that the body ...

  5. Dangers of Belly Fat

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home ? Latest Health News ? Dangers of Belly Fat URL of this page: https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/videos/news/Belly_Fat_111015.html Dangers of Belly Fat ...

  6. Dietary lipids: less fat or best fat?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chardigny Jean-Michel

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Obesity and overweight occurrence is growing around the word. This is often considered as a consequence of high fat diets, and some recommendations encourage ‘‘light’’ diets, including low fat intake. However, most trials with low fat intake do not demonstrate any benefit and could be worse than low carbohydrate diets. The key role of insulin could explain that eating fat do not make body fat. On the other hand, several unbalanced fatty acid intake are reported, i.e. saturated/mononunsaturated fatty acids and w6/w3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Thus, fat intake could be improved in this respect. Moreover, the molecular and supramolecular structures of fat in food are new challenges to address in order to ameliorate the recommendations for healthy diets.

  7. Bone Graft Alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... graft that comes from a donor is called allograft bone . Allograft bone usually comes from bone banks that harvest the bone from cadavers. The types of allograft bone used for spine surgery include fresh frozen and ...

  8. Body Fat Measurement Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cyberkitchen Fitness Center Shape Up & Drop 10 Body Fat Lab BMI Calculator Pregnancy Weight Gain Children Assessing ... Contact List Request for Support Measurement Tools Body fat has many important functions. It is: a "storage ...

  9. Know Your Fats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Foods from plants that contain saturated fat include coconut, coconut oil, palm oil and palm kernel oil (often ... Foods from plants that contain saturated fat include coconut, coconut oil, palm oil and palm kernel oil ( ...

  10. Facts about saturated fats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Weight gain . Many high-fat foods such as pizza, baked goods, and fried foods have a lot ... FG, Moore HJ, Davey Smith G. Reduced or modified dietary fat for preventing cardiovascular disease. Cochrane Database ...

  11. The significance of graft diameter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, R J; Kempczinski, R F; Hammond, W; DiClementi, D

    1980-12-01

    To study the influence of diameter on graft patency, an 8 mm aortoiiliac Dacron graft was implanted in on leg of 25 dogs that had liac arteries 3 to 5 mm in diameter and a 5 mm graft was placed in the other leg. In six dogs both grafts clotted within 3 months, in 10 dogs both grafts remained patient until the dogs were killed between 7 and 66 months, and in nine dogs one graft became occluded before the other. In eight of these nine animals the 8 mm graft became occluded before the 5 mm graft; only in one dog did the 5 mm graft become occluded first. When the 10 dogs with two patient grafts were killed, the 8 mm graft was found to be lined with thick, organized fibrin, whereas the 5 mm graft had a thin, smooth, glistening lining. Histologic examination confirmed that healing was more complete in the 5 mm graft. In vivo blood flow measurements in the dogs were used to compare flow rates and graft resistance in 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 mm grafts. A given sized graft carried the same flow capacity as larger grafts until the flow rate was reached when graft resistance developed. Once resistance appeared, the graft could still triple or quadruple its flow capacity but it could not deliver the same rate of flow under the same pressure head as larger grafts. In 4 mm grafts, resistance first appeared at approximately 150 cc/min and capacity was 450 cc. In 6 mm grafts, resistance developed at 400 cc/min and capacity exceeded 1,200 cc. In 8 and 10 mm grafts, resistance was first noted at 800 and 1.400 cc/min, respectively. These studies suggest that 6 mm diameter grafts can carry the 200 cc/min or less that is measured in the human superficial femoral artery at rest, as well as the four-to sixfold increase that accompanies vigorous exercise. PMID:7444766

  12. Axillobifemoral bypass grafting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davidovi? Lazar B.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Axillo-femoral bypass (AxF means connecting the axillar and femoral artery with the graft that is placed subcutaneously [1]. Usually, this graft is connected with contralateral femoral artery via one accessory subcutaneous graft, and this connection is known as axillobifemoral bypass (AxFF. This extra-anatomic procedure is an alternative method to the standard reconstruction of aortoiliac region when there are contraindications for general or local reasons. OBJECTIVE The objective of this paper is to show early and late results of AxFF bypass grafting as well as to show the indications for AxFF bypass. METHODS The sample consisted of 37 patients. The procedure was performed in 28 patients who suffered from aortoiliac occlusive disease and who were at high risk due to the comorbidity- in one patient with the rupture of juxtarenal aneurysm of abdominal aorta; in five patients with aortoenteric fistula, in two patients with iatrogenic lesion of abdominal aorta and in one female patient with anus preternaturalis definitivus who was treated for rectovaginal fistula. Donor's right axillary artery was used in 26 cases (70.3%, and donor's left axillary artery was used in 9 cases (29.7%. Dacron graft was used in 34 patients and Polytetrafluo-roethlylene graft was used in three patients. Simultaneously, profundo-plastic was done in four patients and femoro-popliteal bypass was performed in three patients. In five patients who suffered from aortoenteric fistula, simultaneous intervention of gastrointerstinal system has been done, x2 test was used for statistical evaluation and life table method was used for verification of late graft patency. RESULTS The rate of early postoperative mortality was 13.5%. The causes of death were: sepsis -1, MOFS - 3, and infarct myocardium -1. The mean follow up period was 40.1 months, ranging from six months to 17 years. During the follow up period, an early graft thrombosis was identified in two and late graft occlusion was reported in four patients. As the cause of occlusion, the progression of occlusive disease of receptive artery was identified in three patients, while anastomotic neointimae hyperplasia of recipient artery was identified in one patient. Three patients died during the follow up period. As the cause of death, CVI was reported in two patients and malignancy of the urinary tract was fpund in one patient. The other complications were - artery angulation on the level of proximal anastomosis in one patient (Figure 1, false aneurysm in one patient, perigraft seroma in one patient and graft infection in three patients. Life table method has shown that cumulative rate of late graft patency is 80.39% after five years (Graph 1. DISCUSSION Our results were analyzed and compared with the results of the study on 283 patients who had undergone aortobifemoral bypass (AFF operation due to the aortoiliac occlusive disease. This study was completed in 1995 (18. The results showed that there was no statistically significant differences between AxFF and AFF group (p>0.05, considering early mortality rate and late graft patency (Graph 2. The review of mortality and late patency rate after AxFF bypass grafting in a world well known studies has shown the similar results (Table 1. CONCLUSION The authors suggest that axilobifemoral bypass is indicated when there are contraindications or difficulties to perform anatomic reconstruction due to the abdomen condition (infection, adhesion, comorbidity as well as in high risk patients with low life expectancy.

  13. The effects of crimping on the healing of prosthetic arterial grafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, M; Dilley, R; Gardner, A; Glover, J

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the crimping of arterial prostheses affected their healing. In ten dogs, 6 mm knitted Dacron grafts were implanted in the infrarenal aortas; 6 grafts were crimped, 4 uncrimped. Each was seeded with venous endothelium to produce a cellular lining. The grafts were removed a month after implantation and compared by light microscopy as to the (1) thickness of the inner lining, (2) completeness of endothelial healing, and (3) patterns of vasa vasorum. (1) and (3) were assessed using H & E sections and (2) by AgNO3 Häutchen preparations. The lining in uncrimped grafts was thinner and more uniform than in crimped grafts: 50.1 +/- 45.7 vs 263 +/- 183 mu, p fat. In the uncrimped grafts, the smaller secondary vasa also were directed along the axis of flow, in contrast to crimped grafts in which they were circumferential to the graft and parallel to the crimps. In all instances vasa penetrated within 500 mu of the lumen. We conclude that crimping causes a change in the pattern of development of vasa vasorum in healing fabric grafts and a thicker inner lining associated with areas of delayed healing which may increase the risk of thrombosis. PMID:7451567

  14. Controversies in fat perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinze, Jaana M; Preissl, Hubert; Fritsche, Andreas; Frank, Sabine

    2015-12-01

    Nutritional fat is one of the most controversial topics in nutritional research, particularly against the background of obesity. Studies investigating fat taste perception have revealed several associations with sensory, genetic, and personal factors (e.g. BMI). However, neuronal activation patterns, which are known to be highly sensitive to different tastes as well as to BMI differences, have not yet been included in the scheme of fat taste perception. We will therefore provide a comprehensive survey of the sensory, genetic, and personal factors associated with fat taste perception and highlight the benefits of applying neuroimaging research. We will also give a critical overview of studies investigating sensory fat perception and the challenges resulting from multifaceted methodological approaches. In conclusion, we will discuss a multifactorial approach to fat perception to gain a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms that cause varying fat sensitivity which could be responsible for overeating. Such knowledge might be beneficial in new treatment strategies for obesity and overweight. PMID:26340857

  15. Crosslinked grafted PVC obtained by direct radiation grafting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Direct radiation-induced grafting of 4-vinylpyridine onto both pure and plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) has been studied. The effect of grafting conditions such as solvent, monomer concentration, irradiation dose, and inhibitor concentration on the grafting yield was investigated. The grafting process was enhanced by using distilled water as diluent and higher degrees of grafting were obtained as compared with other solvents used (benzene, methanol, and a mixture of methanol and water). The homopolymerization of 4-vinylpyridine was reduced to a minimum using ammonium ferrous sulfate and the suitable optimum concentration of the inhibitor was found to be 0.25 wt%. It was observed that the degrees of grafting onto plasticized PVC were higher than those onto pure one, at constant grafting conditions. The diffusibility of the monomer solution through the trunk polymers enhanced at higher monomer concentrations. The higher the monomer concentration the higher the degrees of grafting obtained. The dependence of the grafting rate on monomer concentration was found to be 0.15 and 0.4 order for the grafting onto pure and plasticized PVC films, respectively. The gel content in both grafted extracted pure and plasticized PVC films increased with the degree of grafting to reach certain limiting values. (author)

  16. Spinal bone graft - series (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is made over the bone defect, and the bone graft is shaped around and inserted into the defect. The graft is held in place with pins, plates, or screws. The incisions are stitched (sutured) closed. A splint ...

  17. Grafts for Ridge Preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamjoom, Amal; Cohen, Robert E

    2015-01-01

    Alveolar ridge bone resorption is a biologic phenomenon that occurs following tooth extraction and cannot be prevented. This paper reviews the vertical and horizontal ridge dimensional changes that are associated with tooth extraction. It also provides an overview of the advantages of ridge preservation as well as grafting materials. A Medline search among English language papers was performed in March 2015 using alveolar ridge preservation, ridge augmentation, and various graft types as search terms. Additional papers were considered following the preliminary review of the initial search that were relevant to alveolar ridge preservation. The literature suggests that ridge preservation methods and augmentation techniques are available to minimize and restore available bone. Numerous grafting materials, such as autografts, allografts, xenografts, and alloplasts, currently are used for ridge preservation. Other materials, such as growth factors, also can be used to enhance biologic outcome. PMID:26262646

  18. Autologous staged fat tissue transfer in post-traumatic lower extremity reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Martin A; Schwarzman, Garrett; Eivazi, Mariet; Zachary, Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    Autologous fat tissue transfer for aesthetic reconstruction has been described in the literature for soft tissue damage as early as 1893. One area that has yet to be described is the role of fat grafting in post-traumatic lower extremity injuries. In this case report, we present a patient who had significant injury to her right lower extremity and presented for reconstruction. The patient is a 52-year-old female who presented to clinic after a right lower extremity traumatic injury that required multiple re-operations, which lead to dense scarring and volume loss along the extremity inferior to the knee joint. The patient received two staged autologous fat injections and reported positive outcomes. Our case report demonstrates the utility of fat transfer in reconstruction of the lower extremity in staged fashion. Further research in the refinement of this technique and patient follow-up will lead to better graft survival and reconstructive outcomes. PMID:26572154

  19. Acrylonitrile grafted to PVDF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jin; Eitouni, Hany Basam

    2015-03-31

    PVDF-g-PAN has been synthesized by grafting polyacrylonitrile onto polyvinylidene fluoride using an ATRP/AGET method. The novel polymer is ionically conducive and has much more flexibility than PVDF alone, making it especially useful either as a binder in battery cell electrodes or as a polymer electrolyte in a battery cell.

  20. Fat and breast cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Kinlen, LJ

    1987-01-01

    Breast cancer mortality and incidence in different countries show a strongly positive correlation with the per caput consumption of fat. In addition, the disease has increased among the Japanese, both in Japan and in the United States, and in both groups fat consumption has been increasing. In contrast, both case-control and prospective studies have on the whole failed to confirm the relationship. Despite these negative findings, the hypothesis that fat causes breast cancer has continued to b...

  1. Perception of fatness

    OpenAIRE

    Ja?kiewicz, Ma?gorzata

    1997-01-01

    The study’s objective was to find out whether there is a relationship between bodily fatness traits described with anthropometric measurements and the assessment of the physical attractiveness of people with different degree of fat deposition. Furthermore, an attempt was made to answer the question whether we perceive the physique of another man as a whole or if we pay more attention to certain parts of the body and whether there is a stereotype of desirable fat deposition.

  2. The Influence of Dietary Fat on Liver Fat Accumulation

    OpenAIRE

    Green, Charlotte J; Leanne Hodson

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a known risk factor for the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD); however, it has been suggested that dietary fat, both amount and composition, may play a pivotal role in its development, independent of body fatness. Studies that have investigated the role of dietary fat on liver fat accumulation are reasonably sparse. We review here the available work that has investigated the impact of dietary fat: amount, composition and frequency, on liver fat accumulation i...

  3. Fat Emulsions for Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your doctor has ordered fat emulsion to be used as a source of calories and fatty acids to maintain or increase your weight. The medication ... Before you administer fat emulsion, look at the solution closely. It should be free of floating material. Gently squeeze the bag or observe ...

  4. Polystyrene modified by grafting

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Avani Maria C, Rocha; Laura Hecker de, Carvalho; Antonio Gouveia de, Souza.

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available Diversos tipos de poliestireno modificados foram obtidos através da polimerização por enxertia (graft polymerization) de estireno na presença dos seguintes modificadores: copolímero de etileno-acetato de vinila (EVA); polietileno de baixa densidade (PE) e polibutadieno (PB). Os modificadores foram u [...] tilizados em separado e combinados. Em todos os casos, manteve-se a concentração de modificador fixa em 8% em peso e foram avaliadas as propriedades dos produtos obtidos em função da sua composição. A técnica de polimerização empregada foi a de massa/suspensão. Os melhores resultados foram obtidos para os sistemas PS/modificadores mistos. Os resultados obtidos para estes sistemas comprovam que a copolimerização por enxertia gera produtos com melhores propriedades de impacto do que as obtidas, a partir de misturas mecânicas dos componentes individuais, em sistemas semelhantes. Abstract in english Several grades of modified polystyrene were obtained through the graft polymerization of styrene in the presence of modifiers such as ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA), low density polyethylene (PE), and polybutadiene (PB). These modifiers were used by themselves and in combination. In all cases, the mod [...] ifier concentration was kept constant at 8% w/w, and the product properties were determined as a function of composition. The polymerization technique employed was that of mass/suspension. The best results were obtained for the PS/mixed modifiers systems. The results confirm that graft copolymers present better impact properties than those of mechanical blends of similar composition.

  5. Are the additional grafts necessary?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ?ur?i? A.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The goals of surgery for spinal deformity are to correct or improve the deformity to get a stable, balanced and fused spine. The long-term success of any procedure for scoliosis depends on a solid arthrodesis. Getting fusion of the instrumented segment with the aid of copious autogenous iliac graft has been the most important goal of treatment. However, harvesting copious graft from teenage iliac bone has its limitation in the quantity of graft, surgical time, and other complications of graft sites. Bone substitute is a promising concept, but there is not ideal bone substitute with all the characteristics of an autogenous bone graft. Several alternative graft materials like tricalcium phosphate, hydroxyapatite, and demineralized bone matrix have osteoinductive properties. Bone morphogenic protein has osteoconductive properties. The limitations with bone substitutes are osteoinduction and osteoconduction properties, sterilization, chances of transmitting infective disease and cost. We consider that the introduction of segmental spinal instrumentation which enables strong and firm correction and fixation of the scoliotic deformity has enabled getting fusion with less graft. We can obtain that quantity of graft after laminae and spinous process decortication. This retrospective study has been done in our hospital from January 2002 to December 2004. A total of 188 patients underwent posterior corrections for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis using segmental fixation by Moss-Miami. No autogenous iliac crest graft was taken or graft substitutes. After meticulous decortication and destruction of facet joints, we used local graft taken from spinous process and laminae. All patients had minimum thirty months follow- up. We have excellent results. Out of these 188 patients, 177 patients have fused spine, no implant failure, no pain, no infection and no loss of correction. Eleven (5.8% patients underwent re-operation; four among them because of infection, three for symptomatic implants and four due to pseudarthrosis. We consider that the use of local harvesting graft is enough for getting good spondylodesis.

  6. Coxiella burnetii vascular graft infection

    OpenAIRE

    Von Segesser Ludwig; Moulin Alexandre; Raoult Didier; Franciolli Mario; Senn Laurence; Calandra Thierry; Greub Gilbert

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Coxiella burnetii, the causative agent of Q fever, may cause culture-negative vascular graft infections. Very few cases of C. burnetii infection of a vascular graft have been reported. All were diagnosed by serology. Case presentation We report the first case of Coxiella burnetii vascular graft infection diagnosed by broad-range PCR and discuss the diagnostic approaches and treatment strategies of chronic C. burnetii infection. Conclusion C. burnetii should be considered a...

  7. Preparation of anionic fibrous catalyst by radiation graft polymerization for biodiesel synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anionic fibrous catalyst for biodiesel production from vegetable oils and animal fats was synthesized through radiation induced graft polymerization of 4-chloromethylstyrene (CMS) onto a nonwoven polyethylene (NWPE) fabric followed by amination with trimethylamine (TMA). The influence of grafting degree of the TMA-CMS-g-NWPE at 0.25 M TMA concentration was investigated by elemental analyzer, FTIR and TGA. Results show that the density of trimethylammonium group increased with the degree of grafting. However, thermal properties of the TMA-CMS-g-NWPE reduced with the degree of grafting. The preliminary transesterification test on triolein/ethanol/decane solution using selected TMA-CMS-g-NWPE containing 3.01 mmol/g trimethylammonium found that 98% the triolein can be converted into biodiesel within 4 h reaction. High conversion of rapeseed oil into biodiesel provides more information on the capability of TMA-CMS-g-NWPE as ion exchanger for biodiesel production. (Author)

  8. Environmental application of radiation grafting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adsorbent having high selectivity against a certain metal ion was synthesized by means of radiation-induced graft polymerization for the purpose of environmental application. The resulting adsorbents were utilized for the removal of toxic metal from scallop waste and the collection of uranium from seawater. As a novel application of grafting, the biodegradability of poly-hydroxybutylate was controlled by grafting. The biodegradability could be depressed by the graft chain and then recovered by external stimuli such as thermal and chemical treatments. (author)

  9. Pakistan. Graft-Polymerization Under Irradiation and its Effect on Water Repellency and Resistance to Certain Micro-Organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fibre from the jute plants Corchorus capsularis and C. olitorius consists of cellulose (69-78%), lignin (10-15%), furfuraldehyde (9-11%), xylen (10-12%) and fat (1%). Jute fibre is commercially used for making sacks for packing purposes and is an important item of Pakistan's foreign trade. It was intended to graft-copolymerize jute with various monomers with the idea of determining its water absorption and resistance to microorganisms. Such studies would enlarge the scope of the commercial utilization of jute fibre. Graft-copolymerization or graft-polymerization in our studies invariably refers to soaking jute with monomers under the conditions of the experiment

  10. Alternative fat sources to animal fat for pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Charlotte; Christensen, Thomas Bruun

    2007-01-01

    The use of fats and oils in diets for pigs is of great importance due to their high energy value. As a consequence of the BSE-crisis in the European Union, the amount of animal fat available for animal feeds has been reduced, and alternative fat sources are of increasing importance. In this paper, we review our main findings on the effects of diets with different fat sources on apparent fat digestibility in pigs. A method for quantitative measurement of fat extraction from feed and faeces has been developed, and this method has been used in a digestibility trial, in which diets added 5% of either animal fat, palm oil mix, palm oil, vegetable oil mix, coconut oil, or rapeseed oil were tested in weaned and growing pigs. It was concluded that several vegetable fat sources (palm oil mix, palm oil, coconut oil, rapeseed oil) could be used as alternatives to animal fat in pig feed, whereas fat blends should be avoided.

  11. Learning about Fats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... avocados, olives, and walnuts, and vegetable oils like soybean, corn, canola, and olive oil. Saturated fats: These ... A Kid's Guide to Eating Right Learning About Carbohydrates Contact Us Print Additional resources Send to a ...

  12. Dietary Fat and Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Good Sources of Polyunsaturated Fat Include: Canola Oil Sardines Corn Oil Sesame Seeds Cottonseed Oil Soybeans Flaxseeds ... as walnuts) Flaxseed Oil Salmon Green, leafy vegetables Sardines Halibut Soy based foods (such as soybeans, soy ...

  13. Suction blister grafting - Modifications for easy harvesting and grafting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Suction blister grafting is a simple modality of treatment of patients with resistant and stable vitiligo. But raising the blisters may be time consuming and transferring to the recipient site may be difficult as the graft is ultrathin. By doing some modifications we can make the technique simpler and easier. We can decrease the blister induction time by intradermal injection of saline, exposure to Wood?s lamp, intrablister injection of saline. By these methods we can decrease the blister induction time from 2-3 hrs to 45-90 minutes. After harvesting the graft, it can be transferred to the recipient area by taking the graft on a sterile glass slide, on the gloved finger, rolling the graft over a sterile syringe and then spreading on the recipient area, or taking on the sterile wrapper of paraffin dressing and then placing over the recipient area.

  14. Dietary fat overload reprograms brown fat mitochondria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lettieri Barbato, Daniele; Tatulli, Giuseppe; Vegliante, Rolando; Cannata, Stefano M.; Bernardini, Sergio; Ciriolo, Maria R.; Aquilano, Katia

    2015-01-01

    Chronic nutrient overload accelerates the onset of several aging-related diseases reducing life expectancy. Although the mechanisms by which overnutrition affects metabolic processes in many tissues are known, its role on BAT physiology is still unclear. Herein, we investigated the mitochondrial responses in BAT of female mice exposed to high fat diet (HFD) at different steps of life. Although adult mice showed an unchanged mitochondrial amount, both respiration and OxPHOS subunits were strongly affected. Differently, offspring pups exposed to HFD during pregnancy and lactation displayed reduced mitochondrial mass but high oxidative efficiency that, however, resulted in increased bioenergetics state of BAT rather than augmented uncoupling respiration. Interestingly, the metabolic responses triggered by HFD were accompanied by changes in mitochondrial dynamics characterized by decreased content of the fragmentation marker Drp1 both in mothers and offspring pups. HFD-induced inactivation of the FoxO1 transcription factor seemed to be the up-stream modulator of Drp1 levels in brown fat cells. Furthermore, HFD offspring pups weaned with normal diet only partially reverted the mitochondrial dysfunctions caused by HFD. Finally these mice failed in activating the thermogenic program upon cold exposure. Collectively our findings suggest that maternal dietary fat overload irreversibly commits BAT unresponsiveness to physiological stimuli such as cool temperature and this dysfunction in the early stage of life might negatively modulate health and lifespan.

  15. Dynamical fat link fermions

    OpenAIRE

    Kamleh, Waseem; Leinweber, Derek B; Williams, Anthony G.

    2004-01-01

    The use of APE smearing or other blocking techniques in fermion actions can provide many advantages. There are many variants of these fat link actions in lattice QCD currently, such as FLIC fermions. Frequently, fat link actions make use of the APE blocking technique in combination with a projection of the blocked links back into the special unitary group. This reunitarisation is often performed using an iterative maximisation of a gauge invariant measure. This technique is ...

  16. Coxiella burnetii vascular graft infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Von Segesser Ludwig

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coxiella burnetii, the causative agent of Q fever, may cause culture-negative vascular graft infections. Very few cases of C. burnetii infection of a vascular graft have been reported. All were diagnosed by serology. Case presentation We report the first case of Coxiella burnetii vascular graft infection diagnosed by broad-range PCR and discuss the diagnostic approaches and treatment strategies of chronic C. burnetii infection. Conclusion C. burnetii should be considered as etiological agent in patients with a vascular graft and fever, abdominal pain, and laboratory signs of inflammation, with or without exposure history. Broad-range PCR should be performed on culture-negative surgical samples in patients with suspected infection of vascular graft.

  17. Alternative fat sources to animal fat for pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Charlotte; Christensen, Thomas Bruun; Halekoh, Ulrich; Jensen, Søren Krogh

    2007-01-01

    The use of fats and oils in diets for pigs is of great importance due to their high energy value. As a consequence of the BSE-crisis in the European Union, the amount of animal fat available for animal feeds has been reduced, and alternative fat sources are of increasing importance. In this paper, we review our main findings on the effects of diets with different fat sources on apparent fat digestibility in pigs. A method for quantitative measurement of fat extraction from feed and faeces has be...

  18. Radiation grafting of styrene into PVDF powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polyvinylidene fluoride PVDF powder was chosen as the base material, and grafted with styrene monomer under pre-irradiation graft polymerization method. The styrene grafted PVDF (PVDF-g-PS) powder was characterized by FTIR spectroscopy, DSC, TGA and element analysis. The FTIR spectra demonstrate that the poly-styrene is successfully grafted into PVDF powder. The crystallinity of grafted PVDF powder decreases with the increasing in the degree of grafting according to the DSC curves. The TGA curves of PVDF-g-PS change remarkably with respect to the original PVDF. It further proves the polystyrene is successfully grafted into PVDF powder. (authors)

  19. Sharma's clamp for sequential coronary artery grafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ashok Kumar; Siddiqi, Mohammad Salman; Sabti, Hilal Al

    2015-10-01

    Sequential coronary artery grafting is a common procedure. Holding the graft in the correct alignment and orientation in a limited pericardial space and taking a suture at the correct place on the graft is difficult. Graft slippage from the assistant can be distracting to the surgeon, unnecessarily increasing the anastomosis time and also affecting graft patency due to improperly placed sutures. We describe a simple device (Sharma's clamp) for graft holding and stabilization for sequential bypass grafting in coronary artery bypass surgery. PMID:25931571

  20. A Reappraisal of Saphenous Vein Grafting

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan Shi-Min; Jing Hua

    2011-01-01

    Autologous saphenous vein grafting has been broadly used as a bypass conduit, interposition graft, and patch graft in a variety of operations in cardiac, thoracic, neurovascular, general vascular, vascular access, and urology surgeries, since they are superior to prosthetic veins. Modified saphenous vein grafts (SVG), including spiral and cylindrical grafts, and vein cuffs or patches, are employed in vascular revascularization to satisfy the large size of the receipt vessels or to obtain a be...

  1. Controlled grafting of cellulose diacetate.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vl?ek, Petr; Janata, Miroslav; Látalová, Petra; K?íž, Jaroslav; ?adová, Eva; Toman, Lud?k

    Gargnano : European Polymer Federation, 2006. s. 1. [European Polymer Conference EUPOC. Branched Macromolecular Structures. 07.05.2006-12.05.2006, Gargnano] R&D Projects: GA AV ?R IAA410820601 Keywords : cellulose diacetate * grafting Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry

  2. Coronary arteries bypass grafting stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Ebrahimi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Coronary artery disease (CAD is a major global problem. In addition, it is higher risk of mortality for women more than men are when develop in female gender Atherosclerotic plaques consist of deposits of fatty material in the tunica intima. The role of inflammatory process in CAD has been known from 1980’s. Several studies investigated the innate immunity and adaptive immunity roles in atherosclerosis and they concluded that it plays a key role in atherosclerosis. Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG is a widely used method for the treatment of CAD. Based on the literature, CABG is the most common surgical operation done worldwide. In During the first 10 years after CABG, up to 50% of saphenous grafts will occlude. Graft restenosis is beginning with acute thrombosis, intima hyperplasia, and plaque formation. In this review, some molecular pathways of graft failure and restenosis such as apoptosis and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B are described.

  3. That Fat Cat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Phyllis Gilchrist

    2012-01-01

    This activity began with a picture book, Nurit Karlin's "Fat Cat On a Mat" (HarperCollins; 1998). The author and her students started their project with a 5-inch circular template for the head of their cats. They reviewed shapes as they drew the head and then added the ears and nose, which were triangles. Details to the face were added when…

  4. Dangers of Belly Fat

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... participants who were overweight or obese according to BMI only. Thin women with fat around the mid- ... for healthier living. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Obesity Weight Control About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Contact Us Get ...

  5. ACL Reconstruction: Choosing the Graft

    OpenAIRE

    CERULLI, GIULIANO; Placella, Giacomo; Sebastiani, Enrico; Tei, Matteo Maria; Speziali, Andrea; Manfreda, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    Rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament is one of the most common ligament injuries in sports traumatology. The need for surgical anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction is justified by its anatomical characteristics. Key considerations when choosing a graft include the potential for bone integration and the risk of failure. Bone sclerosis around the tunnel affects the integration of the graft. For this reason, one aspect upon which orthopedic surgeons should focus is the biology of the b...

  6. Vascular graft infections with Mycoplasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levi-Mazloum, Niels Donald; Skov Jensen, J; Prag, J; Eiberg, J; Jørgensen, J; Schroeder, T V

    1995-01-01

    Vascular graft infection is one of the most serious complications in vascular surgery. It is associated with mortality rates ranging from 25% to 75% and with morbidity in the form of amputation in approximately 30% of patients. Staphylococcus aureus is the leading pathogen. With conventional laboratory techniques, the percentage of culture-negative yet grossly infected vascular grafts seems to be increasing and is not adequately explained by the prior use of antibiotics. We have recently reporte...

  7. Invisible fats: sensory assessment of sugar/fat mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewnowski, A; Schwartz, M

    1990-06-01

    Fifty normal-weight college females tasted and rated 15 stimuli resembling cake frostings and composed of sucrose (20-77% weight/weight), butter (15-35% weight/weight), polydextrose and distilled water. Sweetness intensity ratings rose as a function of sucrose levels. In contrast, ratings of fat content were only poorly related to stimulus fat. Rather, the perception of fat depended on stimulus texture and was a combined function of fat, polydextrose and water. Increasing sucrose levels suppressed fatness ratings: sweeter stimuli were judged to be lower in fat content. The finding that sugar masks the sensory assessment of fats in some solid foods may help explain why so many sweet, high-fat desserts are commonly viewed as carbohydrate-rich foods. The acceptability of the frostings was a combined function of both sucrose and fat levels. Hedonic response profiles to sucrose solutions in water predicted sensory preferences for sweet frostings containing 15% fat, but not those containing 35% fat. PMID:2369116

  8. Radiation grafting of methyl methacrylate on radiation crosslinked natural rubber film. Part 1. Grafting conditions and grafting yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grafting of methyl methacrylate (MMA) on radiation crosslinked natural rubber (NR) film has been investigated by mutual radiation grafting. The effect of experimental parameters like radiation dose, dose-rate, additives like acids and inorganic salts, solvents, monomer concentration, cross-linking density of the natural rubber film on the grafting extent has been studied.From the kinetic studies, a kinetic equation showing almost parabolic and linear dependence of grafting on concentration and dose rate, respectively, was deduced.Preliminary thermal stability studies of grafted films indicated that grafting of MMA does not enhance the thermal stability of NR. (author)

  9. [Plaque surgery for Peyronie's disease: heterologous grafts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradiso, Matteo; Sedigh, Omid; Milan, Gian Luca

    2003-06-01

    Surgical treatment of Induratio Penis Plastica includes conservative procedures (phalloplasty), substitutive procedures (prosthesis) and combined procedures (phalloplasty plus prosthesis). Our policy for conservative treatment is based on radical removal of the plaque and replacement with biological patches. During a 15 year experience we employed lyophilized dura mater, autologous dermal graft, preputial skin, cadaveric dermal graft (AlloDerm), venous graft and porcine SIS (Small Intestine Submucosa) graft. Our experience confirms the superiority of venous grafts, but preliminary results with SIS grafts are encouraging. PMID:12868152

  10. The trochanteric fat pad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Panettiere

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Technological developments based on the use of autologous white adipose tissue (WAT attracted attention to minor fat depots as possible sources of adipose tissue. In plastic surgery, the trochanteric fatty pad is one of the most used WAT depots for its location and organoleptic characteristics that make it particularly suitable for reconstructive procedures. Despite its wide use in clinic, the structure of this depot has never been studied in detail and it is not known if structural differences exist among trochanteric fat and other subcutaneous WAT depots. The present study was performed on trochanteric fat pad with the aim to clarify the morphology of its adipocytes, stroma and microcirculation, with particular reference to the stem niches. Histological and ultrastructural studies showed that the main peculiar feature of the trochanteric fat concerns its stromal component, which appears less dense than in the other subcutaneous WATs studied. The intra-parenchymal collagen stroma is poor and the extracellular compartment shows large spaces, filled with electron-light material, in which isolated collagen bundles are present. The adipocytes are wrapped in weak and easily detachable collagen baskets. These connective sheaths are very thin compared to the sheaths in other subcutaneous WAT depots. The capillaries are covered by large, long and thin elements surrounded by an external lamina; these perivascular cells are poor in organelles and mainly contain poly-ribosomes. In conclusion, when compared to other WAT deposits, the trochanteric fatty pad shows structural peculiarities in its stroma and microcirculation suggesting a high regenerative potential. Resistance, dissociability, microvascular weft and high regenerative potential make the trochanteric fatty pad a privileged source for harvesting in autologous WAT-based regenerative procedures.

  11. Cerebral fat embolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A case of cerebral fat embolism is reported. A 18-year-old patient with multiple bone fractures was in semiconma immediately after an injury. Brain CT showed no brain swelling or intracranial hematoma. Hypoxemia and alcoholemia were noted on admission, which returned to normal without improvement of consciousness level. In addition, respiratory symptoms with positive radiographic changes, tachycardia, pyrexia, sudden drop in hemoglobin level, and sudden thrombocytopenia developed. These symptoms were compatible with Gurd's criteria of systemic fat embolism. Eight days after injury, multiple low density areas appeared on CT and disappeared within the subsequent two weeks, and subdural effusion with cerebral atrophy developed. These CT findings were not considered due to cerebral trauma. Diagnosis of cerebral fat embolism was made. The subdural effusion was drained. Neurologic and pulmonary recoveries took place slowly and one month following the injury the patient became alert and exhibited fully coordinated limb movement. The CT scans of the present case well corresponded with hitherto reported pathological findings. Petechiae in the white matter must have developed on the day of injury, which could not be detected by CT examination. It is suggested that some petechial regions fused to purpuras and then gradually resolved when they were detected as multiple low density areas on CT. CT in the purpuras phase would have shown these lesions as high density areas. These lesions must have healed with formation of tiny scars and blood pigment which were demonstrated as the disappearance of multiple low density areas by CT examination. Cerebral atrophy and subsequent subdural effusion developed as a result of demyelination. The patient took the typical clinical course of cerebral fat embolism and serial CT scans served for its assessment. (author)

  12. Do we taste fat?

    OpenAIRE

    Laugerette, Fabienne; Gaillard, Dany; Degrace-Passilly, Patricia; Niot, Isabelle; Besnard, Philippe

    2006-01-01

    Sense of taste informs the body about the quality of ingested foods. Five sub-modalities allowing the perception of sweet, salty, sour, bitter, and umami stimuli are classically depicted. However, the inborn attraction of mammals for fatty foods raises the possibility of an additional oro-sensory modality devoted to fat perception. During a long time, dietary lipids were thought to be detected only by trigeminal (texture perception), retronasal olfactory, and post-ingestive cues. This minirev...

  13. Body fat, abdominal fat and body fat distribution related to cardiovascular risk factors in prepubertal children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, Magnus; Wollmer, Per; Karlsson, Magnus K; Lindén, Christian; Andersen, Lars B; Thorsson, Ola

    2012-01-01

    Aim:? We analysed whether total body fat (TBF), abdominal fat and body fat distribution are associated with higher composite risk factor scores for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in young children. Methods:? Cross-sectional study of 238 children aged 8-11?years. TBF and abdominal fat mass (AFM) were measured by Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry. TBF was expressed as a percentage of body weight (BF%). Body fat distribution was calculated as AFM/TBF. Maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2PEAK) ), systolic and d...

  14. Plant grafting: new mechanisms, evolutionary implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldschmidt, Eliezer E

    2014-01-01

    Grafting, an old plant propagation practice, is still widely used with fruit trees and in recent decades also with vegetables. Taxonomic proximity is a general prerequisite for successful graft-take and long-term survival of the grafted, composite plant. However, the mechanisms underlying interspecific graft incompatibility are as yet insufficiently understood. Hormonal signals, auxin in particular, are believed to play an important role in the wound healing and vascular regeneration within the graft union zone. Incomplete and convoluted vascular connections impede the vital upward and downward whole plant transfer routes. Long-distance protein, mRNA and small RNA graft-transmissible signals currently emerge as novel mechanisms which regulate nutritional and developmental root/top relations and may play a pivotal role in grafting physiology. Grafting also has significant pathogenic projections. On one hand, stock to scion mechanical contact enables the spread of diseases, even without a complete graft union. But, on the other hand, grafting onto resistant rootstocks serves as a principal tool in the management of fruit tree plagues and vegetable soil-borne diseases. The 'graft hybrid' historic controversy has not yet been resolved. Recent evidence suggests that epigenetic modification of DNA-methylation patterns may account for certain graft-transformation phenomena. Root grafting is a wide spread natural phenomenon; both intraspecific and interspecific root grafts have been recorded. Root grafts have an evolutionary role in the survival of storm-hit forest stands as well as in the spread of devastating diseases. A more fundamental evolutionary role is hinted by recent findings that demonstrate plastid and nuclear genome transfer between distinct Nicotiana species in the graft union zone, within a tissue culture system. This has led to the formation of alloploid cells that, under laboratory conditions, gave rise to a novel, alloploid Nicotiana species, indicating that natural grafts may play a role in plant speciation, under certain circumstances. PMID:25566298

  15. Radiation grafting of acrylamide onto polystyrene beads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiation grafting of acrylamide onto polystyrene beads by peroxide has been studied and the ability for binding immunoglobulin onto chemically-treated grafted beads has been determined. The results show that the grafting reaction basically completes in three hours. At about 60 deg C of grafting reaction temperature the grafting level is the highest. The grafing level is higher in low dose rate than in high dose rate when the total dose is the same. The grafting level is increased with the increasing of irradiation dose and monomer contcentration. The half-life of the peroxide produced on polystyrene beads is about 50 hours under ambient temperature. It is found that the ability for binding immunoglobulin by chemically-treated grafted beads is higher than untreated beads and the ability is increased with the increasing of grafting level

  16. Graft healing in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

    OpenAIRE

    Chen Chih-Hwa

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Successful anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with a tendon graft necessitates solid healing of the tendon graft in the bone tunnel. Improvement of graft healing to bone is crucial for facilitating an early and aggressive rehabilitation and ensuring rapid return to pre-injury levels activity. Tendon graft healing in a bone tunnel requires bone ingrowth into the tendon. Indirect Sharpey fiber formation and direct fibrocartilage fixation confer different anchorage strength and i...

  17. Vascular Grafting Strategies in Coronary Intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Knight, Darryl K.; Gillies, Elizabeth R.; Mequanint, Kibret

    2014-01-01

    With the growing need for coronary revascularizations globally, several strategies to restore blood flow to the heart have been explored. Bypassing the atherosclerotic coronary arteries with autologous grafts, synthetic prostheses, and tissue-engineered vascular grafts continue to be evaluated in search of a readily available vascular graft with clinically acceptable outcomes. The development of such a vascular graft including tissue engineering approaches both in situ and in vitro is herein ...

  18. Costal Cartilage Grafts in Rhinoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedok, Fred G

    2016-01-01

    Cartilage grafts are regularly used in rhinoplasty. Septal and auricular donor sites are commonly used. Many situations compel the surgeon to use other alternative donor sites, including revision rhinoplasty and trauma. Many patients have a small amount of native septal cartilage and are unable to provide adequate septal cartilage to be used for frequently performed rhinoplasty maneuvers. The rib cage provides an enormous reserve of costal cartilage that can be carved into a variety of necessary grafts. A description of the technique of harvesting costal cartilage, a review of complications and management, and illustrative cases examples are included. PMID:26616708

  19. New variant for whole pancreas grafting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new variant for whole pancreas grafting is described in which a segment of the duodenum and the spleen is included in the graft. The graft is placed extraperitoneally as in kidney transplantation. The exocrine drainage is with side-to-side anastomosis between duodenum and bladder. The spleen is irradiated to prevent the occurrence of GVHD, as is reported in splenic transplantation

  20. Grafting efficiency of synthetic polymers onto biomaterials: a comparative study of grafting-from versus grafting-to.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansson, Susanne; Trouillet, Vanessa; Tischer, Thomas; Goldmann, Anja S; Carlmark, Anna; Barner-Kowollik, Christopher; Malmström, Eva

    2013-01-14

    In the present study, the two grafting techniques grafting-from - by activators regenerated by electron transfer atom transfer radical polymerization (ARGET ATRP) - and grafting-to - by copper(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) - were systematically compared, employing cellulose as a substrate. In order to obtain a meaningful comparison, it is crucial that the graft lengths of the polymers that are grafted from and to the substrates are essentially identical. Herein, this was achieved by utilizing the free polymer formed in parallel to the grafting-from reaction as the polymer for the grafting-to reaction. Four graft lengths were investigated, and the molar masses of the four free polymers (21 ? M(n) ? 100 kDa; 1.07 ? ?(M) ? 1.26), i.e. the polymers subsequently employed in the grafting-to reaction, were shown to be in the same range as the molar masses of the polymers grafted from the surface (23 ? M(n) ? 87 kDa; 1.08 ? ?(M) ? 1.31). The molecular weights of the chains grafted from the surface were established after cleavage from the cellulose substrates via size exclusion chromatography (SEC). High-resolution Fourier transform infrared microscopy (FT-IRM) was employed as an efficient tool to study the spatial distribution of the polymer content on the grafted substrates. In addition, the functionalized substrates were analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), contact angle (CA) measurements, and field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). For cellulose substrates modified via the grafting-from approach, the content of polymer on the surfaces increased with increasing graft length, confirming the possibility to tailor not only the length of the polymer grafts but also the polymeric content on the surface. In comparison, for the grafting-to reaction, the grafted content could not be controlled by varying the length of the preformed polymer: the polymer content was essentially the same for the four graft lengths. Consequently, the obtained results, when employing cellulose as a substrate and under these conditions, suggest that the grafting-from approach is superior to the grafting-to technique with respect to controlling the distribution of the polymeric content on the surface. PMID:23043441

  1. [Rehabilitation of facial paralysis using autogenous fascia lata graft. Stable results over time].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graillon, N; Colson, T; Bardot, J

    2015-10-01

    Dynamic facial reanimation with free muscle or nerve transfers represents the mainstay of facial paralysis treatments particularly for perioral area and smile. These techniques are not always feasible, in such cases we perform a perioral suspension with fascia lata graft. However many teams blame this technique for short-term recurrence of the deformity. We describe in this paper details of our surgical technique, to improve the aesthetic result and stability over time, and the results and complications encountered. Fascia lata graft was sutured beyond the midline to the contralateral healthy lips, after tunneling through upper and lower orbicularis oris. Fascia lata graft was then tunneled through the buccal fat pad, then under the zygomatic arch to the temporal region, where the temporal aponeurosis was incised to make way for the fascia lata graft, which was fixed to the outer face of the temporal aponeurosis, applying slight overcorrection to the oral commissure. From 2003 to 2012, we performed this procedure on 8 patients. Results showed an immediate aesthetic improvement, stable over time. Perioral suspension with fascia lata graft is a surgical alternative when dynamic reanimation is not feasible. PMID:26143047

  2. The Supersymmetric Fat Higgs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supersymmetric models have traditionally been assumed to be perturbative up to high scales due to the requirement of calculable unification. In this note I review the recently proposed 'Fat Higgs' model which relaxes the requirement of perturbativity. In this framework, an NMSSM-like trilinear coupling becomes strong at some intermediate scale. The NMSSM Higgses are meson composites of an asymptotically-free gauge theory. This allows us to raise the mass of the Higgs, thus alleviating the MSSM of its fine tuning problem. Despite the strong coupling at an intermediate scale, the UV completion allows us to maintain gauge coupling unification.

  3. What’s fat activism?

    OpenAIRE

    Cooper, Charlotte Rachel Mary

    2008-01-01

    In 21st century Western culture, obesity is such a maligned state of being that the notion of fat activism is unthinkable to most people. "Fat" and "activist" are not words that sit together well in the popular imagination. The idea of activism suggests a dynamic engagement with public life that could not be further from couch potato stereotypes associated with fat people, or popular paradigms which typify "the obese" as innately unwholesome, passive recipients of pity and inte...

  4. Radiation Induced Graft Copolymerization of Polyvinyl Alcohol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to improve the properties of polyvinyl alcohol films and fibres, the graft copolymerization of various vinyl monomers to polyvinyl alcohol films by gamma ray irradiation was investigated. When thin films of polyvinyl alcohol were irradiated in a large excess of styrene no graft copolymerization was observed. With films containing more than 5% water the grafting proceeded smoothly. The highest value of styrene grafted was about 1,000% at a dose of 7X106r. The presence of water in the monomer solution was found to increase considerably the amount of grafted monomer. Methyl methacrylate behaved similarly to styrene in the grafting to polyvinyl alcohol films, the presence of a certain amount of water being essential. The efficiency of the grafting of methyl methacrylate was generally larger than that of the grafting of styrene. The highest value of the grafted methyl methacrylate was 4,000% and obtained at a dose of 5 X 105 r. Some experiments were carried out with acrylonitrile and vinyl acetate but compared with styrene and methyl methacrylate the efficiencies of the grafting of these monomers were not so high. The degree of swelling of the graft copolymers of polyvinyl-alcohol-styrene or methyl methacrylate in organic solvents was measured at 30oC. The relation between the degree of swelling and the percentage of monomer grafted was given by (degree of swelling %) = k (monomer grafted %)n. For polymers grafted with styrene n = 1, but for those grafted with methyl methacrylate n < 1. n and k have characteristic values which depend on the solvents used. (author)

  5. Treatment of oroantral fistula with autologous bone graft and application of a non-reabsorbable membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adele Scattarella, Andrea Ballini, Felice Roberto Grassi, Andrea Carbonara, Francesco Ciccolella, Angela Dituri, Gianna Maria Nardi, Stefania Cantore, Francesco Pettini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the current report is to illustrate an alternative technique for the treatment of oroantral fistula (OAF, using an autologous bone graft integrated by xenologous particulate bone graft.Background: Acute and chronic oroantral communications (OAC, OAF can occur as a result of inadequate treatment. In fact surgical procedures into the maxillary posterior area can lead to inadvertent communication with the maxillary sinus. Spontaneous healing can occur in defects smaller than 3 mm while larger communications should be treated without delay, in order to avoid sinusitis. The most used techniques for the treatment of OAF involve buccal flap, palatal rotation - advancement flap, Bichat fat pad. All these surgical procedures are connected with a significant risk of morbidity of the donor site, infections, avascular flap necrosis, impossibility to repeat the surgical technique after clinical failure, and patient discomfort.Case presentation: We report a 65-years-old female patient who came to our attention for the presence of an OAF and was treated using an autologous bone graft integrated by xenologous particulate bone graft. An expanded polytetrafluoroethylene titanium-reinforced membrane (Gore-Tex ® was used in order to obtain an optimal reconstruction of soft tissues and to assure the preservation of the bone graft from epithelial connection.Conclusions: This surgical procedure showed a good stability of the bone grafts, with a complete resolution of the OAF, optimal management of complications, including patient discomfort, and good regeneration of soft tissues.Clinical significance: The principal advantage of the use of autologous bone graft with an expanded polytetrafluoroethylene titanium-reinforced membrane (Gore-Tex ® to guide the bone regeneration is that it assures a predictable healing and allows a possible following implant-prosthetic rehabilitation.

  6. Autologous Bone-Marrow-Derived-Mononuclear-Cells-Enriched Fat Transplantation in Breast Augmentation: Evaluation of Clinical Outcomes and Aesthetic Results in a 30-Year-Old Female

    OpenAIRE

    Dmitry Bulgin; Erik Vrabic; Enes Hodzic

    2013-01-01

    Autologous fat transfer (lipofilling) is becoming an invaluable tool for breast augmentation as well as for breast reconstruction. Autologous lipofilling has several advantages, including biocompatibility, versatility, natural appearance, and low donor site morbidity. The main limitation is unpredictable fat graft resorption, which ranges from 25% to 80%, probably as a result of ischaemia and lack of neoangiogenesis. To obviate these disadvantages, several studies have searched for new ways o...

  7. Homogeneous cation exchange membrane by radiation grafting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preparation of a strong cation exchange membrane by radiation grafting of styrene on to polyethylene (LDPE) film by mutual irradiation technique in the presence of air followed by sulfonation is described. The grafting has been carried out in the presence of air and without any additive. Low dose rate has been seen to facilitate the grafting. Further higher the grafting percentage more is the exchange capacity. The addition of a swelling agent during the sulfonation helped in achieving the high exchange capacity. The TGA-MASS analysis confirmed the grafting and the sulfonation. (author)

  8. Evaluation of the graft flow reserve after coronary artery bypass grafting by stress {sup 201}Tl myocardial SPECT. Comparison between arterial grafts and venous grafts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ichikawa, Akihiro; Taki, Junichi; Nakajima, Kenichi; Kawasuji, Michio; Tonami, Norihisa [Kanazawa Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1997-01-01

    We performed stress {sup 201}Tl myocardial SPECT to evaluate ischemia and perfusion reserve after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). A total of 103 patients was performed stress {sup 201}Tl myocardial SPECT one month after CABG. Each patient`s myocardium was divided into 9 segments and visually evaluated using five grade scoring system (0=defect, 1=severe decrease, 2=moderate decrease, 3=mild decrease, 4=normal uptake). Eleven of 133 (8.27%) segments covered by patent venous grafts showed reversible {sup 201}Tl defect, however, 36 of 117 (30.8%) segments which covered by patent arterial grafts showed reversible {sup 201}Tl defect. This finding was observed more significantly in arterial grafts than in venous grafts (p<0.001). These finding suggests that arterial grafts have lower flow capacity than venous grafts at peak exercise. (author)

  9. Hydrophilic Silicone Resins Obtained by Radiation Grafting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    N-vinylpyrrolidone was grafted radiochemically on a silicone resin by pre-irradiation in the presence of oxygen. Under these conditions, peroxide groups capable of initiating radical copolymerization are formed. The trapped radicals do not seem to make any contribution. An RTV (Room Temperature Vulcanization) type silicone resin was used, i. e. a poly(dimethylsiloxane) crosslinked by vinyl-silane bonds. The unsaturated product was transparent. The silicones containing phenyl groups as well as saturated resins were also studied. Irradiation with 60Co gamma rays was performed in the 10-kCi irradiator of the Radiation Applications Group (GAR) at Saclay. Brief pre-irradiation tests with an electron accelerator were also performed. The amount of polyvinylpyrrolidone(PVP) grafted depends on the pre-irradiation dose and dose-rate as well as on the temperature and duration of the grafting proper. These different parameters were analysed. The grafting efficiency of PVP can be as much as 60%. The grafted copolymers are more or less opaque and coloured sections show that grafting remains peripheral. The transparency can be restored by immersion in water. The swelling in water is such that the ratio of absorbed water to grafted PVP varies between 0.8 and 1.5. When the grafting efficiency is higher than 50%, it is observed that the grafted PVP redissolves after swelling. The redissolving is due to the breaking of the grafted chains. For grafting rates below 30%, the grafted PVP silicones have notably high thermal stability. Examination of some properties of the grafted PVP silicones shows the additive nature of the properties of the grafted copolymers. Reference is made to the possible applications of these products, especially in biology and medicine. (author)

  10. Percentage Energy from Fat Screener

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 1996, RFMMB staff developed a short assessment instrument to estimate an individual's usual intake of percentage energy from fat. The foods asked about on the instrument were selected because they were the most important predictors of variability in percentage energy from fat among adults in USDA's 1989-91 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes of Individuals (CSFII).

  11. Signal transduction by the Fat cytoplasmic domain

    OpenAIRE

    Pan, Guohui; Feng, Yongqiang; Ambegaonkar, Abhijit A.; Sun, Gongping; Huff, Matthew; Rauskolb, Cordelia; Irvine, Kenneth D.

    2013-01-01

    The large atypical cadherin Fat is a receptor for both Hippo and planar cell polarity (PCP) pathways. Here we investigate the molecular basis for signal transduction downstream of Fat by creating targeted alterations within a genomic construct that contains the entire fat locus, and by monitoring and manipulating the membrane localization of the Fat pathway component Dachs. We establish that the human Fat homolog FAT4 lacks the ability to transduce Hippo signaling in Drosophila, but can trans...

  12. How much dietary fat in therapeutic nutrition?

    OpenAIRE

    Simko, V.

    1990-01-01

    Dietary fat has a less prominent role in realimentation than the alternate source of energy, carbohydrate. Presently available therapeutic diets, in typical feeding routines, provide only 3 to 120 g of fat per day. Three major factors contribute to fat underutilization: long-standing belief that fat is to blame for various vague symptoms of indigestion, misconception that daily fecal fat in excess of 7 g represents bowel dysfunction, and fear of fat-induced atherogenesis. None of these apply ...

  13. Resisting body dissatisfaction: fat women who endorse fat acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinley, Nita Mary

    2004-05-01

    Fat women who endorsed fat acceptance (N=128) were recruited from Radiance Magazine. Relationships between objectified body consciousness (OBC), body esteem, and psychological well-being for the mostly European American sample were similar to those found in other samples. OBC was independently related to body esteem when weight dissatisfaction was controlled. Those who endorsed the need for social change in attitudes towards fat people had higher body esteem and self-acceptance, and lower body shame, than those who endorsed personal acceptance of body size only. PMID:18089154

  14. Hybrid Graft Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: A Predictable Graft for Knee Stabilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Pinzon, Andres M; Barksdale, Leticia; Krill, Michael K; Leo, Brian M

    2015-06-01

    Trauma to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is a season-ending injury and involves months of activity modification and rehabilitation. The annual incidence of ACL tears in the United States is approximately 200,000, which allows for a broad range of individualized treatment options. Various surgical techniques, including transtibial and independent tunnel drilling, allograft and autograft tissue, and various implants, have been described in the literature. This article describes the indications and technique for a hybrid soft tissue graft for ACL reconstruction. Autologous grafts eliminate the risk of disease transmission and have recently been shown to have a lower rerupture rate, particularly in younger, active patients; however, the harvesting of autologous hamstring grafts carries a risk of donor-site morbidity, iatrogenic injury of the graft, and inadequate graft size. In contrast to a traditional autologous soft tissue graft, the hybrid graft allows for graft size customization for a desired reconstruction, especially in cases where autograft hamstrings may be iatrogenically damaged or of inadequate size when harvested. The goal of a hybrid graft ACL reconstruction is to provide a favorable-sized graft with clinical outcomes comparable with autologous soft tissue grafts. In contrast to a traditional autologous soft tissue graft, this technique provides another option in the event of unforeseen deficiencies or complications associated with harvesting and preparation of the autologous gracilis and semitendinosis soft tissue graft. PMID:26091219

  15. Radiation sterilization of tissue grafts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Tissue Bank at the Tata Memorial Hospital was started in 1989 in collaboration with the Department of Atomic Energy, Government of India, as part of an IAEA project to promote the use of nuclear technology for peaceful purposes. The Bank produces freeze dried, gamma irradiated allografts such as skin, amniotic membrane, dura mater, fascia lata, bone blocks/chips/dust, iliac crest, femoral heads and ribs. Tissues are harvested from cadavers or obtained secondary to surgical procedures. After processing, the grafts are exposed to 25 kGy of gamma radiation. The grafts have found use in a variety of clinical conditions like burns, non-union fractures, periodontal osseous defects and surgical reconstructions. (author)

  16. Micro- and Nanostructured Polymer Grafts

    OpenAIRE

    Steenackers, Marin

    2010-01-01

    The main aim of this work was the development of new strategies for the preparation of chemically stable micro- and nanostructured polymer grafts on various substrates. These new nanomaterials may open new perspectives in various fundamental and applied research areas such as sensor technologies, biomedicine, nanofluidics, nano-optics, biochip technologies and microelectronics. We have chosen for a two step strategy. First, the substrate is structured by electron beam lithography. In the seco...

  17. Acute graft versus host disease

    OpenAIRE

    Vogelsang Georgia B; Jacobsohn David A

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) occurs after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant and is a reaction of donor immune cells against host tissues. Activated donor T cells damage host epithelial cells after an inflammatory cascade that begins with the preparative regimen. About 35%–50% of hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients will develop acute GVHD. The exact risk is dependent on the stem cell source, age of the patient, conditioning, and GVHD prophylaxis ...

  18. Evaluation of early coronary graft patency after coronary artery bypass graft surgery using multislice computed tomography angiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raissi Kamal

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG surgery is the standard of care in the treatment of advanced coronary artery disease, and its long-term results are affected by the failure of bypass grafts. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the early patency rate in coronary bypass grafts. Methods A total of 107 consecutive patients who underwent CABG were included in this study. Early graft patency was evaluated via computed tomography (CT angiography in the first week after surgery. Results There were a total of 366 grafts, comprised of 250 venous grafts and 116 arterial grafts. Multi-slice CT detected acute graft occlusions in 32 (8.7% of all the grafts, including 26 (10% of the 250 venous grafts and 6 (5% of the 116 arterial grafts. The patency rates obtained were 97.3% for the left internal mammary (IMA grafts, 50% for the radial artery grafts, and 50% for the right IMA grafts. Additionally, 107 (96.4% grafts to the left anterior descending artery (LAD were classified as patent, whereas 1 (30% of the 3 grafts in the left circumflex (LCX region and 1 (50% of the 2 grafts in the right coronary artery (RCA territory were found to be occluded. In the venous category, 8 (13.7% of the 58 grafts to LAD were found to be occluded. In the LCX region, 9 (8.5% of the 106 grafts were classified as occluded, while the remaining 97 (91.5% grafts were patent. The venous grafts to RCA were occluded in 9 (10.4% of the 86 grafts. Amongst the multiple preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative factors, pump time was significantly longer in the patients with occluded grafts than in those with patent grafts (P = 0.04. Conclusion The IMA grafts had the highest early patency rate amongst the coronary bypass grafts. However, the other arterial grafts were associated with a high rate of acute occlusions.

  19. Detection of patent coronary bypass grafts by digital subtraction angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nine aortocoronary bypass graft patients were evaluated by a digital subtraction angiography (DSA) with intravenously administered contrast media to determine graft patency. DSA correctly identified 14 of 15 patent grafts and all of 3 occluded grafts. We conclude that DSA is a new promising relatively noninvasive method for determining patency of aortocoronary bypass graft. (author)

  20. Study on polyethylene films grafted with vinyl acetate and ethyl methacrylate by radiation grafting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low density polyethylene (LDPE) films were grafted with a vinyl acetate (VAc) and ethyl methacrylate (EMA) commoner mixture by radiation using a 60Co gamma source. IR spectra and x-ray diffraction (XRD) for the original PE matrix and for the graft copolymers were studied. Electrical conductivity and thermal properties of the prepared grafted materials were also measured. XRD results showed that poly(vinyl acetate/ethyl methacrylate) P(VAc/EMA) graft chains cause a decrease in the crystallinity of the PE polymer substrate. The changes in thermal parameters such as melting (Tm) and crystallization (Tc) temperatures and heats of melting (?Hm) and crystallization (?Hc) of the graft copolymers were followed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and for thermal stability by TGA. These thermal parameters of PE were influenced by grafting, with VAc and EMA and depended on the percent grafting, which reflected the change in crystallinity due to formation of branches via the grafted chains. (author)

  1. Fixation of tibial plateau fractures with synthetic bone graft versus natural bone graft: a comparison study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ong, J C Y

    2012-06-01

    The goal of this study was to determine differences in fracture stability and functional outcome between synthetic bone graft and natural bone graft with internal fixation of tibia plateau metaphyseal defects.

  2. The effect of total arterial grafting on medium-term outcomes following coronary artery bypass grafting

    OpenAIRE

    Buth Karen J; Hassan Ansar; Légaré Jean-Francois; Sullivan John A

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background While it is believed that total arterial grafting (TAG) for coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) confers improved long-term outcomes when compared to conventional grafting with left internal mammary artery and saphenous vein grafts (LIMA+SVG), to date, this has not become the standard of care. In this study, we assessed the impact of TAG on medium-term outcomes after CABG. Methods Peri-operative data was prospectively collected on consecutive first-time, isolated CABG pa...

  3. Electrokinetic properties of commercial vascular grafts

    OpenAIRE

    Indest, Tea; Strnad, Simona; Stana-Kleinschek, Karin; Ribitsch, Volker; Fras, Lidija

    2012-01-01

    The surface morphology and chemical composition (the presence or absence of surface functional groups) of commercial vascular grafts? surfaces are significant for their interaction abilities with components of polar liquids. This can also be assumed as correct for grafts-blood interactions. In this paper we studied the adsorption characteristics of different grafts? surfaces using an electrokinetic measurement technique. A comparative study was performed on woven, knitted polyethylene terepht...

  4. Body fat, abdominal fat and body fat distribution related to VO(2PEAK) in young children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, Magnus; Wollmer, Per

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective. Aerobic fitness, defined as maximum oxygen uptake (VO(2PEAK)), and body fat measurements represent two known risk factors for disease. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between VO(2PEAK) and body fat measurements in young children at a population-based level. Methods. Cross-sectional study of 225 children (128 boys and 97 girls) aged 8-11 years, recruited from a population-based cohort. Total lean body mass (LBM), total fat mass (TBF), and abdominal fat mass (AFM) were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Body fat was also calculated as a percentage of body mass (BF%) and body fat distribution as AFM/TBF. VO(2PEAK) was assessed by indirect calorimetry during maximal exercise test. Results. Significant relationships existed between body fat measurements and VO(2PEAK) in both boys and girls, with Pearson correlation coefficients for absolute values of VO(2PEAK) (0.22-0.36, P<0.05), and for VO(2PEAK) scaled by body mass (-0.38 - -0.70, P

  5. Determination of Fat Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Charles

    The term "lipid" refers to a group of compounds that are sparingly soluble in water, but show variable solubility in a number of organic solvents (e.g., ethyl ether, petroleum ether, acetone, ethanol, methanol, benzene). The lipid content of a food determined by extraction with one solvent may be quite different from the lipid content as determined with another solvent of different polarity. Fat content is determined often by solvent extraction methods (e.g., Soxhlet, Goldfish, Mojonnier), but it also can be determined by nonsolvent wet extraction methods (e.g., Babcock, Gerber), and by instrumental methods that rely on the physical and chemical properties of lipids (e.g., infrared, density, X-ray absorption). The method of choice depends on a variety of factors, including the nature of the sample (e.g., dry versus moist), the purpose of the analysis (e.g., official nutrition labeling or rapid quality control), and instrumentation available (e.g., Babcock uses simple glassware and equipment; infrared requires an expensive instrument).

  6. Membrane rigidity induced by grafted polymer brush.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Zhen; Yang, Shuang; Chen, Er-Qiang

    2015-02-01

    The contribution of neutral polymer brush to the curvature elasticity of the grafting surface is investigated theoretically. Using self-consistent field theory, we accurately evaluate the dependence of bending modulus on parameters including chain length, Flory-Huggins parameter and grafting density and reveal the importance of solvent. The results show that the brush-induced bending modulus follows a complex dependence on grafting density and Flory-Huggins parameter, while it obeys a simple power law with chain length as N(3). The method is further applied to calculate the polymer brush's contribution to the elastic properties of PEG-grafted lipid monolayers. PMID:25575082

  7. The autologus graft of epithelial tissue culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minaee B

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available With the intention of research about culture and autologus graft of epithelial tissue we used 4 french Albino Rabbits with an average age of 2 months. After reproduction on the support in EMEM (Eagle's Minimum Essential Medium we used this for graft after 4 weeks. This region which grafted total replaced. After fixation of this sample and passing them through various process, histological sections were prepared. These sections were stained with H & E and masson's trichrome and studied by light microscope. We succeeded in graft. We hope in the near future by using the method of epithelium tissue culture improving to treat burned patients.

  8. Nuclear accidents and bone marrow graft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In case of serious contamination, the only efficacious treatment is the bone marrow grafts. The graft types and conditions have been explained. To restrict the nuclear accidents consequences, it is recommended to: - take osseous medulla of the personnel exposed to radiations and preserve it , that permits to carry out rapidly the auto-graft in case of accidents; - determine, beforehand, the HLA group of the personnel; - to register the voluntary donors names and addresses, and their HLA group, that permits to find easily a compatible donar in case of allo-graft. (author)

  9. Big, Fat World of Lipids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Science Home Page The Big, Fat World of Lipids By Emily Carlson Posted August 9, 2012 Cholesterol ... ways to diagnose and treat lipid-related conditions. Lipid Encyclopedia Just as genomics and proteomics spurred advances ...

  10. Body fat, abdominal fat and body fat distribution related to VO(2PEAK) in young children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, Magnus; Wollmer, Per; Karlsson, Magnus K; Lindén, Christian; Andersen, Lars Bo; Thorsson, Ola

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective. Aerobic fitness, defined as maximum oxygen uptake (VO(2PEAK)), and body fat measurements represent two known risk factors for disease. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between VO(2PEAK) and body fat measurements in young children at a population-based level. Methods. Cross-sectional study of 225 children (128 boys and 97 girls) aged 8-11 years, recruited from a population-based cohort. Total lean body mass (LBM), total fat mass (TBF), and abdomina...

  11. Industrial application of electron beams for grafting and vulcanization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The topics discussed are radiation graft polymerization; industrial application of radiation grafting - ion exchange membrane for a battery separator, ammonia adsorbent, non-flammable PE (polyethylene) foam; R and D on radiation grafting, radiation vulcanization of natural rubber

  12. Fat Replacers in Meat Products

    OpenAIRE

    Ozlem Tokusoglu; M. Kemal Unal

    2003-01-01

    There is a great interest regarding demand for foods with health enhancing properties as low-fat meat products due to the human health and nutrition correlation. Various aspects of interest relating to product design and fat reducing strategy has been reported. These aspects concerning nutritional, sensory, technological, safety, appreciation, legal and cost procedures are important to a improved new product design. Due to their different texture properties, processing conditions and differen...

  13. What Are the Types of Fat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Types of Fat? Most foods contain several different kinds of fat. Some are better for your health than others. It is wise to choose healthier types of fat, and enjoy them in moderation. Keep in mind that even healthier fats contain calories and should ...

  14. Butterfly inlay tympanoplasty: A study in Indian scenario

    OpenAIRE

    Anand, T S; Kathuria, Geeta; Kumar, Sandeep; Wadhwa, Vikram; Pradhan, Tapaswini

    2002-01-01

    Popularly myringoplasty is done by an underlay or an onlay technique using mostly temporalis fascia graft. A new technique of inlay tympanoplasty using composite cartilage perichondrium graft is applied in the present study of 20 patients, for closure of small to medium sized perforations. The results have been analysed in terms of graft take up rate and hearing improvement.

  15. Onlay Bone Grafts in Head and Neck Reconstruction

    OpenAIRE

    Yazar, Sukru

    2010-01-01

    Bone grafts are used in a variety of clinical situations and can be divided into two categories: treatment of bone gaps (inlay bone grafting) and bone projection (onlay bone grafting). Cortical grafts are useful in situations requiring immediate mechanical strength. These grafts can survive with or without complete revascularization or resorption and are primarily used by plastic surgeons in the treatment of bone volume deficiency. Cancellous grafts, in contrast, have no mechanical strength a...

  16. Design and development of multilayer vascular graft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhavan, Krishna

    2011-07-01

    Vascular graft is a widely-used medical device for the treatment of vascular diseases such as atherosclerosis and aneurysm as well as for the use of vascular access and pediatric shunt, which are major causes of mortality and morbidity in this world. Dysfunction of vascular grafts often occurs, particularly for grafts with diameter less than 6mm, and is associated with the design of graft materials. Mechanical strength, compliance, permeability, endothelialization and availability are issues of most concern for vascular graft materials. To address these issues, we have designed a biodegradable, compliant graft made of hybrid multilayer by combining an intimal equivalent, electrospun heparin-impregnated poly-epsilon-caprolactone nanofibers, with a medial equivalent, a crosslinked collagen-chitosan-based gel scaffold. The intimal equivalent is designed to build mechanical strength and stability suitable for in vivo grafting and to prevent thrombosis. The medial equivalent is designed to serve as a scaffold for the activity of the smooth muscle cells important for vascular healing and regeneration. Our results have shown that genipin is a biocompatible crosslinker to enhance the mechanical properties of collagen-chitosan based scaffolds, and the degradation time and the activity of smooth muscle cells in the scaffold can be modulated by the crosslinking degree. For vascular grafting and regeneration in vivo, an important design parameter of the hybrid multilayer is the interface adhesion between the intimal and medial equivalents. With diametrically opposite affinities to water, delamination of the two layers occurs. Physical or chemical modification techniques were thus used to enhance the adhesion. Microscopic examination and graft-relevant functional characterizations have been performed to evaluate these techniques. Results from characterization of microstructure and functional properties, including burst strength, compliance, water permeability and suture strength, showed that the multilayer graft possessed properties mimicking those of native vessels. Achieving these FDA-required functional properties is essential because they play critical roles in graft performances in vivo such as thrombus formation, occlusion, healing, and bleeding. In addition, cell studies and animal studies have been performed on the multilayer graft. Our results show that the multilayer graft support mimetic vascular culture of cells and the acellular graft serves as an artery equivalent in vivo to sustain the physiological conditions and promote appropriate cellular activity. In conclusion, the newly-developed hybrid multilayer graft provides a proper balance of biomechanical and biochemical properties and demonstrates the potential for the use of vascular tissue engineering and regeneration.

  17. Biodegradability of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) film grafted with vinyl acetate: Effect of grafting and saponification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Yuki; Seko, Noriaki; Nagasawa, Naotsugu; Tamada, Masao; Kasuya, Ken-ichi; Mitomo, Hiroshi

    2007-06-01

    Radiation-induced graft polymerization of vinyl acetate (VAc) onto poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) film was carried out. At a degree of grafting higher than 5%, the grafted films (PHB-g-VAc) completely lost the enzymatic degradability that is characteristic of PHB due to the grafted VAc covering the surface of the PHB film. However, the biodegradability of the PHB-g-VAc films was recovered when the films were saponified in alkali solution under optimum conditions. Graft chains of the PHB-g-VAc film reacted selectively to become biodegradable polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). The biodegradability of the saponified PHB-g-VAc film increased rapidly with time.

  18. Biodegradability of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) film grafted with vinyl acetate: Effect of grafting and saponification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wada, Yuki [Department of Biological and Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Gunma University, 1-5-1 Tenjin-cho, Kiryu, Gunma 376-8515 (Japan)]. E-mail: wada.yuki@jaea.go.jp; Seko, Noriaki [Environment and Industrial Materials Research Division, Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 1233 Watanuki-machi, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Nagasawa, Naotsugu [Environment and Industrial Materials Research Division, Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 1233 Watanuki-machi, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Tamada, Masao [Environment and Industrial Materials Research Division, Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 1233 Watanuki-machi, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Kasuya, Ken-ichi [Department of Biological and Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Gunma University, 1-5-1 Tenjin-cho, Kiryu, Gunma 376-8515 (Japan); Mitomo, Hiroshi [Department of Biological and Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Gunma University, 1-5-1 Tenjin-cho, Kiryu, Gunma 376-8515 (Japan)

    2007-06-15

    Radiation-induced graft polymerization of vinyl acetate (VAc) onto poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) film was carried out. At a degree of grafting higher than 5%, the grafted films (PHB-g-VAc) completely lost the enzymatic degradability that is characteristic of PHB due to the grafted VAc covering the surface of the PHB film. However, the biodegradability of the PHB-g-VAc films was recovered when the films were saponified in alkali solution under optimum conditions. Graft chains of the PHB-g-VAc film reacted selectively to become biodegradable polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). The biodegradability of the saponified PHB-g-VAc film increased rapidly with time.

  19. Fat metabolism in formerly obese women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ranneries, C; Bülow, J; Buemann, B; Christensen, N J; Madsen, J; Astrup, A

    1998-01-01

    An impaired fat oxidation has been implicated to play a role in the etiology of obesity, but it is unclear to what extent impaired fat mobilization from adipose tissue or oxidation of fat is responsible. The present study aimed to examine fat mobilization from adipose tissue and whole body fat oxidation stimulated by exercise in seven formerly obese women (FO) and eight matched controls (C). Lipolysis in the periumbilical subcutaneous adipose tissue, whole body energy expenditure (EE), and subst...

  20. Fertilizer Requirements for Grafted Tomato

    OpenAIRE

    M.F. Hossain; U. K. Majumder; M.A.S. Mondol; M.Z. Haque; M.M. Haque

    2003-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted during November 2000 to March 2001 to find out the optimum fertilizer requirement of grafted tomato. Four levels of N, 4 levels of P, 4 levels of K, 2 levels of S and 1 kg sodium molybdate and 10 t ha?1 organic manure were applied in equal distribution to all these by using a selected set of 12 treatments. The highest tomato yield of 1459 g plant?1 was obtained with the application of 200 kg N, 120 kg P2O5, 80 kg K2O, 20 kg S ha?1, which was statistically simila...

  1. Lymphoid Tissue Grafts in Man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grafts of lymphoid tissue or of lymphoid stem cells may be appropriate in the treatment of some congenital immune deficiency disorders. The reasons for preferring tissues of foetal origin are discussed and the evidence for foetal immunocompetence is briefly summarized. Methods of storing foetal liver cells and cells or fragments of thymus are mentioned, and the organization of the Foetal Tissue Bank of the Royal Marsden Hospital is described. Clinical data from transplantation of lymphoid cells in various immune deficiency disorders are briefly presented. (author)

  2. Economics of grafted vs conventional watermelon plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grafting of watermelons has been used in many countries to provide control of, or resistance to, certain soil borne diseases such as Fusarium wilt. The impact of grafting on postharvest quality has not been thoroughly examined. This report deals with the comparison of the costs of production betwe...

  3. DSA and duplex ultrasonography in aorta grafts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 95 patients with aorta grafts, DSA was compared with duplex ultrasonography. In 4 patients the graft was better visualized by means of angiography. Kinking, coiling, dilations, pseudoaneurysms, stenoses, and occlusions could be sufficiently diagnosed with both methods. Marginal thrombosis and periprosthetic pathologies could only be found with ultrasonographic and angiographic examination techniques are described and, the limitations of both methods discussed. (orig.)

  4. Graft healing in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Chih-Hwa

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Successful anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with a tendon graft necessitates solid healing of the tendon graft in the bone tunnel. Improvement of graft healing to bone is crucial for facilitating an early and aggressive rehabilitation and ensuring rapid return to pre-injury levels activity. Tendon graft healing in a bone tunnel requires bone ingrowth into the tendon. Indirect Sharpey fiber formation and direct fibrocartilage fixation confer different anchorage strength and interface properties at the tendon-bone interface. For enhancing tendon graft-to-bone healing, we introduce a strategy that includes the use of periosteum, hydrogel supplemented with periosteal progenitor cells and bone morphogenetic protein-2, and a periosteal progenitor cell sheet. Future studies include the use of cytokines, gene therapy, stem cells, platelet-rich plasma, and mechanical stress for tendon-to-bone healing. These strategies are currently under investigation, and will be applied in the clinical setting in the near future.

  5. Mega-Volume Fat Transplantation to the Breast and Buttocks: A New Surgical Technique That Brings New Anesthetic Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander D. Shapeton; Michael Semenovski; Daniel Del Vecchio

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Autologous fat-grafting for the purpose of breast augmentation has gained widespread acceptance as a viable and safe alternative to classical breast implant procedures and has recently been successfully applied to buttock augmentation. Due to the numerous patient re-positionings and widely variable OR time, these procedures present unique challenges for anesthesiologists. Our goal is to discuss the current surgical methods, anesthetic methods, risks and benefits of this procedure. ...

  6. FAT TISSUE DISTRIBUTION BETWEEN SUBCUTANEOUS AND INTERMUSCULAR FAT TISSUE IN SIMMENTAL AND BROWN BULLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvester Žgur

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Simmental and Brown bulls from progeny testing station were used to evaluate the effect of breed on fat tissue partition between subcutaneous and intermuscular fat. Bulls (37 Brown and 34 Simmental breed were slaughtered at the same degree of fatness. After slaughter carcasses were first cut into different carcass cuts and further on into lean meat, fat, bones and tendons. Fat was divided up into subcutaneous and intermuscular. Simmental bulls were heavier (average cold carcass side weight from Simmental bulls was 167 kg vs 147 kg from Brown bulls at the same percentage of total carcass fat (10.5 %. Breed has no effect on percentage of subcutaneous and intermuscular fat tissue nor on percentage of subcutaneous fat from total carcass fat. Simmental bulls had higher (p<0.05 subcutaneous fat percentage (subcutaneous fat in the cut /total fat in the cut in brisket and flank and lower (p<0.05 in shoulder than Brown bulls.

  7. Sources of Saturated Fat, Stearic Acid, & Cholesterol Raising Fat among the US Population, 2005–06

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this research was to identify the contributions of specific foods to intake of saturated fat, stearic acid, and "cholesterol raising fat" (defined as saturated fat minus stearic acid) in the US population age 2 years and older.

  8. Imaging features of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction graft insufficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the imaging features of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) graft insufficiency. Methods: X-Ray and MR imaging examinations in 24 consecutive patients who had ACL reconstructive graft insufficiency were retrospectively evaluated for tunnel position, osteoarthrosis and its related complications. Follow-up arthroscopy showed 16 graft tears and 8 graft laxities. Fisher exact test was used to compare tunnel malpositions, the proportion of graft tear on MRI and osteoarthrosis between graft tear group and graft laxity group. Results: Two malpositions of tibial tunnel and 3 malpositions of femoral tunnel were seen in graft tear group. Three-malpositions of tibial tunnel and 4 malpositions of femoral tunnel were seen in graft laxity group. The proportion of tibial or femoral malposition showed no significant difference between the two groups (P=0.289, P=0.167). In graft tear group, 15 complete graft tears were diagnosed correctly, 1 partial tear was misdiagnosed as normal on MRI. In graft laxity group, 4 grafts were diagnosed as normal and 4 were considered as graft tear on MRI. A significant difference was seen between the two groups (P=0.028) in the proportion of graft tear diagnosed on MRI. Fourteen osteoarthrosis were seen in graft tear group and 5 in graft laxity group. No significant difference was seen between the two groups (P= 0.289) in the proportion of osteoarthrosis. Conclusion: The proportions of tunnel malposition and osteoarthrosis showed no significant difference between the graft tear group and graft Laxity group. Most graft tears can be diagnosed accurately on MRI, but some cases of graft laxity may be misdiagnosed for graft tear. (authors)

  9. Body fat, abdominal fat and body fat distribution related to cardiovascular risk factors in prepubertal children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, Magnus; Wollmer, Per

    2012-01-01

    Aim:? We analysed whether total body fat (TBF), abdominal fat and body fat distribution are associated with higher composite risk factor scores for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in young children. Methods:? Cross-sectional study of 238 children aged 8-11?years. TBF and abdominal fat mass (AFM) were measured by Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry. TBF was expressed as a percentage of body weight (BF%). Body fat distribution was calculated as AFM/TBF. Maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2PEAK) ), systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP), and resting heart rate (RHR) were measured. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) and pulse pressure (PP) were calculated. Left atrial diameter (LA) was measured, and left ventricular mass (LVM) and relative wall thickness (RWT) were calculated. Z-scores were calculated. Sum of z-scores for SBP, DBP, MAP, PP, RHR, LVM, LA, RWT and -VO(2PEAK) was calculated in boys and girls, separately, and used as composite risk factor score. Results:? Pearson correlations between ln BF%, ln AFM and AFM/TBF versus composite risk factor score for boys were r?=?0.56, r?=?0.59 and r?=?0.48, all p?

  10. Trans Fat Now Listed With Saturated Fat and Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can also use the %DV to make dietary trade-offs with other foods throughout the day. You don't have to give up a favorite food to eat a healthy diet. When a food you like is high in saturated fat or cholesterol, balance it with foods that are low in saturated ...

  11. Adaptive significance of root grafting in trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loehle, C.; Jones, R.

    1988-12-31

    Root grafting has long been observed in forest trees but the adaptive significance of this trait has not been fully explained. Various authors have proposed that root grafting between trees contributes to mechanical support by linking adjacent root systems. Keeley proposes that this trait would be of greatest advantage in swamps where soils provide poor mechanical support. He provides as evidence a greenhouse study of Nyssa sylvatica Marsh in which seedlings of swamp provenance formed between-individual root grafts more frequently than upland provenance seedlings. In agreement with this within-species study, Keeley observed that arid zone species rarely exhibit grafts. Keeley also demonstrated that vines graft less commonly than trees, and herbs never do. Since the need for mechanical support coincides with this trend, these data seem to support his model. In this paper, the authors explore the mechanisms and ecological significance of root grafting, leading to predictions of root grafting incidence. Some observations support and some contradict the mechanical support hypothesis.

  12. Radiation-induced graft copolymerization to polyester, 18

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Properties of polyester (polyethylene terephthalate) fibers grafted with acrylic acid (AA) and methacrylic acid were measured not only in the form of free acid but also in the form of sodium and calcium salts. Nearly the same moisture regain as that of cotton was obtained in the cases of sodium acrylate graft (AA-Na) and methacrylate graft (MAA-Na) at 14 and 18% graft respectively. Although the rate of water droplet absorption by the wicking test revealed that the rate increased with grafting, it is generally lower than that of cotton. Only AA-Na graft showed similar rate as that of cotton at 5% graft. All other grafts i.e. AA, AA-Ca, MAA and MAA-Na grafts showed lower rate than cotton even at higher percent graft. Results of frictional electricity test were similar, AA-Na graft showed satisfactory low static charge, whereas the effect of the grafting was insufficient in the cases of AA, MAA and MAA-Na grafts. Polyester fibers above 10% AA graft were dyed homogeneously to deep color with cationic and disperse dyes. AA, AA-Na and AA-Ca grafts showed almost the same dyeability. In the case of MAA grafts, only MAA-Na graft showed good dyeability. Fibers dyed with cationic dyes showed poor light fastness. Nor or very little change in tensile properties of polyester fibers were observed upon grafting of acrylic acid. However, strength and modulus of grafts decrease when AA grafts above 15% graft were converted to AA-Na by treatment in aqueous sodium bicarbonate solution. (auth.)

  13. A reappraisal of saphenous vein grafting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Shi-Min

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Autologous saphenous vein grafting has been broadly used as a bypass conduit, interposition graft, and patch graft in a variety of operations in cardiac, thoracic, neurovascular, general vascular, vascular access, and urology surgeries, since they are superior to prosthetic veins. Modified saphenous vein grafts (SVG, including spiral and cylindrical grafts, and vein cuffs or patches, are employed in vascular revascularization to satisfy the large size of the receipt vessels or to obtain a better patency. A loop SVG helps flap survival in a muscle flap transfer in plastic and reconstructive surgery. For dialysis or transfusion purposes, a straight or loop arteriovenous fistula created in the forearm or the thigh with an SVG has acceptable patency. The saphenous vein has even been used as a stent cover to minimize the potential complications of standard angioplasty technique. However, the use of saphenous vein grafting is now largely diminished in treating cerebrovascular disorders, superior vena cava syndrome, and visceral revascularization due to the introduction of angioplasty and stenting techniques. The SVG remains the preferable biomaterial in coronary artery bypass, coronary ostioplasty, free flap transfer, and surgical treatment of Peyronie disease. Implications associated with saphenous vein grafting in vascular access surgery for the purpose of dialysis and chemotherapy are considerable. Vascular cuffs and patches have been developed as an important and effective means of enhancing the patency rates of the grafts by linking the synthetic material to the receipt vessel. In addition, saphenous veins can be a cell source for tissue engineering. We review the versatile roles that saphenous vein grafting has played as well as its current status in therapy.

  14. Amylose graft polymers made by 60Co gamma-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Model products were needed to elucidate structure-property relationships in a starch graft polymer research program. Simultaneous irradiation of amylose and acrylamide in oxygen-free, dilute aqueous solutions gave graft polymers with maximum add-on of about 16 percent. The graft polymers were separated from homopolymer and subfractionated by incremental additions of nonsolvent (methyl or ethyl alcohol) to irradiated aqueous reaction media. The graft polymers were fairly homogeneous in graft content. Effects were determined of ratios of monomer to substrate, dose rate, and total dose on yield, graft content, intrinsic viscosity, and homopolymer characteristics. Under some conditions, crosslinks probably formed between graft side chains. Large differences in solution properties of a synthetic mixture of separately irradiated amylose and acrylamide and an irradiated solution of amylose and acrylamide indicated that grafting had occurred. Further evidence for true grafting was based on the action of a selective precipitant, n-butyl alcohol, on graft polymer solutions

  15. FTO gene associated fatness in relation to body fat distribution and metabolic traits throughout a broad range of fatness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kring, Sofia I I; Holst, Claus; Zimmermann, Esther; Jess, Tine; Berentzen, Tina; Toubro, Søren; Hansen, Torben; Astrup, Arne; Pedersen, Oluf; Sørensen, Thorkild I A

    2008-01-01

    A common single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of FTO (rs9939609, T/A) is associated with total body fatness. We investigated the association of this SNP with abdominal and peripheral fatness and obesity-related metabolic traits in middle-aged men through a broad range of fatness present already in adolescence.

  16. Complications in skin grafts when continuing antithrombotic therapy prior to cutaneous surgery requiring skin grafting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jarjis, Reem Dina; Jørgensen, Lone; Finnerup, Kenneth; Birk-Sørensen, Lene

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The risk of postoperative bleeding and wound healing complications in skin grafts among anticoagulated patients undergoing cutaneous surgery has not been firmly established. The objective was to examine the literature and assess the risk of postoperative bleeding or wound healing complications in skin grafts among anticoagulated patients, compared with patients who discontinue or patients who are not receiving antithrombotic therapy prior to cutaneous surgery requiring skin grafting. A ...

  17. HealthLines: Facts About Fat

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Current Issue Past Issues Health Lines Facts About Fat Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents For ... Writer, NLM Scientists are learning more about our fat cells, and their findings could explain why some ...

  18. Calories and fat per serving (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and stores the rest in the form of fat. A calorie is a calorie, whether it comes ... between them is the number of calories, nutrients, fat, and other ingredients in a typical serving . Calories ...

  19. Protect Your Heart: Choose Healthy Fats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... some snacks • some stick margarines • some store-bought desserts (cookies, donuts, pies) Trans fats: Trans fats can ... day can lower your cholesterol. These margarines contain plant stanol esters, an ingredient that keeps cholesterol from ...

  20. Targeting Fat to Prevent Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Sethi, Jaswinder K; Vidal-Puig, Antonio J

    2007-01-01

    An emerging view is that obesity causes metabolic problems when adipose tissue fails to meet the increased demands for fat storage. A study in this issue of Cell Metabolism (Waki et al., 2007) has identified harmine as a proadipogenic small molecule that promotes energy expenditure in white adipose tissue and delays the onset of obesity-associated diabetes.

  1. Graft copolymerization of acrylonitrile onto polypropylene membrane by preirradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A porous, graft copolymer and amidoxime group containing membrane were prepared by radiation graft copolymerization of acrylonitrile onto porous polypropylene. In order to calculate the grafting and amidoxime ratios of porous polypropylene-acrylonitrile graft copolymer. We have done CHN elemental analysis. It is obtained the result that grafting rate is increased to linear and value was about 75 percent at 20 Mrad dose rate. (Author)

  2. The 5-strand hamstring graft in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Rushyuan Jay; Ganley, Theodore J

    2014-10-01

    The use of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction in the pediatric and adolescent population has been increasing in recent years. Autograft hamstring graft is favored in this population, but these patients often have smaller hamstring tendons that yield smaller final graft constructs. These smaller grafts are associated with an increased need for revision surgery. We describe a technique for obtaining a larger-diameter anterior cruciate ligament graft construct from autologous hamstring graft without allograft supplementation. PMID:25473619

  3. Graft Rejection and Graft Failure After Penetrating Keratoplasty or Posterior Lamellar Keratoplasty for Fuchs Endothelial Dystrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortdal, Jesper; Pedersen, Iben B

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE:: To compare the frequency of rejection episodes and graft failure because of surgical complications or rejection after Descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK) and penetrating keratoplasty (PK) for Fuchs endothelial dystrophy. METHODS:: A total of 201 eyes of 201 consecutive patients with Fuchs endothelial dystrophy undergoing keratoplasty were included. One hundred two patients underwent DSAEK and 99 PK in the period January 1, 2000, to December 31, 2010. Postoperative topical steroid treatment was similar in the 2 groups. Most patients in the PK group received a short course of oral prednisolone, which was not prescribed for patients undergoing DSAEK. Patient records were retrospectively reviewed; rejection episodes and causes of graft failures were recorded, and Kaplan-Meier survival curves up to 5 years after surgery were computed and compared. RESULTS:: All rejection episodes and most graft failures occurred during the first 2 years after surgery. In this period, rejection episodes were noted in 16% of PK and in 5% of DSAEK-treated eyes (P = 0.03). During the first 5 years, significantly more DSAEK grafts than PK grafts had failed (P = 0.04) but only 2 PK-treated and no DSAEK-treated grafts failed because of rejection. CONCLUSION:: The frequency of graft rejection episodes is higher after PK than DSAEK for primary endothelial disease, despite the use of oral prednisolone in the PK group. Early graft failure is more common after DSAEK than after PK, whereas graft failure because of previous rejection episodes is uncommon after DSAEK and PK.

  4. Kinetic and mechanism of radiation-induced graft copolymerization for two grafting systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The graft copolymerization of glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) and vinylbenzyl chloride (VBC) onto nylon fiber was investigated by the pre-irradiation method using electron beam. The effects of grafting parameters, such as monomer concentration, absorbed dose and reaction temperature were investigated. The empirical kinetic rate equations: dG0/ dt = k(Mg0)1.14(Ag)0.52 and dG0/dt = k(Mv0)0.86(Av)1.06, were used to describe grafting of GMA and VBC, respectively. The overall activation energy for graft copolymerization of GMA and VBC were found to be 5.4 and 22.6 kJ/mol, respectively. The results revealed that the grafting kinetics in the two grafting systems were both controlled by the amounts of trapped radicals and monomer molecules. The grafting of GMA onto nylon-6 fibers was found to exhibit higher dependency on the quantity of monomer molecules available, whereas the VBC grafting system was found to exhibit higher dependency on the quantity of trapped radicals. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to provide evidence for the formation of graft copolymers. (author)

  5. Dietary Fat and Sports Nutrition: A Primer

    OpenAIRE

    Lowery, Lonnie M.

    2004-01-01

    The general public's view of macronutrients has undergone sweeping changes in recent years. Dietary fats are a key example. Since the anti-fat health education initiatives of the 1980s and early 1990s, certain dietary fats have been increasingly recognized as actually beneficial to health. Athletes, like the mainstream populace, are now getting the message that wise dietary fat (triacylglycerol) choices offer essential fatty acids, blood lipid management, maintained endocrine and immune funct...

  6. Luteinized fat in Krukenberg tumor: MR findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To our knowledge, there is no description of the fat-containing Krukenberg tumor. We report on a case of Krukenberg tumor associated with luteinized fat, which showed hyperintensity on T1-weighted MR image. The diagnosis was surgically confirmed. Hyperintense portion of the Krukenberg tumor on T1-weighted image showed diminished signal intensity on fat-saturated, T1-weighted images. Krukenberg tumor should be considered in the differential diagnosis of ovarian masses when fat signal is seen. (orig.)

  7. Effect of different grafting methods for absorption, translocation and distribution of 59Fe in apple trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The test result with 59Fe demonstrate that the iron content in leaves by belly grafting is higher than that by cleft grafting and cutting grafting, and the content of chlorophyll in leaves and height and diameter of apple seedling by belly grafting is larger than cleft grafting and cutting grafting too. It is important to replace cleft grafting and cutting grafting with belly grafting as a method of top-working to correct chlorosis and improve growth of new cultivar

  8. Radiation-induced grafting onto wool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation-induced grafting tests were done on single wool fibres. Different vinyl monomers were used for this purpose and they were grafted in twenty different solvents which were selected for their swelling effiency and solvent parameters. The tests were done once with and once without the addition of water. The presence of water causes the polymer uptake to increase considerably. Formic acid/methanol and methanol were found to be the most suitable solvent systems, as they have the highest hydrogen-bond interaction effiency. The moisture uptake of wool depends on the hydrophily and hydrophoby of the grafted polymers. The single-fibre tests serve as a basis for analogous grafting tests on wool fabrics. The permanent- press was improved by graftng with hydrophoric polymers and polymers with a high glass-transition temperature

  9. Mechanical Bench Grafting for Apple Propagation

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Ashraf Sumrah; Allah Bakhsh; Zahid Hussain; Shafique Ahmad

    2002-01-01

    Mechanically and manually prepared stock and scion for bench grafting were adopted in four phases for apple propagation i.e., mechanically made stock and manually prepared scion, second phase was vice versa while in third stage both the stock and scion were prepared mechanically. In fourth operation all the grafting process was performed by hand made scion and stock. Maximum sprouting and success percentage of 93.2 and 83.2 respectively was recorded in the mechanically prepared scion and stoc...

  10. Delayed Graft Function in the Kidney Transplant

    OpenAIRE

    Siedlecki, Andrew; IRISH, WILLIAM; Brennan, Daniel C.

    2011-01-01

    Acute kidney injury occurs with kidney transplantation and too frequently progresses to the clinical diagnosis of delayed graft function (DGF). Poor kidney function in the first week of graft life is detrimental to the longevity of the allograft. Challenges to understand the root cause of DGF include several pathologic contributors derived from the donor (ischemic injury, inflammatory signaling) and recipient (reperfusion injury, the innate immune response, and the adaptive immune response). ...

  11. Seeking for the ideal stent graft

    OpenAIRE

    Isa Cristina Teixeira Santos; Luís Rocha; João Manuel Ribeiro da Silva Tavares

    2010-01-01

    Aortic aneurysms are localized dilatations of the aorta that if not treated may lead to death. One of the current treatments is endovascular repair, a minimal invasive procedure in which a stent graft is placed transluminally to prevent wall rupture shielding the aneurysm from blood pressure. Stent grafts are classified as class III medical devices. They are composed of a metallic scaffold covered by a polymeric membrane. While early devices were custom designed by the operating surgeon, n...

  12. Polypeptide Grafted Hyaluronan: Synthesis and Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiaojun [ORNL; Messman, Jamie M [ORNL; Mays, Jimmy [ORNL; Baskaran, Durairaj [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

    2010-01-01

    Poly(L-leucine) grafted hyaluronan (HA-g-PLeu) has been synthesized via a Michael addition reaction between primary amine terminated poly(L-leucine) and acrylate-functionalized HA (TBAHA-acrylate). The precursor hyaluronan was first functionalized with acrylate groups by reaction with acryloyl chloride in the presence of triethylamine in N,N-dimethylformamide. 1H NMR analysis of the resulting product indicated that an increase in the concentration of acryloylchoride with respect to hydroxyl groups on HA has only a moderate effect on functionalization efficiency, f. A precise control of stoichiometry was not achieved, which could be attributed to partial solubility of intermolecular aggregates and the hygroscopic nature of HA. Michael addition at high [PLeu- NH2]/[acrylate]TBAHA ratios gave a molar grafting ratio of only 0.20 with respect to the repeat unit of HA, indicating grafting limitation due to insolubility of the grafted HA-g-PLeu. Soluble HA-g-PLeu graft copolymers were obtained for low grafting ratios (<0.039) with <8.6% by mass of PLeu and were characterized thoroughly using light scattering, 1H NMR, FT-IR, and AFM techniques. Light scattering experiments showed a strong hydrophobic interaction between PLeu chains, resulting in aggregates with segregated nongrafted HA segments. This yields local networks of aggregates, as demonstrated by atomic force microscopy. Circular dichroism spectroscopy showed a -sheet conformation for aggregates of poly(L-leucine).

  13. Breast reconstruction de novo by water-jet assisted autologous fat grafting – a retrospective study

    OpenAIRE

    Hoppe, Delia Letizia; Ueberreiter, Klaus; Surlemont, Yves; Peltoniemi, Hilkka; Stabile, Marco; Kauhanen, Susanna

    2013-01-01

    Hintergrund: Heutzutage wird der autologe Eigenfettgewebetransfer in der rekonstruktiven Brustchirurgie als eine risikoarme und einfach anwendbare Methode angesehen und derweilen routiniert für Zweiteingriffe oder Teilaufbauten verwendet. Bisher sind nur wenige Patientenfälle mit einem kompletten Brustaufbau nach totaler Mastektomie beschrieben worden. Material und Methoden: Im Rahmen einer europaweiten Multicenterstudie erhielten insgesamt 28 Patientinnen einen kompletten Brustaufbau nach ...

  14. Effects of Dietary Fat and Saturated Fat Content on Liver Fat and Markers of Oxidative Stress in Overweight/Obese Men and Women under Weight-Stable Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Marina; Anize Delfino von Frankenberg; Seda Suvag; Callahan, Holly S; Mario Kratz; Richards, Todd L.; Utzschneider, Kristina M

    2014-01-01

    Dietary fat and oxidative stress are hypothesized to contribute to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and progression to steatohepatitis. To determine the effects of dietary fat content on hepatic triglyceride, body fat distribution and markers of inflammation and oxidative stress, overweight/obese subjects with normal glucose tolerance consumed a control diet (CONT: 35% fat/12% saturated fat/47% carbohydrate) for ten days, followed by four weeks on a low fat (LFD (n = 10): 20% fat/8% saturate...

  15. Fat absorption and deposition in Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) fed a high fat diet

    OpenAIRE

    Mhlengi M. Magubane; Busisani W. Lembede; Erlwanger, Kennedy H.; Eliton Chivandi; Janine Donaldson

    2013-01-01

    Dietary fat contributes significantly to the energy requirements of poultry. Not all species are able to increase their absorptive capacity for fats in response to a high fat diet. The effects of a high fat diet (10% canola oil) on the lipid absorption and deposition in the liver, breast and thigh muscles of male and female Japanese quail were investigated. Thirty-eight Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) were randomly divided into a high fat diet (HFD) and a standard diet (STD) group...

  16. Physical properties of agave cellulose graft polymethyl methacrylate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosli, Noor Afizah; Ahmad, Ishak; Abdullah, Ibrahim; Anuar, Farah Hannan [Polymer Research Centre (PORCE), School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi Selangor (Malaysia)

    2013-11-27

    The grafting polymerization of methyl methacrylate and Agave cellulose was prepared and their structural analysis and morphology were investigated. The grafting reaction was carried out in an aqueous medium using ceric ammonium nitrate as an initiator. The structural analysis of the graft copolymers was carried out by Fourier transform infrared and X-ray diffraction. The graft copolymers were also characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). An additional peak at 1732 cm{sup ?1} which was attributed to the C=O of ester stretching vibration of poly(methyl methacrylate), appeared in the spectrum of grafted Agave cellulose. A slight decrease of crystallinity index upon grafting was found from 0.74 to 0.68 for cellulose and grafted Agave cellulose, respectively. Another evidence of grafting showed in the FESEM observation, where the surface of the grafted cellulose was found to be roughed than the raw one.

  17. Physical properties of agave cellulose graft polymethyl methacrylate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The grafting polymerization of methyl methacrylate and Agave cellulose was prepared and their structural analysis and morphology were investigated. The grafting reaction was carried out in an aqueous medium using ceric ammonium nitrate as an initiator. The structural analysis of the graft copolymers was carried out by Fourier transform infrared and X-ray diffraction. The graft copolymers were also characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). An additional peak at 1732 cm?1 which was attributed to the C=O of ester stretching vibration of poly(methyl methacrylate), appeared in the spectrum of grafted Agave cellulose. A slight decrease of crystallinity index upon grafting was found from 0.74 to 0.68 for cellulose and grafted Agave cellulose, respectively. Another evidence of grafting showed in the FESEM observation, where the surface of the grafted cellulose was found to be roughed than the raw one

  18. Isotopic scintigraphy in kidney grafting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isotopic explorations of kidney transplants were performed on sixty-six patients. Three scintigraphic techniques were used: labelled ferrous ascorbate scintigraphy, sequential 99m technetium DTPA scintigraphy and the 131I hippuran nephrogram. The aim of this study is to analyse the results obtained under different pathological circumstances affecting the transplant, to discuss the advantages of the techniques and to propose a working procedure. The most reliable and accurate technique is the 131I hippuran nephrogram combined with sequential 99mTc DTPA, by which renal vascularisation may be judged labelled ferrous ascorbate on the other hand is too insensitive. Although the information supplied is mostly contained in the scintigraphic images, the nephrographic curves and the blood radioactivity decay time and rad V/rad R ratio measurements are very helpful in the early diagnosis and differential diagnosis of complications affecting the transplant. The proper use of isotopic scintigraphy in kidney grafting should provide optimum conditions for better survival of the transplant at minimum risk to the patient

  19. Playing with bone and fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimble, Jeffrey M.; Zvonic, Sanjin; Floyd, Z. Elisabeth; Kassem, Moustapha; Nuttall, Mark E.

    2006-01-01

    The relationship between bone and fat formation within the bone marrow microenvironment is complex and remains an area of active investigation. Classical in vitro and in vivo studies strongly support an inverse relationship between the commitment of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells or stromal cells to the adipocyte and osteoblast lineage pathways. In this review, we focus on the recent literature exploring the mechanisms underlying these differentiation events and discuss their implica...

  20. Fat tissue and long life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluher, Matthias

    2008-01-01

    Studies over the last several years have revealed important roles of the body fat content, caloric intake and nutrition, insulin/IGF-1 signaling systems, and pathways involved in oxidative stress and control of protein acetylation on life span. Although the discovery of longevity genes supports the concept that life span is genetically determined, adipose tissue seems to be a pivotal organ in the aging process and in the determination of life span. Leanness and caloric restriction have been shown to increase longevity in organisms ranging from yeast to mammals. Increased longevity in mice with a fat-specific disruption of the insulin receptor gene (FIRKO) suggests that reduced adiposity, even in the presence of normal or increased food intake, leads to an extended life span. Reduced fat mass has an impact on longevity in a number of other model organisms. In Drosophila, a specific reduction in the fat body through overexpression of forkhead type transcription factor (dFOXO) extends life span. Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), the mammalian ortholog of the life-extending yeast gene silent information regulator 2 (SIR2), was proposed to be involved in the molecular mechanisms linking life span to adipose tissue. Moreover, in the control of human aging and longevity, one of the striking physiological characteristics identified in centenarians is their greatly increased insulin sensitivity even compared with younger individuals. On the other hand, overweight and obesity seem to be associated with decreased life span in humans. In addition, it was recently shown that modifiable risk factors during the later years of life, including smoking, obesity, and hypertension, are associated not only with lower life expectancy, but also with poor health and function during older age. There is growing evidence that the effect of reduced adipose tissue mass on life span could be due to the prevention of obesity-related metabolic disorders including type 2 diabetes and atherosclerosis. PMID:20054178

  1. Biodiesel via hydrotreating of fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Anders Theilgaard; Ahmed, El Hadi; Christensen, Claus Hviid

    2008-01-01

    Biodiesel production via transesterification to fatty acid alkyl esters is rising rapidly worldwide due to the limited availability of fossil resources and the problems of global warming. Often, however, the use of 2nd-generation feedstock like animal waste fat and trap greases etc. is made difficult especially by the high amount of free fatty acids (FFA) in these raw materials. Another way to utilise such feedstock could be through the complete deoxygenation of the fuel, i.e. by hydrogenation a...

  2. Beneficial effect of a weight-stable, low-fat/low-saturated fat/low-glycaemic index diet to reduce liver fat in older subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Utzschneider, Kristina M; Bayer-Carter, Jennifer L.; Arbuckle, Matthew D.; Tidwell, Jaime M.; Richards, Todd L.; Craft, Suzanne

    2012-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is associated with insulin resistance and dyslipidaemia and can progress to steatohepatitis and cirrhosis. We sought to determine whether dietary fat and saturated fat content alter liver fat in the absence of weight change in an older population. Liver fat was quantified by magnetic resonance spectroscopy before and after 4 weeks on an isoenergetic low-fat/low-saturated fat/low-glycaemic index (LGI) (LSAT: 23% fat/7% saturated fat/GI < 55) or a high-fat/high...

  3. Effect of acid additives on grafting efficiency and water absorption of hydrolyzed cassava starch grafted polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelatinized cassava starch was radiation graft copolymerized with acrylamide, acrylic acid or their mixture in the presence of sulphuric acid or maleic acid. Various acid concentrations were used from 0.001 to 0.1 M of sulphuric acid while the maleic acid concentrations were varied from 1 to 3% (by weight). The optimum total dose and dose rate were investigated. The saponification temperature and time had the marked effects on grafting characteristics and water absorption capacity. We found that the effect of maleic acid addition gave a profound effect on water absorption. The CHNS/O analyses indicated significant changes in the nitrogen content in the hydrolyzed starch grafted polyacrylamide with 2% maleic acid. The article explains the possible causes for the enhancement influence of mineral acid and maleic acid on grafting behavior and water absorption of the saponified cassava starch grafted polyacrylamide super absorbent polymer. (author)

  4. Adolescent External Iliac Artery Trauma: Recurrent Aneurysmal Dilatation of an Iliofemoral Saphenous Vein Graft Treated by Stent-Grafting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An adolescent male sustained a severe penetrating injury to the external iliac artery. Emergency surgical revascularization was with a reversed long saphenous vein interposition graft. The primary graft and the subsequent revision graft both became aneurysmal. The second graft aneurysm was successfully excluded by endovascular stent-grafts with medium-term primary patency. A venous graft was used initially rather than a synthetic graft to reduce the risk of infection and the potential problems from future growth. Aneurysmal dilatation of venous grafts in children and adolescents is a rare but recognized complication. To the best of our knowledge, exclusion of these aneurysms with stent-grafts has not been previously reported in the adolescent population.

  5. Synthesis of Graft Copolymers by Small Doses of Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In addition to grafting, there is often an undesirable alteration in the properties of the original polymer when polymer monomer mixtures are irradiated. As a result of irradiation, grafting occurs not only on the original polymeric backbone, but also on the already grafted side-chains. The result is an acceleration of grafting. The effect is especially pronounced in the case of preformed polymers, if irradiation is carried out intermittently. The grafting of styrene can be accelerated by the addition of some solvents which suppress the protective effect of the styrene on the polymer. Grafting can be accelerated by other additives. The swelling properties of the irradiated films were investigated. (author)

  6. Grafting of acrylamide onto synthetic co polyamide by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grafted copolymer was prepared by using gamma irradiation to graft acrylamide onto polymeric molecule prepared by interfacial condensation between two diamine molecules like 1,2 diamino propane and 1,6 diamino-hexane in aqueous layer with sebacoyl chloride in organic layer. The resulted co polyamide was grafted with acrylamide using gamma irradiation. The optimum conditions of grafting reaction were found, also various factors such as the effect of solvents, redox systems and the role water on the radiochemical grafting were studied. Many techniques were used in the characterization of the copolymer before and after grafting. 8 figs.,

  7. Characterization and Some Properties of Functionalized Graft Copolymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study involved the investigation and characterization of membranes prepared by graft copolymerization of acrylonitrile (AN) and vinyl acetate (VAc) binary monomers onto low density polyethylene (LDPE) and isotactic polypropylene (IPP). The mutual gamma-irradiation method was used as a grafting technique. The effects of grafting and chemical treatments on the thermal properties and crystallinity of prepared graft copolymer have been investigated using DSC, TGA and XRD. IR spectra recorded before and after grafting and also for the chemically treated membranes to elucidate the structural changes occurred due to grafting and chemical treatments

  8. Atherosclerosis of coronary artery bypass grafts and smoking.

    OpenAIRE

    FitzGibbon, G M; Leach, A J; Kafka, H P

    1987-01-01

    Follow-up angiography was performed at selected intervals on 340 men who had undergone coronary artery bypass surgery. There were 1160 grafts, but 112 were excluded from study because they occluded shortly after the operation. After 5 years 115 patients were smokers and 225 were nonsmokers. The mean number of grafts per patient was similar in the two groups. We classified each graft according to irregularities in graft outlines and graft patency and found disease-free grafts in 39% of the smo...

  9. Design and Implementation of Log Structured FAT and ExFAT File Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keshava Munegowda

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The File Allocation Table (FAT file system is supported in multiple Operating Systems (OS. Hence, FAT file system is universal exchange format for files/directories used in Solid State Drives (SSD and Hard disk Drives (HDD. The Microsoft Corporation introduced the new file system called Extended FAT file system (ExFAT to support larger size storage devices. The ExFAT file system is optimized to use with SSDs. But, Both FAT and ExFAT are not power fail safe. This means that the uncontrolled power loss or abrupt storage device removable from the computer system, during file system update, causes corruption of file system meta data and hence it leads to loss of data in storage device. This paper implements the Logging and Committing features to FAT and ExFAT file systems and ensures that the file system meta data is consistent across the abrupt power loss or device removal from the computer system.

  10. Corneal Graft Rejection: Incidence and Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Baradaran-Rafii

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available

    PURPOSE: To determine the incidence and risk factors of late corneal graft rejection after penetrating keratoplasty (PKP. METHODS: Records of all patients who had undergone PKP from 2002 to 2004 without immunosuppressive therapy other than systemic steroids and with at least one year of follow up were reviewed. The role of possible risk factors such as demographic factors, other host factors, donor factors, indications for PKP as well as type of rejection were evaluated. RESULTS: During the study period, 295 PKPs were performed on 286 patients (176 male, 110 female. Mean age at the time of keratoplasty was 38±20 (range, 40 days to 90 years and mean follow up period was 20±10 (range 12-43 months. Graft rejection occurred in 94 eyes (31.8% at an average of 7.3±6 months (range, 20 days to 39 months after PKP. The most common type of rejection was endothelial (20.7%. Corneal vascularization, regrafting, anterior synechiae, irritating sutures, active inflammation, additional anterior segment procedures, history of trauma, uncontrolled glaucoma, prior graft rejection, recurrence of herpetic infection and eccentric grafting increased the rate of rejection. Patient age, donor size and bilateral transplantation had no significant influence on graft rejection. CONCLUSION: Significant risk factors for corneal graft rejection include corneal vascularization, anterior synechiae, irritating sutures, active inflammation, regrafting, additional surgery, trauma, uncontrolled intraocular pressure, history of graft rejection, recurrent herpetic infection, eccentric grafting and corneal scarring. Recipient age and donor cornea size do not seem to be risk factors for corneal graft rejection.

  11. Novel nuances of human brown fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheele, Camilla; Larsen, Therese Juhlin

    2014-01-01

    There is a current debate in the literature on whether human fat derived from the supraclavicular region should be classified as brown, or as the white fat-derived less potent, brite/beige. This commentary addresses whether the existing classification defined in mice is sufficient to describe the types of thermogenic adipocytes in humans. We recently published a contradictory mRNA expression signature of human supraclavicular fat defined by an upregulation of the brite marker TBX1 along with the classical brown markers ZIC1 and LHX8, as well as genes indicating brown fat activity including UCP1, PGC-1?, and PRDM16; and, finally, a downregulation of the white/brite markers HOXC8 and HOXC9. Subcutaneous fat was used as reference material. Another recent study presents a higher expression of ZIC1 and a lower expression of TBX1 in interscapular compared with supraclavicular fat. Here, however, there was no difference in UCP1, PGC-1?, PRDM16, suggesting both depots had equal brown fat potency. Taken together, supraclavicular brown fat derived from adult humans seems to represent a type of brown fat with distinct features from both subcutaneous white/brite and interscapular brown fat. Therefore, the classification of adipocyte subtypes defined in mice may need reconsideration when applying to humans.

  12. Acute graft versus host disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vogelsang Georgia B

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD occurs after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant and is a reaction of donor immune cells against host tissues. Activated donor T cells damage host epithelial cells after an inflammatory cascade that begins with the preparative regimen. About 35%–50% of hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT recipients will develop acute GVHD. The exact risk is dependent on the stem cell source, age of the patient, conditioning, and GVHD prophylaxis used. Given the number of transplants performed, we can expect about 5500 patients/year to develop acute GVHD. Patients can have involvement of three organs: skin (rash/dermatitis, liver (hepatitis/jaundice, and gastrointestinal tract (abdominal pain/diarrhea. One or more organs may be involved. GVHD is a clinical diagnosis that may be supported with appropriate biopsies. The reason to pursue a tissue biopsy is to help differentiate from other diagnoses which may mimic GVHD, such as viral infection (hepatitis, colitis or drug reaction (causing skin rash. Acute GVHD is staged and graded (grade 0-IV by the number and extent of organ involvement. Patients with grade III/IV acute GVHD tend to have a poor outcome. Generally the patient is treated by optimizing their immunosuppression and adding methylprednisolone. About 50% of patients will have a solid response to methylprednisolone. If patients progress after 3 days or are not improved after 7 days, they will get salvage (second-line immunosuppressive therapy for which there is currently no standard-of-care. Well-organized clinical trials are imperative to better define second-line therapies for this disease. Additional management issues are attention to wound infections in skin GVHD and fluid/nutrition management in gastrointestinal GVHD. About 50% of patients with acute GVHD will eventually have manifestations of chronic GVHD.

  13. Grafting onto polyester fibers. II. Kinetics of grafting of acrylic acid, acrylonitrile, and vinyl acetate onto polyester fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The kinetics of grafting of acrylonitrile, acrylic acid, and vinyl acetate onto polyester fiber by catalytic initiation and radiation were studied. The energy of activation determined for acrylic acid grafting by the catalytic method was 10.7 kcal/mole and that for vinyl acetate grafting by the radiation method, 11.7 kcal/mole. In the case of acrylonitrile grafting by the catalytic method, the rate of grafting decreased with increase in temperature of grafting, showing the differential behavior of the precipitating type of polymer from that of homogeneous polymerization. 5 figures

  14. Radiographic analysis of pasteurized autologous bone graft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Local malignant bone tumor excision followed by pasteurization and subsequent reimplantation is a unique technique for reconstruction after resection of primary bone sarcomas. The purpose of this investigation was to assess the normal and abnormal long-term radiographic findings of intercalary and osteo-chondral pasteurized bone graft/implant composite. The long-term radiographic findings of pasteurized bone grafts used in reconstruction after resection of bone and soft tissue sarcomas in relation to patients' clinical data were reviewed retrospectively. Thirty-one patients (18 females, 13 males; age range 7-77 years, mean 30 years) who underwent surgery between April 1990 and January 1997 at the authors' institute constituted the material of this study. They were followed up for at least 3 years or until the patient's death (mean 69 months). The International Society of Limb Salvage graft evaluation method that assesses the fusion, resorption, fracture, graft shortening, fixation, subluxation, joint narrowing and subchondral bone was used for evaluation of the radiographs. Twenty-one patients (68%) showed complete incorporation of graft and eight patients (26%) had partial incorporation. The overall radiographic evaluation rate was 81%. Fracture (10%) and infection (16%) were the main complications. No local recurrence was detected. These results indicate that pasteurization of bone is a useful option for reconstruction after resection of malignant bone tumors. (orig.)

  15. Nerve grafting in peripheral nerve injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simi? Vesna D.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Autologous nerve grafting is the most commnly used operative technique in delayed primary, or secondary nerve repair after the peripheral nerve injuries. The aim of this procedure is to overcome nerve gaps that results from the injury itself, fibrous and elastic retraction forces, resection of the damaged parts of the nerve, position of the articulations and mobilisation of the nerve.In this study we analyse the results of operated patients with transections and lacerations of the peripheral nerves from 1979 to 2000 year. Gunshot injuries have not been analyzed in this study. The majority of the injuries were in the upper extremity (more than 87% of cases. Donor for nerve transplantation had usually been sural nerve, and only occasionally medial cutaneous nerve of the forearm was used. In about 93% of cases we used interfascicular nerve grafting, and cable nerve grafting was performed in the rest of them. Most of the grafts were 1 do 5 cm long (70% of cases. Functional recovery was achieved in more than 86% of cases, which is similar to the results of the other authors. Follow up period was minimum 2 years. We analyzed the influence of different factors on nerve recovery after the operation: patient’s age, location and the extent (total or partial of nerve injury, the length of the nerve graft, type of the nerve, timing of surgery, presence of multiple nerve injuries and associated osseal and soft tissue injuries of the upper and lower extremities.

  16. Mechanism of radiation ion graft polymerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabanov, V.Ya.; Aliyev, R.E.; Kudryavtsev, V.N.; Sidorova, L.P.; Spitsyn, V.I.

    1982-04-01

    The mechanism of triggering ion graft polymerization, taking into account the frequency heterogeneity of the grafting process, is examined. It is pointed out that the ion process in radiolysis has received much less attention than the behavior of radicals, and these factors are discussed for polyolefins. Data on the effects of solvents showed a correlation between solvent donor numbers and the rate of grafting, and a complete lack of correlation with other properties of solvents. For radiation ion grafting, polymer swelling in the solvent has less importance than the solvent's donor-acceptor properties. Ion grafting reaches its greatest speed at the glass point of the swelled polymer. Results showed that the solvent's effect on copolymer composition is strikingly different as the amount of solvent is increased. A formula is developed for the dependence of the ion process's contribution on the strength of the solvent dose and the content of inhibiting impurities (such as water) in the system. 9 references, 4 figures.

  17. Radiation graft modification of EPDM rubber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    N-Vinyl pyrrolidone (NVP), 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate (HEMA) and acrylamide (AAm) have been grafted to the surface of rubber vulcanizates based on ethylene-propylene-terpolymer (EPDM) using the simultaneous radiation method to alter surface properties such as wettability and therefore biocompatibility. The effect of monomer concentration, solvent and EPDM structural factors on the grafting behaviour have been investigated. The inhibitory effect upon homopolymerization of various salts has also been evaluated for the three monomers. A mechanism has been proposed to explain the behaviour of these monomers. The inclusion of multifunctional acrylates in additive amounts (1.0 vol%) enhanced the graft degree. Modified samples were able to be efficiently stained, allowing the depth of the graft copolymerization to be determined by light microscopy. Water was found to have an accelerating effect on the polymerization of these monomers, but methanol prevented their polymerization completely. The effect of EPDM structural factors upon degree of grafting was found to vary, depending upon the monomer type. (author)

  18. Soft tissue grafting to improve implant esthetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassab, Moawia M

    2010-01-01

    Dental implants are becoming the treatment of choice to replace missing teeth, especially if the adjacent teeth are free of restorations. When minimal bone width is present, implant placement becomes a challenge and often resulting in recession and dehiscence around the implant that leads to subsequent gingival recession. To correct such defect, the author turned to soft tissue autografting and allografting to correct a buccal dehiscence around tooth #24 after a malpositioned implant placed by a different surgeon. A 25-year-old woman presented with the chief complaint of gingival recession and exposure of implant threads around tooth #24. The patient received three soft tissue grafting procedures to augment the gingival tissue. The first surgery included a connective tissue graft to increase the width of the keratinized gingival tissue. The second surgery included the use of autografting (connective tissue graft) to coronally position the soft tissue and achieve implant coverage. The third and final surgery included the use of allografting material Alloderm to increase and mask the implant from showing through the gingiva. Healing period was uneventful for the patient. After three surgical procedures, it appears that soft tissue grafting has increased the width and height of the gingiva surrounding the implant. The accomplished thickness of gingival tissue appeared to mask the showing of implant threads through the gingival tissue and allowed for achieving the desired esthetic that the patient desired. The aim of the study is to present a clinical case with soft tissue grafting procedures. PMID:23662087

  19. Aortic reconstruction with bovine pericardial grafts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silveira Lindemberg Mota

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Glutaraldehyde-treated crimped bovine pericardial grafts are currently used in aortic graft surgery. These conduits have become good options for these operations, available in different sizes and shapes and at a low cost. OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the results obtained with bovine pericardial grafts for aortic reconstruction, specially concerning late complications. METHOD: Between January 1995 and January 2002, 57 patients underwent different types of aortic reconstruction operations using bovine pericardial grafts. A total of 29 (50.8% were operated on an urgent basis (mostly acute Stanford A dissection and 28 electively. Thoracotomy was performed in three patients for descending aortic replacement (two patients and aortoplasty with a patch in one. All remaining 54 underwent sternotomy, cardiopulmonary bypass and aortic resection. Deep hypothermia and total circulatory arrest was used in acute dissections and arch operations. RESULTS: Hospital mortality was 17.5%. Follow-up was 24.09 months (18.5 to 29.8 months confidence interval and complication-free actuarial survival curve was 92.3% (standard deviation ± 10.6. Two patients lately developed thoracoabdominal aneurysms following previous DeBakey II dissection and one died from endocarditis. One "patch" aortoplasty patient developed local descending aortic pseudoaneurysm 42 months after surgery. All other patients are asymptomatic and currently clinically evaluated with echocardiography and CT scans, showing no complications. CONCLUSION: Use of bovine pericardial grafts in aortic reconstruction surgery is adequate and safe, with few complications related to the conduits.

  20. Multiecho water-fat separation and simultaneous R2* estimation with multifrequency fat spectrum modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Huanzhou; Shimakawa, Ann; McKenzie, Charles A; Brodsky, Ethan; Brittain, Jean H; Reeder, Scott B

    2008-11-01

    Multiecho chemical shift-based water-fat separation methods are seeing increasing clinical use due to their ability to estimate and correct for field inhomogeneities. Previous chemical shift-based water-fat separation methods used a relatively simple signal model that assumes both water and fat have a single resonant frequency. However, it is well known that fat has several spectral peaks. This inaccuracy in the signal model results in two undesired effects. First, water and fat are incompletely separated. Second, methods designed to estimate T(2) (*) in the presence of fat incorrectly estimate the T(2) (*) decay in tissues containing fat. In this work, a more accurate multifrequency model of fat is included in the iterative decomposition of water and fat with echo asymmetry and least-squares estimation (IDEAL) water-fat separation and simultaneous T(2) (*) estimation techniques. The fat spectrum can be assumed to be constant in all subjects and measured a priori using MR spectroscopy. Alternatively, the fat spectrum can be estimated directly from the data using novel spectrum self-calibration algorithms. The improvement in water-fat separation and T(2) (*) estimation is demonstrated in a variety of in vivo applications, including knee, ankle, spine, breast, and abdominal scans. PMID:18956464

  1. Modification of microcrystalline cellulose by gamma radiation-induced grafting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madrid, Jordan F.; Abad, Lucille V.

    2015-10-01

    Modified microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) was prepared through gamma radiation-induced graft polymerization of glycidyl methacrylate (GMA). Simultaneous grafting was employed wherein MCC with GMA in methanol was irradiated with gamma radiation in nitrogen atmosphere. The effects of different experimental factors such as monomer concentration, type of solvent and absorbed dose on the degree of grafting, Dg, were studied. The amount of grafted GMA, expressed as Dg, was determined gravimetrically. Information from grafted samples subjected to Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) in attenuated total reflectance (ATR) mode showed peaks corresponding to GMA which indicates successful grafting. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis revealed that the crystalline region of MCC was not adversely affected after grafting with GMA. The thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) data showed that the decomposition of grafted MCC occurred at higher temperature compared to the base MCC polymer.

  2. 21 CFR 870.3450 - Vascular graft prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vascular graft prosthesis. 870.3450 Section 870... prosthesis. (a) Identification. A vascular graft prosthesis is an implanted device intended to repair... Prostheses 510(k) Submissions.”...

  3. Functionalisation of PAA radiation grafted PVDF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The covalent bonding of amino-terminated molecules was performed onto acrylic acid radiation induced grafting poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF). The polymer was irradiated with different ionizing radiation: swift heavy ions or electrons. The polymerization of acrylic acid was then performed to confer to PVDF carboxyl groups suitable for condensation with the amino groups of the other molecule. Acrylic acid swelling of PVDF films was investigated as a function of temperature and monomer concentration in order to anticipate the best grafting conditions. Grafted and functionalized films were characterized using infrared spectroscopy (transmission and ATR), and weighing measurements. The PVDF-g-PAA films exhibit different structures depending on the monomer concentration. Immobilization of an amino-terminated molecule and a peptide onto PVDF was achieved using water soluble carbodiimide

  4. Grafting of 2-butenyl acrylate onto starch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The monomer 2-butenyl acrylate was reacted with starch by exposure to either 60Co irradiation or ceric ion initiation. Monomer conversion in the presence of starch is greater than in the absence of starch, indicating that a starch initiating mechanism takes place for 60Co irradiated samples. Acetone extraction indicates little or no soluble homopolymer in the grafts. Portions of the samples soluble in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) appear to be low-level 2-butenyl acrylate-grafted starch by infrared analysis. DMSO-insoluble portions (usually more than 50% of each sample) are somewhat more soluble in 1N NaOH at room temperature. This indicates that the 2-butenyl acrylate acts as an easily hydrolyzed crosslink for starch in samples containing as low as 5 wt% grafted poly

  5. Autologous miniature punch grafting in stable vitiligo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajagopal R

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Autologous miniature punch grafting with certain modifications was taken up in 54 sites in 30 patients with stable vitiligo for 6 months or more. The modifications were: (a use of same sized disposable punches for both donor and recipient areas except over convex body surfaces, (b use of Castraviejo?s scissors for harvesting donor grafts, (c use of medial side of thigh as donor site and (d not removing the primary dressing of the recipient site till 8 postoperaive day. The patients were given systemic PUVASOL after the procedure for a period of three months and mean pigment spread was noted at each site. Results showed that the extent of repigmentation varied among the recipient sites, the maximum being over upper eyelids, axillae and umbilicus. The modifications in the standard procedure were found to produce less complications, like cobblestoning, graft rejection.

  6. Meshed split skin graft for extensive vitiligo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas C

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available A 30 year old female presented with generalized stable vitiligo involving large areas of the body. Since large areas were to be treated it was decided to do meshed split skin graft. A phototoxic blister over recipient site was induced by applying 8 MOP solution followed by exposure to UVA. The split skin graft was harvested from donor area by Padgett dermatome which was meshed by an ampligreffe to increase the size of the graft by 4 times. Significant pigmentation of the depigmented skin was seen after 5 months. This procedure helps to cover large recipient areas, when pigmented donor skin is limited with minimal risk of scarring. Phototoxic blister enables easy separation of epidermis thus saving time required for dermabrasion from recipient site.

  7. Is fat taste ready for primetime?

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiPatrizio, Nicholas V

    2014-09-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that gustation is important for the orosensory detection of dietary fats, and might contribute to preferences that humans, rodents, and possibly other mammals exhibit for fat-rich foods. In contrast to sweet, sour, salty, bitter, and umami, fat is not widely recognized as a primary taste quality. Recent investigations, however, provide a wealth of information that is helping to elucidate the specific molecular, cellular, and neural mechanisms required for fat detection in mammals. The latest evidence supporting a fat taste will be explored in this review, with a particular focus on recent studies that suggest a surprising role for gut-brain endocannabinoid signaling in controlling intake and preference for fats based on their proposed taste properties. PMID:24631296

  8. Radiation grafted surfaces for solid phase synthesis 'effect of grafting depth on solid support performance'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solid phase synthesis (SPS) has developed rapidly throughout the last decade. Pharmaceutical companies have committed significant resources to the development of high throughput solid phase synthesis and combinatorial chemistry handling capabilities, which resulted in increased synthesis throughput for drug discovery research. The most widely used solid supports for SPS are based on cross-linked styrene-divinylbenzene resin (Merrifield resins) and their derivatives. However, with the increasing demand for reaction reproducibility, consistency of reaction kinetics and efficiency, as well as ease in parallel handling, the 'pellicular' type support is more attractive than traditional polystyrene resin for SPS. A pellicular solid support consists of a polymer, such as polystyrene, grafted to a rigid plastic such as a polyolefin or fluorinated polymer. A series of 'pellicular' type supports were fabricated by direct gamma radiation mediated graft polymerisation of styrene onto polypropylene, followed by functionalization (aminomethylation). In this study, we report the effect of grafting conditions, which include polymer type, radiation dose rate and total dose, concentration of monomer and solvents on the grafting depth profile and coupling reaction rates of functionalisation polystyrene grafted polypropylene surfaces. Confocal Raman spectroscopy was used for measuring the level of penetration of polystyrene graft into polypropylene and other structural features such as density of graft and depth of functionalization. Raman spectroscopy results showed that the calculated rate coefficient for coupling of Fmoc-labelled amino acids was primarily dependent on graft thickness, but was also influenced by the proportion of polystyrene graft to polypropylene. In general, it was also shown that with increasing loading capacity of the support the calculated rate coefficient for amino acid coupling decreased correspondingly. In addition, a new approach was used to prepare a high surface area support that had both a high rate coefficient and a high loading capacity

  9. P.R.L. Platelet Rich Lipotransfert: Our Experience and Current State of Art in the Combined Use of Fat and PRP

    OpenAIRE

    Delogu, P; E. Tati; Scioli, M. G.; Orlandi, A.; Curcio, C. B.; Cervelli, G.; De Angelis, B; Di Pasquali, C.; Bocchini, I.; Cervelli, V; Pietro Gentile

    2013-01-01

    The authors report their experience about the use of P.R.L. PLATELET RICH LIPOTRANSFERT method (platelet rich plasma mixed fat grafting) in 223 patients affected by soft tissue defects (ulcers, Romberg syndrome, Hemifacial atrophy, loss of substance, and signs of aging). This paper introduces the reader to PRP therapy and reviews the current literature on this emerging treatment modality, showing at the current clinical use of PRP in plastic and reconstructive surgery, with description of...

  10. Comparison of Right and Left Grafts in Renal Transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Salehipour Mehdi; Bahador Ali; Jalaeian Hamed; Salahi Heshmatollah; Nikeghbalian Saman; Khajehee Fardin; Malek-Hosseini Seyed

    2008-01-01

    This study compares outcomes and graft function of right and left grafts of deceased donor. We studied 120 kidney recipients from 60 deceased donors in Shiraz organ transplantation center from 1988 to 2004. We analyzed data regarding age, gender, side of grafts, duration of pre-transplant dialysis, hospital stay, serial creatinine levels, cold ischemic time, complications, graft function, patient survival rates, and post-operative complications. Recipients were divided into two groups: group ...

  11. On healing of titanium implants in iliac crest bone grafts

    OpenAIRE

    Sjöström, Mats

    2006-01-01

    Bone grafts and titanium implants are commonly used for surgical/prosthetic rehabilitation of the atrophic edentulous maxilla. The factors which influence bone graft healing and implant integration are not sufficiently understood. The aim of this dissertation was to evaluate autogenous bone grafting and delayed placement of titanium endosteal implants for reconstruction of the atrophic maxilla, including the effects of different patient factors on bone graft healing and integration of titaniu...

  12. Sulfonated hydrocarbon graft architectures for cation exchange membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mads Møller; Jankova Atanasova, Katja; Hvilsted, Søren

    2013-01-01

    A synthetic strategy to hydrocarbon graft architectures prepared from a commercial polysulfone and aimed as ion exchange membrane material is proposed. Polystyrene is grafted from a polysulfone macroinitiator by atom transfer radical polymerization, and subsequently sulfonated with acetyl sulfate to various degrees. Series of grafting densities and graft lengths are prepared, and membranes are solvent cast from DMSO. The membrane properties in aqueous environments are evaluated from their water ...

  13. The 5-Strand Hamstring Graft in Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Rushyuan Jay; Ganley, Theodore J.

    2014-01-01

    The use of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction in the pediatric and adolescent population has been increasing in recent years. Autograft hamstring graft is favored in this population, but these patients often have smaller hamstring tendons that yield smaller final graft constructs. These smaller grafts are associated with an increased need for revision surgery. We describe a technique for obtaining a larger-diameter anterior cruciate ligament graft construct from autologous hamstring gr...

  14. Polymer structure formed in radiation-induced graft polymerization. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methyl methacrylate was grafted onto viscose rayon, wood pulp, cellophane, and poly(vinyl alcohol) with preirradiation techniques using ?-rays from a 60Co source, and the stereoregularities of the grafted polymers separated from the trunk polymers and homopolymers were determined. The stereoregularity of the polymers grafted onto rayons is different from that of the polymers grafted onto wood pulp, mercerized wood pulp, cellophane, and poly(vinyl alcohol), confirming our previous results

  15. Biodiesel via hydrotreating of fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Anders Theilgaard; Ahmed, El Hadi

    Biodiesel production via transesterification to fatty acid alkyl esters is rising rapidly worldwide due to the limited availability of fossil resources and the problems of global warming. Often, however, the use of 2nd-generation feedstock like animal waste fat and trap greases etc. is made difficult especially by the high amount of free fatty acids (FFA) in these raw materials. Another way to utilise such feedstock could be through the complete deoxygenation of the fuel, i.e. by hydrogenation and decarboxylation of the fat itself. Hydrotreating of fats is a procedure very well suited for existing petroleum refineries, and could be applied in mixture with existing hydrotreating of for instance vacuum gas oil [1,2]. As is shown in literature, both hydrogenation and decarboxylation of the fat may occur under such circumstances [2-4]. 9 g of a model mixture of 3 % oleic acid (C18:1), 7 % tripalmitin (C16:0) and 90% n-tetradecane (C14) in molar ratios was hydrotreated by 0.2 g of a 5%wt Pt/Al2O3 catalyst. The mixture was treated with 10 to 30 bar H2 in an autoclave at temperatures between 250 and 375°C, and samples for GC analysis was taken out after 1, 2, 5 and 20 hours to track the extent of reaction. Thus, the yields of pentadecane (C15) to octadecane (C18) could be monitored by GC analysis, thus indicating the conversions of FFA and tripalmitin. This procedure makes it possible to monitor and distinguish hydrogenation (resulting in hexadecane, C16, and octadecane, C18) from decarboxylation (resulting in pentadecane, C15, and heptadecane, C17) of triglyceride and fatty acid. Even in this hydrogen-rich atmosphere, the dominant reaction above 300ºC is decarboxylation of the acid and ester functionalities, thus limiting the consumption of hydrogen. Temperatures below 300°C are not well suited for the treating, as primarily the saturation of oleic acid to stearic acid (C18:0) is observed, with low conversions of fatty acid and triglyceride. [1] Stumborg, M., Wong, A. and Hogan, E., Bioresour. Technol. 56 (1996) 13 [2] Huber, G.W., O’Connor, P. and Corma, A., Appl. Catal. A. 329 (2007) 120 [3] Kubickova, I., Snåre, M., Eränen, K., Mäki-Arvela, P. and Murzin, D. Yu., Catal. Today, 106 (2005) 197 [4] Mäki-Arvela, P., Kubickova, I., Snåre, M., Eränen, K. and Murzin, D. Yu., Energy Fuels, 21 (2007) 31

  16. High melting point sunflower fat for confectionary

    OpenAIRE

    Salas, Joaquín J.; Martínez-Force, Enrique; Bootello García, Miguel Ángel; Venegas-Calerón, Mónica; Garcés Mancheño, Rafael

    2009-01-01

    The present invention is based on the finding that stearin fats, obtainable by dry or solvent fractionation of sunflower highstearic and high-oleic oils, optionally with seeding with tempered stearin crystals, have a high solid fat content at temperatures higher than 30°C, even higher than cocoa butter or other high saturated tropical fats with a similar disaturated triacylglycerol content due to the presence of disaturated triacylgiycerols rich in stearic acid, ...

  17. Dietary fat intake, supplements, and weight loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyck, D. J.

    2000-01-01

    Although there remains controversy regarding the role of macronutrient balance in the etiology of obesity, the consumption of high-fat diets appears to be strongly implicated in its development. Evidence that fat oxidation does not adjust rapidly to acute increases in dietary fat, as well as a decreased capacity to oxidize fat in the postprandial state in the obese, suggest that diets high in fat may lead to the accumulation of fat stores. Novel data is also presented suggesting that in rodents, high-fat diets may lead to the development of leptin resistance in skeletal muscle and subsequent accumulations of muscle triacylglycerol. Nevertheless, several current fad diets recommend drastically reduced carbohydrate intake, with a concurrent increase in fat content. Such recommendations are based on the underlying assumption that by reducing circulating insulin levels, lipolysis and lipid oxidation will be enhanced and fat storage reduced. Numerous supplements are purported to increase fat oxidation (carnitine, conjugated linoleic acid), increase metabolic rate (ephedrine, pyruvate), or inhibit hepatic lipogenesis (hydroxycitrate). All of these compounds are currently marketed in supplemental form to increase weight loss, but few have actually been shown to be effective in scientific studies. To date, there is little or no evidence supporting that carnitine or hydroxycitrate supplementation are of any value for weight loss in humans. Supplements such as pyruvate have been shown to be effective at high dosages, but there is little mechanistic information to explain its purported effect or data to indicate its effectiveness at lower dosages. Conjugated linoleic acid has been shown to stimulate fat utilization and decrease body fat content in mice but has not been tested in humans. The effects of ephedrine, in conjunction with methylxanthines and aspirin, in humans appears unequivocal but includes various cardiovascular side effects. None of these compounds have been tested for their effectiveness or safety over prolonged periods of time.

  18. Dietary Fat in Breast Cancer Survival

    OpenAIRE

    Makarem, Nour; Chandran, Urmila; Bandera, Elisa V.; Parekh, Niyati

    2013-01-01

    Laboratory evidence suggests a plausible role for dietary fat in breast cancer pathophysiology. We conducted a systematic literature review to assess the epidemiological evidence on the impact of total dietary fat and fat subtypes, measured pre- and/or postcancer diagnosis, in relation to breast cancer–specific and all-cause mortality among breast cancer survivors. Studies were included if they were in English, had a sample size ?200, and presented the hazard ratio/rate ratio for recurrence, ...

  19. Simultaneous angioplasty and intraluminal grafting with the Palmaz expandable intraluminal graft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors describe their experience with the Palmaz expandable intraluminal graft (EIG) in a Flemish giant rabbit model of atherosclerosis. Rabbits were rendered atherosclerotic by means of a combination of desiccation endothelial injury of the femoral arteries and atherogenic diet (2% cholesterol, 6% peanut oil). Via carotic cutdown, EIGs mounted on small-vessel angioplasty balloons (? 3.5 mm in diameter) were placed in stenotic femoral arteries. The feasibility of simultaneous percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and intraluminal grafting was assessed. Angiograms revealed dramatic improvement in vessel diameters. Angiographic and pathologic findings are presented, and the concept of intraluminal grafting with the Palmaz EIG is reviewed

  20. The FAt Spondyloarthritis Spine Score (FASSS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne Juhl; Zhao, Zheng; Lambert, Robert Gw; Wichuk, Stephanie; Østergaard, Mikkel; Weber, Ulrich; Maksymowych, Walter P

    2013-01-01

    Studies have shown that fat lesions follow resolution of inflammation in the spine of patients with axial spondyloarthritis (SpA). Fat lesions at vertebral corners have also been shown to predict development of new syndesmophytes. Therefore, scoring of fat lesions in the spine may constitute both an important measure of treatment efficacy as well as a surrogate marker for new bone formation. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a new scoring method for fat lesions in the spine, the ...

  1. Graft Union Formation in Tomato Plants: Peroxidase and Catalase Involvement

    OpenAIRE

    FERNÁNDEZ?GARCÍA, NIEVES; CARVAJAL, MICAELA; OLMOS, ENRIQUE

    2004-01-01

    • Background and Aims The use of grafted plants in vegetable crop production is now being expanded greatly. However, few data are available on the formation of graft unions in vegetables. In this work, the structural development of the graft union formation in tomato plants is studied, together with the possible relationship with activities of peroxidases and catalases.

  2. Polymers grafted by ionizing radiations. Regulated desorption of fertilizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Study and development of copolymers for progressive liberation of fertilizers in the soil through a membrane. These copolymers are obtained by grafting a hydrophilic acrylic monomer on a hydrophobic polymer (polyolefine). Desorption of a fertilizer through a membrane of graft polymer as a function of time and grafting ratio was tested both in the laboratory and by plant growing

  3. Dietary Fat, Fat Subtypes and Hepatocellular Carcinoma in a Large European Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duarte-Salles, Talita; Fedirko, Veronika; Stepien, Magdalena; Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Bamia, Christina; Lagiou, Pagona; Laursen, Anne Sofie Dam; Hansen, Louise; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Fagherazzi, Guy; His, Mathilde; Boeing, Heiner; Katzke, Verena; Kühn, Tilman; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Valanou, Elissavet; Kritikou, Maria; Masala, Giovanna; Panico, Salvatore; Sieri, Sabina; Ricceri, Fulvio; Tumino, Rosario; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Peeters, Petra H; Hjartåker, Anette; Skeie, Guri; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Ardanaz, Eva; Bonet, Catalina; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Dorronsoro, Miren; Quirós, J Ramón; Johansson, Ingegerd; Ohlsson, Bodil; Sjöberg, Klas; Wennberg, Maria; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Travis, Ruth C; Wareham, Nick; Ferrari, Pietro; Freisling, Heinz; Romieu, Isabelle; Cross, Amanda J; Gunter, Marc; Lu, Yunxia; Jenab, Mazda

    2015-01-01

    The role of amount and type of dietary fat consumption in the aetiology of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is poorly understood, despite suggestive biological plausibility. The associations of total fat, fat subtypes and fat sources with HCC incidence were investigated in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort, which includes 191 incident HCC cases diagnosed between 1992 and 2010. Diet was assessed by country-specific, validated dietary questionnaires. A si...

  4. Function and cancer genomics of FAT family genes

    OpenAIRE

    Katoh, Masaru

    2012-01-01

    FAT1, FAT2, FAT3 and FAT4 are human homologs of Drosophila Fat, which is involved in tumor suppression and planar cell polarity (PCP). FAT1 and FAT4 undergo the first proteolytic cleavage by Furin and are predicted to undergo the second cleavage by ?-secretase to release intracellular domain (ICD). Ena/VAPS-binding to FAT1 induces actin polymerization at lamellipodia and filopodia to promote cell migration, while Scribble-binding to FAT1 induces phosphorylation and functional inhibition of YA...

  5. Hypoxia, Oxidative Stress and Fat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaus Netzer

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic disturbances in white adipose tissue in obese individuals contribute to the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Impaired insulin action in adipocytes is associated with elevated lipolysis and increased free fatty acids leading to ectopic fat deposition in liver and skeletal muscle. Chronic adipose tissue hypoxia has been suggested to be part of pathomechanisms causing dysfunction of adipocytes. Hypoxia can provoke oxidative stress in human and animal adipocytes and reduce the production of beneficial adipokines, such as adiponectin. However, time-dose responses to hypoxia relativize the effects of hypoxic stress. Long-term exposure of fat cells to hypoxia can lead to the production of beneficial substances such as leptin. Knowledge of time-dose responses of hypoxia on white adipose tissue and the time course of generation of oxidative stress in adipocytes is still scarce. This paper reviews the potential links between adipose tissue hypoxia, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and low-grade inflammation caused by adipocyte hypertrophy, macrophage infiltration and production of inflammatory mediators.

  6. MICELLIZATION BEHAVIOR COMPARISION OF POLYPEPTIDE GRAFT COPOLYMER AND BLOCK-GRAFT COPOLYMER IN ETHANOL

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    GUO-QUAN, ZHU.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(?-benzyl L-glutamate)-graft-poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG-b-PBLG-g-PEG) copolymer and poly(?-benzyl L-glutamate)-graft-poly(ethylene glycol) (PBLG-graft-PEG) copolymer were synthesized by the ester exchange reaction of PEG chain with PBLG-block-PEG copolymer and PBLG ho [...] mopolymer, respectively. The micellization behaviors of PEG-b-PBLG-g-PEG and PBLG-graft-PEG in ethanol were investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and viscometry. Effects of both the introduction of PBLG homopolymer and the change of testing temperature on the critical aggregation concentration (CAC) of the two polypeptide copolymers in ethanol were mainly studied. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were used to research the chain conformations of polypeptide segments of the two polypeptide copolymers in solvent and in the solid state, respectively.

  7. Reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament: a comparison between bone-patellar tendon-bone grafts and fourstrand hamstring grafts

    OpenAIRE

    Razi, Mohammad; Sarzaeem, Mohammad Mahdi; Kazemian, Gholam Hossein; Najafi, Farideh; Najafi, Mohammad Amin

    2014-01-01

    Background: Disruption of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is a common ligamentous injury of the knee. The choice of graft for (ACL) reconstruction remains controversial. This prospective, randomized clinical trial aimed to compare clinical results of bone-patellar tendon-bone (BPTB) grafts and four-strand semitendinosus-gracilis (ST) grafts for ACL reconstruction over a 3-year follow-up interval.

  8. Fat metabolism in formerly obese women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ranneries, C; Bülow, J

    1998-01-01

    An impaired fat oxidation has been implicated to play a role in the etiology of obesity, but it is unclear to what extent impaired fat mobilization from adipose tissue or oxidation of fat is responsible. The present study aimed to examine fat mobilization from adipose tissue and whole body fat oxidation stimulated by exercise in seven formerly obese women (FO) and eight matched controls (C). Lipolysis in the periumbilical subcutaneous adipose tissue, whole body energy expenditure (EE), and substrate oxidation rates were measured before, during, and after a 60-min bicycle exercise bout of moderate intensity. Lipolysis was assessed by glycerol release using microdialysis and blood flow measurement by 133Xe clearance technique. The FO women had lower resting EE than C (3.77 +/- 1.01 vs. 4.88 +/- 0.74 kJ/min, P <0.05) but responded similarly to exercise. Adipose tissue glycerol release was twice as high in FO than in C at rest (0.455 +/- 0.299 vs. 0.206 +/- 0.102 mumol.100 g-1.min-1, P <0.05) but increased similarly in FO and C in response to exercise. Despite higher plasma nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) in FO (P <0.001), fat oxidation rates during rest and recovery were lower in FO than in C (1.32 +/- 0.84 vs. 3.70 +/- 0.57 kJ/min, P <0.02) and fat oxidation for a given plasma NEFA concentration was lower at rest (P <0.001) and during exercise (P = 0.01) in the formerly obese group. In conclusion, fat mobilization both at rest and during exercise is intact in FO, whereas fat oxidation is subnormal despite higher circulation NEFA levels. The lower resting EE and the failure to use fat as fuel contribute to a positive fat balance and weight gain in FO subjects.

  9. Fat metabolism in formerly obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranneries, C; Bülow, J; Buemann, B; Christensen, N J; Madsen, J; Astrup, A

    1998-01-01

    An impaired fat oxidation has been implicated to play a role in the etiology of obesity, but it is unclear to what extent impaired fat mobilization from adipose tissue or oxidation of fat is responsible. The present study aimed to examine fat mobilization from adipose tissue and whole body fat oxidation stimulated by exercise in seven formerly obese women (FO) and eight matched controls (C). Lipolysis in the periumbilical subcutaneous adipose tissue, whole body energy expenditure (EE), and substrate oxidation rates were measured before, during, and after a 60-min bicycle exercise bout of moderate intensity. Lipolysis was assessed by glycerol release using microdialysis and blood flow measurement by 133Xe clearance technique. The FO women had lower resting EE than C (3.77 +/- 1.01 vs. 4.88 +/- 0.74 kJ/min, P < 0.05) but responded similarly to exercise. Adipose tissue glycerol release was twice as high in FO than in C at rest (0.455 +/- 0.299 vs. 0.206 +/- 0.102 mumol.100 g-1.min-1, P < 0.05) but increased similarly in FO and C in response to exercise. Despite higher plasma nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) in FO (P < 0.001), fat oxidation rates during rest and recovery were lower in FO than in C (1.32 +/- 0.84 vs. 3.70 +/- 0.57 kJ/min, P < 0.02) and fat oxidation for a given plasma NEFA concentration was lower at rest (P < 0.001) and during exercise (P = 0.01) in the formerly obese group. In conclusion, fat mobilization both at rest and during exercise is intact in FO, whereas fat oxidation is subnormal despite higher circulation NEFA levels. The lower resting EE and the failure to use fat as fuel contribute to a positive fat balance and weight gain in FO subjects. PMID:9458761

  10. Graft-versus-host disease and graft-versus-tumor effects after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storb, Rainer; Gyurkocza, Boglarka

    2013-01-01

    We designed a minimal-intensity conditioning regimen for allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) in patients with advanced hematologic malignancies unable to tolerate high-intensity regimens because of age, serious comorbidities, or previous high-dose HCT. The regimen allows the purest assessment of graft-versus-tumor (GVT) effects apart from conditioning and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) not augmented by regimen-related toxicities.

  11. Islet amyloid deposition limits the viability of human islet grafts but not porcine islet grafts

    OpenAIRE

    Potter, K.J.; Abedini, A.; Marek, P; Klimek, A. M.; Butterworth, S.; Driscoll, M; Baker, R.; Nilsson, M. R.; Warnock, G. L.; J. Oberholzer; Bertera, S.; Trucco, M.; Korbutt, G S; Fraser, P E; Raleigh, D P

    2010-01-01

    Islet transplantation is a promising treatment for diabetes but long-term success is limited by progressive graft loss. Aggregates of the beta cell peptide islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP) promote beta cell apoptosis and rapid amyloid formation occurs in transplanted islets. Porcine islets are an attractive alternative islet source as they demonstrate long-term graft survival. We compared the capacity of transplanted human and porcine islets to form amyloid as an explanation for differences i...

  12. Stress – structure correlations in grafted polymer films

    OpenAIRE

    Lenz, Sebastian Cornelius

    2009-01-01

    In der vorliegenden Arbeit wurden experimentelle Untersuchungen zu gepfropften Polymerfilmen durchgeführt. Dabei wurden endgepfropfte poly-methyl-methacrylate (PMMA) Bürsten hergestellt durch „grafting from“ Methoden und polystyrol (PS)/ poly-vinyl-methyl-ether (PVME) Polymerfilme gepfropft auf UV sensitiven Oberflächen untersucht. Zur Strukturuntersuchung wurden die hergestellten Systeme wurden mit Rasterkraftmikroskopie (engl.: Surface Probe Microscopy, SPM), Röntgen - und Neutronenreflekti...

  13. Photoactivated surface grafting from PVDF surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berthelot, Thomas, E-mail: thomas.berthelot@cea.fr [Chemistry of Surfaces and Interfaces, CEA Saclay, DSM/IRAMIS/SPCSI, F-91191, Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Le, Xuan Tuan; Jegou, Pascale; Viel, Pascal [Chemistry of Surfaces and Interfaces, CEA Saclay, DSM/IRAMIS/SPCSI, F-91191, Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Boizot, Bruno [Laboratory of Irradiated Solids UMR 7642 CEA/CNRS/Ecole Polytechnique, CEA-DSM/IRAMIS LSI, Ecole Polytechnique, F-91128, Palaiseau Cedex (France); Baudin, Cecile; Palacin, Serge [Chemistry of Surfaces and Interfaces, CEA Saclay, DSM/IRAMIS/SPCSI, F-91191, Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France)

    2011-09-01

    Economic and easy methods to tune surface properties of polymers as Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) without altering bulk properties are of major interest for different applications as biotechnological devices, medical implant device... UV irradiation appears as one of the simplest, easy and safe method to modify surface properties. In the case of self-initiated grafting, it is generally assumed that the pre-treatment of the PVDF surface with UV irradiation can yield alkyl and per-oxy radicals originating from breaking bonds and capable of initiating the subsequent surface grafting polymerizations. Surprisingly, the present work shows that it is possible to obtain polymer grafting using low energetic UV-A irradiation (3.1-3.9 eV) without breaking PVDF bonds. An EPR study has been performed in order to investigate the nature of involved species. The ability of the activated PVDF surface to graft different kinds of hydrophilic monomers using the initiated surface polymerization method has been tested and discussed on the basis of ATR FT-IR, XPS and NMR HRMAS results.

  14. Interposition Grafting of Large Extracranial Carotid Aneurysm

    OpenAIRE

    Huyzer, Marlous; Reijnen, Michel M. P. J.; Sybrandy, Johannes E.M.; Buth, Jacob; Zeebregts, Clark J.

    2011-01-01

    Extracranial carotid aneurysms are a rare entity and carry an inherent risk of thromboembolic complications. Treatment options consist of endovascular and conventional surgical techniques. We describe the cases of 3 patients who were treated with an interposition graft for a large extracranial carotid aneurysm.

  15. Photoactivated surface grafting from PVDF surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Economic and easy methods to tune surface properties of polymers as Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) without altering bulk properties are of major interest for different applications as biotechnological devices, medical implant device... UV irradiation appears as one of the simplest, easy and safe method to modify surface properties. In the case of self-initiated grafting, it is generally assumed that the pre-treatment of the PVDF surface with UV irradiation can yield alkyl and per-oxy radicals originating from breaking bonds and capable of initiating the subsequent surface grafting polymerizations. Surprisingly, the present work shows that it is possible to obtain polymer grafting using low energetic UV-A irradiation (3.1-3.9 eV) without breaking PVDF bonds. An EPR study has been performed in order to investigate the nature of involved species. The ability of the activated PVDF surface to graft different kinds of hydrophilic monomers using the initiated surface polymerization method has been tested and discussed on the basis of ATR FT-IR, XPS and NMR HRMAS results.

  16. Activation, dissolution and controlled grafting of cellulose.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Raus, Vladimír; Látalová, Petra; Šturcová, Adriana; K?íž, Jaroslav; Janata, Miroslav; Dybal, Ji?í; Vl?ek, Petr

    Praha : Ústav makromolekulární chemie AV ?R, 2009. L7. ISBN 978-80-85009-60-6. [Workshop: Career in Polymers. 10.07.2009-11.07.2009, Prague] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : cellulose * controlled grafting * controlled radical polymerization Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry

  17. Graft copolymers of cellulose with controlled architecture.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Raus, Vladimír; Látalová, Petra; Šturcová, Adriana; Dybal, Ji?í; K?íž, Jaroslav; Svobodová, Jana; Vl?ek, Petr

    Praha : Ústav makromolekulární chemie AV ?R, 2010. L_11. ISBN 978-80-85009-62-0. [Workshop "Career in Polymers" /2./. 23.07.2010-24.07.2010, Praha] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : graft copolymers * cellulose * controlled architecture Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry

  18. Prefabricated Composite Graft for Eyelid Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicoletti, Giovanni; Jaber, Omar; Tresoldi, Marco Mario; Pellegatta, Tommaso; Faga, Angela

    2015-10-01

    The authors propose a prefabricated chondromucosal composite graft to reconstruct full-thickness defects of the lower eyelid. The technique was used in a patient suffering from a locally invasive basal cell carcinoma of the lower eyelid, who had previously undergone an extensive submucosal nasal septum resection. One week prior to the eyelid resection, the anterior skin surface of the auricular concha was replaced with a full-thickness oral mucosa graft. One week later, a full-thickness excision of the right lower eyelid was performed and the prefabricated chondromucosal auricular graft was used to restore the posterior lamella. The anterior lamella was reconstructed with a bipedicled myocutaneous flap from the upper eyelid. Because of the patient's scheduling needs, the medial pedicle of the flap was divided 28 days later and the lateral one after further 37 days. All the procedures were performed under local anesthesia. This technique adds a simple key detail to other time-honored reliable techniques, thus outlining an extremely convenient sequence for full-thickness eyelid reconstruction. The easily prepared prefabricated chondromucosal graft might be associated with any of the previously described flaps, thus providing a versatile and reliable method of posterior lamella reconstruction. PMID:26579869

  19. Cellular grafts in management of leucoderma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mysore Venkataram

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Cellular grafting methods constitute important advances in the surgical management of leucoderma. Different methods such as noncultured epidermal suspensions, melanocyte cultures, and melanocyte-keratinocyte cultures have all been shown to be effective. This article reviews these methods.

  20. 21 CFR 582.4521 - Monosodium phosphate derivatives of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming fatty acids. 582.4521 Section 582.4521 Food and... Monosodium phosphate derivatives of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming fatty acids. (a) Product. Monosodium phosphate derivatives of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats...

  1. Preparation and physical properties of grafted bagasse pulp metal complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of grafting on the electrical properties of bleached bagasse pulp has been investigated over a frequency range 1-200 Khz. The conductivity increases upon grafting with acrylic acid or acrylonitrile. Grafted bleached bagasse pulp with acrylic acid showed an increase in the dielectric constant ? and dielectric loss ?. The bagasse/acrylic acid copolymer metal complexes have shown further increase in the conductivity. The conductivity decreases as the degree of grafting increased from 25% to 215%, indicating slower rate of complexation at higher grafting percentage

  2. Stretch Polytetrafluoroethylene Grafts for Hemodialysis Angioaccess: Three-year Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Dayel Adel

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the results of 90 stretch polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE grafts in 78 chronic renal failure patients over a 3-year period from 1995-1998. The grafts were used as primary access in 15% of the patients. The cumulative patency was 63.3% and there were no complications in 48.8% of the cases. Infection was encountered in 15.5% and thrombosis in 31.1% of the grafts. Intimal hyperplasia, venous anastomotic stenosis, improper puncture technique and subclavian vein stenosis were the major causes of failure of grafts. We conclude that stretch PTFE grafts as angioaccesses may provide good patency and durability.

  3. Rib Bone Graft Adjusted to Fit the Facial Asymmetry: A Frame Structure Graft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yoon Ho; Choi, Jong Hwan; Hwang, Kun; Choi, Jun Ho

    2015-10-01

    The authors introduce the concept of a "frame structure graft" in which a harvested rib bone was adjusted to fit facial asymmetry.On the costochondral junction of the sixth or seventh rib, a 5?cm incision was made. Through a subperiosteal dissection, the rib bone was harvested. Using a reciprocating saw, the harvested rib was scored on its anterior surface as well as its posterior surface with a partial depth at different intervals. The harvested rib bone was placed on the skin surface of the unaffected side of the face and a curvature was created exactly matching that of the unaffected side by bending the bone using a greenstick fracture. Thereafter, the graft was adjusted to conceal the asymmetry of the deficient side. The adjusted "frame structure" was transferred to the defect through the incisions on the affected side, and the "frame structure" graft was placed on the mandible or zygoma. The graft fixation was done externally with at least 2 Kirschner wires (K-wires).From January 2005 to August 2013, a total of 30 patients (13 men, 17 women, mean age 25.6 years) received a frame structure graft. All 30 patients achieved good healing at the operation site without complications. Donor-site morbidity as pneumothorax from the rib bone harvest was not found.Merits of this frame structure graft, the authors think, are that this method could allow a similar curvature to the normal side. In addition, the procedure itself is easy. PMID:26468802

  4. Characteristics of Body Fat, Body Fat Percentage and Other Body Composition for Koreans from KNHANES IV

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Sangmo; Oh, Han Jin; Choi, Hoon; Kim, Jung Gu; Lim, Sung Kil; Kim, Eun Kyung; Pyo, Eun Young; Oh, Kyungwon; Kim, Young Taek; Wilson, Kevin; Choi, Woong Hwan

    2011-01-01

    Accurate measurement of fat mass has become increasingly important with the increasing incidence of obesity. We assessed fat and muscle mass of Koreans with the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV (KNHANES IV). We studied 10,456 subjects (aged 20 to 85 yr; 4,476 men, 5,980 women). Fat and muscle mass were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Reference values of body compositions were obtained using the LMS method. The fat mass index (FMI, body fat mass/height2; ...

  5. Coming out as Fat: Rethinking Stigma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saguy, Abigail C.; Ward, Anna

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the surprising case of women who "come out as fat" to test and refine theories about social change, social mobilization, stigma, and stigma resistance. First, supporting theories about "social movement spillover," we find that overlapping memberships in queer and fat activist groups, as well as networks between these groups,…

  6. On Learning to Teach Fat Feminism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boling, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    As a feminist theorist who frequently teaches theorizing that starts from embodied experience, the author has begun to incorporate fat feminism into her teaching. As a neophyte and a relatively thin woman, she has been self-conscious about broaching issues related to fat bodies in her teaching, even though they clearly raise important issues about…

  7. Vitamin D3 in Fat Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    The literature describing vitamin D content of fat tissue is extremely limited. We conducted a pilot study that measured the concentrations of vitamin D3 in the fat tissue and serum of obese adults. These measurements were performed using a new liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC/MS) metho...

  8. Fat Consumption | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Some studies suggest that high-fat diets or high intakes of different types of fat in the diet may be linked to several cancers, including colon, lung, and postmenopausal breast cancer, as well as heart disease and other chronic diseases.

  9. Bioelectrical impedance analysis of bovine milk fat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three samples of 250ml at home temperature of 20°C were obtained from whole, low fat and fat free bovine UHT milk. They were analysed by measuring both impedance spectra and dc conductivity in order to establish the relationship between samples related to fat content. An impedance measuring system was developed, which is based on digital oscilloscope, a current source and a FPGA. Data was measured by the oscilloscope in the frequency 1 kHz to 100 kHz. It was showed that there is approximately 7.9% difference in the conductivity between whole and low fat milk whereas 15.9% between low fat and free fat one. The change of fatness in the milk can be significantly sensed by both impedance spectra measurements and dc conductivity. This result might be useful for detecting fat content of milk in a very simple way and also may help the development of sensors for measuring milk quality, as for example the detection of mastitis.

  10. Bioelectrical impedance analysis of bovine milk fat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga, E. A.; Bertemes-Filho, P.

    2012-12-01

    Three samples of 250ml at home temperature of 20°C were obtained from whole, low fat and fat free bovine UHT milk. They were analysed by measuring both impedance spectra and dc conductivity in order to establish the relationship between samples related to fat content. An impedance measuring system was developed, which is based on digital oscilloscope, a current source and a FPGA. Data was measured by the oscilloscope in the frequency 1 kHz to 100 kHz. It was showed that there is approximately 7.9% difference in the conductivity between whole and low fat milk whereas 15.9% between low fat and free fat one. The change of fatness in the milk can be significantly sensed by both impedance spectra measurements and dc conductivity. This result might be useful for detecting fat content of milk in a very simple way and also may help the development of sensors for measuring milk quality, as for example the detection of mastitis.

  11. EPICARDIAL FAT: A STRIKER OR A SPARE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Drapkina

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Epicardial fat is hormonally active tissue and has a direct impact on the myocardium state and coronary blood flow. The relationship of epicardial fat size and waist circumference with different clinical and metabolic parameters and coronary atherosclerosis severity in patients with ischemic heart disease is discussed.

  12. Polypropylene grafted with glycidyl methacrylate using supercritical CO2 medium

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M. H., Kunita; E. M., Girotto; E. C., Muniz; A. F., Rubira.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Films of polypropylene (PP) were grafted with glycidil methacrylate (GMA) using supercritical CO2 as swelling agent and solvent. Different pressures and temperatures were used to study their effects on the soaking and grafting process. FTIR results showed signals at 1726 and 1640 cm-1, assigned to C [...] =O and C=C (after the soaking process), and a decreased signal at 1640 cm-1 (after the grafting procedure), suggesting the effective grafting of GMA. For the grafted material immersed in ethylenediamine, peaks in the 3600 to 3250 cm-1 range (N-H stretching) were evident. Contact angle measurements showed an increasingly hydrophilic nature in the direction from pure PP to grafted PP/GMA (PP-g-GMA) to PP-g-GMA immersed in ethylenediamine (PP-g-GMA/En). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy provided evidenced of the effective incorporation of ethylenediamine in the grafted material.

  13. ESR spectroscopic investigations of the radiation-grafting of fluoropolymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huebner, G.; Roduner, E. [University of Stuttgart (Germany); Brack, H.P.; Scherer, G.G. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    ESR spectroscopic investigations have clarified the influence of several preparative parameters on the reaction rates and yields obtained in the radiation-grafting method used at PSI to prepare proton-conducting polymer membranes. At a given irradiation dose, a higher concentration of reactive radical sites was detected in ETFE films than in FEP films. This higher concentration explains the higher grafting levels and rates of the ETFE films found in our previous grafting experiments. Taken together, the in-situ ESR experiments and grafting experiments show that the rates of disappearance of radical species and grafting rates and final grafting levels depend strongly on the reaction temperature and the oxygen content of the system. Average grafted chain lengths were calculated to contain about 1,000 monomer units. (author) 2 figs., 4 refs.

  14. Belly Fat Is Bad, Even At a Normal Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belly Fat Is Bad, Even at a Normal Weight When pounds collect around the middle, risk of premature death rises, study finds To ... the Annals of Internal Medicine . "Belly fat is bad fat," said Dr. Paul Poirier, from the Institute ...

  15. Fat Utilization for Pigs: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.H. Kim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The available energy in utilizable fats and oils is about 2.25 times that from utilizable carbohydrates (although, there is a considerable range in values, they supply essential fatty acids can have an influence on carcass quality and are useful in reducing dust and promoting palatability of compound diets. There are two kinds of oil sources. First, the major sources of vegetable oil are as follows: soya beans, palm, sunflower seed, rape seed, coconut, cotten seed. Second, the major sources of animal fats are as follows: cattle tallow sheep fat, pig lard and fish oils. For pigs, fats include decrease feed intake and increased palatability, growth rate, feed efficiency and carcass fat.

  16. Regulation of body fat in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Supriya

    2015-01-01

    Over the past decade, studies conducted in Caenorhabditis elegans have helped to uncover the ancient and complex origins of body fat regulation. This review highlights the powerful combination of genetics, pharmacology, and biochemistry used to study energy balance and the regulation of cellular fat metabolism in C. elegans. The complete wiring diagram of the C. elegans nervous system has been exploited to understand how the sensory nervous system regulates body fat and how food perception is coupled with the production of energy via fat metabolism. As a model organism, C. elegans also offers a unique opportunity to discover neuroendocrine factors that mediate direct communication between the nervous system and the metabolic tissues. The coming years are expected to reveal a wealth of information on the neuroendocrine control of body fat in C. elegans. PMID:25340962

  17. Quantification of milk fat in chocolate fats by triacylglycerol analysis using gas-liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchgraber, Manuela; Androni, Simona; Anklam, Elke

    2007-05-01

    The development and in-house testing of a method for the quantification of milk fat in chocolate fats is described. A database consisting of the triacylglycerol profiles of 310 genuine milk fat samples from 21 European countries and 947 mixtures thereof with chocolate fats was created under a strict quality control scheme using 26 triacylglycerol reference standards for calibration purposes. Out of the individual triacylglycerol fractions obtained, 1-palmitoyl-2-stearoyl-3-butyroyl-glycerol (PSB) was selected as suitable marker compound for the determination of the proportion of milk fat in chocolate fats. By using PSB values from the standardized database, a calibration function using simple linear regression analysis was calculated to be used for future estimations of the milk fat content. A comparison with the widely used butyric acid method, which is currently used to determine the milk fat content in nonmilk fat mixtures, showed that both methods were equivalent in terms of accuracy. The advantage of the presented approach is that for further applications, i.e., determination of foreign fats in chocolate fats, just a single analysis is necessary, whereas for the same purpose, the C4 method requires two different analytical methods. PMID:17394333

  18. A Fat Gluino in Disguise

    CERN Document Server

    Reuter, J

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate how a sizeable width-to-mass ratio for a gluino, as is for example realized in GMSB scenarios, could affect the discovery potential of gluinos at the LHC. More importantly, the influence of the gluino being "fat" on the standard mass and spin determination methods at the LHC are investigated. For this purpose, we focus on gluino production at the LHC, where we do not factorize the first step in the gluino decay cascade, but treat the following decay cascades step in factorization, including full spin correlations. The effects of sizeable width-to-mass ratios from a few up to 15-20 per cent on the endpoint of several mass determination methods as well as on means for discrimination between BSM spin paradigms like SUSY and UED are studied.

  19. A fat gluino in disguise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reuter, J.; Wiesler, D.

    2012-12-15

    In this paper, we investigate how a sizeable width-to-mass ratio for a gluino, as is for example realized in GMSB scenarios, could affect the discovery potential of gluinos at the LHC. More importantly, the influence of the gluino being ''fat'' on the standard mass and spin determination methods at the LHC are investigated. For this purpose, we focus on gluino production at the LHC, where we do not factorize the first step in the gluino decay cascade, but treat the following decay cascades step in factorization, including full spin correlations. The effects of sizeable width-to-mass ratios from a few up to 15-20 per cent on the endpoint of several mass determination methods as well as on means for discrimination between BSM spin paradigms like SUSY and UED are studied.

  20. A fat gluino in disguise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we investigate how a sizeable width-to-mass ratio for a gluino, as is for example realized in GMSB scenarios, could affect the discovery potential of gluinos at the LHC. More importantly, the influence of the gluino being ''fat'' on the standard mass and spin determination methods at the LHC are investigated. For this purpose, we focus on gluino production at the LHC, where we do not factorize the first step in the gluino decay cascade, but treat the following decay cascades step in factorization, including full spin correlations. The effects of sizeable width-to-mass ratios from a few up to 15-20 per cent on the endpoint of several mass determination methods as well as on means for discrimination between BSM spin paradigms like SUSY and UED are studied.

  1. Radiation grafting of acrylonitrile on ethylene-propylene diene terpolymer rubber. Optimization of grafting parameters and oil resistance properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation induced grafting of acrylonitrile (ACN) on ethylene-propene diene terpolymer (EPDM) rubber film was investigated by mutual radiation grafting technique. Effect of experimental variables viz. radiation dose, dose rate, type of solvent and monomer content on extent of grafting was studied. From the kinetic studies a mathematical relation Rg?[M]0.7D0.68 showing non-linear relationship for rate of grafting with monomer concentration and dose was deduced. The grafted samples showed increased hardness and oil resistance. (author)

  2. Permeability of solutes through cellophanes grafted with vinyl monomers. II. Diffusion of potassium chloride through cellophanes grafted with acrylic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The permeability behavior of potassium chloride through cellophane grafted with acrylic acid by a ?-irradiation method was studied by the theoretical equation derived from the phenomenological equation and compared with the results of Donnan membrane equilibrium. It was shown that the permeation of potassium chloride through the grafted cellophanes exhibited behavior typical of a polyionic membrane for grafts of more than 55% but depended on the permeability of both cellophane and graft regions for lower percents of grafting. It was found that the dominant factor affecting the permeation of potassium chloride was an effective concentration of fixed charge in the membrane. 5 figures, 2 tables

  3. Fat avoidance and replacement behaviors predict low-fat intake among urban African American adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Noia, Jennifer; Contento, Isobel R; Schinke, Steven P

    2008-06-01

    Using measures of behaviors shown to predict low-fat intake in previous research, this study examined whether the behaviors would predict low-fat intake among urban African American adolescents. Recruited through youth services agencies in Philadelphia, Pa, participants were 399 African American adolescents (67% female subjects) with a mean age of 13.09 years (range, 10-15 years). Fat-related dietary behaviors were measured using items that were adapted from the Food Habits Questionnaire. Fat intake was measured using the Block Fat Screener. Spearman correlations examined the relationships between fat-related dietary behaviors and fat intake. Seven behaviors were significantly associated with low-fat intake: had chicken that was baked or broiled instead of fried; ordered pasta or pizza served without meat sauce or meat toppings; had a vegetarian dinner; used low-calorie instead of regular salad dressing; ate at least 2 vegetables (not green salad) at dinner; ate bread, rolls, or muffins without butter or margarine; and avoided foods that were fried in oil, shortening, or lard. Using multiple regression, fat intake was regressed on the linear combination of demographic variables and these fat-related dietary behaviors. The regression equation accounted for 17% of the variance in fat intake (adjusted R(2) = 0.13). Fat avoidance (ate bread, rolls, or muffins without butter or margarine) and replacement (ordered pasta or pizza served without meat sauce or meat toppings) behaviors were significant predictors of low-fat intake. Dietary interventions to lower fat intake among urban African American adolescents should promote the adoption of these behaviors. PMID:19083432

  4. Body Fat, Abdominal Fat, and Body Fat Distribution Is Related to Left Atrial Diameter in Young Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, Magnus; Thorsson, Ola; Karlsson, Magnus K; Lindén, Christian; Andersen, Lars B; Wollmer, Per

    2012-01-01

    In adults, the size of the left atria (LA) has important prognostic information. In obese adults, adolescents and children enlargement of LA have been observed. This has not been investigated on a population-based level in young children. We therefore assessed if total body fat mass (TBF), abdominal fat, and body fat distribution were related to LA diameter. Cross-sectional study of 244 children (boys = 137 and girls n = 107) aged 8-11 years, recruited from an urban population-based cohort. Dual...

  5. Graft copolymers of polypropylene films. 1. radiation induced grafting of mixed monomers. Vol. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation graft copolymerization of co monomer mixtures of acrylic acid (AAC), and styrene (S) onto polypropylene (PP) film by mutual method has been investigated. The effects of different factors that may affect the grafting yield such as inhibitor concentration (Mohr's salt), solvent composition (MeOH and H2 O), radiation dose and dose rate were considered. It was found that the role of Mohr's salt is very effective when the ratio of AAC in the co monomer mixtures was at lower values. However, the addition of 1.25 Wt% of Mohr's salt reduced the homo polymer formation and enhances the grafting process. Graft copolymerization in presence of solvent mixture composed of methanol and water was found to afford higher grafting than in pure methanol regardless of the composition of the co monomer mixture used. However, the highest degree of grafting was obtained at a solvent composition of 20% H2 O:80%MeOH and a co monomer mixture of 20%AAC:80%sty. An attempt was made to determine each PAAC and PS fractions in the total graft yield obtained. Two methods of analysis based on using the reactivity ratios reported in literature, elemental analysis and IR spectroscopy. The determination of poly (acrylic acid) and polystyrene fractions by elemental analysis is believed more accurate than these by reactivity ratio. The precise results obtained by elemental analysis with respect to the chemical structure of known polymer prepared under identical conditions. The results obtained by IR measurements go well with that obtained with the reactivity ratio methods. 5 figs., 3 tabs

  6. Novel anterior cruciate ligament graft fixation device reduces slippage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopez MJ

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Mandi J Lopez,1 Allen Borne,2 W Todd Monroe,3 Prakash Bommala,1 Laura Kelly,1 Nan Zhang11Laboratory for Equine and Comparative Orthopedic Research, Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, 2Louisiana State University, New Orleans Health Sciences Center, School of Medicine, New Orleans, 3Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering, Agricultural Center, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA, USAAbstract: Clinically significant laxity occurs in 10%–30% of knees after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Graft slippage and tension loss at the hamstring graft tibial fixation site during and after reconstruction surgery contribute to postoperative joint laxity and are detrimental to long-term knee stability and graft properties. Limiting graft slippage will reduce associated complications. We sought to compare the in vitro mechanical properties and in vivo joint stabilization, postoperative limb use, and graft incorporation of the novel GraftGrab™ (GG device designed to reduce hamstring graft tibial fixation slippage with the commercially available bioabsorbable Bio-Post™ and spiked washer (BP. Mechanical testing was performed on canine tibia-hamstring graft constructs to quantify initial fixation properties. In vivo joint stabilization, postoperative limb use and graft incorporation of hamstring graft reconstructions were determined in a canine model. Outcomes included tibial translation and ground reaction forces preoperatively and 4 and 8 weeks postoperatively, three-dimensional graft and bone tunnel dimensions at the latter two time points, and graft-bone microstructure, as well as mechanical properties 8 weeks after implantation. Immediately after fixation, all grafts slipped from the BP constructs versus about 30% of GG constructs. In vivo limb use remained low, and tibial translation increased with time in the BP cohort. These results together confirm that initial graft slippage is lower with GG versus BP extracortical hamstring graft tibial fixation. In addition, postoperative recovery and joint stability are more consistent with the GG. This information supports the GG as an alternative to extracortical tibial hamstring graft fixation that has procedural advantages over current implants and reduces graft failure from slippage.Keywords: cruciate, implant, bioabsorbable, canine, graft, tibia

  7. Radiation-induced grafting of TMPM onto polypropylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The gamma radiation-induced graft copolymerization of 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-piperidinyl-methacrylate (TMPM), a very effective hindered amine light stabilizer (HALS), onto polypropylene was investigated by simultaneous- irradiation technique. The various synthesis conditions on the graft content was studied. It was found that benzene, CCl4 and petroleum ether are more effective than other solvents, the percent grafting reached 7.1% for benzene. The percent grafting is higher when graft copolymerization is carried out in argon atmosphere than those in air. For all the grafting copolymerization carried out in benzene and CCl4, percent grafting increase linearly from 1 to 5 Mrad and beyond 5 Mrad, a tendency to level off appeared. At a constant dose, the percent grafting was found to be higher at high dose rate until 228 rad/s. Percent grafting also increased continuously with increasing monomer concentration up to 2.85 mol/L, but significant increase in grafting was observed only up to 1.14 mol/L

  8. Mussel-Inspired Artificial Grafts for Functional Ligament Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong; Chen, Shiyi; Chen, Jiwu; Chang, Jiang; Xu, Mengchi; Sun, Yaying; Wu, Chengtie

    2015-07-15

    The development of an artificial graft with distinct osteogenetic activity to enhance osseointegration and to induce the formation of biomimetic tissue structure for ligament reconstruction remains a significant challenge. Inspired by mussels, biomimetic calcium phosphate apatite/polydopamine hybridized-polyethylene terephthalate (APA/PDA-PET) grafts were successfully prepared. The efficacy and mechanism of APA/PDA-PET grafts to induce osseointegration were systematically investigated. The results from the in vitro study indicated that the prepared APA/PDA-PET grafts support the attachment of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) and stimulate the proliferation and osteogenic/angiogenic differentiation of BMSCs via activation of the PKC/p-ERK1/2 signaling pathway. In vivo, histological and radiological results further demonstrate that the APA/PDA-PET grafts significantly improve osseointegration by inducing the formation of new bone tissue and the fibrocartilage transitional zone compared with pure PET grafts. In addition, the pull-out strength of the APA/PDA-PET grafts is significantly higher than that of the pure PET grafts 12 weeks after surgery. These results suggest that this mussel-inspired biomimetic method is an effective strategy for modifying artificial grafts, and the prepared APA/PDA-PET grafts, which possess a beneficial interface, can significantly improve in vivo osseointegration for ligament reconstruction via the synergistic effect of polydopamine and apatite. PMID:26098135

  9. Electrospun vascular grafts with improved compliance matching to native vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nezarati, Roya M; Eifert, Michelle B; Dempsey, David K; Cosgriff-Hernandez, Elizabeth

    2015-02-01

    Coronary artery bypass grafting is one of the most commonly performed major surgeries in the United States. Autologous vessels such as the saphenous vein are the current gold standard for treatment; however, synthetic vascular prostheses made of expanded poly(tetrafluoroethylene) or poly(ethylene terephthalate) are used when autologous vessels are unavailable. These synthetic grafts have a high failure rate in small diameter (performance are focused on preventing intimal hyperplasia by fabricating grafts with compliance and burst pressure similar to native vessels. To this end, we have developed an electrospun vascular graft from segmented polyurethanes with tunable properties by altering material chemistry and graft microarchitecture. Relationships between polyurethane tensile properties and biomechanical properties were elucidated to select polymers with desirable properties. Graft thickness, fiber tortuosity, and fiber fusions were modulated to provide additional tools for controlling graft properties. Using a combination of these strategies, a vascular graft with compliance and burst pressure exceeding the saphenous vein autograft was fabricated (compliance?=?6.0?±?0.6%/mmHg × 10(-4) , burst pressure?=?2260?±?160 mmHg). This graft is hypothesized to reduce intimal hyperplasia associated with low compliance in synthetic grafts and improve long-term clinical success. Additionally, the fundamental relationships between electrospun mesh microarchitecture and mechanical properties identified in this work can be utilized in various biomedical applications. PMID:24846218

  10. The effect of carbon dioxide therapy on composite graft survival

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Eliana Ferreira Ribeiro, Durães; Leonardo de Castro, Durães; Fabiana Pirani, Carneiro; Ruy de Souza, Lino Júnior; João Batista de, Sousa.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of carboxytherapy in auricular composite grafts in rabbits. METHODS: An experimental study was conducted using 20 rabbits randomly assigned to a treatment group of carboxytherapy or a control group of saline solution. In each ear, a circular graft with 1.5 cm or 2 [...] cm of diameter was amputated and reattached. Animals underwent carbon dioxide or saline injection four times during the experiment. We analyzed clinical evolution of the animals, grafts survival, histopathology features and histomorphometry of collagen. RESULTS:The treated group had a significantly lower weight gain (p=0.038). Histopathology was not significantly different between groups. There was an increase in amount of collagen in 2 cm grafts submitted to carbon dioxide therapy (p=0.003). Carboxytherapy didn't influence graft survival rate for 1.5 cm grafts or 2 cm grafts (p=0.567 and p=0.777, respectively). CONCLUSIONS:Carbon dioxide therapy increased the amount of collagen in 2 cm grafts. CO2 was not significantly different from saline infusion on composite grafts survival, but this study suggests that there is a mechanical effect caused by distension which favored graft survival.

  11. Application of fats in some food products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Vallerio Rios

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Fats and oils are very important raw materials and functional ingredients for several food products such as confectionery, bakery, ice creams, emulsions, and sauces, shortenings, margarines, and other specially tailored products. Formulated products are made with just about every part of chemistry, but they are not simple chemicals. In general, they consist of several, and often many, components. Each of these components has a purpose. Most formulated products have a micro- or nano-structure that is important for their function, but obtaining this structure is often the big challenge. Due to a rise in overweight or obesity, health concerns have increased. This fact has led to the need to the develop products with low fat content, which have become a market trend. In addition, the development of new products using fat substitutes can be a good option for companies that are always trying to reduce costs or substitute trans fat or saturated fat. However, the successful development of these products is still a challenge because fat plays multiple roles in determining the desirable physicochemical and sensory attributes, and because the consumers who want or need to replace these ingredients, seek products with similar characteristics to those of the original product. Important attributes such as smooth, creamy and rich texture; milky and creamy appearance; desirable flavor; and satiating effects are influenced by the droplets of fat, and these characteristics are paramount to the consumer and consequently crucial to the success of the product in the market. Therefore, it is important to identify commercially viable strategies that are capable of removing or reducing fat content of food products without altering their sensory and nutritional characteristics. This paper intended to provide an overview about the role of fat in different food systems such as chocolate, ice cream, bakery products like biscuits, breads, and cakes considering the major trends of the food industry to meet the demands of modern society.

  12. Application of fats in some food products

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Raquel Vallerio, Rios; Meibel Durigan Ferreira, Pessanha; Poliana Fernandes de, Almeida; Clara Leonel, Viana; Suzana Caetano da Silva, Lannes.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Fats and oils are very important raw materials and functional ingredients for several food products such as confectionery, bakery, ice creams, emulsions, and sauces, shortenings, margarines, and other specially tailored products. Formulated products are made with just about every part of chemistry, [...] but they are not simple chemicals. In general, they consist of several, and often many, components. Each of these components has a purpose. Most formulated products have a micro- or nano-structure that is important for their function, but obtaining this structure is often the big challenge. Due to a rise in overweight or obesity, health concerns have increased. This fact has led to the need to the develop products with low fat content, which have become a market trend. In addition, the development of new products using fat substitutes can be a good option for companies that are always trying to reduce costs or substitute trans fat or saturated fat. However, the successful development of these products is still a challenge because fat plays multiple roles in determining the desirable physicochemical and sensory attributes, and because the consumers who want or need to replace these ingredients, seek products with similar characteristics to those of the original product. Important attributes such as smooth, creamy and rich texture; milky and creamy appearance; desirable flavor; and satiating effects are influenced by the droplets of fat, and these characteristics are paramount to the consumer and consequently crucial to the success of the product in the market. Therefore, it is important to identify commercially viable strategies that are capable of removing or reducing fat content of food products without altering their sensory and nutritional characteristics. This paper intended to provide an overview about the role of fat in different food systems such as chocolate, ice cream, bakery products like biscuits, breads, and cakes considering the major trends of the food industry to meet the demands of modern society.

  13. Surgical complications after renal transplantation in grafts with multiple arteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Mazzucchi

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Renal transplantation with multiple arteries appears, in literature, associated to a major index of surgical complications. This study compared the surgical complications and short-term outcome renal transplants with multiple arteries and single artery grafts. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The data of 64 renal transplants with multiple arteries performed between January 1995 and December 1999 were compared to the ones of 292 transplants with single renal artery. The aspects analyzed were number of arteries of the graft, donor type, vascular reconstruction technique, the occurrence of surgical complications, the incidence of delayed graft function, graft function 1 month after transplantation, graft loss and the patients' deaths. RESULTS: The incidence of surgical complications in grafts with multiple arteries and single renal artery was respectively: vascular - 3.1% and 3.1%; urological - 6.3% and 2.7% and other surgical complications - 15.6% and 10.6%, respectively. The incidence of lymphoceles was 3.1% in grafts with a single artery and 12.5% in grafts with more than 1 artery (p = 0.0015. The incidence of delayed graft function in grafts with multiple arteries and with a single renal artery was respectively 35.1 and 29.1% (p = 0.295. Mean serum creatinine at the 30th postoperative day was 2.46 and 1.81 in grafts with multiple and with 1 artery, respectively (p=0.271. CONCLUSIONS: Kidney transplantation using grafts with single and multiple arteries present similar indexes of surgical complications and short-term outcome; lymphoceles were more frequent among grafts with multiple arteries.

  14. Surgical complications after renal transplantation in grafts with multiple arteries

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Eduardo, Mazzucchi; Auro A., Souza; Willian C., Nahas; Ioannis M., Antonopoulos; Affonso C., Piovesan; Sami, Arap.

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Renal transplantation with multiple arteries appears, in literature, associated to a major index of surgical complications. This study compared the surgical complications and short-term outcome renal transplants with multiple arteries and single artery grafts. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Th [...] e data of 64 renal transplants with multiple arteries performed between January 1995 and December 1999 were compared to the ones of 292 transplants with single renal artery. The aspects analyzed were number of arteries of the graft, donor type, vascular reconstruction technique, the occurrence of surgical complications, the incidence of delayed graft function, graft function 1 month after transplantation, graft loss and the patients' deaths. RESULTS: The incidence of surgical complications in grafts with multiple arteries and single renal artery was respectively: vascular - 3.1% and 3.1%; urological - 6.3% and 2.7% and other surgical complications - 15.6% and 10.6%, respectively. The incidence of lymphoceles was 3.1% in grafts with a single artery and 12.5% in grafts with more than 1 artery (p = 0.0015). The incidence of delayed graft function in grafts with multiple arteries and with a single renal artery was respectively 35.1 and 29.1% (p = 0.295). Mean serum creatinine at the 30th postoperative day was 2.46 and 1.81 in grafts with multiple and with 1 artery, respectively (p=0.271). CONCLUSIONS: Kidney transplantation using grafts with single and multiple arteries present similar indexes of surgical complications and short-term outcome; lymphoceles were more frequent among grafts with multiple arteries.

  15. Improvement of tomato local varieties by grafting in organic farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Marta M.; Villena, Jaime; Moreno, Carmen; García, Arántzazu M.; Mancebo, Ignacio; Meco, Ramón

    2015-04-01

    Grafting is the union of two or more pieces of living plant tissue that grow as a single plant. The early use of grafted vegetables was associated with protected cultivation which involves successive cropping (Lee et al., 2010). For this reason, in the past, grafting was used with vegetable crops to limit the effects of soil-borne diseases. However, the reasons for grafting as well as the kinds of vegetable grafted have increased considerably over the years. In tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.), one of the most important horticultural crops in the world, the effect of grafting has also been widely studied. These effects on commercial tomato varieties can be summarized in increasing plant vigor and crop yield or inducing tolerance to abiotic stresses, although the effects on tomato fruit quality or on the sensory properties are not so patent (David et al., 2008). However, a few studies about the effect of grafting on local tomato varieties, which are especially recommended for organic production in spite of their lower yields in many cases, have been developed. In this work we evaluated the effect of grafting on tomato local varieties under organic management using vigorous commercial rootstocks, and aspects related to vigor, yield and tomato fruit composition were analyzed. In general terms, grafting increased the plant vigor, the crop yield and the fruit antioxidant content, although no modification of morphological fruit attributes was observed. Keywords: grafting, Solanum lycopersicum L., local varieties, organic farming. References: Davis A.R., Perkins-Veazie P., Hassell R., Levi A., King S.R., Zhang X. 2008. Grafting effects on vegetable quality. HortScience 43(6): 1670-1671. Lee J.M., Kubota C., Tsao S.J., Bie Z., Hoyos-Echevarría P., Morra L., Oda M. 2010. Current status of vegetable grafting: Diffusion, grafting techniques, automation. Scientia Horticulturae 127: 93-105.

  16. Modified broken rice starch as fat substitute in sausages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Maria Limberger

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The demand for low-fat beef products has led the food industry to use fat substitutes such as modified starch. About 14% of broken rice is generated during processing. Nevertheless, this by-product contains high levels of starch; being therefore, great raw material for fat substitution. This study evaluated the applicability of chemically and physically modified broken rice starch as fat substitute in sausages. Extruded and phosphorylated broken rice was used in low-fat sausage formulation. All low-fat sausages presented about 55% reduction in the fat content and around 28% reduction in the total caloric value. Fat replacement with phosphorylated and extruded broken rice starch increased the texture acceptability of low-fat sausages, when compared to low-fat sausages with no modified broken rice. Results suggest that modified broken rice can be used as fat substitute in sausage formulations, yielding lower caloric value products with acceptable sensory characteristics.

  17. Vitamin D3 in fat tissue

    OpenAIRE

    Blum, Miriam; Dolnikowski, Gregory; Seyoum, Elias; Harris, Susan S; BOOTH, SARAH L.; Peterson, James; Saltzman, Edward; Dawson-Hughes, Bess

    2008-01-01

    The literature describing vitamin D content of fat tissue is extremely limited. We conducted a pilot study that measured the concentrations of vitamin D3 in the fat tissue and serum of obese adults. These measurements were performed using a new liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC/MS) method. The objectives of this study were: to measure and report the vitamin D3 concentration in serum and subcutaneous fat samples from obese individuals and to examine the association of vitamin D3 in f...

  18. Differential effect of gender on hepatic fat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are discrepant data on whether men or women have a higher risk for hepatic steatosis. To examine the influence of gender on hepatic adiposity in teenagers and young adults. We measured subcutaneous abdominal fat (SAF), intra-abdominal fat (IAF) and hepatic tissue density (a surrogate measure of hepatic fat) using CT in 505 healthy teenagers and young adults (254 males, 251 females; ages 15-22.9 years). Overall, compared to men, women had higher values of SAF (P 0.05). When compared to overweight and obese young women, overweight and obese young men are at greater risk for hepatic steatosis, independent of IAF. (orig.)

  19. Preparation of Proteoglycan Mimetic Graft Copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipper, Matt J; Place, Laura W

    2016-01-01

    Proteoglycans are proteins with pendant glycosaminoglycan polysaccharide side chains. The method described here enables the preparation of graft copolymers with glycosaminoglycan side chains, which mimic the structure and composition of proteoglycans. By controlling the stoichiometry, graft copolymers can be obtained with a wide range of glycosaminoglycan side-chain densities. The method presented here uses a three-step reaction mechanism to first functionalize a hyaluronic acid backbone, followed by reductive amination to couple the glycosaminoglycan side chain to the backbone, by the reducing end. Proteoglycan mimics like the ones proposed here could be used to study the structure-property relationships of proteoglycans and to introduce the biochemical and biomechanical properties of proteoglycans into biomaterials and therapeutic formulations. PMID:26537466

  20. Autologous miniature skin punch grafting in vitiligo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh K

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Forty-five sites of stable vitiligo in 32 patients refractory to medical treatment were subjected to autologous miniature skin punch grafting. Main instruments used were skin biopsy punches 1-3 mm in diameter. Donor sites selected were either gluteal region or extensor aspect of the thigh which were not affected by the disease in the past. Most of the grafts changed from brown to black and upper scales desquamated within 10-15 days. Uniform perigraft pigmentation was observed by 1-1½ months and 90% area was covered within 3-4 months. The cases were followed up for six months. Fair to excellent results were observed in 87.5% of the cases.

  1. The characterization of the physicochemical and sensory properties of full-fat, reduced-fat, and low-fat ovine and bovine Halloumi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lteif, L; Olabi, A; Kebbe Baghdadi, O; Toufeili, I

    2009-09-01

    Halloumi cheese is a popular cheese in Lebanon and the Middle East. Today, health-conscious consumers are demanding lower fat foods with sensory properties that are comparable to their full-fat counterparts. The objectives of this work were to characterize the physicochemical and sensory properties of bovine and ovine Halloumi of different fat levels and to provide a baseline sensory profile for Halloumi cheese. Full-fat, reduced-fat, and low-fat samples were produced from ovine and bovine milks in 2 batches resulting in a total of 12 batches. The fat, protein, moisture, ash, pH, sodium, and calcium levels were determined and the instrumental textural characteristics of the samples were measured using a texture analyzer. Eleven trained panelists used quantitative descriptive analysis to profile the sensory attributes of the samples and an acceptability test was conducted with 84 panelists. The type of milk (ovine vs. bovine) significantly affected the moisture and protein contents, whereas fat level had a significant effect on moisture, fat, protein, and ash contents. Instrumental texture analysis revealed that the type of milk significantly affected adhesiveness, chewiness, and hardness, whereas the fat level affected chewiness, hardness, adhesiveness, and cohesiveness. The sensory results of the trained panelists revealed that the ovine cheese was more yellow and harder than bovine cheese, whereas bovine cheese was squeakier. Low-fat and reduced-fat cheeses were also more yellow and harder than full-fat cheese, and full-fat cheese was more moist with no significant differences between the low-fat and reduced-fat varieties. Type of milk and fat level did not have any significant effect on fermented flavor, whey flavor, or saltiness. Bovine cheese received significantly higher scores on overall acceptability, texture acceptability, and significantly lower scores on the food action rating scale. Full-fat cheese obtained the highest score on overall acceptability, and texture acceptability decreased significantly with decreasing fat levels. PMID:19700674

  2. Fungal biodegradation of lignopolystyrene graft copolymers.

    OpenAIRE

    Milstein, O; Gersonde, R.; Huttermann, A; M. J. Chen; Meister, J J

    1992-01-01

    White rot basidiomycetes were able to biodegrade styrene (1-phenylethene) graft copolymers of lignin containing different proportions of lignin and polystyrene [poly(1-phenylethylene)]. The biodegradation tests were run on lignin-styrene copolymerization products which contained 10.3, 32.2, and 50.4% (wt/wt) lignin. The polymer samples were incubated with the white rot fungi Pleurotus ostreatus, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, and Trametes versicolor and the brown rot fungus Gloeophyllum trabeum...

  3. LATE RENAL GRAFT REJECTION: PATHOLOGY AND PROGNOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.S. Stolyarevich

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Rejection has always been one of the most important cause of late renal graft dysfunction. Aim of the study was to analyze the prevalence of different clinico-pathological variants of rejection that cause late graft dysfunction, and evaluate their impact on long-term outcome. Materials and methods. This is a retrospective study that analyzed 294 needle core biopsy specimens from 265 renal transplant recipients with late (48,8 ± 46,1 months after transplantation allograft dysfunction caused by late acute rejection (LAR, n = 193 or chronic rejection (CR, n = 78 or both (n = 23. C4d staining was performed by immunofl uorescence (IF on frozen sections using a standard protocol. Results. Peritubular capillary C4d deposition was identifi ed in 36% samples with acute rejection and in 62% cases of chronic rejection (including 67% cases of transplant glomerulopathy, and 50% – of isolated chronic vasculopathy. 5-year graft survival for LAR vs CR vs their combination was 47, 13 and 25%, respectively. The outcome of C4d– LAR was (p < 0,01 better than of C4d+ acute rejection: at 60 months graft survival for diffuse C4d+ vs C4d? was 33% vs 53%, respectively. In cases of chronic rejection C4d+ vs C4d– it was not statistically signifi cant (34% vs 36%. Conclusion. In long-term allograft biopsy C4d positivity is more haracteristic for chronic rejection than for acute rejection. Only diffuse C4d staining affects the outcome. C4d– positivity is associated with worse allograft survival in cases of late acute rejection, but not in cases of chronic rejection. 

  4. Photoactivated surface grafting from PVDF surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Berthelot, Thomas; Le, Xuan Tuan; Jégou, Pascale; Viel, Pascal; Boizot, Bruno; Baudin, Cécile; Palacin, Serge

    2011-01-01

    Economic and easy methods to tune surface properties of polymers as Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) without altering bulk properties are of major interest for different applications as biotechnological devices, medical implant device. . . UV irradiation appears as one of the simplest, easy and safe method to modify surface properties. In the case of self-initiated grafting, it is generally assumed that the pretreatment of the PVDF surface with UV irradiation can yield alkyl and per-oxy radic...

  5. Influenza virus vaccination and kidney graft rejection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Anne Sophie Lind; Møller, Bjarne Kuno; Krag, Søren; Jespersen, Bente

    2015-01-01

    Influenza can cause significant morbidity and mortality in renal transplant recipients especially with a high rate of lower respiratory disease. Annual influenza vaccination is therefore recommended to renal transplant recipients. We report the first three cases of acute kidney injury in renal transplant recipients following influenza vaccination that all led to graft loss. They all had different native diseases and were all vaccinated in the same season of 2009-10. The time span from vaccinatio...

  6. Autologus parietal grafts in preprosthethic surgery

    OpenAIRE

    GHERLONE, E.F.; R. Vinci; D’AVERSA, L.

    2010-01-01

    Edentulous patients usually request implant supported/fixed rehabilitation. Ridge resorption after teeth loss usually affect three-dimensional implant position. Vertical and/or horizontal bone augmentation procedures are often the only choice the clinician has to deliver prosthetic guided restoration. Gold standard for augmentation procedures such as sinus lift, onlay or inlay grafts, is still autologous bone. The patient in this report underwent a pre-prosthetic reconstruction of the jaws wi...

  7. Mechanics of laser cut stent grafts.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Major, Št?pán; Kocour, Vladimír; Hubálovský, Š.

    Prague : Institute of theoretical and applied mechanics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v. v. i., 2015 - (Náprstek, J.; Fischer, C.). s. 186-187 ISBN 978-80-86246-42-0. ISSN 1805-8248. [Engineering mechanics 2015 /21./. 11.05.2015-14.05.2015, Svratka] Institutional support: RVO:68378297 Keywords : stent-grafts * nitinol * finite element analysis * fatigue * fracture Subject RIV: JJ - Other Materials

  8. Graft Polymerization of Styrene to Polyethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Study of published data on radiationinduced grafting of styrene to low density polyethylene films shows that the rate of weight gain has only a small dependence upon the gamma exposure rate and film thickness. It is demonstrated that the models used by previous investigators to interpret weight- gain data for evaluation of rate constants are not applicable. Data are presented for grafting experiments at 18 and 40oC using polyethylene films and fluff and Co60 gamma exposure rates up to 8.0 x 105 r/hr. The rate of conversion of styrene to homopolymer in the fluff suspensions was also measured. Microscopic examinations were performed on the grafted film to estimate the amount of occluded homopolymer. The results demonstrate that most of the weight gain in film samples is due to occluded homopolymer. In the fluff experiments, in which the weight gain is largely due to graft copolymer, the weight increase is approximately linear with dose and the reaction rate is almost proportional to the square root of the gamma exposure rate. A low activation energy for the reaction rate precludes the possibility of diffusion control in fluff and in thin films at exposure rates below 105 r/hr. The rate of homopolymer formation in the fluff experiments performed at 18oC and 7.2 x 104 r/hr is the same as that reported for polymer formation in pure styrene. The activation energy, 3.5 kcal/mol, is almost half the value reported for the pure monomer. (author)

  9. Outcomes of coronary artery bypass graft surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Hawkes, Anna Louise; Nowak, Madeleine; Bidstrup, Benjamin; Speare, Richard

    2006-01-01

    This review article summarizes the major studies that have investigated the outcomes of coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG). The article includes a review of the literature in the areas of: history of CABG; indications for CABG; and measurement of quality of life following CABG, including prolongation of life, physical functioning (ie, relief from angina and dyspnea, physical activity, as well as complications of surgery and re-hospitalization), psychological functioning, and social f...

  10. Graft selection in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Suzanne L; Gladstone, James N

    2002-10-01

    Selecting the appropriate graft for ACL reconstruction depends on numerous factors including surgeon philosophy and experience, tissue availability (affected by anatomical anomalies or prior injury or surgery), and patient activity level and desires. Although the patella tendon autograft has the widest experience in the literature, and is probably the most commonly used graft source, this must be tempered with the higher reported incidences of potential morbidity and pitfalls associated with its use. The hamstring tendons are gaining increasing popularity, mostly due to reduced harvest morbidity and improved soft tissue fixation techniques, and many recent studies in the literature report equal results to BTB ACL reconstruction with respect to functional outcome and patient satisfaction. On the other hand, many of these studies report higher degrees of instrument (KT-100) tested laxity for hamstring reconstruction, and some have reported lower returns to preinjury levels of activity. One question that remains to be addressed is how closely objectively measured laxity tests correlate with subjectively assessed outcomes and ability to return to high levels of competitive sports. Allograft use, which decreased in popularity during the 1990s, appears to be undergoing a resurgence, with better sterilization processes and new graft sources (tibialis tendons), leading to increased availability and improved fixation techniques. The benefits of decreased surgical morbidity and easier rehabilitation must be weighed against the potential for greater failure of biologic incorporation, infection, and possibly slower return to activities. In our practice, for high-demand individuals (those playing cutting, pivoting, or jumping sports and skiing) BTB tends to be the graft of choice. For lower demand or older individuals, hamstring reconstructions will be performed. Allograft tissue will be used in older individuals (generally over 45 years old), those with signs of arthritis (and compelling evidence of instability), or those individuals who understand the pros and cons of allograft use fully and do not want their own tissue used. PMID:12528909

  11. Graft copolymerized chitosan : present status and applications

    OpenAIRE

    Jayakumar, R.; Prabaharan, M.; R. L. Reis; J.F. Mano

    2005-01-01

    Chitosan is a natural based polymer obtained by alkaline deacetylation of chitin, exhibiting excellent biological properties such as biodegradation in the human body, and immunological, antibacterial, and wound-healing activity. Chitosan has also been found to be a good candidate as a support material for gene delivery, cell culture and tissue engineering. However, practical use of chitosan has been mainly confined to the unmodified forms. For a breakthrough in utilization, graft cop...

  12. Allogenic lyophilized cartilage grafts for craniomaxillofacial reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allogenic lyophilized cartilages were made in our clinic after Sailer methods and some modification. In our clinic, we have used allogenic cartilage grafts on 102 defects of craniomaxillofacial area; 1) for defects from cyst or ameloblastoma, 2) for lack of continuity of the mandible, 3) for rhinoplasty, 4) for paranasal augmentation, 5) for augmentation genioplasty, 6) for reconstruction of orbital floor, 7) for oroantral fistula, 8) for temporal augmentation, 9) for TMJ surgery 10) for condyle defect as a costochondral graft, 11) for filling of tooth socket and alveolus augmentation,12) for correction or orbital height and 13) for guided bone regeneration in peripheral implant. The types of lyophilized cartilage used were chip, sheet and block types developed by freeze-dried methods. Some grafts showed change of ossification, in which case we could perform implant on it. We have good results on reconstruction of craniomaxillofacial defects. Allogenic cartilage have advantages such as 1) it has no immune reaction clinically, 2) it is more tolerable to infection than that of autogenous cartilage, 3) it has character of less resorption which require no over correction, 4) it is easy to manipulate contouring, and 5) it has possibility of undergoing ossification. Allogenic cartilage has been considered as good substitutes for bone. The author would like to report the results on 102 allogenic cartilage have

  13. A Patient with Recurrent Arteriovenous Graft Thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allon, Michael

    2015-12-01

    Arteriovenous grafts (AVGs) are prone to frequent thrombosis that is superimposed on underlying hemodynamically significant stenosis, most commonly at the graft-vein anastomosis. There has been great interest in detecting AVG stenosis in a timely fashion and performing preemptive angioplasty, in the belief that this will prevent AVG thrombosis. Three surveillance methods (static dialysis venous pressure, flow monitoring, and duplex ultrasound) can detect AVG stenosis. Whereas observational studies have reported that surveillance with preemptive angioplasty substantially reduces AVG thrombosis, randomized clinical trials have failed to confirm such a benefit. There is a high frequency of early AVG restenosis after angioplasty caused by aggressive neointimal hyperplasia resulting from vascular injury. Stent grafts prevent AVG restenosis better than balloon angioplasty, but they do not prevent AVG thrombosis. Several pharmacologic interventions to prevent AVG failure have been evaluated in randomized clinical trials. Anticoagulation or aspirin plus clopidogrel do not prevent AVG thrombosis, but increase hemorrhagic events. Treatment of hyperhomocysteinemia does not prevent AVG thrombosis. Dipyridamole plus aspirin modestly decreases AVG stenosis or thrombosis. Fish oil substantially decreases the frequency of AVG stenosis and thrombosis. In patients who have exhausted all options for vascular access in the upper extremities, thigh AVGs are a superior option to tunneled internal jugular vein central vein catheters (CVCs). An immediate-use AVG is a reasonable option in patients with recurrent CVC dysfunction or infection. Tunneled femoral CVCs have much worse survival than internal jugular CVCs. PMID:25883073

  14. Dorsal Versus Ventral Oral Mucosal Graft Urethroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalil Hosseini

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate success rate of dorsal versus ventral oral mucosal graft for anterior urethroplasty.MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a retrospective study, the results of the ventral and dorsal oral mucosal graft (OMG anterior urethroplasty were assessed in 24 and 29 patients, respectively. Demographic and clinical characteristics of subjects were gathered from the medical records.RESULTS: Patients were followed up for a mean duration of 32 months (range, 25 to 51 months. The success rates of dorsal and ventral anterior OMG urethroplasty were 83.3% and 75.8%, respectively (P = .5. At penile site, dorsal and ventral OMG were done for 9 and 10 patients with stricture lengths of 3.7 ± 1.1 cm and 3.9 ± 1.2 cm, respectively (P = .7. Success rates of dorsal and ventral penile OMG were 88.9% and 70%, respectively (P = .3. At the bulbar site, dorsal and ventral OMG were performed on 15 and 19 patients with stricture lengths of 4.1 ± 1.1cm and 4.2 ± 1.5 cm, respectively (P = .7. The success rates of dorsal and ventral bulbar OMG were 80% and 79%, respectively (P = .94.CONCLUSION: Oral mucosal graft is a versatile and an effective procedure for management of strictures throughout the anterior urethra, and in experienced hands, the outcomes are similarly favorable whether a dorsal or ventral approach is taken.

  15. Fat absorption and deposition in Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) fed a high fat diet

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mhlengi M., Magubane; Busisani W., Lembede; Kennedy H., Erlwanger; Eliton, Chivandi; Janine, Donaldson.

    Full Text Available Dietary fat contributes significantly to the energy requirements of poultry. Not all species are able to increase their absorptive capacity for fats in response to a high fat diet. The effects of a high fat diet (10% canola oil) on the lipid absorption and deposition in the liver, breast and thigh m [...] uscles of male and female Japanese quail were investigated. Thirty-eight Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) were randomly divided into a high fat diet (HFD) and a standard diet (STD) group. The birds were fed the diets for seven weeks after which half of the birds were subjected to oral fat loading tests (OFLT) with plant oils containing long-chain and medium-chain triglycerides. The remaining birds were included for the lipid deposition measurements. Thereafter the birds were euthanised, blood samples were collected and liver, breast and thigh muscle lipid deposition was determined. Female quail on both diets had significantly higher plasma triglyceride concentrations (p

  16. Monounsaturated fats and immune function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Yaqoob

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available Animal studies suggest that olive oil is capable of modulating functions of cells of the immune system in a manner similar to, albeit weaker than, fish oils. There is some evidence that the effects of olive oil on immune function in animal studies are due to oleic acid rather than to trace elements or antioxidants. Importantly, several studies have demonstrated effects of oleic acid-containing diets on in vivo immune responses. In contrast, consumption of a monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA-rich diet by humans does not appear to bring about a general suppression of immune cell functions. The effects of this diet in humans are limited to decreasing aspects of adhesion of peripheral blood mononuclear cells, although there are trends towards decreases in natural killer cell activity and proliferation. The lack of a clear effect of MUFA in humans may be attributable to the higher level of monounsaturated fat used in the animal studies, although it is ultimately of importance to examine the effects of intakes which are in no way extreme. The effects of MUFA on adhesion molecules are potentially important, since these molecules appear to have a role in the pathology of a number of diseases involving the immune system. This area clearly deserves further exploration

  17. Monounsaturated fats and immune function

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    P., Yaqoob.

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available Animal studies suggest that olive oil is capable of modulating functions of cells of the immune system in a manner similar to, albeit weaker than, fish oils. There is some evidence that the effects of olive oil on immune function in animal studies are due to oleic acid rather than to trace elements [...] or antioxidants. Importantly, several studies have demonstrated effects of oleic acid-containing diets on in vivo immune responses. In contrast, consumption of a monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA)-rich diet by humans does not appear to bring about a general suppression of immune cell functions. The effects of this diet in humans are limited to decreasing aspects of adhesion of peripheral blood mononuclear cells, although there are trends towards decreases in natural killer cell activity and proliferation. The lack of a clear effect of MUFA in humans may be attributable to the higher level of monounsaturated fat used in the animal studies, although it is ultimately of importance to examine the effects of intakes which are in no way extreme. The effects of MUFA on adhesion molecules are potentially important, since these molecules appear to have a role in the pathology of a number of diseases involving the immune system. This area clearly deserves further exploration

  18. Radiation grafting of various water-soluble monomers on ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene powder: Part I. Grafting conditions and grafting yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monomers of some water-soluble polymers; acrylic acid, methacrylic acid, acrylamide, N, N-dimethyl acrylamide and 1-vinyl-2 pyrrolidone, were grafted on ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) powders by a direct grafting method in an aqueous medium in air. Inhibition of homopolymerisation was achieved by adding various concentrations of Fe2+ or Cu2+ ions. It was found that the degree of grafting increases linearly with dose till a gelation state is reached, and varies between 40 and 12% depending on the monomer. Four million molecular weight UHMWPE gave a higher per cent grafting than a 6 million counterpart for the monomers used, with the exception of acrylic acid monomer grafting. (author)

  19. Fluorescence spectroscopy for assessment of liver transplantation grafts concerning graft viability and patient survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollet Filho, José D.; da Silveira, Marina R.; Castro-e-Silva, Orlando; Bagnato, Vanderlei S.; Kurachi, Cristina

    2015-06-01

    Evaluating transplantation grafts at harvest is essential for its success. Laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (LIFS) can help monitoring changes in metabolic/structural conditions of tissue during transplantation. The aim of the present study is to correlate LIFSobtained spectra of human hepatic grafts during liver transplantation with post-operative patients' mortality rate and biochemical parameters, establishing a method to exclude nonviable grafts before implantation. Orthotopic liver transplantation, piggyback technique was performed in 15 patients. LIFS was performed under 408nm excitation. Collection was performed immediately after opening donor's abdominal cavity, after cold perfusion, end of back-table period, and 5 min and 1 h after warm perfusion at recipient. Fluorescence information was compared to lactate, creatinine, bilirubin and INR levels and to survival status. LIFS was sensitive to liver changes during transplantation stages. Study-in-progress; initial results indicate correlation between fluorescence and life/death status of patients.

  20. Radiation grafting of styrene on starch with high efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, N.; Akhavan, A.; Ataeivarjovi, E.

    2013-04-01

    Wheat starch grafted with polystyrene (PS-g-starch) was synthesized via polymerization grafting of styrene on starch by gamma-ray. The effects of starch/styrene weight ratio, and amount of applied doses (5-40 kGy) on the percentage of grafting, G (%), were investigated. The results showed that G (%) increased with increasing starch content. The optimum condition, starch/styrene weight ratio 1/3 and the applied dose 10 kGy, led to 252.9% of grafting. The obtained graft copolymer was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, thermal gravimetric analysis, and scanning electron microscopy. FTIR spectroscopy as well as the XRD analysis exhibited the changes in chemical and crystalline structure of starch after grafting reaction. TGA demonstrated the changes in thermal stability of PS-g-starch copolymer. SEM micrographs indicated porous patches of PS adhering on the starch.

  1. Effect of body fat distribution on the transcription response to dietary fat interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Radonjic, Marijana; van Erk, Marjan J.; Pasman, Wilrike J; Wortelboer, Heleen M.; Hendriks, Henk F. J.; Van Ommen, Ben

    2009-01-01

    Combination of decreased energy expenditure and increased food intake results in fat accumulation either in the abdominal site (upper body obesity, UBO) or on the hips (lower body obesity, LBO). In this study, we used microarray gene expression profiling of adipose tissue biopsies to investigate the effect of body fat distribution on the physiological response to two dietary fat interventions. Mildly obese UBO and LBO male subjects (n = 12, waist-to-hip ratio range 0.93–1.12) were subjected t...

  2. Inhomogeneous distribution of fat enhances the perception of fat-related sensory attributes in gelled foods

    OpenAIRE

    Mosca, A.C.; J.L. Rocha; Sala, G.; Van de Velde, F.; Stieger, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of the spatial distribution of fat on the perception of fat-related sensory attributes using a model system that consisted of layered agar/gelatin gels containing oil-in-water (O/W) emulsion droplets dispersed in the gel matrix. Four layers of gel varying in the amount of emulsion droplets were combined to prepare samples with homogeneous and inhomogeneous distributions of fat (emulsion droplets). The composition of the gels was optimized to obtain samples w...

  3. The effect of total arterial grafting on medium-term outcomes following coronary artery bypass grafting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buth Karen J

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While it is believed that total arterial grafting (TAG for coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG confers improved long-term outcomes when compared to conventional grafting with left internal mammary artery and saphenous vein grafts (LIMA+SVG, to date, this has not become the standard of care. In this study, we assessed the impact of TAG on medium-term outcomes after CABG. Methods Peri-operative data was prospectively collected on consecutive first-time, isolated CABG patients between 1995 and 2005. Patients were divided into two groups based on grafting strategy: TAG (all arterial grafts no saphenous veins or LIMA+SVG. Patients who had an emergent status or underwent fewer than two distal bypasses were excluded. Medium term univariate and risk-adjusted comparisons between TAG and LIMA+SVG cases were performed. Results A total of 4696 CABG patients were included with 1019 patients undergoing TAG (22%. Unadjusted in-hospital mortality was 1.5% for TAG patients compared to 2.0% for LIMA+SVG (p = 0.31. The mean follow-up was 4.8 ± 2.0 years for TAG patients compared to 6.1 ± 3.0 years for LIMA+SVG patients (p Conclusion Patients undergoing TAG appear to experience lower rates of medium-term all-cause mortality and readmission to hospital for any cardiac cause when compared to patients undergoing LIMA+SVG. However, after adjusting for clinical variables, this difference no longer persists suggesting that at median follow-up there are no mortality or morbidity benefit based on the choice of conduit.

  4. Oil and fat in broiler nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NC Baião

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The terms "fat" and "oil" refer to triglycerides of several profiles of fatty acids. Fatty acids that are not bound to other organic components as glycerol are the so-called free fatty acids. Lipids constitute the main energetic source for animals and they have the highest caloric value among all the nutrients. Linoleic acid is the only fatty acid whose dietetic requirement has been demonstrated. Besides supplying energy, the addition of fat to animal diets improves the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins, decreases pulverulence, increases diet palatability, and the efficiency of utilization of the consumed energy. Furthermore, it reduces the rate of food passage through the gastrointestinal tract, which allows a better absorption of all nutrients present in the diet. The energetic value of oils and fats depend on the following: the length of the carbonic chain, the number of double bonds, the presence or absence of ester bonds (triglycerides or free fatty acids, the specific arrangements of the saturated and unsaturated fatty acids on the glycerol backbone, the composition of the free fatty acid, the composition of the diet, the quantity and the type of the triglycerides supplemented in the diet, the intestinal flora, the sex and the age of the birds. In birds, body fat composition is similar to the composition of the fat from the diet. The apparent digestibility of unsaturated fats is high in the first days of life of birds, whereas apparent digestibility of saturated fats is low. The quantity of oils or fats is assessed by the following methods: titration, moisture, impurities, unsaponifiable, saponification value, percentage of fat, percentage of free fatty acids/acidity and the profile of fatty acids. The methods initial peroxide value, active oxygen method, osi, iodine value, and analysis of the thiobarbituric acid (TBARS are specific to evaluate the oxidative stability. Considering diets with the same nutritive values, birds fed with rations containing oil present better performance than birds fed no oil. Moreover, the use of oil or fat in diets for broilers may change both the composition and the quality of the carcass.

  5. Oil and fat in broiler nutrition

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    NC, Baião; LJC, Lara.

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The terms "fat" and "oil" refer to triglycerides of several profiles of fatty acids. Fatty acids that are not bound to other organic components as glycerol are the so-called free fatty acids. Lipids constitute the main energetic source for animals and they have the highest caloric value among all th [...] e nutrients. Linoleic acid is the only fatty acid whose dietetic requirement has been demonstrated. Besides supplying energy, the addition of fat to animal diets improves the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins, decreases pulverulence, increases diet palatability, and the efficiency of utilization of the consumed energy. Furthermore, it reduces the rate of food passage through the gastrointestinal tract, which allows a better absorption of all nutrients present in the diet. The energetic value of oils and fats depend on the following: the length of the carbonic chain, the number of double bonds, the presence or absence of ester bonds (triglycerides or free fatty acids), the specific arrangements of the saturated and unsaturated fatty acids on the glycerol backbone, the composition of the free fatty acid, the composition of the diet, the quantity and the type of the triglycerides supplemented in the diet, the intestinal flora, the sex and the age of the birds. In birds, body fat composition is similar to the composition of the fat from the diet. The apparent digestibility of unsaturated fats is high in the first days of life of birds, whereas apparent digestibility of saturated fats is low. The quantity of oils or fats is assessed by the following methods: titration, moisture, impurities, unsaponifiable, saponification value, percentage of fat, percentage of free fatty acids/acidity and the profile of fatty acids. The methods initial peroxide value, active oxygen method, osi, iodine value, and analysis of the thiobarbituric acid (TBARS) are specific to evaluate the oxidative stability. Considering diets with the same nutritive values, birds fed with rations containing oil present better performance than birds fed no oil. Moreover, the use of oil or fat in diets for broilers may change both the composition and the quality of the carcass.

  6. Striatal grafts in a rat model of Huntington's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guzman, R; Meyer, M; Lövblad, K O; Ozdoba, C; Schroth, G; Seiler, R W; Widmer, H R

    1999-01-01

    Survival and integration into the host brain of grafted tissue are crucial factors in neurotransplantation approaches. The present study explored the feasibility of using a clinical MR scanner to study striatal graft development in a rat model of Huntington's disease. Rat fetal lateral ganglionic eminences grown as free-floating roller-tube cultures were grafted into the quinolinic acid-lesioned striatum, and T1- and T2-weighted sequences were acquired at 2, 7, 21, and 99 days posttransplantatio...

  7. The radiation-induced grafting of polybutadiene onto silica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dondi, D.; Buttafava, A. [Department of General Chemistry, University of Pavia, V.le Taramellli 12, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Stagnaro, P. [ISMAC-CNR Genova, Genova (Italy); Turturro, A. [Chemistry and Industrial Chemistry Department, University of Genova, Genova (Italy); Priola, A. [Department of Material Science and Chemical Engineering, Polytecnic of Turin, Turin (Italy); Bracco, S. [Department of Material Science, University of Milano-Bicocca, Milano (Italy); Galinetto, P. [Department of Physics, University of Pavia, Pavia (Italy); Faucitano, A. [Department of General Chemistry, University of Pavia, V.le Taramellli 12, 27100 Pavia (Italy)], E-mail: antonio.faucitano@unipv.it

    2009-07-15

    The {gamma}-ray-induced grafting of polybutadiene oligomers onto precipitated silica was investigated in the dose range up to 200 kGy by THA, FTIR, CP/MAS NMR, TEM microscopy, inverse gas chromatography (IGC), with determination of the grafting yields and the characterization of the modified silica with respect to surface energy, SiO{sub 2}-oligomer interaction and morphology. The matrix EPR spectroscopy was employed for investigating the nature of the intermediate radicals in the grafting mechanism.

  8. Facile grafting of bioactive cellulose derivatives onto PVC surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigot, Sandra; Louarn, Guy; Kébir, Nasreddine; Burel, Fabrice

    2013-10-01

    Bioactive methyl cellulose and hydroxyethyl cellulose were successfully grafted onto PVC films using a two-step pathway. PVC surface was first modified with isothiocyanate in DMSO/water medium. Then, unmodified polysaccharides were directly grafted onto the thiocyanated surface in acetonitrile/DMSO mixture, in presence of DBTL as catalyst. The polysaccharide grafting onto the PVC surface was evidenced by contact angle measurements, AFM and XPS.

  9. Radiation sterilization in the practice of grafts and tissue banks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The world and Polish experience in radiation sterilization of tissues and grafts and their banking has been presented. The techniques of biostatic grafts sterilization and banking in low temperatures as well as the methods of dose control have been shown. The ESR technique use for study of radiation induced paramagnetic centres in mineralized tissues as well as the fate of grafts after transplantation have been also discussed. 33 refs

  10. Target-like Pigmentation After Minipunch Grafting in Stable Vitiligo

    OpenAIRE

    Bisen, Nelee; Bhat, Ramesh M.; Lahiri, Koushik; Kambil, Srinath M

    2014-01-01

    Surgical treatment for vitiligo has been ever evolving. Each surgical modality has its own benefits and limitations. Miniature punch grafting is the most extensively performed surgery, which gives good results in stable vitiligo. Herein we report an unusual type of repigmentation observed after minipunch grafting in a patient of stable vitiligo, which resembled target-like lesions with a “perigraft halo” surrounding individual grafts. Such pigment spread occurred despite the use of 0.5 mm lar...

  11. Dietary fat and risk of breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Mathew Aleyamma; Binukumar Bhaskarapillai

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Breast cancer is one of the major public health problems among women worldwide. A number of epidemiological studies have been carried out to find the role of dietary fat and the risk of breast cancer. The main objective of the present communication is to summarize the evidence from various case-control and cohort studies on the consumption of fat and its subtypes and their effect on the development of breast cancer. Methods A Pubmed search for literature on the consumption...

  12. Pork fat hydrolysed by Staphylococcus xylosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, B. B.; Stahnke, Louise Heller; Zeuthen, Peter

    1993-01-01

    Staphylococcus xylosus is used as a starter culture in the production of fermented sausages. Its ability to hydrolyse pork fat was investigated. Within 15 days of incubation an interaction of bacterial growth, lipase production and lipase activity in a pork fat containing medium caused liberation of fatty acids. The free fatty acids were determined both qualitatively and quantitatively. The effects of incubtion temperature and pH were studied using Response Surface Methodology. Within the area o...

  13. Investigation of Hydrodeoxygenation of Oils and Fats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Anders Theilgaard; Riisager, Anders; Fehrmann, Rasmus

    2009-01-01

    The use of renewable biofuels in the transport sector represents an important step towards a sustainable society. Biodiesel is currently produced by the transesterification of fats and oils with methanol, but another viable method could be reaction of the feedstock with H2 to produce long-chain alkanes. This would allow direct integration of biofuel production in existing refineries and allow use of feedstock with high amounts of free fatty acids (abattoir wastes, used fats, greases, etc.) [1], ...

  14. FATS: Feature Analysis for Time Series

    CERN Document Server

    Nun, Isadora; Sim, Brandon; Zhu, Ming; Dave, Rahul; Castro, Nicolas; Pichara, Karim

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present the FATS (Feature Analysis for Time Series) library. FATS is a Python library which facilitates and standardizes feature extraction for time series data. In particular, we focus on one application: feature extraction for astronomical light curve data, although the library is generalizable for other uses. We detail the methods and features implemented for light curve analysis, and present examples for its usage.

  15. Steroid-induced Kager's fat pad atrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report a rare case of Kager's fat pad atrophy and fibrosis in a 60-year-old woman 1 year after a steroid injection for Achilles tendinopathy. There are few published reports of steroid-induced atrophy affecting deeper layers of fat tissue. To our knowledge, this case report is the first to illustrate its features using magnetic resonance imaging. A review of the scientific literature is also presented. (orig.)

  16. Hydrotreatment of Oils and Fats for Biodiesel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Anders Theilgaard; Riisager, Anders; Fehrmann, Rasmus

    2009-01-01

    The use of renewable biofuels in the transport sector represents an important step towards a sustainable society. Biodiesel is currently produced by the transesterification of fats and oils with methanol, but another viable method could be reaction of the feedstock with H2 to produce long-chain alkanes. This would allow direct integration of biofuel production in existing refineries and allow use of low-grade feedstock such as abattoir wastes, used fats, greases or even tall oils from the Kraft ...

  17. New human milk fat substitutes from butterfat to improve fat absorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yanqi; Mu, Huiling; Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov; Xu, X.B.; Meyer, Otto A.; Orngreen, A.

    2010-01-01

    A new human milk fat substitute (HMFS) was produced from butterfat. A 2-week's feeding experiment was performed using three groups of rats with 10 wt.% fat in their feed; the fat was either (1) butterfat-based HMFS + long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA), (2) the reference oil + LCPUFA, or (3) the reference oil without LCPUFA. The apparent fat absorption after intake of butterfat-based HMFS (95.9% +/- 1.8%) was significantly higher than the other two groups, indicating that much less c...

  18. MR findings in patients with disabling musculocutaneous chronic graft-versus-host disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To describe musculocutaneous MR-findings responsible for disability in chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Between June 2005 and February 2008, we performed whole-body musculoskeletal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI; n = 12) or regional MRI (n = 4) in 16 consecutive patients presenting with disabling sclerodermatous cGVHD (e.g., skin edema, fixed deep dermal sclerosis, joint contractures, painful muscular contractures, or myalgia). In all patients, MRI showed musculocutaneous abnormalities reflecting different degrees of inflammation and collagen tissue involvement of the skin (n = 10), subcutaneous fat tissue (n 13), muscle fasciae (n = 16), subfascial muscular septae (n = 6), or findings compatible with myositis (n = 3). The most frequently involved muscle fasciae comprised those of the vastus lateralis muscle (n = 12), biceps femoris muscle (n = 11), gastrocnemius medialis muscle (n = 8), serratus anterior muscle, and latissimus dorsi muscle (each, n = 5). Increased signal of involved tissues on STIR-images and fat-saturated postgadolinium T1-weighted images represented the most frequent MR-signal abnormalities. MR imaging of musculocutaneous cGVHD allows accurate evaluation including assessment of deep tissue infiltration and assists in the differential diagnosis. (orig.)

  19. MR findings in patients with disabling musculocutaneous chronic graft-versus-host disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horger, M.; Boss, A.; Claussen, C.D. [Eberhard-Karls-University, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany); Bethge, W.; Faul, C.; Vogel, W. [Eberhard-Karls-University, Department of Internal Medicine-Oncology, Tuebingen (Germany); Fierlbeck, G. [Eberhard-Karls-University, Department of Dermatology, Tuebingen (Germany); Bornemann, A. [Eberhard-Karls-University, Insitute for Brain Research, Tuebingen (Germany)

    2008-10-15

    To describe musculocutaneous MR-findings responsible for disability in chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Between June 2005 and February 2008, we performed whole-body musculoskeletal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI; n = 12) or regional MRI (n = 4) in 16 consecutive patients presenting with disabling sclerodermatous cGVHD (e.g., skin edema, fixed deep dermal sclerosis, joint contractures, painful muscular contractures, or myalgia). In all patients, MRI showed musculocutaneous abnormalities reflecting different degrees of inflammation and collagen tissue involvement of the skin (n = 10), subcutaneous fat tissue (n = 13), muscle fasciae (n = 16), subfascial muscular septae (n = 6), or findings compatible with myositis (n = 3). The most frequently involved muscle fasciae comprised those of the vastus lateralis muscle (n = 12), biceps femoris muscle (n = 11), gastrocnemius medialis muscle (n = 8), serratus anterior muscle, and latissimus dorsi muscle (each, n = 5). Increased signal of involved tissues on STIR-images and fat-saturated postgadolinium T1-weighted images represented the most frequent MR-signal abnormalities. MR imaging of musculocutaneous cGVHD allows accurate evaluation including assessment of deep tissue infiltration and assists in the differential diagnosis. (orig.)

  20. 9 CFR 319.701 - Mixed fat shortening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mixed fat shortening. 319.701 Section... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Fats, Oils, Shortenings § 319.701 Mixed fat shortening. Shortening prepared with a mixture of meat fats and vegetable oils...

  1. 21 CFR 184.1287 - Enzyme-modified fats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Enzyme-modified fats. 184.1287 Section 184.1287... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1287 Enzyme-modified fats. (a) Enzyme-modified refined beef fat, enzyme-modified butterfat, and enzyme-modified steam-rendered chicken fat are...

  2. Post-radiation grafting of styrene to polyethylene film and distribution of grafted polystyrene in it

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The post-radiation grafting of styrene to polyethylene (PE) film irradiated in air with 60Co source (dose rate 520 R/s) and electron accelerator (dose rate 1.5x105 R/s) has been studied, in the range 1-100 Mrad. The influence of additives of ferrous salts on kinetics of this process is shown. The distribution of grafted polystyrene in PE for various power and dose of irradiation has been analysed basing on IR spectra. The essential role of diffusion of iron ions into the film volume on kinetics of the process and polystyrene distribution is concluded

  3. Dietary fat and risk of breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathew Aleyamma

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer is one of the major public health problems among women worldwide. A number of epidemiological studies have been carried out to find the role of dietary fat and the risk of breast cancer. The main objective of the present communication is to summarize the evidence from various case-control and cohort studies on the consumption of fat and its subtypes and their effect on the development of breast cancer. Methods A Pubmed search for literature on the consumption of dietary fat and risk of breast cancer published from January 1990 through December 2003 was carried out. Results Increased consumption of total fat and saturated fat were found to be positively associated with the development of breast cancer. Even though an equivocal association was observed for the consumption of total monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA and the risk of breast cancer, there exists an inverse association in the case of oleic acid, the most abundant MUFA. A moderate inverse association between consumption of n-3 fatty acids and breast cancer risk and a moderate positive association between n-6 fatty acids and breast cancer risk were observed. Conclusion Even though all epidemiological studies do not provide a strong positive association between the consumption of certain types of dietary fat and breast cancer risk, at least a moderate association does seem to exist and this has a number of implications in view of the fact that breast cancer is an increasing public health concern.

  4. Food Supplement Reduces Fat, Improves Flavor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Diversified Services Corporation, seeking to develop a new nutritional fat replacement and flavor enhancement product, took advantage of the NASA Glenn Garrett Morgan Commercialization Initiative (GMCI) for technology acquisition and development and introductions to potential customers and strategic partners. Having developed and commercialized the product, named Nurtigras, the company is now marketing it through its subsidiary, H.F. Food Technologies Inc. The Nutrigras fat substitute is available in liquid, gel, or dry form and can be easily customized to the specific needs of the food manufacturer. It is primarily intended for use as a partial replacement for animal fat in beef patties and other normally high-fat meat products, and can also be used in soups, sauces, bakery items, and desserts. In addition to the nutritional benefits, the fat replacement costs less than the food it replaces, and as such can help manufacturers reduce material costs. In precooked products, Nutrigras can increase moisture content and thereby increase product yield. The company has been able to repay the help provided by NASA by contributing to the Space Agency's astronaut diet-the Nutrigras fat substitute can be used as a flavor enhancer and shelf-life extender for food on the ISS.

  5. Interfacial properties of chitosan-PEO graft oligomers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dedinaite, Andra; Gorochovceva, Natalija; Makuska, Ricardas; Claesson, Per M.; Iruthayaraj, Joseph

    2006-01-01

    Oligomers of chitosan carrying 45 units long poly(ethylene oxide), PEO, chains grafted to the C-6 position of the sugar units were prepared using a novel synthesis route. The graft density was high, close to one poly(ethylene oxide) chain grafted to each sugar unit of the chitosan oligomer but a small fraction of unreacted chitosan remained in the sample. The molecular weight distribution of the sample was determined using GPC. The interfacial properties of the chitosan-PEO graft oligomers were ...

  6. Modification of the water absorbance of cellulose by radiation grafting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. The use of natural cellulose fibres as reinforcing elements in macromolecular composite materials has recently gained considerable attention, as emphasized by the numerous articles on the topic. However, the preparation of cellulose-based composites is perturbed by the highly hydrophilic character of the fibres, which is associated with a low interfacial compatibility with hydrophobic polymeric matrices, as well as with a loss of mechanical properties after moisture uptake. In order to reduce the hydrophilic character of cellulose fibres and to improve the strength of their adhesion to the matrix, it is necessary to undertake a structural modification of their surface. Irradiation induced grafting of hydrophobic polymer chains onto the surface of cellulose fibres is a convenient technique for this purpose. In this work 2-ethylhexyl acrylate and 2-ethylhexyl methacrylate monomers were grafted onto cotton cellulose. The grafting yield was measured by the percent increase in the mass of the samples and also by FTIR spectroscopy. Optimum grafting conditions were determined by varying the monomer concentration, grafting time, irradiation temperature, and dose. The grafting was performed using both the preirradiation and mutual grafting methods. SEM pictures clearly showed the formation of a coating layer on the fibres. The swelling in water decreased with increasing grafting yield indicating the reduction of the hydrophilic character of the samples. Polymer compatibility of the grafted samples was checked by preparing polymer composite samples.

  7. Eyebrow Reconstruction Using a Composite Skin Graft from Sideburns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Matsuda, MD, PhD

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Wide resection of malignant skin tumors in the upper orbital region often results in soft-tissue defects involving the eyebrow. We used composite skin grafts from the area around the sideburns for 1-stage reconstruction of skin and eyebrow defects. The results were aesthetically satisfying because the hair and shape of these regions were similar to those of the original eyebrow, and donor-site closure was easy with inconspicuous scar. The survival of full-thickness skin graft area of composite grafts from sideburn facilitates revascularization of thicker hair follicles in the graft and allows safe, natural eyebrow reconstruction.

  8. Crystallization of calcium carbonate on radiation-grafted polyethylene films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In biomineralization processes, nucleation and growth of inorganic crystals can be regulated by organic template molecules. This has inspired great interest in studying mimic biomineralization. In our study, growing CaCO3 crystals on PE films functionalized through radiation-induced grafting was attempted. PE films grafted with different functional groups of different distributions and densities were used as substrates for CaCO3 nucleation and crystal growth from Ca(HCO3)2 supersaturated solution under different environmental conditions (e.g. additives and temperature) to study the effects and mechanisms. The grafted PE films were analyzed by ATR-FTIR and AFM, and the evolution of CaCO3 crystal formation on the grafted PE film was characterized by SEM, FTIR, and XRD. The results indicated that heterogeneous nucleation of CaCO3 crystals was significantly facilitated by the functional groups grafted on the surface of PE films, that the morphology of CaCO3 crystals could be controlled by distribution and density of the grafted functional groups, and that polymorphism of CaCO3 crystal could be regulated by selection of grafting functional groups. We believe that studying the effects of chemical structures on inorganic crystallization is of great importance since radiation-induced grafting is an effective method to graft desirable functional groups onto different polymers by selected monomers, in the endeavor of developing advanced organic/inorganic composites with high performance, with a wide availability of polymers, monomers and inorganic solutions. (authors)

  9. The Radiation Induced Graft Copolymerization of Methacrylic Acid to Nylon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The grafting of methacrylic acid to nylon by the preirradiation technique has been studied. The rate of grafting is appreciably larger than that of homopolymerization. No simple relation exists between reaction rate and total dose. The temperature dependence of the rate of grafting to the fibre, preirradiated in air, indicates that initiation of grafting is likely to take place by decomposition of peroxide groups formed on irradiation. Electrical resistance measurements on the irradiated fibre indicate that this has been reduced by a factor of 10. (author)

  10. Sulfonated hydrocarbon graft architectures for cation exchange membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mads MØller; Jankova Atanasova, Katja

    2013-01-01

    A synthetic strategy to hydrocarbon graft architectures prepared from a commercial polysulfone and aimed as ion exchange membrane material is proposed. Polystyrene is grafted from a polysulfone macroinitiator by atom transfer radical polymerization, and subsequently sulfonated with acetyl sulfate to various degrees. Series of grafting densities and graft lengths are prepared, and membranes are solvent cast from DMSO. The membrane properties in aqueous environments are evaluated from their water swelling behavior, and their thermal properties and stability are investigated by thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry.

  11. A Novel Porcine Graft for Regeneration of Bone Defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eisner Salamanca

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Bone regeneration procedures require alternative graft biomaterials to those for autogenous bone. Therefore, we developed a novel porcine graft using particle sizes of 250–500 ?m and 500–1000 ?m in rabbit calvarial bone defects and compared the graft properties with those of commercial hydroxyapatite (HA/beta-tricalcium phosphate (?-TCP over eight weeks. Surgery was performed in 20 adult male New Zealand white rabbits. During a standardized surgical procedure, four calvarial critical-size defects of 5 mm diameter and 3 mm depth were prepared. The defects were filled with HA/?-TCP, 250–500 ?m or 500–1000 ?m porcine graft, and control defects were not filled. The animals were grouped for sacrifice at 1, 2, 4, and 8 weeks post-surgery. Subsequently, sample blocks were prepared for micro-computed tomography (micro-CT scanning and histological sectioning. Similar bone formations were observed in all three treatment groups, although the 250–500 ?m porcine graft performed slightly better. Rabbit calvarial bone tissue positively responded to porcine grafts and commercial HA/?-TCP, structural analyses showed similar crystallinity and porosity of the porcine and HA/?-TCP grafts, which facilitated bone formation through osteoconduction. These porcine grafts can be considered as graft substitutes, although further development is required for clinical applications.

  12. Implantation of Vascular Grafts Lined with Genetically Modified Endothelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, James M.; Birinyi, Louis K.; Salomon, Robert N.; Libby, Peter; Callow, Allan D.; Mulligan, Richard C.

    1989-06-01

    The possibility of using the vascular endothelial cell as a target for gene replacement therapy was explored. Recombinant retroviruses were used to transduce the lacZ gene into endothelial cells harvested from mongrel dogs. Prosthetic vascular grafts seeded with the genetically modified cells were implanted as carotid interposition grafts into the dogs from which the original cells were harvested. Analysis of the graft 5 weeks after implantation revealed genetically modified endothelial cells lining the luminal surface of the graft. This technology could be used in the treatment of atherosclerosis disease and the design of new drug delivery systems.

  13. Target-like pigmentation after minipunch grafting in stable vitiligo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelee Bisen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Surgical treatment for vitiligo has been ever evolving. Each surgical modality has its own benefits and limitations. Miniature punch grafting is the most extensively performed surgery, which gives good results in stable vitiligo. Herein we report an unusual type of repigmentation observed after minipunch grafting in a patient of stable vitiligo, which resembled target-like lesions with a "perigraft halo" surrounding individual grafts. Such pigment spread occurred despite the use of 0.5 mm larger graft from the donor site.

  14. MRI of double-bundle ACL reconstruction: evaluation of graft findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To demonstrate the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of double-bundle (DB) anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction grafts. Sixty-six patients with DB ACL reconstruction were evaluated with MRI 2 years postoperatively. Graft thickness was measured separately by two musculoskeletal radiologists. The MRI findings of graft disruption, signal intensity (SI) changes, cystic degeneration, arthrofibrosis, and impingement were analyzed. The statistical significance of the association between MRI findings was calculated. The mean anteromedial (AM) graft thickness was reduced 9% and the mean posterolateral (PL) graft thickness was reduced 18% from the original graft thickness. Disruption was seen in 3% of AM grafts and 6% of PL grafts and a partial tear in 8 and 23%, respectively. Both grafts were disrupted in 3% of patients. Increased SI was seen in 14% of intact AM grafts and in 60% of partially torn AM grafts (p = 0.032). In PL grafts the increased SI was seen in 51% of the intact grafts and in 93% of the partially torn grafts (p = 0.005). Cystic degeneration was seen in 8% of AM grafts and in 5% of PL grafts. Diffuse arthrofibrosis was seen in 5% of patients and a localized cyclops lesion in 3% of patients. Impingement of the AM graft was seen in 8% of patients. Both grafts were disrupted in 3% of patients. Also, the frequencies of other complications were low. The use of orthogonal sequences in the evaluation of the PL graft SI seems to cause volume-averaging artefacts. (orig.)

  15. MRI of double-bundle ACL reconstruction: evaluation of graft findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiekara, Tommi; Paakkala, Antti [Tampere University Hospital, Medical Imaging Centre, Tampere (Finland); Jaervelae, Timo [Sports Clinic and Hospital Mehilaeinen, Tampere (Finland); Huhtala, Heini [University of Tampere, School of Health Sciences, Tampere (Finland)

    2012-07-15

    To demonstrate the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of double-bundle (DB) anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction grafts. Sixty-six patients with DB ACL reconstruction were evaluated with MRI 2 years postoperatively. Graft thickness was measured separately by two musculoskeletal radiologists. The MRI findings of graft disruption, signal intensity (SI) changes, cystic degeneration, arthrofibrosis, and impingement were analyzed. The statistical significance of the association between MRI findings was calculated. The mean anteromedial (AM) graft thickness was reduced 9% and the mean posterolateral (PL) graft thickness was reduced 18% from the original graft thickness. Disruption was seen in 3% of AM grafts and 6% of PL grafts and a partial tear in 8 and 23%, respectively. Both grafts were disrupted in 3% of patients. Increased SI was seen in 14% of intact AM grafts and in 60% of partially torn AM grafts (p = 0.032). In PL grafts the increased SI was seen in 51% of the intact grafts and in 93% of the partially torn grafts (p = 0.005). Cystic degeneration was seen in 8% of AM grafts and in 5% of PL grafts. Diffuse arthrofibrosis was seen in 5% of patients and a localized cyclops lesion in 3% of patients. Impingement of the AM graft was seen in 8% of patients. Both grafts were disrupted in 3% of patients. Also, the frequencies of other complications were low. The use of orthogonal sequences in the evaluation of the PL graft SI seems to cause volume-averaging artefacts. (orig.)

  16. The Facial Contouring and Support System: An Innovative Method for Midfacial Fat Repositioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Cumbo, MD

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Minimally invasive rejuvenation procedures are increasingly popular with patients. In the midface, these might involve the introduction of sutures to lift and secure the malar tissue, fat grafts, and fillers to increase volume. This article describes a new facial contouring and support system, which uses an innovative hollow, double-beveled needle to which a 2/0 polypropylene suture may be anchored. Among 102 patients there were no complications, and follow-up at 3–5 years indicates little or no loss of satisfaction with the outcome. The procedure can be combined with other modalities—including fillers and skin peels—to achieve an overall, balanced, natural look for the patient. Potential adjustability and reversibility of the procedure are reassuring for both patient and surgeon and add to the technique’s versatility.

  17. Seasonal change in body fat of the Hyrax Procavia capensis (Pallas, 1766 using a body fat ranking index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.J Fourie

    1985-12-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the body fat content of the hyrax Procavia capensis were used as an indicator of physiological condition. Body fat rankings for the different sexes showed seasonal variations related to physiologically stressful periods (rutting, gestation and lactation. The subjective body fat rankings were correlated significantly with total body fat.

  18. FAT: The Good, the Bad and the Trans Fat Truth and How it Applies to People with Special Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Lee Shelly

    2007-01-01

    This article deals with the good and bad things about body fats as well as the truth behind trans fat. Fat has some important roles in the body. It allows for efficient energy storage and is also important for proper growth and development and maintenance of good health. In this article, the author discusses various categories of food fats and…

  19. Seasonal change in body fat of the Hyrax Procavia capensis (Pallas, 1766) using a body fat ranking index

    OpenAIRE

    L.J Fourie; Perrin, M R

    1985-01-01

    Changes in the body fat content of the hyrax Procavia capensis were used as an indicator of physiological condition. Body fat rankings for the different sexes showed seasonal variations related to physiologically stressful periods (rutting, gestation and lactation). The subjective body fat rankings were correlated significantly with total body fat.

  20. The rise and fall of the world's first fat tax

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Malene; Pisinger, Charlotta; Toft, Ulla; Jørgensen, Torben

    2015-01-01

    In 2011, Denmark introduced the world's first tax on saturated fat, but only 15 months later the fat tax was abolished. The aim of this article is to investigate the political processes surrounding the implementation and rapid abolition of the fat tax. Our findings suggest that industry and trade associations were heavily involved in the political process of formulating the fat tax. Industry representatives used certain tactics to oppose the fat tax: threatening lawsuits, predicting welfare loss...

  1. Permeabilization of enterocytes induced by absorption of dietary fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Erik Michael; Hansen, Gert H; Rasmussen, Karina; Niels-Christiansen, Lise-Lotte

    2013-01-01

    Absorption of dietary fat in the small intestine involves epithelial exposure to potentially harmful molecules such as bile salts and free fatty acids. We used organ culture of porcine jejunal explants incubated with a pre-digested mixture of fat (plant oil), bile and pancreatin to mimick the physiological process of dietary fat absorption, and short exposures to the fat mixture caused fat droplet accumulation within villus enterocytes. Lucifer yellow (LY), a fluorescent membrane-impermeable pol...

  2. Dietary Fat, Fat Subtypes and Hepatocellular Carcinoma in a Large European Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duarte-Salles, Talita; Fedirko, Veronika

    2015-01-01

    The role of amount and type of dietary fat consumption in the aetiology of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is poorly understood, despite suggestive biological plausibility. The associations of total fat, fat subtypes and fat sources with HCC incidence were investigated in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort, which includes 191 incident HCC cases diagnosed between 1992 and 2010. Diet was assessed by country-specific, validated dietary questionnaires. A single 24-h diet recall from a cohort subsample was used for measurement error calibration. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were estimated from Cox proportional hazard models. Hepatitis B and C viruses (HBV/HCV) status and biomarkers of liver function were assessed separately in a nested case-control subset with available blood samples (HCC=122). In multivariable calibrated models, there was a statistically significant inverse association between total fat intake and risk of HCC (per 10 g/d, HR=0.80, 95%CI: 0.65-0.99), which was mainly driven by monounsaturated fats (per 5 g/d, HR=0.71, 95%CI: 0.55-0.92) rather than polyunsaturated fats (per 5 g/d, HR=0.92, 95%CI: 0.68-1.25). There was no association between saturated fats (HR=1.08, 95%CI: 0.88-1.34) and HCC risk. The ratio of polyunsaturated/monounsaturated fats to saturated fats was not significantly associated with HCC risk (per 0.2 point, HR=0.86, 95%CI: 0.73-1.01). Restriction of analyses to HBV/HCV free participants or adjustment for liver function did not substantially alter the findings. In this large prospective European cohort, higher consumption of monounsaturated fats is associated with lower HCC risk. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  3. Dietary fat, fat subtypes and hepatocellular carcinoma in a large European cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte-Salles, Talita; Fedirko, Veronika; Stepien, Magdalena; Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Bamia, Christina; Lagiou, Pagona; Laursen, Anne Sofie Dam; Hansen, Louise; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Fagherazzi, Guy; His, Mathilde; Boeing, Heiner; Katzke, Verena; Kühn, Tilman; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Valanou, Elissavet; Kritikou, Maria; Masala, Giovanna; Panico, Salvatore; Sieri, Sabina; Ricceri, Fulvio; Tumino, Rosario; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B As; Peeters, Petra H; Hjartåker, Anette; Skeie, Guri; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Ardanaz, Eva; Bonet, Catalina; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Dorronsoro, Miren; Quirós, J Ramón; Johansson, Ingegerd; Ohlsson, Bodil; Sjöberg, Klas; Wennberg, Maria; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Travis, Ruth C; Wareham, Nick; Ferrari, Pietro; Freisling, Heinz; Romieu, Isabelle; Cross, Amanda J; Gunter, Marc; Lu, Yunxia; Jenab, Mazda

    2015-12-01

    The role of amount and type of dietary fat consumption in the etiology of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is poorly understood, despite suggestive biological plausibility. The associations of total fat, fat subtypes and fat sources with HCC incidence were investigated in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort, which includes 191 incident HCC cases diagnosed between 1992 and 2010. Diet was assessed by country-specific, validated dietary questionnaires. A single 24-hr diet recall from a cohort subsample was used for measurement error calibration. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were estimated from Cox proportional hazard models. Hepatitis B and C viruses (HBV/HCV) status and biomarkers of liver function were assessed separately in a nested case-control subset with available blood samples (HCC?=?122). In multivariable calibrated models, there was a statistically significant inverse association between total fat intake and risk of HCC (per 10 g/day, HR?=?0.80, 95% CI: 0.65-0.99), which was mainly driven by monounsaturated fats (per 5 g/day, HR?=?0.71, 95% CI: 0.55-0.92) rather than polyunsaturated fats (per 5 g/day, HR?=?0.92, 95% CI: 0.68-1.25). There was no association between saturated fats (HR?=?1.08, 95% CI: 0.88-1.34) and HCC risk. The ratio of polyunsaturated/monounsaturated fats to saturated fats was not significantly associated with HCC risk (per 0.2 point, HR?=?0.86, 95% CI: 0.73-1.01). Restriction of analyses to HBV/HCV free participants or adjustment for liver function did not substantially alter the findings. In this large prospective European cohort, higher consumption of monounsaturated fats is associated with lower HCC risk. PMID:26081477

  4. Physical interactions between cupuassu and cocoa fats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gioielli, L. A.

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Cupuassu (Theobroma grandiflorum, Sterculiaceae is an Amazonian native fruit and nowadays is cultivated only in Amazonian region. The seeds that come to about 16% of the dry weight can be used to derive a cocoa butter like product and the content of fat in the seeds is about 60% dry weight. In general, these fats are similar to those of cocoa, although they show difference in some physical properties. The objective of this study was to analyse some physical and crystallization properties of the cupuassu fat, cocoa butter and some mixtures between the two fats. The analyses performed were: dropping point, solid fat content, hardness index and Jensen cooling curve. The results suggested some advantages of the use of cupuassu fat, as lower crystallization time and smoothness than cocoa butter. The mixtures showed compatibility, cocoa butter showed bigger solid fat content at room temperature than cupuassu fat and the mixtures. Cupuassu fat had a lower dropping point than cocoa butter. The possible use of cupuassu fat and the mixtures could be in fillings and cold weather chocolate productsCupuassu (Theobroma grandiflorum, Sterculiaceae es una fruta nativa amazónica que hoy día sólo se cultiva en esta región. Las semillas con un 16%, aproximadamente, del peso seco, tienen, aproximadamente, el 60% de grasa y pueden usarse como sustituto de manteca de cacao. En general, estas grasas son similares a las del cacao, aunque muestran diferencias en algunas de sus propiedades físicas. El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar algunas propiedades físicas y de cristalización de la grasa de cupuassu, de la manteca de cacao y de mezclas de las dos grasas. Los análisis realizados fueron: punto de goteo, contenido en grasa sólida, índice de dureza y la curva de enfriamiento de Jensen. El tiempo de cristalización inferior y la mayor suavidad que muestra la grasa de cupuassu frente a la manteca de cacao, sugieren algunas ventajas del uso de la misma. Todas mezclas fueron compatibles. El contenido en grasa sólida, a temperatura ambiente, de la manteca de cacao fue superior a la de la grasa de cupuassu y las mezclas. La grasa de cupuassu mostró un punto de goteo inferior al de la manteca de cacao. Esta grasa y las mezclas estudiadas podrían usarse en los rellenos y productos del chocolate en temporada fría.

  5. Radiation-induced grafting of acrylamide onto guar gum in aqueous medium: Synthesis and characterization of grafted polymer guar-g-acrylamide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biswal, Jayashree [Radiation Technology Development Section, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai-400 085 (India); Kumar, Virendra [Radiation Technology Development Section, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai-400 085 (India); Bhardwaj, Y.K. [Radiation Technology Development Section, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai-400 085 (India)]. E-mail: ykbhard@magnum.barc.ernet.in; Goel, N.K. [Radiation Technology Development Section, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai-400 085 (India); Dubey, K.A. [Radiation Technology Development Section, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai-400 085 (India); Chaudhari, C.V. [Radiation Technology Development Section, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai-400 085 (India); Sabharwal, S. [Radiation Technology Development Section, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai-400 085 (India)

    2007-10-15

    Mutual radiation grafting technique has been applied to carry out grafting of acrylamide (AAm) onto guar gum (GG) using high-energy Co{sup 60} {gamma} radiation to enhance its flocculating properties for industrial effluents. The grafted product was characterized using analytical probes like elemental analysis, thermal analysis, Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The grafting extent was observed to decrease with the dose rate and increase with the concentration of AAm. Thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) of grafted and ungrafted samples indicated better stability of grafted product. {gamma} and microwave radiation effect on grafted and virgin GG has also been reported.

  6. Radiation-induced grafting of acrylamide onto guar gum in aqueous medium: Synthesis and characterization of grafted polymer guar-g-acrylamide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswal, Jayashree; Kumar, Virendra; Bhardwaj, Y. K.; Goel, N. K.; Dubey, K. A.; Chaudhari, C. V.; Sabharwal, S.

    2007-10-01

    Mutual radiation grafting technique has been applied to carry out grafting of acrylamide (AAm) onto guar gum (GG) using high-energy Co 60? radiation to enhance its flocculating properties for industrial effluents. The grafted product was characterized using analytical probes like elemental analysis, thermal analysis, Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The grafting extent was observed to decrease with the dose rate and increase with the concentration of AAm. Thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) of grafted and ungrafted samples indicated better stability of grafted product. ? and microwave radiation effect on grafted and virgin GG has also been reported.

  7. Characterization of N-isopropyl acrylamide/acrylic acid grafted polypropylene nonwoven fabric developed by radiation-induced graft polymerization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Mamta; Gupta, Bhuvanesh; Ikram, Saiqa

    2012-11-01

    Radiation-induced graft copolymerization of N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAAm) and acrylic acid (AA) mixture was carried out on polypropylene nonwoven fabric to develop a thermosensitive material and has been found to affect the thermal and physical characteristics of fabric. The grafted fabrics with different monomer ratios were characterized by thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD), contact angle and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Results of FTIR clearly indicated that poly(acrylic acid) and poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide) were successfully grafted onto the membrane surface. TGA results showed that the thermal stability of PP fabric increased after grafting of NIPAAm/AA. The crystallinity values from DSC and XRD were found to decrease with increase in degree of grafting because of the addition of grafted chains within the noncrystalline region. The decrease in contact angles of the grafted fabric with an increase of the degree of grafting shows that PNIPAAm/PAA exists as the hydrophilic component. The increase in surface roughness after grafting was observed by AFM.

  8. Grafting onto wool. XX. Graft copolymerization of vinyl monomers by use of redox initiators. Comparison of monomer reactivities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methyl methacrylate (MMA) and ethylacrylate (EA) have been graft copolymerized onto Himachali wool in aqueous medium by using a ferrous ammonium sulfate-hydrogen peroxide (FAS-H2O2) system as redox initiator. Percentage of grafting has been determined as functions of concentration of monomer, molar ratio of [FAS]/[H2O2], time, and temperature. Percentage of grafting is found to depend upon the molar ratio of [FAS]/[H2O2]. An attempt has been made to compare the reactivities of the acceptor monomer (MMA and EA) with that of the donor monomer (VAc) toward grafting onto wool

  9. Angiographic Evaluation of Carotid Artery Grafting with Prefabricated Small-Diameter, Small-Intestinal Submucosa Grafts in Sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to report the longitudinal angiographic evaluation of prefabricated lyophilized small-intestinal submucosa (SIS) grafts placed in ovine carotid arteries and to demonstrate a variety of complications that developed. A total of 24 grafts, 10 cm long and 6 mm in diameter, were placed surgically as interposition grafts. Graft patency at 1 week was evaluated by Doppler ultrasound, and angiography was used for follow-up at 1 month and at 3 to 4 months. A 90% patency rate was found at 1 week, 65% at 1 month, and 30% at 3 to 4 months. On the patent grafts, angiography demonstrated a variety of changes, such as anastomotic stenoses, graft diffuse dilations and dissections, and aneurysm formation. These findings have not been previously demonstrated angiographically by other investigators reporting results with small-diameter vessel grafts made from fresh small-intestinal submucosa (SIS). The complications found were partially related to the graft construction from four SIS layers. Detailed longitudinal angiographic study should become an essential part of any future evaluation of small-vessel SIS grafting.

  10. Effect of graft promoting agent on healing process of graft union, absorption, transportation of 32P and 14C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jinchun No.4 cucumber graft seedlings (the rootstock was China squash of black seeds) were used to study the effects of graft promoting agent on healing process of graft union, survival rate, absorption, transportation and distribution of 32P induced from roots and 14C from leaves. The results showed that the graft promoting agent accelerated the healing tissue production, connection of vessel and sieve tube, increased the survival rate, total absorption of 32P, total transportation and ratio of 32P and 14C. The agent caused 32P to reach scion from rootstocks and 14C to reach rootstocks from scion 2 days earlier than control

  11. FTO gene associated fatness in relation to body fat distribution and metabolic traits throughout a broad range of fatness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kring, Sofia I I; Holst, Claus

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A common single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of FTO (rs9939609, T/A) is associated with total body fatness. We investigated the association of this SNP with abdominal and peripheral fatness and obesity-related metabolic traits in middle-aged men through a broad range of fatness present already in adolescence. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Obese young Danish men (n = 753, BMI > or = 31.0 kg/m(2)) and a randomly selected group (n = 879) from the same population were examined in three surveys (mean age 35, 46 and 49 years, respectively). The traits included anthropometrics, body composition, oral glucose tolerance test, blood lipids, blood pressure, fibrinogen and aspartate aminotransferase. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the age-adjusted association between the phenotypes and the odds ratios for the FTO rs9939609 (TT and TA genotype versus the AA genotype), for anthropometrics and body composition estimated per unit z-score. BMI was strongly associated with the AA genotype in all three surveys: OR = 1.17, p = 1.1*10(-6), OR = 1.20, p = 1.7*10(-7), OR = 1.17, p = 3.4*10(-3), respectively. Fat body mass index was also associated with the AA genotype (OR = 1.21, p = 4.6*10(-7) and OR = 1.21, p = 1.0*10(-3)). Increased abdominal fatness was associated with the AA genotype when measured as waist circumference (OR = 1.21, p = 2.2*10(-6) and OR = 1.19, p = 5.9*10(-3)), sagittal abdominal diameter (OR = 1.17, p = 1.3*10(-4) and OR = 1.18, p = 0.011) and intra-abdominal adipose tissue (OR = 1.21, p = 0.005). Increased peripheral fatness measured as hip circumference (OR = 1.19, p = 1.3*10(-5) and OR = 1.18, p = 0.004) and lower body fat mass (OR = 1.26, p = 0.002) was associated with the AA genotype. The AA genotype was significantly associated with decreased Stumvoll insulin sensitivity index (OR = 0.93, p = 0.02) and with decreased non-fasting plasma HDL-cholesterol (OR = 0.57, p = 0.037), but not with any other of the metabolic traits. However, all significant results for both body fat distribution and metabolic traits were explained by a mediating effect of total fat mass. CONCLUSION: The association of the examined FTO SNP to general fatness throughout the range of fatness was confirmed, and this association explains the relation between the SNP and body fat distribution and decreased insulin sensitivity and HDL-cholesterol. The SNP was not significantly associated with other metabolic traits suggesting that they are not derived from the general accumulation of body fat.

  12. Inverse cutting of posterior lamellar corneal grafts by a femtosecond laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortdal, Jesper; Nielsen, Esben; Vestergaard, Anders Højslet; Søndergaard, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Posterior lamellar grafting of the cornea has become the preferred technique for treatment of corneal endothelial dysfunction. Posterior lamellar grafts are usually cut by a micro-keratome or a femto-second laser after the epithelial side of the donor cornea has been applanated. This approach often results in variable central graft thickness in different grafts and an increase in graft thickness towards the periphery in every graft. The purpose of this study was to evaluate if posterior lamellar...

  13. Enxertia da cajazeira / Grafting of yellow mombin tree

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Eliziete Pereira de, Souza; Rejane Maria Nunes, Mendonça; Silvanda de Melo, Silva; Maria Alexandra, Estrela; Adailson Pereira de, Souza; Gerciane Cabral da, Silva.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available A necessidade de técnicas de propagação assexuada recomendadas para a produção comercial de mudas limita a expansão comercial da cajazeira. Portanto, foi instalado um experimento na Empresa de Pesquisa Agropecuária da Paraíba - EMEPA, com o objetivo de avaliar o melhor método de enxertia para a caja [...] zeira. Adotou-se o delineamento experimental em blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições, em esquema de parcelas subdivididas no tempo, estando nas parcelas os métodos de enxertia (garfagem em fenda cheia, inglês simples e fenda lateral) e nas subparcelas os períodos de avaliação (8 períodos). Cada unidade experimental foi constituída por 12 plantas. As avaliações de crescimento, comprimento da brotação dos enxertos (cm), diâmetro da brotação do enxerto (mm) e número de brotações por enxerto foram realizadas quinzenalmente, a partir da instalação do ensaio. O percentual de pegamento dos enxertos foi determinado aos 120 dias após a realização da enxertia. Os dados foram submetidos e interpretados através de análise de variância. Os maiores percentuais de pegamento de enxertia na cajazeira foram verificados nos métodos de garfagem a inglês simples e fenda lateral. O crescimento dos enxertos foi mais vigoroso na garfagem inglês simples. Abstract in english The need for asexual propagation techniques recommended for commercial seedlings production, limits the commercial expansion of yellow mombin tree. Therefore, an experiment was set at the Empresa de Pesquisa Agropecuária da Paraíba - EMEPA with the aim of evaluating the best method of grafting for y [...] ellow mombin tree. It was used the randomized block design with four replications in a split-plot in time scheme, standing in the plots the methods of grafting (cleft grafting, splice grafting, and side-veneer grafting), and in the sub-plots the periods of evaluation (8 periods). Each experimental unit consisted of 12 plants. The assessments of growth, sprout length of the graft (cm), diameter of the shooting of graft (mm), and number of shoots per graft were carried out each fifteen days from the setting of the assay. The percentage of grafting success was determined at 120 days after grafting. The data were analyzed and interpreted using analysis of variance. The highest percentages of grafting success for the yellow mombin tree were verified for the methods of splice grafting and side-veneer grafting. The growth of the grafts was more vigorous in the splice grafting.

  14. Dendritic cells and regulation of graft-versus-host disease and graft-versus-leukemia activity

    OpenAIRE

    Stenger, Elizabeth O.; Turnquist, H?th R.; Mapara, Markus Y; Thomson, Angus W

    2012-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is the only curative treatment for many malignant hematologic diseases, with an often critical graft-versus-leukemia effect. Despite peritransplant prophylaxis, GVHD remains a significant cause of posthematopoietic stem cell transplantation morbidity and mortality. Traditional therapies have targeted T cells, yet immunostimulatory dendritic cells (DCs) are critical in the pathogenesis of GVHD. Furthermore, DCs also have tolerogenic properties. Monitorin...

  15. Study of the conformational behavior of graft copolymers by chromatography with solvents selective for grafts.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Netopilík, Miloš; Janata, Miroslav; Svitáková, Romana; Trhlíková, Olga; Berek, D.; Macová, E.; Limpouchová, Z.; Procházka, K.

    Prague : Organic, Bioorganic and Pharmaceutical Chemistry Branch of the Czech Chemical Society, 2015. s. 147. [Advances in Organic, Bioorganic and Pharmaceutical Chemistry /50./ - "Liblice 2015". 06.11.2015-08.11.2015, Olomouc] R&D Projects: GA ?R(CZ) GA13-02938S Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : graft copolymer * SEC * light scattering Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry

  16. Insitu grafting silica nanoparticles reinforced nanocomposite hydrogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jun; Han, Chun-Rui; Duan, Jiu-Fang; Xu, Feng; Sun, Run-Cang

    2013-10-01

    Highly flexible nanocomposite hydrogels were prepared by using silica nanoparticles (SNPs) as fillers and multi-functional cross-links to graft hydrophilic poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) by free radical polymerization from an aqueous solution. The SNPs were collected by neighboring polymer chains and dispersed uniformly within a PAA matrix. The mechanical properties of the nanocomposite hydrogels were tailored by the concentration of SNPs according to the percolation model. It was proposed that covalent bonds of adsorbed chains on the filler surface resulted in the formation of a shell of an immobilized glassy layer and trapped entanglements, where the glassy polymer layer greatly enhanced the elastic modulus and the release of trapped entanglements at deformation contributed to the viscoelastic properties.Highly flexible nanocomposite hydrogels were prepared by using silica nanoparticles (SNPs) as fillers and multi-functional cross-links to graft hydrophilic poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) by free radical polymerization from an aqueous solution. The SNPs were collected by neighboring polymer chains and dispersed uniformly within a PAA matrix. The mechanical properties of the nanocomposite hydrogels were tailored by the concentration of SNPs according to the percolation model. It was proposed that covalent bonds of adsorbed chains on the filler surface resulted in the formation of a shell of an immobilized glassy layer and trapped entanglements, where the glassy polymer layer greatly enhanced the elastic modulus and the release of trapped entanglements at deformation contributed to the viscoelastic properties. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: FTIR spectra of SNP after silane treatment, dynamic oscillatory shear measurements as a function of frequency, constrained polymer chain analysis by a change in the peak height in loss factor spectra, molecular weight of grafted chains at different stages of gelation, prediction of the SNP reinforcing mechanism in the frame of the percolation model, cyclic tensile loading-loading behaviors of SNP gels, and the tearing test. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr04252a

  17. Process for producing a graft polymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A graft polymer in which the hydrophile, adhesiveness and dyeing properties are improved is provided for radiography as well as for finishing agents in the paper and textile industry. The graft polymerization of a combination of a radically polymerizable vinyl monomer, a cationically polymerizable cyclic monomer and maleic anhydride is effected by a process which comprises irradiating them with radiations. The feature of this process is that the irradiation of the mixture of the backbone polymer materials and the branch polymer material with light or ionizing radiations alone is sufficient to cause the mixture to undergo both radical polymerization and cationic polymerization in the same reaction system at the same time. The special combination of these monomers permits graft polymerization instead of random polymerization. The vinyl monomers may be vinyl ethers, styrenes or the like which have an electric factor e in the range from -1.8 to 1.6, and the cyclic monomer may be cyclic ethers and lactone derivatives or the like which are cationically polymerizable. The light may be visible or ultraviolet, and the radiations may be X-rays, gamma-rays or electron beams. Sensitizers can be utilized to promote polymerization. In an example, 0.25 cc of styrene, 0.5 g of maleic anhydride and 0.5 cc of 3-3-bischloromethyl oxene were exposed to a 100W high voltage mercury lamp at a distance of 8 cm. from the object at 800C for 72 hours and 25 minutes. 364.6 g of insoluble solid was obtained after separation from the nonreactive monomers. (Iwakiri, K.)

  18. Perfluorinated polymer grafting: influence of preirradiation conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technological interest of perfluorinated polymers is related to its specific properties like low chemical reactivity and high mechanical and temperature resistance. The development of polymeric membranes for PEM fuel cell dispositives requires beyond these characteristics, a long-life time performance and low cost compared to Nafion membranes. By these material have high crystallinity, the radiation grafting indeed occurs but this process generate a low mechanical resistance aggregate. In this way, it is necessary to render the polymer with a low crystallinity or even amorphous. Generally, irradiation under polymer melt temperatures makes the crystallinity breaking and polymer crosslinking. The main objective of this work was promoting the crosslinking process into perfluorinated polymers by pre-irradiation method and to precede styrene grafting by electron beam irradiation in a second step. The experimental methodology consists in pre-irradiate perfluorinated polymers films like PTFE and PFA under high temperature (> 300 deg C) and vacuum conditions by electron beam irradiation at 5 kGy to 30 kGy doses and 2,85 kGy/s to 22,4 kGy/s dose rates. To obtain temperatures above 300 deg C, it was necessary construct a vacuum chamber with a heating system where temperature process could be follow up in real time. Some molecular alterations in polymeric matrix were analyzed by Mid-ATR-FTIR spectroscopy; macroscopic changes are verified by gravimetry. The styrene grafting onto these samples is realized by electron beam irradiation at doses between 30 and 100 kGy. These results are discussed. (author)

  19. Inverse cutting of posterior lamellar corneal grafts by a femtosecond laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortdal, Jesper; Nielsen, Esben

    2012-01-01

    Posterior lamellar grafting of the cornea has become the preferred technique for treatment of corneal endothelial dysfunction. Posterior lamellar grafts are usually cut by a micro-keratome or a femto-second laser after the epithelial side of the donor cornea has been applanated. This approach often results in variable central graft thickness in different grafts and an increase in graft thickness towards the periphery in every graft. The purpose of this study was to evaluate if posterior lamellar grafts can be prepared from the endothelial side by a femto-second laser, resulting in reproducible, thin grafts of even thickness.

  20. Surface-grafted polymers from electrodeposited macroprecursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rellamas Tria, Maria Celeste

    The use of electrochemically deposited macroprecursors for tethering polymers onto conducting surfaces is presented. Specifically, anodic electropolymerization was used as a tool to electrodeposit the precursors on electrodes that mediated the grafting of polymers onto surfaces. With this approach, patterning of surface-grafted polymers was also made possible through selective electrodeposition of the conjugated polymer network of the macroprecursors. This approach was used to fabricate protein and cell-resistant poly(poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate) (PPEGMEMA) brushes on Au surfaces. A chain transfer agent (CTA) was electrodeposited on the Au surface that served as the macroprecursor for the subsequent surface-initiated reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (SI-RAFT) polymerization of poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate (PEGMEMA). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results showed the stability of the electrogenerated CTA under anodic conditions while successful brush growth was confirmed by surface techniques including XPS, ellipsometry, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and contact angle measurements. The PPEGMEMA-coated substrate exhibited protein and cell-repellant properties comparable to other reported PEG-functionalized surfaces. The proposed approach also yielded polymer-patterned surfaces as discussed in Chapters 3 and 4. An electroactive photocrosslinker was employed to facilitate the dual mode patterning of polystyrene (PS) on the surface by either electropatterning or photopatteming route. An electrodeposited CTA was also utilized to selectively grow surface-grafted PS on conducting regions of the substrate. Subsequent backfilling of nonconducting areas with a silane atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) initiator directed the growth of poly-N-isopropylacrylamide (PNIPAM) that produced a patterned binary polymer system. The patterns were successfully characterized by AFM and IR-imaging. Surface-grafted poly(N-vinyl carbazole) (PVK) film on indium tin oxide (ITO) was fabricated using this technique. This surface was used as a hole transporting layer (HTL) for a photovoltaic device as a possible replacement for existing poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene) : poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS). Device testing showed a comparable performance between the tethered PVK HTL and PEDOT:PSS as HTLs.

  1. Radiochemical grafting of acrylonitrile on polystyrene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study of the radio-induced grafting of acrylonitrile on to preirradiated polystyrene shows that, during the radiolysis in air of this polymer as in the case of polypropylene and of poly(vinylchloride), a chain preoxidation cannot take place if the polymer is irradiated at a temperature below its glass transition temperature. Polymer plasticization produces a decrease in Tsub(g) below room temperature. It is shown that a short chain preoxidation takes place for plasticization by benzene. In the presence of chloroform, a polystyrene sensitivity to radiation is additional to the effect of plasticization. (author)

  2. Investigations on water relations of cherry grafts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márta Gyeviki

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous investigations showed that the sweet cherry trees on most promising dwarfing, precocious and highly productive rootstocks show water deficiency during the hot and dry summer months, which influence the crop and fruit quality in the subsequent year. No doubt that under extremely dry conditions the maximum productivity and efficiency of water usage in woody heterografts can be achieved at harmonized interaction of factors determining the water relations. Those cherry trees are especially concerned, which are grafted on growth reducing rootstocks, as it became actual practice in intensive sweet cherry orchards. The rootstock research and breeding produced a wide series of dwarfing rootstocks for sweet cherry, but the trees grafted on to most promising of them show water deficiency symptoms under hot and dry summer climate. This is typical to the largest cherry growing countries of the world, like Turkey and Iran, but the conditions are similar in certain sites of Hungary too. Knowledge of hydraulic conductivity, hydraulic architecture and water-usage in case of different woody and herbaceous plant is an increasingly important issue. Because of recently occurred climate changes growing numbers of researchers work on the topic. For easy and fast analysis of plant water regime, water potential of plant parts and hydraulic conductivity of soil-plantatmosphere, a special, tool (Hydraulic Pressure Flow Meter was developed. The usage of HPFM is based on pressure-variance in tracheas. During our researches in high-density cherry orchards we found the otherwise promising dwarfing rootstocks (such as Gisela® 5 far the worst drought-tolerant, contrary to trees on Mahaleb. There is no sufficient information about drought-tolerance mechanism and hydraulic architecture of different rootstocks, thus our research purpose is to compare the above mentioned parameters in case of Prunus avium, P. mahaleb, P. cerasus and their hybrids. Our test trees are all multi-component grafts, which complicate the question even more. Not only rootstocks and scions, but graft unit itself influence transport capacity of stem. Anatomical researches have proved that trachea surface by stem cross section in case of strong vigor rootstocks is double, which suppose smaller resistance to sap flow, comparing to dwarfing rootstocks. Anatomical results itself are not enough to fully understand drought-resistance mechanism of plants, therefore our HPFM researches can approve to achieve wider knowledge of this mechanism and hereby to find appropriate dwarfing and semi-dwarfing cherry rootstocks for the Hungarian site conditions.

  3. Grafting of Porous Polymers for Biological Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research on application of radiation processing to polymers is mainly focused by the National Atomic Commission (CNEA). The Agricultural and Industrial Applications Laboratory Unit operates at the Ezeiza Atomic Center since the end of 1980s. Since 1997 a new research group headed by Dr. O. Cascone and Dr. M. Grasselli, devoted to downstream processing of proteins from the University of Buenos Aires, was involved in the implementation of grafting techniques in collaboration with Dr. E. Smolko from CNEA. In 1999 Dr. M. Grasselli moved to the Universidad Nacional de Quilmes where he continued working on application of gamma radiation to materials for biotechnological process. (author)

  4. Epoxy and Silicone Optical Nanocomposites Filled with Grafted Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Peng

    Polymer nanocomposites, as a technologically important class of materials, exhibit diverse functional properties, and are used for applications ranging from structural and biomedical to electronic and optical. The properties of polymer nanocomposites are determined, in part, by the chemical composition of the polymer matrix and the nanofillers. Their properties are also sensitive to the geometry and size of the nanofillers, and to spatial distribution of the fillers. Control of the nanoparticle size and dispersion within a given polymer provides opportunities to tailor and optimize the properties of nanocomposites for specific application. For optical applications such as encapsulation of light emitting diodes (LEDs), polymer nanocomposites filled with homogeneously dispersed nanoparticles would endow the polymer encapsulant with new functionality without sacrificing optical transparency. To this end, this thesis focuses on developing a simple and versatile approach towards the fabrication of epoxy and silicone transparent nanocomposites using matrix compatible chain-grafted nanoparticles as fillers, and studying the optical properties of the nanocomposites. The surface chemistry and grafted polymer chain design have been shown to play an important role in determining the dispersion state of the grafted nanoparticles and hence the final optical properties of the nanocomposites. To prepare transparent epoxy nanocomposites, poly (glycidyl methacrylate) (PGMA) chains were grafted onto the optical nanoparticle surfaces via a combined phosphate ligand exchange process and azide-alkyne "click" chemistry. The dispersion behavior of PGMA-grafted nanoparticles within the epoxy matrix was investigated by systematically varying the grafting density and grafted chain length. It was found that within the small molecular weight epoxy resins, the dispersion states are more sensitive to the grafting density than the molecular weight of grafted chains. With high grafting densities, the grafted PGMA brushes effectively screen the van der Waals attraction between the particles, and homogenous nanoparticle dispersions of grafted nanoparticles were obtained. Transparent high refractive index TiO2/epoxy thin film and bulk nancomposites were obtained by dispersing PGMA brushes-grafted TiO2 nanoparticles into a commercial epoxy matrix. The refractive index of the nanocomposites showed a linear dependence on the volume fraction of TiO2 nanoparticles and the optical transparency could be generally described by the Rayleigh scattering model. This powerful dispersing technique was further employed to make visibly transparent, UV/IR blocking ITO/epoxy nanocomposites which can be easily applied onto glass and plastic substrates as energy saving optical coating materials. To produce transparent silicone nanocomposites, we directly coupled phosphate-terminated PDMS chains onto the optical nanoparticle surface. It was observed that the mono-modal PDMS-grafted particles usually formed agglomerates within silicone matrices, whereas the bimodal PDMS-grafted particles were able to be individually dispersed even within high molecular weight matrices. Transparent high refractive index bulk TiO2/silicone nanocomposites were successfully prepared by filling with bimodal PDMS-grafted TiO2 nanoparticles. Furthermore, we used the PDMS-grafted TiO2/silicone nanocomposite as a model system to create a methodology to predict and control the dispersion behavior of grafted nanoparticles. The good agreement between experimental observation of dispersion of mono-modal and bimodal grafted particles and theoretical prediction would better guide future experiments and lead to predictability in polymer composite design. Finally, the bimodal grafted chain design was implemented in the preparation of transparent and luminescent CdSe/silicone nanocomposites with potential application as non-scattering light conversion materials for LEDs. The homogeneous dispersion of bimodal PDMS-grafted CdSe quantum dots not only minimizes the transparency loss due to scattering, but

  5. Abdominal CT scanning with fat-density oral contrast medium (''fatCAT'')

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problem of inadequate mixing of gastrointestinal contents and conventional high-density oral contrast agents is well known in abdominal CT. The authors recently introduced an animal model which is utilized for CT imaging of the gastrointestinal wall. A fat density oral contrast agent (''fatCAT'') consisting of 12.5% corn oil emulsion was used. They have been evaluating ''fatCAT'' in patients who require abdominal CT scans. The agent has been well tolerated by patients and healthy volunteers. It has consistently produced fat density throughout the lumen of the gastrointestinal tract with exquisite mural visualization. Preliminary calculations suggest that corn oil in the intestinal lumen reduces the local absorbed dose to the mucosa produced by photoelectrons emitted from the high atomic number (barium or iodine) oral contrast agents. Methodology and clinical utility of ''fatCAT'' are presented

  6. New human milk fat substitutes from butterfat to improve fat absorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yanqi; Mu, Huiling

    2010-01-01

    A new human milk fat substitute (HMFS) was produced from butterfat. A 2-week's feeding experiment was performed using three groups of rats with 10 wt.% fat in their feed; the fat was either (1) butterfat-based HMFS + long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA), (2) the reference oil + LCPUFA, or (3) the reference oil without LCPUFA. The apparent fat absorption after intake of butterfat-based HMFS (95.9% +/- 1.8%) was significantly higher than the other two groups, indicating that much less calcium soap was formed after feeding butterfat-based HMFS. Calcium contents in urines and faeces from the two groups fed LCPUFA in their diet were lower than those without supplementation of LCPUFA, suggesting that LCPUFA could improve calcium absorption by reducing the calcium excretion. It can thus be concluded that the butterfat-based HMFS improves fat absorption, and supplementation of LCPUFA in the formula improves calcium absorption.

  7. Effects of enteral fat emulsion on fat absorption in obstructive jaundiced rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Y; Todani, T; Toki, A; Watanabe, Y; Uemura, S; Morotomi, Y

    1991-01-01

    The effects of fat emulsion given enterally on fat absorption were studied with obstructive jaundiced rats (J group) as compared with jaundice-free rats (C group). The J and C groups were subdivided into JE and CE groups using emulsified fat for the fat absorption test, and JU and CU groups using unemulsified fat. Rats in all groups were fed for 7 days with regular rat chow. After fasting for 12 hours, 14C-labeled fat emulsion was infused to the JE and CE, and 14C-labeled unemulsified fat to the JU and CU groups through a gastrostomy for the absorption test. The hourly and cumulative output of 14CO2 by respiration, absorption rate of 14C-labeled fat in the intestine, and metabolic oxidation rate of the absorbed fat were determined during an 8-hour period after the gastroenteral administration of emulsified or unemulsified fat. The peak of hourly output was seen after the first 2 hours in the CE, JE, and CU groups, following which a remarkable decline was seen in the CE and CU groups. However, a more gentle descent in the JE, and fluctuation at a low level in the JU group were observed. The cumulative output in the JE was 61% of that in the CE, while the output in the JU was 16% of that in the CU group. The absorption rate in the JE was 81% of that in the CE group, while the rate in the JU was 22% of that in the Cu group.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1910104

  8. Stent Graft in Managing Juxta-Renal Aortoiliac Occlusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endovascular procedures are frequently used as an alternative to surgical bypass in aortic and iliac occlusion. Stents have revolutionized the scope of such endovascular procedures, but there are few reports of stents or stent grafts in occlusive juxta-renal aortic occlusion. We present a case where such occlusion was managed by use of a stent graft with successful outcome

  9. Solvent influence during radiation induced grafting of styrene in PVDF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Henrique P.; Parra, Duclerc F.; Lugao, Ademar B., E-mail: hp.ferreira@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Radiation-induced grafting was studied to produce styrene grafted poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) membranes. PVDF films with 0.125 mm thickness were irradiated at doses between 5 and 20 kGy in the presence of styrene/N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF), styrene/acetone or styrene/toluene solutions (1:1, v/v) at dose rate of 5 kGy h{sup -1} by simultaneous method, using gamma rays from a Co-60, under nitrogen atmosphere and at room temperature. The films were characterized before and after modification by grafting yield (GY %), infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM and EDS), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetry (TG/DTG). GY results shows that grafting increases with dose and toluene hinders the grafting, leading to a small GY comparing to DMF and acetone. It was possible to confirm the grafting of styrene by FT-IR due to the new characteristics peaks and by the TG and DSC due to changes in thermal behavior of the grafted material. SEM and EDS show surface and cross-section distribution of the grafting, which takes place on the surface and heterogeneously with toluene as solvent and homogeneously and penetrating into the inner layers of the matrix using DMF and acetone as solvent. (author)

  10. PREPARATION AND APPLICATION OF DIMER ACID/LIGNIN GRAFT COPOLYMER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Run Fang

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Dimer acid (DA was grafted onto lignin (EHL to form a graft copolymer DA-g-EHL. The selection of the reaction type and the optimization of the reaction conditions for the grafting reaction were conducted through orthogonal and single factor experiments. FT-IR and thermal analysis were used to characterize the graft product. It was found that, compared with free radical grafting, DA can be grafted onto EHL more effectively by ester condensation with strongly acidic cation exchange resin as a catalyst. Under optimum reaction conditions, the increase of acid value and the yield of graft copolymer can reach about 9.3% and 83%, respectively. The application of DA-g-EHL in preparing modified phenolic aldehyde amine curing agent (PAA was studied. Results showed that the flexibility of the epoxy resin cured by DA-g-EHL modified PAA is significant higher than that of the resin cured by EHL modified PAA. The graft of DA onto EHL may reduce the rigidity of EHL and the chain stiffness of the PAA modified by EHL.

  11. Adult Patent Ductus Arteriosus: Treatment with a Stent-Graft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the case of a 63-year-old woman with a short patent ductus arteriosus and aneurysmal pulmonary arteries who was treated by placement of a stent-graft. The technique proved simple and safe. Further research is required to improve the design of stent-grafts and their release system for use of this technique in adult patients with this disorder

  12. Study on biotribological properties of UHMWPE grafted with MPDSAH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Yaling; Xiong, Dangsheng, E-mail: xiongds@163.com; Shao, Silong

    2013-04-01

    In order to prolong the service life of artificial joints, a zwitterion monomer of MPDSAH ((3-(methacryloylamino)propyl)dimethyl (3-sulfopropyl)ammonium hydroxide) was grafted onto ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) powders to construct a brush-like structure by UV irradiation, and then the grafted UHMWPE powders were hot pressed as the bulk materials. The wettability of bulk materials surface with different monomer concentrations was analyzed. The tribological properties of modified UHMWPE bulk materials were investigated under distilled water and saline by sliding against stainless steel ball. The measurement of Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy indicates that MPDSAH is successfully grafted onto the surface of UHMWPE powders by UV irradiation. The contact angles of modified UHMWPE are decreased and the surface wettability is effectively improved. The friction coefficient of the modified sample is lower than that of untreated UHMWPE in aqueous lubricants during a long-term friction. With the increase of monomer concentration, the wear rate of grafted UHMWPE decreases gradually in distilled water. The grafting hydrophilic macromolecule polymer is helpful to form a lubricating film of water, which leads to the improvement of the lubricity of UHMWPE. - Highlights: ? PMPDSAH brushes were grafted onto UHMWPE powders by UV radiation. ? Wettability of PMPDSAH-grafted UHMWPE bulk material is improved. ? UHMWPE grafted with PMPDSAH brushes shows lower friction coefficient and wear rate.

  13. Solvent influence during radiation induced grafting of styrene in PVDF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation-induced grafting was studied to produce styrene grafted poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) membranes. PVDF films with 0.125 mm thickness were irradiated at doses between 5 and 20 kGy in the presence of styrene/N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF), styrene/acetone or styrene/toluene solutions (1:1, v/v) at dose rate of 5 kGy h-1 by simultaneous method, using gamma rays from a Co-60, under nitrogen atmosphere and at room temperature. The films were characterized before and after modification by grafting yield (GY %), infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM and EDS), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetry (TG/DTG). GY results shows that grafting increases with dose and toluene hinders the grafting, leading to a small GY comparing to DMF and acetone. It was possible to confirm the grafting of styrene by FT-IR due to the new characteristics peaks and by the TG and DSC due to changes in thermal behavior of the grafted material. SEM and EDS show surface and cross-section distribution of the grafting, which takes place on the surface and heterogeneously with toluene as solvent and homogeneously and penetrating into the inner layers of the matrix using DMF and acetone as solvent. (author)

  14. The use of irradiated tissue grafts in surgical practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiated tissue grafts are in vogue in various surgical corrective procedures. Tissue Banks are needed to preserve tissues of blood vessels, skin, cartilage, cornea, bone and fascia lata. Since 1988, Tata Memorial Hospital's tissue bank is functional and it uses gamma chamber. An attempt is made in this paper to discuss the advantages of the use of irradiated tissue grafts in surgical practice. (author)

  15. Surgical coverage of exposed hydroxyapatite implant with retroauricular myoperiosteal graft

    OpenAIRE

    Liao, S L; Kao, S C S; Tseng, J H S; Lin, L L-K

    2005-01-01

    Background: With the increasing use of hydroxyapatite orbital implants, the complication of exposure has become apparent to oculoplastic surgeons. Many kinds of patch grafts, such as sclera, dermis, and hard palate mucosa, have been used to cover exposed hydroxyapatite implants with inconsistent results. In this study, the authors use a newly developed technique, autogenous retroauricular myoperiosteal graft, and the results are reported.

  16. Graft Copolymerization Of Methyl Methacrylate Onto Agave Cellulose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The grafting polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA) and Agave cellulose was prepared and the grafting reaction conditions were optimized by varying the reaction time and temperature, and ratio of monomer to cellulose. The resulting graft copolymers were characterized by Fourier transform infrared, X-ray diffraction analysis, thermogravimetric analysis, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The experimental results showed that the optimal conditions were at a temperature of 45 degree Celsius for 90 min with ratio monomer to cellulose at 1:1 (g/ g). An additional peak at 1738 cm-1 which was attributed to the C=O of ester stretching vibration of poly(methyl methacrylate), appeared in the spectrum of grafted Agave cellulose. A slight decrease of crystallinity index upon grafting was found from 0.74 to 0.68 for cellulose and grafted cellulose, respectively. Grafting of MMA onto cellulose enhanced its thermal stability and SEM observation further furnished evidence of grafting MMA onto Agave cellulose with increasing cellulose diameter and surface roughness. (author)

  17. Grafted Cellulose Based Adsorbents for Selective Separation Purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of high energy ionizing radiation on cotton-cellulose was studied. It was found that degradation of cellulose started at low doses, below 5 kGy, resulting in decrease in the degree of polymerization. However, the mechanical properties of cotton-cellulose samples only slightly changed with the dose up to 40 kGy. Acrylate type monomers were successfully grafted to cellulose by mutual and by pre-irradiation grafting technique. With both techniques the grafting yield increased with increasing dose and monomer concentration. In the case of pre-irradiation grafting the increase in grafting time also resulted in an increase in grafting percentage. Cotton-cellulose was functionalized using pre-irradiation grafting (PIG) and simultaneous grafting (SG) of glycidyl methacrylate (GMA). The adsorption properties of this material were further enhanced by ?-cyclodextrin (CD) immobilization. This molecule is known for its unique ability to form inclusion complexes among others with aromatic compounds like phenols, pesticide, dyes, etc. (author)

  18. Grafted hydroxypropyl guargum: Development, characterization and application as flocculating agent

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B R Nayak; D R Biswal; N C Karmakar; R P Singh

    2002-11-01

    Synthesis of hydroxypropyl guargum--polyacrylamide was carried out by ceric ion induced redox polymerization technique at 28 ± 1°C. The graft copolymer was characterized by IR and thermal analysis. The flocculation performance of graft copolymer was tested in 1 wt% coal suspension.

  19. Saphenous venous graft pseudoaneurysm: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smer, Aiman; Alla, Venkata; Chandraprakasam, Satish; Abuzaid, Ahmed; Saurav, Alok; Holmberg, Jeffery

    2015-01-01

    Saphenous vein graft (SVG) pseudoaneurysm is a rare complication of coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. A review of literature indicates that almost one third of patients are asymptomatic at detection and a history of operative complications and need for re-exploration after the initial surgery may serve as useful predictors for the development of this rare complication. PMID:25363741

  20. Effect of nitrous oxide to graft success after tympanoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramazan Ocalan

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Nitrous oxide does not affect graft success alone, but the patient's age, size and location of the perforation, the preoperative condition of the ear, eustachian tube function and the type of graft material used were the factors affecting the success rates

  1. Influence of Fat Content on Chocolate Rheology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriele, D.; Migliori, M.; Baldino, N.; de Cindio, B.

    2008-07-01

    Molten chocolate is a suspension having properties strongly affected by particle characteristics including not only the dispersed particles but also the fat crystals formed during chocolate cooling and solidification. Even though chocolate rheology is extensively studied, mainly viscosity at high temperature was determined and no information on amount and type of fat crystals can be detected in these conditions. However chocolate texture and stability is strongly affected by the presence of specific crystals. In this work a different approach, based on creep test, was proposed to characterize chocolate samples at typical process temperatures (approximately 30 °C). The analysis of compliance, as time function, at short times enable to evaluate a material "elasticity" related to the solid-like behavior of the material and given by the differential area between the Newtonian and the experimental compliance. Moreover a specific time dependent elasticity was defined as the ratio between the differential area, in a time range, and total area. Chocolate samples having a different fat content were prepared and they were conditioned directly on rheometer plate by applying two different controlled cooling rate; therefore creep were performed by applying a low stress to ensure material linear behavior. Experimental data were analyzed by the proposed method and specific elasticity was related to single crystal properties. It was found that fat crystal amount and properties depend in different way on fat content and cooling rate; moreover creep proved to be able to detect even small differences among tested samples.

  2. Differential effect of gender on hepatic fat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilsanz, Vicente [Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, USC, Keck School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, MS 81, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, USC, Keck School of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Chung, Sandra A. [Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, USC, Keck School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, MS 81, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Kaplowitz, Neil [USC, Keck School of Medicine, USC Research Center for Liver Disease, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2011-09-15

    There are discrepant data on whether men or women have a higher risk for hepatic steatosis. To examine the influence of gender on hepatic adiposity in teenagers and young adults. We measured subcutaneous abdominal fat (SAF), intra-abdominal fat (IAF) and hepatic tissue density (a surrogate measure of hepatic fat) using CT in 505 healthy teenagers and young adults (254 males, 251 females; ages 15-22.9 years). Overall, compared to men, women had higher values of SAF (P < 0.0001) but similar measures of IAF and liver tissue density (P = 0.09 and 0.92, respectively). However, when compared to overweight/obese men, overweight/obese women had strikingly similar IAF values (P = 0.85) but lower hepatic fat (P = 0.009). Multiple regression analyses indicated that, after adjusting for age and SAF, IAF independently predicted hepatic density in males (P < 0.0001) but not in females (P = 0.36). Hepatic fat increased with body mass in males from lean to overweight and obese (P < 0.0001) but not in females (P > 0.05). When compared to overweight and obese young women, overweight and obese young men are at greater risk for hepatic steatosis, independent of IAF. (orig.)

  3. Reduction of the 18FDG uptake by the brown fat with the help of propranolol in a difficult case of lymphoma with residual disease suspicion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The oncology group of the French Society of nuclear medicine implemented evaluation criteria of the lymphomas therapy response. The problem often encountered is this one of identification of minimum residual fixations in PET-F.D.G., considered as the residual disease in the non Hodgkin lymphomas. we report the case of a thirty four years old patient treated for diffuse at big B cells non Hodgkin lymphoma, in failure after the first line of treatment and with persistence of a hyper-metabolism in pre and post graft at the level of a para-cardiac residual mass. The post auto graft PET examination showed an important activation of the brown fat, able to question the origin of the residual para-cardiac hyper-metabolism in this dramatic situation, for a young patient and potentially still in therapy failure. In order to reduce the F.D.G. captation by the brown fat, it was proposed a new PET evaluation with propranolol administration (beta blocking) before the tracer injection. The intake of propranolol allowed to reduce in an important way, the F.D.G. captation by the brown fat, without modifying the residual hyper-metabolism. This result is going to lead to the realisation of a surgical biopsy. (N.C.)

  4. Evaluation the success of osseointegrated implants in maxillary sinus grafts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubens Eduardo Gigli

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze implants placed in maxillary sinus grafts with biomaterial of bovine origin and platelet-rich plasma, observing bone neoformation and the clinical and histologic success rate presented.Methods: Analysis of the clinical findings was based on 36 maxillary sinus grafts with 101 implants placed in 30 patients with a mean age of 47 years, and the histologic analysis, based on nine samples of the 36 grafts performed, with a mean interval of 7.5 months time of the graft, the majority of patients being men with a mean age of 42 years. Results: Clinically, 91 implants placed were osseointegrated.Conclusion: Based on the results presented, it was concluded that when implants are placed in the maxillary sinus region grafted with biomaterial, they present a high success rate. ISRCTN24003246

  5. Graft copolymerisation of acrylonitrile on to polyvinyl alcohol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acrylonitrile (AN) has been graft polymerized on to polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) in aqueous medium using potassium persulfate as an initiator. The grafting was characterised by elemental analysis, solubility, I.R. and intrinsic viscosity measurements. The rate of conversion of monomer, rate of graft copolymerization (Rg), grafting ratio (GR) increased with increasing concentration of AN and decreased with increasing concentration of PVA. Increase in catalytic concentration was found to increase rate of conversion of monomer Rg and Gr. Some PVA is left unturned by growing polymer chain of PAN with increase with increasing concentration of AN PVA for potassium persulfate. The effects of concentration of AN, PVA and potassium persulfate on GR, Rg, rate of conversion of monomer and PVA used in grafting (PG) were studied. (author)

  6. Composite vascular repair grafts via micro-imprinting and electrospinning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuanyuan; Xiang, Ke; Chen, Haiping; Li, Yu; Hu, Qingxi

    2015-04-01

    Composite vascular grafts formed by micro-imprinting and electrospinning exhibited improved mechanical properties relative to those formed by electrospinning alone. The three-layered composite grafts mimic the three-layered structure of natural blood vessels. The middle layer is made by micro-imprinting poly-p-dioxanone (PPDO), while the inner and outer layers are electrospun mixtures of chitosan and polyvinyl alcohol. The graft morphology is characterized with scanning electron microscopy. For constant graft thicknesses, the PPDO increases the mechanical strength. Cells cultivated on the vascular grafts adhere and proliferate better because of the natural, biological chitosan in the inner and outer layers. Overall, the composite scaffolds could be good candidates for blood vessel repair.

  7. Composite vascular repair grafts via micro-imprinting and electrospinning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanyuan Liu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Composite vascular grafts formed by micro-imprinting and electrospinning exhibited improved mechanical properties relative to those formed by electrospinning alone. The three-layered composite grafts mimic the three-layered structure of natural blood vessels. The middle layer is made by micro-imprinting poly-p-dioxanone (PPDO, while the inner and outer layers are electrospun mixtures of chitosan and polyvinyl alcohol. The graft morphology is characterized with scanning electron microscopy. For constant graft thicknesses, the PPDO increases the mechanical strength. Cells cultivated on the vascular grafts adhere and proliferate better because of the natural, biological chitosan in the inner and outer layers. Overall, the composite scaffolds could be good candidates for blood vessel repair.

  8. Stepped gradients on polymeric monolithic columns by photoinitiated grafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currivan, Sinéad; Connolly, Damian; Paull, Brett

    2015-11-01

    The surface of polymethacrylate monoliths was functionalized by a post-polymerization modification, by means of a novel photo-initiated graft procedure where the charged monomer, sulfopropyl methacrylate, was controllably grafted stepwise, i.e. with incremental graft energies. The grafting approach was optimized using scanning capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection. The effect of the localized ion exchange capacity and resultant gradient stationary phase upon ion-exchange chromatographic retention, selectivity, and performance was investigated, and compared to a homogeneously grafted (isotropic) column. The gradient column provided reduced peak widths at half height for both cationic analytes, with a reduction of 34 and 33%, respectively, when compared to the isotropic column. PMID:26311291

  9. Early use conversion of the HeRO dialysis graft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuman, Earl; Ronfeld, Amy

    2011-06-01

    Although more challenging to place, the HeRO device (Hemosphere Inc, Eden Prairie, Minn) provides the dialysis access-challenged patient the opportunity to have an upper extremity graft rather than being dependent on a catheter or requiring a lower extremity access. A major difficulty with the HeRO is the need for a concomitant dialysis catheter until the graft matures. This has been associated with a large number of bacteremia episodes. Currently available early-access grafts have patency rates similar to standard polytetrafluoroethylene. We have modified the HeRO insertion technique to combine its attributes with those of an early-use graft. In the five patients presented in this report, we confirm that this new technique can give the patient a graft that is functional ?72 hours and obviate the need for a concomitant catheter. This results in an infection-free access over the follow-up period. PMID:21498025

  10. End-Grafted Polymer Chains onto Inorganic Nano-Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demetra S. Achilleos

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Organic/inorganic nanohybrid materials have attracted particular scientific and technological interest because they combine the properties of the organic and the inorganic component. Inorganic nanoparticles exhibit interesting electrical, optical, magnetic and/or catalytic properties, which are related with their nano-scale dimensions. However, their high surface-to-volume ratio often induces agglomeration and leads to the loss of their attractive properties. Surface modification of the inorganic nano-objects with physically or chemically end-tethered polymer chains has been employed to overcome this problem. Covalent tethered polymer chains are realized by three different approaches: the “grafting to”, the “grafting from” and the “grafting through” method. This article reviews the synthesis of end-grafted polymer chains onto inorganic nanoparticles using “controlled/living” polymerization techniques, which allow control over the polymer characteristics and the grafting density of the end-tethered polymer chains.

  11. Albumin grafting on polymer surfaces by gamma-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polymeric biomaterial surfaces were modified by albumin grafting to improve their blood compatibility. Albumin molecules were functionalized by introduction of double bonds. The functionalized albumin was covalently attached to polypropylene fibers, polycarbonate, and poly(vinyl chloride) by gamma-irradiation. ESCA and ATR/FTIR analysis of the control and grafted surfaces was conducted. Albumin grafting efficiency was found to be dependent on the gamma-irradiation time and the concentration of albumin as indicated by platelet adhesion studies. The grafted albumin molecules were not displaced when exposed to blood for prolonged time period. Finally, PLEXUS oxygenators grafted with albumin using this approach showed a significant reduction in platelet adhesion when compared to control

  12. Functional scintigraphy for renal graft evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The significance of nuclear-medical examination was examined and compared with conventional renal diagnosis using 235 sequential and functional scintigraphies performed on 67 kidney graft patients. Mostly sup(99m)Tc-labelled glucoheptonate (dosage: 2-6 mCi) or 131I-hippurane (2.0 mCi) were used as radiopharmaceuticals. 227 nuclear-medical examinations could be compared directly with the findings of angiography, urography, histology and laboratory analyses. Results showed renal function scintigraphy to agree well with the other examination methods, particularly with angiography. Owing to the low invasivity of nuclear-medical kidney examination and the absence of contrast medium incidents, sequential and functional scintigraphy in the post-operative stage offers itself as an examination method which can be applied at short notice and short term as well as repeated rapidly. Consequently it is frequently preferred over other methods in the post-operative stage. However, as soon as reduced perfusion has been established, angiography will have to be used additionally for accurate localization and cause demonstration. Being non-invasive and free from complications, laboratory methods may supply information on the graft's functional performance within a short time. However, in case of reduced function, it is not possible to base the assessment of reversibility or the indication of further therapeutical interventions on these findings alone. (orig./MG)

  13. Scaphoid Nonunion treated with vascularized bone graft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We reviewed 26 cases of scaphoid nonunion treated with a vascularized pedicle bone graft. The average duration from the time of injury to the time of operation was 54.6 months (in 10 cases, it was more than 5 years). Of the 26 cases, 22 were treated with a vascularized bone graft from the distal end of the radius (Zaidemberg method) and 4, with one from the base of the second metacarpal (Makino method). The scaphoid was fixed using a Herbert screw in 9 cases and a K-wire in 15 cases. In 2 cases, the original Herbert screw was not removed from the scaphoid during revision surgery for scaphoid nonunion. Bone union was achieved in all cases. The results obtained were scored according to the Cooney clinical scoring chart; 9 cases were rated as excellent; 14, as good; and 3, as fair. Based on the results, it appears that the surgeon should select the best procedure to adopt for treating scaphoid nonunion with consideration to the patient's age, the site of nonunion, MRI findings, and bony condition. (author)

  14. Graft versus host disease in intestinal transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazariegos, George V; Abu-Elmagd, Kareem; Jaffe, Ronald; Bond, Geoffrey; Sindhi, Rakesh; Martin, Lillian; Macedo, Camila; Peters, John; Girnita, Alin; Reyes, Jorge

    2004-09-01

    Our aim was to analyze the clinical course and outcome of patients with graft vs. host disease (GVHD) after intestinal transplantation (ITx). All patients receiving ITx between May, 1990 and December, 2003 were retrospectively reviewed for evidence of GVHD. Two hundred and fifty patients underwent ITx during the study period. Graft vs. host disease was suspected clinically in 23 patients on the clinical basis of presentation such as skin rash, ulceration of oral mucosa, diarrhea, lymphadenopathy, or native liver dysfunction. Fourteen (eight children and six adults) patients (5.6% of total patient population) had GVHD confirmed by histopathological criteria including keratinocyte necrosis (n = 9), epithelial apoptosis of the native gastrointestinal tract (n = 4), and epithelial cell necrosis of oral mucosa (n = 1). Donor-cell tissue infiltration or extensive peripheral blood donor-cell chimerism was documented on seven occasions. The majority of cases of GVHD resolved with steroid administration and optimization of tacrolimus immunosuppression. The incidence of histologically proven GVHD after clinical intestinal transplantation is 6.5% (8/122) in children and 4.7% (6/128) in adults. Successful clinical management requires a high index of suspicion to minimize morbidity and mortality. Diagnostic and treatment strategies based on this experience are proposed. PMID:15307833

  15. Oleogustus: The Unique Taste of Fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Running, Cordelia A; Craig, Bruce A; Mattes, Richard D

    2015-09-01

    Considerable mechanistic data indicate there may be a sixth basic taste: fat. However, evidence demonstrating that the sensation of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA, the proposed stimuli for "fat taste") differs qualitatively from other tastes is lacking. Using perceptual mapping, we demonstrate that medium and long-chain NEFA have a taste sensation that is distinct from other basic tastes (sweet, sour, salty, and bitter). Although some overlap was observed between these NEFA and umami taste, this overlap is likely due to unfamiliarity with umami sensations rather than true similarity. Shorter chain fatty acids stimulate a sensation similar to sour, but as chain length increases this sensation changes. Fat taste oral signaling, and the different signals caused by different alkyl chain lengths, may hold implications for food product development, clinical practice, and public health policy. PMID:26142421

  16. Do Fat Supplements Increase Physical Performance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Di Felice

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Fish oil and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA belong to a popular class of food supplements known as “fat supplements”, which are claimed to reduce muscle glycogen breakdown, reduce body mass, as well as reduce muscle damage and inflammatory responses. Sport athletes consume fish oil and CLA mainly to increase lean body mass and reduce body fat. Recent evidence indicates that this kind of supplementation may have other side-effects and a new role has been identified in steroidogenensis. Preliminary findings demonstrate that fish oil and CLA may induce a physiological increase in testosterone synthesis. The aim of this review is to describe the effects of fish oil and CLA on physical performance (endurance and resistance exercise, and highlight the new results on the effects on testosterone biosynthesis. In view of these new data, we can hypothesize that fat supplements may improve the anabolic effect of exercise.

  17. Bacterial adherence to vascular grafts after in vitro bacteremia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    All currently used arterial prosthetics have a greater susceptibility to infection following bacteremia than does autogenous tissue. This experiment compares quantitative bacterial adherence to various prosthetic materials after bacteremia carried out in a tightly controlled and quantitative fashion. Ten centimeters long, 4 mm i.d. Dacron, umbilical vein (HUV), and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) grafts, as well as PTFE grafts with a running suture line at the midportion were tested. Each graft was interposed into a pulsatile perfusion system modified from a Waters MOX 100 TM renal transplant pump. Indium-111-labeled Staphylococcus aureus were added to heparinized canine blood to give a mean concentration of 4.7 X 10(6) bacteria/cc. This infected blood was recirculated through each graft for 30 min at a rate of 125 cc/m, 100 Torr (sys), 60 beats/min. The gamma counts/graft were used to calculate the number of bacteria/cm2 of graft surface. After nine experiments, a mean of 9.63 X 10(5) bacteria/cm2 were adherent to the Dacron, 1.04 X 10(5) bacteria/cm2 to the HUV, and 2.15 X 10(4) bacteria/cm2 to the PTFE. These differences were all significant at the 0.05 level. The addition of a suture line increased bacterial adherence to the PTFE graft by 50%. These results suggest that PTFE is the vascular graft material of choice when a prosthetic graft must be implanted despite a high risk of subsequent clinical bacteremia. An in vitro, pulsatile perfusion model gave accurate and reproducible results, and appears well suited for further studies of bacterial, or platelet adherence to grafts, as well as the biomechanics of vascular conduits

  18. Bacterial adherence to vascular grafts after in vitro bacteremia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenman, J.E.; Pearce, W.H.; Kempczinski, R.F.

    1985-06-01

    All currently used arterial prosthetics have a greater susceptibility to infection following bacteremia than does autogenous tissue. This experiment compares quantitative bacterial adherence to various prosthetic materials after bacteremia carried out in a tightly controlled and quantitative fashion. Ten centimeters long, 4 mm i.d. Dacron, umbilical vein (HUV), and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) grafts, as well as PTFE grafts with a running suture line at the midportion were tested. Each graft was interposed into a pulsatile perfusion system modified from a Waters MOX 100 TM renal transplant pump. Indium-111-labeled Staphylococcus aureus were added to heparinized canine blood to give a mean concentration of 4.7 X 10(6) bacteria/cc. This infected blood was recirculated through each graft for 30 min at a rate of 125 cc/m, 100 Torr (sys), 60 beats/min. The gamma counts/graft were used to calculate the number of bacteria/cm2 of graft surface. After nine experiments, a mean of 9.63 X 10(5) bacteria/cm2 were adherent to the Dacron, 1.04 X 10(5) bacteria/cm2 to the HUV, and 2.15 X 10(4) bacteria/cm2 to the PTFE. These differences were all significant at the 0.05 level. The addition of a suture line increased bacterial adherence to the PTFE graft by 50%. These results suggest that PTFE is the vascular graft material of choice when a prosthetic graft must be implanted despite a high risk of subsequent clinical bacteremia. An in vitro, pulsatile perfusion model gave accurate and reproducible results, and appears well suited for further studies of bacterial, or platelet adherence to grafts, as well as the biomechanics of vascular conduits.

  19. Enhancement of the grafting performance and of the water absorption of cassava starch graft copolymer by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enhancement of the gamma radiation grafting of acrylonitrile onto gelatinized cassava starch was investigated. Infrared spectrometry was used to follow the chemical changes in the grafting reaction and from saponification. The saponified starch-g-PAN (HSPAN) was then characterized in terms of grafting parameters to provide a guide for the optimum total dose (kGy) and the appropriate ratio of starch/acrylonitrile for a fixed dose rate of 2.5 x 10-1 kGy/min. Other dose rates were also carried out to obtain the appropriate result of grafting copolymerization and of water absorption. A thin aluminium foil, covering the inner wall of the reaction vessel, was found to be far more effective than any other metal films in the enhancement of the grafting reaction and the water absorption as well. Nitric acid in the medium increases the grafting yield and the water absorption. Methyl ether hydroquinone inhibitor was evaluated for its ability to increase homopolymerization and decrease graft reaction. When styrene was used as a comonomer, it hampered the grafting of acrylonitrile onto starch backbone. The water absorption capacity was improved by freeze-drying the HSPAN. The treatment of the HSPAN with aluminium trichloride hexahydrate was found to enhance the degree of wicking, but to decrease the water absorbency. (author)

  20. Stearyl methacrylate-grafted-chitosan nanoparticle as a nanofiller for PLA: Radiation-induced grafting and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports a one-pot synthesis using radiation-induced grafting technique to modify biopolymer-based chitosan nanoparticles as a nanofiller for blending with poly(lactic acid) (PLA). Hydrophobic stearyl methacrylate (SMA) was grafted onto non-irradiated chitosan (CS0) and pre-irradiated chitosan with a ?-ray dose of 40 kGy (CS40) to obtain stearyl methacrylate-grafted-chitosan nanoparticles (SMA-g-CSNPs).The effects of the pre-irradiated CS, grafting doses and SMA concentrations on degree of grafting (DG) and particle formation were studied. FT-IR and XRD were used to characterize the chemical and packing structure of SMA-g-CSNPs. The particle formulation and size of SMA-g-CSNPs were observed by TEM and AFM. The spherical core-shell SMA-g-CSNPs with the size ranging from 50 to 140 nm were successfully prepared. The SMA-g-CSNPs from CS40 has higher DG and smaller particle size when compared with CS0. The SMA-g-CSNPs are able to improve the compatibility between CS and PLA. - Highlights: • Synthesis of SMA-g-CSNPs as a nanofiller for PLA was achieved by radiation-induced grafting. • Spherical core-shell SMA-g-CSNPs with the size of 50–140 nm was successfully prepared. • Pre-irradiated CS (40 kGy) before grafting increases grafting efficacy and reduces particles size. • SMA-g-CSNPs show miscible blending with PLA

  1. Adulteration of Argentinean milk fats with animal fats: Detection by fatty acids analysis and multivariate regression techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebechi, S R; Vélez, M A; Vaira, S; Perotti, M C

    2016-02-01

    The aims of the present study were to test the accuracy of the fatty acid ratios established by the Argentinean Legislation to detect adulterations of milk fat with animal fats and to propose a regression model suitable to evaluate these adulterations. For this purpose, 70 milk fat, 10 tallow and 7 lard fat samples were collected and analyzed by gas chromatography. Data was utilized to simulate arithmetically adulterated milk fat samples at 0%, 2%, 5%, 10% and 15%, for both animal fats. The fatty acids ratios failed to distinguish adulterated milk fats containing less than 15% of tallow or lard. For each adulterant, Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) was applied, and a model was chosen and validated. For that, calibration and validation matrices were constructed employing genuine and adulterated milk fat samples. The models were able to detect adulterations of milk fat at levels greater than 10% for tallow and 5% for lard. PMID:26304443

  2. The Danish tax on saturated fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård; Smed, Sinne

    2013-01-01

    Denmark introduced a new tax on saturated fat in food products with effect from October 2011. The objective of this paper is to make an effect assessment of this tax for some of the product categories most significantly affected by the new tax, namely fats such as butter, butter-blends, margarine and oils. This assessment is done by conducting an econometric analysis on weekly food purchase data from a large household panel dataset (GfK Consumer Tracking Scandinavia), spanning the period from Ja...

  3. Novel fat-link fermion actions

    OpenAIRE

    Zanotti, J. M.; Bilson-Thompson, S.; Bonnet, F. D. R.; Coddington, P. D.; Leinweber, D. B.; Williams, A.G.; Zhang, J. B.; Melnitchouk, W.; Lee, F.X.

    2002-01-01

    The hadron mass spectrum is calculated in lattice QCD using a novel fat-link clover fermion action in which only the irrelevant operators of the fermion action are constructed using smeared links. The simulations are performed on a 16^3 X 32 lattice with a lattice spacing of a=0.125 fm. We compare actions with n=4 and 12 smearing sweeps with a smearing fraction of 0.7. The n=4 Fat Link Irrelevant Clover (FLIC) action provides scaling which is superior to mean-field improveme...

  4. Capsinoids suppress fat accumulation via lipid metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Qin; Xia, Chen; XIANGYING, HU; QUAN, YUAN

    2014-01-01

    Capsaicin, found in red peppers, has been reported to have anti-obesity, anti-hypertension, anti-diabetes and anti-inflammatory functions. In the present study, we determined the effect of non-pungent capsinoids on the metabolism of adipocytes. We demonstrated that capsinoids suppressed fat accumulation in vivo and in vitro in mice. Liver, the main tissue of lipid metabolism, was treated by capsinoids, and HMG-CoA reductase, CPT-1, FAT/CD36 and GLUT4 were found to be increased significantly, ...

  5. Modification of margarine fats by enzymatic interesterification:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Hong; Pedersen, L.S.; Kristensen, D.; Adler-Nissen, Jens; Holm, H.C.

    2004-01-01

    Lipozyme TL IM-catalyzed interesterification for the modification of margarine fats was carried out in a batch reactor at 70degreesC with a lipase dosage of 4%. Solid fat content (SFC) was used to monitor the reaction progress. Lipase-catalyzed interesterification, which led to changes in the SFC, was assumed to be a first-order reversible reaction. Accordingly, the change in SFC vs. reaction time was described by an exponential model. The model contained three parameters, each with a particular...

  6. Fat depots distribution in adult Churra ewes

    OpenAIRE

    Frutos, Pilar; Mantecón, Ángel R.; González, Jesús Salvador; Revesado, P. R.

    1992-01-01

    Most sheep production systems under arid and semi-arid conditions are dependet on the ability of the animals to retain and movilize body fat. The aim of this paper is to study the effect of level of intake and body condition score on the proportions of the different fat depots in the Churra ewes. Thirty six mature Churra ewes were allocated to nine treatments, represented by 3 levels of intake (Ll) of a low quality hay (high:"ad libitum", medium: "0.8 ad libitum" and low: "0...

  7. The danish tax on saturated fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård; Smed, Sinne

    2012-01-01

    Denmark introduced a new tax on saturated fat in food products with effect from October 2011. The objective of this paper is to make an effect assessment of this tax for some of the product categories most significantly affected by the new tax, namely fats such as butter, butter-blends, margarine and oils. This assessment was done by conducting an econometric analysis on weekly food purchase data from a large household panel dataset (GfK ConsumerTracking Scandinavia), spanning the period from Ja...

  8. Determination of Milk Fat Adulteration with Vegetable Oils and Animal Fats by Gas Chromatographic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin-Man; Kim, Ha-Jung; Park, Jung-Min

    2015-09-01

    This study assessed the potential application of gas chromatography (GC) in detecting milk fat (MF) adulteration with vegetable oils and animal fats and of characterizing samples by fat source. One hundred percent pure MF was adulterated with different vegetable oils and animal fats at various concentrations (0%, 10%, 30%, 50%, 70%, and 90%). GC was used to obtain the fatty acid (FA) profiles, triacylglycerol (TG) contents, and cholesterol contents. The pure MF and the adulterated MF samples were discriminated based on the total concentrations of saturated FAs and on the 2 major FAs (oleic acid [C18:1n9c] and linoleic acid [C18:2n6c], TGs [C52 and C54], and cholesterol contents using statistical analysis to compared difference. These bio-markers enabled the detection of as low as 10% adulteration of non-MF into 100% pure MF. The study demonstrated the high potential of GC to rapidly detect MF adulteration with vegetable and animal fats, and discriminate among commercial butter and milk products according to the fat source. These data can be potentially useful in detecting foreign fats in these butter products. Furthermore, it is important to consider that several individual samples should be analyzed before coming to a conclusion about MF authenticity. PMID:26265530

  9. Stent-Graft Treatment of Late Stenosis of the Left Common Carotid Artery Following Thoracic Graft Placement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the case of a patient with subtotal occlusion of the origin of the left common carotid artery (CCA) following thoracic graft placement. Retrograde endovascular placement of a stent-graft by minimal cervical access was undertaken to repair the occlusive lesion of the left CCA and prevent future complications of endoluminal thoracic reconstruction. The retrograde endovascular repair of CCA lesions, as other authors have already suggested, may be the treatment of choice in 'high-surgical-risk' patients. In these cases where the ostium of supra-aortic trunks is compromised following thoracic aorta stent-graft migration, endoluminal placement of a stent-graft in the CCA can guarantee both maintenance of carotid flow and thoracic stent-graft fixation

  10. Radiation-induced graft copolymerization of methyl methacrylate onto natural and modified wool. I. Grafting and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiation-induced graft copolymerization of methyl methacrylate onto wool fibers and chemically modified (oxidized, methylated, reduced, and crosslinked) wool fibers was investigated in dimethylformamide at room temperature. The homopolymer was separated from the graft copolymer by Soxhlet extraction. The grafting increased with increase in radiation dosage from 0.5 to 1.5 Mrads. The % graft-on depended on the nature of the wool fibers and decreased in the following order: methylated wool, reduced wool, oxidized wool, natural wool, and crosslinked wool. The molecular weights of the grafted copolymer (after separation from the wool fibers) and homopolymers were determined viscometrically. An increase in the radiation dosage reduced the molecular weights of the polymers

  11. Contributions of fat mass and fat distribution to hip bone strength in healthy postmenopausal Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Hong Da; Li, Guan Wu; Liu, Yong; Qiu, Yu You; Yao, Jian Hua; Tang, Guang Yu

    2015-09-01

    The fat and bone connection is complicated, and the effect of adipose tissue on hip bone strength remains unclear. The aim of this study was to clarify the relative contribution of body fat accumulation and fat distribution to the determination of proximal femur strength in healthy postmenopausal Chinese women. This cross-sectional study enrolled 528 healthy postmenopausal women without medication history or known diseases. Total lean mass (LM), appendicular LM (ALM), percentage of lean mass (PLM), total fat mass (FM), appendicular FM (AFM), percentage of body fat (PBF), android and gynoid fat amount, android-to-gynoid fat ratio (AOI), bone mineral density (BMD), and proximal femur geometry were measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Hip structure analysis was used to compute some variables as geometric strength-related parameters by analyzing the images of the hip generated from DXA scans. Correlation analyses among anthropometrics, variables of body composition and bone mass, and geometric indices of hip bone strength were performed with stepwise linear regression analyses as well as Pearson's correlation analysis. In univariate analysis, there were significantly inverse correlations between age, years since menopause (YSM), hip BMD, and hip geometric parameters. Bone data were positively related to height, body weight, LM, ALM, FM, AFM, and PBF but negatively related to AOI and amount of android fat (all P android fat, shows a strong negative association with hip bone strength after making an adjustment for confounders (age, YSM, height, body weight, and BMI) in healthy postmenopausal Chinese women. Rational weight control and AOI reduction during menopause may have vital clinical significance in decreasing postmenopausal osteoporosis. PMID:25269857

  12. Relationships between fat depots and body condition score or tail fatness in Rasa Aragonesa breed

    OpenAIRE

    Teixeira, A.; Delfa, R.; Colomer-Rocher, F.

    1989-01-01

    The relationships between body fat depots and body condition score (BCS) were determined in 52 adult Rasa Aragonesa ewes aged 10 (s.d. 2) years and ranging in BCS from 1-5 to 4•5. BCS of each ewe was assessed by three people. the repeatability within individual being 90"/0 and between individuals 80%. The ewes were weighed before slaughter. After slaughter the omental mesenteric kidney and pelvic fat were separated and weighed. The fat of the left side of the carcass was separated...

  13. Autologous adipocyte graft in endoscopic treatment of vesico-renal reflux in children: a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Lacreuse

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available No bulking agent is ideal for endoscopically treating vesico-renal reflux in children. Many teams have tried to find a safe and efficient material, ideally an autologous material. We describe here a protocol for the use of autologous viable fat in the treatment of primary vesico-renal reflux in children aged from 3 to 15 years. Fat harvesting was done from the medial side of the thigh by manual aspiration. Samples were centrifuged to purify the graft from blood and lipid. Lastly fat was injected beneath the pathologic ureter by a conventional endoscopic technique. A voiding cystourethrography (VCUG closed the procedure. Follow-up included renal ultrasonography the day after surgery, and one and three months later. A VCUG was performed systematically at three months and, in cases of acute pyelonephritis, during the survey. Sixty-four children with 94 refluxing units were treated by autologous fat injection with a follow-up from 6 to 40 months. At the end of the procedure, we systematically obtained a very good increase in height of the pathologic meatus and VCUG was normal in all cases. None presented with an obstruction during the follow-up period. Two children presented with an acute pyelonephritis before the third month. At three months, VCUG was not realized in 14 cases (22% because the parents refused the procedure. One of those children presented with an acute pyelonephritis five months after endoscopic treatment. VCUG was normal for 17 of 50 children (34%, and showed a real improvement for 19 other children (38%. Three children had a surgical reimplantation because of the persistence of an unchanged high-grade vesico-renal reflux; histological examination found viable adipocytes on sections of the distal pathologic ureter. Clinically, 11 children (17% presented with an acute pyelonephritis after treatment at a mean follow-up time of 10 months. These preliminary findings led us to modify the technique in order to improve our results. Our first concern is feasibility and safety of this technique, regardless of the use of other synthetic bulking agents the innocuousness of which is uncertain.

  14. Vancomycin graft composite for infected bone defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reconstructive surgery under septic conditions represents a major challenge in orthopaedics. Local application of antibiotics can provide high drug levels at the site of infection without systemic effects. However, removal of non-resorbable implants and filling of defects usually requires additional operative procedures. An ideal antibiotic carrier should provide for : 1) Effective bactericidal activity, especially against staphylococci including MRSA; 2) High and long lasting levels at the site of infection without local or systemic toxicity; 3) Repair of defects without a second stage procedure. Allogeneic cancellous bone is proven to be effective in restoration of bone stock. Vancomycin is effective against all gram-positive populations and the agent of choice for infections with MRSA. The aim of our study is to investigate the efficacy of a combination of both components in bone infection. Cancellous bone of human origin was processed during several steps and incubated in 10% vancomycin solution. The antimicrobial activity of the vancomycin graft composite (VGC) was evaluated using an agar diffusion bioassay against staphylococcus aureus and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The testing period was up to 9 weeks. Elution of vancomycin from the graft was evaluated in 2.5% human albumin solution, which was exchanged every 24 hours. Concentration of vancomycin in allograft-bone was between 6.653[tg/g and 23.194gg/g with an average of 15.250 [tg/g, which is equivalent to 10.000 times the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for s. aureus. The initial activity decreased to approx. 50% during the first week and approx. 30% at the end of the 9th week. The lowest values measured exceeded the MIC by 2000 times. Concentration in surrounding fluid decreased from 24.395,80 to 18,43pg/ml after 11 complete exchanges. Human cancellous bone, processed in an adequate way, offers capability to store high quantities of vancomycin. Vancomycin graft composites are likely to produce high antibiotic levels in the surrounding tissue without systemic effects. Continuous release of vancomycin in therapeutic dosage may be expected during a period of several weeks. VGC therefore seems to be appropriate for the local treatment of bone infections caused by gram-positive cocci, providing eradication of bacteria and repair of defects in a one stage procedure. A prospective clinical trial has been started, concentrating on septic revisions after failed THR. All patients treated so far revealed no sign of recurrence of infection, first results are presented

  15. Graft Rejection and Graft Failure After Penetrating Keratoplasty or Posterior Lamellar Keratoplasty for Fuchs Endothelial Dystrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortdal, Jesper; Pedersen, Iben B; Bak-Nielsen, Sashia; Ivarsen, Anders

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE:: To compare the frequency of rejection episodes and graft failure because of surgical complications or rejection after Descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK) and penetrating keratoplasty (PK) for Fuchs endothelial dystrophy. METHODS:: A total of 201 eyes of 201 consecutive patients with Fuchs endothelial dystrophy undergoing keratoplasty were included. One hundred two patients underwent DSAEK and 99 PK in the period January 1, 2000, to December 31, 2010. Postopera...

  16. Outcome and Graft Patency in Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting with Coronary Endarterectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemati, Mohammad Hassan; Astaneh, Behrooz; Khosropanah, Shahdad

    2015-01-01

    Background Controversy persists regarding the use of coronary endarterectomy (CE) in patients with severe coronary artery disease. We compared the comorbidities and perioperative characteristics of patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) with and without CE. Methods This study was performed in two private hospitals in Shiraz, Iran from May 2010 to December 2011 on 967 patients who underwent CABG without CE and 84 patients who underwent CABG with CE (the CE+ group). After follow-up at 9.66±3.65 months post-surgery, 28 patients from the CE+ group underwent angiography to evaluate the patency of grafts and native coronary vessels. Results Patients in the CE+ group had a more prevalent history of diabetes (48% vs. 36%) and number of diseased vessels (2.88±0.39 vs. 2.70±0.85). The overall hospital mortality was 1.8%, and no significant difference was observed between the two groups. In the 28 patients who underwent reangiography, 113 vessels were bypassed and 29 endarterectomies were performed, mostly on the left anterior descending artery (12 endarterectomies) and the right coronary artery (8 endarterectomies). In the endarterectomized vessels, a 66% patency rate was found in both the grafts and the native vessels. The native coronary vessels were more likely to be patent when the left internal mammary artery was used as a conduit than when a saphenous vein bypass graft was used. Conclusion The lack of a significant difference in postoperative complications in patients who underwent CABG with or without CE may indicate that CE does not expose patients to a higher risk of complications. Since most of the endarterectomized vessels were shown to be patent during the follow-up period, we propose that endarterectomy is a viable option for patients with severely diseased vessels. PMID:25705593

  17. Characterization and application of radiation grafted membranes in waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionic membranes were prepared by radiation-induced grafting of acrylic acid onto low density polyethylene films. To elucidate the possibility of practical use, a study has been made for the characterization of the grafted and chemically treated membranes. The selectivity of such prepared membranes towards the chelation or complexation of different alkali metals was investigated, to find that the higher affinity is observed for K+, Na+ and Li+ ions compared to other alkali metals used. The metal uptake percent was determined using different techniques; flame photometer and X-ray fluorescence. The uptake of metal from its feed solution by the grafted membrane increased as the degree of grafting increased, i.e. it is directly proportional to the content of functional carboxylic acid groups in the graft copolymer. As a consequence, the electrical conductivity of metal feed solution decreased during such process of metal chelation by the membrane. The higher the grafting degree of membrane, the lower the electrical conductivity of metal feed solutions observed. The changes in thermal properties of the prepared membranes were investigated and characterized using differential scanning calorimeter, and thermal gravimeteric analysis. The thermal stability of these membranes increased with degree of grafting due to the formation of crosslinked network structure via hydrogen bonding. Furthermore, such stability is enhanced for the alkali-treated membranes even at high elevated temperatures. The prepared membranes showed a great promise for possible use in the recovery of Uranium from Zirconium in their wastes. (author)

  18. Characterization and application of radiation grafted membranes in waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionic membranes were prepared by radiation-induced grafting of acrylic acid onto low density polyethylene films. To elucidate the possibility of practical use, a study has been made for the characterization of the grafted and chemically treated membranes. The selectivity of such prepared membranes towards the chelation or complexation of different alkali metals was investigated, to find that the higher affinity is observed for K+, Na+ and Li+ ions compared to other alkali metals used. The metal uptake percent was deter mined using different techniques: flame photometer and X-ray fluorescence. The uptake of metal from its feed solution by the grafted membrane increased as the degree of grafting increased, i.e., it is directly proportional to the content of functional carboxylic acid groups in the graft copolymer. As a consequence, the electrical conductivity of metal feed solution decreased during such process of metal chelation by the membrane. The higher the grafting degree of membrane, the lower the electrical conductivity of metal feed solutions observed. The changes in thermal properties of the prepared membranes were investigated and characterized using differential scanning calorimeter and thermal gravimetric analysis. The thermal stability of these membranes increased with a degree of grafting due to the formation of crosslinked network structure via hydrogen bonding. Furthermore, such stability is enhanced for the alkali-treated membranes even at high elevated temperatures. The prepared membranes showed a great promise for possible use in the recovery of uranium from zirconium in their wastes. (author)

  19. Radiation-induced grafting of styrene on polypropylene pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The changes of radiation-induced in polypropylene (PP) pellets exposed to gamma irradiation in inert atmosphere were investigated in correlation with the applied doses (10 and 50 kGy). Also, results from the grafting of styrene onto PP pellets using simultaneous irradiation at the same doses are presented. The grafting reaction was carried out using toluene as solvent, under nitrogen atmosphere and at room temperature. The properties of the irradiated and grafted PP pellets were studied using Melt Flow Index, thermal analysis (TG and DSC), and ATR-IR. The degree of grafting (DOG) for the grafted pellets was gravimetrically determined. The results showed that radiation-induced graft polymerization on pellets were successfully obtained and the influence of dose irradiated did not change the thermal properties in spite of the increase in the MFI and consequently this increase in the viscosity results an decrease the molecular mass. The MFI for grafted pellets was not achievable because the high degree of viscosity of polymer, even arising the test temperature, the polymer was not flow enough. (author)

  20. Technical modification for composite grafts in myocardial revascularization surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaccur Paulo

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: In the last decade, the coronary artery bypass grafts (CABG with arterial grafting had been remarkable, mainly the combined ones in Y or T form, which start from the left internal thoracic artery (LITA. Elaborating this kind of grafting, we identified a certain worry related to the anastomoses of the radial artery in LITA, principally when realized in T, since any small traction, angulations or spasms of the radial artery might impaired the flow of the distal anastomoses of LITA to the anterior interventricular artery. METHOD: We modified the combined graft technique, by making anastomoses of the radial artery to the anterior interventricular artery, and, consequently the LITA is sewed above the anastomoses of the radial artery to the anterior interventricular artery, favoring therefore, the revascularization of the anterior interventricular artery with the LITA, transforming the radial artery into almost an extension of the LITA to the remaining branches of the left coronary artery. CONCLUSIONS: This technical modification for these composite grafts is simple, safer and effective, and it will enable a larger number of surgeons to routinelyuse composite grafts in coronary artery bypass grafting.

  1. Results of Buccal Mucosal Graft Urethroplasty in Complex Hypospadias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Amin-Sharifi

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Urethral reconstruction in complex hypospadias poses a significant challenge. We report our experience using buccal mucosa to repair complex hypospadias. Materials and Methods: From February 2001 to September 2003, 16 urethral reconstructions were performed using buccal mucosal graft. Twelve of the patients had previously failed urethroplasties, while the other 4 had perineal or scrotal hypospadias. Grafts were harvested from the lower lip. Onlay grafts were used in 8 cases, and tubularized grafts were used for the others. Results: After 14 to 27 months’ follow-up, 11 of 16 (69% patients developed complications, including meatal stenosis in 2 (12.5%, urethral stricture in 5 (31%, and urethrocutaneous fistula in 4 (25%. No oral complications were seen, and all of the urethroplasty complications were managed successfully. Conclusion: Urethroplasty using a buccal mucosal graft may be accompanied by a relatively high complication rate, which is more common in patients with tubularized graft; however, all complications can be managed successfully. We believe that urethroplasty using buccal mucosal graft in complex hypospadias is an acceptable treatment modality.

  2. Computed tomography evaluation of autogenous graft in sinus lift surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective was to quantify bone formation within autogenous bone grafts and autogenous bone grafts in combination with platelet-rich plasma obtained either from apheresis or centrifugation using computed tomography. This prospective, double-blind study was conducted in 34 male and female adult patients (mean age of 28 years and 8 months), with either unilateral or bilateral pneumatization of the maxillary sinuses, requiring bone graft for dental implant. All patients were submitted to computed tomography examinations prior and six months after sinus lift surgery. Fifty-three maxillary sinuses were operated and divided into three distinct groups: autogenous bone graft, autogenous bone graft in combination with platelet-rich plasma obtained by centrifugation, and autogenous bone graft in combination with platelet-rich plasma obtained by apheresis. The results showed that computed tomography demonstrated bone growth in height and width between the initial and the follow-up computed tomography scans in all three groups. However, no statistical difference was found either for bone height or width. It was concluded that clinical evidence demonstrates the effectiveness of autogenous bone grafts, particularly when used in combination with bone growth factors such as platelet-rich plasma, which allow prosthetic and functional restoration of maxillofacial structures through fixation of dental implants. (author)

  3. Large saphenous venous graft aneurysm mimicking atypical mediastinal mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krotin Mirjana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Saphenous venous graft (SVG aneurysm is a very rare but potentially fatal complication of the coronary artery bypass surgery. Case report. We reported a case of 72-year-old man admitted to hospital because of atypical chest pain related to body motions in horizontal position, especially to the left side. Pain was followed by dispnea, palpitations, fatigue, cough, yellow sputum expectorations, as well as elevated temperature. He had had coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG surgery with saphenous vein grafts (SVGs to the left anterior descending artery (LAD and right coronary artery (RCA 27 years earlier. Chest X-ray revealed a poor-defined shadow in the region of the right atrium. A transthoracic echocardiogram revealed an atypical tumorous mediastinal mass near the right atrium and right ventricle that seemed partially calcified on transesophaeal echocardiography (TEE. CT scan confirmed an atypical mediastinal mass in contact with the right ventricle that might be a right ventricle aneurysm, pericardial cyst or SVG aneurysm. Coronary angiography was performed subsequently and it revealed a big saphenous venous graft aneurysm originating from the previous venous graft to the RCA. The aneurysm was resected and a new bypass graft was placed. Histopathology confirmed a true aneurysm of the venous graft. Conclusion. Although SVG aneurysm is a very rare complication of CABG surgery, patients presenting with atypical hilar or mediastinal mass following CABG should always be evaluated firstly for existence of this cardiosurgical complication.

  4. Albumin grafting on biomaterial surfaces using gamma-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surface modification has been used extensively in various fields to introduce desirable surface properties without affecting the bulk properties of the material. In the area of biomaterials, the approach of surface modification offers an effective alternative to the synthesis of new biomaterials. The specific objective of this study was to modify different biomaterial surfaces by albumin grafting to improve their blood compatibility. The modified surfaces were characterized for surface-induced platelet activation and thrombus formation. This behavior was correlated with the conditions used for grafting. In particular, albumin was functionalized to introduce pendant double bonds into the molecule. The functionalized albumin was covalently attached to various surfaces, such as dimethyldichlorosilane-coated glass, polypropylene, polycarbonate, poly(vinyl chloride), and polyethylene by gamma-irradiation. Platelet adhesion and activation on these surfaces was examined using video microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The extent of grafting was found to be dependent on the albumin concentration used for adsorption and the gamma-irradiation time. Release of the grafted albumin during exposure to blood was minimal. The albumin-grafted fibers maintained their thromboresistant properties even after storage at elevated temperatures for prolonged time periods. Finally, the approach was used to graft albumin on the PLEXUS Adult Hollow Fiber Oxygenators (Shiley). The blood compatibility of the grafted oxygenators improved significantly when compared to controls

  5. A Novel Small Animal Model of Differential Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Graft Strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Richard; Ju, Xiaodong; Deng, Xiang-Hua; Rodeo, Scott A

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the study was to establish a small animal research model of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction where ACL graft force can be predictably altered with knee motion. Cadaveric rat knees (n?=?12) underwent ACL resection followed by reconstruction. Six knees received anterior (high-tension) femoral graft tunnels and six knees received posterior (isometric) graft tunnels. All the 12 knees and ACL grafts were pretensioned to 3?N at 15 or 45 degrees of knee flexion. ACL graft force (N) was recorded as the knee was ranged from extension to 90-degree flexion. Distinct ACL graft force patterns were generated for a high-tension and isometric femoral graft tunnels. For a high-tension femoral tunnel, the rat ACL graft remained relatively isometric at lower knee flexion angles but increased as the knee was flexed beyond 45 degrees. At 90 degrees, high-tension grafts had significantly greater mean graft tension for both pretensioning at 15 degrees (5.58?±?1.34?N, p?=?0.005) and 45 degrees (6.35?±?1.24?N, p?=?0.001). In contrast, the graft forces for isometric ACL grafts remained relatively constant with knee flexion. Compared with a high-tension ACL grafts, the graft force for grafts placed in an isometric tunnel had significantly lower ACL graft forces at 60, 75, and 90 degrees of knee flexion for both pretensioning at 15 and 45 degrees, respectively. We were able to demonstrate that ACL graft forces in our rat model of ACL reconstruction were sensitive to femoral tunnel position similar to human knees. We were also able to establish two reproducible femoral graft tunnel positions in this small animal model, which yielded significantly different ACL graft tension patterns with knee range of motion. This model would permit further research on how ACL graft tension may affect graft healing. PMID:25343473

  6. Radiation Effects on Polymers - XI. : Radiation Grafting of Acrylamide on to Cellulose Acetate Reverse Osmosis Membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghanem, N. A.; El-Awady, N. I.

    1979-01-01

    With the aim of improving properties of cellulose acetate membranes for reverse osmosis desalination, grafting was performed using high energy electrons. In this paper, the grafting parameters (radiation dose and method, monomer concentration, solvents, chain transfer agent and redox system) are considered; conclusions are drawn as to the grafting content and mode of grafting.

  7. Noninvasive detection of coronary artery bypass graft patency by intravenous electron beam computed tomographic angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study evaluates the usefulness of intravenous electron beam computed tomographic angiography (EBA) for the detection of coronary artery bypass graft patency in 43 patients (33 men and 10 women, mean age, 65 years) who had coronary artery bypass graft surgery. EBA was performed a few days before selective bypass graft angiography (SGA). Forty axial cross-sections of angiographic images of the heart were acquired consecutively by an electrocardiographic trigger signal at 40% of the RR interval, which corresponds to the end-systolic phase. EBA data were reconstructed as a three-dimensional shaded surface display of the heart and bypass grafts. Detectability of the patency of bypass grafts was evaluated, taking selective angiographic images of the bypass grafts as a gold standard. One hundred and nine grafts (96%) out of 114 grafts were subjected to evaluation: 37 grafts were left internal mammary artery grafts (LIMA), 7 were right internal mammary artery grafts (RIMA), 6 were gastroepiploic artery grafts (GEA), 7 were free gastroepiploic artery grafts with venous drainage (free-GEA), 7 were radial artery grafts (RAG), and 45 were saphenous vein grafts (SVG). The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy of EBA were 98%, 100%, 100%, 91%, and 98%, respectively. EBA sampled at the end-systolic period was determined to be useful for the detection of coronary artery bypass graft patency and occlusion. (author)

  8. Comparing Low-Fat and Low-Carbohydrate Diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Internal Medicine Summaries for Patients Comparing Low-Fat and Low-Carbohydrate Diets The full report is titled “Effects of Low-Carbohydrate and Low-Fat Diets. A Randomized Trial.” It is in the ...

  9. Correlates, causes, and consequences of fat talk: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, Amy; Mills, Jennifer S

    2015-09-01

    Fat talk is a term used to describe self-disparaging remarks made to other people about one's weight or body. Fat talk has been both causally and correlationally linked to a number of negative body image-related variables including low body esteem, body dissatisfaction, drive for thinness, body-related cognitive distortions, and perceived sociocultural pressure to be thin. As such, body image researchers and clinicians would benefit from increased awareness of the current literature concerning fat talk. A narrative synthesis approach is used to summarize all research containing the keywords fat talk, body talk, or weight talk that was published from 1994 to 2014 inclusive. The measures used to study fat talk, outcomes and correlates associated with fat talk, theories that may help explain these findings, and the purpose served by fat talk are reviewed and discussed. In addition, directions for future research on fat talk, including intervention strategies, are examined. PMID:26479947

  10. More Exercise = More Fat Loss for Older Women, Study Finds

    Science.gov (United States)

    More Exercise = More Fat Loss for Older Women, Study Finds Doubling the amount of time spent in heart-pumping ... women who fit more minutes of heart-pumping exercise into their week will lose more body fat, ...

  11. Possible role of mechanical force in regulating regeneration of the vascularized fat flap inside a tissue engineering chamber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Yuan; Yuan, Yi; Lu, Feng; Gao, Jianhua

    2015-12-01

    In plastic and reconstructive surgery, adipose tissue is widely used as effective filler for tissue defects. Strategies for treating soft tissue deficiency, which include free adipose tissue grafts, use of hyaluronic acid, collagen injections, and implantation of synthetic materials, have several clinical limitations. With the aim of overcoming these limitations, researchers have recently utilized tissue engineering chambers to produce large volumes of engineered vascularized fat tissue. However, the process of growing fat tissue in a chamber is still relatively limited, and can result in unpredictable or dissatisfactory final tissue volumes. Therefore, detailed understanding of the process is both necessary and urgent. Many studies have shown that mechanical force can change the function of cells via mechanotransduction. Here, we hypothesized that, besides the inflammatory response, one of the key factors to control the regeneration of vascularized fat flap inside a tissue engineering chamber might be the balance of mechanical forces. To test our hypothesis, we intend to change the balance of forces by means of measures in order to make the equilibrium point in favor of the direction of regeneration. If those measures proved to be feasible, they could be applied in clinical practice to engineer vascularized adipose tissue of predictable size and shape, which would in turn help in the advancement of tissue engineering. PMID:26481158

  12. The composite aortic wall graft technique: an option for a short coronary artery bypass graft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Bosco de Oliveira

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY: During coronary artery bypass graft (CABG surgery, the saphenous vein is sutured through its proximal segment to the aorta. Intimal hyperplasia is one of the possible causes of graft occlusion. Notably, blood turbulence can induce wall shear stress that may also play an important role in this process. OBJECTIVE: We propose a new technique for performing proximal anastomosis to avoid CABG failure. METHOD: An 80 kg pig was subjected to open heart surgery. Four stitches were placed in the anterior ascending aorta, which formed a 2 cm by 4 cm patch. This patch was isolated through the application of a tangential clamp that was oriented parallel to the axis of the aorta. After releasing the patch, which was held to the aorta through its cranial end pedicle, the rims were sutured to each other creating a conduit with a length of 4 cm and an internal diameter of 4 mm. The rest of the aortotomy was closed by placing a direct suture between its rims. RESULT: This novel technique created an "in situ" aortic wall graft that was 4 cm long and characterized as being of uniform 4 mm caliber.

  13. The composite aortic wall graft technique: an option for a short coronary artery bypass graft

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    João Bosco de, Oliveira; Roberto, Rocha e Silva; Dennys Marcel Sanches, Martins; Ricardo De, Mola; Marcos Vinicius Henriques de, Carvalho.

    Full Text Available SUMMARY: During coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery, the saphenous vein is sutured through its proximal segment to the aorta. Intimal hyperplasia is one of the possible causes of graft occlusion. Notably, blood turbulence can induce wall shear stress that may also play an important role in t [...] his process. OBJECTIVE: We propose a new technique for performing proximal anastomosis to avoid CABG failure. METHOD: An 80 kg pig was subjected to open heart surgery. Four stitches were placed in the anterior ascending aorta, which formed a 2 cm by 4 cm patch. This patch was isolated through the application of a tangential clamp that was oriented parallel to the axis of the aorta. After releasing the patch, which was held to the aorta through its cranial end pedicle, the rims were sutured to each other creating a conduit with a length of 4 cm and an internal diameter of 4 mm. The rest of the aortotomy was closed by placing a direct suture between its rims. RESULT: This novel technique created an "in situ" aortic wall graft that was 4 cm long and characterized as being of uniform 4 mm caliber.

  14. Peripancreatic fat necrosis mimicking pancreatic cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thurnher, M.M.; Schima, W.; Turetschek, K.; Thurnher, S.A. [Vienna Univ. (Austria). Inst. fuer Radiologie; Fuegger, R. [Dept. of Surgery, University of Vienna (Austria); Oberhuber, G. [Dept. of Pathology, University of Vienna (Austria)

    2001-06-01

    A case of peripancreatic fat necrosis, after an episode of acute pancreatitis, which mimicked pancreatic cancer with lymph node metastases, is presented. We describe the imaging findings with helical CT scanning and with unenhanced and mangafodipir-enhanced MR imaging, with special emphasis on the differential diagnoses. (orig.)

  15. Fat necrosis of the breast: Sonographic features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To describe the ultrasonographic (US) features of us necrosis of breast. The authors retrospectively reviewed US findings of 12 patients (all females, mean age: 54 years) with histopathologically (n=9) or clinically (n=3) proven fat necorsis of the breast. On US, size, depth/width (D/W) ratio, shape, margin, location, echogenicity and retrotumoral echo (enhancement/attenuation), pattern of the superficial fascia, and skin change were analyzed by two radiologists in agreement. On US, size of the lesion ranged between 0.9 and 4.0 cm in the greatest diameter (mean: 2.2 cm). The D/W ratio ranged between 0.4 and 0.7 (mean: 0.55). The shapes of the lesions were oval in all cases. The margins of the lesions were ill-defined in 9 cases. All lesions were located in the subcutaneous fat layer and the echogenicity was hyperechoic in all cases. Nine patients showed inhomogeneous internal echogenicity. Five cases demonstrated posterior acoustic shadowing. In all cases, the lesions displaced the superficial fascia without disruption. Mild-skin thickening was associated in 6 cases. Fat necrosis of the breast had characteristic US features of heterogeneously high echogenic mass in subcutaneous fat layer.

  16. Fat loss during feeding of human milk.

    OpenAIRE

    Narayanan, I; Singh, B; Harvey, D.

    1984-01-01

    A rise in the fat concentration of human milk within the syringe was noted towards the end of continuous infusion but not with intermittent bolus gastric feeding. The rise in the former was reduced most simply and effectively by using an eccentric nozzle syringe and tilting the pump up at an angle of between 25 degrees and 40 degrees.

  17. Calorie for Calorie, Dietary Fat Restriction Results in More Body Fat Loss than Carbohydrate Restriction in People with Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Kevin D; Bemis, Thomas; Brychta, Robert; Chen, Kong Y; Courville, Amber; Crayner, Emma J; Goodwin, Stephanie; Guo, Juen; Howard, Lilian; Knuth, Nicolas D; Miller, Bernard V; Prado, Carla M; Siervo, Mario; Skarulis, Monica C; Walter, Mary; Walter, Peter J; Yannai, Laura

    2015-09-01

    Dietary carbohydrate restriction has been purported to cause endocrine adaptations that promote body fat loss more than dietary fat restriction. We selectively restricted dietary carbohydrate versus fat for 6 days following a 5-day baseline diet in 19 adults with obesity confined to a metabolic ward where they exercised daily. Subjects received both isocaloric diets in random order during each of two inpatient stays. Body fat loss was calculated as the difference between daily fat intake and net fat oxidation measured while residing in a metabolic chamber. Whereas carbohydrate restriction led to sustained increases in fat oxidation and loss of 53 ± 6 g/day of body fat, fat oxidation was unchanged by fat restriction, leading to 89 ± 6 g/day of fat loss, and was significantly greater than carbohydrate restriction (p = 0.002). Mathematical model simulations agreed with these data, but predicted that the body acts to minimize body fat differences with prolonged isocaloric diets varying in carbohydrate and fat. PMID:26278052

  18. Saphenous vein graft intervention: status report 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soverow, Jonathan; Lee, Michael S

    2014-12-01

    Given their frequent use as bypass conduits and high rates of degeneration, saphenous vein grafts (SVGs) will continue to require percutaneous coronary intervention. Due to their unique physiology, SVGs pose special challenges to the interventionalist. Preintervention evaluation of hemodynamic significance is hampered by limited data and uncertainty regarding the validity of fractional flow reserve. Intraprocedural complications, particularly distal embolization and no-reflow, are common but may be mitigated by various techniques. Despite advances in the field, SVG intervention is associated with worse outcomes - including increased rates of periprocedural myocardial infarction, restenosis, target vessel revascularization, non-target disease progression, and death - compared with native vessel intervention. This paper reviews the most recent data and techniques available to the interventionalist seeking to improve outcomes after SVG intervention. PMID:25480996

  19. Entropic forces generated by grafted semiflexible polymers

    CERN Document Server

    Gholami, A; Frey, E; Gholami, Azam; Wilhelm, Jan; Frey, Erwin

    2006-01-01

    The entropic force exerted by the Brownian fluctuations of a grafted semiflexible polymer upon a rigid smooth wall are calculated both analytically and by Monte Carlo simulations. Such forces are thought to play an important role for several cellular phenomena, in particular, the physics of actin-polymerization-driven cell motility and movement of bacteria like Listeria. In the stiff limit, where the persistence length of the polymer is larger than its contour length, we find that the entropic force shows scaling behavior. We identify the characteristic length scales and the explicit form of the scaling functions. In certain asymptotic regimes we give simple analytical expressions which describe the full results to a very high numerical accuracy. Depending on the constraints imposed on the transverse fluctuations of the filament there are characteristic differences in the functional form of the entropic forces; in a two-dimensional geometry the entropic force exhibits a marked peak.

  20. Rheological properties of cupuassu and cocoa fats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gioielli, L. A.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Cocoa butter is an important ingredient in chocolate formulation as it dictates the main properties (texture, sensation in the mouth, and gloss. In the food industry, the texture of fat-containing products strongly depends on the macroscopic properties of the fat network formed within the finished product. Cupuassu ( Theobroma grandiflorum , Sterculiaceae is an Amazonian native fruit and the seeds can be used to derive a cocoa butter like product. In general, these fats are similar to those of cocoa, although they are different in some physical properties. The objective of this study was to analyze several properties of the cupuassu fat and cocoa butter (crystal formation at 25 ° C, rheological properties, and fatty acid composition and mixtures between the two fats (rheological properties, in order to understand the behavior of these fats for their use in chocolate products. Fat flow was described using common rheological models ( Newton , Power Law, Casson and Bingham plastic.La manteca de cacao es un ingrediente muy importante en la formulación de chocolates y es responsable de la mayor parte de sus propiedades (textura, palatibilidad y brillo. En la industria de alimentos, la textura de productos que contienen grasa depende enormemente de las propiedades macroscópicas de la red cristalina de la grasa en el producto final. El cupuaçu es una fruta nativa de la región amazónica y sus semillas pueden ser usadas para obtener una grasa semejante a la manteca de cacao. En general, esta grasa es similar a la manteca de cacao, pero difiere en algunas de sus propiedades fisicas . El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar algunas propiedades de la grasa de cupuaçu y de la manteca de cacao (formación de cristales a 25 °C, propiedades reológicas y composición en ácidos grasos y de algunas mezclas entre las dos grasas (propiedades reológicas, a fin de conocer el comportamiento de estas grasas para ser usadas en productos de la industria del chocolate. El flujo de la grasa se ha descrito utilizando modelos reológicos comunes (Newton, ley de la potencia, Casson y plástico de Bingham.

  1. Resorbable extracellular matrix grafts in urologic reconstruction

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Richard A., Santucci; Theodore D., Barber.

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: There is an increasingly large body of literature concerning tissue-engineering products that may be used in urology. Some of these are quite complex (such as multilayer patient-specific cell-seeded implants) yet the most simple and successful products to date are also the most uncomplicate [...] d: resorbable acellular extra-cellular matrices (ECMs) harvested from animals. ECMs have been used in a variety of difficult urologic reconstruction problems, and this review is intended to summarize this complex literature for the practicing urologist. METHODS: Medline search of related terms such as "SIS, small intestinal submucosa, ECM, extracellular matrix, acellular matrix and urologic reconstruction". Manuscripts missed in the initial search were taken from the bibliographies of the primary references. RESULTS: Full review of potential clinical uses of resorbable extra-cellular matrices in urologic reconstruction. CONCLUSIONS: Currently, the "state of the art" in tissue engineering solutions for urologic reconstruction means resorbable acellular xenograft matrices. They show promise when used as a pubovaginal sling or extra bolstering layers in ureteral or urethral repairs, although recent problems with inflammation following 8-ply pubovaginal sling use and failures after 1- and 4-ply SIS repair of Peyronie's disease underscore the need for research before wide adoption. Preliminary data is mixed concerning the potential for ECM urethral patch graft, and more data is needed before extended uses such as bladder augmentation and ureteral replacement are contemplated. The distant future of ECMs in urology likely will include cell-seeded grafts with the eventual hope of producing "off the shelf" replacement materials. Until that day arrives, ECMs only fulfill some of the requirements for the reconstructive urologist.

  2. Quantification of Liver Fat with Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Reeder, Scott B; Sirlin, Claude

    2010-01-01

    Intracellular fat accumulation is common feature of liver disease. Intracellular fat (steatosis) is the histological hallmark of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) but also may occur with alcohol abuse, viral hepatitis, HIV and genetic lipodystrophies, and chemotherapy. This article reviews emerging magnetic resonance imaging techniques that attempt to quantify liver fat. The content provides an overview of fatty liver disease and diseases where fat is an important disease feature. Als...

  3. Epicardial and thoracic fat - Noninvasive measurement and clinical implications

    OpenAIRE

    Dey, Damini; Nakazato, Ryo; Li, Debiao; Berman, Daniel S.

    2012-01-01

    Epicardial fat, the local visceral fat depot enclosed by the visceral pericardial sac, surrounds the coronary arteries for most of their course, and may contribute to the development of coronary atherosclerosis through local production of inflammatory cytokines. Several studies which measured epicardial fat volume noninvasively have shown a relationship of increased epicardial fat volume with coronary artery disease, with the presence and progression of coronary plaque, major adverse cardiova...

  4. Dioxin monitoring in fats oils for the feed industry

    OpenAIRE

    van Asselt, E.D.; Sterrenburg, P.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present project was to determine the most critical steps in the production of fats and oils. First, production processes of vegetables oils, animal fat, fish oil, biodiesel and fat blending were studied and experts from the industry as well as in-house dioxin experts were consulted to identify the most critical steps. Then, monitoring data for vegetable oil, animal fat and fish oil were analysed to determine which products have an increased risk of dioxin contamination.

  5. Skeletal muscle fat oxidation: timing and flexibility are everything

    OpenAIRE

    Kelley, David E

    2005-01-01

    In order to examine the factors governing the timing and flexibility of skeletal muscle switching between fat and carbohydrate oxidation, Ukropcova et al. studied the effect of glucose and fatty acid availability on the preference for fat oxidation in myocytes cultured from human male quadriceps muscle taken from subjects with varied BMI, fat mass, and insulin sensitivity. The authors found that in vivo insulin sensitivity was related to a higher in vitro capacity for fat oxidation. These fin...

  6. Emulsifier in broiler diets containing different fat sources

    OpenAIRE

    AC Guerreiro Neto; Pezzato AC; JR Sartori; Mori, C.; VC Cruz; VB Fascina; DF Pinheiro; LA Madeira; JC Gonçalvez

    2011-01-01

    This present study aimed at evaluating the effect of the addition of an emulsifier to diets containing soybean oil, poultry fat or their blend, on the performance, carcass traits, serum lipid levels, pancreatic lipase concentration and nutrient digestibility of broilers. A randomized block design was applied using a 3 x 2 factorial arrangement, with three fat sources (soybean oil, poultry fat, and a blend of 50% soybean oil and 50% poultry fat) and the addition or not of an emulsifier. In exp...

  7. Waist Circumference as Measure of Abdominal Fat Compartments

    OpenAIRE

    Grundy, Scott M.; Neeland, Ian J; Turer, Aslan T; Vega, Gloria Lena

    2013-01-01

    This study examines intercorrelations among waist circumference (WC), intraperitoneal fat (IPF), and subcutaneous abdominal fat (SAF) in ethnically diverse Dallas Heart Study consisting of 1538 women and 1212 men (50% Black). Correlations between fat depots and triglyceride or HOMA2-IR, biomarkers of metabolic syndrome, are also reported. Total abdominal fat (TAF), ASF, and IPF masses were measured by magnetic resonance imaging. The highest correlations with WC according to ethnicity and gend...

  8. Full-Thickness Skin Grafting in Nasal Reconstruction

    OpenAIRE

    Weathers, William M.; Bhadkamkar, Mohin; Wolfswinkel, Erik M.; Thornton, James F.

    2013-01-01

    Skin grafting in nasal reconstruction, long used by dermatologists, can provide superior results and can well be the “go to” procedure for nasal reconstruction. The upper two-thirds of the nose is composed of both flattened, featureless and often thin skin that is well recreated with defect-only full-thickness grafting. Skin grafting for the lower third of the nose has been practiced for years by dermatologists; over the last 4 to 5 years, it has been embraced by plastic surgeons. The patient...

  9. Grafting nitroxide radicals on nanodiamond surface using click chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanova, Ekaterina E; Akiel, Rana; Cho, Franklin H; Takahashi, Susumu

    2013-11-21

    We demonstrate grafting of nitroxide radicals on the surface of nanodiamonds (NDs). The surface of NDs is functionalized by azide groups. Nitroxide radicals are covalently bonded using Cu(I)-catalyzed azide/alkyne-click chemistry approach. The reaction is confirmed by infrared spectroscopy. The grafting of nitroxides is also verified by studying the rotational correlational time using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. EPR study estimates that a few hundreds (tens) of nitroxide radicals are grafted on the surface of NDs with 100 nm (25 nm) of the average diameter. PMID:24256191

  10. Grafting to Polymethylmethacrylate by the Radiation-Peroxidation Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies of the radiation-peroxidation of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) are discussed in relation to the subsequent grafting of vinyl pyrrolidone to the peroxidized polymer. The peroxidation has been investigated as a function of dose, PMMA molecular weight, and irradiation temperature. It is shown that low molecular weight PMMA is more effectively peroxidized and grafted at doses of a few megarads than a relatively high molecular weight polymer. It is also observed that increasing the temperature to about the glass sansition also increases peroxidation and grafting. The results are explained in terms to the effects of temperature and molecular weight on the mobility of polymer and fragment radicals. (author)

  11. Radiation grafting for modifying adhesive property of polyethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electron pre-irradiation of polyethylene powder and subsequent reaction with acrylic acid for modifying adhesive property of polyethylene were investigated. The dependences of melt index, gel content, surface tension and polyethylene/Al foil adhesion on irradiation dose and acrylic acid content were measured. It was shown that adhesion between the grafted polyethylene and aluminium foil, as measured by a '180 deg' peel-test, reached the value of 2.45 N/2.5 cm. This material can be developed to produce laminate for food packing. The possible mechanism of graft modification was discussed. 'H' and 'T' graft models were proposed

  12. Quantitative analogy between polymer-grafted nanoparticles and patchy particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asai, Makoto; Cacciuto, Angelo; Kumar, Sanat K

    2015-01-28

    We establish a quantitative analogy between polymer grafted nanoparticles (PGNPs) and patchy nanoparticles (NPs). Over much of the experimentally relevant parameter space, we show that PGNPs behave quantitatively like Janus NPs, with the patch size having a universal dependence on the number of grafts and the ratio of the size of the NPs to the grafted chain size. The widely observed anisotropic self-assembly of PGNP into superstructures can thus be understood through simple geometric considerations of single patch models, in the same spirit as the geometry-based surfactant models of Israelachvili. PMID:25502933

  13. Langerhans Cells Are Not Required for Efficient Skin Graft Rejection

    OpenAIRE

    Obhrai, Jagdeep S.; Oberbarnscheidt, Martin; Na ZHANG; Mueller, Daniel L; Shlomchik, Warren D.; Lakkis, Fadi G; Shlomchik, Mark J; Kaplan, Daniel H.

    2008-01-01

    The mechanism of skin allograft rejection has been thought to require presentation of graft antigen by resident epidermal Langerhans cells (LCs). We have previously engineered mice that have a selective and constitutive absence of epidermal LCs. By using donor skin from these LC-deficient mice, we show that LCs are not required for rejection of major (FVB?B6) or minor (H-Y, male?female on B6 background) antigen-mismatched skin grafts. On the FVB background, where H-Y mismatched grafts are nor...

  14. Phthalate Migration Study from PVC Grafted by Gamma Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PVC is a useful polymer used for many applications, as packaging of food, blood and in contact with body fluids. The most widely-used plasticizer, to make it flexible, is the phthalate DEHP, and its toxicity is a problem. A special radiation grafting of PVC allows an important reduction of thrombogenic properties, and it could cause changes in the DEHP migration too. In this work it is presented the methodology using gas chromatography and numerical simulation for the measurement of DEHP migration from PVC grafted with monomer DMAEMA. The grafting could be an interesting way to reduce DEHP migration

  15. Penetrating keratoplasty in Africa: graft survival and visual outcome.

    OpenAIRE

    YORSTON, D.; Wood, M.; Foster, A

    1996-01-01

    AIM: To study the survival and visual outcome of penetrating keratoplasty in an African setting. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of 216 corneal grafts, performed on 203 eyes of 186 patients, at Kikuyu Hospital, Kenya over a 5 year period. RESULTS: Half of the transplants were carried out for keratoconus with only 5% of the grafts being undertaken for corneal scarring caused by trachoma or measles. The average follow up was 27.3 months. The probability of graft survival at 2 years was 87.4% ...

  16. Radiation graft copolymerization of polystyrene-divinylbenze amidoxime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new type of adsorbent containing amidoxime group for recovery of uranium from seawater was synthesized by radiation-induced graft copolymerization of acrylonitrile onto polystyrene-divinylbenze followed by amidoximation with hydroxylamine. Pre-irradiation and simultaneous irradiation methods were performed for producing the acrylonitrile-grafted polystyrene-divinylbenze (SDB-AN). In the pre-irradiation grafting, effects of the absorbed dose, grafting temperature and concentration of acrylonitrile monomer on grafting yields were investigated. The graft reaction can be done only at higher doses, as SDB is an excellent radiation resistantance polymer. A maximum graft yield of 77.8wt% was obtained at 2400 kGy with AN/H2O=1:7 at 80 degree C. The product was characterized by FT-IR and SEM. The absorption at 2240 cm-1 in the FT-IR spectra proved the grafting and the SEM images showed the -CN groups on the SDB surface. Simultaneous radiation grafting could be done with far less dose than pre-irradiation grafting. However, the absorbed dose should be under well control against excessive AN homopolymerization, and there might be some difficulties in the followed amidoximation reaction due to cross-linking in the inner of SDB. When acrylonitrile was grafted onto SDB followed by amidoximation, an adsorbent (SDBAO) was obtained. This absorbent possesses the amidoxime-group-containing graft chains that were connected with the trunk polymer only at their chain ends. The structure and the morphology of SDBAO were studied by FT-IR and SEM. In the FT-IR, it can be seen that -CN peak disappeared, at the same time, peaks at 3100-3600 cm-1 for -NH2,1630-1690 cm-1 for C=N and 910-940 cm-1 for N-O in the spectra indicated the presentence of amidoxime groups (-C(=NOH)NH2). From the SEM photos, it was seen that the amidoxime groups were introduced onto the surface of SDB-AN. (authors)

  17. Effect of radiation therapy on autologous and allogeneic bone grafts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Currently no significant literature exists regarding the effects of therapeutic radiation on bone graft integrity in humans. As the combination of these procedures is frequently necessary in the treatment of neoplasms, we have retrospectively analyzed graft outcomes in irradiated sites. Materials and Methods: 40 autologous or allogeneic bone grafts in 35 patients treated at the Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) between 1977 and 1995 were evaluated. Preoperative radiation was given in 28 cases, postoperative in 21 cases. Radiation was delivered as external beam photons, 160 MeV protons or brachytherapy implant. Doses ranged from 3 to 83 Gy. Grafts were located in the spine (17), pelvis (13), femur (5), humerus (2) and tibia (3). Functional graft survival and healing quality were determined radiographically. Failure free survival rates were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method and linear regressions were performed using the Wilcoxan method. Results: Overall rates of graft survival were 86% at 1 yr and 73% at 5 yrs. For auto grafts and allografts the 1 yr rates were 100% and 80% (p=.96). No significant differences in outcome based on treatment chronology were found with survival rates of 81% for preoperative treatment and 86% for postoperative treatment. With linear regression analysis there was no relation between outcome and time between surgery and radiation (p=.89). Further, no relation between bone dose (preoperative + postoperative dose), graft dose (postoperative dose) or mean dose/day and outcome was found (p=.50, p=.49 and p=.43). Failures were evenly distributed amongst high and low dose groups. The use of chemotherapy did not significantly effect outcome with a survival rate of 85% compared to 87%. Tobacco use was a significant predictor of failure with 63% graft survival compared to 94% in non-smokers (p=.038). Quality of bone healing rated poor overall, but was highly variable and did not correlate with dose or chronology of therapy. Conclusions: The low failure rate of grafts in irradiated sites and lack of dose, time and chemotherapy effects does not support significant deviation from the indicated treatment regimen for patients who have received or are expected to receive a graft. The quality of radiographic bone healing appears poor, however, further study is warranted and in progress to determine if this is clinically significant and different from unirradiated patients with similar diagnoses and procedures. As reported elsewhere, smoking has an adverse effect on graft outcome

  18. Modification of natural leather by grafting emulsion copolymerization technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grafting emulsion copolymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA) with butyl acrylate of different molar ratios onto natural leather with different molar ratios was carried out using developed redox initiation system of potassium persulphate (PPS) as an oxidizing agent and some sodium bisulphite adducts as reducing agent, as well as sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) was used as an anionic emulsifier. The grafted leather was characterized via FTIR, SEM and thermal gravimetric analysis. Moreover, the grafted leather was evaluated through water absorption, tensile strength, dyeing performance and hardness measurements. The obtained results revealed that the physical and mechanical properties of the modified leather were enhanced

  19. Hydrotreatment of Oils and Fats for Biodiesel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Anders Theilgaard; Riisager, Anders

    The use of renewable biofuels in the transport sector represents an important step towards a sustainable society. Biodiesel is currently produced by the transesterification of fats and oils with methanol, but another viable method could be reaction of the feedstock with H2 to produce long-chain alkanes. This would allow direct integration of biofuel production in existing refineries and allow use of low-grade feedstock such as abattoir wastes, used fats, greases or even tall oils from the Kraft process. The reaction network from oils and fats in H2 atmosphere includes the direct hydrogenation of the ester or carboxylic acid functionalities with H2 to result in H2O and alkanes (conservation of fatty acid chain length); decarbonylation or decarboxylation of the carboxylic functionality (split-off of CO or CO2, respectively, making the fatty acid chain one C-atom shorter) also yielding alkanes. In all routes propane is formed as a by-product from the glycerol in the fats. The hydrotreatment of a model fat mixture is studied in a stainless steel autoclave between 250 and 375°C, at moderate hydrogen pressures and over catalysts of 5 wt% Pt, Pd or Ni supported on ?-Al2O3. Hydrolysis or hydrogenation of glycerides to free fatty acids is observed to be part of the alkane formation from esters. It was seen that Pt and Pd almost exclusively facilitate the decarbonylation or decarboxylation routes. Ni also facilitated the hydrogenation route, but with a considerably lower overall activity. This may be due to differences in metal particle sizes. While decarboxylation and decarbonylation use least hydrogen during alkane formation itself, the CO and CO2 formed do react with hydrogen to form methane. By GC-analysis of the gas phase after reaction showed that with all tested catalysts, almost all of the CO and CO2 formed yielded CH4. Further investigations of these phenomena are in progress.

  20. Sucrose-sweetened beverages increase fat storage in the liver, muscle, and visceral fat depot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mærsk, Maria; Sparre, Anita Belza; Stødkilde-Jørgensen, Hans; Ringgaard, Steffen; Chabanova, Elizaveta; Thomsen, Henrik; Pedersen, Steen Bønløkke; Astrup, Arne; Richelsen, Bjørn

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The consumption of sucrose-sweetened soft drinks (SSSDs) has been associated with obesity, the metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disorders in observational and short-term intervention studies. Too few long-term intervention studies in humans have examined the effects of soft drinks. OBJECTIVE: We compared the effects of SSSDs with those of isocaloric milk and a noncaloric soft drink on changes in total fat mass and ectopic fat deposition (in liver and muscle tissue). DESIGN: Ove...