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1

Efficacy of myringoplasty in older people.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of current investigation was to analyze the efficacy of myringoplasty in an elderly population. The medical records of 12 males and 9 females, aged 65-90 years (mean 70.7 years), who underwent myringoplasty between 2007 and 2013 were retrospectively reviewed for age, gender, co-morbidities, perforation size and location, pre- and postoperative pure tone averages of air/bone thresholds at 500, 1,000, 2,000 and 3,000 Hz, graft material, postoperative complications and surgical outcome. The most frequent co-morbidities included hypertension (n = 8), hyperlipidemia (n = 7), diabetes mellitus (n = 5) and ischemic heart disease (n = 4). Fifteen patients had two or more co-morbidities. All surgeries were performed via a trans-canal approach. Seventeen patients had central perforations and four patients had marginal perforations. Temporalis fascia, perichondrium or chondro-perichondrial graft and fat were used as grafting material in 9, 11 and 1 patient, respectively. The post-operative complications were infection (n = 4) and tragal seroma (n = 1). Surgical outcome was successful in 16/21 patients with graft take rates of 89, 72 and 0% for temporalis fascia, perichondrium/cartilage, and fat, respectively. Pre-operative audiometric data were available for all 21 patients; however, the post-operative data were available for only 15 of them. Myringoplasty in older people was a safe procedure with a 76.2% surgical success rate in the current study. The choice of graft material, perforation size, gender and associated co-morbidities had no significant effect on achieving an intact tympanic membrane and a dry ear. The audiometric results did not show significant changes following myringoplasty. PMID:24789218

Migirov, Lela; Lipschitz, Noga; Slonimsky, Guy; Yakirevitch, Arkadi; Wolf, Michael

2014-12-01

2

Sepsis after autologous fat grafting.  

Science.gov (United States)

Autologous fat grafting is an increasingly popular technique, with numerous examples of excellent results. Adherence to key principles, including sterile technique and low-volume injection throughout layers of tissue, appears to be critical to obtaining good results. Reports of adverse outcomes are infrequent, but several case reports document both infectious and aesthetic complications. This case report represents an extreme complication, including abscess formation, life-threatening sepsis, and residual deformity. It serves as yet another reminder that early adoption of surgical procedures by those without a sound understanding of the underlying principles and techniques can have disastrous consequences. Furthermore, physicians operating on any patient must understand the potential for complications and be able to manage these appropriately when they occur. PMID:20885205

Talbot, Simon G; Parrett, Brian M; Yaremchuk, Michael J

2010-10-01

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Dermis fat graft in eviscerated sockets.  

Science.gov (United States)

Following evisceration, three patients who experienced extrusion of synthetic orbital implant underwent socket reconstruction using an autogenous dermis fat graft. An incision into the fundus of the existing sclera was necessary to provide for an adequate vascular bed for a composite fat graft, although the anterior ring of existing sclera with extraocular muscle attachments was not disturbed. Conjunctival reepithelialization of the dermal surface and enhancement of orbital volume occurred in each case. Furthermore, the autogenous fat graft retained the original excellent globe motility that was present before the socket reconstruction. After an average follow-up of 18 months, the volume restoration, integrity of conjunctival epithelium and fornices, and the graft viability have remained unchanged. As with alloplastic orbital implant extrusions in enucleated sockets, autogeneous dermis fat grafts can be useful in managing extrusions in previously eviscerated sockets. PMID:2487209

Borodic, G E; Townsend, D J; Beyer-Machule, C K

1989-01-01

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A STUDY ON EFFICACY OF AUTOLOGOUS PLATELET RICH PLASMA IN MYRINGOPLASTY  

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Full Text Available Objective: To study the efficacy and advantage in using autologus platelet rich plasma during myringoplasty in closure of tympanic membrane perforation preventing the graft displacement, promoting quicker healing & improving overall outcome.Methods : Platelet rich plasma(PRP is an autologus platelet rich concentrate prepared from patients own blood with growth factors up to 8 times that of normal serum and its efficacy when used during myringoplasty is studied.50 patients with chronic otitis media inactive mucosal disease were randomly chosen and 25 of them was the study group and other 25 were the control group. Both group patients underwent myringoplasty and PRP was used in the study group and the results were evaluated.Results: In our study among 25 cases that underwent myringoplasty with use of platelet rich fibrin, 24 had complete tympanic membrane closure and only one failure has been noticed. In controls 5 out of 25 cases had failure. The graft take up rate in our study is comparable with the reference studies. Use of PRP accelerates graft uptake.Conclusion: Platelet rich plasma is a cheap and cost effective platelet concentrate with enriched growth factors. It accelerates the tympanic membrane closure following myringoplasty.

Sankaranarayanan Gopalakrishnan

2013-06-01

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Myringoplasty with and without Cortical Mastoidectomy in Treatment of Non-cholesteatomatous Chronic Otitis Media: A Comparative Study  

Science.gov (United States)

OBJECTIVE To compare the outcome and success of repair of uncomplicated tympanic membrane perforations with myringoplasty alone and when combined with mastoidectomy. METHODS A prospective study where 40 patients with non-cholesteatomatous chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM) were recruited during the period of June 2013 to December 2013 from the outpatient clinic of Otorhinolaryngology department, Faculty of medicine, Cairo University. Patients were managed medically and after dryness of their perforations they were operated upon. Twenty patients underwent simple myringoplasty alone and 20 patients underwent myringoplasty with cortical mastoidectomy. Underlay technique with temporalis fascia was done for all patients. Follow-up period was at least 3 months. RESULTS Hearing improvement was comparable in both groups. There was no significant difference in graft uptake between the myringoplasty alone group (70%) and cortical mastoidectomy group (80%) (P = 0.7). There was no significant difference in ear dryness between the myringoplasty alone group (75%) and cortical mastoidectomy group (90%) (P = 0.4). CONCLUSION Mastoidectomy performed in non-cholesteatomatous CSOM in this study gives no statistically significant benefit over simple myringoplasty as regards graft success rate and dryness of the middle ear with comparable hearing outcome. PMID:25187749

Mohammed Abdel Tawab, Hazem; Mahmoud Gharib, Fadi; Algarf, Tareq M; ElSharkawy, Louay S

2014-01-01

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Chronologic changes of free fat graft in rabbit using CT  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Free fat grafts are now used for preventing osteal readhesion, filling dead space, and protecting grafted nerves and vessels. However, it is reported that grafted fat tissue is unstable resulting in high risk of cicatrization and infection. We grafted free fat to a rabbit's back and observed the chronologic change using CT. Ten adult male Japanese white rabbits (3.5 kg) were used. In five rabbits, fat tissue was obtained from the back under general anaesthesia, and transplanted into the back about 50 mm posterior from the donor site. CT was taken in the fixed scan condition five times (preoperation, immediate postoperation, postoperative 1-month, 2-month, and 3-month). In the remaining five rabbits, only CT scan was taken three times as a control. It was observed that we compared preoperative fat volume with the postoperative volume using RealINTAGE. Grafted fat tissue decreased postoperatively at 1-month and completely disappeared at 3-months. We were able to prove that CT scan is effective to observe the chronologic change of grafted fat tissue. Techniques of tissue engineering are necessary for survival of grafted fat tissue. (author)

7

Autologous fat grafting for midface rejuvenation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The authors have been performing autologous fat grafting for facial rejuvenation for 15 years and the procedure has evolved significantly during this time. In the beginning, the authors were primarily transferring to nasolabial folds, lips, and cheeks and found that the only patients who were satisfied with the procedure were cheek patients. To this day, the authors maintain that for isolated filling of lips and nasolabial folds, off the- shelf fillers are a better alternative. The authors treat these areas, however, as part of a current philosophy of smaller volumes over larger areas. In the early 2000s, the understanding of the volumetric nature of the aging process began to gain traction and global volumetric treatment became the authors' standard therapy. During that time, the authors developed a technique that led to an algorithmic approach to the surgery that allowed standard reproducible results for all surgeons. With the greater adoption of volumetric rejuvenation, an era of "more volume is better" has been entered, which is producing unnatural results. The authors' theory of facial shadow patterns explains more precisely why volume leads to facial rejuvenation and the understanding necessary to produce subtle more natural results. Currently, the authors are interested in quantitatively documenting results and evolving autologous fat transfer to a more predictable procedure. PMID:25440748

Glasgold, Mark; Glasgold, Robert; Lam, Samuel

2015-01-01

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Facial fat grafting with a prototype injection control device  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Hugh E Hetherington,1 Jon E Block2 1Bozeman Deaconess Health Group, Bozeman, MT, USA; 2The Jon Block Group, San Francisco, CA, USA Objective: To evaluate the initial clinical performance of a prototype injection control device (ICD) to facilitate fat grafting by injection. Methods: An ICD, which mechanically couples the act of withdrawing the cannula with the act of depressing the plunger, was fabricated for the purpose of facial fat grafting. The action of the device results in deposition of...

He, Hetherington; Je, Block

2013-01-01

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Fat Grafting: A Citation Analysis of the Seminal Articles  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: There has been substantial rise in the volume of published works on fat transfer in the medical literature in the past 25 years, and this is indicative of its growing popularity. However, many unanswered questions remain, and there is no consensus as to the optimum technique. Consequently, the scientific and clinical research on fat grafting continues to increase rapidly. The purpose of our study was to perform a bibliometric analysis of the most-cited articles in fat transfer. Methods: Through the Web of Science, all articles relating to fat grafting were identified in the plastic and reconstructive literature. The 100 most-cited articles were identified and analyzed individually. Results: Total citations ranged from 35 to 363 and the most-cited paper by Sidney Coleman was published in Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. The United States produced 46% of the most-cited papers, and the University of California was the most prolific institution. Twenty-one articles focused on lipofilling to the face while 14 articles looked at fat grafting to the breast. Conclusions: The scientific relevance of a published work is reflected in the number of citations from peers that it receives. Therefore, the 100 most-cited papers in fat grafting have been the most influential articles on this field, and they are likely to be the ones that are remembered most. PMID:25674376

Joyce, Kenneth M.; Rahmani, George; Walsh, Stewart R.; Carroll, Sean M.; Hussey, Alan J.; Kelly, Jack L.

2015-01-01

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Lipoenxertia em reconstrução mamária / Fat grafting in breast reconstruction  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese INTRODUÇÃO: Frequentemente, a reconstrução mamária requer um segundo tempo cirúrgico para corrigir visíveis irregularidades no contorno da mama. A lipoenxertia constitui-se em uma técnica cirúrgica que pode melhorar ou corrigir essas deformidades em substituição a outras técnicas convencionais de ma [...] ior morbidade ou complexidade. O objetivo deste estudo é demonstrar um método de correção de defeitos de contorno de mamas reconstruídas previamente pelas técnicas convencionais com enxerto de gordura, após 8 anos de experiência. MÉTODO: Todas as pacientes incluídas neste estudo foram previamente submetidas a mastectomia (total ou parcial) e a algum tipo de reconstrução mamária. A gordura foi obtida por meio de método clássico de lipoaspiração com seringa, delicadamente lavada com solução salina em uma peneira de aço inoxidável, decantada em uma seringa de 60 cc e enxertada após alguns minutos. RESULTADOS: Foram operadas 112 pacientes no período de 2005 a 2012. Houve 1 (8,9%) caso de perda total do enxerto de gordura, 22 (19,6%) pacientes apresentaram pequenos nódulos palpáveis, o volume médio enxertado foi de 100 cc e foram necessários múltiplos procedimentos para se alcançar o volume desejado. CONCLUSÕES: A lipoenxertia constitui-se em uma técnica segura, com baixa morbidade e altos índices de satisfação do cirurgião e das pacientes, apesar de necessitar de múltiplos procedimentos cirúrgicos para atingir bom resultado. Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Breast reconstruction often requires a second surgical procedure to correct visible irregularities of the breast contour. Lipofilling (fat grafting) consists of a surgical technique that improves or corrects such deformities, and serves as an alternative to other conventional techniques [...] that have higher morbidity rates and complexity. In the present study, we aimed to describe our 8-year experience with a fat grafting method for correcting contour deformities of breasts that were previously reconstructed using conventional techniques. METHODS: All patients in this study previously underwent mastectomy (total or partial) and some degree of breast reconstruction. The fat was obtained by liposuction using a syringe, and was gently rinsed with a saline solution in a stainless steel sieve, poured into a 60 cc syringe, and grafted after a few minutes. RESULTS: In total, 112 patients underwent surgery between 2005 and 2012. There was one (8.9%) case of total loss of the fat graft, while 22 (19.6%) patients had small palpable nodules. The average graft volume was 100 cc, and multiple procedures were required to achieve the desired volume. CONCLUSIONS: Fat grafting is a safe technique with low morbidity rates that demonstrates high surgeon and patient satisfaction levels, despite the need for multiple procedures to achieve good results.

Francisco José Fontenele, Bezerra; Rosely Moraes Gonçalves de, Moura; José Dalvo, Maia Neto.

2013-06-01

11

Facial fat grafting with a prototype injection control device  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Hugh E Hetherington,1 Jon E Block2 1Bozeman Deaconess Health Group, Bozeman, MT, USA; 2The Jon Block Group, San Francisco, CA, USA Objective: To evaluate the initial clinical performance of a prototype injection control device (ICD to facilitate fat grafting by injection. Methods: An ICD, which mechanically couples the act of withdrawing the cannula with the act of depressing the plunger, was fabricated for the purpose of facial fat grafting. The action of the device results in deposition of consistent threads of fat having a volume of approximately 33 uL per cm that the cannula is withdrawn, which is slightly less than the internal volume of a 12-gauge cannula. A total of 26 patients underwent 30 procedures, and the results were subjectively evaluated using pre- and postoperative photographs, with a minimum follow-up of 4 months. Results: The desired degree of correction was more consistent, recovery was faster, and procedural efficiency was improved when performing the procedure with the ICD compared to historical use of the manual method of injection. Minor irregularities were the only complications encountered. Conclusion: The ICD optimally distributes fat as a uniform thread along the withdrawal tract of the cannula, thereby eliminating clumping and minimizing tissue trauma, resulting in reduced recovery time as well as more consistent and predictable clinical results. Since the ICD automates the injection process, it provides a notable and easily attainable efficiency in procedural time and minimal learning curve for the user. Keywords: dermal fillers, liposuction, facial rejuvenation, threading

Hetherington HE

2013-09-01

12

Application of fascia of the temporal muscle and cartilage of the auricular tragus in myringoplasty in children  

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Full Text Available Introduction. Perforation of the tympanic membrane in children may be the cause of recurrent middle ear infection and loss of hearing. Objective. The aim of this study was to analyze the application of different reconstructive materials in surgical technique myringoplasty. Methods. We performed 88 myringoplasties due to auricular tragus perforation in 76 children (aged 4 to 16 years, mean 11.9 years from July 2001 to July 2009. Age, gender, size and the site of perforation, status of the contra lateral ear, underlying cause of the perforations, surgical technique, preoperative and postoperative hearing levels and postoperative complications were recorded and analyzed. In performing myringoplasty we used fascia of the temporal muscle and cartilage of the auricular tragus. Results. In 43 (48% patients we used fascia of the temporal muscle and in 45 (52% cartilage of the auricular tragus. Graft success was defined as an intact eardrum at 12 months postoperatively and improvement in the perception of air-bone gap of 10 dB, which we recorded in 73 (83% cases. Re-perforations were recorded in 12 (13% patients, of whom in 8 (18.6% cases we used the temporal fascia and in 4 (9.3% cases a tragal cartilage. Retraction of the tympanic membrane was recorded in 3 (4% cases with the temporal fascia. Conclusion. Myringoplasty is a reasonably successful method with good functional results in pediatric patients. Risk factors of surgical failure are young age, the size of auricular tragus perforation and pathological conditions of the contra lateral ear. The tragal cartilage gives better results in cases with bilateral perforations because the possibility of retractions and re-perforations is lower. Relatively small number of patients is probably the reason that, except for young age, differences between the two groups did not reach the level of statistical significance.

Baljoševi? Ivan

2012-01-01

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Effect of ASCs on the graft survival rates of fat particles in rabbits.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was conducted to explore the effect of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) on the graft survival rates of fat particles in rabbits. Six domestic rabbits were used for a 3-month study; 1.4 grams of fat tissues were harvested from the bilateral inguinal regions of each animal. They were cut into granules and divided into three parts (A = 0.4 g, B = 0.4 g, and C = 0.6 g). Part A was centrifuged after 0.075% collagenase digestion for isolation of the stromal vascular fraction (SVF). About 0.2 grams of SVF containing ASCs was obtained, and then incorporated with part B to create a treated group, whereas part C was treated as a control group. The tissues in both groups were randomly transplanted into a subcutaneous space that had been created on each side of the dorsal midline of the rabbit. The grafts were taken out after 3 months for calculation of the survival rates. The graft survival rate in the treated group was 23.56 ± 2.49%, while that in the control group was 11.06 ± 2.10%. The graft survival rate in the treated group increased significantly, compared with in the control group (p < 0.01). Improved transplantation effects may be obtained by implanting the fat particles mixed with ASCs. It is suggested that this approach has the potential for becoming a new method of fat graft in clinical practice. PMID:23210496

He, Xiaosheng; Zhong, Xiaochun; Ni, Youdi; Liu, Maolin; Liu, Suhang; Lan, Xiaoling

2013-02-01

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Importance of mesenchymal stem cells in autologous fat grafting : a systematic review of existing studies  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Autologous fat grafting (lipofilling) enables repair and augmentation of soft tissues and is increasingly used both in aesthetic and reconstructive surgery. Autologous fat has several advantages, including biocompatibility, versatility, natural appearance, and low donor site morbidity. The main limitation is unpredictable graft resorption, which ranges from 25%-80%, probably as a result of ischaemia and lack of neoangiogenesis. To obviate these disadvantages, several studies have searched for new ways of increasing the viability of the transplanted tissue. One promising approach has been to enrich the fat graft with adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASC) before transplantation. We have reviewed original studies published on fat transplantation enriched with ASC. We found four murine and three human studies that investigated the subject after a sensitive search of publications. In the human studies, so-called cell assisted lipotransfer (CAL) increased the ASC concentration 2-5 times compared with non-manipulated fat grafts, which caused a questionable improvement in survival of fat grafts, compared with that of traditional lipofilling. In contrast, in two of the murine studies ASC-concentrations were increased 1250 and 6250 times, respectively, by ASC ex vivo expansion, which resulted in considerably improved fat transplant survival as well as quality. This effect of high-level enrichment with ASC is thought to have been caused by paracrine signalling, cellular differentiation, or both. The surgical and tissue handling techniques used in lipofilling are well proved, but the added effect of high-level enrichment with ex vivo expanded ASC still needs to be investigated properly in human lipofilling studies, combined with a thorough follow up and matched control groups. In conclusion, ASC-enriched lipofilling theoretically has the potential for transforming lipofilling from a relatively unpredictable intervention into one in which the resorption rate, quality of tissue, and safety can be predicted, and possibly superior to prosthetic implantation.

Trojahn KØlle, Stig-Frederik; Oliveri, Roberto S

2012-01-01

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Outcomes of structural fat grafting for paralytic and non-paralytic dysphonia  

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Aims of this prospective study were to evaluate the results of vocal fold structural fat grafting for glottic insufficiency and to compare the outcomes obtained in unilateral vocal fold paralysis (UVFP) and congenital or acquired soft tissue defects in vocal folds. Sixty-six consecutive patients with breathy dysphonia, in 43 cases (aged 16-79 years) related to UVFP and in 23 cases (aged 16-67 years) related to vocal fold iatrogenic scar or sulcus vocalis, underwent autologous structural fat g...

Cantarella, G.; Baracca, G.; Forti, S.; Gaffuri, M.; Mazzola, R. F.

2011-01-01

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Persistent Reduced Pigmentation of Areola after Breast Reconstruction with Brava-assisted Autologeous Fat Grafting  

Science.gov (United States)

Summary: A 17-year-old healthy woman treated for unilateral hypoplastic breast anomaly with Brava-assisted fat grafting experienced persistent reduced pigmentation of the areola on the treated breast. The reduced pigmentation was confirmed at 6-month postoperative follow-up and verified by histological examination of comparable biopsies from both areolas. PMID:25587495

Olsen, Caroline H.; Gramkow, Christina S.

2014-01-01

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Skin-fat-graft: a simple tool for reconstruction of small deep defects of the nose.  

Science.gov (United States)

Small deep defects of the nose after resection of benign or malignant skin tumors are a common challenge in facial plastic surgery daily routine. The use of local flaps has several disadvantages for what reason they are a minor or no option especially in certain localizations in the lower third of the nose. Many elder patients suffer from comorbidities where complex more-staged reconstructional procedures drop out. We present a technique of nasal defect closure with a skin-fat composite graft. Between April 2010 and July 2013, we treated 42 patients with a total of 46 skin-fat-grafts to the nose. We reevaluated the esthetic and functional outcome in a retrospective analysis. In 80% of the cases, the results were rated excellent to satisfactory, 20% fair to poor. Reasons for worse validation were color and contour differences of grafts and surrounding tissue as well as alar retraction in very few cases. Nevertheless, we consider skin-fat-grafts to be a useful tool in single-layer nasal reconstruction in defects of smaller size. PMID:24918704

Kreutzer, Christian; von Gregory, Henning Freiherr; Fischer, Helmut

2014-06-01

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Lymphedema fat graft: an ideal filler for facial rejuvenation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Lymphedema is a chronic disorder characterized by lymph stasis in the subcutaneous tissue. Lymphatic fluid contains several components including hyaluronic acid and has many important properties. Over the past few years, significant research has been performed to identify an ideal tissue to implant as a filler. Because of its unique composition, fat harvested from the lymphedema tissue is an interesting topic for investigation and has significant potential for application as a filler, particularly in facial rejuvenation. Over a 36-month period, we treated and assessed 8 patients with lymphedematous limbs who concurrently underwent facial rejuvenation with lymphedema fat (LF). We conducted a pre- and post-operative satisfaction questionnaire survey and a histological assessment of the harvested LF fat. The overall mean general appearance score at an average of 6 months after the procedure was 7.2±0.5, demonstrating great improvement. Patients reported significant improvement in their skin texture with a reading of 8.5±0.7 and an improvement in their self-esteem. This study demonstrates that LF as an ideal autologous injectable filler is clinically applicable and easily available in patients with lymphedema. We recommend the further study and clinical use of this tissue as it exhibits important properties and qualities for future applications and research. PMID:25276654

Nicoli, Fabio; Chilgar, Ram M; Sapountzis, Stamatis; Lazzeri, Davide; Sze Wei, Matthew Yeo; Ciudad, Pedro; Nicoli, Marzia; Lim, Seong Yoon; Chen, Pei-Yu; Constantinides, Joannis; Chen, Hung-Chi

2014-09-01

19

Outcomes of structural fat grafting for paralytic and non-paralytic dysphonia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Aims of this prospective study were to evaluate the results of vocal fold structural fat grafting for glottic insufficiency and to compare the outcomes obtained in unilateral vocal fold paralysis (UVFP) and congenital or acquired soft tissue defects in vocal folds. Sixty-six consecutive patients with breathy dysphonia, in 43 cases (aged 16-79 years) related to UVFP and in 23 cases (aged 16-67 years) related to vocal fold iatrogenic scar or sulcus vocalis, underwent autologous structural fat grafting into vocal folds. Lipoaspirates were centrifuged at 1200 g for 3 min to separate and remove blood, cell debris and the oily layer. The refined fat was injected under direct microlaryngoscopy in a multilayered way. The main outcome measures were grade, roughness, breathiness, asthenicity and strain (GRBAS) perceptual evaluation, maximum phonation time (MPT), self-assessed Voice Handicap Index (VHI), and voice acoustic analysis, considered pre-operatively and at 3 and 6 months after fat grafting. After surgery, MPT, VHI, G and B improved in both groups (p < 0.05). In particular, G and VHI functional subscales showed a significantly greater decrease in patients with UVFP (p < 0.05). The acoustic variables improved significantly only in the UVFP group (p < 0.005). From 3 to 6 months postoperatively, most variables showed a trend with further improvement. Vocal fold structural fat grafting was significantly effective in treating glottic insufficiency due to UVFP or soft tissue defects. Perceptual, acoustic and subjective assessments confirmed that patients with UVFP had better outcomes than those with soft tissue defects. PMID:22064781

Cantarella, G; Baracca, G; Forti, S; Gaffuri, M; Mazzola, R F

2011-06-01

20

Safety and usefulness of free fat grafts after microdiscectomy using an access cannula: a prospective pilot study and literature review.  

Science.gov (United States)

Placing an interpositional fat graft over the dura has been practiced to prevent sciatica due to nerve tethering from scar. We assessed feasibility, outcomes, and complications of free fat grafts in patients undergoing lumbar microdiscectomy for herniated discs using an access cannula. Retrospective review of prospectively collected data on 69 consecutive patients: those who received autologous fat graft (Group I) and those who did not (Group II). Clinical evaluation of leg pain and nerve tension sign was performed in the immediate postoperative period and at 1 month, 6 months, 12 months, and 24 months. The combined visual analog scale (VAS) scores for leg pain improved from 8.3 preoperatively to 1.3 (P 0.05). Ninety-one percent had resolution of their leg pain immediately postop and 96% at final follow-up. This study found no increased complications with the use of fat graft, but no clinical benefit, therefore the use of fat graft should be discouraged. The potential complication with the use of fat graft is the "mass effect" on the dura, and therefore, the width of the graft should be <1 cm. PMID:24551862

Chin, Kingsley R; Bassora, Rocco; Yu, Warren D

2014-02-01

 
 
 
 
21

[Extrameatal myringoplasty in the treatment of tympanic membrane perforations].  

Science.gov (United States)

The clinical analysis of the patients after tympanic membrane reconstruction with the temporal muscle fascia has been conducted. The total number of 145 patients, operated at the Otosurgery Department Medical University of Lodz, was divided into 2 Groups. Group 1 (n = 75) patients with chronic otitis media (central perforation and mobile ossicular chain). The preoperative mean conductive hearing deficit of 20 dB was observed in all evaluated patients. After surgery a satisfactory hearing improvement was observed in 90% of the patients. Group 2 (n = 70) patients with the reconstructed postero-superior part of the tympanic membrance and if necessary external auditory canal wall reconstruction. The mean conductive hearing deficit of up to 30 dB was observed before the surgery. Postoperatively in 75% of patients the hearing improvement was observed as well as the satisfactory healing of fascia implant. The postoperative evaluation indicates a better hearing improvement after the myringoplasties with the prefascial lamina than in the myringoplasties performed in the traditional ways. PMID:9757709

Durko, T; Latkowski, B

1997-01-01

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Lipoenxertia nas mamas: procedimento consagrado ou experimental? / Breast fat grafting: experimental or established procedure?  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Atualmente vem ocorrendo aumento da incidência de utilização de enxertia de gordura para correção de defeitos mamários congênitos ou adquiridos e para tratamento mamário estético. Esse aumento é decorrente do surgimento de novas técnicas de lipoenxertia, que produzem resultados mais duradouros e con [...] fiáveis, apesar da crença de alguns autores de que o procedimento possa dificultar o rastreamento do câncer mamário. Esta revisão de literatura tem como objetivo identificar as técnicas de lipoenxertia mamárias mais utilizadas, avaliá-las quanto à eficácia e à segurança, e relatar as principais complicações associadas. A revisão foi realizada nas bases de dados PubMed e LILACS, e os fatores de inclusão foram: artigos em idioma inglês, publicados nos últimos cinco anos. Como resultado observou-se aumento do número de trabalhos abordando o tema nos últimos anos, e predomínio de uma técnica de lipoenxertia específica. A maioria dos trabalhos demonstra que a lipoenxertia mamária não prejudica o rastreamento radiológico para câncer mamário, e alguns sugerem que a gordura enxertada potencializa o desenvolvimento de câncer nas mamas. Apesar do aumento do número de trabalhos, existem ainda poucos com bom nível de evidência científica. Esta revisão permitiu concluir que a lipoenxertia é uma técnica alternativa para reparação de defeitos mamários e discreto aumento estético das mamas, devendo ser utilizada por cirurgiões com treinamento adequado e acompanhada por equipe de radiologia experiente em imagenologia mamária. Mais trabalhos com metodologia científica adequada são necessários para avaliar a lipoenxertia mamária. Abstract in english There has recently been an increase in the use of fat grafting for the correction of congenital or acquired breast deformities and for aesthetic breast treatment. This increase is due to the emergence of novel fat grafting techniques that produce lasting and reliable results despite some authors' be [...] liefs that the procedure might hinder breast cancer screening. This literature review aims to identify the most frequently used breast fat grafting techniques, evaluate their efficacy and safety, and report their major complications. The review was performed after a search in the PubMed and LILACS databases, and only English-language articles published over the past 5 years were assessed. There have been an increased number of studies on the topic in recent years, and a specific fat grafting technique has been primarily reported. Most studies in this area have shown that breast fat grafting does not affect radiological breast cancer screening, whereas some studies have suggested that the use of grafted fat may enhance the development of breast cancer. Despite the increased number of published studies, few have a good level of scientific evidence. This review concludes that fat grafting is an alternative technique for the correction of breast deformities and moderate aesthetic breast enlargement and should be performed by properly trained surgeons accompanied by a radiology team that is experienced in breast imaging. Further studies with appropriate scientific methodologies are needed to evaluate breast fat grafting.

Alexandre Roriz, Blumenschein; Ruffo, Freitas-Junior; Andrea Thomazine, Tuffanin; Danielle Isadora, Blumenschein.

2012-12-01

23

Lipoenxertia nas mamas: procedimento consagrado ou experimental? Breast fat grafting: experimental or established procedure?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Atualmente vem ocorrendo aumento da incidência de utilização de enxertia de gordura para correção de defeitos mamários congênitos ou adquiridos e para tratamento mamário estético. Esse aumento é decorrente do surgimento de novas técnicas de lipoenxertia, que produzem resultados mais duradouros e confiáveis, apesar da crença de alguns autores de que o procedimento possa dificultar o rastreamento do câncer mamário. Esta revisão de literatura tem como objetivo identificar as técnicas de lipoenxertia mamárias mais utilizadas, avaliá-las quanto à eficácia e à segurança, e relatar as principais complicações associadas. A revisão foi realizada nas bases de dados PubMed e LILACS, e os fatores de inclusão foram: artigos em idioma inglês, publicados nos últimos cinco anos. Como resultado observou-se aumento do número de trabalhos abordando o tema nos últimos anos, e predomínio de uma técnica de lipoenxertia específica. A maioria dos trabalhos demonstra que a lipoenxertia mamária não prejudica o rastreamento radiológico para câncer mamário, e alguns sugerem que a gordura enxertada potencializa o desenvolvimento de câncer nas mamas. Apesar do aumento do número de trabalhos, existem ainda poucos com bom nível de evidência científica. Esta revisão permitiu concluir que a lipoenxertia é uma técnica alternativa para reparação de defeitos mamários e discreto aumento estético das mamas, devendo ser utilizada por cirurgiões com treinamento adequado e acompanhada por equipe de radiologia experiente em imagenologia mamária. Mais trabalhos com metodologia científica adequada são necessários para avaliar a lipoenxertia mamária.There has recently been an increase in the use of fat grafting for the correction of congenital or acquired breast deformities and for aesthetic breast treatment. This increase is due to the emergence of novel fat grafting techniques that produce lasting and reliable results despite some authors' beliefs that the procedure might hinder breast cancer screening. This literature review aims to identify the most frequently used breast fat grafting techniques, evaluate their efficacy and safety, and report their major complications. The review was performed after a search in the PubMed and LILACS databases, and only English-language articles published over the past 5 years were assessed. There have been an increased number of studies on the topic in recent years, and a specific fat grafting technique has been primarily reported. Most studies in this area have shown that breast fat grafting does not affect radiological breast cancer screening, whereas some studies have suggested that the use of grafted fat may enhance the development of breast cancer. Despite the increased number of published studies, few have a good level of scientific evidence. This review concludes that fat grafting is an alternative technique for the correction of breast deformities and moderate aesthetic breast enlargement and should be performed by properly trained surgeons accompanied by a radiology team that is experienced in breast imaging. Further studies with appropriate scientific methodologies are needed to evaluate breast fat grafting.

Alexandre Roriz Blumenschein

2012-12-01

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Breast reconstruction de novo by water-jet assisted autologous fat grafting – a retrospective study  

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Full Text Available [english] Background: Autologous fat grafting has become a frequent, simple, reproducible and low-risk technique for revisional or partial breast reconstruction. The presented European multicenter study describes an optimized treatment and follow-up protocol for the de novo breast reconstruction after total mastectomy by lipotransfer alone.Methods: A retrospective European multicenter trial included 135 procedures on 28 (35 breasts postmastectomy patients (mean 52.4 years. All women were treated with the water-jet assisted fat grafting method (BEAULI™ combined with additional procedures (NAC reconstruction, contralateral mastoplasty and evaluated with at least 6 months follow-up (mean 2.6 years. Sonography or mammography, clinical examination, patient questionnaire (10-point Likert scale and digital photographs were carried out.Results: On average the patients received 4 to 6 procedures each with a single volume of 159 ml (±61 ml over 21 months (range 9 months to 2.5 years. In total 1,020 ml (±515 ml fat were grafted till a complete breast reconstruction was achieved. Irradiated patients needed a significantly higher volume than non-irradiated (p<0.041. Main treatment complications were liponecrosis (2.59%, infection (0.74% and granuloma (0.74%. Patient satisfaction was overall high to very high (96% and confirmed the good aesthetic results (68% and the natural softness, contour and shape of the reconstructed breast.Conclusions: A complete breast reconstruction with large volume fat grafting is alternatively possible to standard techniques in selected cases. It takes at least 4 to 6 lipotransfers in the course of 2 years. Patients with prior radiotherapy may require even up to 8 sessions over nearly 3 years of treatment.

Hoppe, Delia Letizia

2013-12-01

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Application of platelet-rich plasma and platelet-rich fibrin in fat grafting: basic science and literature review.  

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Due to the natural properties of fat, fat grafting remains a popular procedure for soft tissue volume augmentation and reconstruction. However, clinical outcome varies and is technique dependent. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) contains ?-granules, from which multiple growth factors such as platelet-derived growth factor, transforming growth factor-?, vascular endothelial growth factor, and epidermal growth factor can be released after activation. In recent years, the scope of PRP therapies has extended from bone regeneration, wound healing, and healing of musculoskeletal injuries, to enhancement of fat graft survival. In this review, we focus on the definition of PRP, the different PRP preparation and activation methods, and growth factor concentrations. In addition, we discuss possible mechanisms for the role of PRP in fat grafting by reviewing in vitro studies with adipose-derived stem cells, preadipocytes, and adipocytes, and preclinical and clinical research. We also review platelet-rich fibrin, a so-called second generation PRP, and its slow-releasing biology and effects on fat grafts compared to PRP in both animal and clinical research. Finally, we provide a general foundation on which to critically evaluate earlier studies, discuss the limitations of previous research, and direct plans for future experiments to improve the optimal effects of PRP in fat grafting. PMID:24004354

Liao, Han-Tsung; Marra, Kacey G; Rubin, J Peter

2014-08-01

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Is the Resorption of Grafted Fat Reduced in Cell-Assisted Lipotransfer for Breast Augmentation?  

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Cell-assisted lipotransfer (CAL) is a cotransplantation of adipose tissue and stromal vascular fraction (SVF) including adipose-derived stem cells. But although CAL can get satisfactory outcomes in breast augmentation, the resorption of the grafted fat is still unclear. A total of 12 patients received breast augmentation using CAL. All of them completed 6 months of follow-up. In 1 mini-CAL case, 500-mL liposuction fluid was used to harvest the SVF cells. In 11 full-CAL cases, 250-mL aspirated fat was needed apart from 500-mL liposuction fluid. The percentage of adipose-derived stem cells in SVF cells was detected using flow cytometry and their multilineage potential ability was assessed with in vitro induction. The volumes of breasts and pectoral muscle were measured, and radiological image change was analyzed using magnetic resonance imaging before the operation and 3 and 6 months after the operation. Additionally, the subjective evaluation on the cosmetic outcomes was determined by surgeons and patients. Adipose-derived stem cells in SVF cells accounted for 40.27% and 3.34% in full-CAL cases and mini-CAL cases, respectively. Postoperative atrophy occurred within the first 3 months. At the 6 months postoperatively, breast volume is augmented, ranging from 60.71 to 197 mL, with a mean value of 125.35 (45.49) mL. The ultimate resorption of grafted fat at the 6 months postoperatively is 51.84% (16.74%). Newly formed cysts and nodules were detected in 2 cases. No calcification was found in all magnetic resonance images. Only 1 patient was unsatisfied with the cosmetic outcome. Our preliminary study displayed a satisfactory augmented volume with little complications using CAL for breast augmentation. But the resorption at the 6 months postoperatively [51.84% (16.74%)] showed no significant advantage over non-CAL technique (40%-60% reported), which suggested that SVF cells harvested from 250-mL aspirated fat and 500-mL liposuction fluid were insufficient to average 250-mL grafted fat for each breast in this study. More SVF cells are needed to achieve lower resorption. PMID:24691331

Wang, Lin; Luo, Xuan; Lu, Yi; Fan, Zhi-Hong; Hu, Xiang

2014-03-28

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Use of genetically modified muscle and fat grafts to repair defects in bone and cartilage  

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Full Text Available We report a novel technology for the rapid healing of large osseous and chondral defects, based upon the genetic modification of autologous skeletal muscle and fat grafts. These tissues were selected because they not only possess mesenchymal progenitor cells and scaffolding properties, but also can be biopsied, genetically modified and returned to the patient in a single operative session. First generation adenovirus vector carrying cDNA encoding human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (Ad.BMP-2 was used for gene transfer to biopsies of muscle and fat. To assess bone healing, the genetically modified (“gene activated” tissues were implanted into 5mm-long critical size, mid-diaphyseal, stabilized defects in the femora of Fischer rats. Unlike control defects, those receiving gene-activated muscle underwent rapid healing, with evidence of radiologic bridging as early as 10 days after implantation and restoration of full mechanical strength by 8 weeks. Histologic analysis suggests that the grafts rapidly differentiated into cartilage, followed by efficient endochondral ossification. Fluorescence in situ hybridization detection of Y-chromosomes following the transfer of male donor muscle into female rats demonstrated that at least some of the osteoblasts of the healed bone were derived from donor muscle. Gene activated fat also healed critical sized defects, but less quickly than muscle and with more variability. Anti-adenovirus antibodies were not detected. Pilot studies in a rabbit osteochondral defect model demonstrated the promise of this technology for healing cartilage defects. Further development of these methods should provide ways to heal bone and cartilage more expeditiously, and at lower cost, than is presently possible.

CH Evans

2009-12-01

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Versatility of full thickness skin-subcutaneous fat grafts as interpositional material in the management of temporomandibular joint ankylosis.  

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The authors present a review of seven patients (eight joints) with temporomandibular ankylosis treated between 2007 and 2008. The aim of this retrospective study was to present the experience of using full thickness skin-subcutaneous fat grafts, harvested from the patient's abdomen as interpositional material after gap arthroplasty. All patients presented with osseous ankylosis and were graded according to Topazian's classification. Postoperative follow up ranged from 12 to 24 months. Maximal inter-incisal opening (MIO) on presentation ranged from 0 to 8mm, which stabilized to 27-44mm at follow up. There was no evidence of re-ankylosis. This study found merit in the use of autogenous full thickness skin-subcutaneous fat graft as an interpositional material for up to 2 years following ankylosis release. PMID:20952163

Thangavelu, A; Santhosh Kumar, K; Vaidhyanathan, A; Balaji, M; Narendar, R

2011-01-01

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Treatment of intractable orbital implant exposure with a large conjunctival defect by secondary insertion of the implant after preceding dermis fat graft  

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Full Text Available AIM:To report a procedure and results of a two-stage operation to manage intractable extensive orbital implant exposure with a large conjunctival defect which was difficult to treat with dermis fat grafts due to repeated graft necrosis. METHODS:A retrospective chart review of four patients who had extensive orbital implant exposures with large conjunctival defects and had past histories of repeated autologous or preserved dermis graft failures was done. As a first-stage operation, the problematic pre-existing orbital implants were removed and autologous dermis fat grafts alone were performed on the defect area. Four months later, new orbital implants were secondarily inserted after confirmation of graft survival. The size of the conjunctival defects and state of the extraocular muscles were checked preoperatively. Success of the operations and complications were investigated. RESULTS:The mean size of the conjuctival defects was 17.3mm×16.0mm, and the mean time from the initial diagnosis of orbital implant exposure to implant removal and autologous dermis fat graft was 20.8 months. After implant removal and autologous dermis fat graft, no graft necrosis was observed in any patients. Also, implant exposure or fornix shortening was not observed in any patients after new orbital implant insertion. CONCLUSION:The secondary insertion of a new orbital implant after pre-existing implant removal and preceding dermis fat graft is thought to be an another selective management of intractable orbital implant exposure in which dermis fat grafts persistently fail.

Tae Yoon La

2013-04-01

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Closure of oroantral communication using buccal fat pad graft - case report  

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Full Text Available Introduction: There are many causes of fistulas that involve the nasal and antral cavities or both. They may result from pathological entities or secondary to removal of tumors or maxillary cysts. However, the extraction of a maxillary molar or premolar is the most common cause of oroantral fistula. This is explained by the close relationship between the apex of these teeth and the thinness of the antral floor. When the primary fistula repair fails to heal spontaneously during the first three weeks after surgery, a secondary repair may be indicated. During treatment process of the fistulas, there are procedures to make a direct close or the use of a sliding mucosal flap, all techniques own an equal and high degree of failure. Objective: To show a case report of oroantral fistula and its closure. Case Report: A 6-month-Surgical treatment of oroantral fistula, after a tooth removal, using the buccal fat pad method as a pedicled graft associated with a sliding mucosal flap. Conclusion: The mentioned treatment is simple, complete and allows an extensive applicability in most of cases.

Keim, Frederico Santos

2008-09-01

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Treatment of intractable orbital implant exposure with a large conjunctival defect by secondary insertion of the implant after preceding dermis fat graft  

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AIM:To report a procedure and results of a two-stage operation to manage intractable extensive orbital implant exposure with a large conjunctival defect which was difficult to treat with dermis fat grafts due to repeated graft necrosis. METHODS:A retrospective chart review of four patients who had extensive orbital implant exposures with large conjunctival defects and had past histories of repeated autologous or preserved dermis graft failures was done. As a first-stage operation, the prob...

Tae Yoon La; Hyun Kyung Kim

2013-01-01

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MR angiography of coronary artery bypass graft with fat cine MR imaging  

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Seven patients with 14 coronary artery bypass grafts (9 saphenous vein graft, SVG and 5 internal mammary artery graft, IMAG) were evaluated by MR angiography with fast cine MR imaging technique for determining graft patency compared with conventional arteriography. MR angiography correctly diagnosed 8 of 9 patent SVGs and all patent IMAGs. One graft stenosis was also detected by MR angiography. This study suggests that MR angiography with fast cine MR imaging is a useful noninvasive technique to evaluate coronary artery bypass graft patency. (author)

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Predictors for outcome of paper patch myringoplasty in patients with chronic tympanic membrane perforations.  

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The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the outcome of paper patch myringoplasty for chronic tympanic membrane (TM) perforations and to explore the predictive factors for a successful closure. A retrospective study was performed in a tertiary referral center. Data of the patients who met the inclusion criteria were analyzed: the treatment outcomes and the potential predictive factors including age, sex, the affected ear, hearing level, duration of perforation, causes, location and size of perforations, relationship between the perforation border and the malleus, status of TM surface, and the number of patch applications. Complete closure was achieved in 27 of the total 43 subjects. Among the 11 clinical and TM factors, only the perforation size remained significant as the predictor after multivariable logistic regression (p = 0.029, OR 4.4). The patients with perforation ?5 % of the TM showed higher closure rate (78.3 %) than those with perforation >5 % (45.0 %). In conclusion, paper patch myringoplasty showed overall success rate of 62.8 %. In patients with perforations smaller than 5 % of the TM, the closure rate was 78.3 %. The predictor of the treatment outcome was the perforation size. We can try paper patch myringoplasty first in patients who had dry chronic perforations smaller than 5 % of the TM without middle ear disease. PMID:24323167

Park, Shi-Nae; Kim, Hyo-Min; Jin, Kyung-Suk; Maeng, Jae-Hoan; Yeo, Sang-Won; Park, So-Young

2015-02-01

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Injertos de tejido adiposo en cirugía estética mamaria / Fat grafts in aesthetic breast surgery  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El injerto de tejido adiposo se ha convertido en una de las principales herramientas con la que contamos en Cirugía Plástica y, como no podía ser de otra forma, la mama es el principal órgano diana de nuestra actuación. Desde que introdujimos la técnica en nuestra práctica privada en el año 2009 hem [...] os ido incrementando las indicaciones de su uso. Las tres principales son el aumento mamario, la corrección de defectos y asimetrías y más recientemente el aumento con combinación de ambas técnicas. El aumento mamario con tejido adiposo está indicado en pacientes que quieran incrementar el volumen sin usar implantes. Hay que explicar muy bien a la paciente lo que podemos conseguir en cuanto a volumen y proyección de la mama, además de los problemas potenciales de aparición en las mamografías de quistes y microcalcificaciones. El tejido adiposo, en cambio, es un gran complemento de los implantes mamarios, ya que permite corregir deformidades y asimetrías que con los implantes son más difíciles de resolver. El aumento de mamas combinando ambas técnicas es la consecuencia final y evidente de esta evolución terapéutica, ya que aúna las ventajas de ambas: la firmeza y volumen estables que proporcionan los implantes y la plasticidad que aporta el tejido adiposo para lograr una mayor simetría. Abstract in english Fat grafting has become one of the main tools in Plastic Surgery and as it could only be, the breast is the main target organ of our performance. Since we introduced the technique in our private practice in 2009 we have been increasing its use. The top three indications are: breast augmentation, cor [...] rection of defects and asymmetries and more recently breast augmentation combining both techniques. Breast enhancement with fat is indicated for patients who want to increase the volume without using implants. It must be explained very well to the patient what we can achieve in terms of volume and projection of the breast, along with the potential problems of cysts and microcalcifications in mammograms. Adipose tissue is a great complement to the implants, and we can correct deformities and asymmetries that with implants are much more difficult to solve. Breast augmentation combining both techniques is the final result of the therapeutic evolution as we combine the advantages of both: the firmness and stable volume supported by the implants and the plasticity of the adipose tissue to achieve greater symmetry.

J., Benito-Ruiz.

2013-12-01

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Use of the buccal fat pad as free graft for closure of oronasal fistula in a cleft palate patient.  

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Oronasal fistulas are frequent complications after cleft lip and palate surgery, with difficult treatment because of the presence of fibrotic and scarred tissue as well as the absence of local virgin tissue, representing a challenge in oral and maxillofacial surgery. The size of the fistula, its location, and the cause of the defect are important factors to determine the type of treatment and surgical technique. The use of pedicled buccal fat pad (BFP) for the repair of cleft palate has shown promising results, becoming a safe and effective method. On the other hand, the use of BFP as a free graft for oral defects has been rarely described in the literature. The current study is the first case report that shows the use of free graft of BFP in oronasal fistula after cleft lip and palate surgery and aimed to discuss the promising results of this surgical technique, suggesting it as a treatment option for anterior maxillary defects, when properly indicated. PMID:25565230

de Castro, Carlos Henrique Bettoni Cruz; Souza, Leandro Napier de; Fernandes Santos Melo, Marcelo

2015-01-01

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Meningitis due to Enterobacter aerogenes subsequent to resection of an acoustic neuroma and abdominal fat graft to the mastoid  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Meningitis is an uncommon complication of neurosurgical procedures, with an incidence of 1.1% to 2.5%. Although unusual, the frequency of nosocomial Gram-negative meningitis appears to be increasing. Gram-negative meningitis has been documented following disruption of the dura-arachnoid barrier seco [...] ndary to trauma or surgery. The association of Gram-negative bacillary meningitis with neurosurgical procedures was first reported in the 1940's. Wolff et al. described the association between Enterobacter species and post-neurosurgical infection. More recently, risk factors for nosocomial Enterobacter meningitis have been characterized by Parodi et al. Adipose graft, as an independent risk factor has not yet been reported. A patient with acoustic neuroma resection, who developed bacterial meningitis from an abdominal fat pad graft to a mastoidectomy bed is described. A brief overview was made of post-neurosurgical Gram-negative meningitis.

Fida A., Khan.

2004-10-01

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Meningitis due to Enterobacter aerogenes subsequent to resection of an acoustic neuroma and abdominal fat graft to the mastoid  

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Full Text Available Meningitis is an uncommon complication of neurosurgical procedures, with an incidence of 1.1% to 2.5%. Although unusual, the frequency of nosocomial Gram-negative meningitis appears to be increasing. Gram-negative meningitis has been documented following disruption of the dura-arachnoid barrier secondary to trauma or surgery. The association of Gram-negative bacillary meningitis with neurosurgical procedures was first reported in the 1940's. Wolff et al. described the association between Enterobacter species and post-neurosurgical infection. More recently, risk factors for nosocomial Enterobacter meningitis have been characterized by Parodi et al. Adipose graft, as an independent risk factor has not yet been reported. A patient with acoustic neuroma resection, who developed bacterial meningitis from an abdominal fat pad graft to a mastoidectomy bed is described. A brief overview was made of post-neurosurgical Gram-negative meningitis.

Fida A. Khan

2004-10-01

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Full Text Available ... can help lower your risk of having a heart attack or stroke. Foods containing saturated fat include: Lard Fatback and salt pork High-fat meats like regular ground beef, bologna, hot ... you than saturated fat and for a heart-healthy diet, you want to eat as little ...

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Fat embolism in liposuction and intramuscular grafts in rabbits / Embolia gordurosa na lipoaspiração e enxertia intramuscular em coelhos  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Avaliar a repercussão da embolia gordurosa em órgãos como pulmão e fígado. MÉTODOS: Vinte coelhos foram submetidos à enxertia autóloga intramuscular de gordura em coxa direita após lipoaspiração. Os grupos foram determinados conforme os dias pós-operatórios (DPO) em que ocorreu a eutanásia [...] : 60 DPO, 90DPO, 120 DPO. Em seguida, o pulmão e o fígado foram ressecados e encaminhados ao laboratório de histopatologia para análise em busca de lesão tardia secundária a evento de embolia gordurosa prévia nos tecidos. RESULTADOS: Foi evidenciada uma alteração na amostra a analise macroscópica com alteração da coloração do tecido hepático de forma heterogênea. Não houve alterações compatíveis com repercussão de processo embólico à microscopia. CONCLUSÃO: A opção pela realização de uma técnica de lipoenxertia menos traumática e com pequeno tempo cirúrgico pode ser considerada protetora para eventos embólicos, não havendo repercussão embólica a tardiamente. Abstract in english PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of fat embolism in organs such as lung and liver. METHODS: Twenty rabbits underwent autologous intramuscular fat grafting in the right thigh after liposuction. The groups were determined according to the postoperative day that occurred in euthanasia: 60, 90 and 120 d [...] ay. Then, lung and liver were excised and sent to the histopathology laboratory for analysis in search of late injury secondary to a prior event of fat embolism in the tissues. RESULTS: The results showed a change in the macroscopic sample with discoloration of the liver tissue heterogeneously. There were no changes consistent with embolic effect under the microscope. CONCLUSION: The option of performing a technique of fat grafting with a less traumatic surgical procedure can be considered protective against embolic events, with no impact to late embolic events on the tissues.

Victor Araujo, Felzemburgh; Rafaela Cavalcante das Neves, Barbosa; Victor Luiz Correia, Nunes; José Humberto Oliveira, Campos.

2012-05-01

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Full Text Available ... However, if there is not at least 0.5 grams or more of trans fat in a food, the label can claim 0 grams. If you want to avoid as much trans fat as possible, you must read the ingredient list on food labels. Look for words like hydrogenated ...

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Full Text Available ... from the FDA . Patient Education Materials — Protect Your Heart: Choose Healthy Fats This two-page introduction to choosing healthy fats is in PDF format so you can download it, print it, and hand it out to patients. You can also download ...

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Full Text Available ... Type 2 Diabetes Know Your Rights Employment Discrimination Health Care Professionals Law Enforcement Driver's License For Lawyers Food & ... goal for you, talk with your dietitian or health care provider. Saturated fat grams are listed on the ...

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Full Text Available ... a Monthly Donor Donate by Mail Give by Phone 1-800-DIABETES (800-342-2383) Other Ways ... fat as possible, you must read the ingredient list on food labels. Look for words like hydrogenated ...

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Full Text Available ... Student Resources History of Diabetes Resources for School Projects How to Reference Our Site Diabetes Basics Myths ... carbohydrate gets all of the attention in diabetes management. More important than total fat is the type ...

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Full Text Available ... cheese stick for an afternoon snack, have 12 almonds. The calories are about the same, but you ... monounsaturated fat include: Avocado Canola oil Nuts like almonds, cashews, pecans, and peanuts Olive oil and olives ...

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Full Text Available ... and Starchy Vegetables Fats Alcohol What Can I Drink? Fruit Dairy Food Tips Eating Out Quick Meal ... and Starchy Vegetables Protein Foods What Can I Drink? Dairy Fruits donate en -- Acknowledge Your Hero - 2015- ...

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Full Text Available ... Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods Holiday Meal Planning What Can I ... and "unhealthy fats." To lower you risk of heart disease, try to eat less saturated and trans ...

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Full Text Available ... oil Nuts like almonds, cashews, pecans, and peanuts Olive oil and olives Peanut butter and peanut oil Sesame seeds The ... To include more monounsaturated fats, try to substitute olive or canola oil instead of butter, margarine or ...

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Full Text Available ... What Can I Eat Making Healthy Food Choices Diabetes Superfoods Fats Alcohol Non-starchy Vegetables Grains and Starchy Vegetables Protein Foods What Can I Drink? Dairy Fruits donate ...

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Full Text Available ... Eating Out Quick Meal Ideas Snacks Nutrient Content Claims Understanding Carbohydrates Types of Carbohydrates Carbohydrate Counting Make ... trans fat in a food, the label can claim 0 grams. If you want to avoid as ...

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Full Text Available ... More Oral Health & Hygiene Women A1C Insulin Pregnancy 8 Tips for Caregivers Health Insurance Health Insurance Update ... consider just one ounce of cheese can have 8 grams of saturated fat. Many adults, especially women ...

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Full Text Available ... young children. Your fish and shellfish consumption should be limited to no more than 12 oz. per week. Get a more detailed explanation from the FDA . Patient Education Materials — Protect Your Heart: Choose Healthy Fats This ...

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Full Text Available ... fats are: Corn oil Cottonseed oil Safflower oil Soybean oil Sunflower oil Walnuts Pumpkin or sunflower seeds ... 3 fatty acids. Sources include: Tofu and other soybean products Walnuts Flaxseed and flaxseed oil Canola oil ...

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Full Text Available ... I Eat? Making Healthy Food Choices Diabetes Superfoods Non-starchy Vegetables Grains and Starchy Vegetables Fats Alcohol ... omega-3 fatty acids. The Association recommends eating non-fried fish 2 or 3 times a week. ...

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Análise da lipoenxertia estruturada na redefinição do contorno facial / Analysis of structured fat grafting for redefining facial contours  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese INTRODUÇÃO: A enxertia de gordura como preenchimento no rejuvenescimento e melhoria do contorno facial vem sendo usada por alguns autores e demonstra um potencial excelente como método de escolha para essa finalidade, uma vez que tem como premissa o princípio básico de corrigir as deformidades com o [...] tecido mais semelhante possível. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar clinicamente a eficiência da enxertia de gordura estruturada na redefinição do contorno facial. MÉTODO: Foi realizada análise retrospectiva de 39 pacientes submetidos a lipoenxertia estruturada para a redefinição do contorno facial, entre 2002 e 2012. A seleção de pacientes incluiu correção de deformidades, assimetrias, harmonização do contorno e aumento da projeção óssea, mas excluiu o rejuvenescimento per se. A avaliação do resultado clínico foi realizada pelo paciente e pelo cirurgião, com auxílio de documentação fotográfica pré e pós-operatória. O resultado clínico foi classificado pelo paciente e cirurgião, empregando escala que variava de 1 a 3: (1) o objetivo não foi alcançado de forma alguma; (2) o objetivo foi alcançado parcialmente; ou (3) o objetivo foi alcançado totalmente. Foi realizado, também, levantamento de prontuários para obtenção dos seguintes dados: idade, alteração ponderal, volume enxertado por área, número de sessões de enxertia realizadas, história de tabagismo e complicações. RESULTADOS: As médias das avaliações do cirurgião e paciente foram, respectivamente, 2,6 ± 0,6 e 2,7 ± 0,5, havendo correlação estatisticamente significante (P Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: Fat grafting as a filling method for the rejuvenation and enhancement of facial contours was demonstrated by some authors to be an excellent alternative method for redefining facial contours, based on the premise that the donor tissue used in the correction of the deformities has simil [...] ar characteristics as the recipient tissue. The objective of the present study was to clinically evaluate the efficiency of structured fat grafting when redefining facial contours. METHODS: A retrospective evaluation was performed in 39 patients who underwent structured fat grafting to redefine their facial contours between 2002 and 2012. The patients selected included those who underwent corrections of deformities, asymmetrical features, contour smoothing, and increased bone projection. Patients who underwent facial contour rejuvenation were excluded. The clinical outcome assessment was performed by the patient and surgeon, with the aid of preoperative and postoperative photographic documentation. The clinical outcome was rated by the patient and surgeon, using a scale ranging from 1 to 3, defined as follows: 1, the objective has not been achieved in any way; 2, the objective was partially achieved; or 3, the objective was fully achieved. In addition, a survey was conducted using the patients' medical charts to obtain the following data: age, weight change, volume grafted by area, number of grafting sessions performed, history of smoking, and complications. RESULTS: The mean surgeon and patient assessment scores were 2.6 ± 0.6 and 2.7 ± 0.5, respectively, with a statistically significant correlation (P

Marco Túlio Junqueira, Amarante.

2013-03-01

85

Mobilization of a congenital proximal radioulnar synostosis with use of a free vascularized fascio-fat graft.  

Science.gov (United States)

We present the results of a new mobilization procedure for the treatment of a congenital proximal radioulnar synostosis in seven patients. The operative procedure included separation of the synostosis and placement of a free vascularized fascio-fat graft to prevent recurrent ankylosis. The average age at the time of the operation was eight years and two months (range, six years and four months to eleven years and ten months). All of the patients were boys who had no other congenital anomalies. The radial head was dislocated in all seven patients (anteriorly in two and posteriorly in five). The final four index operations included an osteotomy of the radius in order to reduce the dislocated radial head. The average duration of follow-up was three years and eight months (range, two years and four months to four years and five months). Preoperatively, the patients had had difficulty with holding a bowl of soup and accepting objects, such as coins, into the palm. Postoperatively, they were able to perform these activities. None of the patients had recurrent ankylosis or loss of the flap. The average supination was 26 degrees (range, 10 to 45 degrees), and the average pronation was 45 degrees (range, 10 to 80 degrees). The four patients who had had an osteotomy of the radius in addition to the index procedure did not have a dislocation of the radial head and had an average arc of motion of 83 degrees of pronation and supination. The three patients who had not had an osteotomy had a dislocation of the radial head and an average arc of motion of 40 degrees after the index procedure. These findings demonstrate that separation of a congenital radioulnar synostosis with a vascularized fascio-fat graft and osteotomy of the radius can achieve pronation and supination of the forearm. PMID:9730128

Kanaya, F; Ibaraki, K

1998-08-01

86

Lipoestructura y relleno del polo superior de la mama frente a implantes / Structural fat graft and lipofilling of mammary upper pole versus mammary implants  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La lipoestructura mamaria ofrece nuevas alternativas de tratamiento en la cirugía estética de aumento mamario, cumpliendo en algunos casos las expectativas esperadas y en otros no. Analizamos este hecho en 4 tipos de aplicación de lipoestructura mamaria que hemos venido realizando en los últimos año [...] s, centrándonos en un aspecto importante de esta cirugía que es el relleno del polo superior de la mama. Los tipos de aplicación empleados son: aumento mamario simple mediante lipoestructura en comparación con implantes; pexia más lipoestructura frente a pexia más implantes mamarios; reconstrucción de mama tuberosa mediante lipoestructura o implantes y finalmente, relleno periprotésico mediante lipoestructura en mamas sometidas a cirugía de aumento mamario con implantes. En definitiva, podríamos resumir este trabajo en una frase diciendo que la lipoestructura mamaria, a nuestro juicio, no sirve si lo que prima es conseguir el relleno del polo superior de la mama, siendo en este caso de elección la colocación de implantes mamarios. No obstante, en alguno de los casos señalados no solo es una alternativa, sino que obtiene resultados superiores a los logrados sólamente con implantes. Abstract in english The mammary structural fat graft offers news treatment options in breast augmentation cosmetic surgery, but it sometimes meets expectations and sometimes doesn´t. We analyze 4 different types of lipostructure mammary applications that we have been using in the last years, focused in an important asp [...] ect of this surgery as it´s the filling of the upper mammary pole. These applications are: mammary augmentation by simple structural fat compared with the use of mammary implants; structural fat graft and mastopexy versus implants and mastopexy; tuberous breast reconstruction using structural fat graft or implants and finally, periprosthetic filling in breast augmentation with mammary implants using structural fat graft. In short, we could summarize this paper telling that in our opinion, structural fat graft doesn´t work if our intention is to fill the upper mammary pole. However, structural fat graft is not only an alternative; in some cases it exceeds the expected results using mammary implants.

J.M., Cervilla Lozano.

2012-09-01

87

Lipoestructura y relleno del polo superior de la mama frente a implantes Structural fat graft and lipofilling of mammary upper pole versus mammary implants  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available La lipoestructura mamaria ofrece nuevas alternativas de tratamiento en la cirugía estética de aumento mamario, cumpliendo en algunos casos las expectativas esperadas y en otros no. Analizamos este hecho en 4 tipos de aplicación de lipoestructura mamaria que hemos venido realizando en los últimos años, centrándonos en un aspecto importante de esta cirugía que es el relleno del polo superior de la mama. Los tipos de aplicación empleados son: aumento mamario simple mediante lipoestructura en comparación con implantes; pexia más lipoestructura frente a pexia más implantes mamarios; reconstrucción de mama tuberosa mediante lipoestructura o implantes y finalmente, relleno periprotésico mediante lipoestructura en mamas sometidas a cirugía de aumento mamario con implantes. En definitiva, podríamos resumir este trabajo en una frase diciendo que la lipoestructura mamaria, a nuestro juicio, no sirve si lo que prima es conseguir el relleno del polo superior de la mama, siendo en este caso de elección la colocación de implantes mamarios. No obstante, en alguno de los casos señalados no solo es una alternativa, sino que obtiene resultados superiores a los logrados sólamente con implantes.The mammary structural fat graft offers news treatment options in breast augmentation cosmetic surgery, but it sometimes meets expectations and sometimes doesn´t. We analyze 4 different types of lipostructure mammary applications that we have been using in the last years, focused in an important aspect of this surgery as it´s the filling of the upper mammary pole. These applications are: mammary augmentation by simple structural fat compared with the use of mammary implants; structural fat graft and mastopexy versus implants and mastopexy; tuberous breast reconstruction using structural fat graft or implants and finally, periprosthetic filling in breast augmentation with mammary implants using structural fat graft. In short, we could summarize this paper telling that in our opinion, structural fat graft doesn´t work if our intention is to fill the upper mammary pole. However, structural fat graft is not only an alternative; in some cases it exceeds the expected results using mammary implants.

J.M. Cervilla Lozano

2012-09-01

88

Fats  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... foods. However, if there is not at least 0.5 grams or more of trans fat in a food, the label can claim 0 grams. If you want to avoid as much ... almonds or 4 pecan halves have the same number of calories as 1 teaspoon of oil or ...

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Síndrome da angústia respiratória do adulto por embolia gordurosa no período pós-operatório de lipoaspiração e lipoenxertia Adult respiratory distress syndrome due to fat embolism in the postoperative period following liposuction and fat grafting  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A embolia gordurosa é definida como a ocorrência de bloqueio mecânico da luz vascular por gotículas circulantes de gordura. Acomete principalmente o pulmão, podendo afetar também o sistema nervoso central, a retina e a pele. A síndrome da embolia gordurosa é uma disfunção desses órgãos causada pelos êmbolos gordurosos. As causas mais comuns de embolia gordurosa e síndrome da embolia gordurosa são as fraturas de ossos longos, mas há relatos de sua ocorrência após procedimentos estéticos. O diagnóstico ? clínico, e o tratamento ainda se restringe a medidas de suporte. Apresentamos o caso de uma paciente que evoluiu com síndrome da angústia respiratória do adulto por embolia gordurosa no período pós-operatório de lipoaspiração e lipoenxertia e respondeu bem às manobras de recrutamento alveolar e à ventilação mecânica protetora.Apresentamos também uma análise epidemiológica e fisiopatológica da síndrome da embolia gordurosa após procedimentos estéticos.Fat embolism is defined as mechanical blockage of the vascular lumen by circulating fat globules. Although it primarily affects the lungs, it can also affect the central nervous system, retina, and skin. Fat embolism syndrome is a dysfunction of these organs caused by fat emboli. The most common causes of fat embolism and fat embolism syndrome are long bone fractures, although there are reports of its occurrence after cosmetic procedures. The diagnosis is made clinically, and treatment is still restricted to support measures. We report the case of a female patient who developed adult respiratory distress syndrome due to fat embolism in the postoperative period following liposuction and fat grafting. In this case, the patient responded well to alveolar recruitment maneuvers and protective mechanical ventilation. In addition, we present an epidemiological and pathophysiological analysis of fat embolism syndrome after cosmetic procedures.

André Nathan Costa

2008-08-01

90

Síndrome da angústia respiratória do adulto por embolia gordurosa no período pós-operatório de lipoaspiração e lipoenxertia / Adult respiratory distress syndrome due to fat embolism in the postoperative period following liposuction and fat grafting  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A embolia gordurosa é definida como a ocorrência de bloqueio mecânico da luz vascular por gotículas circulantes de gordura. Acomete principalmente o pulmão, podendo afetar também o sistema nervoso central, a retina e a pele. A síndrome da embolia gordurosa é uma disfunção desses órgãos causada pelos [...] êmbolos gordurosos. As causas mais comuns de embolia gordurosa e síndrome da embolia gordurosa são as fraturas de ossos longos, mas há relatos de sua ocorrência após procedimentos estéticos. O diagnóstico é clínico, e o tratamento ainda se restringe a medidas de suporte. Apresentamos o caso de uma paciente que evoluiu com síndrome da angústia respiratória do adulto por embolia gordurosa no período pós-operatório de lipoaspiração e lipoenxertia e respondeu bem às manobras de recrutamento alveolar e à ventilação mecânica protetora.Apresentamos também uma análise epidemiológica e fisiopatológica da síndrome da embolia gordurosa após procedimentos estéticos. Abstract in english Fat embolism is defined as mechanical blockage of the vascular lumen by circulating fat globules. Although it primarily affects the lungs, it can also affect the central nervous system, retina, and skin. Fat embolism syndrome is a dysfunction of these organs caused by fat emboli. The most common cau [...] ses of fat embolism and fat embolism syndrome are long bone fractures, although there are reports of its occurrence after cosmetic procedures. The diagnosis is made clinically, and treatment is still restricted to support measures. We report the case of a female patient who developed adult respiratory distress syndrome due to fat embolism in the postoperative period following liposuction and fat grafting. In this case, the patient responded well to alveolar recruitment maneuvers and protective mechanical ventilation. In addition, we present an epidemiological and pathophysiological analysis of fat embolism syndrome after cosmetic procedures.

André Nathan, Costa; Daniel Melo, Mendes; Carlos, Toufen; Gino, Arrunátegui; Pedro, Caruso; Carlos Roberto Ribeiro de, Carvalho.

2008-08-01

91

Experiencia en miringoplastía transcanal con pericondrio tragai inlay / Experience in transcanal myringoplasty with inlay tragal perichondrium  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción: La timpanoplastía está orientada a la reconstrucción anatomofuncional del oído medio que realizada en la membrana timpánica se denomina miringoplastía. Objetivo: Evaluar los resultados anatomofuncionales de la miringoplastía transcanal con pericondrio tragal inlay en pacientes interven [...] idos en el Servicio de Otorrinolaringología del Hospital San Camilo entre 2004 y 2009. Material y método: Estudio retrospectivo descriptivo de fichas de 56 pacientes entre 7 y 77 años. Universo: 60 oídos, muestra: 48 oídos con edad promedio de 34 años. Se evaluaron resultados anatómicos según sexo, edad, ubicación, causa de perforación y mejoría funcional objetivada por audiometría. Resultados: La integridad anatómica posquirúrgica es de 81,3% sin diferencias según género. Según edad existe diferencia significativa de 93,3% para el tramo 7-19 años respecto del total. Las perforaciones centrales tuvieron un éxito de 100%. La causa más frecuente de perforación fue por otitis media crónica simple (75%) con una integridad posquirúrgica del 80,5%. El 97,6% logró mejorar o mantener el nivel de audición, estableciéndose diferencialmente mejoría funcional en 52,4%, y una mantención en 45,2%. Conclusión: Los mejores resultados para esta técnica se obtienen en menores de 20 años con perforaciones centrales, siendo una técnica ideal que conserva la estructura de la membrana timpánica para futuras intervenciones. Abstract in english Introduction: Tympanoplasty is orientated to the anatomofunctional reconstruction of the middle ear, which is named myringoplasty, when performed in the tympanic membrane. Aim: To evaluate the anatomofunctional results of transcanal myringoplasty with inlay tragal perichondrium in patients controlle [...] d in the Otorhinolaryngology Unit of San Camilo Hospital, between 2004 and 2009. Material and method: Retrospective descriptive study on files of 56 patients between 7 and 77 years of age. Universe: 60 ears, sample: 48 ears with average age 34 years. Anatomical results were evaluated according to sex, age, location, cause of perforation and functional improvement measured by audiometry. Results: The overall anatomical postsurgical integrity is 81,3 % without differences between sexes. According to age there is a significant difference for the section between 7-19 years of age respect of the total (93,3 %). Central perforations had a 100% success rate. The most frequent reason of perforation was simple chronic otitis media (75%) with a postsurgical integrity of 80,5 %. 97,6 % managed to improve or maintain hearing level, (52,4 % gained functional improvement, and 45,2 % maintained hearing level). Conclusion: Using this technique, best results are obtained in patients younger than 20 years of age, with central perforations. It is an ideal method that preserves the structure of the tympanic membrane for future interventions.

Mauricio, Calderón R; Carmen, Meléndez P; Cristian, Morales S; Danisa, Torres M.

2012-08-01

92

Experiencia en miringoplastía transcanal con pericondrio tragai inlay Experience in transcanal myringoplasty with inlay tragal perichondrium  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introducción: La timpanoplastía está orientada a la reconstrucción anatomofuncional del oído medio que realizada en la membrana timpánica se denomina miringoplastía. Objetivo: Evaluar los resultados anatomofuncionales de la miringoplastía transcanal con pericondrio tragal inlay en pacientes intervenidos en el Servicio de Otorrinolaringología del Hospital San Camilo entre 2004 y 2009. Material y método: Estudio retrospectivo descriptivo de fichas de 56 pacientes entre 7 y 77 años. Universo: 60 oídos, muestra: 48 oídos con edad promedio de 34 años. Se evaluaron resultados anatómicos según sexo, edad, ubicación, causa de perforación y mejoría funcional objetivada por audiometría. Resultados: La integridad anatómica posquirúrgica es de 81,3% sin diferencias según género. Según edad existe diferencia significativa de 93,3% para el tramo 7-19 años respecto del total. Las perforaciones centrales tuvieron un éxito de 100%. La causa más frecuente de perforación fue por otitis media crónica simple (75% con una integridad posquirúrgica del 80,5%. El 97,6% logró mejorar o mantener el nivel de audición, estableciéndose diferencialmente mejoría funcional en 52,4%, y una mantención en 45,2%. Conclusión: Los mejores resultados para esta técnica se obtienen en menores de 20 años con perforaciones centrales, siendo una técnica ideal que conserva la estructura de la membrana timpánica para futuras intervenciones.Introduction: Tympanoplasty is orientated to the anatomofunctional reconstruction of the middle ear, which is named myringoplasty, when performed in the tympanic membrane. Aim: To evaluate the anatomofunctional results of transcanal myringoplasty with inlay tragal perichondrium in patients controlled in the Otorhinolaryngology Unit of San Camilo Hospital, between 2004 and 2009. Material and method: Retrospective descriptive study on files of 56 patients between 7 and 77 years of age. Universe: 60 ears, sample: 48 ears with average age 34 years. Anatomical results were evaluated according to sex, age, location, cause of perforation and functional improvement measured by audiometry. Results: The overall anatomical postsurgical integrity is 81,3 % without differences between sexes. According to age there is a significant difference for the section between 7-19 years of age respect of the total (93,3 %. Central perforations had a 100% success rate. The most frequent reason of perforation was simple chronic otitis media (75% with a postsurgical integrity of 80,5 %. 97,6 % managed to improve or maintain hearing level, (52,4 % gained functional improvement, and 45,2 % maintained hearing level. Conclusion: Using this technique, best results are obtained in patients younger than 20 years of age, with central perforations. It is an ideal method that preserves the structure of the tympanic membrane for future interventions.

Mauricio Calderón R

2012-08-01

93

Effects of mature adipocyte-derived dedifferentiated fat (DFAT) cells on generation and vascularisation of dermis-like tissue after artificial dermis grafting.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract Although artificial dermis (AD) is effective for skin reconstruction, it requires two separate procedures, because the AD must be vascularised before skin grafts. To shorten the period of the dermis-like tissue generation before the secondary skin grafting must be beneficial. Dedifferentiated fat (DFAT) cells are isolated from mature adipose cell suspensions and have potential to differentiate into multiple cell types including endothelial cells. This study aimed to investigate effects of DFAT cells on dermal regeneration after AD grafts in rats. The effects of combination use of DFAT cells and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) were also tested to mimic clinical situations. DFAT cells were isolated from SD rats. Full-thickness wounds were created on the back of rats followed by AD grafting. Five groups were established; Group I: control, Group II: treated with DFAT cells, Group III: treated with bFGF, Group IV: treated with both of DFAT cells and bFGF, and Group V: treated with Green fluorescent protein (GFP)-labelled DFAT cells and bFGF. Histological evaluation was serially performed. Group IV showed markedly promoted vascularisation of dermis-like tissue. In particular, capillary infiltration into the dermis was obtained within 2 days. Immunohistochemical examination revealed that the transplanted DFAT cells had differentiated into endothelial cells and participated in angiogenesis. Group IV also showed a marked increase in the thickness of the dermis like tissue. The present results suggest that the use of DFAT cells under bFGF treatment could be beneficial to shorten the period required for dermal regeneration and vascularisation and contribute to use AD more effectively and safely. PMID:24909822

Soejima, Kazutaka; Kashimura, Tsutomu; Asami, Takashi; Kazama, Tomohiko; Matsumoto, Taro; Nakazawa, Hiroaki

2015-02-01

94

Utilidad del los injertos de tejido adiposo en la reconstrucción estética del miembro inferior / Use of autologous fat grafting in aesthetic lower extremity reconstruction  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La reconstrucción del miembro inferior constituye, probablemente, una de las disciplinas más complejas y de más difícil ejecución en el ámbito de la Cirugía Plástica Estética, independientemente de la etiología inicial del problema (postraumática, oncológica o congénita) y, normalmente, tras varios [...] tratamientos quirúrgicos, el paciente puede solicitar la mejora estética de las secuelas residuales. Estas pueden consistir, entre otras, en problemas de trofismo, asimetrías o distorsiones cicatriciales. Los injertos de tejido adiposo suponen una opción extremadamente válida y segura en los casos en los que estos pacientes solicitan una mejora estética de sus secuelas. Dado su potencial para crear volúmenes y para mejorar el trofismo de los tejidos afectados por diversas formas de fibrosis o atrofias, su utilidad debe ser considerada como una seria opción a considerar. Presentamos en este artículo 3 casos de reconstrucción estética del miembro inferior, por diversas causas, resueltos mediante el uso de injertos de tejido adiposo y revisados durante al menos un año. En todos ellos fueron necesarias al menos 2 sesiones para conseguir un resultado aceptable para el paciente. Abstract in english Lower extremity reconstruction is probably one of the most challenging and difficult disciplines in Plastic and Aesthetic Surgery. With independence of the original ethiology (postraumatic, oncologic or congenital), and after various surgical steps, this group of patients usually looks for some aest [...] hetic improvement of residual sequel. These may consist of diverse forms of trophic changes, asymmetries or distortions. Autologous fat grafting represent an extremely reliable and safe technique in those cases in which patients ask for some aesthetic improvement of their residual sequels. Due to their potential to create volumes and improve the quality of tissues affected from different kinds of atrophy or fibrosis, the use of fat grafting in these cases should be seriously considered as an alternative. Three cases of aesthetic improvement of lower extremity sequels of diverse origin and treated with autologous fat grafting are presented. The follow up period was at least of one year after last treatment. All of them needed at least 2 treatments to achieve an acceptable result for the patient.

J., Monreal..

2013-12-01

95

Oroantral communication closure using a pedicled buccal fat pad graft / Fechamento de comunicação buco-sinusal utilizando enxerto pediculado de corpo adiposo da bochecha  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: O objetivo desde artigo foi relatar um caso clínico de fechamento de fístula buco-sinusal tardia utilizando rotação de enxerto de tecido adiposo pediculado do corpo adiposo da bochecha. DESCRIÇÃO DO CASO: Paciente do sexo masculino, 66 anos, leucoderma, em boas condições de saúde geral, fo [...] i encaminhado para fechamento de extensa comunicação buco-sinusal. Ao exame clínico, observou-se uma fístula de aproximadamente 10 mm de diâmetro comunicando a cavidade oral com o seio maxilar. A cirurgia foi realizada em nível ambulatorial, sob anestesia local, para fechar a fístula buco-sinusal com um enxerto de tecido adiposo pediculado do corpo adiposo da bochecha. A reparação da ferida e o fechamento do defeito foram observados no pós-operatório de 30 dias, com completa epitelização. CONCLUSÃO: O enxerto pediculado de tecido do corpo adiposo da bochecha mostrou-se uma alternativa simples, eficaz e segura no fechamento mediato da fístula buco-sinusal apresentada neste caso clínico. Abstract in english PURPOSE: This paper reports the procedure used to close a late oroantral fistula using rotating flaps of the pedicled buccal fat pad. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 66-year-old, male patient with leukoderma, in good general health, was referred for closure of an extensive late oroantral communication. Upon cli [...] nical examination, an approximately 10-mm fistula was observed connecting the oral cavity to the maxillary sinus. An outpatient surgical procedure was performed with the use of local anesthetics to close the oroantral fistula with a rotating pedicled buccal fat pad flap. The healing of the wound and closure of the defect could be seen after a 30-day postoperative period, with complete epithelialization. CONCLUSION: Grafting of the pedicled buccal fat pad is thought to be an efficient, safe and easy alternative to a larger oroantral fistula closure. Pedicled buccal fat pad grafting corrected the defect without generating any sequelae and/or great postoperative discomfort to the patient.

Ruy de Oliveira, Veras Filho; Fernando, Giovanella; Rafael Machado, Karsburg; Marcos Antonio, Torriani.

96

De la biología al injerto de tejido adiposo: cómo mejorar el lipoinjerto / From biology to fat grafting: how to improve lipofilling  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish A pesar de que el uso del injerto de grasa ha ganado popularidad, no hay consenso sobre la mejor manera de manejar el tejido adiposo. Los protocolos difieren y los resultados son a menudo variables. Diversos factores influyen en la calidad de la grasa inyectada, entre los que encontramos las molécul [...] as tóxicas provenientes de la infiltración, procedimiento previo a la liposucción. En este trabajo, hemos confirmado el efecto nocivo de los anestésicos sobre las células madre derivadas del tejido adiposo, determinando el efecto del lavado y la centrifugación en el tejido graso con el fin de proponer un protocolo simple y optimizado para mejorar la supervivencia del injerto. Evaluamos la citotoxicidad de la lidocaína sobre las células madre derivadas de tejido adiposo (ADSC) mediante ensayo de LDH. Sometimos el tejido adiposo conjunto a varios tipos de centrifugación (de 1 segundo a 10 minutos y desde 0 g a 1800 g), y el volumen de líquido y el aceite liberado se midió inmediatamente después de la centrifugación. Tras la determinación de las condiciones óptimas para la manipulación de tejidos (400 g/1 minuto), inyectamos el tejido adiposo de liposucción sin o con lidocaína en ratones inmunodeficientes. Un mes después de la inyección, evaluamos la calidad de los injertos mediante histología, y en comparación con los injertos obtenidos a partir de un protocolo convencional: una simple sedimentación. La lidocaína ejerce un efecto citotóxico sobre las ADSC, y este efecto depende del tiempo de incubación y de las concentraciones. En cuanto al tejido adiposo, una centrifugación intensa (900 g, 1800 g) es perjudicial en comparación con una centrifugación suave (100 g, 400 g). Además, las secciones histológicas de los injertos de tejido adiposo no centrifugados mostraron la presencia de grandes vacuolas de aceite mientras que los injertos resultantes de lavado con protocolo de centrifugación suave (400g/1minuto) no lo hacen. En conclusión, creemos que se debe emplear un manejo adecuado del tejido adiposo, incluyendo lavado y centrifugación, con el fin de eliminar el líquido de infiltración y las moléculas tóxicas asociadas que son perjudiciales para los injertos. Sin embargo, no recomendamos una centrifugación intensa ya que conduce muy rápidamente a una mayor muerte celular. Por lo tanto, una centrifugación suave (400 g/1 minuto) precedida de lavados, parece ser el protocolo más apropiado para la reinyección del tejido adiposo. Abstract in english While fat grafting for soft tissue filling has gained popularity, there is no consensus on the best way how to handle adipose tissue. Protocols differ and results are often highly variable. Various factors influence the quality of injected fat, among which the toxic molecules coming from infiltratio [...] n procedure prior to liposuction. In this work, we have confirmed the deleterious effect of anesthetics on adipose-derived stem cells, and determined the effect of washing and centrifugation on adipose tissue, in order to propose a simple and optimized protocol to improve graft survival. Lidocaine cytotoxicity on adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) was evaluated by LDH assay. Then, whole adipose tissue was subjected to various centrifugation types (from 1 sec to 10 min and from 0 g to 1800 g), and volume of liquid and oil released were measured immediately after centrifugation. After determination of the optimal conditions for tissue handling (400 g/1 min), adipose tissue from liposuction made without or with lidocaine was injected into immunodeficient mice. One month after injection, quality of the grafts was evaluated by histology, and compared with grafts obtained from one conventional protocol: a simple settling. Lidocaine exerts a cytotoxic effect on ADSCs, and this effect is dependent on the incubation time and concentrations. Concerning adipose tissue, strong centrifugation (900 g, 1800 g) is deleterious compared to the low centrifugation (100 g, 400 g). In add

A.C., Girard; S., Mirbeau; M., Atlan; F., Festy; R., Roche; L., Hoareau.

2013-12-01

97

Use of dermal-fat grafts in the post-oncological reconstructive surgery of atrophies in the zygomatic region: clinical evaluations in the patients undergone to previous radiation therapy  

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Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Grafting of autologous adipose tissue can be recommended in some cases of facial plastic surgery. Rhabdomyosarcoma is a type of cancer that can also affect the orbit. Enucleation of the eye can cause atrophy of the corresponding hemiface and decreased orbital growth. Case report We report a case of a female patient with a medical history of surgical enucleation of the right eyeball, who had received rhabdomyosarcoma radiation therapy in her youth. The patient presented with a depression in the right zygomatic region. We took a dermal-fat flap from the abdominal region, which had been previously treated. Results The surgical outcome, 48 hours, and much clearly 31 days after the surgery, revealed that the right zygomatic region had returned to its proper anatomical shape, although there were still signs of postoperative edema. Discussion Very damaged tissues, like those exposed to radiation therapy, are generally not suitable for grafting of adipose tissue. Conclusions In the described case, we achieved a technically and aesthetically satisfying result despite the patient's medical history involving several perplexities about the use of autologous dermal-fat tissues, because of prior radiation therapy exposure. The clinical case shows that even a region exposed to radiation therapy can be a valid receiving bed for dermal-fat grafting.

Inchingolo Francesco

2012-12-01

98

Differential fat harvesting  

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Full Text Available Aim: Volume replacement with fillers is regularly performed with the use of diverse volumetric materials to correct different structures around the face, depending on the volume enhancement required and the thickness of the soft tissue envelope. Differential fat harvesting and posterior grafting is performed to place the correct fat parcel size for each target area, expanding the potential applications of fat. Methods: Sixty patients consecutively recruited on a first come basis undergone a facial fat grafting procedure, in private practice setting between March 2012 and October 2013. Fat grafting quantity and quality was predicted for each case. Differential harvesting was performed, with 2 fat parcels size. Processing was performed through washing. Fat infiltration was carried out through small cannulas or needles depending on the treated area. Outcomes were analysed both by the physicians and the patients at 7 days, 1 month, 3 months and 6 months through a perceived satisfaction questionnaire. Parameters considered were downtime or discomfort, skin benefits, volume restoration, reabsorption rate estimated and overall improvement. Results: Full facial differential fat grafting procedure lasted an average of 1.5-2.5 h. Average downtime was 3-4 days. Follow-up was performed to a minimum of 6 months. Both patient and physician overall satisfaction rates were mostly excellent. Adverse events like lumps or irregularities were not encountered. Conclusion: Differential fat harvesting and posterior grafting is a valid alternative, to expand the repertoire of fat use, allow a more homogeneous effect, reduce the potential complications, speed up the process, improve graft survival, and to enhance overall aesthetic outcome.

Sebastian Torres Farr

2014-12-01

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Lipoenxertia autóloga periorbitária no rejuvenescimento facial: análise retrospectiva da eficácia e da segurança em 31 casos / Autologous periorbital fat grafting in facial rejuvenation: a retrospective analysis of efficacy and safety in 31 cases  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese INTRODUÇÃO: Os sulcos periorbitários e zigomático e o malar flácido estão entre as características mais marcantes de envelhecimento ou de desarmonia facial. A reposição do volume é um método simples e eficiente, e o lipoenxerto pode ser o melhor material. O presente trabalho traz uma análise de 31 p [...] acientes submetidos a autolipoenxertia, com ênfase na eficácia e na segurança da técnica. MÉTODO: Análise retrospectiva de 31 pacientes consecutivos, submetidos a lipoenxertias periorbitária e malar, concomitantemente ou não a outros procedimentos estéticos. A avaliação foi feita por meio de comparação entre fotografias pré e pós-operatória, bem como pelo grau de satisfação dos pacientes. RESULTADOS: Dos 31 pacientes, 26 (83,9%) classificaram o resultado pós-operatório como ótimo, 3 (9,7%), bom, e 2 (6,4%), regular. Na avaliação dos autores, 24 (77,5%) pacientes apresentaram resultado ótimo, 5 (16,1%), bom, e 2 (6,4%), regular. Houve necessidade de retoque de lipoenxertia em apenas 4 pacientes, por sugestão do cirurgião. As complicações foram mínimas e passageiras. CONCLUSÕES: A lipoenxertia facial é fácil e eficaz, e as complicações são mínimas quando realizada por cirurgiões qualificados. Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Periorbital and zygomatic hollows as well as flaccid cheeks are among the most evident characteristics of aging or facial disharmony. Volume replacement is a simple and efficient procedure, and fat grafting is considered as the best treatment for these characteristics. This study evaluat [...] es 31 patients who underwent autologous fat grafting and emphasizes the safety and efficacy of this procedure. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of 31 consecutive patients who underwent periorbital and zygomatic fat grafting, alone or in combination with other cosmetic procedures, was carried out. Final evaluation was performed by assessing pre- and postoperative photographs as well as the degree of patient satisfaction. RESULTS: Of 31 patients, 26 (83.9%) reported excellent postoperative outcomes; 3 (9.7%), satisfactory outcomes; and 2 (6.4%), poor outcomes. According to the authors' evaluation, 24 (77.5%) patients had excellent outcomes, 5 (16.1%) had satisfactory outcomes, and 2 (6.4%) had poor outcomes. Retouching of the fat graft was recommended for only 4 patients. The complications observed were minimal and transient. CONCLUSIONS: Facial fat grafting is a simple and effective procedure that presents minimal complications when performed by skilled surgeons.

Chang Yung, Chia; Diego Antonio, Rovaris.

2012-09-01

100

Uso de factores de crecimiento plaquetar unidos a injertos de grasa para lipofiling facial en ritidectomía Use of fat grafts enriched with platelet growth factors for facial lipofiling in ritidectomy  

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Full Text Available Presentamos una serie de pacientes a los que hemos realizado infiltraciones de grasa enriquecida con Factores de Crecimiento Plaquetario (F.C.P. como único procedimiento. Igualmente presentamos casos donde las infiltraciones van acompañadas con otros procedimientos (lifting temporal, lifting cérvico-frontal, etc.. También usamos el plasma rico en F.C.P. en forma de coágulo para rellenar el surco de la cuenca orbitaria (“Tear Through”, y como mesoterapia facial enriquecida con nutrientes. El objetivo de este trabajo es presentar una revisión detallada de los pasos a seguir para la realización de éste procedimiento, que van desde la simple extracción de sangre para la posterior obtención de F.C.P. hasta la técnica de infiltración de grasa enriquecida con dichos factores a nivel facial. Con esta técnica de enriquecimiento de la grasa hemos logrado tener mejores resultados y con mayor permanencia. Evaluando los postoperatorios de pacientes sometidos a este procedimiento, hemos observado que el volumen infiltrado en áreas como la región malar, se mantiene entre un 90% a 95%. En otras áreas como labios y surcos nasogenianos (áreas de gran movilidad, solo permanece entre el 50% a 60% del volumen infiltrado.We present a serie of patients with facial fat infiltration enriched with platelet-derived growth factors, some of them associated to other surgical procedures (temporal lifting, cervico-frontal lifting, etc. We explain how to use this platelet - rich plasma to fill the tear - through and as a facial mesotherapy. Our purpose is to present a detailled review of our method: since blood extraction to the last obtention of the platelet - derived growth factors and the use of this plasma combined with fat infiltration in the facial area. With this methodology we have got better and more permanent results. We have evaluated 90-95 % fat grafts survival in malar region. In other facial areas such as lips or nasogenian folds (big movement areas, we only report about 50 to 60% fat graft survival.

J.M. Serra Renom

2006-09-01

 
 
 
 
101

¿Cuál es la supervivencia de los injertos de grasa en la cara? ¿Cómo cuantificarla?: medicina basada en la evidencia / Which is the survival of fat grafts on the face? How to quantify it?: evidence based medicine  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Muchos de los artículos publicados acerca del éxito de los injertos autólogos de grasa (IAG) en humanos son muy subjetivos o, en el mejor de los casos, semicuantitativos Hasta hoy, se necesitan estudios adicionales, tanto clínicos como básicos, antes de que podamos llegar a precisar el valor de esta [...] técnica. Diseñamos un estudio prospectivo y randomizado con el objetivo de cuantificar la supervivencia de los autoinjertos de grasa en cara, en una serie seleccionada de 71 pacientes con defectos subcutáneos de partes blandas faciales que cumplieron criterios de inclusión, en dos grupos, según fueran casos de Cirugía Reconstructiva o de Cirugía Estética. El procedimiento quirúrgico estándar empleado fue la técnica de lipoestructura facial; se tomó biopsia del tejido adiposo injertado a los 14 meses de seguimiento. Empleamos el método estereológico para medir los parámetros volumétricos cuantitativos de la grasa en el momento de la inyección y en el momento de la biopsia. Por medio de simples ecuaciones matemáticas, pudimos extraer las tasas de prendimiento tanto volumétrica como numérica. También se practicaron análisis estadísticos descriptivos y cuantitativos de todos los datos. Los injertos de grasa autólogos en la cara sobreviven en dos tercios del volumen inyectado a los 14 meses de seguimiento. La única prueba confirmatoria de supervivencia de los autoin-jertos de grasa es la evidencia y demostración histológica de tejido adiposo viable en las zonas receptoras y su cuantificación mediante un método de evaluación volumétrico, preciso y objetivo, como el que permite la Estereología. Abstract in english Many reports concerning the success of fat auto-grafts in humans are widely subjective or semi-quantitative in best of cases. Even today, additional studies, clinical or basic, are ne-cessary before the value of this technique can be calculated. With the aim of quantifying the survival of fat auto-g [...] rafts on the face, a prospective randomized study was designed, selecting 71 patients suffering facial soft tissue subcutaneous defects fulfilling the inclusion criteria. Two groups were descri-bed according to reconstructive and aesthetic surgery. Facial lipostructure technique was used as the standard surgical procedure and a biopsy of the grafted adipose tissue was taken at 14 months follow-up. The stereological method was used to measure the quantitative volumetric parameters of the fat at the injection time and at the biopsy time. By means of simple mathematical equations, the volumetric and numerical take rate could be obtained. Descriptive and quantitative statistical analyses of all data were performed. Fat auto-grafts on the face survive two thirds of the injec-ted volume at 14 months follow-up. The unique confirmation proof of survival of fat auto-grafts is the histological evidence and demonstration of viable adipose tissue in recipient sites and its quantification by a volumetric, accurate and objective valuation method, as it is provided by Stereology.

E., Serna-Cuéllar; L., Santamaría-Solís.

2013-12-01

102

Uso de factores de crecimiento plaquetar unidos a injertos de grasa para lipofiling facial en ritidectomía / Use of fat grafts enriched with platelet growth factors for facial lipofiling in ritidectomy  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Presentamos una serie de pacientes a los que hemos realizado infiltraciones de grasa enriquecida con Factores de Crecimiento Plaquetario (F.C.P.) como único procedimiento. Igualmente presentamos casos donde las infiltraciones van acompañadas con otros procedimientos (lifting temporal, lifting cérvic [...] o-frontal, etc.). También usamos el plasma rico en F.C.P. en forma de coágulo para rellenar el surco de la cuenca orbitaria (“Tear Through”), y como mesoterapia facial enriquecida con nutrientes. El objetivo de este trabajo es presentar una revisión detallada de los pasos a seguir para la realización de éste procedimiento, que van desde la simple extracción de sangre para la posterior obtención de F.C.P. hasta la técnica de infiltración de grasa enriquecida con dichos factores a nivel facial. Con esta técnica de enriquecimiento de la grasa hemos logrado tener mejores resultados y con mayor permanencia. Evaluando los postoperatorios de pacientes sometidos a este procedimiento, hemos observado que el volumen infiltrado en áreas como la región malar, se mantiene entre un 90% a 95%. En otras áreas como labios y surcos nasogenianos (áreas de gran movilidad), solo permanece entre el 50% a 60% del volumen infiltrado. Abstract in english We present a serie of patients with facial fat infiltration enriched with platelet-derived growth factors, some of them associated to other surgical procedures (temporal lifting, cervico-frontal lifting, etc.) We explain how to use this platelet - rich plasma to fill the tear - through and as a faci [...] al mesotherapy. Our purpose is to present a detailled review of our method: since blood extraction to the last obtention of the platelet - derived growth factors and the use of this plasma combined with fat infiltration in the facial area. With this methodology we have got better and more permanent results. We have evaluated 90-95 % fat grafts survival in malar region. In other facial areas such as lips or nasogenian folds (big movement areas), we only report about 50 to 60% fat graft survival.

J.M., Serra Renom; J.L., Muñoz del Olmo; C., Gonzalo Caballero.

2006-09-01

103

Injertos de tejido adiposo: variables que influyen en la viabilidad del adipocito y de las células madre mesenquimales / Fat grafting: variables that influence the viability of the adipocyte and mesenchimal stem cells  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Si bien los injertos de tejido adiposo se han venido utilizando durante décadas a lo largo del siglo pasado, la técnica se venía considerando como poco útil dado que el injerto tendía a la reabsorción. Fue Coleman quien introdujo un sistema de obtención-procesamiento-infiltración atraumático que aum [...] entó el porcentaje de supervivencia del injerto y la obtención de resultados positivos similares en su aplicación en todo el mundo. Aún así, la publicación de resultados dispares en la literatura respecto a la supervivencia del injerto, con diferentes porcentajes de reabsorción y el descubrimiento de las células madre en el tejido adiposo, han llevado a la realización de numerosos trabajos de investigación encaminados a comprender la biología del injerto de tejido adiposo, a estudiar el papel de las células madre en este proceso y la influencia que sobre la viabilidad celular tienen los distintos pasos a los que los cirujanos plásticos sometemos al tejido adiposo para su trasplante. Hemos hecho una revisión de la literatura científica al respecto para reunir la información disponible sobre estas controversias. Abstract in english Though adipose tissue grafts have been used for decades in last century, the technique has been considered as slightly usefull provided that the graft was tending to reabsorption. It was Coleman who introduced a system of atraumatic harvesting-processing-infiltration that increased the percentage of [...] survival of the graft obtaining positive similar results in its application all over the world. Nonetheless, publication of unlike results in the literature regarding survival of the graft with different percentages of reabsorption and the discovery of stem cells in the adipose tissue, have led to the accomplishment of numerous research works directed to understanding the biology of the fat graft, the role of the stem cells in this process and the influence that the different steps for transplantation have on the cellular viability. We present a review of the scientific literature about the theme to bring together the available information about these controversies.

J., Benito Ruiz.

2011-12-01

104

Facial Soft Tissue Augmentation using Autologous Fat Mixed with Stromal Vascular Fraction  

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Full Text Available Background Autologous fat grafting evolved over the twentieth century to become a quick,safe, and reliable method for restoring volume. However, autologous fat grafts have someproblems including uncertain viability of the grafted fat and a low rate of graft survival. Toovercome the problems associated with autologous fat grafts, we used uncultured adiposetissue-derived stromal cell (stromal vascular fraction, SVF assisted autologous fat grafting.Thus, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of SVF in a clinical trial.Methods SVF cells were freshly isolated from half of the aspirated fat and were used incombination with the other half of the aspirated fat during the procedure. Between March2007 and February 2008, a total of 9 SVF-assisted fat grafts were performed in 9 patients.The patients were followed for 12 weeks after treatment. Data collected at each follow-upvisit included clinical examination of the graft site(s, photographs for historical comparison,and information from a patient questionnaire that measured the outcomes from the patientperspective. The photographs were evaluated by medical professionals.Results Scores of the left facial area grafted with adipose tissue mixed with SVF cells weresignificantly higher compared with those of the right facial area grafted with adipose tissuewithout SVF cells. There was no significant adverse effect.Conclusions The subjective patient satisfaction survey and surgeon survey showed that SVFassistedfat grafting was a surgical procedure with superior results.

Sang Kyun Lee

2012-09-01

105

Skin Graft  

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Skin graft is one of the most indispensable techniques in plastic surgery and dermatology. Skin grafts are used in a variety of clinical situations, such as traumatic wounds, defects after oncologic resection, burn reconstruction, scar contracture release, congenital skin deficiencies, hair restoration, vitiligo, and nipple-areola reconstruction. Skin grafts are generally avoided in the management of more complex wounds. Conditions with deep spaces and exposed bones normally require the use o...

Ruka Shimizu; Kazuo Kishi

2012-01-01

106

Pancreas grafts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Perfusion studies with sup(99m)Tc-DTPA, which has hitherto been used routinely to investigate renal grafts, have also proved useful for monitoring the perfusion of pancreas grafts. A total perfusion failure is equally reliably demonstrable as in renal grafts. Quantitatively smaller perfusion alterations can be demonstrated by monitoring the course. It seems possible to differentiate the salivary edema of a rejection reaction, well known from animal experiments, with the help of other paramters (e.g. creatinine). Further clinical studies are however necessary to confirm these results. (orig.)

107

Fat Characterization  

Science.gov (United States)

Methods for characterizing edible lipids, fats, and oils can be separated into two categories: those developed to analyze bulk oils and fats, and those focusing on analysis of foodstuffs and their lipid extracts. In evaluating foodstuffs, it is usually necessary to extract the lipids prior to analysis. In these cases, if sufficient quantities of lipids are available, methods developed for bulk fats and oils can be utilized.

O'Keefe, Sean F.; Pike, Oscar A.

108

Tracheal grafts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To learn when transplanted trachea becomes established and is suitable for experimentation, a serial sacrifice study was performed on rats. After transplant to a subcutaneous site, tracheal grafts survived by diffusion until the fourth day when the blood supply was reestablished. Further improvement occurred in the mucosal epithelium, so that by the seventh day after transplanting, the graft was again lined by tall columnar ciliated cells and scattered secretory cells. The mucosal epithelium remained separated from the submucosal elastic layer, however, until 14 days after transplanting, when the established grafts resembled untransplanted tracheas histologically. When exposed to 7,12-dimethyl(a)benzanthracene, the mucosa underwent squamous metaplasia that progressed to squamous carcinoma as early as 3 months after treatment. A major advantage of the tracheal graft as a research tool is that neoplasia can be induced in a respiratory tissue without interfering with respiration

109

Assessment of viability of human fat injection into nude mice with micro-computed tomography.  

Science.gov (United States)

Lipotransfer is a vital tool in the surgeon's armamentarium for the treatment of soft tissue deficits of throughout the body. Fat is the ideal soft tissue filler as it is readily available, easily obtained, inexpensive, and inherently biocompatible.(1) However, despite its burgeoning popularity, fat grafting is hampered by unpredictable results and variable graft survival, with published retention rates ranging anywhere from 10-80%. (1-3) To facilitate investigations on fat grafting, we have therefore developed an animal model that allows for real-time analysis of injected fat volume retention. Briefly, a small cut is made in the scalp of a CD-1 nude mouse and 200-400 µl of processed lipoaspirate is placed over the skull. The scalp is chosen as the recipient site because of its absence of native subcutaneous fat, and because of the excellent background contrast provided by the calvarium, which aids in the analysis process. Micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) is used to scan the graft at baseline and every two weeks thereafter. The CT images are reconstructed, and an imaging software is used to quantify graft volumes. Traditionally, techniques to assess fat graft volume have necessitated euthanizing the study animal to provide just a single assessment of graft weight and volume by physical measurement ex vivo. Biochemical and histological comparisons have likewise required the study animal to be euthanized. This described imaging technique offers the advantage of visualizing and objectively quantifying volume at multiple time points after initial grafting without having to sacrifice the study animal. The technique is limited by the size of the graft able to be injected as larger grafts risk skin and fat necrosis. This method has utility for all studies evaluating fat graft viability and volume retention. It is particularly well-suited to providing a visual representation of fat grafts and following changes in volume over time. PMID:25590561

Atashroo, David A; Paik, Kevin J; Chung, Michael T; McArdle, Adrian; Senarath-Yapa, Kshemendra; Zielins, Elizabeth R; Tevlin, Ruth; Duldulao, Christopher R; Walmsley, Graham G; Wearda, Taylor; Marecic, Owen; Longaker, Michael T; Wan, Derrick C

2015-01-01

110

Lateral Thigh Fascia Lata as Interpositional Graft for Temporomandibular Joint Ankylosis  

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Successful management of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) ankylosis depends on adequate gap arthroplasty and interpositional graft; the objective is to produce a functioning pseudoarthrosis that prevents reankylosis and provides adequate mobility. Several interpositional grafts have been used for the treatment of temporomandibular joint ankylosis such as indigenous pterygomasseteric sling, temporalis muscle/fascia, auricular cartilage, fat and dermis-fat. Lateral thigh fascia lata (LTFL) graft i...

Alema?n, Ramo?n Manuel; Marti?nez, Mari?a Guadalupe

2011-01-01

111

Use of dermal-fat grafts in the post-oncological reconstructive surgery of atrophies in the zygomatic region: clinical evaluations in the patients undergone to previous radiation therapy  

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Abstract Introduction Grafting of autologous adipose tissue can be recommended in some cases of facial plastic surgery. Rhabdomyosarcoma is a type of cancer that can also affect the orbit. Enucleation of the eye can cause atrophy of the corresponding hemiface and decreased orbital growth. Case report We report a case of a female patient with a medical history of surgical enucleation of the right eyeball, who had received rhabdomyosarcoma radiation therapy in her...

Inchingolo Francesco; Tatullo Marco; Pacifici Andrea; Gargari Marco; Inchingolo Alessio D; Inchingolo Angelo M; Dipalma Gianna; Marrelli Massimo; Abenavoli Fabio M; Pacifici Luciano

2012-01-01

112

Bone Graft Alternatives  

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... deformity or during a surgical procedure such as spinal fusion. What Types of Bone Grafts are There? Bone ... of bone grafts in spine surgery is during spinal fusion. The use of autogenous bone grafts for spinal ...

113

Proximal Tibial Bone Graft  

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... Treatments of the Smaller Toes AOFAS / FootCareMD / Treatments Proximal Tibial Bone Graft Page Content What is a ... bone from the proximal tibia. What is a proximal tibial bone graft? Proximal tibial bone graft (PTBG) ...

114

Lateral thigh fascia lata as interpositional graft for temporomandibular joint ankylosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Successful management of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) ankylosis depends on adequate gap arthroplasty and interpositional graft; the objective is to produce a functioning pseudoarthrosis that prevents reankylosis and provides adequate mobility. Several interpositional grafts have been used for the treatment of temporomandibular joint ankylosis such as indigenous pterygomasseteric sling, temporalis muscle/fascia, auricular cartilage, fat and dermis-fat. Lateral thigh fascia lata (LTFL) graft is commonly used in neurosurgical practice and in other surgical specialities. We present a case of lateral thigh fascia lata used as interpositional graft for the treatment of a unilateral fibrous temporomandibular joint ankylosis. PMID:23997493

Alemán, Ramón Manuel; Martínez, María Guadalupe

2012-09-01

115

Fat Analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

Lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates constitute the principal structural components of foods. Lipids are a group of substances that, in general, are soluble in ether, chloroform, or other organic solvents but are sparingly soluble in water. However, there exists no clear scientific definition of a lipid, primarily due to the water solubility of certain molecules that fall within one of the variable categories of food lipids (1). Some lipids, such as triacylglycerols, are very hydrophobic. Other lipids, such as di- and monoacylglycerols, have both hydrophobic and hydrophilic moieties in their molecules and are soluble in relatively polar solvents (2). Short-chain fatty acids such as C1-C4 are completely miscible in water and insoluble in nonpolar solvents (1). The most widely accepted definition is based on solubility as previously stated. While most macromolecules are characterized by common structural features, the designation of "lipid" being defined by solubility characteristics is unique to lipids (2). Lipids comprise a broad group of substances that have some common properties and compositional similarities (3). Triacylglycerols are fats and oils that represent the most prevalent category of the group of compounds known as lipids. The terms lipids, fats, and oils are often used interchangeably. The term "lipid" commonly refers to the broad, total collection of food molecules that meet the definition previously stated. Fats generally refer to those lipids that are solid at room temperature and oils generally refer to those lipids that are liquid at room temperature. While there may not be an exact scientific definition, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has established a regulatory definition for nutrition labeling purposes. The FDA has defined total fat as the sum of fatty acids from C4 to C24, calculated as triglycerides. This definition provides a clear path for resolution of any nutrition labeling disputes.

Min, David B.; Ellefson, Wayne C.

116

Bone grafting: An overview  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Bone grafting is the process by which bone is transferred from a source (donor to site (recipient. Due to trauma from accidents by speedy vehicles, falling down from height or gunshot injury particularly in human being, acquired or developmental diseases like rickets, congenital defects like abnormal bone development, wearing out because of age and overuse; lead to bone loss and to replace the loss we need the bone grafting. Osteogenesis, osteoinduction, osteoconduction, mechanical supports are the four basic mechanisms of bone graft. Bone graft can be harvested from the iliac crest, proximal tibia, proximal humerus, proximal femur, ribs and sternum. An ideal bone graft material is biologically inert, source of osteogenic, act as a mechanical support, readily available, easily adaptable in terms of size, shape, length and replaced by the host bone. Except blood, bone is grafted with greater frequency. Bone graft indicated for variety of orthopedic abnormalities, comminuted fractures, delayed unions, non-unions, arthrodesis and osteomyelitis. Bone graft can be harvested from the iliac crest, proximal tibia, proximal humerus, proximal femur, ribs and sternum. By adopting different procedure of graft preservation its antigenicity can be minimized. The concept of bone banking for obtaining bone grafts and implants is very useful for clinical application. Absolute stability require for successful incorporation. Ideal bone graft must possess osteogenic, osteoinductive and osteocon-ductive properties. Cancellous bone graft is superior to cortical bone graft. Usually autologous cancellous bone graft are used as fresh grafts where as allografts are employed as an alloimplant. None of the available type of bone grafts possesses all these properties therefore, a single type of graft cannot be recomm-ended for all types of orthopedic abnormalities. Bone grafts and implants can be selected as per clinical problems, the equipments available and preference of the surgeon. A search for ideal bone graft is on and may continue till time to time. [Vet World 2010; 3(4.000: 198-200

D. O. Joshi

2010-08-01

117

Learning about Fats  

Science.gov (United States)

... Main Page The Pink Locker Society Learning About Fats KidsHealth > Kids > Staying Healthy > Fabulous Food > Learning About ... over each gram of fat. Continue Types of Fat You might see ads for foods that say ...

118

Body Fat Measurement Tools  

Science.gov (United States)

... to Media Contact List Request for Support Measurement Tools Body fat has many important functions. It is: ... body fat measured? To learn more about the tools used to determine a person's percent body fat ...

119

Coronary Artery Bypass Graft  

Science.gov (United States)

Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Introduction Sometimes people have serious problems with their heart and the arteries that go into it. Coronary artery bypass graft surgery, or CABG, bypasses clogged arteries in the ...

120

Coronary Artery Bypass Graft  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Introduction Sometimes people have serious problems with their heart and the arteries that go into it. Coronary artery bypass graft surgery, or CABG, bypasses clogged arteries in the ...

 
 
 
 
121

Grafting and curing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Progress in radiation grafting and curing is briefly reviewed. The two processes are shown to be mechanistically related. The parameters influencing yields are examined particularly for grafting. For ionising radiation grafting systems (EB and gamma ray) these include solvents, substrate and monomer structure, dose and dose-rate, temperature and more recently role of additives. In addition, for UV grafting, the significance of photoinitiators is discussed. Current applications of radiation grafting and curing are outlined. The recent development of photoinitiator free grafting and curing is examined as well as the potential for the new excimer laser sources. The future application of both grafting and curing is considered, especially the significance of the occurrence of concurrent grafting during cure and its relevance in environmental considerations

122

Intraoperative grafts assessment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Graft patency strongly influences early and late outcomes after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery. The current standard of care in CABG surgery does not require intraoperative imaging. Because coronary angiography is rarely available in the operating room (OR), other techniques have been developed to assess graft integrity intraoperatively. The 2 most commonly used are the transit time flow measurement (TTFM) and the intraoperative fluorescence imaging (IFI). The TTFM is a quantitative volume flow technique, whereas the IFI is based on the fluorescent properties of indocyanine green. TTFM cannot define the degree of graft stenosis nor discriminate between the influence of the graft conduit and the coronary arteriolar bed on the mean graft flow. IFI provides a "semiquantitative" assessment of the graft patency with images that provide some details about the quality of coronary anastomoses. Both methods are valuable in identifying only at the extremes, that is, either patent or occluded grafts, and can confirm very good grafts; however, neither method is sensitive or specific enough in identifying more subtle abnormalities. These abnormal grafts most likely have poor long-term patency and are predestined to fail. The hybrid suite has the capability of serving both as a complete surgical OR and as a catheterization laboratory. It allows for routine completion angiogram following CABG surgery and identifies abnormal grafts, providing the opportunity to revise them with percutaneous coronary intervention or surgery before leaving the OR. PMID:19942118

Leacche, Marzia; Balaguer, Jorge M; Byrne, John G

2009-01-01

123

Comparative integromics on FAT1, FAT2, FAT3 and FAT4.  

Science.gov (United States)

WNT5A, WNT5B, WNT11, FZD3, FZD6, VANGL1, VANGL2, DVL1, DVL2, DVL3, PRICKLE1, PRICKLE2, ANKRD6, NKD1, NKD2, DAAM1, DAAM2, CELSR1, CELSR2, CELSR3, ROR1 and ROR2 are planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling molecules implicated in the regulation of cellular polarity, convergent extension, and invasion. FAT1, FAT2, FAT3 and FAT4 are Cadherin superfamily members homologous to Drosophila Fat, functioning as a positive regulator of PCP in the Drosophila wing. Complete coding sequence (CDS) for human FAT1 (NM_005245.3) and FAT2 (NM_001447.1) are available, while artificial CDS for human FAT3 (XM_926199 and XM_936538) and partial CDS for FAT4 (NM_024582.2). Here, complete CDS of human FAT3 and FAT4 were determined by using bioinformatics and human intelligence (Humint). FAT3 gene, consisting of 26 exons, encoded a 4557-aa protein with extracellular 33 Cadherin repeats, one Laminin G (LamG) domain and two EGF domains. FAT4 gene encoded a 4924-aa protein with extracellular 34 Cadherin repeats, two LamG domains and three EGF domains. Cytoplasmic VCSVxPxLP and SDYxS motifs were identified as novel motifs conserved among FAT1, FAT2 and FAT3 orthologs. Domain architecture comparison and phylogenetic analysis revealed that FAT1, FAT2 and FAR3 were divergent from FAT4. FAT1-MTNR1A locus at 4q35.2 and FAT3-MTNR1B locus at 11q14.3-q21 were paralogous regions within the human genome. FAT1 mRNA was expressed in embryonic stem (ES) cells, neural tissues, gastric cancer, pancreatic cancer, colorectal cancer, breast cancer, lung cancer and brain tumors. FAT2 mRNA was expressed in infant brain, cerebellum, gastric cancer, pancreatic cancer, ovarian cancer, esophageal cancer, skin squamous cell carcinoma, head and neck cancer. FAT3 mRNA was expressed in ES cells, primitive neuroectoderm, fetal brain, infant brain, adult neural tissues and prostate. FAT4 mRNA was expressed in fetal brain, infant brain, brain tumor and colorectal cancer. FAT family members were revealed to be targets of systems medicine in the fields of oncology and neurology. PMID:16865240

Katoh, Yuriko; Katoh, Masaru

2006-09-01

124

Sliding grafted polymer layers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We study theoretically the structure of sliding grafted polymer layers or SGP layers. These interfacial structures are built by attaching each polymer to the substrate with a ring-like molecule such as cyclodextrins. Such a topological grafting mode allows the chains to freely slide along the attachment point. Escape from the sliding link is prevented by bulky capping groups. We show that grafts in the mushroom regime adopt mainly symmetric configurations (with comparable br...

Baulin, Vladimir A.; Johner, Albert; Marques, Carlos M.

2004-01-01

125

What Are the Types of Fat?  

Science.gov (United States)

... move.va.gov What Are the Types of Fat? Most foods contain several different kinds of fat. ... harmful dietary fats. The four major types of fats are: • Monounsaturated fats • Polyunsaturated fats • Saturated fats • Trans ...

126

Fecal Fat: The Test  

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... screening fecal fat test and not the 72-hour test? If the screening test is positive, then ... 003588.htm . Accessed June 2011. (© 1995-2011). Unit Code 8310: Fat, Feces. Mayo Clinic Mayo Medical Laboratories [ ...

127

Toxicity of abdominal fat  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abdominal fat or truncal obesity consists of both subcutaneous and visceral fat. It has been found that visceral fat is more metabolically active than subcutaneous fat. The low-level inflammation linked with abdominal fat is associated with insulin resistance and with increases in the release of inflammatory adipokines and cytokines. As a result of these changes, abdominal fat can cause a variety of health conditions. In this review, we focus on the adverse effects of abdominal fat on the body and how it can lead to the development of cardiovascular disease, hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, stroke and cancer. Additionally, we discuss how abdominal fat can be reduced as a result from correction of hormonal deficiencies.

Shawn Mathew

2013-08-01

128

Trans Fats and Memory  

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Full Text Available ... 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Dietary Fats Memory Transcript Eating foods that are high in trans fats may ... notably worse performance” on the memory test. Participants eating the highest amounts recalled about 11 fewer words ...

129

Trans Fats and Memory  

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Full Text Available ... men under the age of 45, those who ate more trans fats registered a “notably worse performance” ... recalled about 11 fewer words than those who ate the least amount of trans fats. The lead ...

130

Patency of coronary artery bypass grafts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In a study to evaluate the patency of coronary artery bypass grafts (CABGs), 22 patients with 47 CABGs were examined with angiography and MR imaging. Transverse sections of the heart were imaged with spin-echo (SE) and gradient-echo (GE) techniques. The bypasses were assessed in three separate groups according to their vessel of insertion. With GE and SE MR imaging, 34 of 47 and 35 of 47 CABGs, respectively, were correctly assessed. The sensitivities of the two techniques were 60% and 55%, respectively; the specifities, 82% and 89%. These results indicate that MR imaging is only of limited value in the noninvasive assessment of CABGs. Patent CABGs are more reliably identified with both pulse sequences than occluded grafts. SE MR imaging was limited by low-signal-intensity artifacts from clips, whereas breathing and fat-water shift artifacts led to false diagnoses with GE MR imaging

131

Osseous scintigraphy and auxiliary graft  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The scintigraphy could be a good way to survey the osseous graft: three cases are studied in which were recognized the presence of a graft, surinfection, graft lysis, pseudo-arthrosis, algodystrophy. 8 refs., 5 figs

132

Weighing in on Dietary Fats  

Science.gov (United States)

... our exit disclaimer . Subscribe Weighing in on Dietary Fats Some Fats Are Healthier Than Others With the winter holidays ... of these foods, though, can be high in fat. Learn which fats are naughty and which are ...

133

Coronary Artery Bypass Graft  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... arteries, forming “plaques” that narrow the arteries. Narrowed arteries do not let enough blood go through. This causes blood flow to decrease, ... of the body and grafting them to coronary arteries. These grafts bypass clogged blood vessels and allow increased blood flow to the ...

134

Coronary Artery Bypass Graft  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... CABG surgery includes taking blood vessels from other parts of the body and grafting them to coronary arteries. These grafts bypass clogged blood vessels and allow increased blood flow to the heart muscles. Make sure to contact your doctor in case of any new symptoms, ...

135

Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting  

Science.gov (United States)

... no benefit Routinely adding mitral valve repair to coronary artery bypass graft surgery for heart attack patients may not be warranted in patients with moderate mitral valve damage, according to an NIH-funded study. View ... Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Press Releases Know the Facts and Act ...

136

Sliding grafted polymer layers  

CERN Document Server

We study theoretically the structure of sliding grafted polymer layers or SGP layers. These interfacial structures are built by attaching each polymer to the substrate with a ring-like molecule. Such a topological grafting mode allows the chains to freely slide along the attachment point. Escape from the sliding link is prevented by bulky capping groups. We show that grafts in the mushroom regime adopt mainly symmetric configurations (with comparable branch sizes) while grafts in dense layers are highly dissymmetric so that only one branch per graft participates in the layer. Sliding layers on small colloids or star-like sliding micelles exhibit an intermediate behavior where the number of longer branches participating in the corona is independent of the total number of branches. This regime also exists for sliding surface-micelles comprising less chains but it is narrower.

Baulin, V A; Marques, C M; Baulin, Vladimir A.; Johner, Albert; Marques, Carlos M.

2005-01-01

137

On fat oppression.  

Science.gov (United States)

Contemporary Western societies are obsessed with the "obesity epidemic," dieting, and fitness. Fat people violate the Western conscience by violating a thinness norm. In virtue of violating the thinness norm, fat people suffer many varied consequences. Is their suffering morally permissible, or even obligatory? In this paper, I argue that the answer is no. I examine contemporary philosophical accounts of oppression and draw largely on the work of Sally Haslanger to generate a set of conditions sufficient for some phenomena to count as oppression, and I illustrate the account's value using the example of gender oppression. I then apply the account to fat people, examine empirical evidence, and argue that the suffering of fat people counts as oppression (and therefore, generally, discriminating against fat people in virtue of their being fat is morally wrong). PMID:25507571

Eller, G M

2014-09-01

138

Accelerated adhesion of grafted skins by laser-induced stress wave-based gene transfer of hepatocyte growth factor  

Science.gov (United States)

In our previous study, we delivered plasmid DNA coding for human hepatocyto growth factor (hHGF) to rat skin grafts based on laser-induced stress wave (LISW), by which production of CD31-positive cells in the grafted skins was found to be enhanced, suggesting improved angiogenesis. In this study, we validated the efficacy of this method to accelerate adhesion of grafted skins; reperfusion and reepithelialization in the grafted skins were examined. As a graft, dorsal skin of a rat was exsected and its subcutaneous fat was removed. Plasmid DNA expression vector for hHGF was injected into the graft; on its back surface a laser target with a transparent sheet for plasma confinement was placed, and irradiated with three nanosecond laser pulses at a laser fluence of 1.2 J/cm2 (532 nm; spot diameter, 3 mm) to generate LISWs. After the application of LISWs, the graft was transplanted onto its donor site. We evaluated blood flow by laser Doppler imaging and analyzed reepithelialization based on immunohistochemistry as a function of postgrafting time. It was found that both reperfusion and reepithelialization were significantly enhanced for the grafts with gene transfection than for normal grafts; reepithelialization was completed within 7 days after transplantation with the transfected grafts. These findings demonstrate that adhesion of grafted skins can be accelerated by delivering HGF gene to the grafts based on LISWs.

Aizawa, Kazuya; Sato, Shunichi; Saitoh, Daizoh; Tsuda, Hitoshi; Ashida, Hiroshi; Obara, Minoru

2009-02-01

139

Vein graft failure.  

Science.gov (United States)

After the creation of an autogenous lower extremity bypass graft, the vein must undergo a series of dynamic structural changes to stabilize the arterial hemodynamic forces. These changes, which are commonly referred to as remodeling, include an inflammatory response, the development of a neointima, matrix turnover, and cellular proliferation and apoptosis. The sum total of these processes results in dramatic alterations in the physical and biomechanical attributes of the arterialized vein. The most clinically obvious and easily measured of these is lumen remodeling of the graft. However, although somewhat less precise, wall thickness, matrix composition, and endothelial changes can be measured in vivo within the healing vein graft. Recent translational work has demonstrated the clinical relevance of remodeling as it relates to vein graft patency and the systemic factors influencing it. By correlating histologic and molecular changes in the vein, insights into potential therapeutic strategies to prevent bypass failure and areas for future investigation are explored. PMID:24095042

Owens, Christopher D; Gasper, Warren J; Rahman, Amreen S; Conte, Michael S

2015-01-01

140

Coronary Artery Bypass Graft  

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Full Text Available ... An incentive spirometer is a device that you hold against your mouth when you breathe in. It ... beats. Coronary artery bypass graft surgery is relatively safe. Risks and complications are rare but possible. Knowing ...

 
 
 
 
141

Grafting in rhinoplasty.  

Science.gov (United States)

Advances in grafting techniques have provided the basis for a paradigm shift in rhinoplasty in which purely reductive techniques have been largely supplanted by structurally sound framework surgery. Proficiency with autologous cartilage grafting allows the rhinoplasty surgeon to achieve superior nasal definition and durable aesthetic outcomes by building a stable nasal framework that resists the contractile forces of healing responsible for delayed nasal airway compromise and aesthetic distortion. Cartilage grafts may be used to reposition, augment, or reconstitute nasal structure after cartilaginous resection and recontouring. The authors present various grafting techniques that are reliably used to sculpt the nasal framework in rhinoplasty, with emphasis on the relevant anatomy, nomenclature, and clinical indications for each approach. Judicious use of these methods results in predictable rhinoplasty outcomes with enhanced aesthetics and function. PMID:19181282

Brenner, Michael J; Hilger, Peter A

2009-02-01

142

[Cartilaginous graft in rhinoplasty].  

Science.gov (United States)

Nowadays, cartilage grafts are widely used in secondary as well as primary rhinoplasty. Even if their fixation is often easier and more precise using an open approach, most of them can also be positioned with a close approach. In this article, the authors describe various cartilage donor sites. For each of them, they describe benefits, inconveniences, harvesting techniques and preferred indications. Cartilage can be harvested on the septum, ear and ribs. For the authors, septal cartilage is often the best material but can be insufficient or totally missing (especially in secondary rhinoplasty). In such cases, concha cartilage is a good material for tip and alar grafts because of its pliability and convexity whereas rib cartilage, which is stiffer and thicker, will provide good supporting grafts. Described more recently, diced cartilage wrapped in fascia (DCF) can be a very good option for dorsal onlay graft, avoiding irregularities of conchal cartilage and risk of rib cartilage's twisting. PMID:25213491

Duron, J-B; Aiach, G

2014-12-01

143

Vascular graft infections  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Vascular procedures are rarely complicated by infection, but if prosthetic vascular graft infection (PVGI) occurs, morbidity and mortality are high. Several patient-related, surgery-related and postoperative risk factors are reported, but they are not well validated. PVGI is due to bacterial colonisation of the wound and the underlying prosthetic graft, generally as a result of direct contamination during the operative procedure, mainly from the patient's skin or adjacent bowel. There is no c...

Hasse, Barbara; Husmann, Lars; Zinkernagel, Annelies; Weber, Rainer; Lachat, Mario; Mayer, Dieter

2013-01-01

144

Improvement of the Survival of Human Autologous Fat Transplantation by Adipose-Derived Stem-Cells-Assisted Lipotransfer Combined with bFGF  

Science.gov (United States)

Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) transplanted along with autologous adipose tissue may improve fat graft survival; however, the efficacy of ASCs has been diluted by low vascularization. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) may improve the effects of ASCs because it owns the property to boost angiogenesis. In the present study, human fat tissues were mixed with ASCs, ASCs plus 100?U bFGF, or medium as the control and then injected subcutaneously into immunologically compromised nude mice for 12 weeks. Our findings demonstrated that mixture with the ASCs significantly increased the weight and volume of the fat grafts compared to control grafts, and histological analysis revealed that both ASCs and ASCs plus bFGF grafts consisted predominantly of adipose tissue and had significantly less fibrosis but greater microvascular density compared with control and also grafts mixed with ASCs had a high expression of angiogenic factors. More importantly, the bFGF treated fat grafts shown elevate in survival, vascularization, and angiogenic factors expression when compared with the grafts that received ASCs alone. These results indicated that bFGF together with ASCs can enhance the efficacy of autologous fat transplantation and increase blood vessel generation involved in the benefits from bFGF. PMID:25695105

Jiang, Aimei; Li, Ming; Duan, Wenjing; Dong, Yilong; Wang, Yanmei

2015-01-01

145

Axillobifemoral bypass grafting  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Axillo-femoral bypass (AxF means connecting the axillar and femoral artery with the graft that is placed subcutaneously [1]. Usually, this graft is connected with contralateral femoral artery via one accessory subcutaneous graft, and this connection is known as axillobifemoral bypass (AxFF. This extra-anatomic procedure is an alternative method to the standard reconstruction of aortoiliac region when there are contraindications for general or local reasons. OBJECTIVE The objective of this paper is to show early and late results of AxFF bypass grafting as well as to show the indications for AxFF bypass. METHODS The sample consisted of 37 patients. The procedure was performed in 28 patients who suffered from aortoiliac occlusive disease and who were at high risk due to the comorbidity- in one patient with the rupture of juxtarenal aneurysm of abdominal aorta; in five patients with aortoenteric fistula, in two patients with iatrogenic lesion of abdominal aorta and in one female patient with anus preternaturalis definitivus who was treated for rectovaginal fistula. Donor's right axillary artery was used in 26 cases (70.3%, and donor's left axillary artery was used in 9 cases (29.7%. Dacron graft was used in 34 patients and Polytetrafluo-roethlylene graft was used in three patients. Simultaneously, profundo-plastic was done in four patients and femoro-popliteal bypass was performed in three patients. In five patients who suffered from aortoenteric fistula, simultaneous intervention of gastrointerstinal system has been done, x2 test was used for statistical evaluation and life table method was used for verification of late graft patency. RESULTS The rate of early postoperative mortality was 13.5%. The causes of death were: sepsis -1, MOFS - 3, and infarct myocardium -1. The mean follow up period was 40.1 months, ranging from six months to 17 years. During the follow up period, an early graft thrombosis was identified in two and late graft occlusion was reported in four patients. As the cause of occlusion, the progression of occlusive disease of receptive artery was identified in three patients, while anastomotic neointimae hyperplasia of recipient artery was identified in one patient. Three patients died during the follow up period. As the cause of death, CVI was reported in two patients and malignancy of the urinary tract was fpund in one patient. The other complications were - artery angulation on the level of proximal anastomosis in one patient (Figure 1, false aneurysm in one patient, perigraft seroma in one patient and graft infection in three patients. Life table method has shown that cumulative rate of late graft patency is 80.39% after five years (Graph 1. DISCUSSION Our results were analyzed and compared with the results of the study on 283 patients who had undergone aortobifemoral bypass (AFF operation due to the aortoiliac occlusive disease. This study was completed in 1995 (18. The results showed that there was no statistically significant differences between AxFF and AFF group (p>0.05, considering early mortality rate and late graft patency (Graph 2. The review of mortality and late patency rate after AxFF bypass grafting in a world well known studies has shown the similar results (Table 1. CONCLUSION The authors suggest that axilobifemoral bypass is indicated when there are contraindications or difficulties to perform anatomic reconstruction due to the abdomen condition (infection, adhesion, comorbidity as well as in high risk patients with low life expectancy.

Davidovi? Lazar B.

2004-01-01

146

Alternative fat sources to animal fat for pigs  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The use of fats and oils in diets for pigs is of great importance due to their high energy value. As a consequence of the BSE-crisis in the European Union, the amount of animal fat available for animal feeds has been reduced, and alternative fat sources are of increasing importance. In this paper, we review our main findings on the effects of diets with different fat sources on apparent fat digestibility in pigs. A method for quantitative measurement of fat extraction from feed and faeces has been developed, and this method has been used in a digestibility trial, in which diets added 5% of either animal fat, palm oil mix, palm oil, vegetable oil mix, coconut oil, or rapeseed oil were tested in weaned and growing pigs. It was concluded that several vegetable fat sources (palm oil mix, palm oil, coconut oil, rapeseed oil) could be used as alternatives to animal fat in pig feed, whereas fat blends should be avoided.

Lauridsen, Charlotte; Christensen, Thomas Bruun

2007-01-01

147

Punch grafting in vitiligo  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Thirty three patients of 15-35 years age having various types of stable vitilligo from 1-15 years duration were selected for punch grafting. Vitiligo lesions in all these patients were relatively refractory to systemic PUVA therapy tried for a period of 1 to 8 years. The technique of punch grafting was modified from the method described by Falabella and Behl. Complete responses was observed in 10 patients, still under follow up for 1 year and partial response in rest 23 patients who are under observation.

Jha Anil

1992-01-01

148

Trans Fats and Memory  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... fill out dietary questionnaires to estimate trans fat consumption. Then to assess memory, participants were shown a ... and more. In 2013, The U.S. Food and Drug Administration made a preliminary determination that partially hydrogenated ...

149

Trans Fats and Memory  

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Full Text Available ... are no longer Generally Recognized as Safe in human food. Many companies have phased out trans fats ... Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health Page last updated ...

150

Trans Fats and Memory  

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Full Text Available ... heart, but also for your memory. A new study presented at a recent meeting of the American ... of trans fats. The lead author says further study is needed to determine whether these effects extend ...

151

Early graft function.  

Science.gov (United States)

1. The average serum creatinine level during the first 20 days after transplantation was lower in HLA-identical siblings than in parental donor transplants, suggesting an early effect of histocompatibility. 2. In rather small numbers of patients, the daily average serum creatinine values were not different with HLA-DR mismatching and HLA-B,DR mismatching, but were lower in the better matched transplants for the HLA-A,B loci and the HLA-A,B,DR loci. 3. The average serum creatinine values in the first 20 days after transplantation were correlated with the one-year graft survival rates. Those patients with serum creatinine levels less than 2.4 mg/dl had one-year graft survival rates of over 80% compared with those with serum creatinine levels above 7.5 mg/dl after the first week who had one-year graft survival rates about 30% less. Intermediate serum creatinine values yielded intermediate one-year graft survival rates. 4. The cyclosporine dosage in the first month after transplantation varied considerably among the four centers studied here. These values were not directly correlated with the one-year graft survival rate, average serum creatinine levels or cumulative rejection rates in this preliminary examination. 5. Patients who rejected transplants 11 to 60 days posttransplant had been given lower cyclosporine dosages than those who rejected early or who had no rejections. 6. Although firm conclusions cannot be drawn from the small numbers of patients encompassed in this study, we hope the potential value of this type of analysis will be realized. PMID:3154426

Toyotome, A; Terasaki, P I; Takiff, H; Kahan, B; Starzl, T; Salvatierra, O; Berne, T; Najarian, J

1986-01-01

152

[A new surgical technique combining autologous intracordal transplantation of fat and fascia for sulcus vocalis].  

Science.gov (United States)

We developed a new surgical technique combining autologous intracordal transplantation of fat and fascia for sulcus vocalis. Fat tissue from the abdominal wall and fascia from the postauricular region were obtained and an incision was made on the lateral portion of the vocal cord and a small pocket prepared in the lamina propria using an elevator. After inserting fat tissue into the pocket, fascia was inserted to cover the fat graft to prevent its escape from the pocket. The surgical wound was then sutured using absorbable sutures. No evidence of postoperative absorption of transplanted fat tissue was seen, and vocal function improved postoperatively. This method proved useful as surgical treatment for sulcus vocalis. PMID:11802450

Nishiyama, K; Hirose, H; Iguchi, Y; Yamamoto, K; Suzuki, T; Yamanaka, J; Hirayama, M; Okamoto, M

2001-12-01

153

Evaluation of cranial bone transport distraction with and without adipose grafting.  

Science.gov (United States)

Transport distraction osteogenesis (DO) can be used to autologously reconstitute calvarial defects. The purpose of this study is to histomorphologically interrogate osteogenic formation during cranial transport distraction using a novel device. We also evaluate the effect of fat grafting on the regenerate and soft-tissue stability during distraction. This study was approved by Yale IACUC. Ten male New Zealand white rabbits (3 mo; 3.5 kg) were used (8 treatment, 2 control). A 16 × 16 mm defect was created abutted by a 10 × 16 mm transport disc. The device was fixated anterioposteriorly. Four animals were fat-grafted using 2 mL of subdermal intrascapular fat deposited along the distraction site. Latency (1 d), active distraction (12-14 d) (1.5 mm/d), and consolidation (4 wk) followed. Calcein and xylene orange fluorochromes were injected subcutaneously during and post-distraction to mark sites of bone formation. Following sacrifice, osteogenesis was assessed using microCT, histology, and fluorescence. Treatment animals demonstrated regenerate bone between distracted segments on microCT. MicroCT analysis of non-fat-grafted and fat-grafted animals revealed a mean density of 2271.95 mgHA/ccm and 2254.27 mgHA/ccm (P = 0.967), respectively, and defect bone versus total volume (BV/TV) of 0.0999 and 0.0766 (P = 0.5979), respectively. Controls had minimal reossification. Histologically, mean densities measured 43.63% and 8.19%, respectively. Fluorescence revealed ossification from the callus as well as from dura and periosteum in the cranial defect. Transport distraction is effective to reconstruct critically sized rabbit calvarial defects. Regenerate bone arises predominantly from the callus with contribution from surrounding dura and periosteum. Adipose grafting is well tolerated but does not enhance osseous regeneration. PMID:24820707

Koch, Felix P; Yuhasz, Mikell M; Travieso, Rob; Wong, Kenneth; Clune, James; Zhuang, Zhen W; Van Houten, Joshua; Steinbacher, Derek M

2014-05-01

154

Fat heaps : Source code  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This report is an electronic appendix to our paper \\Fat heaps without regular counters". In that paper we described a new variant of fat heaps that is conceptually simpler and easier to implement than the original version. We also compared the practical performance of this data structure to that of other related data structures (run-relaxed weak queues and Fibonacci heaps). This report to- gether with an accompanying tar le gives the source code used in the experiments reported in the paper. By making the programs publicly available, we provide other researchers the opportunity to scrutinize the code and compare their own imple- mentations against ours.

Elmasry, Amr Ahmed Abd Elmoneim; Katajainen, Jyrki

2011-01-01

155

Preparation of anionic fibrous catalyst by radiation graft polymerization for biodiesel synthesis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Anionic fibrous catalyst for biodiesel production from vegetable oils and animal fats was synthesized through radiation induced graft polymerization of 4-chloromethylstyrene (CMS) onto a nonwoven polyethylene (NWPE) fabric followed by amination with trimethylamine (TMA). The influence of grafting degree of the TMA-CMS-g-NWPE at 0.25 M TMA concentration was investigated by elemental analyzer, FTIR and TGA. Results show that the density of trimethylammonium group increased with the degree of grafting. However, thermal properties of the TMA-CMS-g-NWPE reduced with the degree of grafting. The preliminary transesterification test on triolein/ethanol/decane solution using selected TMA-CMS-g-NWPE containing 3.01 mmol/g trimethylammonium found that 98% the triolein can be converted into biodiesel within 4 h reaction. High conversion of rapeseed oil into biodiesel provides more information on the capability of TMA-CMS-g-NWPE as ion exchanger for biodiesel production. (Author)

156

Siloxane-grafted membranes  

Science.gov (United States)

Composite cellulosic semipermeable membranes are disclosed which are the covalently bonded reaction product of an asymmetric cellulosic semipermeable membrane and a polysiloxane containing reactive functional group. The two reactants chemically bond by ether, ester, amide or acrylate linkages to form a siloxane-grafted cellulosic membrane having superior selectivity and flux stability. Selectivity may be enhanced by wetting the surface with a swelling agent such as water.

Friesen, D.T.; Obligin, A.S.

1989-10-31

157

Polystyrene modified by grafting  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Diversos tipos de poliestireno modificados foram obtidos através da polimerização por enxertia (graft polymerization) de estireno na presença dos seguintes modificadores: copolímero de etileno-acetato de vinila (EVA); polietileno de baixa densidade (PE) e polibutadieno (PB). Os modificadores foram u [...] tilizados em separado e combinados. Em todos os casos, manteve-se a concentração de modificador fixa em 8% em peso e foram avaliadas as propriedades dos produtos obtidos em função da sua composição. A técnica de polimerização empregada foi a de massa/suspensão. Os melhores resultados foram obtidos para os sistemas PS/modificadores mistos. Os resultados obtidos para estes sistemas comprovam que a copolimerização por enxertia gera produtos com melhores propriedades de impacto do que as obtidas, a partir de misturas mecânicas dos componentes individuais, em sistemas semelhantes. Abstract in english Several grades of modified polystyrene were obtained through the graft polymerization of styrene in the presence of modifiers such as ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA), low density polyethylene (PE), and polybutadiene (PB). These modifiers were used by themselves and in combination. In all cases, the mod [...] ifier concentration was kept constant at 8% w/w, and the product properties were determined as a function of composition. The polymerization technique employed was that of mass/suspension. The best results were obtained for the PS/mixed modifiers systems. The results confirm that graft copolymers present better impact properties than those of mechanical blends of similar composition.

Avani Maria C, Rocha; Laura Hecker de, Carvalho; Antonio Gouveia de, Souza.

1997-06-01

158

Pakistan. Graft-Polymerization Under Irradiation and its Effect on Water Repellency and Resistance to Certain Micro-Organisms  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The fibre from the jute plants Corchorus capsularis and C. olitorius consists of cellulose (69-78%), lignin (10-15%), furfuraldehyde (9-11%), xylen (10-12%) and fat (1%). Jute fibre is commercially used for making sacks for packing purposes and is an important item of Pakistan's foreign trade. It was intended to graft-copolymerize jute with various monomers with the idea of determining its water absorption and resistance to microorganisms. Such studies would enlarge the scope of the commercial utilization of jute fibre. Graft-copolymerization or graft-polymerization in our studies invariably refers to soaking jute with monomers under the conditions of the experiment

159

Are the additional grafts necessary?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The goals of surgery for spinal deformity are to correct or improve the deformity to get a stable, balanced and fused spine. The long-term success of any procedure for scoliosis depends on a solid arthrodesis. Getting fusion of the instrumented segment with the aid of copious autogenous iliac graft has been the most important goal of treatment. However, harvesting copious graft from teenage iliac bone has its limitation in the quantity of graft, surgical time, and other complications of graft sites. Bone substitute is a promising concept, but there is not ideal bone substitute with all the characteristics of an autogenous bone graft. Several alternative graft materials like tricalcium phosphate, hydroxyapatite, and demineralized bone matrix have osteoinductive properties. Bone morphogenic protein has osteoconductive properties. The limitations with bone substitutes are osteoinduction and osteoconduction properties, sterilization, chances of transmitting infective disease and cost. We consider that the introduction of segmental spinal instrumentation which enables strong and firm correction and fixation of the scoliotic deformity has enabled getting fusion with less graft. We can obtain that quantity of graft after laminae and spinous process decortication. This retrospective study has been done in our hospital from January 2002 to December 2004. A total of 188 patients underwent posterior corrections for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis using segmental fixation by Moss-Miami. No autogenous iliac crest graft was taken or graft substitutes. After meticulous decortication and destruction of facet joints, we used local graft taken from spinous process and laminae. All patients had minimum thirty months follow- up. We have excellent results. Out of these 188 patients, 177 patients have fused spine, no implant failure, no pain, no infection and no loss of correction. Eleven (5.8% patients underwent re-operation; four among them because of infection, three for symptomatic implants and four due to pseudarthrosis. We consider that the use of local harvesting graft is enough for getting good spondylodesis.

?ur?i? A.

2010-01-01

160

Face the Fats Quiz 2  

Science.gov (United States)

Do you know your fats by heart? Ready to make informed choices about the foods you eat? From fish to French fries to fried chicken, test your knowledge about the fats in some familiar foods. Welcome to Face the ...

 
 
 
 
161

Weight Gain and Saturated Fats  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... with unsaturated fat had lower bad LDL cholesterol levels, total cholesterol/good HDL cholesterol ratios and had ... eating muffins with saturated fat increased bad cholesterol levels, even in otherwise healthy and normal-weight individuals. ...

162

Radiografía mínima del FAT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Una característica importante del FAT es la capacidad de influir y desarrollar tendencias hacia la democracia directa, la libertad, la autonomía e independencia en los espacios sindicales en los que se mueve. De esta manera, desarrolla su práctica parasindical de infiltración de los sindicatos corporativos, fomentando organización al interior y asesorando individual y colectivamente a trabajadores de los mismos.

Eric Quesnel

2004-01-01

163

Trans Fats and Memory  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... National Institutes of Health Home About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Contact Us Search MedlinePlus Health Topics Drugs & ... phased out trans fats or are in the process of doing so. I’m Dr. Cindy Haines ...

164

Trans Fats and Memory  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... to estimate trans fat consumption. Then to assess memory, participants were shown a series of 104 word cards and asked whether each word was new or duplicated from a prior card. Among men under the age of 45, those who ate ... on the memory test. Participants eating the highest amounts recalled about ...

165

Trans Fats and Memory  

Science.gov (United States)

... to estimate trans fat consumption. Then to assess memory, participants were shown a series of 104 word cards and asked whether each word was new or duplicated from a prior card. Among men under the age of 45, those who ate ... on the memory test. Participants eating the highest amounts recalled about ...

166

Fats for diabetics. (Letter).  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Opinion. Comments on the treatment of type 2 diabetes from the interaction between nature and nurture. Effective form of treatment for type 2 diabetes; Composition of the diet for diabetics; Identification of unsaturated fats in the diabetic diet; Risks faced by diabetic patients.

Katan, M. B.

1994-01-01

167

Bone marrow fat.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bone marrow fat (BMF) results from an accumulation of fat cells within the bone marrow. Fat is not a simple filling tissue but is now considered as an actor within bone microenvironment. BMF is not comparable to other fat depots, as in subcutaneous or visceral tissues. Recent studies on bone marrow adipocytes have shown that they do not appear only as storage cells, but also as cells secreting adipokines, like leptin and adiponectin. Moreover bone marrow adipocytes share the same precursor with osteoblasts, the mesenchymal stem cell. It is now well established that high BMF is associated with weak bone mass in osteoporosis, especially during aging and anorexia nervosa. But numerous questions remain discussed: what is the precise phenotype of bone marrow adipocytes? What is the real function of BMF, and how does bone marrow adipocyte act on its environment? Is the increase of BMF during osteoporosis responsible for bone loss? Is BMF involved in other diseases? How to measure BMF in humans? A better understanding of BMF could allow to obtain new diagnostic tools for osteoporosis management, and could open major therapeutic perspectives. PMID:24703396

Hardouin, Pierre; Pansini, Vittorio; Cortet, Bernard

2014-07-01

168

Environmental application of radiation grafting  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Adsorbent having high selectivity against a certain metal ion was synthesized by means of radiation-induced graft polymerization for the purpose of environmental application. The resulting adsorbents were utilized for the removal of toxic metal from scallop waste and the collection of uranium from seawater. As a novel application of grafting, the biodegradability of poly-hydroxybutylate was controlled by grafting. The biodegradability could be depressed by the graft chain and then recovered by external stimuli such as thermal and chemical treatments. (author)

169

Alar cartilage grafts.  

Science.gov (United States)

The alar cartilages provide the contour and structural support of the nasal tip. Current rhinoplasty concepts support preservation of alar structure with suture techniques or judicious cephalic trim indicated for tip deformities. In many primary cases and some revisions, adequate alar structure exists to achieve the desired aesthetic and functional results with conservative surgical methods. In some primary and most revision cases, however, the existing tip structure is inadequate to create a structurally sound and aesthetically pleasing nasal tip without adding structure. In these cases, alar cartilage grafting techniques are indicated to recapitulate nasal tip contour and structure. PMID:20206743

Weber, Stephen M; Baker, Shan R

2010-04-01

170

Thermal stability of grafted fibers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Presented the experimental results on the study of thermal stability of grafted fibers, i.e., polypropylene-, polyester-, and rayon-grafted fibers. These fibers were obtained by radiation grafting processes using hydrophylic monomers such as 1-vinyl 2-pyrolidone, acrylic acid, N-methylol acrylamide, and acrylonitrile. The thermal stability of the fibers was studied using a Shimadzu Thermal Analyzer DT-30. The thermal stability of the fibers, which can be indicated by the value of the activation energy for thermal degradation, was not improved by radiation grafting. The degree of improvement depends on the thermal stability of the monomers used for grafting. The thermal stability of a polypropylene fiber, either a grafted or an ungrafted one, was found to be inferior compared to the polyester of a rayon fiber, which may be due to the lack of C=O and C=C bonds in the polypropylene molecules. The thermal stability of a fiber grafted with acrylonitrile monomer was found to be better than that of an ungrafted one. However, no improvement was detected in the fibers grafted with 1-vinyl 2-pyrrolidone monomer, which may be due to the lower thermal stability of poly(1-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone), compared to the polypropylene or polyester fibers. 17 figures, 3 tables

171

Brown Fat Cell Isolation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Author: C.R. Kahn ### 1.) ISOLATION AND PRIMARY CULTURE OF BROWN FAT PREADIPOCYTES ### Rationale: To prepare primary brown preadipocytes for immortalization: useful for metabolic studies from knockout mice. This consists of the following five protocols. References: Fasshauer, M., J. Klein, K M. Kriauciunas, K. Ueki, M.Benito, and C.R. Kahn. 2001. Essential role of insulin substrate 1 in differentiation of brown adipocytes. *Mol Cell Biol* 21: 319-329. Fasshauer, M....

sprotocols

2014-01-01

172

Cerebral fat embolism  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A case of cerebral fat embolism is reported. A 18-year-old patient with multiple bone fractures was in semiconma immediately after an injury. Brain CT showed no brain swelling or intracranial hematoma. Hypoxemia and alcoholemia were noted on admission, which returned to normal without improvement of consciousness level. In addition, respiratory symptoms with positive radiographic changes, tachycardia, pyrexia, sudden drop in hemoglobin level, and sudden thrombocytopenia developed. These symptoms were compatible with Gurd's criteria of systemic fat embolism. Eight days after injury, multiple low density areas appeared on CT and disappeared within the subsequent two weeks, and subdural effusion with cerebral atrophy developed. These CT findings were not considered due to cerebral trauma. Diagnosis of cerebral fat embolism was made. The subdural effusion was drained. Neurologic and pulmonary recoveries took place slowly and one month following the injury the patient became alert and exhibited fully coordinated limb movement. The CT scans of the present case well corresponded with hitherto reported pathological findings. Petechiae in the white matter must have developed on the day of injury, which could not be detected by CT examination. It is suggested that some petechial regions fused to purpuras and then gradually resolved when they were detected as multiple low density areas on CT. CT in the purpuras phase would have shown these lesions as high density areas. These lese lesions as high density areas. These lesions must have healed with formation of tiny scars and blood pigment which were demonstrated as the disappearance of multiple low density areas by CT examination. Cerebral atrophy and subsequent subdural effusion developed as a result of demyelination. The patient took the typical clinical course of cerebral fat embolism and serial CT scans served for its assessment. (author)

173

Does off-pump total arterial grafting increase the incidence of intraoperative graft failure?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

BACKGROUND: Early graft failure is a common cause of cardiac mortality and morbidity after coronary artery bypass grafting, but there is little information on its natural incidence. Furthermore, there is particular concern about graft patency in off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting and total arterial grafting. METHODS: We performed a prospective observational study to assess intraoperative graft patency in patients undergoing off-pump and on-pump coronary artery bypass grafting, who also ...

Balacumaraswami, L.; Abu-omar, Y.; Anastasiadis, K.; Choudhary, B.; Pigott, D.; Yeong, Sk; Taggart, Dp

2004-01-01

174

ACL Reconstruction: Choosing the Graft.  

Science.gov (United States)

Rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament is one of the most common ligament injuries in sports traumatology. The need for surgical anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction is justified by its anatomical characteristics. Key considerations when choosing a graft include the potential for bone integration and the risk of failure. Bone sclerosis around the tunnel affects the integration of the graft. For this reason, one aspect upon which orthopedic surgeons should focus is the biology of the bone-graft interface. Although the BPTB graft is still used, hamstrings and synthetic grafts have become increasingly widespread and popular over the years. An allograft certainly requires more long-term follow-up to validate its use in response to functional, clinical and biological requirements. PMID:25606507

Cerulli, Giuliano; Placella, Giacomo; Sebastiani, Enrico; Tei, Matteo Maria; Speziali, Andrea; Manfreda, Francesco

2013-03-01

175

Coxiella burnetii vascular graft infection  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Coxiella burnetii, the causative agent of Q fever, may cause culture-negative vascular graft infections. Very few cases of C. burnetii infection of a vascular graft have been reported. All were diagnosed by serology. Case presentation We report the first case of Coxiella burnetii vascular graft infection diagnosed by broad-range PCR and discuss the diagnostic approaches and treatment strategies of chronic C. burnetii infection. Conclusion C. burnetii should be considered as etiological agent in patients with a vascular graft and fever, abdominal pain, and laboratory signs of inflammation, with or without exposure history. Broad-range PCR should be performed on culture-negative surgical samples in patients with suspected infection of vascular graft.

Von Segesser Ludwig

2005-12-01

176

ACL Reconstruction: Choosing the Graft  

Science.gov (United States)

Summary Rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament is one of the most common ligament injuries in sports traumatology. The need for surgical anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction is justified by its anatomical characteristics. Key considerations when choosing a graft include the potential for bone integration and the risk of failure. Bone sclerosis around the tunnel affects the integration of the graft. For this reason, one aspect upon which orthopedic surgeons should focus is the biology of the bone-graft interface. Although the BPTB graft is still used, hamstrings and synthetic grafts have become increasingly widespread and popular over the years. An allograft certainly requires more long-term follow-up to validate its use in response to functional, clinical and biological requirements.

Cerulli, Giuliano; Placella, Giacomo; Sebastiani, Enrico; Tei, Matteo Maria; Speziali, Andrea; Manfreda, Francesco

2013-01-01

177

Radiation grafting on natural films  

Science.gov (United States)

Different methods of polymer grafting using gamma irradiation are reported in the present study for the preparation of newly functionalized biodegradable films, and some important properties related to their mechanical and barrier properties are described. Biodegradable films composed of zein and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) were gamma-irradiated in presence of different ratios of acrylic acid (AAc) monomer for compatibilization purpose. Resulting grafted films (zein/PVA-g-AAc) had their puncture strength (PS=37-40 N mm-1) and puncture deformation (PD=6.5-9.8 mm) improved for 30% and 50% PVA in blend, with 5% AAc under 20 kGy. Methylcellulose (MC)-based films were irradiated in the presence of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) or silane, in order to determine the effect of monomer grafting on the mechanical properties of films. It was found that grafted films (MC-g-HEMA and MC-g-silane) using 35% monomer performed higher mechanical properties with PS values of 282-296 N mm-1 and PD of 5.0-5.5 mm under 10 kGy. Compatibilized polycaprolactone (PCL)/chitosan composites were developed via grafting silane in chitosan films. Resulting trilayer grafted composite film (PCL/chitosan-g-silane/PCL) presented superior tensile strength (TS=22 MPa) via possible improvement of interfacial adhesion (PCL/chitosan) when using 25% silane under 10 kGy. Finally, MC-based films containing crystalline nanocellulose (CNC) as a filling agent were prepared and irradiated in presence of trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate (TMPTMA) as a grafted plasticizer. Grafted films (MC-g-TMPTMA) presented superior mechanical properties with a TS of 47.9 MPa and a tensile modulus (TM) of 1792 MPa, possibly due to high yield formation of radicals to promote TMPTMA grafting during irradiation. The addition of CNC led to an additional improvement of the barrier properties, with a significant 25% reduction of water vapor permeability (WVP) of grafted films.

Lacroix, M.; Khan, R.; Senna, M.; Sharmin, N.; Salmieri, S.; Safrany, A.

2014-01-01

178

Autologous fat transplantation in the craniofacial patient: the UCLA experience.  

Science.gov (United States)

Patients with congenital craniofacial malformations present with complex challenges for reconstruction. Successful management requires individualized treatment often involving rebuilding the facial skeleton de novo, as well as correcting the overlying soft-tissue deficiencies in the final stages. At the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) Craniofacial Clinic, serial autologous fat transplantation performed during staged reconstruction is the preferred method.A total of 27 patients with a diagnosis of either craniofacial microsomia/Goldenhar (CM) (n = 19) or Treacher Collins syndrome (TC) (n = 8) were treated at the UCLA Craniofacial Clinic by autologous fat transfer between July 1999 and February 2009. Two-dimensional analysis was conducted on standardized preoperative and postoperative photographs to determine facial symmetry for every patient. Results was grouped based on pathology and analyzed by comparing adipocyte donor site (abdomen vs other).The mean ages at the time of first fat transfer were 17 years for the CM group and 15 years for the TC group. The average numbers of fat transfers per patient were 2.05 (CM) and 2.12 (TC). A mean of 3.74 procedures other than fat grafting was performed in each CM patient, whereas 4.38 other procedures were performed in each TC patient. In CM patients, less than 10.5 months between procedures resulted in improved symmetry. There was an average 6.63% improvement in facial symmetry in the CM group, and a 7.67% improvement in the TC group.Based on the UCLA experience, the durability of facial asymmetry and contour correction with fat transplantation is attainable in the craniofacial patient but may also require concomitant skeletal correction in the most severe cases. PMID:22777454

Lim, Alan A; Fan, Kenneth; Allam, Karam A; Wan, Derrick; Tabit, Christina; Liao, Eileen; Kawamoto, Henry K; Bradley, James P

2012-07-01

179

Facial Fat Necrosis Following Autologous Fat Transfer and its Management  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Autologous fat transfer (AFT) is an increasingly popular cosmetic procedure practiced by dermatologic surgeons worldwide. As this is an office based procedure performed under local or tumescent anaesthesia with fat transferred within the same individual and limited associated down time its is considered relatively safe and risk free in the cosmetic surgery arena. We describe a case of AFT related fat necrosis causing significant facial dysmorphia and psychosocial distress. We also discuss the...

Rai, Sweta; Marsland, Alexander M.; Madan, Vishal

2014-01-01

180

Radiation grafting of hydroxyethyl methacrylate on low density polyethylene and electric capacity of grafting copolymer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Grafting polymerization of hydroxyethyl methacrylate on low density polyethylene film has been studied by direct method. An effect of radiation dose, dose rate, concentration of cupric ion and polar monomer on grafting rate of polyethylene has been discussed. The grafted product was characterized by infrared spectrum. It was found that the electric capacity of grafting copolymer increase with the increasing of grafting rate

 
 
 
 
181

Preirradiation grafting VBTAC onto HDPE films  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

HDPE films irradiated to 200 kGy in N2 were grafted with vinyl benzyltrimethylammonium chloride (VBTAC) to synthesize a strong base anion-exchange membrane. Comonomer grafting technique was used owing to the difficulty of direct graft polymerization of VBTAC onto polyethylene. Dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA), a relative weak acid monomer, was selected as a co-monomer to promote graft polymerization of VBTAC. The grafting conditions, as well as the compositions of grafted films were investigated. The distribution of grafted basic group in polymer substrate was measured by an X-ray microanalyzer. (authors)

182

Radiation grafting of styrene into PVDF powder  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Polyvinylidene fluoride PVDF powder was chosen as the base material, and grafted with styrene monomer under pre-irradiation graft polymerization method. The styrene grafted PVDF (PVDF-g-PS) powder was characterized by FTIR spectroscopy, DSC, TGA and element analysis. The FTIR spectra demonstrate that the poly-styrene is successfully grafted into PVDF powder. The crystallinity of grafted PVDF powder decreases with the increasing in the degree of grafting according to the DSC curves. The TGA curves of PVDF-g-PS change remarkably with respect to the original PVDF. It further proves the polystyrene is successfully grafted into PVDF powder. (authors)

183

Anionic resin by radiation grafting  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Anion-exchange resin has been prepared by grafting of 4-Vinyl Pyridine on PVC by simultaneous irradiation in the presence of air in multipurpose gamma irradiator (RAVI). Grafting was studied at two different dose rate, cumulative dose up to 26 kGy and by pre-irradiation of the Trunk polymer. A marked increase in the grafting percentage from 98 to 145 was observed when the trunk polymer was pre-irradiated and an ion-exchange capacity of 7.3 m eq/gm (dry) resin was achieved. Other properties like bulk density, particle size etc. has also been studied. (author)

184

Unusual costochondral bone graft complication.  

Science.gov (United States)

In hemifacial microsomia, patients with severely hypoplastic mandibles (Pruzansky type III) require replacement of the ramus and condyle unit. Common complications of this procedure include graft fracture and overgrowth of the graft. An uncommon case of osteolysis of the costochondral graft with osteitis of the middle cranial fossa is reported herein. To our knowledge, no such case has been reported in the literature previously. The aim of this report is to present the only known case and to discuss the contributing factors. PMID:23972557

Tabchouri, Nathalie; Kadlub, Natacha; Diner, Patrick A; Picard, Arnaud

2013-11-01

185

The Supersymmetric Fat Higgs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Supersymmetric models have traditionally been assumed to be perturbative up to high scales due to the requirement of calculable unification. In this note I review the recently proposed 'Fat Higgs' model which relaxes the requirement of perturbativity. In this framework, an NMSSM-like trilinear coupling becomes strong at some intermediate scale. The NMSSM Higgses are meson composites of an asymptotically-free gauge theory. This allows us to raise the mass of the Higgs, thus alleviating the MSSM of its fine tuning problem. Despite the strong coupling at an intermediate scale, the UV completion allows us to maintain gauge coupling unification.

186

Arterial grafts: clinical classification and pharmacological management  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In comparison with standard saphenous vein grafts, use of the internal mammary artery (IMA) as a coronary artery bypass graft has achieved superior long-term results. This is related to the differences in the biological characteristics between the venous and arterial grafts. However, even arterial grafts are not uniform in their biological characteristics. The variation in the perioperative behavior of the grafts and in their long-term patency may be related to different characteristics. Thes...

He, Guo-wei

2013-01-01

187

A reappraisal of saphenous vein grafting  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Autologous saphenous vein grafting has been broadly used as a bypass conduit, interposition graft, and patch graft in a variety of operations in cardiac, thoracic, neurovascular, general vascular, vascular access, and urology surgeries, since they are superior to prosthetic veins. Modified saphenous vein grafts (SVG), including spiral and cylindrical grafts, and vein cuffs or patches, are employed in vascular revascularization to satisfy the large size of the receipt vessels or to obtain a be...

Yuan Shi-Min; Jing Hua

2011-01-01

188

Autologous fat transfer with in-situ mediation (AIM): a novel and compliant method of adult mesenchymal stem cell therapy  

Science.gov (United States)

Background In an attempt to engineer a regulatory compliant form of cell assisted lipotransfer in the U.S., the authors developed Autologous Fat Transfer with In-situ Mediation (AIM) for reconstruction of a refractory surgical scar. Methods This method incorporates use of accepted standard procedures like autologous fat grafting and intradermal injection of NB6 collagenase to release adipose stem cells from a naturally occurring high concentration stromal vascular fraction (SVF) fat graft. To prevent off-target effects of collagenase, a hyaluronic acid and serum deactivation barrier is placed circumferentially around the operative site. Findings This novel protocol was well tolerated by the patient and improved scar appearance, mobility and texture. Deepest scar contour defect correction was 80% and 77% at 4 and 12 weeks respectively. Conclusion AIM appears to be a practical and viable option for scar reconstruction requiring small to moderate volume correction. PMID:23725573

2013-01-01

189

Study on remodelling of bone grafts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The remodelling of bone grafts depends to a large extent upon the type of graft and the condition of the recipient site. We applied sup(99m)Tc-phosphate scintigraphy in a follow-up study on cases treated by bone grafting, and quantitative analysis of the scintigram by computer to make clear the difference of remodelling time or the process of acceptance between a cancellous and a cortical bone grafting or due to various graft and conditions. The result revealed that the grafted bones which were smoothly adapted for subsequent growths or functions could restore normal accumulation ratios by 36 months after the grafting. When the cancellous bone was grafted to grafting beds with good conditions such as osteotomy site in the cases with coxarthrosis deformans or congenital dislocation of the hip, it could attain the quickest recovery of the normal accumulation ratio. The next quickest recovery of accumulation ratio was attained by grafting the cancellous bone to the grafting beds with poor conditions such as osteomyelitis, pseudoarthrosis, and bone tumor. The third best accumulation ratio could be attained when the cortical bone was grafted to grafting beds with good conditions, while the slowest recovery to normal accumulation ratio was noted when the cortical bone was grafted to grafting beds with poor conditions. (author)

190

Bone Grafts (Periodontal Regenerative Surgery)  

Science.gov (United States)

Bone Grafts (Periodontal Regenerative Surgery) What Is It? What It's Used For Preparation How It's Done Follow-Up Risks When To ... Before your surgery, you need to have basic periodontal treatment called scaling and root planing. You also ...

191

Mesenchymal stromal cells : a new tool against graft-versus-host disease ?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) represent a heterogeneous subset of multipotent cells that can be isolated from several tissues including bone marrow and fat. MSCs exhibit immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties that prompted their clinical use as prevention and/or treatment for severe graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Although a number of phase I-II studies have suggested that MSCs infusion was safe and might be effective for preventing or treating acute GVHD, definitive proof for...

Baron, Fre?de?ric; Storb, Rainer

2012-01-01

192

MENSENCHYMAL STROMAL CELLS: A NEW TOOL AGAINST GRAFT-VERSUS-HOST DISEASE?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) represent a heterogeneous subset of multipotent cells that can be isolated from several tissues including bone marrow and fat. MSCs exhibit immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties that prompted their clinical use as prevention and/or treatment for severe graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). While a number of phase I-II studies have suggested that MSCs infusion was safe and might be effective for preventing or treating acute GVHD, definitive proof for th...

Baron, Fre?de?ric; Storb, Rainer

2011-01-01

193

Glial grafting for demyelinating disease  

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Remyelination of demyelinated central nervous system (CNS) axons is considered as a potential treatment for multiple sclerosis, and it has been achieved in experimental models of demyelination by transplantation of pro-myelinating cells. However, the experiments undertaken have not addressed the need for tissue-type matching in order to achieve graft-mediated remyelination since they were performed in conditions in which the chance for graft rejection was minimized. This article focuses on th...

Tepavc?evic?, V.; Blakemore, W. F.

2005-01-01

194

All-Inside Anterior Cruciate Ligament Graft Link: Graft Preparation Technique  

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The anatomic single-bundle, all-inside anterior cruciate ligament graft-link technique requires meticulous graft preparation. The graft choice is no-incision allograft or gracilis-sparing, posterior semitendinosus autograft. The graft is linked, like a chain, to femoral and tibial TightRope cortical suspensory fixation devices with adjustable-length graft loops (Arthrex, Naples, FL) in the following manner: the graft is quadrupled, and the free ends are first whip-stitched and then sutured wi...

Lubowitz, James H.

2012-01-01

195

Omega-3 fats: Good for your heart  

Science.gov (United States)

... 3 fatty acids are a type of polyunsaturated fat . We need these fats to build brain cells and for other important ... several ways. They reduce triglycerides , a type of fat in your blood. They reduce the risk of ...

196

What Do Fats Do in the Body?  

Science.gov (United States)

... Articles | Inside Life Science Home Page What Do Fats Do in the Body? By Stephanie Dutchen Posted ... abnormal biology. Looking to Insects for Insight into Fat Regulation These lipid droplets store fat in the ...

197

Frustration with Fat Graphs  

CERN Document Server

We consider the effect of geometric frustration induced by the random distribution of loop lengths in the "fat" graphs of the dynamical triangulations model on coupled antiferromagnets. While the influence of such connectivity disorder is rather mild for ferromagnets in that an ordered phase persists and only the properties of the phase transition are substantially changed in some cases, any finite-temperature transition is wiped out due to frustration for some of the antiferromagnetic models. A wealth of different phenomena is observed: while for the annealed average of quantum gravity some graphs can adapt dynamically to allow the emergence of a Neel ordered phase, this is not possible for the quenched average, where a zero-temperature spin-glass phase appears instead. We relate the latter to the behaviour of conventional spin-glass models coupled to random graphs.

Weigel, M; Weigel, Martin; Johnston, Des

2007-01-01

198

Signal transduction by the Fat cytoplasmic domain  

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The large atypical cadherin Fat is a receptor for both Hippo and planar cell polarity (PCP) pathways. Here we investigate the molecular basis for signal transduction downstream of Fat by creating targeted alterations within a genomic construct that contains the entire fat locus, and by monitoring and manipulating the membrane localization of the Fat pathway component Dachs. We establish that the human Fat homolog FAT4 lacks the ability to transduce Hippo signaling in Drosophila, but can trans...

Pan, Guohui; Feng, Yongqiang; Ambegaonkar, Abhijit A.; Sun, Gongping; Huff, Matthew; Rauskolb, Cordelia; Irvine, Kenneth D.

2013-01-01

199

Trans fats: What physicians should know  

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Hydrogenation of fat products is used in the food industry to extend their shelf life. Trans fats are the result of partial hydrogenation of unsaturated fat. Trans fats increase low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and decrease high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, thus increasing the risk of cardiovascular disease. Canadians have one of the highest dietary intake of trans fat in the world. Health Canada has made recommendations to decrease the trans fat intake of Canadians. Physicians should ...

Marchand, V.

2010-01-01

200

Plant grafting: new mechanisms, evolutionary implications  

Science.gov (United States)

Grafting, an old plant propagation practice, is still widely used with fruit trees and in recent decades also with vegetables. Taxonomic proximity is a general prerequisite for successful graft-take and long-term survival of the grafted, composite plant. However, the mechanisms underlying interspecific graft incompatibility are as yet insufficiently understood. Hormonal signals, auxin in particular, are believed to play an important role in the wound healing and vascular regeneration within the graft union zone. Incomplete and convoluted vascular connections impede the vital upward and downward whole plant transfer routes. Long-distance protein, mRNA and small RNA graft-transmissible signals currently emerge as novel mechanisms which regulate nutritional and developmental root/top relations and may play a pivotal role in grafting physiology. Grafting also has significant pathogenic projections. On one hand, stock to scion mechanical contact enables the spread of diseases, even without a complete graft union. But, on the other hand, grafting onto resistant rootstocks serves as a principal tool in the management of fruit tree plagues and vegetable soil-borne diseases. The ‘graft hybrid’ historic controversy has not yet been resolved. Recent evidence suggests that epigenetic modification of DNA-methylation patterns may account for certain graft-transformation phenomena. Root grafting is a wide spread natural phenomenon; both intraspecific and interspecific root grafts have been recorded. Root grafts have an evolutionary role in the survival of storm-hit forest stands as well as in the spread of devastating diseases. A more fundamental evolutionary role is hinted by recent findings that demonstrate plastid and nuclear genome transfer between distinct Nicotiana species in the graft union zone, within a tissue culture system. This has led to the formation of alloploid cells that, under laboratory conditions, gave rise to a novel, alloploid Nicotiana species, indicating that natural grafts may play a role in plant speciation, under certain circumstances. PMID:25566298

Goldschmidt, Eliezer E.

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

POST CORONARY ARTERY BYPASS GRAFT STUDY (CABG)  

Science.gov (United States)

Relative effectiveness of moderate versus more aggressive lipid lowering, and of low dose anticoagulation versus placebo, in delaying saphenous vein coronary bypass graft atherosclerosis and preventing occlusion of saphenous grafts of patients with saphenous vein coronary bypass ...

202

Body fat, abdominal fat and body fat distribution related to VO(2PEAK) in young children  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Abstract Objective. Aerobic fitness, defined as maximum oxygen uptake (VO(2PEAK)), and body fat measurements represent two known risk factors for disease. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between VO(2PEAK) and body fat measurements in young children at a population-based level. Methods. Cross-sectional study of 225 children (128 boys and 97 girls) aged 8-11 years, recruited from a population-based cohort. Total lean body mass (LBM), total fat mass (TBF), and abdominal fat mass (AFM) were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Body fat was also calculated as a percentage of body mass (BF%) and body fat distribution as AFM/TBF. VO(2PEAK) was assessed by indirect calorimetry during maximal exercise test. Results. Significant relationships existed between body fat measurements and VO(2PEAK) in both boys and girls, with Pearson correlation coefficients for absolute values of VO(2PEAK) (0.22-0.36, P<0.05), and for VO(2PEAK) scaled by body mass (-0.38 - -0.70, P

Dencker, Magnus; Wollmer, Per

2011-01-01

203

Irisin: 'fat' or artefact.  

Science.gov (United States)

Soon after the discovery of the muscle-derived factor irisin, a great controversy arose in the literature regarding certain inconsistencies in the regulation of the fibronectin type III domain containing 5 protein (FNDC5/irisin) after exercise, as well as the unpredicted association of circulating irisin levels with parameters of adiposity in humans. Due to these questionable findings, doubts as to the identity of the soluble portion of FNDC5 as well as the real role of irisin and its possible therapeutic applications in the treatment of obesity and diabetes have proliferated. We recently postulated that FNDC5/irisin is an adipokine expressed and secreted by white adipose tissue in rats and humans. Its circulating concentration correlates with adiposity in humans among independent cohorts of patients. Further analysis, focused on obesity-related metabolic disorders, has shown that irisin could play a role in promoting insulin resistance or act as an adaptive response to counteract disturbances in glucose and lipid homoeostasis in obesity. Overall, this leads us to raise the question whether the new factor, increased in circulation of obese patients, is really irisin-reflecting fat mass or it is an artefact. Therefore, the current review is focused on the potential participation of adipose tissue in irisin circulating levels, and the role of irisin in metabolic pathologies associated with obesity in an attempt to clarify the controversy generated by these recently published reports. PMID:25287317

Crujeiras, A B; Pardo, M; Casanueva, F F

2014-10-01

204

Grafting rays fellow travel Teichmuller geodesics  

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Given a measured geodesic lamination on a hyperbolic surface, grafting the surface along multiples of the lamination defines a path in Teichmuller space, called the grafting ray. We show that every grafting ray, after reparametrization, is a Teichmuller quasi-geodesic and stays in a bounded neighborhood of a Teichmuller geodesic. As part of our approach, we show that grafting rays have controlled dependence on the starting point. That is, for any measured geodesic laminati...

Choi, Young-eun; Dumas, David; Rafi, Kasra

2010-01-01

205

Mouse Model of Venous Bypass Graft Arteriosclerosis  

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Saphenous vein grafts are widely used for treatment of severe atherosclerosis via aortocoronary bypass surgery, a procedure often complicated by later occlusion of the graft vessel. Because the molecular mechanisms of this process remain largely unknown, quantitative models of venous bypass graft arteriosclerosis in transgenic mice could be useful to study this process at the genetic level. We describe herein a new model of vein grafts in the mouse that allows us to take advantage of transgen...

Zou, Yiping; Dietrich, Hermann; Hu, Yanhua; Metzler, Bernhard; Wick, Georg; Xu, Qingbo

1998-01-01

206

Industrial applications of radiation grafting  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation grafting can introduce the aiming function to the trunk polymer. This technique gave the separator membrane for a button-shaped battery and the gas adsorbent for fabrication facility as commercial products. This commercialization was realized by the excellent properties which were imparted by graft polymerization into the trunk polymer. As ongoing R and D, the fibrous adsorbent has been synthesized by using fibrous trunk polymer. The metal ion adsorbent is promising materials for removal of toxic metals and the recovery of significant metals from the point of environmental preservation view. (author)

207

New variant for whole pancreas grafting  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A new variant for whole pancreas grafting is described in which a segment of the duodenum and the spleen is included in the graft. The graft is placed extraperitoneally as in kidney transplantation. The exocrine drainage is with side-to-side anastomosis between duodenum and bladder. The spleen is irradiated to prevent the occurrence of GVHD, as is reported in splenic transplantation

208

Multisaccular Aneurysm in a Coronary Vein Graft  

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This report describes an unusual multisaccular vein graft aneurysm that developed in a patient who had undergone aortocoronary bypass with a saphenous vein graft. The aneurysm was a complication of an atherosclerotic lesion. This case supports the belief that aortocoronary vein grafts have an increased susceptibility to aneurysm formation. (Texas Heart Institute Journal 1988;15:59-60)

Pintar, Karl; Barboriak, Joseph J.; Moreno, Miguel

1988-01-01

209

Graft inserter for anterior cervical fusion.  

Science.gov (United States)

The authors have developed a simple instrument for graft insertion in anterior cervical fusion. This device obviates the need for screw distraction of the adjacent vertebrae or the use of an impactor for insertion. This device simplifies graft insertion where the disc space is narrow, particularly in multilevel fusions, and reduces the risk of over-penetration of the graft. PMID:24974192

Hitchon, Patrick W; Kumar, Rajinder; Viljoen, Stephanus; Dahdaleh, Nader S

2014-11-01

210

New variant for whole pancreas grafting  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A new variant for whole pancreas grafting is described in which a segment of the duodenum and the spleen is included in the graft. The graft is placed extraperitoneally as in kidney transplantation. The exocrine drainage is with side-to-side anastomosis between duodenum and bladder. The spleen is irradiated to prevent the occurrence of GVHD, as is reported in splenic transplantation.

Kootstra, G.; van Hooff, J.P.; Joerning, P.J.L.; Leunissen, K.M.; van der Linden, C.J.; Beukers, E.; Buurman, W.A.

1987-02-01

211

Fat Replacers in Meat Products  

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There is a great interest regarding demand for foods with health enhancing properties as low-fat meat products due to the human health and nutrition correlation. Various aspects of interest relating to product design and fat reducing strategy has been reported. These aspects concerning nutritional, sensory, technological, safety, appreciation, legal and cost procedures are important to a improved new product design. Due to their different texture properties, processing conditions and differen...

Ozlem Tokusoglu; Kemal Unal, M.

2003-01-01

212

Treatment of oroantral fistula with autologous bone graft and application of a non-reabsorbable membrane  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the current report is to illustrate an alternative technique for the treatment of oroantral fistula (OAF, using an autologous bone graft integrated by xenologous particulate bone graft.Background: Acute and chronic oroantral communications (OAC, OAF can occur as a result of inadequate treatment. In fact surgical procedures into the maxillary posterior area can lead to inadvertent communication with the maxillary sinus. Spontaneous healing can occur in defects smaller than 3 mm while larger communications should be treated without delay, in order to avoid sinusitis. The most used techniques for the treatment of OAF involve buccal flap, palatal rotation - advancement flap, Bichat fat pad. All these surgical procedures are connected with a significant risk of morbidity of the donor site, infections, avascular flap necrosis, impossibility to repeat the surgical technique after clinical failure, and patient discomfort.Case presentation: We report a 65-years-old female patient who came to our attention for the presence of an OAF and was treated using an autologous bone graft integrated by xenologous particulate bone graft. An expanded polytetrafluoroethylene titanium-reinforced membrane (Gore-Tex ® was used in order to obtain an optimal reconstruction of soft tissues and to assure the preservation of the bone graft from epithelial connection.Conclusions: This surgical procedure showed a good stability of the bone grafts, with a complete resolution of the OAF, optimal management of complications, including patient discomfort, and good regeneration of soft tissues.Clinical significance: The principal advantage of the use of autologous bone graft with an expanded polytetrafluoroethylene titanium-reinforced membrane (Gore-Tex ® to guide the bone regeneration is that it assures a predictable healing and allows a possible following implant-prosthetic rehabilitation.

Adele Scattarella, Andrea Ballini, Felice Roberto Grassi, Andrea Carbonara, Francesco Ciccolella, Angela Dituri, Gianna Maria Nardi, Stefania Cantore, Francesco Pettini

2010-01-01

213

Osteochondral Grafting: Effect of Graft Alignment, Material Properties, and Articular Geometry  

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Osteochondral grafting for cartilage lesions is an attractive surgical procedure; however, the clinical results have not always been successful. Surgical recommendations differ with respect to donor site and graft placement technique. No clear biomechanical analysis of these surgical options has been reported. We hypothesized that differences in graft placement, graft biomechanical properties, and graft topography affect cartilage stresses and strains. A finite element model of articular cart...

D D’lima, Darryl; C Chen, Peter; W Colwell Jr, Clifford

2009-01-01

214

Vascularization of the area between free grafts and irradiated graft beds in the neck in rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Inflammatory lesions of the vascular endothelium after preoperative radiotherapy often cause healing-delayed healing of free flaps in the irradiated graft bed. We investigated changes in neovascularization in the transition area between grafted tissues and irradiated tissues of the graft bed. We irradiated the neck(30 and 50 Gy total dose) in 102 Wistar rats and then grafted a free myocutaneous gracilis flap to the irradiated region of the neck 4 weeks later. We examined histologically the tissues of the graft, the transition area between the graft and the irradiated graft bed, and the graft bed. In contrast to control rats, the tissues in the irradiated animals showed a qualitatively reduced and a more irregular capillary distribution, with substantial fibrosis in the irradiated graft bed. We also found significant differences in vascularization and mean capillary lumen in the transitional zone between graft and graft bed in the irradiated rats compared with controls (P = 0.004 and P < 0.001, respectively). Both number and diameter of capillaries were reduced in the irradiated graft bed tissue. The graft failed to improve vascularization in the transitional zone between graft and irradiated tissue, so we conclude that it is the vascularization status of the bed tissue rather than that of the transplant tissue that is the limiting factor for graft healing. PMID:11883968

Schultze-Mosgau, S; Rödel, F; Radespiel-Tröger, M; Wörl, J; Grabenbauer, G G; Neukam, F W

2002-02-01

215

Epicardial fat volume assessment in cardiac CT  

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Epicardial fat, as other visceral fat localizations, is correlated with car- diovascular disease, cardiovascular risk factors and metabolic syndrome. However, many concerns remain about the method for measuring epi- cardial fat, its regional distribution on the myocardium, as well as the accuracy and reproducibility of such measurements. At present, dedi- cated software procedures to assess epicardial fat are lacking. On the other hand, manual fat segmentation requires a huge and tedious oper...

Coppini, Giuseppe; Favilla, Riccardo; Moroni, Davide; Salvetti, Ovidio; D Errico, Luigina; Salituri, F.; Ciardetti, Marco; Schlueter, Mathis; Faggioni, Luca; Coceani, Michele; Mazzarisi, Alessandro; Bianchi, M.; Bartolozzi, C.; Marraccini, Paolo

2012-01-01

216

Markers of primary graft dysfunction  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The present invention relates to methods for diagnosing transplant rejection, or a condition associated with transplant rejection, such as, primary graft dysfunction in a subject, to antigen probe arrays for performing such a diagnosis, and to antigen probe sets for generating such arrays.

Hagedorn, Peter Technical University of Denmark,

217

Homogeneous cation exchange membrane by radiation grafting  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Preparation of a strong cation exchange membrane by radiation grafting of styrene on to polyethylene (LDPE) film by mutual irradiation technique in the presence of air followed by sulfonation is described. The grafting has been carried out in the presence of air and without any additive. Low dose rate has been seen to facilitate the grafting. Further higher the grafting percentage more is the exchange capacity. The addition of a swelling agent during the sulfonation helped in achieving the high exchange capacity. The TGA-MASS analysis confirmed the grafting and the sulfonation. (author)

218

Renal graft irradiation in acute rejection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To evaluate the effect of graft irradiation in the treatment of acute rejection of renal transplants, a randomized study was conducted from 1978 to 1981. Patients with acute rejection were given standard medical management in the form of intravenous methylprednisolone, and were chosen randomly to receive either graft irradiation (175 rads every other day, to a total of 525 rads) or simulated (sham) irradiation. Eighty-three rejections occurring in 64 grafts were randomized to the protocol. Rejection reversal was recorded in 84.5% of control grafts and 75% of the irradiated grafts. Recurrent rejections were more frequent and graft survival was significantly lower in the irradiated group (22%) than in the control group (54%). Graft irradiation does not appear to be beneficial in the treatment of acute rejection of renal transplants when used in conjunction with high-dose steroids

219

Renal graft irradiation in acute rejection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To evaluate the effect of graft irradiation in the treatment of acute rejection of renal transplants, a randomized study was conducted from 1978 to 1981. Patients with acute rejection were given standard medical management in the form of intravenous methylprednisolone, and were chosen randomly to receive either graft irradiation (175 rads every other day, to a total of 525 rads) or simulated (sham) irradiation. Eighty-three rejections occurring in 64 grafts were randomized to the protocol. Rejection reversal was recorded in 84.5% of control grafts and 75% of the irradiated grafts. Recurrent rejections were more frequent and graft survival was significantly lower in the irradiated group (22%) than in the control group (54%). Graft irradiation does not appear to be beneficial in the treatment of acute rejection of renal transplants when used in conjunction with high-dose steroids.

Pilepich, M.V.; Sicard, G.A.; Breaux, S.R.; Etheredge, E.E.; Blum, J.; Anderson, C.B.

1983-03-01

220

Evaluation of the graft flow reserve after coronary artery bypass grafting by stress 201Tl myocardial SPECT. Comparison between arterial grafts and venous grafts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We performed stress 201Tl myocardial SPECT to evaluate ischemia and perfusion reserve after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). A total of 103 patients was performed stress 201Tl myocardial SPECT one month after CABG. Each patient's myocardium was divided into 9 segments and visually evaluated using five grade scoring system (0=defect, 1=severe decrease, 2=moderate decrease, 3=mild decrease, 4=normal uptake). Eleven of 133 (8.27%) segments covered by patent venous grafts showed reversible 201Tl defect, however, 36 of 117 (30.8%) segments which covered by patent arterial grafts showed reversible 201Tl defect. This finding was observed more significantly in arterial grafts than in venous grafts (p<0.001). These finding suggests that arterial grafts have lower flow capacity than venous grafts at peak exercise. (author)

 
 
 
 
221

Assessment of aorto-coronary bypass graft patency and graft flow by contrast enhanced computed tomography  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recent advances in computed tomography have led to clinically useful imaging of the cardiovascular structures with remarkable resolution. In 44 patients with 66 aorto-coronary bypass grafts, the efficacy of contrast enhanced computed tomography to determine graft patency and estimate graft flow was studied. After the proper scanning level was selected by scout scans, sequential scans with a 5 seconds scanning time and a 5 seconds interscan period were performed during the rapid injection of a 30 ml bolus of contrast medium into an antecubital vein. Patency of grafts was determined by a characteristic enhancement with contrast medium that coincides with appearance of contrast in the aorta. Comparing CECT with conventional graft angiography, our results gave a 91% sensitivity for CECT detection of graft patency, a 91% specificity and a 91% accuracy. Variables, such as follows, were measured by plotting the time-density curve of dynamic scans. ?CT = increasing rate of CT number, Max CT = peak CT number - ?CT = clearance rate of CT number. The mean graft flow was measured intraoperatively by using an electromagnetic flowmeter. To determine if CECT can quantitate graft flow, correlation between the mean graft flow and variables was studied. There was significant correlation between the mean graft flow and -?CT of graft/ -?CT of Ao. (p<0.001). These findings indicates that CECT has promise as a safe and relatively noninvasive technique for determining bypass graft patenque for determining bypass graft patency and estimating graft flow. (author)

222

Determining the degree of grafting for poly (vinylidene fluoride) graft-copolymers using fluorine elemental analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Acrylic acid (AAc) and styrene (St) were grafted onto poly (vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) powder or membrane samples by pre-irradiation graft copolymerization. The grafted chains were proved by FT-IR spectroscopy analysis. The degree of grafting (DG) of the grafted PVDF was determined by fluorine elemental analysis (FEA) method, and was compared with the DGs determined by weighing method, acid-base back titration method and quantitative FT-IR method. The results show that the FEA method is accurate, convenient and universal, especially for the grafted polymer powders. (authors)

223

Gravity separation of pericardial fat in cardiotomy suction blood: an in vitro model.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fat emboli generated during cardiac surgery have been shown to cause neurologic complications in patients postoperatively. Cardiotomy suction has been known to be a large generator of emboli. This study will examine the efficacy of a separation technique in which the cardiotomy suction blood is stored in a cardiotomy reservoir for various time intervals to allow spontaneous separation of fat from blood by density. Soybean oil was added to heparinized porcine blood to simulate the blood of a patient with hypertriglyceridemia (> 150 mg/dL). Roller pump suction was used to transfer the room temperature blood into the cardiotomy reservoir. Blood was removed from the reservoir in 200-mL aliquots at 0, 15, 30 45, and 60 minutes. Samples were taken at each interval and centrifuged to facilitate further separation of liquid fat. Fat content in each sample was determined by a point-of-care triglyceride analyzer. Three trials were conducted for a total of 30 samples. The 0-minute group was considered a baseline and was compared to the other four times. Fat concentration was reduced significantly in the 45- and 60-minute groups compared to the 0-, 15-, and 30-minute groups (p < .05). Gravity separation of cardiotomy suction blood is effective; however, it may require retention of blood for more time than is clinically acceptable during a routing coronary artery bypass graft surgery. PMID:19681306

Kinard, M Rhett; Shackelford, Anthony G; Sistino, Joseph J

2009-06-01

224

Cationic membrane obtained by radiation grafting method  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A study has been made for the preparation of ion-containing reverse osmosis membranes by the radiation grafting of aqueous acrylic acid onto low density polyethylene films followed by alkaline treatment to confer ionic character in the prepared membranes. The appropriate reaction conditions were selected under which the graft polymerization was carried out successfully. In this grafting system ammonium ferrous sulphate (Mohr's salt) was used as inhibitor to minimize the homopolymerization of AAc, and a suitable concentration of the inhibitor to be added to the reaction medium was found to be 2.5 wt%. The effect of aqueous monomer concentration on the rate and degree of grafting was studied. The dependence of the grafting rate on the monomer concentration was found to be 0.8 order, i.e. almost first order dependence. It was also found that the irradiation atmosphere (air and nitrogen gas) had no significant effect on the grafting yield at given reaction conditions. The prepared graft copolymer films showed good thermal and chemical stability. Gel determination in the grafted films was also investigated and the results indicated that a crosslinked network structure may be formed. The extent of the gelled part in the graft copolymer increased as the degree of grafting increased. (author)

225

Body fat, abdominal fat and body fat distribution related to cardiovascular risk factors in prepubertal children  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Aim:? We analysed whether total body fat (TBF), abdominal fat and body fat distribution are associated with higher composite risk factor scores for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in young children. Methods:? Cross-sectional study of 238 children aged 8-11?years. TBF and abdominal fat mass (AFM) were measured by Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry. TBF was expressed as a percentage of body weight (BF%). Body fat distribution was calculated as AFM/TBF. Maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2PEAK) ), systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP), and resting heart rate (RHR) were measured. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) and pulse pressure (PP) were calculated. Left atrial diameter (LA) was measured, and left ventricular mass (LVM) and relative wall thickness (RWT) were calculated. Z-scores were calculated. Sum of z-scores for SBP, DBP, MAP, PP, RHR, LVM, LA, RWT and -VO(2PEAK) was calculated in boys and girls, separately, and used as composite risk factor score. Results:? Pearson correlations between ln BF%, ln AFM and AFM/TBF versus composite risk factor score for boys were r?=?0.56, r?=?0.59 and r?=?0.48, all p?

Dencker, Magnus; Wollmer, Per

2012-01-01

226

Post-surgical complications of symphyseal block graft with and without soft tissue grafting  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objectives: To determine whether soft tissue augmentation prior to block grafting will minimize post-block grafting soft tissue complications. Methods: This longitudinal controlled pilot study was conducted at the Faculty of Dentistry, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia from October 2010 to January 2013. Fourteen sites requiring block grafting were divided into 2 groups: Group A - 7 sites in 6 patients were subjected to monocortical block graft (control; and Group B - 7 sites in 6 patients were subjected to soft tissue graft through new tunnel technique, followed by monocortical block graft (test. Results: In Group A, 2 patients had wound dehiscence and graft exposure. The first that had an exposure of 3x4 mm resulted in 45% resorption of the graft. The second had an exposure of 4x5 mm followed by infection, which resulted in 75% resorption of the graft. In the other 5 cases, sites healed with no complications and minimal resorption (0-15%. In Group B - there were generalized 1-2 mm increases in the thickness of soft tissue following soft tissue graft. Recipient sites healed with no complications or infection following block grafting. Block graft resorption ranged from 0-15%. Conclusion: More complications were seen in those patients who did not receive soft tissue augmentation, thus demonstrating the importance of soft tissue preparation prior to block grafting, especially in patients having thin soft tissue. 

Ali S. AlGhamdi

2013-06-01

227

Septal graft in laryngeal reconstruction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A 62-year-old woman presented with symptoms of dyspnea. Ultrasonography and computed tomography examinations revealed mass extending from the cricoid cartilage to the left lobe of thyroid gland and thyroid cartilage. Cytology revealed possibility of cartilaginous origin, which was proven to be chondrosarcoma (Grade 1) from the biopsy specimen obtained during panendosopy. She underwent one stage radical resection and immediate reconstruction of laryngeal skeleton defect by mucocartilaginous graft from the nasal septum. Her postoperative course was optimal with preservation of the laryngeal functions. Twenty-eight months postoperatively, she had to undergo total laryngectomy as a salvage procedure for the advanced local recurrence. We report on the relatively easy technique for functional reconstruction of the large laryngeal defect with the employment cartilage graft from the nasal septum. (author)

228

Evaluation of early coronary graft patency after coronary artery bypass graft surgery using multislice computed tomography angiography  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG surgery is the standard of care in the treatment of advanced coronary artery disease, and its long-term results are affected by the failure of bypass grafts. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the early patency rate in coronary bypass grafts. Methods A total of 107 consecutive patients who underwent CABG were included in this study. Early graft patency was evaluated via computed tomography (CT angiography in the first week after surgery. Results There were a total of 366 grafts, comprised of 250 venous grafts and 116 arterial grafts. Multi-slice CT detected acute graft occlusions in 32 (8.7% of all the grafts, including 26 (10% of the 250 venous grafts and 6 (5% of the 116 arterial grafts. The patency rates obtained were 97.3% for the left internal mammary (IMA grafts, 50% for the radial artery grafts, and 50% for the right IMA grafts. Additionally, 107 (96.4% grafts to the left anterior descending artery (LAD were classified as patent, whereas 1 (30% of the 3 grafts in the left circumflex (LCX region and 1 (50% of the 2 grafts in the right coronary artery (RCA territory were found to be occluded. In the venous category, 8 (13.7% of the 58 grafts to LAD were found to be occluded. In the LCX region, 9 (8.5% of the 106 grafts were classified as occluded, while the remaining 97 (91.5% grafts were patent. The venous grafts to RCA were occluded in 9 (10.4% of the 86 grafts. Amongst the multiple preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative factors, pump time was significantly longer in the patients with occluded grafts than in those with patent grafts (P = 0.04. Conclusion The IMA grafts had the highest early patency rate amongst the coronary bypass grafts. However, the other arterial grafts were associated with a high rate of acute occlusions.

Raissi Kamal

2009-12-01

229

Ocular Graft Versus Host Disease  

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Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) is an important therapeutic procedure for the treatment of hematologic malignancies. Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a common cause of morbidity and mortality after allo-HSCT. Severe systemic form of GVHD may become life threatening. Ocular involvement of GVHD remains the most common cause of long-term morbidity.In this review article, the etiology, pathophysiology, clinical features, and treatment modalities of ocular GVHD a...

Elif Erdem; Meltem Yagmur

2014-01-01

230

Intestinal graft versus host disease.  

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An ileocolectomy specimen was examined from a patient with graft versus host disease (GvHD). In addition to the characteristic histological features of this condition, both the small and the large intestine showed extensive destruction of mucosal tissue with survival of clusters of enterochromaffin cells. This appearance has previously been described only in the large bowel. Endocrine cells seem to be less vulnerable to the effects of GvHD than epithelial cells, resulting in their being spare...

Bryan, R. L.; Antonakopoulos, G. N.; Newman, J.; Milligan, D. W.

1991-01-01

231

Elastic properties of grafted microtubules  

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We use single-particle tracking to study the elastic properties of single microtubules grafted to a substrate. Thermal fluctuations of the free microtubule's end are recorded, in order to measure position distribution functions from which we calculate the persistence length of microtubules with contour lengths between 2.6 and 48 micrometers. We find the persistence length to vary by more than a factor of 20 over the total range of contour lengths. Our results support the hyp...

Pampaloni, Francesco; Lattanzi, Gianluca; Jona?s, Alexandr; Surrey, Thomas; Frey, Erwin; Florin, Ernst-ludwig

2005-01-01

232

Transverse fluctuations of grafted polymers  

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We study the statistical mechanics of grafted polymers of arbitrary stiffness in a two-dimensional embedding space with Monte Carlo simulations. The probability distribution function of the free end is found to be highly anisotropic and non-Gaussian for typical semiflexible polymers. The reduced distribution in the transverse direction, a Gaussian in the stiff and flexible limits, shows a double peak structure at intermediate stiffnesses. We also explore the response to a tr...

Lattanzi, Gianluca; Munk, Tobias; Frey, Erwin

2003-01-01

233

FTO gene associated fatness in relation to body fat distribution and metabolic traits throughout a broad range of fatness  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A common single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of FTO (rs9939609, T/A) is associated with total body fatness. We investigated the association of this SNP with abdominal and peripheral fatness and obesity-related metabolic traits in middle-aged men through a broad range of fatness present already in adolescence.

Kring, Sofia I I; Holst, Claus

2008-01-01

234

BIOPROCESSING OF FATS AND OILS  

Science.gov (United States)

The modification of fats and oils and their co-products for added value is a major theme of lipid research. Biotechnological processes often are favored for their mild reaction conditions and low environmental impact and sometimes are the only practical routes to desired products. For example, lip...

235

Weight Gain and Saturated Fats  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... over 7 weeks. No other menu or physical activity changes were made. On average, both groups gained the same amount of weight, but those who ate the muffins with unsaturated fat had lower bad LDL cholesterol levels, total cholesterol/good HDL cholesterol ratios and had ...

236

Main: E2FAT [PLACE  

Full Text Available E2FAT S000417 03-Jun-2003 (last modified) kehi E2F-binding site found in many potential ... E2F targ ... et genes; most potential ... E2F targets identified in silico show a cell cycle ...

237

Motion Calculations on Stent Grafts in AAA  

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Endovascular aortic repair (EVAR) is a technique which uses stent grafts to treat aortic aneurysms in patients at risk of aneurysm rupture. Although this technique has been shown to be very successful on the short term, the long term results are less optimistic due to failure of the stent graft. The pulsating blood flow applies stresses and forces to the stent graft, which can cause problems such as breakage, leakage, and migration. Therefore it is of importance to gain more insight into the ...

Klein, Almar; Renema, W. Klaas Jan; Vliet, J. Adam; Oostveen, Luuk J.; Hoogeveen, Yvonne; Schultze Kool, Leo J.; Slump, Cornelis H.

2011-01-01

238

Luteinized fat in Krukenberg tumor: MR findings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To our knowledge, there is no description of the fat-containing Krukenberg tumor. We report on a case of Krukenberg tumor associated with luteinized fat, which showed hyperintensity on T1-weighted MR image. The diagnosis was surgically confirmed. Hyperintense portion of the Krukenberg tumor on T1-weighted image showed diminished signal intensity on fat-saturated, T1-weighted images. Krukenberg tumor should be considered in the differential diagnosis of ovarian masses when fat signal is seen. (orig.)

239

Characterization of radiation-induced grafting reactions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Various methods for characterization the initiators and products of grafting reactions (ESR spectroscopy, tracer technique, voltammetry, and polarography) are described. Recent developments and analytical techniques are considered. (author)

240

Tensioning of the anterior cruciate ligament graft.  

Science.gov (United States)

A great deal in variability exists in the protocols for graft tensioning. Biologic studies have not been conclusive about the optimum tension for revascularization while minimizing stress relaxation. Clinically, the risk of undertensioning the graft, and thereby not correcting the laxity, must be balanced with the risk of overconstraining the knee, which may lead to pathologic stresses on the joint cartilage, graft failure, or infrapatellar contracture syndrome . Amis and Jakob reported at the European Society of Sports Traumatology Knee Surgery and Arthroscopy scientific workshop in 1998 that most surgeons chose to impose a graft tension of 20 N to 80 N at an average of 11 degrees flexion. Preloading in full or nearly full extension limits the risk of pathologic stresses that can occur at full extension when the graft is tensioned at 30 degrees, but increases the risk of laxity at that angle. For our flexion parameters, we recommend tensioning the graft at 20 degrees to 30 degrees unless the graft tightens or shortens 5 mm or more with knee extension. If shortening occurs, tensioning should be performed in extension. The magnitude of graft tensioning should be tissue specific. For bone-patellar tendon-bone autograft or allograft, 5 pounds of tension should be applied. For hamstring graft, we apply 15 pounds of tension with each bundle tensioned individually. PMID:12528911

Heis, Forest T; Paulos, Leon E

2002-10-01

 
 
 
 
241

Membrane rigidity induced by grafted polymer brush.  

Science.gov (United States)

The contribution of neutral polymer brush to the curvature elasticity of the grafting surface is investigated theoretically. Using self-consistent field theory, we accurately evaluate the dependence of bending modulus on parameters including chain length, Flory-Huggins parameter and grafting density and reveal the importance of solvent. The results show that the brush-induced bending modulus follows a complex dependence on grafting density and Flory-Huggins parameter, while it obeys a simple power law with chain length as N(3). The method is further applied to calculate the polymer brush's contribution to the elastic properties of PEG-grafted lipid monolayers. PMID:25575082

Lei, Zhen; Yang, Shuang; Chen, Er-Qiang

2015-02-01

242

The autologus graft of epithelial tissue culture  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available With the intention of research about culture and autologus graft of epithelial tissue we used 4 french Albino Rabbits with an average age of 2 months. After reproduction on the support in EMEM (Eagle's Minimum Essential Medium we used this for graft after 4 weeks. This region which grafted total replaced. After fixation of this sample and passing them through various process, histological sections were prepared. These sections were stained with H & E and masson's trichrome and studied by light microscope. We succeeded in graft. We hope in the near future by using the method of epithelium tissue culture improving to treat burned patients.

Minaee B

1999-08-01

243

Local complications after arterial bypass grafting.  

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We have documented prospectively the problems occurring after 496 arterial bypass grafts (149 aortoiliac, 238 femorodistal, 65 extra-anatomic, and 44 others) implanted during the period 1987 to 1991 in a district general hospital. Postoperative bleeding occurred early in 14 (2.8%), and later (because of infection) in 3 (0.6%). Early graft occlusion (< 30 days) was seen in 2.9% aortofemoral, 10.4% femoropopliteal, and 25.3% femorotibial grafts, and amputation was required after 6.9% grafts. Wo...

Campbell, W. B.; Tambeur, L. J.; Geens, V. R.

1994-01-01

244

Radiation induced graft copolymerization of jute fibre  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Graft copolymerized jute fibres (GCJF) were prepared by ?-ray induced graft copolymerization of various monomers onto bleached and de-waxed jute samples. The effect of ?-ray dose on the tendency of various monomers to form graft co-polymer was studied. It was found that the tendency decreases as follows: methylmethacrylate (MMA)>acrylonitrile (AN)>styrene (STY)>vinylacetate (VA). When the effect of monomer concentration on the formation of graft co-polymer was studied, it was found that a mixture of AN and STY gave a higher amount of grafting than what was observed for STY or AN alone, when used at a comparable concentration. A study on the effect of concentration of methyl alcohol (a swelling agent for jute) on the tendency of the monomers to form graft co-polymer showed that although there is no effect when only AN is used, an appreciable effect is observed if AN is mixed with STY. In the later case the tendency of graft co-polymerization increases with the increase of CH3OH concentration. It was further observed that the increase of CH3OH also has a positive influence on MMA to form graft co-polymer in the range of 40-90% CH3OH. The affinity of GCJF towards moisture has been found to decrease with the increase of polymer loading onto jute. The presence of swelling agents during graft copolymer formation was also found to decrease the affinity of GCJF towards moisture. (author)

245

Nuclear accidents and bone marrow graft  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In case of serious contamination, the only efficacious treatment is the bone marrow grafts. The graft types and conditions have been explained. To restrict the nuclear accidents consequences, it is recommended to: - take osseous medulla of the personnel exposed to radiations and preserve it , that permits to carry out rapidly the auto-graft in case of accidents; - determine, beforehand, the HLA group of the personnel; - to register the voluntary donors names and addresses, and their HLA group, that permits to find easily a compatible donar in case of allo-graft. (author)

246

[Possibilities of prevention of posttraumatic fat embolism].  

Science.gov (United States)

Hypocoagulation induced artificially with anticoagulants of an indirect action in patients, subjected to osteotomy of the femoral bone, resulted in diminishing of the intensity of fat globulemia and a decrease in the average size of fat globules, thus lessening the risk of fat embolism. PMID:1274116

Lavrinovich, T S; Liepa, M E

1976-03-01

247

Industrial application of electron beams for grafting and vulcanization  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The topics discussed are radiation graft polymerization; industrial application of radiation grafting - ion exchange membrane for a battery separator, ammonia adsorbent, non-flammable PE (polyethylene) foam; R and D on radiation grafting, radiation vulcanization of natural rubber

248

Design and Implementation of Log Structured FAT and ExFAT File Systems  

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The File Allocation Table (FAT) file system is supported in multiple Operating Systems (OS). Hence, FAT file system is universal exchange format for files/directories used in Solid State Drives (SSD) and Hard disk Drives (HDD). The Microsoft Corporation introduced the new file system called Extended FAT file system (ExFAT) to support larger size storage devices. The ExFAT file system is optimized to use with SSDs. But, Both FAT and ExFAT are not power fail safe. This means that the uncontroll...

Keshava Munegowda; Raju, Dr G. T.; Veera Maninkandanraju

2014-01-01

249

The Role of the Neuropeptide Y-2 Receptor in Liporemodeling: NPY Mediated Adipogenesis and Adipose Graft Maintenance  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a signaling molecule that was recently found to stimulate adipose tissue growth in vitro via a peripherally acting mechanism involving NPY type 2 receptor (Y2R) found on adipocytes and endothelial cells. This study aims to evaluate the translational applications of a Y2R agonist for autologous fat grafting in plastic surgery. Methods Murine and primate animal models were used to investigate the proliferative effects of NPY on adipose tissue. The effect of applying NPY to subcutaneous tissues in mice and monkeys was assessed by MRI, histology, and immunohistochemistry. The effect of NPY on human fat xenograft survival and vascularity in athymic mice was measured by ultrasonography and immunohistochemistry. Six animals per group were used in murine experiments, and two animals were used in the pilot primate study. Results NPY stimulated growth of adipose tissues when applied subcutaneously in mice and monkeys, and increased human fat xenograft survival and vascularity in athymic mice at three months. Conclusion These data provide in vivo evidence for a critical role for NPY-Y2R interactions in adipogenesis, and suggest Y2R as a potential target for agonist compounds that can be used to enhance fat graft survival or stimulate de novo adipogenesis PMID:19182605

Baker, Stephen B.; Cohen, Michael; Kuo, Lydia; Johnson, Michael; Al-Attar, Ali; Zukowska, Zofia

2009-01-01

250

Use of Extrusion Technology and Fat Replacers to Produce High Protein, Low Fat Cheese  

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This study investigated the use of extrusion technology and fat replacers to produce high protein, low fat Cheddar cheese. In chapter 3, four different fat replacers were tested at the highest concentration level of each, as recommended by the manufacturers for low fat cheese, to investigate the change in cheese texture and optimize extruder conditions. In addition, the press time/pressure combinations of the extruded cheeses were optimized. The fat replacers and extruder conditions that w...

Dubey, Amrita

2011-01-01

251

Biodegradability of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) film grafted with vinyl acetate: Effect of grafting and saponification  

Science.gov (United States)

Radiation-induced graft polymerization of vinyl acetate (VAc) onto poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) film was carried out. At a degree of grafting higher than 5%, the grafted films (PHB-g-VAc) completely lost the enzymatic degradability that is characteristic of PHB due to the grafted VAc covering the surface of the PHB film. However, the biodegradability of the PHB-g-VAc films was recovered when the films were saponified in alkali solution under optimum conditions. Graft chains of the PHB-g-VAc film reacted selectively to become biodegradable polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). The biodegradability of the saponified PHB-g-VAc film increased rapidly with time.

Wada, Yuki; Seko, Noriaki; Nagasawa, Naotsugu; Tamada, Masao; Kasuya, Ken-ichi; Mitomo, Hiroshi

2007-06-01

252

Pancreaticoportal Fistula and Disseminated Fat Necrosis After Revision of a Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt  

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A 59-year old man with alcohol related cirrhosis and portal hypertension was referred for transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) to treat his refractory ascites. Ten years later, two sequential TIPS revisions were performed for shunt stenosis and recurrent ascites. After these revisions, he returned with increased serum pancreatic enzyme levels and disseminated superficial fat necrosis; an iatrogenic pancreaticoportal vein fistula caused by disruption of the pancreatic duct was suspected. The bare area of the TIPS was subsequently lined with a covered stent-graft, and serum enzyme levels returned to baseline. In the interval follow-up period, the patient has clinically improved.

Klein, Seth J., E-mail: kleins@mir.wustl.edu; Saad, Nael [Washington University School of Medicine, Interventional Radiology Section, Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology (United States); Korenblat, Kevin [Washington University School of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Internal Medicine (United States); Darcy, Michael D. [Washington University School of Medicine, Interventional Radiology Section, Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology (United States)

2013-04-15

253

Pancreaticoportal Fistula and Disseminated Fat Necrosis After Revision of a Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A 59-year old man with alcohol related cirrhosis and portal hypertension was referred for transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) to treat his refractory ascites. Ten years later, two sequential TIPS revisions were performed for shunt stenosis and recurrent ascites. After these revisions, he returned with increased serum pancreatic enzyme levels and disseminated superficial fat necrosis; an iatrogenic pancreaticoportal vein fistula caused by disruption of the pancreatic duct was suspected. The bare area of the TIPS was subsequently lined with a covered stent-graft, and serum enzyme levels returned to baseline. In the interval follow-up period, the patient has clinically improved.

254

Ocular Graft Versus Host Disease  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT is an important therapeutic procedure for the treatment of hematologic malignancies. Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD is a common cause of morbidity and mortality after allo-HSCT. Severe systemic form of GVHD may become life threatening. Ocular involvement of GVHD remains the most common cause of long-term morbidity.In this review article, the etiology, pathophysiology, clinical features, and treatment modalities of ocular GVHD are presented. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2014; 23(3.000: 484-491

Elif Erdem

2014-06-01

255

All-inside anterior cruciate ligament graft link: graft preparation technique.  

Science.gov (United States)

The anatomic single-bundle, all-inside anterior cruciate ligament graft-link technique requires meticulous graft preparation. The graft choice is no-incision allograft or gracilis-sparing, posterior semitendinosus autograft. The graft is linked, like a chain, to femoral and tibial TightRope cortical suspensory fixation devices with adjustable-length graft loops (Arthrex, Naples, FL) in the following manner: the graft is quadrupled, and the free ends are first whip-stitched and then sutured with a buried-knot technique, 4 times through each strand in a loop. The graft is placed on a tensioning station under approximately 20 lb of tension during arthroscopic preparation of the knee and then removed from the tensioner and inserted into all-inside femoral and tibial sockets through the anteromedial arthroscopic portal. PMID:23766990

Lubowitz, James H

2012-12-01

256

Addressing thrombogenicity in vascular graft construction.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thrombosis is a major cause of poor patency in synthetic vascular grafts for small diameter vessel (endothelialisation in humans have lead to the investigation of pre-implantation in vitro endothelial cell seeding. These approaches ultimately aim to result in novel synthetic grafts which are anti-thrombogenic and hence suitable for coronary and distal infrainguinal bypass. PMID:17078085

Sarkar, Sandip; Sales, Kevin M; Hamilton, George; Seifalian, Alexander M

2007-07-01

257

Who Needs Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting?  

Science.gov (United States)

... no benefit Routinely adding mitral valve repair to coronary artery bypass graft surgery for heart attack patients may not be warranted in patients with moderate mitral valve damage, according to an NIH-funded study. View ... Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Press Releases Know the Facts and Act ...

258

Types of Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting  

Science.gov (United States)

... no benefit Routinely adding mitral valve repair to coronary artery bypass graft surgery for heart attack patients may not be warranted in patients with moderate mitral valve damage, according to an NIH-funded study. View ... Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Press Releases Know the Facts and Act ...

259

Aortoesophageal fistula after thoracic stent grafting.  

Science.gov (United States)

Aortoesophageal fistula after thoracic stent grafting is rare and usually fatal. A 66-year-old woman developed an aortoesophageal fistula 1 month after endovascular stent grafting of the thoracic aorta for a complicated type B dissection. She had a fatal episode of massive bleeding before she could be treated. The limited treatment options are discussed. PMID:22100932

Albors, José; Bahamonde, José Ángel; Sanchis, Juan Manuel; Boix, Ricardo; Palmero, Julio

2011-10-01

260

Fat containing chylous mesenteric lymphangiomatosis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We have experienced an unusual case of mesenteric lymphangiomatosis in a 6-month-old male infant. Computed tomography (CT) disclosed fatty abdominal masses with attenuation coefficient being -5?-28 Hounsfield units (HU). Laparotomy disclosed innumerable small and large chyle containing masses in the mesentery as well as mesenteric root. Pathologically these were confirmed to be cavernous and cystic lymphangiomatosis. One must bear in mind the possibility of lymphangioma in case of fat containing mesenteric mass on CT

 
 
 
 
261

Fat containing chylous mesenteric lymphangiomatosis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We have experienced an unusual case of mesenteric lymphangiomatosis in a 6-month-old male infant. Computed tomography (CT) disclosed fatty abdominal masses with attenuation coefficient being -5{approx}-28 Hounsfield units (HU). Laparotomy disclosed innumerable small and large chyle containing masses in the mesentery as well as mesenteric root. Pathologically these were confirmed to be cavernous and cystic lymphangiomatosis. One must bear in mind the possibility of lymphangioma in case of fat containing mesenteric mass on CT.

Kim, Soon Yong; Lim, Jae Hoon; Ko, Young Tae; Lee, Sun Wha; Oh, Soo Myung [Kyung Hee University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

1984-03-15

262

Fat Triangulations and Differential Geometry  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We study the differential geometric consequences of our previous result on the existence of fat triangulations, in conjunction with a result of Cheeger, M\\"{u}ller and Schrader, regarding the convergence of Lipschitz-Killing curvatures of piecewise-flat approximations of smooth Riemannian manifolds. A further application to the existence of quasiconformal mappings between manifolds, as well as an extension of the triangulation result to the case of almost Riemannian manifold...

Saucan, Emil

2011-01-01

263

Fat tails in small samples  

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The tail of financial returns is typically governed by a power law (i.e. “fat tails”). However, the constancy of the so-called tail index ? which dictates the tail decay has been hardly investigated. We study the finite sample properties of some recently proposed endogenous tests for structural change in ?. Given that the finite sample critical values strongly depend on the tail parameters of the return distribution we propose a bootstrap-based version of the structural change test. ...

Candelon, B.; Straetmans, S.

2012-01-01

264

Fat Tails in Power Prices  

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Spot power prices exhibit extreme price jumps and the tendency to oscillate around a long-term mean. Despite these well-known characteristics, electricity price models used for Monte Carlo simulations, VaR related measures, or derivatives valuation, often assume normally distributed residuals. In this paper, we examine the distributional characteristics of model residuals and show that the hypothesis of normality is rejected due to significant tail fatness and skewness. We then examine the St...

Huisman, R.; Huurman, C.

2003-01-01

265

Playing with bone and fat  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The relationship between bone and fat formation within the bone marrow microenvironment is complex and remains an area of active investigation. Classical in vitro and in vivo studies strongly support an inverse relationship between the commitment of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells or stromal cells to the adipocyte and osteoblast lineage pathways. In this review, we focus on the recent literature exploring the mechanisms underlying these differentiation events and discuss their implications relevant to osteoporosis and regenerative medicine.

Gimble, Jeffrey M.; Zvonic, Sanjin

2006-01-01

266

Beneficial effect of a weight-stable, low-fat/low-saturated fat/low-glycaemic index diet to reduce liver fat in older subjects  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is associated with insulin resistance and dyslipidaemia and can progress to steatohepatitis and cirrhosis. We sought to determine whether dietary fat and saturated fat content alter liver fat in the absence of weight change in an older population. Liver fat was quantified by magnetic resonance spectroscopy before and after 4 weeks on an isoenergetic low-fat/low-saturated fat/low-glycaemic index (LGI) (LSAT: 23% fat/7% saturated fat/GI < 55) or a high-fat/high...

Utzschneider, Kristina M.; Bayer-carter, Jennifer L.; Arbuckle, Matthew D.; Tidwell, Jaime M.; Richards, Todd L.; Craft, Suzanne

2012-01-01

267

Pathogenesis of cardiac graft failure in children  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available For many critical cardiac conditions such as cardio-myopathy, congenital heart defects, or arrhythmogenic disorders, cardiac transplantation is often an accepted treatment with optimistic one- and five-year survival rates of 90% and 75% in the pediatric patient population, respectively. However, poor long-term survival is a cause for concern, with cardiac graft failure being the leading cause in late mortality transplant recipients. Cardiac graft failure occurs through several mechanisms. However, the most common causes include cardiac allograft vasculopathy, myocardial fibrosis, and fibrofatty changes. Risk factors exacerbate these mechanisms through rejection, immunosuppressive drug side effects, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, renal dysfunction, and viral infection to increase the chance of cardiac graft failure. Changes in expression levels of various genes offer diagnostic potential for the future of cardiac transplantation. Through a comprehensive review of how multiple factors can lead a cardiac graft into failure, we hope to contribute to the longevity of cardiac grafts and pediatric heart transplant recipients.

Jenny Lin

2012-12-01

268

MR angiography of coronary artery bypass grafts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this study is to assess the value of MR angiography in the evaluation of the patency of coronary artery bypass grafts (CABGs). Fifty consecutive patients with a total of 108 CABGs underwent breath-hold MR angiography and conventional arteriography. Fifty-seven of the CABGs were internal mammary artery grafts (IMAGs), and 51 were saphenous vein grafts (SVGs). With conventional arteriography used as the standard of reference, MR angiography was found to depict patency in all 53 IMAGs (sensitivity 100%) and 4 occluded IMAGs (specificity 100%), in 37 of 39 SVGs (sensitivity 95%) and occluded 10 of 12 SVGs (specificity 83%). The overall graft patency was 98% sensitivity and 88% specificity. Graft stenoses were also clearly demonstrated in 5 cases. This study suggests that MR angiography is a useful, noninvasive technique to evaluate the patency of CABGs. (author)

269

Grafting of styrene onto fluoropolymers films  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Grafting of styrene onto poly(vinylidenefluoride) (PVDF) and poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) films was studied for the synthesis of ion exchange membranes. Radiation-induced grafting of styrene onto PVDF and PTFE films was investigated by simultaneous method using a Co{sup 60} source. The films of PVDF and PTFE were irradiated at total dose of 20 to 120 kGy and chemical changes were monitored after contact with styrene. Films of PTFE and PVDF were immersed in styrene/toluene 1:1 and were submitted to gamma radiation. After irradiation the samples were evaluated at periods of 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days, at room temperature in order to measure the grafting degree. Results of infrared spectroscopic analysis (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetry analysis (TGA) and the degree of grafting (DOG) were evaluated. The characterization techniques showed that irradiated PVDF and PTFE films exhibited a much higher grafting degree at 120 kGy. (author)

Geraldes, Adriana N.; Zen, Heloisa A.; Parra, Duclerc F.; Lugao, Ademar B.; Linardi, Marcelo [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Quimica e Meio Ambiente], E-mail: angeral@ipen.br

2007-07-01

270

Grafting of styrene onto fluoropolymers films  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Grafting of styrene onto poly(vinylidenefluoride) (PVDF) and poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) films was studied for the synthesis of ion exchange membranes. Radiation-induced grafting of styrene onto PVDF and PTFE films was investigated by simultaneous method using a Co60 source. The films of PVDF and PTFE were irradiated at total dose of 20 to 120 kGy and chemical changes were monitored after contact with styrene. Films of PTFE and PVDF were immersed in styrene/toluene 1:1 and were submitted to gamma radiation. After irradiation the samples were evaluated at periods of 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days, at room temperature in order to measure the grafting degree. Results of infrared spectroscopic analysis (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetry analysis (TGA) and the degree of grafting (DOG) were evaluated. The characterization techniques showed that irradiated PVDF and PTFE films exhibited a much higher grafting degree at 120 kGy. (author)

271

Design and Implementation of Log Structured FAT and ExFAT File Systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The File Allocation Table (FAT file system is supported in multiple Operating Systems (OS. Hence, FAT file system is universal exchange format for files/directories used in Solid State Drives (SSD and Hard disk Drives (HDD. The Microsoft Corporation introduced the new file system called Extended FAT file system (ExFAT to support larger size storage devices. The ExFAT file system is optimized to use with SSDs. But, Both FAT and ExFAT are not power fail safe. This means that the uncontrolled power loss or abrupt storage device removable from the computer system, during file system update, causes corruption of file system meta data and hence it leads to loss of data in storage device. This paper implements the Logging and Committing features to FAT and ExFAT file systems and ensures that the file system meta data is consistent across the abrupt power loss or device removal from the computer system.

Keshava Munegowda

2014-08-01

272

Novel nuances of human brown fat.  

Science.gov (United States)

There is a current debate in the literature on whether human fat derived from the supraclavicular region should be classified as brown, or as the white fat-derived less potent, brite/beige. This commentary addresses whether the existing classification defined in mice is sufficient to describe the types of thermogenic adipocytes in humans. We recently published a contradictory mRNA expression signature of human supraclavicular fat defined by an upregulation of the brite marker TBX1 along with the classical brown markers ZIC1 and LHX8, as well as genes indicating brown fat activity including UCP1, PGC-1?, and PRDM16; and, finally, a downregulation of the white/brite markers HOXC8 and HOXC9. Subcutaneous fat was used as reference material. Another recent study presents a higher expression of ZIC1 and a lower expression of TBX1 in interscapular compared with supraclavicular fat. Here, however, there was no difference in UCP1, PGC-1?, PRDM16, suggesting both depots had equal brown fat potency. Taken together, supraclavicular brown fat derived from adult humans seems to represent a type of brown fat with distinct features from both subcutaneous white/brite and interscapular brown fat. Therefore, the classification of adipocyte subtypes defined in mice may need reconsideration when applying to humans. PMID:24575370

Scheele, Camilla; Larsen, Therese Juhlin; Nielsen, Søren

2014-01-01

273

Graft irradiation abrogates graft-versus-host disease in combined pancreas-spleen transplantation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A model of combined pancreas-spleen transplantation (PST) was studied in LBN F1 recipients of Lewis grafts in order to evaluate the efficacy of pretransplant graft irradiation in preventing lethal graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Recipients of unmodified PST uniformly developed severe GVHD and died (MST = 16.7 +/- 3.8 days). Whole body donor irradiation with either 500 or 250 rad prevented lethal GVHD. Similarly, ex vivo graft irradiation with either 1000 or 500 rad also resulted in normal weight gain, graft function, and host survival for the 6-week study period. Conversely, delay of graft irradiation until 3 days after transplantation failed to prevent this complication (MST = 15.8 +/- 3.7 days). Recipients of irradiated grafts displayed glucose tolerance tests that were identical to those in the control group indicating that the doses of radiation employed in these experiments were not deleterious to islet function. Irradiated spleen grafts appeared histologically normal at 6 weeks after transplantation. Cells derived from these grafts failed to stimulate lymph node enlargement in a popliteal lymph node assay for GVHD, suggesting that these spleens may have become repopulated with host cells. These experiments confirm that PST has the potential to cause lethal GVHD and suggest that pretransplant graft irradiation may be used to prevent its occurrence

274

Adaptive significance of root grafting in trees  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Root grafting has long been observed in forest trees but the adaptive significance of this trait has not been fully explained. Various authors have proposed that root grafting between trees contributes to mechanical support by linking adjacent root systems. Keeley proposes that this trait would be of greatest advantage in swamps where soils provide poor mechanical support. He provides as evidence a greenhouse study of Nyssa sylvatica Marsh in which seedlings of swamp provenance formed between-individual root grafts more frequently than upland provenance seedlings. In agreement with this within-species study, Keeley observed that arid zone species rarely exhibit grafts. Keeley also demonstrated that vines graft less commonly than trees, and herbs never do. Since the need for mechanical support coincides with this trend, these data seem to support his model. In this paper, the authors explore the mechanisms and ecological significance of root grafting, leading to predictions of root grafting incidence. Some observations support and some contradict the mechanical support hypothesis.

Loehle, C.; Jones, R.

1988-12-31

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357

A reappraisal of saphenous vein grafting  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Autologous saphenous vein grafting has been broadly used as a bypass conduit, interposition graft, and patch graft in a variety of operations in cardiac, thoracic, neurovascular, general vascular, vascular access, and urology surgeries, since they are superior to prosthetic veins. Modified saphenous vein grafts (SVG, including spiral and cylindrical grafts, and vein cuffs or patches, are employed in vascular revascularization to satisfy the large size of the receipt vessels or to obtain a better patency. A loop SVG helps flap survival in a muscle flap transfer in plastic and reconstructive surgery. For dialysis or transfusion purposes, a straight or loop arteriovenous fistula created in the forearm or the thigh with an SVG has acceptable patency. The saphenous vein has even been used as a stent cover to minimize the potential complications of standard angioplasty technique. However, the use of saphenous vein grafting is now largely diminished in treating cerebrovascular disorders, superior vena cava syndrome, and visceral revascularization due to the introduction of angioplasty and stenting techniques. The SVG remains the preferable biomaterial in coronary artery bypass, coronary ostioplasty, free flap transfer, and surgical treatment of Peyronie disease. Implications associated with saphenous vein grafting in vascular access surgery for the purpose of dialysis and chemotherapy are considerable. Vascular cuffs and patches have been developed as an important and effective means of enhancing the patency rates of the grafts by linking the synthetic material to the receipt vessel. In addition, saphenous veins can be a cell source for tissue engineering. We review the versatile roles that saphenous vein grafting has played as well as its current status in therapy.

Yuan Shi-Min

2011-01-01

358

Is fat taste ready for primetime?  

Science.gov (United States)

Mounting evidence suggests that gustation is important for the orosensory detection of dietary fats, and might contribute to preferences that humans, rodents, and possibly other mammals exhibit for fat-rich foods. In contrast to sweet, sour, salty, bitter, and umami, fat is not widely recognized as a primary taste quality. Recent investigations, however, provide a wealth of information that is helping to elucidate the specific molecular, cellular, and neural mechanisms required for fat detection in mammals. The latest evidence supporting a fat taste will be explored in this review, with a particular focus on recent studies that suggest a surprising role for gut-brain endocannabinoid signaling in controlling intake and preference for fats based on their proposed taste properties. PMID:24631296

DiPatrizio, Nicholas V

2014-09-01

359

Modification of natural rubber by different grafting techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An attempt has been made to graft a hydrophylic monomer of N,N-dimethyl acrylamide (DMAA) onto natural rubber (NR) tube by simultaneous, pre-oxidation and preirradiation grafting techniques. It was found that the grafting by simultaneous grafting technique results in a maximum 29 wt% degree of grafting and by peroxidation and preirradiation techniques, results the maximum 42 wt% and 13 wt% degree of grafting, respectively. It was concluded that the peroxidation technique is the most appropriate to obtain a high degree of grafting in radiation copolymerization of DMAA onto NR. (author)

360

Biodiesel via hydrotreating of fat  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Biodiesel production via transesterification to fatty acid alkyl esters is rising rapidly worldwide due to the limited availability of fossil resources and the problems of global warming. Often, however, the use of 2nd-generation feedstock like animal waste fat and trap greases etc. is made difficult especially by the high amount of free fatty acids (FFA) in these raw materials. Another way to utilise such feedstock could be through the complete deoxygenation of the fuel, i.e. by hydrogenation and decarboxylation of the fat itself. Hydrotreating of fats is a procedure very well suited for existing petroleum refineries, and could be applied in mixture with existing hydrotreating of for instance vacuum gas oil [1,2]. As is shown in literature, both hydrogenation and decarboxylation of the fat may occur under such circumstances [2-4]. 9 g of a model mixture of 3 % oleic acid (C18:1), 7 % tripalmitin (C16:0) and 90% n-tetradecane (C14) in molar ratios was hydrotreated by 0.2 g of a 5%wt Pt/Al2O3 catalyst. The mixture was treated with 10 to 30 bar H2 in an autoclave at temperatures between 250 and 375°C, and samples for GC analysis was taken out after 1, 2, 5 and 20 hours to track the extent of reaction. Thus, the yields of pentadecane (C15) to octadecane (C18) could be monitored by GC analysis, thus indicating the conversions of FFA and tripalmitin. This procedure makes it possible to monitor and distinguish hydrogenation (resulting in hexadecane, C16, and octadecane, C18) from decarboxylation (resulting in pentadecane, C15, and heptadecane, C17) of triglyceride and fatty acid. Even in this hydrogen-rich atmosphere, the dominant reaction above 300ºC is decarboxylation of the acid and ester functionalities, thus limiting the consumption of hydrogen. Temperatures below 300°C are not well suited for the treating, as primarily the saturation of oleic acid to stearic acid (C18:0) is observed, with low conversions of fatty acid and triglyceride. [1] Stumborg, M., Wong, A. and Hogan, E., Bioresour. Technol. 56 (1996) 13 [2] Huber, G.W., O’Connor, P. and Corma, A., Appl. Catal. A. 329 (2007) 120 [3] Kubickova, I., Snåre, M., Eränen, K., Mäki-Arvela, P. and Murzin, D. Yu., Catal. Today, 106 (2005) 197 [4] Mäki-Arvela, P., Kubickova, I., Snåre, M., Eränen, K. and Murzin, D. Yu., Energy Fuels, 21 (2007) 31

Madsen, Anders Theilgaard; Ahmed, El Hadi

 
 
 
 
361

Acrylique acid grafted polyolefines. Thermoadhesive applications  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiochemical grafting of polyolefines by peroxidation has been industrialized in France for about 10 years by irradiation of these polymers with an electron accelerator and then treated by acrylic acid. Products obtained show a high adhesivity on metallic surfaces above their melting point. The main application of acrylic acid grafted high density polyethylene is composite film with aluminum foil for thermosealing of plastic bottle caps of sterilized milk. Acrylic acid grafted polypropylene is used in suspension in a volatile liquid for aluminum foil coating satisfying food packaging regulations

362

Fat, fish, fish oil and cancer.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

There is an ecological association between total and animal fat consumption and colorectal and breast cancer risk. Mortality data for breast and colorectal cancer for 24 European countries correlated, as expected, with the consumption of animal, but not vegetable, fat. There was an inverse correlation with fish and fish oil consumption, when expressed as a proportion of total or animal fat, and this correlation was significant for both male and female colorectal cancer and for female breast c...

Caygill, C. P.; Charlett, A.; Hill, M. J.

1996-01-01

363

Elasticity, viscosity, and deformation of orbital fat  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

PURPOSE. For development of a finite element analysis model of orbital mechanics, it was necessary to determine the material properties of orbital fat and its degree of deformation in eye rotation. METHODS. Elasticity and viscosity of orbital fat of eight orbits of four calves and two orbits of one rhesus monkey were measured with a parallel-plate rheometer. The degree of deformation of orbital fat was studied in two human subjects by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) through the optic nerve i...

Schoemaker, I.; Hoefnagel, P. P. W.; Mastenbroek, T. J.; Kolff, C. F.; Schutte, S.; Helm, F. C. T.; Picken, S. J.; Gerritsen, A. F. C.; Wielopolski, P. A.; Spekreijse, H.; Simonsz, H. J.

2006-01-01

364

Endoluminal stent-graft relining of visceral artery bypass grafts to treat perigraft seroma  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

PURPOSE: To describe the endovascular treatment of intra-abdominal perigraft seromas associated with small-caliber expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) grafts. CASE REPORTS: Two patients who underwent hybrid repair of thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysms in which renovisceral bypass grafts were implanted presented with large, symptomatic perigraft seromas. The 5- to 8-mm-diameter ePTFE bypass grafts believed to be involved in the seromas were successfully relined with self-expanding Viaba...

Lachat, Mario; Romero Toledo, Maricarmen; Glenck, Michael; Veith, Frank J.; Schmidt, Christian A.; Pecoraro, Felice

2013-01-01

365

Study on radiation graft copolymerization of MMA onto SBS. Pt.1: Liquid phase radiation graft copolymerization  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper introduces mainly experimental results of graft copolymerization of styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS) with methyl methacrylate (MMA) in solution by ?-ray irradiation. Effects of irradiation dose and monomer concentration on mass increment and graft yield onto two types of SBS have been discussed. FTIR characterization of the irradiated samples showed that the monomer had been grated to the SBS molecular chains, while thermal performance of the graft products, SBS-g-MMA, was measured by DSC. (authors)

366

Role of Bone Graft in Reconstruction of Skull Base Defect: Is a Bone Graft Necessary  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Ten patients underwent reconstruction of skull base defects between 1989 and 1992. In this series, the maximum size of the skull base defect was 6 × 5 cm. Three patients underwent bone grafts to reinforce the skull base. The postoperative course of seven patients without bone grafts was uneventful. There was no cerebrospinal fluid leakage, meningitis, extradural abscess, on brain herniation. On the other hand, two of the three patients with bone grafts developed extradural abseesses requirin...

Yamamoto, Yuhei; Minakawa, Hidehiko; Yoshida, Tetsunori; Igawa, Hiroharu; Sugihara, Tsuneki; Ohura, Takehiko; Nohira, Kunihiko

1993-01-01

367

Polypropylene grafted with glycidyl methacrylate using supercritical CO2 medium  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Films of polypropylene (PP) were grafted with glycidil methacrylate (GMA) using supercritical CO2 as swelling agent and solvent. Different pressures and temperatures were used to study their effects on the soaking and grafting process. FTIR results showed signals at 1726 and 1640 cm-1, assigned to C=O and C=C (after the soaking process), and a decreased signal at 1640 cm-1 (after the grafting procedure), suggesting the effective grafting of GMA. For the grafted material immersed in ethylenedi...

Kunita, M. H.; Girotto, E. M.; Muniz, E. C.; Rubira, A. F.

2006-01-01

368

The 5-strand hamstring graft in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction in the pediatric and adolescent population has been increasing in recent years. Autograft hamstring graft is favored in this population, but these patients often have smaller hamstring tendons that yield smaller final graft constructs. These smaller grafts are associated with an increased need for revision surgery. We describe a technique for obtaining a larger-diameter anterior cruciate ligament graft construct from autologous hamstring graft without allograft supplementation. PMID:25473619

Lee, Rushyuan Jay; Ganley, Theodore J

2014-10-01

369

Authentication of feeding fats: classification of animal fats, fish oils and recycled cooking oils  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Classification of fats and oils involves the recognition of one/several markers typical of the product. The ideal marker(s) should be specific to the fat or oil. Not many chemical markers fulfill these criteria. Authenticity assessment is a difficult task, which in most cases requires the measurement of several markers and must take into account natural and technology-induced variation. The present study focuses on the identity prediction of three by-products of the fat industry (animal fats,...

Ruth, S. M.; Rozijn, M.; Koot, A. H.; Perez-garcia, R.; Kamp, H. J.; Codony, R.

2010-01-01

370

Correlations between selected fatness indices and total body fat estimated by means of the impedance method  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of the present work was the evaluation of measures of total body fat and distribution of adipose tissue, including the new conicity index, and their correlation with total body fat (in kg and %) estimated by means of the impedance method. Moreover, attention was paid to the bilateral differentiation of fat distribution. The basis for the analyses and comparisons was a group of 186 females of various age. Using cluster analysis and factor analysis for fatness measures, it was shown tha...

Socha, Ma?gorzata

1999-01-01

371

Milk Fat Content and DGAT1 Genotype Determine Lipid Composition of the Milk Fat Globule Membrane  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

During secretion of milk fat globules, triacylglycerol (TAG) droplets are enveloped by a phospholipid (PL) trilayer. Globule size has been found to be related to polar lipid composition and fat content, and milk fat content and fatty acid composition have been associated with the diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1) K232A polymorphism; however, the association between the DGAT1 polymorphism and fat globule size and polar lipid composition has not been studied. The ratio between polar and ...

Argov-argaman, N.; Mida, K.; Cohen, B. C.; Visker, M. H. P. W.; Hettinga, K. A.

2013-01-01

372

Graft Rejection and Graft Failure After Penetrating Keratoplasty or Posterior Lamellar Keratoplasty for Fuchs Endothelial Dystrophy  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

PURPOSE:: To compare the frequency of rejection episodes and graft failure because of surgical complications or rejection after Descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK) and penetrating keratoplasty (PK) for Fuchs endothelial dystrophy. METHODS:: A total of 201 eyes of 201 consecutive patients with Fuchs endothelial dystrophy undergoing keratoplasty were included. One hundred two patients underwent DSAEK and 99 PK in the period January 1, 2000, to December 31, 2010. Postoperative topical steroid treatment was similar in the 2 groups. Most patients in the PK group received a short course of oral prednisolone, which was not prescribed for patients undergoing DSAEK. Patient records were retrospectively reviewed; rejection episodes and causes of graft failures were recorded, and Kaplan-Meier survival curves up to 5 years after surgery were computed and compared. RESULTS:: All rejection episodes and most graft failures occurred during the first 2 years after surgery. In this period, rejection episodes were noted in 16% of PK and in 5% of DSAEK-treated eyes (P = 0.03). During the first 5 years, significantly more DSAEK grafts than PK grafts had failed (P = 0.04) but only 2 PK-treated and no DSAEK-treated grafts failed because of rejection. CONCLUSION:: The frequency of graft rejection episodes is higher after PK than DSAEK for primary endothelial disease, despite the use of oral prednisolone in the PK group. Early graft failure is more common after DSAEK than after PK, whereas graft failure because of previous rejection episodes is uncommon after DSAEK and PK.

Hjortdal, Jesper; Pedersen, Iben B

2013-01-01

373

Measurement of visceral fat/subcutaneous fat ratio by 0.3 tesla MRI  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Visceral fat-type obesity is known to be closely related to hyperlipidemia and diabetes. The visceral fat area/subcutaneous fat area ratio is used for the diagnosis of visceral fat-type obesity. In this study, we measured the visceral and subcutaneous fat areas in the fat images obtained using 0.3 Tesla open-type MRI, and investigated their usefulness. A short repetition time (TR) was set to shorten the acquisition time, and in-phase and out-of-phase images were acquired during holding of breath. The visceral and subcutaneous fat areas were automatically measured from the fat image using a workstation. The measurements were compared with the visceral and subcutaneous fat areas measured by CT as the gold standard. No major differences were observed in the fat areas measured by MRI and CT. This method was capable of imaging during holding of breath, and clearly imaged visceral and subcutaneous fat. CT is not free from the concern of radiation exposure, whereas MRI is free from radiation. For measurement of the visceral and subcutaneous fat areas, 0.3 Tesla MRI was useful. (author)

374

Thiersch skin grafting in otologic surgery.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thiersch skin grafting is an old but highly effective surgical technique in otology. We frequently place a Thiersch graft after otologic procedures that either create a mastoid cavity or result in reduced skin coverage of a portion of the external auditory canal. The purpose of this article is to introduce this surgical technique to a new generation of otologists. We discuss its indications, the surgical technique, tips for a successful outcome, and postoperative care. A key to successful skin grafting is to perform the procedure about 10 days after the primary procedure to allow sufficient time for the formation of an adequate vascular bed at the recipient site. The goal in all cases is to achieve a safe, dry ear that is covered with keratinizing squamous epithelium. Thiersch grafting accomplishes this very well. PMID:23975487

Xu, Helen; Pollak, Natasha; Paparella, Michael M

2013-08-01

375

What Is Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting (CABG)?  

Science.gov (United States)

... Coronary artery bypass grafting or "CABG" (often pronounced "cabbage") is the most commonly performed "open heart" operation ... infarction . In some cases, particularly in individuals with diabetes mellitus , angina may be absent or infarctions "silent." ...

376

Experimental tendon grafting within intact tendon sheath.  

Science.gov (United States)

A chicken toe experimental model was used to study the fate of flexor tendon grafts, introduced into intact tendon sheaths. After perfusion of the limb by India Ink, the vascular pattern of the graft and the synovial sheath could be identified. The grafts showed no or few adhesions to the sheath. With time, there was a conversion from a diffuse superficial vascular pattern towards a concentration of vessels on the dorsal aspect of the graft. In a control group, where the sheath had been resected, adhesions were more apparent, and could be observed still after 16 weeks. These results are in complete agreement with previous experimental findings and further confirm the importance of an intact tube system in the digit. PMID:6197748

Eiken, O; Lundborg, G

1983-01-01

377

Radiation-induced grafting onto wool  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation-induced grafting tests were done on single wool fibres. Different vinyl monomers were used for this purpose and they were grafted in twenty different solvents which were selected for their swelling effiency and solvent parameters. The tests were done once with and once without the addition of water. The presence of water causes the polymer uptake to increase considerably. Formic acid/methanol and methanol were found to be the most suitable solvent systems, as they have the highest hydrogen-bond interaction effiency. The moisture uptake of wool depends on the hydrophily and hydrophoby of the grafted polymers. The single-fibre tests serve as a basis for analogous grafting tests on wool fabrics. The permanent- press was improved by graftng with hydrophoric polymers and polymers with a high glass-transition temperature

378

Subepithelial connective tissue graft: a case report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction and objective: Marginal tissue recession represents a common condition in Periodontology. Miller’s Classes I and II recessions, in which the etiological factors are well diagnosed and eliminated, show great predictability of total coverage when the technique of subepithelial connective tissue graft is used. This technique success has been mainly attributed to the double blood supply for graft’s nutrition, originating from the connective tissue of both the periosteum and flap. Case report and conclusion: The authors reported a clinical case in which a Miller’s Class I recession was treated by the surgical technique of subepithelial connective tissue graft, obtaining total coverage, eliminating the aesthetic deficiency and the dentin hypersensitivity complained by patient.

Juliana Alcarás Saraiva

2011-07-01

379

Radiation sterilization of human tissue grafts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The results of the interdisciplinary research performed at the Central Tissue Bank in Warsaw, in collaboration with radiation chemists from the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, indicate that radiation induced changes can be diminished by modification of the tissue preservation methods, and that to some extent it is possible to reduce undesired radiation induced damage to the tissue grafts. Further studies are, however, needed to optimize preservation and sterilization procedures for various types of tissue grafts

380

Strategies to improve macroencapsulated islet graft survival  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Chronic immunosuppressive therapy may have severe side-effects. In cell transplantation, the graft can be encapsulated within a membrane chamber, providing a physical barrier against the immune system. The cell graft then becomes dependent on the diffusion of nutrients and oxygen from the surrounding microcirculation. A major drawback has been the formation of avascular fibrotic tissue around the chamber. The immunoprotective device studied (TheraCyte ) has an outer membrane...

So?renby, Anne

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
381

Milk fat thermal properties and solid fat content in emmental cheese: a differential scanning calorimetry study.  

Science.gov (United States)

The experiments reported in this study give deeper insight into the crystallization of milk fat in Emmental cheese, which is the most widely consumed hard cheese in France. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used to monitor the thermal properties of milk fat after the main stages involved during manufacture of Emmental cheese. By heating the samples to 60 degrees C to eliminate their thermal history and cooling them at 2 degrees C/min, the liquid --> solid phase transition of fat was investigated. Confocal laser scanning microscopy was used to characterize in situ the supramolecular organization of milk fat dispersed in the casein matrix. The destabilization of fat globules by aggregation or coalescence and the formation of free fat during the manufacture altered the thermal properties of milk fat by increasing the initial temperature of crystallization and by the formation of 2 overlapping exotherms. The melting properties of the crystalline structures formed by fat at the temperatures used for ripening (12, 21, and 4 degrees C) were examined. Differential scanning calorimetry was used to determine the ratio of solid to liquid fat; that is, the amount of fat that is crystallized, by dividing the partial enthalpy of melting of the fat for ripening temperature by the total enthalpy of melting of the same fat extracted from cheese. This study shows, for the first time, that milk fat is partially crystallized in Emmental cheese: about 55.7 +/- 3.5% of fat is solid at 4 degrees C at the end of ripening. Polymorphic phase transitions of milk fat are also suggested during ripening of Emmental cheese. PMID:16840605

Lopez, C; Briard-Bion, V; Camier, B; Gassi, J-Y

2006-08-01

382

Polypeptide Grafted Hyaluronan: Synthesis and Characterization  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Poly(L-leucine) grafted hyaluronan (HA-g-PLeu) has been synthesized via a Michael addition reaction between primary amine terminated poly(L-leucine) and acrylate-functionalized HA (TBAHA-acrylate). The precursor hyaluronan was first functionalized with acrylate groups by reaction with acryloyl chloride in the presence of triethylamine in N,N-dimethylformamide. 1H NMR analysis of the resulting product indicated that an increase in the concentration of acryloylchoride with respect to hydroxyl groups on HA has only a moderate effect on functionalization efficiency, f. A precise control of stoichiometry was not achieved, which could be attributed to partial solubility of intermolecular aggregates and the hygroscopic nature of HA. Michael addition at high [PLeu- NH2]/[acrylate]TBAHA ratios gave a molar grafting ratio of only 0.20 with respect to the repeat unit of HA, indicating grafting limitation due to insolubility of the grafted HA-g-PLeu. Soluble HA-g-PLeu graft copolymers were obtained for low grafting ratios (<0.039) with <8.6% by mass of PLeu and were characterized thoroughly using light scattering, 1H NMR, FT-IR, and AFM techniques. Light scattering experiments showed a strong hydrophobic interaction between PLeu chains, resulting in aggregates with segregated nongrafted HA segments. This yields local networks of aggregates, as demonstrated by atomic force microscopy. Circular dichroism spectroscopy showed a -sheet conformation for aggregates of poly(L-leucine).

Wang, Xiaojun [ORNL; Messman, Jamie M [ORNL; Mays, Jimmy [ORNL; Baskaran, Durairaj [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

2010-01-01

383

Local graft irradiation in renal transplant rejection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

From 1977 to 1988, of 142 renal transplantations, seven recipients (4.9%) received local graft irradiation following rejective reaction refractory to antirejection medical managements. Concurrent with the administration of pulsed high dose methylprednisolone and other antirejection medical managements, the graft was irradiated with a total dose of 6.0 Gy-150 cGy per fraction every other day at the midplane of the graft using two opposing portals of 4MX Linac. The fields were defined by palpation and echography. All patients had improvements in serum creatinine on the 10th day after beginning the irradiation. Four patients with peripheral lymphocytosis during the irradiation combined with pulsed high dose methylprednisolone improved in renal functions. On the other hand, out of 3 patients with lymphcytopenic changes, in two the transplanted graft was removed due to deteriorations, and the other patient is currently suffering from chronic rejection. Local graft irradiation can be useful in maintaining a rejective graft and reversing its functions in some patients whose rejective reaction failed to respond to the antirejection medical managements. (author)

384

Local graft irradiation in renal transplant rejection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

From 1977 to 1988, of 142 renal transplantations, seven recipients (4.9%) received local graft irradiation following rejective reaction refractory to antirejection medical managements. Concurrent with the administration of pulsed high dose methylprednisolone and other antirejection medical managements, the graft was irradiated with a total dose of 6.0 Gy-150 cGy per fraction every other day at the midplane of the graft using two opposing portals of 4MX Linac. The fields were defined by palpation and echography. All patients had improvements in serum creatinine on the 10th day after beginning the irradiation. Four patients with peripheral lymphocytosis during the irradiation combined with pulsed high dose methylprednisolone improved in renal functions. On the other hand, out of 3 patients with lymphcytopenic changes, in two the transplanted graft was removed due to deteriorations, and the other patient is currently suffering from chronic rejection. Local graft irradiation can be useful in maintaining a rejective graft and reversing its functions in some patients whose rejective reaction failed to respond to the antirejection medical managements. (author).

Kawamura, Masashi; Kataoka, Masaaki; Itoh, Hisao (Ehime Univ., Matsuyama (Japan). School of Medicine)

1990-04-01

385

Graft-copolymerization onto carbon black  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation-induced graft copolymerization of vinyl monomer onto carbon black was performed. During the ?-ray- and electron beam-induced polymerization (In-source), or the electron beam post-polymerization, the graft-copolymerization behavior was affected by the kinds of both carbon blacks and monomers, i.e. the smaller the size of carbon black particles, the higher the apparent grafted fraction. Homopolymer in the grafted carbon black samples was washed out by the solvent of the polymer, and the extracted polymer seemed to be dimer or trimer of the used monomer. In the case of the post-polymerization with the pre-irradiation doses of 50 Mrad, homopolymer was hardly observed. The polymer sheets of plastics or rubbers with grafted carbon black had an electrical conductivity unalterable considerably by the heating cycles. The particles of grafted carbon black in the sheet might be kept much more at the surface layer within 100 nm depth than at the inner layer. (author)

386

Comparisons between prosthetic vascular graft and saphenous vein graft in femoro-popliteal bypass  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose Infrainguinalfemoropopliteal bypass (IFPB) is recommended to peripheral arterial disease (PAD) with a long occlusion of the superficial femoral artery (SFA). The aims of our study were to determine the patency of graft materials, and identify the risk factors of graft failure. Methods From January 1995 to April 2011, we had performed 380 IFPBs in 351 patients, including 302 femoro-above the knee (AK) bypasses and 78 femoro-below the knee (BK) bypasses. We compare age, sex, severity of ischemia between polytetra-uoroethylene (PTFE) graft and saphenous vein (SV) graft, and evaluate patency rate rates of the two groups. Results The primary patency rates at 5 years for SV (n = 76 limbs) and PTFE grafts (n = 226 limbs) in AK were 85.2% and 64.5% (log rank = 0.03), and the secondary patency rates at 5 years for SV and PTFE grafts in AK were 88.2% and 79.0% (log rank = 0.13). The primary patency rates at 5 years for SV (n = 50 limbs) and PTFE grafts (n = 28 limbs) in BK were 63.2% and 40.0% (log rank = 0.08), and the secondary patency rates at 5 years for SV and PTFE grafts in BK were 71.6% and 55.5% (log rank = 0.18). Conclusion There was no statistical significant difference in secondary patency rates between SV and PTFE in IFPB. PTFE grafts as SV grafts can be a good alternative bypass material in IFPB instead of SV grafts. PMID:25025025

Park, Keun-Myoung; Kim, Young Wook; Yang, Shin-Seok

2014-01-01

387

Indirect MR-arthrography in osteochondral autograft and crushed bone graft with a collagen membrane-Correlation with histology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Objective: To analyze the spectrum of findings in indirect MR-arthrography following osteochondral autograft transfer system (OATS) and crushed bone graft using a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scoring and grading system in relation to histology as the standard of reference. Materials and methods: Iatrogenic lesions were set at ovine condylar facets (n = 6/group), treated with OATS or crushed bone graft. 1.5 T MRI was performed 6 months after surgery using PD-weighted (w fat saturated (fs) fast spin echo (FSE), T1-w 2D, and 3D fs gradient echo (GE) sequences 30 min. after i.v. Gd-DTPA administration and passive joint exercise. The repair tissue was evaluated by two independent radiologists. The MR findings were compared to histology. Results: In all cases, MRI and histologic grading correlated well and showed significant superior repair in OATS at 6 months (p < 0.05), reproducing the original articular contour and a good subchondral restoration. FsT1-w3DGE proved most appropriate identifying characteristic post-operative findings: the OATS group demonstrated bone marrow edema at the donor site and the graft/host interface showed significant enhancement in indirect MR-arthrography, indicating fibrocartilage. After crushed bone graft, we found an irregular structure and significant contrast uptake, consistent with remnants of bone grafts surrounded by inflammatory tissue. Conclusion: Indirect MR-arthrography is an accurate, non-invasive monitoring tool following OATS and crushed bone graft as the MRI scoring and grading system allows a reliable evaluation of normal and pathological osteochondral repair with a high histologic correlation.

Streitparth, F. [Klinik fuer Strahlenheilkunde, Charite, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Humboldt-University, Berlin (Germany)], E-mail: florian.streitparth@charite.de; Schoettle, P.; Schell, H. [Center for Musculoskeletal Surgery, Charite, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Humboldt-University, Berlin (Germany); Lehmkuhl, L.; Madej, T.; Wieners, G. [Klinik fuer Strahlenheilkunde, Charite, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Humboldt-University, Berlin (Germany); Duda, G.N. [Center for Musculoskeletal Surgery, Charite, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Humboldt-University, Berlin (Germany); Schroeder, R.J. [Klinik fuer Strahlenheilkunde, Charite, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Humboldt-University, Berlin (Germany)

2009-04-15

388

Stress prompts brown fat into combustion.  

Science.gov (United States)

Activation of dorsomedial hypothalamic-rostral medullary raphe neural signaling promotes brown fat thermogenesis, leading to elevated body temperature. In this issue, Kataoka et al. (2014) establish an important role for this brain-brown fat thermogenic action in psychological stress-induced hyperthermia in rats, implying a potential mechanism behind human psychogenic fever. PMID:25100061

Bi, Sheng

2014-08-01

389

Bioelectrical impedance analysis of bovine milk fat  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Three samples of 250ml at home temperature of 20°C were obtained from whole, low fat and fat free bovine UHT milk. They were analysed by measuring both impedance spectra and dc conductivity in order to establish the relationship between samples related to fat content. An impedance measuring system was developed, which is based on digital oscilloscope, a current source and a FPGA. Data was measured by the oscilloscope in the frequency 1 kHz to 100 kHz. It was showed that there is approximately 7.9% difference in the conductivity between whole and low fat milk whereas 15.9% between low fat and free fat one. The change of fatness in the milk can be significantly sensed by both impedance spectra measurements and dc conductivity. This result might be useful for detecting fat content of milk in a very simple way and also may help the development of sensors for measuring milk quality, as for example the detection of mastitis.

390

Usual Intake of Energy from solid fats  

Science.gov (United States)

Usual Intake of Energy from solid fats Table A39. Energy from solid fats: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 kilocalories Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 250.1

391

Protect Your Heart: Choose Healthy Fats  

Science.gov (United States)

Why should I choose healthy fats? Diabetes raises your chances of having a heart attack or a stroke. But you can protect your heart and blood vessels ... in each food. Protect Your Heart: Choose Healthy Fats American Diabetes Association? ? 1–800–DIABETES (342–2383)? ? ...

392

MR imaging of osteochondral grafts and autologous chondrocyte implantation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Surgical articular cartilage repair therapies for cartilage defects such as osteochondral autograft transfer, autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) or matrix associated autologous chondrocyte transplantation (MACT) are becoming more common. MRI has become the method of choice for non-invasive follow-up of patients after cartilage repair surgery. It should be performed with cartilage sensitive sequences, including fat-suppressed proton density-weighted T2 fast spin-echo (PD/T2-FSE) and three-dimensional gradient-echo (3D GRE) sequences, which provide good signal-to-noise and contrast-to-noise ratios. A thorough magnetic resonance (MR)-based assessment of cartilage repair tissue includes evaluations of defect filling, the surface and structure of repair tissue, the signal intensity of repair tissue and the subchondral bone status. Furthermore, in osteochondral autografts surface congruity, osseous incorporation and the donor site should be assessed. High spatial resolution is mandatory and can be achieved either by using a surface coil with a 1.5-T scanner or with a knee coil at 3 T; it is particularly important for assessing graft morphology and integration. Moreover, MR imaging facilitates assessment of complications including periosteal hypertrophy, delamination, adhesions, surface incongruence and reactive changes such as effusions and synovitis. Ongoing developments include isotropic 3D sequences, for improved morphological analysis, and in vivo biochemical imaical analysis, and in vivo biochemical imaging such as dGEMRIC, T2 mapping and diffusion-weighted imaging, which make functional analysis of cartilage possible. (orig.)

393

Oxidation of fats and possibility of its inhibition  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Factors influencing on the inhibition of oxidation of fats are discussed. Thermal, microwave, photo-initiated and singlet oxygen oxidation of fats were studied. Additives of the rosemary or sage (0.1 mass %) inhibited oxidation of fats

394

9 CFR 327.20 - Importation of foreign inedible fats.  

Science.gov (United States)

...false Importation of foreign inedible fats. 327.20 Section 327.20 Animals...20 Importation of foreign inedible fats. No inedible grease, inedible tallow, or other inedible rendered fat shall be imported into the United...

2010-01-01

395

Fat Utilization for Pigs: A Review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The available energy in utilizable fats and oils is about 2.25 times that from utilizable carbohydrates (although, there is a considerable range in values, they supply essential fatty acids can have an influence on carcass quality and are useful in reducing dust and promoting palatability of compound diets. There are two kinds of oil sources. First, the major sources of vegetable oil are as follows: soya beans, palm, sunflower seed, rape seed, coconut, cotten seed. Second, the major sources of animal fats are as follows: cattle tallow sheep fat, pig lard and fish oils. For pigs, fats include decrease feed intake and increased palatability, growth rate, feed efficiency and carcass fat.

I.H. Kim

2012-01-01

396

Fat-suppressed body MR imaging  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A rapid method of fat suppression has been developed which requires only one data set acquisition. Fat suppression enhances subtle water contrast between various water- and fat-containing structures, including bladder, rectum, uterine anatomy, and breast parenchyma. Lymph nodes can be separated from fat and muscle as well as blood vessels, while signal contrast is preserved in other soft tissues. Fat suppression technique has a broad range of clinical applications. It increases diagnostic capabilities due to better visualization of subtle water contrast, and may actually decrease imaging time by replacing multiple spin-echo sequences. Examples obtained using a GE 1.5-T Signa system and projections for future applications are reviewed

397

Physical properties of agave cellulose graft polymethyl methacrylate  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The grafting polymerization of methyl methacrylate and Agave cellulose was prepared and their structural analysis and morphology were investigated. The grafting reaction was carried out in an aqueous medium using ceric ammonium nitrate as an initiator. The structural analysis of the graft copolymers was carried out by Fourier transform infrared and X-ray diffraction. The graft copolymers were also characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). An additional peak at 1732 cm{sup ?1} which was attributed to the C=O of ester stretching vibration of poly(methyl methacrylate), appeared in the spectrum of grafted Agave cellulose. A slight decrease of crystallinity index upon grafting was found from 0.74 to 0.68 for cellulose and grafted Agave cellulose, respectively. Another evidence of grafting showed in the FESEM observation, where the surface of the grafted cellulose was found to be roughed than the raw one.

Rosli, Noor Afizah; Ahmad, Ishak; Abdullah, Ibrahim; Anuar, Farah Hannan [Polymer Research Centre (PORCE), School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi Selangor (Malaysia)

2013-11-27

398

Physical properties of agave cellulose graft polymethyl methacrylate  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The grafting polymerization of methyl methacrylate and Agave cellulose was prepared and their structural analysis and morphology were investigated. The grafting reaction was carried out in an aqueous medium using ceric ammonium nitrate as an initiator. The structural analysis of the graft copolymers was carried out by Fourier transform infrared and X-ray diffraction. The graft copolymers were also characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). An additional peak at 1732 cm?1 which was attributed to the C=O of ester stretching vibration of poly(methyl methacrylate), appeared in the spectrum of grafted Agave cellulose. A slight decrease of crystallinity index upon grafting was found from 0.74 to 0.68 for cellulose and grafted Agave cellulose, respectively. Another evidence of grafting showed in the FESEM observation, where the surface of the grafted cellulose was found to be roughed than the raw one

399

Adaptation to fat markedly increases pancreatic secretory response to intraduodenal fat in rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Exposure to higher levels of fat in the diet increases the secretion of fat-digesting enzymes in pancreatic juice. This study examines the functional consequences of this phenomenon and demonstrates that adapting rats to high fat (triglyceride) loads increases the release of cholecystokinin (CCK) and the pancreatic secretory response to intraduodenal fat. Lipolytic activity in the small intestine was also higher in adapted rats. Exchanging pancreatic juice from unadapted rats with pancreatic juice from adapted rats decreased the response to fat in adapted rats and increased the response to fat in unadapted rats. Infusing oleic acid into unadapted rats stimulated CCK secretion and pancreatic exocrine secretion to levels observed with triglycerides in adapted rats. Pancreatic exocrine secretion in response to intraduodenal fat in rats adapted to a high-fat (20%) diet were significantly higher than the responses seen in rats fed a low-fat (5%) diet. Adaptation to fat increases the pancreatic secretory and plasma CCK responses to fat, apparently by increasing the efficiency of triglyceride digestion and thereby increasing CCK release. PMID:8772510

Spannagel, A W; Nakano, I; Tawil, T; Chey, W Y; Liddle, R A; Green, G M

1996-01-01

400

A fat gluino in disguise  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper, we investigate how a sizeable width-to-mass ratio for a gluino, as is for example realized in GMSB scenarios, could affect the discovery potential of gluinos at the LHC. More importantly, the influence of the gluino being ''fat'' on the standard mass and spin determination methods at the LHC are investigated. For this purpose, we focus on gluino production at the LHC, where we do not factorize the first step in the gluino decay cascade, but treat the following decay cascades step in factorization, including full spin correlations. The effects of sizeable width-to-mass ratios from a few up to 15-20 per cent on the endpoint of several mass determination methods as well as on means for discrimination between BSM spin paradigms like SUSY and UED are studied.

 
 
 
 
401

Fat tails in power prices  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Spot power prices exhibit extreme price jumps and the tendency to oscillate around a long-term mean. Despite these well-known characteristics, electricity price models used for Monte Carlo simulations, VaR related measures, or derivatives valuation, often assume normally distributed residuals. In this paper, we examine the distributional characteristics of model residuals and show that the hypothesis of normality is rejected due to significant tail fatness and skewness. We then examine the Student-t distribution as a candidate fit for residuals and as an alternative distribution for random innovations in Monte Carlo simulations. The resulting price patterns clearly show that simulations based on the Student-t distribution resemble more closely actual power price patters. We then discuss the implications of our results for risk management

402

Haemostatic function in precocious myocardial infarction and vein graft occlusion after coronary artery bypass grafting  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Haemostatic function in precocious myocardial infarction and early vein graft occlusion after coronary artery bypass grafting Elisabeth Moor The Cardiology Unit and the King Gustaf V Research Institute, Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institute, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden The present study examined the role of blood coagulation and fibrinolytic function in patients with coronary heart disease in two settings; in patients with precocious myocardial ...

Moor, Elisabeth

1997-01-01

403

Jejunal graft conduits after esophagectomy  

Science.gov (United States)

Introduction The jejunum is uniquely suitable for esophageal reconstruction because it is relatively abundant, does not require a formal preparation, is typically free of disease, has similar luminal size compared to the esophagus, has intrinsic peristalsis, and may not undergo senescent lengthening to the extent that colon does. Methods To obtain data to determine the outcomes of jejunal interposition for esophageal replacement, electronic databases were searched, including MEDLINE (Ovid SP), Scopus, EMBASE (Ovid SP), Science Direct’s full-text database, and the Cochrane Library from January 1990 to September 2013. Results Two-hundred and forty-six abstracts were reviewed and an article search was performed on selected abstracts. Additional references from article bibliographies were included as appropriate. A thorough search of the literature demonstrates the widespread use of jejunum, either as a free, pedicled, or free- and pedicled-graft with acceptable results. Conclusions Any region of the esophagus can be replaced by jejunum, whether it is distal esophagus as a Merendino procedure for a vagal-sparing esophagectomy and segmental jejunal reconstruction connected to stomach, mid-thoracic esophagus as a pedicled jejunal interposition or free flap, cervical esophagus as a free segmental interposition, or the entire length as a long-segment super-charged pedicled jejunal interposition. When used, the jejunum is either pedicled, augmented (“super-charged”), a free segment (requiring microvascular anastomosis of artery and vein), or a combination of the above. PMID:24876939

Gaur, Puja

2014-01-01

404

Isotopic scintigraphy in kidney grafting  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Isotopic explorations of kidney transplants were performed on sixty-six patients. Three scintigraphic techniques were used: labelled ferrous ascorbate scintigraphy, sequential 99m technetium DTPA scintigraphy and the 131I hippuran nephrogram. The aim of this study is to analyse the results obtained under different pathological circumstances affecting the transplant, to discuss the advantages of the techniques and to propose a working procedure. The most reliable and accurate technique is the 131I hippuran nephrogram combined with sequential 99mTc DTPA, by which renal vascularisation may be judged labelled ferrous ascorbate on the other hand is too insensitive. Although the information supplied is mostly contained in the scintigraphic images, the nephrographic curves and the blood radioactivity decay time and rad V/rad R ratio measurements are very helpful in the early diagnosis and differential diagnosis of complications affecting the transplant. The proper use of isotopic scintigraphy in kidney grafting should provide optimum conditions for better survival of the transplant at minimum risk to the patient

405

Radiation-induced graft copolymerization to polyester, 19  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Resistivity of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) fibers grafted with various hydrophilic monomers to alkaline media was tested by treating the graft fibers in boiling 1% aqueous sodium carbonate for 4 hr. The higher the percent weight loss of the fiber by the treatment the lower the resistivity. The results are as follows: (a) Two types of fibers which have been grafted with acrylic acid are compared; one is grafted rather homogeneously and thoroughly (by microscopic observation of cross section of the dyed fiber) and the other is grafted only peripherally (showing coloured ring in cross section). It is noteworthy that the two fibers show practically no difference in the alkali-resistivity. When the percent apparent graft is 5%, the weight loss exceeds 30%. (b) Neither cross linking of polyacrylic acid grafted on PET by irradiation with ?-rays nor additional grafting with hydrophobic monomers improved the alkali-sensitivity of the graft fibers. (c) PET fiber grafted with methacrylic acid shows almost the same low resistivity as fiber grafted with acrylic acid. Behaviour of vinylpyrrolidone is not far different from that of acrylic or methacrylic acid. (d) The decrease of the alkali-sensitivity of PET fiber by grafting of 4-vinyl pyridine is very small. The graft fibers may be regarded to be alkali-insensitive. (e) PET fibers grafted with monomethacrylates of ethylene- and polyethylene-glycos show higher alkali-resistivity than fibers grafted with acrylic acid. (f) PET fibers grafted with diacrylates and dimethacrylates of polyethylene glycols show good resistivity to alkaline media. Due to large molecular size of these monomers and crosslinking during the reaction, the apparent grafting takes place only on the surface of the fibers. Taking into account the experimental results of Schamberg, it may be concluded that the decrease in the alkali-resistivity of PET grafted with acidic monomers is attributed to such a structure change of PET matrix that alkali can easily penetrate into the matrix to hydrolyse PET. (author)

406

The influence of fat score and fat trimming on primal cut composition of South African lamb  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english The objectives of this study were to evaluate the primal cut composition of South African lamb carcasses with different fat scores, and to identify cuts suitable for fat trimming. Sixty grain fed Dorper lambs (rams and ewes) were divided into three groups and slaughtered at 30, 36 and 42 kg. Chilled [...] carcass sides were subdivided into seven primal cuts. The cuts were dissected into meat (muscle, intermuscular and intramuscular fat), bone and subcutaneous fat (SCF) in order to determine the physical composition per cut and for the whole carcass. The % subcutaneous fat (SCF) in the loin increased the most (26 units) as the fat score increased from 1 to 5, followed by the flank, shoulder and neck. The % meat (lean) of the neck, thick rib and breast showed no significant change between fat scores 1 to 5, while % bone decreased significantly (>6% units). Meat and bone proportions decreased significantly with an increase in fat score for the loin, flank, leg and shoulder. The composition of the loin cut was most affected overall by changes in the fat score. Since different cuts accumulate SCF at different rates during fattening, trimming of SCF could reduce the boneless % SCF level of the major cuts such as the loin, leg and shoulder by 12, 6 and 9 units, respectively, when trimmed from SCF equal to a fat score 5 to a fat score 3. Further trimming to levels equal to a fat score 1, could reduce the % SCF by 18, 8 and 5 units, respectively on a boneless level. Considering differences in relative increase in intermuscular fat (IMF) and SCF in different cuts, the leg seems to be the most suitable cut for trimming in fat carcasses, since the IMF : SCF ratio is the lowest compared to the other larger cuts namely the loin and shoulder.

P.E., Strydom; S.M., van Heerden; H.C., Schönfeldt; R., Kruger; M.F., Smith.

407

Fat Avoidance and Replacement Behaviors Predict Low-Fat Intake Among Urban, African American Adolescents  

Science.gov (United States)

Using measures of behaviors shown to predict low-fat intake in previous research, this study examined whether the behaviors would predict low-fat intake among urban, African American adolescents. Recruited through youth services agencies in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, participants were 399 African American adolescents (67% female) with a mean age of 13.09 years (range, 10–15 years). Fat-related dietary behaviors were measured using items that were adapted from the Food Habits Questionnaire. Fat intake was measured using the Block Fat Screener. Spearman correlations examined the relationships between fat-related dietary behaviors and fat intake. Seven behaviors were significantly associated with low-fat intake: had chicken that was baked or broiled instead of fried; ordered pasta or pizza served without meat sauce or meat toppings; had a vegetarian dinner; used low-calorie instead of regular salad dressing; ate at least two vegetables (not green salad) at dinner; ate bread, rolls, or muffins without butter or margarine; and avoided foods that were fried in oil, shortening, or lard. Using multiple regression, fat intake was regressed on the linear combination of demographic variables and these fat-related dietary behaviors. The regression equation accounted for 17% of the variance in fat intake, adjusted R2 = 0.13. Fat avoidance (ate bread, rolls, or muffins without butter or margarine) and replacement (ordered pasta or pizza served without meat sauce or meat toppings) behaviors were significant predictors of low-fat intake. Dietary interventions to lower fat intake among urban, African American adolescents should promote the adoption of these behaviors. PMID:19083432

Noia, Jennifer Di; Contento, Isobel R.; Schinke, Steven P.

2008-01-01

408

Study on grafting glycidyl methacrylate onto HDPE membranes by pre-irradiation graft copolymerization  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) was grafted onto HDPE membranes by pre-irradiation method with 1.8 MeV E-beam and a kind of membranes having reactive epoxy groups was successfully synthesized. Effects of monomer concentration, reaction temperature and time and irradiation dose on the grafting yield were studied. Composition, thermo-property and surface morphology of the grafted membranes were studied by FTIR, DSC and Tapping-mode AFM, respectively. The FTIR measurements proved the synthesized copolymer is HDPE-g-GMA. The DSC results indicated the grafted HDPE's melting temperature (Tm) and heat of fusion (?Hf(HDPE)) which was reduced with increasing grafting yield. The AFM images indicated that surface of the HDPE-g-GMA membranes was rougher than the virgin HDPE. (authors)

409

Development of Highly Efficient Grafting Technique and Synthesis of Natural Polymer-Based Graft Adsorbent  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the framework of the CRP, Japan has focused on the development of fibrous adsorbents for removal of toxic metal ions and recovery of significant metal ions from industrial wastewater and streaming water. Graft polymerization was carried out by using gamma irradiation facility and electron beam accelerator. Emulsion grafting is a novel topic for synthesis of metal ion adsorbents which are prepared from fibrous trunk polymers such as polyethylene fibre and biodegradable nonwoven fabrics. The emulsion grafting, where monomer micelles are dispersed in water in the presence of surfactant, is a highly efficient and economic grafting technique as compared to general organic solvent system. The resultant cotton-based adsorbent has high adsorption efficiency and high adsorption capacity for Hg, besides, it is biodegradable. Polylactic acid can also be used as a trunk material for the grafting. (author)

410

Effect of acid additives on grafting efficiency and water absorption of hydrolyzed cassava starch grafted polymers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Gelatinized cassava starch was radiation graft copolymerized with acrylamide, acrylic acid or their mixture in the presence of sulphuric acid or maleic acid. Various acid concentrations were used from 0.001 to 0.1 M of sulphuric acid while the maleic acid concentrations were varied from 1 to 3% (by weight). The optimum total dose and dose rate were investigated. The saponification temperature and time had the marked effects on grafting characteristics and water absorption capacity. We found that the effect of maleic acid addition gave a profound effect on water absorption. The CHNS/O analyses indicated significant changes in the nitrogen content in the hydrolyzed starch grafted polyacrylamide with 2% maleic acid. The article explains the possible causes for the enhancement influence of mineral acid and maleic acid on grafting behavior and water absorption of the saponified cassava starch grafted polyacrylamide super absorbent polymer. (author)

411

Body Fat, Abdominal Fat, and Body Fat Distribution Is Related to Left Atrial Diameter in Young Children  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In adults, the size of the left atria (LA) has important prognostic information. In obese adults, adolescents and children enlargement of LA have been observed. This has not been investigated on a population-based level in young children. We therefore assessed if total body fat mass (TBF), abdominal fat, and body fat distribution were related to LA diameter. Cross-sectional study of 244 children (boys = 137 and girls n = 107) aged 8-11 years, recruited from an urban population-based cohort. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measured total lean body mass, TBF, and abdominal fat mass (AFM). Body fat was also calculated as a percentage of body mass (BF%). Body fat distribution (AFM/TBF) was calculated. Echocardiography was performed with two-dimensional guided M-mode. LA diameter was measured and left ventricular mass (LVM) was calculated. Systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure were measured and maturity assessed according to Tanner. There were significant (P <0.05) univariate correlations forall children between TBF (r = 0.40), BF% (r = 0.32), AFM (r = 0.41), and AFM/TBF (r = 0.41) vs. LA diameter. Multiple regression analyses with the inclusion of possible confounders such as lean body mass, blood pressure, gender, age, and Tanner stage revealed that TBF, AFM, and AFM/TBF were all independently related to LA diameter. Differences in the different body fat measurements explained 6-9% of the variance in LA size. These results demonstrated that both total body fat, AFM, and body fat distribution are already at a young age negatively and independently associated to LA diameter.

Dencker, Magnus; Thorsson, Ola

2012-01-01

412

Adolescent External Iliac Artery Trauma: Recurrent Aneurysmal Dilatation of an Iliofemoral Saphenous Vein Graft Treated by Stent-Grafting  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An adolescent male sustained a severe penetrating injury to the external iliac artery. Emergency surgical revascularization was with a reversed long saphenous vein interposition graft. The primary graft and the subsequent revision graft both became aneurysmal. The second graft aneurysm was successfully excluded by endovascular stent-grafts with medium-term primary patency. A venous graft was used initially rather than a synthetic graft to reduce the risk of infection and the potential problems from future growth. Aneurysmal dilatation of venous grafts in children and adolescents is a rare but recognized complication. To the best of our knowledge, exclusion of these aneurysms with stent-grafts has not been previously reported in the adolescent population.

413

Subpleural thoracic fat as defined with CT of the chest  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Consecutive computed tomographic (CT) examinations of the chest (n=202) were reviewed to determine the location, thickness, and extent of subpleural fat. Patient age, thickness of subcutaneous fat, and adjacent pleural or parenchymal abnormalities were recorded. Subpleural fat was most often identified in the paravertebral region (48%) and in the apices (23%). Fatty deposits anterolaterally were seen in seven individuals. Subpleural fat thickness ranged from 1 to 19 mm, except in the apex, where fat sometimes filled the space. A direct relationship between subcutaneous fat thickness and a higher incidence of subpleural fat was observed in the paravertebral region. Subpleural fat occurs commonly in the paravertebral regions but is unusual in other areas

414

Anterior cruciate ligament graft choices: a review of current concepts.  

Science.gov (United States)

The graft choice for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction continues to be controversial. There are several options available for the treating surgeon, including Bone Patellar Tendon Bone (BPTB) grafts, Hamstring tendon (HT) grafts, allografts and synthetic grafts. Within the last decade there have been several comparative trials and meta-analysis, which have failed to provide an answer with regards to the best graft available. The aim of this review is to understand the current concepts in graft choices for ACL reconstruction. PMID:22888379

Dheerendra, Sujay K; Khan, Wasim S; Singhal, Rohit; Shivarathre, Deepak G; Pydisetty, Ravi; Johnstone, David

2012-01-01

415

Indications and results of omental pedicle grafts in oncology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Sixty omental grafts were performed in our department. Sixty-two percent concerned breast cancer patients. Other grafts were undertaken for other cancers: head and neck, gynecologic urologic and intestinal, skin and soft tissue tumors. These grafts were indicated for radionecrosis or chemonecrosis in 33 cases and for cancer recurrence in 26 cases (among whom 24 were previously irradiated). Only one graft was performed for lymphoedema treatment. Overall, fifty four patients (83.5%) had successful grafts, and six (16.5%) had graft failures. According to the treated lesion we obtained 82% of successful treatment among patients treated for radio or chemonecrosis, and 92% for patients treated for recurrences.

Petit, J.Y.; Lacour, J.; Margulis, A.; Reed, W.P.

1979-12-01

416

Grafting of acrylamide onto synthetic co polyamide by gamma irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Grafted copolymer was prepared by using gamma irradiation to graft acrylamide onto polymeric molecule prepared by interfacial condensation between two diamine molecules like 1,2 diamino propane and 1,6 diamino-hexane in aqueous layer with sebacoyl chloride in organic layer. The resulted co polyamide was grafted with acrylamide using gamma irradiation. The optimum conditions of grafting reaction were found, also various factors such as the effect of solvents, redox systems and the role water on the radiochemical grafting were studied. Many techniques were used in the characterization of the copolymer before and after grafting. 8 figs.,

417

Cure grafting - a complementary technique to preirradiation and simultaneous processes?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A novel radiation grafting process, termed cure grafting, based on curing of donor/acceptor (DA) monomers as charge transfer complexes initiated by UV or any ionising radiation source, is proposed. The system is complementary to the existing preirradiation and simultaneous radiation grafting methods. The advantages and disadvantages of cure grafting are summarised. Examples of cure grafting using representative DA monomers are described with cellulose as model substrate in the presence of UV or EB. A unique property of cure grafting is that the yield is known quantitatively prior to irradiation

418

Growth and Yield of Watermelon as Influenced by Grafting  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The study was conducted to determine the effect of grafting on the growth, yield and control of wilt disease of watermelon. Grafting of watermelon on bottle gourd root stock significantly reduced the wilt disease in the field. Grafting also produced higher number of fruits per plant (5.25) and larger fruit (30.30 cm) which ultimately produced higher yield (56.92 t/ha?1) than non grafted plants. The grafts produced 3.5 times higher yield than non grafts.

Salam, M. A.; Masum, A. S. M. H.; Chowdhury, S. S.; Monoranjan Dhar; Saddeque, M. A.; Islam, M. R.

2002-01-01

419

Synthesis and Modification of Polypropylene by Radiation-induced Grafting  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Polypropylene fiber (PP was radiation-induced graft polymerization of lauryl acrylate (LA and butyl acrylate (BAusing a 60Co gamma radiation source. Then the grafted polypropylene fiber was characterized by a Fourier transforminfrared (FT-IR spectrometer, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC andthermogravimetry (TG, which indicated that LA and BA have been grafted onto PP. The article focused on somefactors that influenced on the graft degree, such as the cross-linking agent concentration, monomer concentration. Theresults showed that: the degree of grafting BA reached the maximum of 20.53%, while the maximum graft degree of LAwas 29.90%.

Feng Yuan

2009-02-01

420

Characterization of N-isopropyl acrylamide/acrylic acid grafted polypropylene nonwoven fabric developed by radiation-induced graft polymerization  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation-induced graft copolymerization of N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAAm) and acrylic acid (AA) mixture was carried out on polypropylene nonwoven fabric to develop a thermosensitive material and has been found to affect the thermal and physical characteristics of fabric. The grafted fabrics with different monomer ratios were characterized by thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD), contact angle and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Results of FTIR clearly indicated that poly(acrylic acid) and poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide) were successfully grafted onto the membrane surface. TGA results showed that the thermal stability of PP fabric increased after grafting of NIPAAm/AA. The crystallinity values from DSC and XRD were found to decrease with increase in degree of grafting because of the addition of grafted chains within the noncrystalline region. The decrease in contact angles of the grafted fabric with an increase of the degree of grafting shows that PNIPAAm/PAA exists as the hydrophilic component. The increase in surface roughness after grafting was observed by AFM. - Highlights: ? Grafting of NIPAAm/AA affects the thermal and physical characteristics of fabric. ? Thermal stability of PP fabric increased after grafting of NIPAAm/AA. ? Contact angles of the grafted fabric decrease with an increase of grafting yield. ? PNIPAAm/PAA was found to exist as the hAm/PAA was found to exist as the hydrophilic component. ? AFM images showed that there is an increase in surface roughness after grafting.

 
 
 
 
421

Teratoma with intraventricular free fat on CT  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Intracranial fat-containing congenital tumors are characterized by negative absorption values on computed tomography(CT). We are reporting a case of teratoma with intraventricular free fat diagnosed preoperatively by CT. The case is a 19-year-old female who was admitted to our hospital because of contineous severe headache, nausea and vomiting. At the time of admission, her physical and neurological examination was negative except for bilateral papilledema. CT demonstrated marked enlargement of the right lateral ventricle. In addition, there was negative absorption value (-90 H.U.), suggesting free fat, within right frontal horn layering above the CSF with a fluid level. Metrizamide ventriculography demonstrated complete obstruction and revealed an irregular shadow defect at the right foramen of Monro. At surgery, yellowish cheese-like material, white hair was found on the surface of the CSF. Tumor arose from the floor of the right foramen of Monro and extended upward. The patient made an uneventful recovery and was discharged 17 days after surgery. Intraventricular free fat is likely that to be released from the teratoma cyst ruptured spontaneously when the patient complained of severe headache 40 days prior to admission. There have been several published reports of the CT appearances of intracranial fat-containing tumors, however, teratoma with intraventricular free fat is very rare. It was concluded that fat-containing tumors should be highly suspected, when negatirs should be highly suspected, when negative absorption values were found on CT. (author)

422

Fat augmentation for nonparalytic glottic insufficiency.  

Science.gov (United States)

While autogenous fat augmentation for glottic insufficiency has been used before, relatively little information is currently available on the effectiveness of fat injection in patients with nonparalytic glottic insufficiency resulting from problems such as various defects of vocal atrophy or sulcus vocalis. This paper compares retrospectively the efficiency of fat injection after surgery in patients with vocal atrophy (n = 16) and sulcus vocalis (n = 8). The perceptual acoustic and phonatory functions and videolaryngostroboscopic data were evaluated before and after fat augmentation in 24 patients. The mean follow-up time was 19.5 months. Fifteen patients displayed excellent results; 1 showed some improvement; 6 experienced postprocedure failure, and 2 were not available for follow-up analysis. Perceptual rating showed significant improvement in grade, roughness and breathiness (p sulcus vocalis following fat injection procedures. Our research showed that middle defects improved more compared to those in the anterior and posterior area. Fat injection is an effective autogenous implant and may be considered as an option in the treatment of patients with vocal atrophy or sulcus vocalis. Although fat reabsorption was a problem, repeating the procedure could be considered. PMID:12925819

Chen, Yen-Yu; Pai, Lu; Lin, Yaoh-Shiang; Wang, Hsing-Won; Hsiung, Ming-Wang

2003-01-01

423

Overfeeding polyunsaturated and saturated fat causes distinct effects on liver and visceral fat accumulation in humans.  

Science.gov (United States)

Excess ectopic fat storage is linked to type 2 diabetes. The importance of dietary fat composition for ectopic fat storage in humans is unknown. We investigated liver fat accumulation and body composition during overfeeding saturated fatty acids (SFAs) or polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). LIPOGAIN was a double-blind, parallel-group, randomized trial. Thirty-nine young and normal-weight individuals were overfed muffins high in SFAs (palm oil) or n-6 PUFAs (sunflower oil) for 7 weeks. Liver fat, visceral adipose tissue (VAT), abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), total adipose tissue, pancreatic fat, and lean tissue were assessed by magnetic resonance imaging. Transcriptomics were performed in SAT. Both groups gained similar weight. SFAs, however, markedly increased liver fat compared with PUFAs and caused a twofold larger increase in VAT than PUFAs. Conversely, PUFAs caused a nearly threefold larger increase in lean tissue than SFAs. Increase in liver fat directly correlated with changes in plasma SFAs and inversely with PUFAs. Genes involved in regulating energy dissipation, insulin resistance, body composition, and fat-cell differentiation in SAT were differentially regulated between diets, and associated with increased PUFAs in SAT. In conclusion, overeating SFAs promotes hepatic and visceral fat storage, whereas excess energy from PUFAs may instead promote lean tissue in healthy humans. PMID:24550191

Rosqvist, Fredrik; Iggman, David; Kullberg, Joel; Cedernaes, Jonathan; Johansson, Hans-Erik; Larsson, Anders; Johansson, Lars; Ahlström, Håkan; Arner, Peter; Dahlman, Ingrid; Risérus, Ulf

2014-07-01

424

Detection of non-milk fat in milk fat by gas chromatography and linear discriminant analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Gas chromatography was utilized to determine triacylglycerol profiles in milk and non-milk fat. The values of triacylglycerol were subjected to linear discriminant analysis to detect and quantify non-milk fat in milk fat. Two groups of milk fat were analyzed: A) raw milk fat from the central region of Mexico (n = 216) and B) ultrapasteurized milk fat from 3 industries (n = 36), as well as pork lard (n = 2), bovine tallow (n = 2), fish oil (n = 2), peanut (n = 2), corn (n = 2), olive (n = 2), and soy (n = 2). The samples of raw milk fat were adulterated with non-milk fats in proportions of 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20% to form 5 groups. The first function obtained from the linear discriminant analysis allowed the correct classification of 94.4% of the samples with levels adulteration. The triacylglycerol values of the ultrapasteurized milk fats were evaluated with the discriminant function, demonstrating that one industry added non-milk fat to its product in 80% of the samples analyzed. PMID:19389942

Gutiérrez, R; Vega, S; Díaz, G; Sánchez, J; Coronado, M; Ramírez, A; Pérez, J; González, M; Schettino, B

2009-05-01

425

Rheological properties of ice cream mixes and frozen ice creams containing fat and fat replacers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ice cream mixes and frozen ice creams at milk fat levels of 12%, 8%, 6%, 6% plus a protein-based fat replacer, and 6% plus a carbohydrate-based fat replacer were evaluated for viscoelastic properties by dynamic testing with sinusoidal oscillatory tests at various frequencies. The storage modulus (G'), loss modulus (G"), and tan delta (G"/G') were calculated for all the treatments to determine changes in the viscous and elastic properties of the mixes and frozen ice creams due to fat content. In ice cream mixes, G' and G" exhibited a strong frequency dependence. The G" was higher than G' throughout the frequency range (1 to 8 Hz) examined, without any crossover, except for the 12% mix. Elastic properties of the ice cream mixes decreased as fat content decreased. Tan delta values indicated that fat replacers did not enhance the elastic properties of the ice cream mixes. In all frozen ice creams, G' and G" again showed a frequency dependence throughout the range tested (0.5 to 10 Hz). The amount of fat in ice creams and the degree of fat destabilization affected the elasticity in the frozen product. Even though the ice creams did not have significant elastic properties, when compared as a group the samples with higher fat content had higher elastic properties. The addition of protein-based and carbohydrate-based fat replacers did not enhance the elastic properties of the ice creams but did increase the viscous properties. PMID:11049062

Adapa, S; Dingeldein, H; Schmidt, K A; Herald, T J

2000-10-01

426

Corneal Graft Rejection: Incidence and Risk Factors  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

PURPOSE: To determine the incidence and risk factors of late corneal graft rejection after penetrating keratoplasty (PKP. METHODS: Records of all patients who had undergone PKP from 2002 to 2004 without immunosuppressive therapy other than systemic steroids and with at least one year of follow up were reviewed. The role of possible risk factors such as demographic factors, other host factors, donor factors, indications for PKP as well as type of rejection were evaluated. RESULTS: During the study period, 295 PKPs were performed on 286 patients (176 male, 110 female. Mean age at the time of keratoplasty was 38±20 (range, 40 days to 90 years and mean follow up period was 20±10 (range 12-43 months. Graft rejection occurred in 94 eyes (31.8% at an average of 7.3±6 months (range, 20 days to 39 months after PKP. The most common type of rejection was endothelial (20.7%. Corneal vascularization, regrafting, anterior synechiae, irritating sutures, active inflammation, additional anterior segment procedures, history of trauma, uncontrolled glaucoma, prior graft rejection, recurrence of herpetic infection and eccentric grafting increased the rate of rejection. Patient age, donor size and bilateral transplantation had no significant influence on graft rejection. CONCLUSION: Significant risk factors for corneal graft rejection include corneal vascularization, anterior synechiae, irritating sutures, active inflammation, regrafting, additional surgery, trauma, uncontrolled intraocular pressure, history of graft rejection, recurrent herpetic infection, eccentric grafting and corneal scarring. Recipient age and donor cornea size do not seem to be risk factors for corneal graft rejection.

Alireza Baradaran-Rafii

2008-12-01

427

Application of fats in some food products  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Fats and oils are very important raw materials and functional ingredients for several food products such as confectionery, bakery, ice creams, emulsions, and sauces, shortenings, margarines, and other specially tailored products. Formulated products are made with just about every part of chemistry, [...] but they are not simple chemicals. In general, they consist of several, and often many, components. Each of these components has a purpose. Most formulated products have a micro- or nano-structure that is important for their function, but obtaining this structure is often the big challenge. Due to a rise in overweight or obesity, health concerns have increased. This fact has led to the need to the develop products with low fat content, which have become a market trend. In addition, the development of new products using fat substitutes can be a good option for companies that are always trying to reduce costs or substitute trans fat or saturated fat. However, the successful development of these products is still a challenge because fat plays multiple roles in determining the desirable physicochemical and sensory attributes, and because the consumers who want or need to replace these ingredients, seek products with similar characteristics to those of the original product. Important attributes such as smooth, creamy and rich texture; milky and creamy appearance; desirable flavor; and satiating effects are influenced by the droplets of fat, and these characteristics are paramount to the consumer and consequently crucial to the success of the product in the market. Therefore, it is important to identify commercially viable strategies that are capable of removing or reducing fat content of food products without altering their sensory and nutritional characteristics. This paper intended to provide an overview about the role of fat in different food systems such as chocolate, ice cream, bakery products like biscuits, breads, and cakes considering the major trends of the food industry to meet the demands of modern society.

Raquel Vallerio, Rios; Meibel Durigan Ferreira, Pessanha; Poliana Fernandes de, Almeida; Clara Leonel, Viana; Suzana Caetano da Silva, Lannes.

2014-03-01

428

Radiographic analysis of pasteurized autologous bone graft  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Local malignant bone tumor excision followed by pasteurization and subsequent reimplantation is a unique technique for reconstruction after resection of primary bone sarcomas. The purpose of this investigation was to assess the normal and abnormal long-term radiographic findings of intercalary and osteo-chondral pasteurized bone graft/implant composite. The long-term radiographic findings of pasteurized bone grafts used in reconstruction after resection of bone and soft tissue sarcomas in relation to patients' clinical data were reviewed retrospectively. Thirty-one patients (18 females, 13 males; age range 7-77 years, mean 30 years) who underwent surgery between April 1990 and January 1997 at the authors' institute constituted the material of this study. They were followed up for at least 3 years or until the patient's death (mean 69 months). The International Society of Limb Salvage graft evaluation method that assesses the fusion, resorption, fracture, graft shortening, fixation, subluxation, joint narrowing and subchondral bone was used for evaluation of the radiographs. Twenty-one patients (68%) showed complete incorporation of graft and eight patients (26%) had partial incorporation. The overall radiographic evaluation rate was 81%. Fracture (10%) and infection (16%) were the main complications. No local recurrence was detected. These results indicate that pasteurization of bone is a useful option for reconstruction after resection of malignant bone tumors. (orig resection of malignant bone tumors. (orig.)

429

Nerve grafting in peripheral nerve injuries  

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Full Text Available Autologous nerve grafting is the most commnly used operative technique in delayed primary, or secondary nerve repair after the peripheral nerve injuries. The aim of this procedure is to overcome nerve gaps that results from the injury itself, fibrous and elastic retraction forces, resection of the damaged parts of the nerve, position of the articulations and mobilisation of the nerve.In this study we analyse the results of operated patients with transections and lacerations of the peripheral nerves from 1979 to 2000 year. Gunshot injuries have not been analyzed in this study. The majority of the injuries were in the upper extremity (more than 87% of cases. Donor for nerve transplantation had usually been sural nerve, and only occasionally medial cutaneous nerve of the forearm was used. In about 93% of cases we used interfascicular nerve grafting, and cable nerve grafting was performed in the rest of them. Most of the grafts were 1 do 5 cm long (70% of cases. Functional recovery was achieved in more than 86% of cases, which is similar to the results of the other authors. Follow up period was minimum 2 years. We analyzed the influence of different factors on nerve recovery after the operation: patient’s age, location and the extent (total or partial of nerve injury, the length of the nerve graft, type of the nerve, timing of surgery, presence of multiple nerve injuries and associated osseal and soft tissue injuries of the upper and lower extremities.

Simi? Vesna D.

2003-01-01

430

Graft selection in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.  

Science.gov (United States)

The ideal graft for use in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction should have structural and biomechanical properties similar to those of the native ligament, permit secure fixation and rapid biologic incorporation, and limit donor site morbidity. Many options have been clinically successful, but the ideal graft remains controversial. Graft choice depends on surgeon experience and preference, tissue availability, patient activity level, comorbidities, prior surgery, and patient preference. Patellar tendon autograft, the most widely used graft source, appears to be associated with an increased incidence of anterior knee pain compared with hamstring autograft. Use of hamstring autograft is increasing. Quadriceps tendon autograft is less popular but has shown excellent clinical results with low morbidity. Improved sterilization techniques have led to increased safety and availability of allograft, although allografts have a slower rate of incorporation than do most types of autograft. No graft has clearly been shown to provide a faster return to play. However, in general, patellar tendon autografts are preferable for high-performance athletes, and hamstring autografts and allografts have some relative advantages for lower-demand individuals. No current indications exist for synthetic ligaments. PMID:15938608

West, Robin V; Harner, Christopher D

2005-01-01

431

Prediction of coronary artery bypass graft flow  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To predict the coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) flow based on the time density curve (TDC) obtained from the digital subtraction aortograms (DSA), we developed a pulsatile CABG model (perfusion pressure 60,130 mmHg, pulse rate 53,126/min, cardiac output 3-7 l/min, diameter of the graft 2.1?6.0 mm). After positioning the regions of interest (ROI), we injected contrast medium(5?40 ml/sec, 5?40 ml) into the outlet conduit. Concerning the TDCs, we calculated appearance time (Ta), peak densities (Dp), peak time (Tp), disappearance time (Td), integral of TDC, ?Tp (difference of Tp between two ROI) and ?Ta (difference of Ta between two ROI). Perfusion pressure, graft flow and output curve were similar to those of patients with CABG. Ta, Tp, Td, and ?Tp were affected by both the injection rate and the volume of the contrast medium; while Dp and the TDC integral were only affected by the latter parameter. Under the same conditions of contrast medium injection, the TDC depended strongly on graft flow, diameter of the graft, output and pulse rate. 21.6+0.92?·d2/4·?1/?Tp·60 provided the most accurate estimation of CABG flow (r=0.865, p<0.01). We conclude that densitometric analysis of DSA may be useful in the prediction of CABG flow. (author)

432

Bone graft substitutes: past, present, future.  

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Full Text Available Bone grafts are necessary to provide support, fill voids, and enhance biologic repair of skeletal defects. They are used by orthopaedic surgeons, neurosurgeons, craniofacial surgeons, and periodontists. Bone harvested from donor sites is the gold standard for this procedure. It is well documented that there are limitations and complications from the use of autograft, including the limited quantity and associated chronic donor site pain. Despite the increase in the number of procedures that require bone grafts, there has not been a single ideal bone graft substitute Scientists, surgeons, and medical companies, thus, have a tremendous responsibility to develop biologic alternatives that will enhance the functional capabilities of the bone graft substitute, and potentially reduce or eliminate the need for autograft. This article is an attempt to review the past and existing bone graft substitutes, and future directions of research. The historical data was extracted after thorough review of the literature. The data for the current concepts and future directions was compiled from the Internet, and from direct correspondence with medical companies. Since many products are undergoing clinical trials, and are yet not commercially available, their data cannot be found in literature. The main purpose of this article is to give the reader an idea about the existing market products and products likely to be available in near future.

Parikh S

2002-04-01

433

Radiographic analysis of pasteurized autologous bone graft  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Local malignant bone tumor excision followed by pasteurization and subsequent reimplantation is a unique technique for reconstruction after resection of primary bone sarcomas. The purpose of this investigation was to assess the normal and abnormal long-term radiographic findings of intercalary and osteo-chondral pasteurized bone graft/implant composite. The long-term radiographic findings of pasteurized bone grafts used in reconstruction after resection of bone and soft tissue sarcomas in relation to patients' clinical data were reviewed retrospectively. Thirty-one patients (18 females, 13 males; age range 7-77 years, mean 30 years) who underwent surgery between April 1990 and January 1997 at the authors' institute constituted the material of this study. They were followed up for at least 3 years or until the patient's death (mean 69 months). The International Society of Limb Salvage graft evaluation method that assesses the fusion, resorption, fracture, graft shortening, fixation, subluxation, joint narrowing and subchondral bone was used for evaluation of the radiographs. Twenty-one patients (68%) showed complete incorporation of graft and eight patients (26%) had partial incorporation. The overall radiographic evaluation rate was 81%. Fracture (10%) and infection (16%) were the main complications. No local recurrence was detected. These results indicate that pasteurization of bone is a useful option for reconstruction after resection of malignant bone tumors. (orig.)

Ahmed, Adel Refaat [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Cancer Institute Hospital, Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, Kamiikebukuro 1-37-1, Toshima-ku, 170-0012, Tokyo (Japan); Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Alexandria University, Alexandria (Egypt); Manabe, Jun; Kawaguchi, Noriyoshi; Matsumoto, Seiichi; Matsushita, Yasushi [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Cancer Institute Hospital, Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, Kamiikebukuro 1-37-1, Toshima-ku, 170-0012, Tokyo (Japan)

2003-08-01

434

Strengthening of polycaproamide fibers with grafted polyacrylonitrile  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

By direct irradiation of polycaproamide fibers in an acrylonitrile medium, modified fibers with average uniform distribution of discrete grafted polyacrylonitrile molecules along the cross section are obtained. In the range of temperatures from - 196 to -300 deg C, which encompasses all states of grafted polymers, a study is made of how the strength and the deformation properties of the modified fibers are related to the concentration of polyacrylonitrile which has been varied from 0.5 to 0.76% by vol. Also the effects of the grafting process and orientation stretching on the strength and deformation properties of the modified fibers are examined. The presence of polyacrylonitrile produces an additive effect on the strength and deformation properties of the grafted fibers. A quantitative analysis of the results of measurements of the strength of the grafted fibers has been made on the basis of a cross-linked macromolecule model, the nodes in which are formed by the hypermolecular structures and on the assumption that the nodes are the weak points in the cross-linked macromolecule

435

Grafting of styrene onto polypropylene membranes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The grafting of styrene onto polypropylene (PP) by simultaneous radiation was carried out. The effects of absorbed dose and the pos radiation period on the grafting yield were investigated. The experiment comprised PP films with 40{mu}m thickness exposed to gamma ionizing radiation at room temperature and nitrogen atmosphere. The films were immersed in styrene/toluene and then irradiated at total dose of 40, 80 and 100 kGy. After irradiation the samples were evaluated at periods of 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days at room temperature in order to observe the behavior of grafting degree. Structural, chemical changes and surface morphologies of the modified PP films were characterized by infrared spectroscopic analysis (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry analysis (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and the degree of grafting (DOG) was gravimetrically determined. The simultaneous radiation indicated the dependency of the percent graft on the absorbed dose. The DOG values are higher when the film was submitted at 100 kGy dose. The thermal stability shows a decrease in the degradation temperature of the modified samples in comparison with the pure polymer. (author)

Zen, Heloisa A.; Geraldes, Adriana N.; Parra, Duclerc F.; Lugao, Ademar B. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: helozen@ipen.br

2007-07-01

436

Aortic reconstruction with bovine pericardial grafts  

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Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Glutaraldehyde-treated crimped bovine pericardial grafts are currently used in aortic graft surgery. These conduits have become good options for these operations, available in different sizes and shapes and at a low cost. OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the results obtained with bovine pericardial grafts for aortic reconstruction, specially concerning late complications. METHOD: Between January 1995 and January 2002, 57 patients underwent different types of aortic reconstruction operations using bovine pericardial grafts. A total of 29 (50.8% were operated on an urgent basis (mostly acute Stanford A dissection and 28 electively. Thoracotomy was performed in three patients for descending aortic replacement (two patients and aortoplasty with a patch in one. All remaining 54 underwent sternotomy, cardiopulmonary bypass and aortic resection. Deep hypothermia and total circulatory arrest was used in acute dissections and arch operations. RESULTS: Hospital mortality was 17.5%. Follow-up was 24.09 months (18.5 to 29.8 months confidence interval and complication-free actuarial survival curve was 92.3% (standard deviation ± 10.6. Two patients lately developed thoracoabdominal aneurysms following previous DeBakey II dissection and one died from endocarditis. One "patch" aortoplasty patient developed local descending aortic pseudoaneurysm 42 months after surgery. All other patients are asymptomatic and currently clinically evaluated with echocardiography and CT scans, showing no complications. CONCLUSION: Use of bovine pericardial grafts in aortic reconstruction surgery is adequate and safe, with few complications related to the conduits.

Silveira Lindemberg Mota

2003-01-01

437

Simplified subcutaneous fat biopsy for nutritional surveys.  

Science.gov (United States)

Use of a 3 mm skin-biopsy punch results in skin plus an additional core of subcutaneous fat which is adequate for gas chromatographic analysis of fatty acids. This technique is quicker, cheaper and less traumatic than other methods of fat biopsy and is recommended for population surveys of diet where the pattern of fat intake is being investigated. It has been used in a survey for cardiovascular risk factors on some 3 000 subjects and has proved to be safe and acceptable. PMID:3744893

Smith, W C; Tavendale, R; Tunstall-Pedoe, H

1986-07-01

438

Differential effect of gender on hepatic fat  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There are discrepant data on whether men or women have a higher risk for hepatic steatosis. To examine the influence of gender on hepatic adiposity in teenagers and young adults. We measured subcutaneous abdominal fat (SAF), intra-abdominal fat (IAF) and hepatic tissue density (a surrogate measure of hepatic fat) using CT in 505 healthy teenagers and young adults (254 males, 251 females; ages 15-22.9 years). Overall, compared to men, women had higher values of SAF (P 0.05). When compared to overweight and obese young women, overweight and obese young men are at greater risk for hepatic steatosis, independent of IAF. (orig.)

439

Determination of fat in vegetable foods.  

Science.gov (United States)

The fat in vegetable foods--tree nuts, peanuts, sunflower seeds, avocado, and olives--can be determined volumetrically by acid digestion of the material and separation of the fat. The assay can be performed conveniently by using the equipment developed for fat determination of milk (Gerber method). The results agree well with those obtained by Soxhlet extraction. The advantages of using the Gerber method for vegetable foods are simplicity, speed, low operation cost, and elimination of the use of inflammable solvents. PMID:4086447

Rosenthal, I; Merin, U; Popel, G; Bernstein, S

1985-01-01

440

Body fat reference curves for children.  

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OBJECTIVE: To refine the diagnosis of childhood obesity by creating new sex-specific centile curves for body fat and to base these references on a simple and affordable method that could be widely adopted in clinical practice and surveys. DESIGN: Body fat was measured by bio-impedance in 1985 Caucasian children aged 5-18 years from schools in Southern England. Smoothed centile charts were derived using the LMS method. RESULTS: The new body fat curves reflect the known differences in the devel...

Mccarthy, Hd; Cole, Tj; Fry, T.; Jebb, Sa; Prentice, Am

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
441

Effects of dietary fat and saturated fat content on liver fat and markers of oxidative stress in overweight/obese men and women under weight-stable conditions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dietary fat and oxidative stress are hypothesized to contribute to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and progression to steatohepatitis. To determine the effects of dietary fat content on hepatic triglyceride, body fat distribution and markers of inflammation and oxidative stress, overweight/obese subjects with normal glucose tolerance consumed a control diet (CONT: 35% fat/12% saturated fat/47% carbohydrate) for ten days, followed by four weeks on a low fat (LFD (n = 10): 20% fat/8% saturated fat/62% carbohydrate) or high fat diet (HFD (n = 10): 55% fat/25% saturated fat/27% carbohydrate). Hepatic triglyceride content was quantified by MRS and abdominal fat distribution by MRI. Fasting biomarkers of inflammation (plasma hsCRP, IL-6, IL-12, TNF?, IFN-?) and oxidative stress (urinary F2-? isoprostanes) were measured. Body weight remained stable. Compared to the CONT, hepatic triglyceride decreased on the LFD (mean (95% CI): change -2.13% (-3.74%, -0.52%)), but did not change on the HFD and there was no significant difference between the LFD and HFD. Intra-abdominal fat did not change significantly on either diet, but subcutaneous abdominal fat increased on the HFD. There were no significant changes in fasting metabolic markers, inflammatory markers and urinary F2-? isoprostanes. We conclude that in otherwise healthy overweight/obese adults under weight-neutral conditions, a diet low in fat and saturated fat has modest effects to decrease liver fat and may be beneficial. On the other hand, a diet very high in fat and saturated fat had no effect on hepatic triglyceride or markers of metabolism, inflammation and oxidative stress. PMID:25353663

Marina, Anna; von Frankenberg, Anize Delfino; Suvag, Seda; Callahan, Holly S; Kratz, Mario; Richards, Todd L; Utzschneider, Kristina M

2014-11-01

442

Surface reconstruction by a "grafting through" approach: polyacrylamide grafted onto chitosan film.  

Science.gov (United States)

Grafted polymers and polymer brushes in particular have attracted significant attention in the last 2 decades as a way to alter and control interfacial properties. In the case of polymer brushes on solid substrates, a high grafting density of polymer chains results in stretching of the polymer coils normal to the substrate surface due to the effect of excluded volume. In this study, polyacrylamide is grafted to the surface of relatively soft thin films of chitosan. The "grafting through" approach is used by introducing double C?C bonds to amino groups of chitosan. The acquired kinetic data of grafting along with AFM and ellipsometry characterization suggest that the chitosan substrate undergoes surface reconstruction during the grafting of PAAm and simultaneously induces PAAm growth inside the soft substrate. As a result, much higher amounts of grafted polymer are achieved in comparison to traditional hard substrates like silicon or glass. Additionally, selective plasma etching of PAAm reveals filament-like structures oriented normal to the surface. PMID:24024703

Chu, Elza; Sidorenko, Alexander

2013-10-01

443

Functional modification of HDPE membranes by radiation-induced grafting  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two kinds of monomer (SSS and VBTAC) containing ion-exchange groups were co-grafted with HEMA onto HDPE membrane respectively by pre-irradiation grafting. Thus the authors obtained ion-exchange membranes with anti-bacteria function. The grafted membranes had good hydrophilicity compared with the hydrophobicity of the base film. The research was focus on 3-point: (1) Study the process of the grafting reaction, structure of the grafted membranes, chemical and physical properties of the grafted membranes. 92) Quantitative study of the hydrophilicity of the grafted membranes, evaluate the hydration number and surface free energy of the membranes. (3) Study the antibacterial activity of the grafted membranes. the antibacterial ability of the VBTAC membrane was so good that it would be fit for an antibacterial material

444

Corneo- Conjunctival Auto Grafting in Pterygium Surgery  

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Full Text Available To evaluate the efficacy of conjunctival auto grafting in surgical management of primary and recurrentpterygium, the record of 150 patients comprising 47 females and 103 males who underwent corneocunjunctivalauto graft transplant surgery for primary and recurrent pterygia from 1997 to 2003 wasreviewed retrospectively. Follow up was done for six months after the surgery. Recurrence ofpterygium was considered as failure. All grafts were transplanted promptly. Recurrence was notedin four patients (2.6%. Mild discomfort in the immediate post-operative period was noted in all thepatients. Donor site healed without any complication in all the patients.The results indicate thatcorneo-conjunctival autograft transplantation is an effective treatment for management of bothprimary & recurrent pterygia.

Ashok K. Sharma, Vijaya Wali, Archana Pandit

2004-07-01

445

Grafting of 2-butenyl acrylate onto starch  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The monomer 2-butenyl acrylate was reacted with starch by exposure to either 60Co irradiation or ceric ion initiation. Monomer conversion in the presence of starch is greater than in the absence of starch, indicating that a starch initiating mechanism takes place for 60Co irradiated samples. Acetone extraction indicates little or no soluble homopolymer in the grafts. Portions of the samples soluble in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) appear to be low-level 2-butenyl acrylate-grafted starch by infrared analysis. DMSO-insoluble portions (usually more than 50% of each sample) are somewhat more soluble in 1N NaOH at room temperature. This indicates that the 2-butenyl acrylate acts as an easily hydrolyzed crosslink for starch in samples containing as low as 5 wt% grafted poly

446

Lung function after bone marrow grafting  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Results of a prospective lung function study are presented for 48 patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) treated with total body irradiation (TBI) and bone marrow transplantation (BMT) at the Royal Marsden Hospital between 1978 and 1980. Patients with active disease or who were in remission following cytoreductive chemotherapy had mildly impaired gas exchange prior to grafting. After TBI and BMT all patients studied developed progressive deterioration of lung function during the first 100 days, although these changes were subclinical. Infection and graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) were associated with further worsening of restrictive ventilatory defects and diffusing capacity (D/sub L/CO). Beyond 100 days, ventilatory ability returned to normal and gas transfer improved, although it failed to reach pre-transplant levels. There was no evidence of progressive pulmonary fibrosis during the first year after grafting

447

Meshed split skin graft for extensive vitiligo  

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Full Text Available A 30 year old female presented with generalized stable vitiligo involving large areas of the body. Since large areas were to be treated it was decided to do meshed split skin graft. A phototoxic blister over recipient site was induced by applying 8 MOP solution followed by exposure to UVA. The split skin graft was harvested from donor area by Padgett dermatome which was meshed by an ampligreffe to increase the size of the graft by 4 times. Significant pigmentation of the depigmented skin was seen after 5 months. This procedure helps to cover large recipient areas, when pigmented donor skin is limited with minimal risk of scarring. Phototoxic blister enables easy separation of epidermis thus saving time required for dermabrasion from recipient site.

Srinivas C

2004-05-01

448

Functionalisation of PAA radiation grafted PVDF  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The covalent bonding of amino-terminated molecules was performed onto acrylic acid radiation induced grafting poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF). The polymer was irradiated with different ionizing radiation: swift heavy ions or electrons. The polymerization of acrylic acid was then performed to confer to PVDF carboxyl groups suitable for condensation with the amino groups of the other molecule. Acrylic acid swelling of PVDF films was investigated as a function of temperature and monomer concentration in order to anticipate the best grafting conditions. Grafted and functionalized films were characterized using infrared spectroscopy (transmission and ATR), and weighing measurements. The PVDF-g-PAA films exhibit different structures depending on the monomer concentration. Immobilization of an amino-terminated molecule and a peptide onto PVDF was achieved using water soluble carbodiimide

449

Monounsaturated fats and immune function  

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Full Text Available Animal studies suggest that olive oil is capable of modulating functions of cells of the immune system in a manner similar to, albeit weaker than, fish oils. There is some evidence that the effects of olive oil on immune function in animal studies are due to oleic acid rather than to trace elements or antioxidants. Importantly, several studies have demonstrated effects of oleic acid-containing diets on in vivo immune responses. In contrast, consumption of a monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA-rich diet by humans does not appear to bring about a general suppression of immune cell functions. The effects of this diet in humans are limited to decreasing aspects of adhesion of peripheral blood mononuclear cells, although there are trends towards decreases in natural killer cell activity and proliferation. The lack of a clear effect of MUFA in humans may be attributable to the higher level of monounsaturated fat used in the animal studies, although it is ultimately of importance to examine the effects of intakes which are in no way extreme. The effects of MUFA on adhesion molecules are potentially important, since these molecules appear to have a role in the pathology of a number of diseases involving the immune system. This area clearly deserves further exploration

P. Yaqoob

1998-04-01

450

Radiation grafted surfaces for solid phase synthesis 'effect of grafting depth on solid support performance'  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Solid phase synthesis (SPS) has developed rapidly throughout the last decade. Pharmaceutical companies have committed significant resources to the development of high throughput solid phase synthesis and combinatorial chemistry handling capabilities, which resulted in increased synthesis throughput for drug discovery research. The most widely used solid supports for SPS are based on cross-linked styrene-divinylbenzene resin (Merrifield resins) and their derivatives. However, with the increasing demand for reaction reproducibility, consistency of reaction kinetics and efficiency, as well as ease in parallel handling, the 'pellicular' type support is more attractive than traditional polystyrene resin for SPS. A pellicular solid support consists of a polymer, such as polystyrene, grafted to a rigid plastic such as a polyolefin or fluorinated polymer. A series of 'pellicular' type supports were fabricated by direct gamma radiation mediated graft polymerisation of styrene onto polypropylene, followed by functionalization (aminomethylation). In this study, we report the effect of grafting conditions, which include polymer type, radiation dose rate and total dose, concentration of monomer and solvents on the grafting depth profile and coupling reaction rates of functionalisation polystyrene grafted polypropylene surfaces. Confocal Raman spectroscopy was used for measuring the level of penetration of polystyrene graft into polypropylene and other structural features such as dne and other structural features such as density of graft and depth of functionalization. Raman spectroscopy results showed that the calculated rate coefficient for coupling of Fmoc-labelled amino acids was primarily dependent on graft thickness, but was also influenced by the proportion of polystyrene graft to polypropylene. In general, it was also shown that with increasing loading capacity of the support the calculated rate coefficient for amino acid coupling decreased correspondingly. In addition, a new approach was used to prepare a high surface area support that had both a high rate coefficient and a high loading capacity

451

Surface-grafted polypeptides on flat substrates  

Science.gov (United States)

In this work, we improved the vapor deposition-polymerization (VDP) technique by re-designing a new vacuum chamber, and adding two heating plates to control the temperatures of the substrate and monomer evaporation. By optimizing the reaction parameters such as monomer amount, substrate temperature and reaction time, various polypeptides with sufficiently high molecular weight have been successfully grafted onto the solid substrates. The combination of VPD with photolithography has fabricated micro-patterned polypeptides, with geometry patternable in both lateral and vertical directions. Next, the conformations of the surface-grafted polypeptides were systematically examined. New ways have been found to switch their conformations between alpha-helix and beta-sheet, or between right-handed helix and left-handed helix. Two important ionic polypeptides, poly(L-glutamic acid) (PLGA) and poly(L-lysine) (PLL) were the focuses of this work. The conformational transitions of surface-grafted PLGA and PLL were successfully induced by pH, surfactants and ions. In addition, a surface-grafted PLGA-block-PLL copolypeptide was studied. Their unexpected pH-responsiveness was explained by the beta-sheet formation between the PLGA and PLL blocks. The orientation of the surface-grafted alpha-helical poly(gamma-benzyl L-glutamate) (PBLG) was greatly improved by a novel "solvent quenching" method, which involves treating the film sequentially with a good solvent and a poor solvent. The average tilt angle of the PBLG rods changed from 49° to 3° by applying this "quenching". Finally, a surface-grafted PLL film was used as the template to mimic the biosilicification. Silica was spontaneously synthesized from tetraethoxysilane inside the PLL film at room temperature and at neutral pH.

Wang, Yuli

452

Topical Cyclosporine A in Corneal Graft Rejection  

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Full Text Available Corneal graft rejection is now the most common cause of graft failure after penetrating keratoplasty. This study was designed to determine whether, addition of 2% topical cyclosporine (CSA to local and systemic steroids in treatment of endothelial corneal allograft rejection, would improve the outcome. A prospective randomized treatment trial was carried out on 40 consecutive corneal graft recipients, presenting with the first episode of endothelial graft rejection in two groups. Group one (20 patients received topical steroids eye drops and systemic prednisolone (1 mg/kg by oral route plus placebo. Group two (20 patients received the same topical and systemic steroid therapy plus 2% cyclosporine A (CSA eye drop. The patients were followed up for three months and their clinical outcomes were evaluated by the rates and time of rejection reversal. In group one, 14 (70% cases had total reversal of graft rejection episode but in CSA group, it occurred in 18 (90% cases (P=0.21 .Improvement were started within a mean period of 3 and 1.5 days respectively (P value<0.001. Among patients who sought treatment early (<6 days, the survival rates were 85% and 100% respectively (P=0.2. In high risk patients the rejection reversal rate was 66% in CSA group and 25% in the control group (P=0.5. Our study indicates addition of 2% CSA eye drop to topical and systemic steroids in graft rejection decreases the interval between treatment intervention and improvement of clinical signs. In high risk patients it may improve the reversal rate, however it needs further studies.

Mahmood Nejabat

2006-01-01

453

On the histroy of the free skin graft.  

Science.gov (United States)

Skin graft procedures had already been performed prior to Reverdin's great discovery. Skin grafting apparently originated with the Hindus 3,000 years ago, but until the beginning of the nineteenth century only a few trials were reported. In the first half of the nineteenth century, skin graft procedures were done by Baronio, Cooper, Bünger, and Dieffenbach. Bert's experimental work in 1963 opened the way for the pioneers Reverdin, Ollier, Wolfe, and Thiersch, who contributed the free skin graft. PMID:6753699

Hauben, D J; Baruchin, A; Mahler, A

1982-09-01

454

Characterisation of grafted weak anion-exchange methacrylate monoliths  

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A weak ion-exchange grafted methacrylate monolith was prepared by grafting a methacrylate monolith with glycidyl methacrylate and subsequently modifying the epoxy groups with diethylamine. The thickness of the grafted layer was determined by measuring permeability and found to be approximately 90 nm. The effects of different buffer solutions on the pressure drop were examined and indicated the influence of pH on the permeability of the grafted monolith. Protein separation and binding capacity...

Smrekar, Vida; Podgornik, Ales?; Lendero Krajnc, Nika; Smrekar, Franc; Krajnc, Peter; S?trancar, Ales?

2012-01-01

455

Palatal mucoperiosteal free graft: another reconstruction option for oral defects  

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Traditional methods of repair for medium-size (3-5 cm) oral defects include allowing granulation, primary closure, skin grafts, and buccal mucosal grafts. Each of these methods has several disadvantages, and all tend to result in significant scar contracture and often lack sufficient bulk. In 10 patients, the defect left by resection of cancer lesions was reconstructed with a free palatal mucoperiosteal graft. In all patients, the grafts survived with little contracture, allowing for adequate...

Dulguerov, Pavel; Kerner, M. M.; Marchal, Francis; Lehmann, Willy

1998-01-01

456